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Sample records for coral reef assessment

  1. Research Spotlight: New method to assess coral reef health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs around the world are becoming stressed due to rising temperatures, ocean acidification, overfishing, and other factors. Measuring community level rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and biogenic calcification is essential to assessing the health of coral reef ecosystems because the balance between these processes determines the potential for reef growth and the export of carbon. Measurements of biological productivity have typically been made by tracing changes in dissolved oxygen in seawater as it passes over a reef. However, this is a labor-intensive and difficult method, requiring repeated measurements. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046179, 2011)

  2. Resilience potential of an Indian Ocean reef: an assessment through coral recruitment pattern and survivability of juvenile corals to recurrent stress events.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Balakrishnan; Ravindran, Jeyaraman; Vidya, Pottekkatt Jayabalan; Shrinivasu, Selvaraju; Manimurali, Rajagopal; Paramasivam, Kaliyaperumal

    2017-05-01

    Coral reefs are degraded by the synergistic action of climate and anthropogenic stressors. Coral cover in the Palk Bay reef at the northern Indian Ocean largely declined in the past decade due to frequent bleaching events, tsunami and increased fishing activities. In this study, we carried out a comparative assessment to assess the differences in the recovery and resilience of three spatially distant reefs viz. Vedhalai, Mandapam and Pamban along Palk Bay affected by moderate, severe and low fishing pressure respectively. The assessment was based on the juvenile coral recruitment pattern and its survivability combined with availability of hard substratum, live coral cover and herbivore reef fish stock. The Vedhalai reef has the highest coral cover (14.6 ± 6.3%), and ≥90% of the live corals in Vedhalai and Mandapam were affected by turf algal overgrowth. The density of herbivore reef fish was low in Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs compared to the Pamban reef with relatively few grazing species. The juvenile coral diversity and density were high in the Pamban reef and low in Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs despite high hard substratum cover. In total, 22 species of juvenile corals of 10 genera were recorded in Palk Bay. Comparison of the species diversity of juvenile corals with adult ones suggested that the Pamban reef is connected with other distant reefs whereas Vedhalai and Mandapam reefs were self-seeded. There was no statistically significant difference in the survivability of juvenile corals between the study sites, and in total, ≥90% of the juvenile corals survived the high sedimentation stress triggered by the northeast monsoon and bleaching stress that occurred recurrently. Our results indicated that the human activities indirectly affected the juvenile coral recruitment by degrading the live coral cover and contributed to the spatial variation in the recovery and resilience of the Palk Bay reef. Low species diversity of the juvenile corals will increase the

  3. New mapping techniques help assess the health of Hawaii's coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Chavez, P.S.; Evans, K.R.; Cochran, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with academic institutions and state and Federal agencies to assess the factors that affect the health of Hawaii's and our Nation's coral reefs. In order to establish a basis from which scientists can objectively detect changes in reef health, the USGS and its cooperators are applying many new techniques to the mapping and monitoring of coral reefs in Hawaii.

  4. Digital Reef Rugosity Estimates Coral Reef Habitat Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

    2013-01-01

    Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity. PMID:23437380

  5. Digital reef rugosity estimates coral reef habitat complexity.

    PubMed

    Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

    2013-01-01

    Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity.

  6. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  7. Foraminifera as bioindicators in coral reef assessment and monitoring: the FORAM Index. Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Pamela; Lidz, Barbara H; Cockey-Burkhard, Elizabeth M; Donnelly, Kelly B

    2003-01-01

    Coral reef communities are threatened worldwide. Resource managers urgently need indicators of the biological condition of reef environments that can relate data acquired through remote-sensing, water-quality and benthic-community monitoring to stress responses in reef organisms. The "FORAM" (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) Index (FI) is based on 30 years of research on reef sediments and reef-dwelling larger foraminifers. These shelled protists are ideal indicator organisms because: Foraminifers are widely used as environmental and paleoenvironmental indicators in many contexts. Reef-building, zooxanthellate corals and foraminifers with algal symbionts have similar water-quality requirements. The relatively short life spans of foraminifers as compared with long-lived colonial corals facilitate differentiation between long-term water-quality decline and episodic stress events. Foraminifers are relatively small and abundant, permitting statistically significant sample sizes to be collected quickly and relatively inexpensively, ideally as a component of comprehensive monitoring programs; and, collection of foraminifers has minimal impact on reef resources. USEPA guidelines for ecological indicators are used to evaluate the Fl. Data required are foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediments of reef-associated environments. The Fl provides resource managers with a simple procedure for determining the suitability of benthic environments for communities dominated by algal symbiotic organisms. The FI can be applied independently, or incorporated into existing or planned monitoring efforts. The simple calculations require limited computer capabilities and therefore can be applied readily to reef-associated environments worldwide. In addition, the foraminiferal shells collected can be subjected to morphometric and geochemical analyses in areas of suspected heavy-metal pollution, and the data sets for the index can be used with other monitoring data in

  8. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  9. Coral Reef Community Composition in the Context of Disturbance History on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Chong-Seng, Karen M.; Huchery, Cindy; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.

    2014-01-01

    Much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. In order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. We conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with known disturbance histories, and assessed patterns of coral cover and community composition related to a range of other variables thought to be important for reef dynamics. Two of the reefs had not been extensively disturbed for at least 15 years prior to the surveys. Three of the reefs had been severely impacted by crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and coral bleaching approximately a decade before the surveys, from which only one of them was showing signs of recovery based on independent surveys. We incorporated wave exposure (sheltered and exposed) and reef zone (slope, crest and flat) into our design, providing a comprehensive assessment of the spatial patterns in community composition on these reefs. Categorising corals into life history groupings, we document major coral community differences in the unrecovered reefs, compared to the composition and covers found on the undisturbed reefs. The recovered reef, despite having similar coral cover, had a different community composition from the undisturbed reefs, which may indicate slow successional processes, or a different natural community dominance pattern due to hydrology and other oceanographic factors. The variables that best correlated with patterns in the coral community among sites included the density of juvenile corals, herbivore fish biomass, fish species richness and the cover of macroalgae. Given increasing impacts to the Great Barrier Reef, efforts to mitigate local stressors will be imperative to encouraging coral communities to persist into

  10. Baseline assessments for coral reef community structure and demographics on West Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; White, Darla; Storlazzi, Curt; Callender, Tova; Maurin, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The coastal and upslope terrains of West Maui have had a long history of impacts owing to more than a century of human activities. Resource extraction, agriculture, as well as residential and resort development have caused land-based pollution that impairs water quality and adversely impact the adjacent marine ecosystem. Today, West Maui’s coral reefs are chronically impacted by the effects of land-based pollution, mainly sedimentation and nutrients, with documented losses of 30 – 75% in coral cover over the last 20 years. Nonetheless, despite their current status and levels of environmental impact, these coral reef communities represent a key local resource and a counterpoint to the overall low coral reef development levels both island- and state-wide. This is of high relevance because the occurrence of coral-rich assemblages and accreted reef complexes statewide is sparse. Only limited segments along the coastlines of Maui, Hawai‘i, Lana‘i, Moloka‘i, and Kaho‘olawe, harbor mature, fringing coral reefs; and unfortunately, many of them are seriously threatened by terrestrial runoff. This report describes the results of baseline assessment surveys of coral reef benthic structure, coral community demographics, and coral condition. These surveys are intended to provide benchmarks for continued monitoring efforts and provide a gauge for comparing and evaluating the effectiveness of management actions to reduce land-based sources of pollution in priority watersheds on West Maui. Within this context, 12 permanent, long-term monitoring sites were strategically established adjacent to the 7 primary stream drainages (Wahikuli, Honokōwai, Mahinahina, Kahana/Ka‘opala, Honokeana, Honokahua, and Honolua) within the five priority watersheds (Wahikuli, Honokōwai, Kahana, Honokahua, and Honolua). Herein, benthic cover and composition, coral demographics, and coral condition of the monitoring sites are described and contrasted in the “Benthic Characterization

  11. Linking Wave Forcing to Coral Cover and Structural Complexity Across Coral Reef Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. L.; Rovere, A.; Parravicini, V.; Casella, E.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrodynamic regime is a significant component in the geomorphic and ecological development of coral reefs. The energy gradients and flow conditions generated by the breaking and transformation of waves across coral reef crests and flats drive changes in geomorphic structure, and coral growth form and distribution. One of the key aspects in regulating the wave energy propagating across reef flats is the rugosity or roughness of the benthic substrate. Rugosity and structural complexity of coral reefs is also a key indicator of species diversity, ecological functioning, and reef health. However, the links between reef rugosity, coral species distribution and abundance, and hydrodynamic forcing are poorly understood. In this study we examine this relationship by using high resolution measurement of waves in the surf zone and coral reef benthic structure.Pressure transducers (logging at 4 Hz) were deployed in cross reef transects at two sites (Tiahura and Ha'apiti reef systems) in Moorea, French Polynesia with wave characteristics determined on a wave by wave basis. A one dimensional hydrodynamic model (XBeach) was calibrated from this data to determine wave processes on the reef flats under average conditions. Transects of the reef benthic structure were conducted using photographic analysis and the three dimensional reef surface was constructed using structure from motion procedures. From this analysis reef rugosity, changes in coral genus and growth form, and across reef shifts in benthic community were determined. The results show clear changes in benthic assemblages along wave energy gradients with some indication of threshold values of wave induced bed shear stress above which live coral cover was reduced. Reef rugosity was shown to be significantly along the cross-reef transect which has important implications for accurate assessment of wave dissipation across coral reef flats. Links between reef rugosity and coral genus were also observed and may indicate

  12. The role of turtles as coral reef macroherbivores.

    PubMed

    Goatley, Christopher H R; Hoey, Andrew S; Bellwood, David R

    2012-01-01

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. To date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. Here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. While conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fishes we observed green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) showing responses that were remarkably similar to those of herbivorous fishes. Reducing the sediment load of the epilithic algal matrix on a coral reef resulted in a forty-fold increase in grazing by green turtles. Hawksbill turtles were also observed to browse transplanted thalli of the macroalga Sargassum swartzii in a coral reef environment. These responses not only show strong parallels to herbivorous reef fishes, but also highlight that marine turtles actively, and intentionally, remove algae from coral reefs. When considering the size and potential historical abundance of marine turtles we suggest that these potentially valuable herbivores may have been lost from many coral reefs before their true importance was understood.

  13. The Role of Turtles as Coral Reef Macroherbivores

    PubMed Central

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Bellwood, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. To date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. Here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. While conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fishes we observed green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) showing responses that were remarkably similar to those of herbivorous fishes. Reducing the sediment load of the epilithic algal matrix on a coral reef resulted in a forty-fold increase in grazing by green turtles. Hawksbill turtles were also observed to browse transplanted thalli of the macroalga Sargassum swartzii in a coral reef environment. These responses not only show strong parallels to herbivorous reef fishes, but also highlight that marine turtles actively, and intentionally, remove algae from coral reefs. When considering the size and potential historical abundance of marine turtles we suggest that these potentially valuable herbivores may have been lost from many coral reefs before their true importance was understood. PMID:22768189

  14. Assessing coral reef health across onshore to offshore stress gradients in the US Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Smith, T B; Nemeth, R S; Blondeau, J; Calnan, J M; Kadison, E; Herzlieb, S

    2008-12-01

    Managing the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on coral reefs is highly dependant on effective strategies to assess degradation and recovery. We used five years of field data in the US Virgin Islands to investigate coral reef response to a potential gradient of stress. We found that the prevalence of old partial mortality, bleaching, and all forms of coral health impairment (a novel category) increased with nearshore anthropogenic processes, such as a five-fold higher rate of clay and silt sedimentation. Other patterns of coral health, such as recent partial mortality, other diseases, and benthic cover, did not respond to this potential gradient of stress or their response could not be resolved at the frequency or scale of monitoring. We suggest that persistent signs of disturbance are more useful to short-term, non-intensive (annual) coral reef assessments, but more intensive (semi-annual) assessments are necessary to resolve patterns of transient signs of coral health impairment.

  15. Crustose coralline algae increased framework and diversity on ancient coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Martindale, Rowan C

    2017-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are key producers of carbonate sediment on reefs today. Despite their importance in modern reef ecosystems, the long-term relationship of CCA with reef development has not been quantitatively assessed in the fossil record. This study includes data from 128 Cenozoic coral reefs collected from the Paleobiology Database, the Paleoreefs Database, as well as the original literature and assesses the correlation of CCA abundance with taxonomic diversity (both corals and reef dwellers) and framework of fossil coral reefs. Chi-squared tests show reef type is significantly correlated with CCA abundance and post-hoc tests indicate higher involvement of CCA is associated with stronger reef structure. Additionally, general linear models show coral reefs with higher amounts of CCA had a higher diversity of reef-dwelling organisms. These data have important implications for paleoecology as they demonstrate that CCA increased building capacity, structural integrity, and diversity of ancient coral reefs. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the function of CCA on modern coral reefs is similar to their function on Cenozoic reefs; thus, studies of ancient coral reef collapse are even more meaningful as modern analogues.

  16. Response of coral reefs to climate change: Expansion and demise of the southernmost Pacific coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Brooke, Brendan P.; Linklater, Michelle; Kennedy, David M.; Jones, Brian G.; Buchanan, Cameron; Mleczko, Richard; Hua, Quan; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2010-08-01

    Coral reefs track sea level and are particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Reefs are threatened by global warming, with many experiencing increased coral bleaching. Warmer sea surface temperatures might enable reef expansion into mid latitudes. Here we report multibeam sonar and coring that reveal an extensive relict coral reef around Lord Howe Island, which is fringed by the southernmost reef in the Pacific Ocean. The relict reef, in water depths of 25-50 m, flourished in early Holocene and covered an area more than 20 times larger than the modern reef. Radiocarbon and uranium-series dating indicates that corals grew between 9000 and 7000 years ago. The reef was subsequently drowned, and backstepped to its modern limited extent. This relict reef, with localised re-establishment of corals in the past three millennia, could become a substrate for reef expansion in response to warmer temperatures, anticipated later this century and beyond, if corals are able to recolonise its surface.

  17. NOAA Coral Reef Watch: Decision Support Tools for Coral Reef Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauenzahn, J.; Eakin, C.; Skirving, W. J.; Burgess, T.; Christensen, T.; Heron, S. F.; Li, J.; Liu, G.; Morgan, J.; Nim, C.; Parker, B. A.; Strong, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    A multitude of natural and anthropogenic stressors exert substantial influence on coral reef ecosystems and contribute to bleaching events, slower coral growth, infectious disease outbreaks, and mortality. Satellite-based observations can monitor, at a global scale, environmental conditions that influence both short-term and long-term coral reef ecosystem health. From research to operations, NOAA Coral Reef Watch (CRW) incorporates paleoclimatic, in situ, and satellite-based biogeophysical data to provide near-real-time and forecast information and tools to help managers, researchers, and other stakeholders interpret coral health and stress. CRW has developed an operational, near-real-time product suite that includes sea surface temperature (SST), SST time series data, SST anomaly charts, coral bleaching HotSpots, and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW). Bi-weekly global SST analyses are based on operational nighttime-only SST at 50-km resolution. CRW is working to develop high-resolution products to better address thermal stress on finer scales and is applying climate models to develop seasonal outlooks of coral bleaching. Automated Satellite Bleaching Alerts (SBAs), available at Virtual Stations worldwide, provide the only global early-warning system to notify managers of changing reef environmental conditions. Currently, CRW is collaborating with numerous domestic and international partners to develop new tools to address ocean acidification, infectious diseases of corals, combining light and temperature to detect coral photosystem stress, and other parameters.

  18. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  19. Assessing Coral Reefs on a Pacific-Wide Scale Using the Microbialization Score

    PubMed Central

    McDole, Tracey; Nulton, James; Barott, Katie L.; Felts, Ben; Hand, Carol; Hatay, Mark; Lee, Hochul; Nadon, Marc O.; Nosrat, Bahador; Salamon, Peter; Bailey, Barbara; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Youle, Merry; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Brainard, Russell E.; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change) have been identified, the mechanism(s) of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing. PMID:22970122

  20. Assessing coral reefs on a Pacific-wide scale using the microbialization score.

    PubMed

    McDole, Tracey; Nulton, James; Barott, Katie L; Felts, Ben; Hand, Carol; Hatay, Mark; Lee, Hochul; Nadon, Marc O; Nosrat, Bahador; Salamon, Peter; Bailey, Barbara; Sandin, Stuart A; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Youle, Merry; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the world's coral reefs are in various stages of decline. While a suite of disturbances (overfishing, eutrophication, and global climate change) have been identified, the mechanism(s) of reef system decline remain elusive. Increased microbial and viral loading with higher percentages of opportunistic and specific microbial pathogens have been identified as potentially unifying features of coral reefs in decline. Due to their relative size and high per cell activity, a small change in microbial biomass may signal a large reallocation of available energy in an ecosystem; that is the microbialization of the coral reef. Our hypothesis was that human activities alter the energy budget of the reef system, specifically by altering the allocation of metabolic energy between microbes and macrobes. To determine if this is occurring on a regional scale, we calculated the basal metabolic rates for the fish and microbial communities at 99 sites on twenty-nine coral islands throughout the Pacific Ocean using previously established scaling relationships. From these metabolic rate predictions, we derived a new metric for assessing and comparing reef health called the microbialization score. The microbialization score represents the percentage of the combined fish and microbial predicted metabolic rate that is microbial. Our results demonstrate a strong positive correlation between reef microbialization scores and human impact. In contrast, microbialization scores did not significantly correlate with ocean net primary production, local chla concentrations, or the combined metabolic rate of the fish and microbial communities. These findings support the hypothesis that human activities are shifting energy to the microbes, at the expense of the macrobes. Regardless of oceanographic context, the microbialization score is a powerful metric for assessing the level of human impact a reef system is experiencing.

  1. Coral records of reef-water pH across the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia: assessing the influence of river runoff on inshore reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Olivo, J. P.; McCulloch, M. T.; Eggins, S. M.; Trotter, J.

    2015-02-01

    The boron isotopic (δ11Bcarb) compositions of long-lived Porites coral are used to reconstruct reef-water pH across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and assess the impact of river runoff on inshore reefs. For the period from 1940 to 2009, corals from both inner- and mid-shelf sites exhibit the same overall decrease in δ11Bcarb of 0.086 ± 0.033‰ per decade, equivalent to a decline in seawater pH (pHsw) of ~0.017 ± 0.007 pH units per decade. This decline is consistent with the long-term effects of ocean acidification based on estimates of CO2 uptake by surface waters due to rising atmospheric levels. We also find that, compared to the mid-shelf corals, the δ11Bcarb compositions of inner-shelf corals subject to river discharge events have higher and more variable values, and hence higher inferred pHsw values. These higher δ11Bcarb values of inner-shelf corals are particularly evident during wet years, despite river waters having lower pH. The main effect of river discharge on reef-water carbonate chemistry thus appears to be from reduced aragonite saturation state and higher nutrients driving increased phytoplankton productivity, resulting in the drawdown of pCO2 and increase in pHsw. Increased primary production therefore has the potential to counter the more transient effects of low-pH river water (pHrw) discharged into near-shore environments. Importantly, however, inshore reefs also show a consistent pattern of sharply declining coral growth that coincides with periods of high river discharge. This occurs despite these reefs having higher pHsw, demonstrating the overriding importance of local reef-water quality and reduced aragonite saturation state on coral reef health.

  2. Coral records of reef-water pH across the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia: assessing the influence of river runoff on inshore reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Olivo, J. P.; McCulloch, M. T.; Eggins, S. M.; Trotter, J.

    2014-07-01

    The boron isotopic (δ11Bcarb) compositions of long-lived Porites coral are used to reconstruct reef-water pH across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and assess the impact of river runoff on inshore reefs. For the period from 1940 to 2009, corals from both inner as well as mid-shelf sites exhibit the same overall decrease in δ11Bcarb of 0.086 ± 0.033‰ per decade, equivalent to a~decline in seawater pH (pHsw) of ~ 0.017 ± 0.007 pH units per decade. This decline is consistent with the long-term effects of ocean acidification based on estimates of CO2 uptake by surface waters due to rising atmospheric levels. We also find that compared to the mid-shelf corals, the δ11Bcarb compositions for inner shelf corals subject to river discharge events, have higher and more variable values and hence higher inferred pHsw values. These higher δ11Bcarb values for inner-shelf corals are particularly evident during wet years, despite river waters having lower pH. The main effect of river discharge on reef-water carbonate chemistry thus appears to be from higher nutrients driving increased phytoplankton productivity, resulting in the drawdown of pCO2 and increase in pHsw. Increased primary production therefore has the potential to counter the more transient effects of low pH river water (pHrw) discharged into near-shore environments. Importantly however, inshore reefs also show a consistent pattern of sharply declining coral growth that coincides with periods of high river discharge. This occurs despite these reefs having higher pHsw values and hence higher seawater aragonite saturation states, demonstrating the over-riding importance of local reef-water quality on coral reef health.

  3. Foraminifera as bioindicators in coral reef assessment and monitoring: The foram index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallock, P.; Lidz, B.H.; Cockey-Burkhard, E. M.; Donnelly, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reef communities are threatened worldwide. Resource managers urgently need indicators of the biological condition of reef environments that can relate data acquired through remote-sensing, water-quality and benthic-community monitoring to stress responses in reef organisms. The "FORAM" (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) Index (FI) is based on 30 years of research on reef sediments and reef-dwelling larger foraminifers. These shelled protists are ideal indicator organisms because: ??? Foraminifers are widely used as environmental and paleoenvironmental indicators in many contexts; ??? Reef-building, zooxanthellate corals and foraminifers with algal symbionts have similar water-quality requirements; ??? The relatively short life spans of foraminifers as compared with long-lived colonial corals facilitate differentiation between long-term water-quality decline and episodic stress events; ??? Foraminifers are relatively small and abundant, permitting statistically significant sample sizes to be collected quickly and relatively inexpensively, ideally as a component of comprehensive monitoring programs; and ??? Collection of foraminifers has minimal impact on reef resources. USEPA guidelines for ecological indicators are used to evaluate the FI. Data required are foraminiferal assemblages from surface sediments of reef-associated environments. The FI provides resource managers with a simple procedure for determining the suitability of benthic environments for communities dominated by algal symbiotic organisms. The FI can be applied independently, or incorporated into existing or planned monitoring efforts. The simple calculations require limited computer capabilities and therefore can be applied readily to reef-associated environments worldwide. In addition, the foraminiferal shells collected can be subjected to morphometric and geochemical analyses in areas of suspected heavy-metal pollution, and the data sets for the index can be used with other

  4. Coral Reef Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Helen T.

    Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These ecosystems have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.

  5. Indices for assessing coral reef fish biodiversity: the need for a change in habits.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Nicolas; Gaertner, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    We present the first representative and quantified overview of the indices used worldwide for assessing the biodiversity of coral reef fishes. On this basis, we discuss the suitability and drawbacks of the indices most widely used in the assessment of coral fish biodiversity. An extensive and systematic survey of the literature focused on coral reef fish biodiversity was conducted from 1990 up to the present. We found that the multicomponent aspect of biodiversity, which is considered as a key feature of biodiversity for numerous terrestrial and marine ecosystems, has been poorly taken into account in coral reef fish studies. Species richness is still strongly dominant while other diversity components, such as functional diversity, are underestimated even when functional information is available. We also demonstrate that the reason for choosing particular indices is often unclear, mainly based on empirical rationales and/or the reproduction of widespread habits, but generally with no clear relevance with regard to the aims of the studies. As a result, the most widely used indices (species richness, Shannon, etc.) would appear to be poorly suited to meeting the main challenges facing the monitoring of coral reef fish biodiversity in the future. Our results clearly show that coral reef scientists should rather take advantage of the multicomponent aspect of biodiversity. To facilitate this approach, we propose general guidelines to serve as a basis for the selection of indices that provide complementary and relevant information for monitoring the response of coral reef fish biodiversity in the face of structuring factors (natural or anthropic). The aim of these guidelines was to achieve a better match between the properties of the selected indices and the context of each study (e.g. expected effect of the main structuring factors, nature of data available).

  6. Multi-scale remote sensing of coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andréfouët, Serge; Hochberg, E.J.; Chevillon, Christophe; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Brock, John C.; Hu, Chuanmin

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter we present how both direct and indirect remote sensing can be integrated to address two major coral reef applications - coral bleaching and assessment of biodiversity. This approach reflects the current non-linear integration of remote sensing for environmental assessment of coral reefs, resulting from a rapid increase in available sensors, processing methods and interdisciplinary collaborations (Andréfouët and Riegl, 2004). Moreover, this approach has greatly benefited from recent collaborations of once independent investigations (e.g., benthic ecology, remote sensing, and numerical modeling).

  7. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Zarinah; van Mil, Harald G. J.; Syed Hussein, Muhammad Ali; Jumin, Robecca; Golam Ahad, Bobita; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park. PMID:26719987

  8. Coral Reefs at the Northernmost Tip of Borneo: An Assessment of Scleractinian Species Richness Patterns and Benthic Reef Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Zarinah; van Mil, Harald G J; Syed Hussein, Muhammad Ali; Jumin, Robecca; Golam Ahad, Bobita; Hoeksema, Bert W

    2015-01-01

    The coral reefs at the northernmost tip of Sabah, Borneo will be established under a marine protected area: the Tun Mustapha Park (TMP) by the end of 2015. This area is a passage where the Sulu Sea meets the South China Sea and it is situated at the border of the area of maximum marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. The TMP includes fringing and patch reefs established on a relatively shallow sea floor. Surveys were carried out to examine features of the coral reefs in terms of scleractinian species richness, and benthic reef assemblages following the Reef Check substrate categories, with emphasis on hard coral cover. Variation in scleractinian diversity was based on the species composition of coral families Fungiidae (n = 39), Agariciidae (n = 30) and Euphylliidae (n = 15). The number of coral species was highest at reefs with a larger depth gradient i.e. at the periphery of the study area and in the deep South Banggi Channel. Average live hard coral cover across the sites was 49%. Only 7% of the examined reefs had > 75% hard coral cover, while the majority of the reef sites were rated fair (51%) and good (38%). Sites with low coral cover and high rubble fragments are evidence of blast fishing, although the observed damage appeared old. Depth was a dominant factor in influencing the coral species composition and benthic reef communities in the TMP. Besides filling in the information gaps regarding species richness and benthic cover for reef areas that were previously without any data, the results of this study together with information that is already available on the coral reefs of TMP will be used to make informed decisions on zoning plans for conservation priorities in the proposed park.

  9. Can we measure beauty? Computational evaluation of coral reef aesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Marine; Foerschner, Anja; Co, Tim; Calhoun, Sandi; George, Emma; Hatay, Mark; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Felts, Ben; Dustan, Phillip; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    The natural beauty of coral reefs attracts millions of tourists worldwide resulting in substantial revenues for the adjoining economies. Although their visual appearance is a pivotal factor attracting humans to coral reefs current monitoring protocols exclusively target biogeochemical parameters, neglecting changes in their aesthetic appearance. Here we introduce a standardized computational approach to assess coral reef environments based on 109 visual features designed to evaluate the aesthetic appearance of art. The main feature groups include color intensity and diversity of the image, relative size, color, and distribution of discernable objects within the image, and texture. Specific coral reef aesthetic values combining all 109 features were calibrated against an established biogeochemical assessment (NCEAS) using machine learning algorithms. These values were generated for ∼2,100 random photographic images collected from 9 coral reef locations exposed to varying levels of anthropogenic influence across 2 ocean systems. Aesthetic values proved accurate predictors of the NCEAS scores (root mean square error < 5 for N ≥ 3) and significantly correlated to microbial abundance at each site. This shows that mathematical approaches designed to assess the aesthetic appearance of photographic images can be used as an inexpensive monitoring tool for coral reef ecosystems. It further suggests that human perception of aesthetics is not purely subjective but influenced by inherent reactions towards measurable visual cues. By quantifying aesthetic features of coral reef systems this method provides a cost efficient monitoring tool that targets one of the most important socioeconomic values of coral reefs directly tied to revenue for its local population. PMID:26587350

  10. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef Management.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for ...

  11. Plastic waste associated with disease on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Joleah B; Willis, Bette L; Fiorenza, Evan A; Couch, Courtney S; Howard, Robert; Rader, Douglas N; True, James D; Kelly, Lisa A; Ahmad, Awaludinnoer; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Harvell, C Drew

    2018-01-26

    Plastic waste can promote microbial colonization by pathogens implicated in outbreaks of disease in the ocean. We assessed the influence of plastic waste on disease risk in 124,000 reef-building corals from 159 reefs in the Asia-Pacific region. The likelihood of disease increases from 4% to 89% when corals are in contact with plastic. Structurally complex corals are eight times more likely to be affected by plastic, suggesting that microhabitats for reef-associated organisms and valuable fisheries will be disproportionately affected. Plastic levels on coral reefs correspond to estimates of terrestrial mismanaged plastic waste entering the ocean. We estimate that 11.1 billion plastic items are entangled on coral reefs across the Asia-Pacific and project this number to increase 40% by 2025. Plastic waste management is critical for reducing diseases that threaten ecosystem health and human livelihoods. Copyright © 2018, The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Ecological intereactions of reef building corals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and reefs are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical reef structures are largely built by stony corals. This presentation provides background on basic coral biology t...

  13. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  14. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  15. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  16. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  17. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  18. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  19. Coral reef diseases in the Atlantic-Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Weil, Ernesto; Dubinsky, Zvy; Stambler, Noga

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are the jewels of the tropical oceans. They boast the highest diversity of all marine ecosystems, aid in the development and protection of other important, productive coastal marine communities, and have provided millions of people with food, building materials, protection from storms, recreation and social stability over thousands of years, and more recently, income, active pharmacological compounds and other benefits. These communities have been deteriorating rapidly in recent times. The continuous emergence of coral reef diseases and increase in bleaching events caused in part by high water temperatures among other factors underscore the need for intensive assessments of their ecological status and causes and their impact on coral reefs.

  20. Macroalgal herbivory on recovering versus degrading coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Nash, K. L.; Bellwood, D. R.; Graham, N. A. J.

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgal-feeding fishes are considered to be a key functional group on coral reefs due to their role in preventing phase shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance, and potentially reversing the shift should it occur. However, assessments of macroalgal herbivory using bioassay experiments are primarily from systems with relatively high coral cover. This raises the question of whether continued functionality can be ensured in degraded systems. It is clearly important to determine whether the species that remove macroalgae on coral-dominated reefs will still be present and performing significant algal removal on macroalgal-dominated reefs. We compared the identity and effectiveness of macroalgal-feeding fishes on reefs in two conditions post-disturbance—those regenerating with high live coral cover (20-46 %) and those degrading with high macroalgal cover (57-82 %). Using filmed Sargassum bioassays, we found significantly different Sargassum biomass loss between the two conditions; mean assay weight loss due to herbivory was 27.9 ± 4.9 % on coral-dominated reefs and 2.2 ± 1.1 % on reefs with high macroalgal cover. However, once standardised for the availability of macroalgae on the reefs, the rates of removal were similar between the two reef conditions (4.8 ± 4.1 g m-2 h-1 on coral-dominated and 5.3 ± 2.1 g m-2 h-1 on macroalgal-dominated reefs). Interestingly, the Sargassum-assay consumer assemblages differed between reef conditions; nominally grazing herbivores, Siganus puelloides and Chlorurus sordidus, and the browser , Siganus sutor, dominated feeding on high coral cover reefs, whereas browsing herbivores, Naso elegans, Naso unicornis, and Leptoscarus vaigiensis, prevailed on macroalgal-dominated reefs. It appeared that macroalgal density in the surrounding habitat had a strong influence on the species driving the process of macroalgal removal. This suggests that although the function of macroalgal removal may continue, the species responsible may change

  1. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Mesopredator trophodynamics on thermally stressed coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempson, Tessa N.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S.; Almany, Glenn R.

    2018-03-01

    Ecosystems are becoming vastly modified through disturbance. In coral reef ecosystems, the differential susceptibility of coral taxa to climate-driven bleaching is predicted to shift coral assemblages towards reefs with an increased relative abundance of taxa with high thermal tolerance. Many thermally tolerant coral species are characterised by low structural complexity, with reduced habitat niche space for the small-bodied coral reef fishes on which piscivorous mesopredators feed. This study used a patch reef array to investigate the potential impacts of climate-driven shifts in coral assemblages on the trophodynamics of reef mesopredators and their prey communities. The `tolerant' reef treatment consisted only of coral taxa of low susceptibility to bleaching, while `vulnerable' reefs included species of moderate to high thermal vulnerability. `Vulnerable' reefs had higher structural complexity, and the fish assemblages that established on these reefs over 18 months had higher species diversity, abundance and biomass than those on `tolerant' reefs. Fish assemblages on `tolerant' reefs were also more strongly influenced by the introduction of a mesopredator ( Cephalopholis boenak). Mesopredators on `tolerant' reefs had lower lipid content in their muscle tissue by the end of the 6-week experiment. Such sublethal energetic costs can compromise growth, fecundity, and survivorship, resulting in unexpected population declines in long-lived mesopredators. This study provides valuable insight into the altered trophodynamics of future coral reef ecosystems, highlighting the potentially increased vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to predation as reef structure declines, and the cost of changing prey availability on mesopredator condition.

  3. Measuring coral reef decline through meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Côté, I.M; Gill, J.A; Gardner, T.A; Watkinson, A.R

    2005-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are in decline worldwide, owing to a variety of anthropogenic and natural causes. One of the most obvious signals of reef degradation is a reduction in live coral cover. Past and current rates of loss of coral are known for many individual reefs; however, until recently, no large-scale estimate was available. In this paper, we show how meta-analysis can be used to integrate existing small-scale estimates of change in coral and macroalgal cover, derived from in situ surveys of reefs, to generate a robust assessment of long-term patterns of large-scale ecological change. Using a large dataset from Caribbean reefs, we examine the possible biases inherent in meta-analytical studies and the sensitivity of the method to patchiness in data availability. Despite the fact that our meta-analysis included studies that used a variety of sampling methods, the regional estimate of change in coral cover we obtained is similar to that generated by a standardized survey programme that was implemented in 1991 in the Caribbean. We argue that for habitat types that are regularly and reasonably well surveyed in the course of ecological or conservation research, meta-analysis offers a cost-effective and rapid method for generating robust estimates of past and current states. PMID:15814352

  4. Global microbialization of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas F; Fairoz, Mohamed F M; Kelly, Linda W; Nelson, Craig E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A; Giles, Steve; Hatay, Mark; Hisakawa, Nao; Knowles, Ben; Lim, Yan Wei; Maughan, Heather; Pantos, Olga; Roach, Ty N F; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-25

    Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance. Using an unprecedented data set of >400 samples from 60 coral reef sites, we show that the central DDAM predictions are consistent across three ocean basins. Reef algal cover is positively correlated with lower concentrations of DOC and higher microbial abundances. On turf and fleshy macroalgal-rich reefs, higher relative abundances of copiotrophic microbial taxa were identified. These microbial communities shift their metabolic potential for carbohydrate degradation from the more energy efficient Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway on coral-dominated reefs to the less efficient Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways on algal-dominated reefs. This 'yield-to-power' switch by microorganism directly threatens reefs via increased hypoxia and greater CO2 release from the microbial respiration of DOC.

  5. Palaeoecological records of coral community development on a turbid, nearshore reef complex: baselines for assessing ecological change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. A.; Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Morgan, K. M.; Santodomingo, N.; Johnson, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding past coral community development and reef growth is crucial for placing contemporary ecological and environmental change within appropriate reef-building timescales. On Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), coral reefs situated within coastal inner-shelf zones are a particular priority. This is due to their close proximity to river point sources, and therefore susceptibility to reduced water quality discharged from coastal catchments, many of which have been modified following European settlement (ca. 1850 AD). However, the extent of water-quality decline and its impacts on the GBR's inner-shelf reefs remain contentious. In this study, palaeoecological coral assemblage records were developed for five proximal coral reefs situated within a nearshore turbid-zone reef complex on the central GBR. A total of 29 genera of Scleractinia were identified from the palaeoecological inventory of the reef complex, with key contributions to reef-building made by Acropora, Montipora, and Turbinaria. Discrete intervals pre- and post-dating European settlement, but associated with equivalent water depths, were identified using Bayesian age-depth modelling, enabling investigation of competing ideas of the main drivers of nearshore coral assemblage change. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that changes in the composition of nearshore coral assemblages are: (1) intrinsically driven and linked to vertical reef development towards sea level, and (2) the result of changes in water quality associated with coastal river catchment modification. Our records found no discernible evidence of change in the generic composition of coral assemblages relative to European settlement. Instead, two distinctive depth-stratified assemblages were identified. This study demonstrates the robust nature of nearshore coral communities under reported water-quality decline and provides a useful context for the monitoring and assessment of ecological change on reefs located within the most

  6. A Bayesian-Based System to Assess Wave-Driven Flooding Hazards on Coral Reef-Lined Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, S. G.; Storlazzi, C. D.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Many low-elevation, coral reef-lined, tropical coasts are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and wave-induced flooding. The considerable morphological diversity of these coasts and the variability of the hydrodynamic forcing that they are exposed to make predicting wave-induced flooding a challenge. A process-based wave-resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non-Hydrostatic, "XBNH") was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a "Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in Reef Environments" (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and coral reef geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on reef-lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of reef hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic reef and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on reef-lined coasts. The Bayesian estimator has high predictive skill for the XBNH model outputs that are flooding indicators, and was validated for a number of available field cases. It was found that, in order to accurately predict flooding hazards, water depth over the reef flat, incident wave conditions, and reef flat width are the most essential factors, whereas other factors such as beach slope and bed friction due to the presence or absence of corals are less important. BEWARE is a potentially powerful tool for use in early warning systems or risk assessment studies, and can be used to make projections about how wave-induced flooding on coral reef-lined coasts may change due to climate change.Plain Language SummaryLow-lying tropical coasts fronted by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are threatened by the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and flooding caused by waves. However, the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on these coasts differ widely in their shape, size, and physical characteristics; the wave and water level conditions affecting these coastlines also vary in space and time. These factors make it difficult to predict flooding caused</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6429729-miocene-reef-corals-review','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6429729-miocene-reef-corals-review"><span>Miocene <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frost, S.H.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Tectonic blockage in the Middle East of westward-flowing Tethys surface circulation during the latest Oligocene led to creation in the earliest Miocene of endemic Mediterranean, Western Atlantic-Caribbean, and Indo-Pacific realms. A great reduction in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity from 60-80 Oligocene species to 25-35 early Miocene species occurred in the Western Atlantic-Caribbean and Mediterranean areas accompanied by a decrease in <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth. A slower and less drastic change apparently occurred in the Indo-Pacific area. Early Miocene <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean comprise a transition between the cosmopolitan Oligocene fauna and its endemic mid-Miocene to modern counterpart. Although early Miocene reefsmore » were dominated by a Porites-Montastrea assemblage, eastward flow of Pacific circulation brought with it ''exotic'' <span class="hlt">corals</span> such as Coscinaraea and Pseudocolumnastrea. Also, many cosmopolitan genera persisted from the Oligocene. During the middle to late Miocene, most of the species still living on Holocene <span class="hlt">reefs</span> evolved. As the Mediterranean basin became more restricted, there was a slow decline in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> from 20 - 25 species in the Aquitainian to less than five species in the Messinian. Eustatic lowstand led to the extinction of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> in the late Messinian. In the Indo-Pacific, Neogene evolution of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> was conservative. Excluding the Acroporidae and Seriatoporidae, most Holocene framework species had evolved by the middle Miocene. Interplay between regional tectonics and eustatic sea level changes led to extensive development of middle to late Miocene pinnacle <span class="hlt">reefs</span> over the southwestern Pacific.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195114','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195114"><span>A Bayesian-based system to <span class="hlt">assess</span> wave-driven flooding hazards on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>-lined coasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pearson, S. G.; Storlazzi, Curt; van Dongeren, A. R.; Tissier, M. F. S.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Many low-elevation, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>-lined, tropical coasts are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise, and wave-induced flooding. The considerable morphological diversity of these coasts and the variability of the hydrodynamic forcing that they are exposed to make predicting wave-induced flooding a challenge. A process-based wave-resolving hydrodynamic model (XBeach Non-Hydrostatic, “XBNH”) was used to create a large synthetic database for use in a “Bayesian Estimator for Wave Attack in <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Environments” (BEWARE), relating incident hydrodynamics and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> geomorphology to coastal flooding hazards on <span class="hlt">reef</span>-lined coasts. Building on previous work, BEWARE improves system understanding of <span class="hlt">reef</span> hydrodynamics by examining the intrinsic <span class="hlt">reef</span> and extrinsic forcing factors controlling runup and flooding on <span class="hlt">reef</span>-lined coasts. The Bayesian estimator has high predictive skill for the XBNH model outputs that are flooding indicators, and was validated for a number of available field cases. It was found that, in order to accurately predict flooding hazards, water depth over the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, incident wave conditions, and <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat width are the most essential factors, whereas other factors such as beach slope and bed friction due to the presence or absence of <span class="hlt">corals</span> are less important. BEWARE is a potentially powerful tool for use in early warning systems or risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> studies, and can be used to make projections about how wave-induced flooding on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>-lined coasts may change due to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280131','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280131"><span>Black <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: iron-induced phase shifts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Line Islands are calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The <span class="hlt">reefs</span> surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low <span class="hlt">coral</span> and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black <span class="hlt">reefs</span> because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparative surveys show that the live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km2). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black <span class="hlt">reef</span> formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black <span class="hlt">reef</span> site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that <span class="hlt">corals</span> were killed by black <span class="hlt">reef</span> rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in iron-limited regions. PMID:21881615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881615"><span>Black <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: iron-induced phase shifts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Linda Wegley; Barott, Katie L; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Friedlander, Alan M; Nosrat, Bahador; Obura, David; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Vermeij, Mark J A; Williams, Gareth J; Willner, Dana; Rohwer, Forest</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The Line Islands are calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> platforms located in iron-poor regions of the central Pacific. Natural terrestrial run-off of iron is non-existent and aerial deposition is extremely low. However, a number of ship groundings have occurred on these atolls. The <span class="hlt">reefs</span> surrounding the shipwreck debris are characterized by high benthic cover of turf algae, macroalgae, cyanobacterial mats and corallimorphs, as well as particulate-laden, cloudy water. These sites also have very low <span class="hlt">coral</span> and crustose coralline algal cover and are call black <span class="hlt">reefs</span> because of the dark-colored benthic community and reduced clarity of the overlying water column. Here we use a combination of benthic surveys, chemistry, metagenomics and microcosms to investigate if and how shipwrecks initiate and maintain black <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparative surveys show that the live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was reduced from 40 to 60% to <10% on black <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on Millennium, Tabuaeran and Kingman. These three sites are relatively large (>0.75 km(2)). The phase shift occurs rapidly; the Kingman black <span class="hlt">reef</span> formed within 3 years of the ship grounding. Iron concentrations in algae tissue from the Millennium black <span class="hlt">reef</span> site were six times higher than in algae collected from reference sites. Metagenomic sequencing of the Millennium Atoll black <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated microbial community was enriched in iron-associated virulence genes and known pathogens. Microcosm experiments showed that <span class="hlt">corals</span> were killed by black <span class="hlt">reef</span> rubble through microbial activity. Together these results demonstrate that shipwrecks and their associated iron pose significant threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in iron-limited regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..178...86N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ECSS..178...86N"><span>Pattern and intensity of human impact on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> depend on depth along the <span class="hlt">reef</span> profile and on the descriptor adopted</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nepote, Ettore; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Morri, Carla; Montefalcone, Monica</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are threatened by multiple global and local disturbances. The Maldives, already heavily hit by the 1998 mass bleaching event, are currently affected also by growing tourism and coastal development that may add to global impacts. Most of the studies investigating effects of local disturbances on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the response of communities along a horizontal distance from the impact source. This study investigated the status of a Maldivian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> around an island where an international touristic airport has been recently (2009-2011) built, at different depths along the <span class="hlt">reef</span> profile (5-20 m depth) and considering the change in the percentage of cover of five different non-taxonomic descriptors <span class="hlt">assessed</span> through underwater visual surveys: hard <span class="hlt">corals</span>, soft <span class="hlt">corals</span>, other invertebrates, macroalgae and abiotic attributes. Eight <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in areas not affected by any coastal development were used as controls and showed a reduction of hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and an increase of abiotic attributes (i.e. sand, rock, <span class="hlt">coral</span> rubble) at the impacted <span class="hlt">reef</span>. However, hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, the most widely used descriptor of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health, was not sufficient on its own to detect subtle indirect effects that occurred down the <span class="hlt">reef</span> profile. Selecting an array of descriptors and considering different depths, where <span class="hlt">corals</span> may find a refuge from climate impacts, could guide the efforts of minimising local human pressures on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..04E"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Remote Sensing: Helping Managers Protect <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> in a Changing Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakin, C.; Liu, G.; Li, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Heron, S. F.; Gledhill, D. K.; Christensen, T.; Rauenzahn, J.; Morgan, J.; Parker, B. A.; Skirving, W. J.; Nim, C.; Burgess, T.; Strong, A. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Climate change and ocean acidification are already having severe impacts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Warming oceans have caused <span class="hlt">corals</span> to bleach, or expel their symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) with alarming frequency and severity and have contributed to a rise in <span class="hlt">coral</span> infectious diseases. Ocean acidification is reducing the availability of carbonate ions needed by <span class="hlt">corals</span> and many other marine organisms to build structural components like skeletons and shells and may already be slowing the <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. These two impacts are already killing <span class="hlt">corals</span> and slowing <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth, reducing biodiversity and the structure needed to provide crucial ecosystem services. NOAA’s <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Watch (CRW) uses a combination of satellite data, in situ observations, and models to provide <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> managers, scientists, and others with information needed to monitor threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The advance notice provided by remote sensing and models allows resource managers to protect <span class="hlt">corals</span>, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and the services they provide, although managers often encounter barriers to implementation of adaptation strategies. This talk will focus on application of NOAA’s satellite and model-based tools that monitor the risk of mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching on a global scale, ocean acidification in the Caribbean, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease outbreaks in selected regions, as well as CRW work to train managers in their use, and barriers to taking action to adapt to climate change. As both anthropogenic CO2 and temperatures will continue to rise, local actions to protect <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are becoming even more important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21939056"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> identity underpins architectural complexity on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Côte, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R; Gill, Jennifer A</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The architectural complexity of ecosystems can greatly influence their capacity to support biodiversity and deliver ecosystem services. Understanding the components underlying this complexity can aid the development of effective strategies for ecosystem conservation. Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> support and protect millions of livelihoods, but recent anthropogenic change is shifting communities toward <span class="hlt">reefs</span> dominated by stress-resistant <span class="hlt">coral</span> species, which are often less architecturally complex. With the regionwide decline in <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish abundance, it is becoming increasingly important to understand changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community structure and function. We quantify the influence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> composition, diversity, and morpho-functional traits on the architectural complexity of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across 91 sites at Cozumel, Mexico. Although <span class="hlt">reef</span> architectural complexity increases with <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and species richness, it is highest on sites that are low in taxonomic evenness and dominated by morpho-functionally important, <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera, particularly Montastraea. Sites with similar <span class="hlt">coral</span> community composition also tend to occur on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with very similar architectural complexity, suggesting that <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure tends to be determined by the same key species across sites. Our findings provide support for prioritizing and protecting particular <span class="hlt">reef</span> types, especially those dominated by key <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>, in order to enhance <span class="hlt">reef</span> complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5090207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5090207"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Resilience, Tipping Points and the Strength of Herbivory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holbrook, Sally J.; Schmitt, Russell J.; Adam, Thomas C.; Brooks, Andrew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> increasingly are undergoing transitions from <span class="hlt">coral</span> to macroalgal dominance. Although the functional roles of <span class="hlt">reef</span> herbivores in controlling algae are becoming better understood, identifying possible tipping points in the herbivory-macroalgae relationships has remained a challenge. <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of where any <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem lies in relation to the <span class="hlt">coral</span>-to-macroalgae tipping point is fundamental to understanding resilience properties, forecasting state shifts, and developing effective management practices. We conducted a multi-year field experiment in Moorea, French Polynesia to estimate these properties. While we found a sharp herbivory threshold where macroalgae escape control, ambient levels of herbivory by <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes were well above that needed to prevent proliferation of macroalgae. These findings are consistent with previously observed high resilience of the fore <span class="hlt">reef</span> in Moorea. Our approach can identify vulnerable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems in urgent need of management action to both forestall shifts to macroalgae and preserve properties essential for resilience. PMID:27804977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27804977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27804977"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Resilience, Tipping Points and the Strength of Herbivory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Adam, Thomas C; Brooks, Andrew J</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> increasingly are undergoing transitions from <span class="hlt">coral</span> to macroalgal dominance. Although the functional roles of <span class="hlt">reef</span> herbivores in controlling algae are becoming better understood, identifying possible tipping points in the herbivory-macroalgae relationships has remained a challenge. <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of where any <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem lies in relation to the <span class="hlt">coral</span>-to-macroalgae tipping point is fundamental to understanding resilience properties, forecasting state shifts, and developing effective management practices. We conducted a multi-year field experiment in Moorea, French Polynesia to estimate these properties. While we found a sharp herbivory threshold where macroalgae escape control, ambient levels of herbivory by <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes were well above that needed to prevent proliferation of macroalgae. These findings are consistent with previously observed high resilience of the fore <span class="hlt">reef</span> in Moorea. Our approach can identify vulnerable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems in urgent need of management action to both forestall shifts to macroalgae and preserve properties essential for resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.531..314L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.531..314L"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: Turning back time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lough, Janice M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> significantly increases <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. See Letter p.362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21991366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21991366"><span>High macroalgal cover and low <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the world's southernmost <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoey, Andrew S; Pratchett, Morgan S; Cvitanovic, Christopher</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. To <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential resilience of the benthic <span class="hlt">reef</span> assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32'S, 159°04'E), the worlds' southernmost <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> (as a proxy for <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was higher than in most other subtropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> densities (0.8 ind.m(-2)), however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> and the density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span>, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha(-1)), and in marked contrast to tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of <span class="hlt">corals</span> through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands' <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are currently <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment and low <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth rates suggest these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3185058','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3185058"><span>High Macroalgal Cover and Low <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Recruitment Undermines the Potential Resilience of the World's Southernmost <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoey, Andrew S.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Cvitanovic, Christopher</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. To <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential resilience of the benthic <span class="hlt">reef</span> assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32′S, 159°04′E), the worlds' southernmost <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> (as a proxy for <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was higher than in most other subtropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> densities (0.8 ind.m−2), however, were 5–200 times lower than those reported for tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> and the density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span>, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha−1), and in marked contrast to tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of <span class="hlt">corals</span> through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands' <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are currently <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment and low <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth rates suggest these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances. PMID:21991366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848962"><span>Using <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the effects of concentrating tourism activities on offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in a tropical marine park.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamb, Joleah B; Willis, Bette L</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Concentrating tourism activities can be an effective way to closely manage high-use parks and minimize the extent of the effects of visitors on plants and animals, although considerable investment in permanent tourism facilities may be required. On <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, a variety of human-related disturbances have been associated with elevated levels of <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease, but the effects of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-based tourist facilities (e.g., permanent offshore visitor platforms) on <span class="hlt">coral</span> health have not been <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. In partnership with <span class="hlt">reef</span> managers and the tourism industry, we tested the effectiveness of concentrating tourism activities as a strategy for managing tourism on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We compared prevalence of brown band disease, white syndromes, black band disease, skeletal eroding band, and growth anomalies among <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with and without permanent tourism platforms within the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> diseases were 15 times more prevalent at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with offshore tourism platforms than at nearby <span class="hlt">reefs</span> without platforms. The maximum prevalence and maximum number of cases of each disease type were recorded at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with permanently moored tourism platforms. Diseases affected 10 <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera from 7 families at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with platforms and 4 <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera from 3 families at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> without platforms. The greatest number of disease cases occurred within the spatially dominant acroporid <span class="hlt">corals</span>, which exhibited 18-fold greater disease prevalence at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with platforms than at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> without platforms. Neither the percent cover of acroporids nor overall <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover differed significantly between <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with and without platforms, which suggests that neither factor was responsible for the elevated levels of disease. Identifying how tourism activities and platforms facilitate <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease in marine parks will help ensure ongoing conservation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages and tourism. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29670282','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29670282"><span>Global warming transforms <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hughes, Terry P; Kerry, James T; Baird, Andrew H; Connolly, Sean R; Dietzel, Andreas; Eakin, C Mark; Heron, Scott F; Hoey, Andrew S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Liu, Gang; McWilliam, Michael J; Pears, Rachel J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Skirving, William J; Stella, Jessica S; Torda, Gergely</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Global warming is rapidly emerging as a universal threat to ecological integrity and function, highlighting the urgent need for a better understanding of the impact of heat exposure on the resilience of ecosystems and the people who depend on them 1 . Here we show that in the aftermath of the record-breaking marine heatwave on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> in 2016 2 , <span class="hlt">corals</span> began to die immediately on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> where the accumulated heat exposure exceeded a critical threshold of degree heating weeks, which was 3-4 °C-weeks. After eight months, an exposure of 6 °C-weeks or more drove an unprecedented, regional-scale shift in the composition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages, reflecting markedly divergent responses to heat stress by different taxa. Fast-growing staghorn and tabular <span class="hlt">corals</span> suffered a catastrophic die-off, transforming the three-dimensionality and ecological functioning of 29% of the 3,863 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> comprising the world's largest <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> system. Our study bridges the gap between the theory and practice of <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the risk of ecosystem collapse, under the emerging framework for the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Ecosystems 3 , by rigorously defining both the initial and collapsed states, identifying the major driver of change, and establishing quantitative collapse thresholds. The increasing prevalence of post-bleaching mass mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span> represents a radical shift in the disturbance regimes of tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, both adding to and far exceeding the influence of recurrent cyclones and other local pulse events, presenting a fundamental challenge to the long-term future of these iconic ecosystems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643407"><span>Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg</p> <p>2013-07-30</p> <p>Expert opinion was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-<span class="hlt">assessed</span> in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities, and economically evaluating <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and management of future changes in this globally significant region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118590','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118590"><span>Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Expert opinion was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-<span class="hlt">assessed</span> in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities, and economically evaluating <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CorRe..34.1267C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CorRe..34.1267C"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> environmental correlates of fish movement on a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Currey, Leanne M.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Williams, Ashley J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Variation in dispersal and movement patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes is likely linked to changes in environmental conditions. Monitoring in situ environmental parameters on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in conjunction with the movements of fishes can help explain the relationship between exploited populations and their environment. Sixty adult Lethrinus miniatus were acoustically tagged and monitored along a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope for up to 1 yr. Individuals occurred more often on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope during days of cooler temperatures, suggesting a thermal tolerance threshold may exist. Results indicate that individuals responded to elevated temperatures by moving away from the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope to deeper adjacent habitats, thus shifting their position in the water column to remain at a preferred temperature. Space use within the water column (vertical activity space) was not influenced by environmental parameters or fish size, but this result was possibly influenced by use of deeper habitat outside the acoustic array that was not monitored. With elevation of ocean temperature, L. miniatus may need to adapt to warmer waters or disperse into cooler habitats, by either shifting their distribution deeper or towards higher latitudes. Identifying key environmental drivers that affect the distribution of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes is important, and may allow managers to predict the effect of these changes on exploited species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19707616"><span>Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banaszak, Anastazia T; Lesser, Michael P</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Organisms living in shallow-water tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments are exposed to high UVR irradiances due to the low solar zenith angles (the angle of the sun from the vertical), the natural thinness of the ozone layer over tropical latitudes, and the high transparency of the water column. The hypothesis that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 290-400 nm) is an important factor that affects the biology and ecology of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms dates only to about 1980. It has been previously suggested that increased levels of biologically effective ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, 290-320 nm), which is the waveband primarily affected by ozone depletion, would have relatively small effects on <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and that these effects might be observed as changes in the minimum depths of occurrence of important <span class="hlt">reef</span> taxa such as <span class="hlt">corals</span>. This conclusion was based on predictions of increases in UVR as well as its attenuation with depth using the available data on UVR irradiances, ozone levels, and optical properties of the water overlying <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Here, we review the experimental evidence demonstrating the direct and indirect effects of UVR, both UVB and ultraviolet A (UVA, 320-400 nm) on <span class="hlt">corals</span> and other <span class="hlt">reef</span> associated biota, with emphasis on those studies conducted since 1996. Additionally, we re-examine the predictions made in 1996 for the increase in UVB on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with currently available data, <span class="hlt">assess</span> whether those predictions were reasonable, and look at what changes might occur on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the future as the multiple effects (i.e. increased temperature, hypercapnia, and ocean acidification) of global climate change continue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3980A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.3980A"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> metabolism and carbon chemistry dynamics of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albright, Rebecca; Benthuysen, Jessica; Cantin, Neal; Caldeira, Ken; Anthony, Ken</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Global carbon emissions continue to acidify the oceans, motivating growing concern for the ability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to maintain net positive calcification rates. Efforts to develop robust relationships between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification and carbonate parameters such as aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) aim to facilitate meaningful predictions of how <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification will change in the face of ocean acidification. Here we investigate natural trends in carbonate chemistry of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat over diel cycles and relate these trends to benthic carbon fluxes by quantifying net community calcification and net community production. We find that, despite an apparent dependence of calcification on Ωarag seen in a simple pairwise relationship, if the dependence of net calcification on net photosynthesis is accounted for, knowing Ωarag does not add substantial explanatory value. This suggests that, over short time scales, the control of Ωarag on net calcification is weak relative to factors governing net photosynthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28569801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28569801"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Anthropocene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hughes, Terry P; Barnes, Michele L; Bellwood, David R; Cinner, Joshua E; Cumming, Graeme S; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Kleypas, Joanie; van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Lough, Janice M; Morrison, Tiffany H; Palumbi, Stephen R; van Nes, Egbert H; Scheffer, Marten</p> <p>2017-05-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> support immense biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services to many millions of people. Yet <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers. In the coming centuries, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into new configurations, unlike anything observed previously by humans. Returning <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to past configurations is no longer an option. Instead, the global challenge is to steer <span class="hlt">reefs</span> through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions. Successful navigation of this transition will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..201F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..201F"><span>Mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> environments depress the reproduction of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> Paramontastraea peresi in the Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feldman, Bar; Shlesinger, Tom; Loya, Yossi</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>With more than 450 studied species, <span class="hlt">coral</span> reproduction is a well-known research field. However, the vast majority of <span class="hlt">coral</span> reproduction research has focused exclusively on shallow <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The incentive for the present study was: (1) the recent accelerated global degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>; (2) the growing interest in mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems (MCEs; 30-120 m depth) and their potential to serve as a larval source for shallow <span class="hlt">reefs</span>; and (3) the lack of information on MCE <span class="hlt">coral</span> reproduction. Here, we compare the reproduction and ecology of the depth-generalist <span class="hlt">coral</span> Paramontastraea peresi between shallow (5-10 m) and mesophotic (40-45 m) habitats in the Gulf of Eilat/Aqaba, Red Sea. Field surveys were conducted to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the living cover, abundance, and size frequency distribution of P. peresi. Four to six colonies from each habitat were sampled monthly between April 2015 and January 2017, and the gametogenesis cycles, fecundity, and oocyte sizes were measured. The reproductive cycle in the MCEs was shorter than in the shallow <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Despite having larger polyps, the mesophotic colonies contained significantly smaller and fewer oocytes per polyp. In spite of the relatively stable environmental conditions of the MCEs, which may contribute to <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival, scarcity of sunlight is probably a major energetic impediment to investment in reproduction by P. peresi at mesophotic depths. Further intensive reproductive studies in mesophotic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are thus required to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the ability of <span class="hlt">corals</span> in this environment to reproduce and constitute a larval source for depleted shallow-water <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233225&keyword=environmental+AND+assessment+AND+natural+AND+environment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233225&keyword=environmental+AND+assessment+AND+natural+AND+environment&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EPA Field Manual for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSOD34B2512R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSOD34B2512R"><span>Cryptic <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Diversity Across the Pacific <span class="hlt">Assessed</span> using Autonomous <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Monitoring Structures and Multi-omic Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ransome, E. J.; Timmers, M.; Hartmann, A.; Collins, A.; Meyer, C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> harbor diverse and distinct eukaryotic, bacterial and viral communities, which are critically important for their success. The lack of standardized measures for comprehensively <span class="hlt">assessing</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> diversity has been a major obstacle in understanding the complexity of eukaryotic and microbial associations, and the processes that drive ecosystem shifts on <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. ARMS, which mimic the structural complexity of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> using artificial settlement plates, were used to systematically measure <span class="hlt">reef</span> biodiversity across the Indo-Pacific. This device allows for standardized sampling of <span class="hlt">reef</span> microbes to metazoans, providing the opportunity to investigate the fundamental links between these groups at an ecosystem level. We integrate the use of traditional ecology methods with metagenomics and metabolomics (metabolic predictors) to quantify the taxonomic composition of one of the planet's most diverse ecosystems and to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the fundamental links between these cryptic communities and ecosystem function along geographical and anthropogenic stress gradients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..283G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..283G"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery dynamics in a changing world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Graham, N. A. J.; Nash, K. L.; Kool, J. T.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are degrading through multiple disturbances that are becoming more frequent and severe. The complexities of this degradation have been studied in detail, but little work has <span class="hlt">assessed</span> characteristics that allow <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to bounce back and recover between pulse disturbance events. We quantitatively review recovery rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover from pulse disturbance events among 48 different <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations, testing the relative roles of disturbance characteristics, <span class="hlt">reef</span> characteristics, connectivity and anthropogenic influences. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> in the western Pacific Ocean had the fastest recovery, whereas <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the geographically isolated eastern Pacific Ocean were slowest to recover, reflecting regional differences in <span class="hlt">coral</span> composition, fish functional diversity and geographic isolation. Disturbances that opened up large areas of benthic space recovered quickly, potentially because of nonlinear recovery where recruitment rates were high. The type of disturbance had a limited effect on subsequent rates of <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery, although recovery was faster following crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks. This inconsequential role of disturbance type may be in part due to the role of unaltered structural complexity in maintaining key <span class="hlt">reef</span> processes, such as recruitment and herbivory. Few studies explicitly recorded potential ecological determinants of recovery, such as recruitment rates, structural complexity of habitat and the functional composition of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated fish. There was some evidence of slower recovery rates within protected areas compared with other management systems and fished areas, which may reflect the higher initial <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in protected areas rather than reflecting a management effect. A better understanding of the driving role of processes, structural complexity and diversity on recovery may enable more appropriate management actions that support <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated ecosystems in our changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251270"><span>Oceanic forcing of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and <span class="hlt">reef</span> processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on <span class="hlt">reef</span> water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryID=223392','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryID=223392"><span><span class="hlt">CORAL</span> <span class="hlt">REEF</span> BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for <span class="hlt">coral</span> re</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=2&id=ED247136','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=2&id=ED247136"><span>Comparing <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Survey Management and <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.</p> <p></p> <p>This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> survey management and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Reef…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-12/pdf/2010-19889.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-12/pdf/2010-19889.pdf"><span>75 FR 48934 - <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-12</p> <p>...-01] RIN 0648-ZC19 <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines AGENCY: National Oceanic... Guidelines (Guidelines) for the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program (CRCP or Program) under the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span>... assistance for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation projects under the Act. NOAA revised the Implementation Guidelines for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16703761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16703761"><span>Status and progress in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> disease research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weil, Ernesto; Smith, Garriet; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L</p> <p>2006-03-23</p> <p>Recent findings on the ecology, etiology and pathology of <span class="hlt">coral</span> pathogens, host resistance mechanisms, previously unknown disease/syndromes and the global nature of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> diseases have increased our concern about the health and future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. Much of what has been discovered in the past 4 years is presented in this special issue. Among the significant findings, the role that various Vibrio species play in <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease and health, the composition of the 'normal microbiota' of <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and the possible role of viruses in the disease process are important additions to our knowledge. New information concerning disease resistance and vectors, variation in pathogen composition for both fungal diseases of gorgonians and black band disease across oceans, environmental effects on disease susceptibility and resistance, and temporal and spatial disease variations among different <span class="hlt">coral</span> species is presented in a number of papers. While the Caribbean may still be the 'disease hot spot' for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, it is now clear that diseases of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms have become a global threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and a major cause of <span class="hlt">reef</span> deterioration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310273&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=ELEMENTS+AND+OF+AND+THE+AND+DECISION+AND+MAKING+AND+PROCESS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310273&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=ELEMENTS+AND+OF+AND+THE+AND+DECISION+AND+MAKING+AND+PROCESS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Coastal Ecosystems Decision Support Workshop April 27-29, 2010 Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute, La Parguera, Puerto Rico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute (CCRI) hosted a <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Coastal Ecosystems Decision Support Workshop on April 27-28, 2010 at the Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Forty-three participants, includin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873043"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and diseases in some Colombian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases on the main <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, <span class="hlt">coral</span> species affected, <span class="hlt">reef</span> localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This is the first long-term study of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ECSS...49...65A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ECSS...49...65A"><span>Human Impacts on <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> in the Sultanate of Oman</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R. M.; Wilson, S. C.; West, F.; Matthews, A. D.</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>A rapid <span class="hlt">assessment</span> survey of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted by the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of <span class="hlt">corals</span> in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities for the purpose of preparation of a National <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Management Plan (Phase One of the implementation of a National Coastal Zone Management Plan). Impacts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Oman were found to be attributable to both natural and human causes, resulting in significant and widespread degradation. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of <span class="hlt">corals</span> by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Lost gill nets were also found to have a negative affect on fisheries resources and other marine wildlife. Observations of the behaviour of gill nets on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> suggested a predictable pattern of damage over time and a significant increase in damage intensity during storms. Fishing nets were found to act selectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2246S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2246S"><span>Mapping Prevalence and Incidence of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Disease in <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> at two Natural Reserves of the Southwest Puerto Rico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez Viruet, I.; Irizarry-Soto, E.; Ruiz-Valentín, I.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> diseases seems to be the main cause of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline in the Caribbean. Before the bleaching event of 2005, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Puerto Rico were dominated by the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building taxa: Orbicella annularis, Porites astreoides, Montastrea cavernosa, Agaricia agaracites and Colpophyllia natans. After the event, live-<span class="hlt">coral</span> cover significantly declined and more than 90% of the scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico showed signals of thermal stressors. The prevalence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases in five <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> (Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Orbicella faveolata, Porites porites and Pseudiploria strigosa) species was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> by tagging, photographing, and mapping all diseased and healthy colonies within 10 permanent 40m2 band transects at each inshore and mid-shelf <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Belvedere and Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserves using a random stratified sampling method. Maximum and perpendicular diameter was used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> size using <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Point Count with Excel Extension. <span class="hlt">Corals</span> were classified into three size class populations (class I: 0-50cm, class II: 50-100cm and class III: >100 cm). Data was used to develop a GIS-based map containing <span class="hlt">coral</span> species, size and disease presence. Preliminary results of the inshore area showed a higher disease prevalence in Belvedere natural reserve and for P. strigosa (17.1%) and O. annularis (9.3%). Frequency distribution analysis showed a dominance of O. faveolata at Punta Guaniquilla and Belvedere (127 and 88 individuals respectively). Size class I dominates the distribution of each species within the natural reserves with a higher disease prevalence. Future work include continue prevalence surveys of the outer <span class="hlt">reef</span> shelf on both natural reserves, monitoring and GIS-based mapping of incidence and resilience through time. This study will help in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the status of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> of the southwest insular platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203888"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> health on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> near mining sites in New Caledonia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heintz, T; Haapkylä, J; Gilbert, A</p> <p>2015-07-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> health data are poorly documented in New Caledonia, particularly from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> chronically subject to anthropogenic and natural runoff. We investigated patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease and non-disease conditions on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> situated downstream of mining sites off the coast of New Caledonia. Surveys were conducted in March 2013 at 2 locations along the west coast and 2 locations along the east coast of the main island. Only 2 <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases were detected: growth anomalies and white syndrome. The most prevalent signs of compromised health at each location were sediment damage and algal overgrowth. These results support earlier findings that sedimentation and turbidity are major threats to in-shore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in New Caledonia. The Poritidae-dominated west coast locations were more subject to sediment damage, algal overgrowth and growth anomalies compared to the Acroporidae-dominated east coast locations. If growth form and resistance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> hosts influence these results, differences in environmental conditions including hydro-dynamism between locations may also contribute to these outputs. Our results highlight the importance of combining <span class="hlt">coral</span> health surveys with measurements of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the health status of a <span class="hlt">reef</span>, as <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with high <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover may have a high prevalence of <span class="hlt">corals</span> demonstrating signs of compromised health.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28320966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28320966"><span>Tropical dead zones and mass mortalities on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altieri, Andrew H; Harrison, Seamus B; Seemann, Janina; Collin, Rachel; Diaz, Robert J; Knowlton, Nancy</p> <p>2017-04-04</p> <p>Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as "dead zones," are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and <span class="hlt">assess</span> the risk of dead zones to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide. The event caused <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and massive mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and other <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated organisms, but observed shifts in community structure combined with laboratory experiments revealed that not all <span class="hlt">coral</span> species are equally sensitive to hypoxia. Analyses of global databases showed that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are associated with more than half of the known tropical dead zones worldwide, with >10% of all <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at elevated risk for hypoxia based on local and global risk factors. Hypoxic events in the tropics and associated mortality events have likely been underreported, perhaps by an order of magnitude, because of the lack of local scientific capacity for their detection. Monitoring and management plans for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience should incorporate the growing threat of coastal hypoxia and include support for increased detection and research capacity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5389270','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5389270"><span>Tropical dead zones and mass mortalities on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Altieri, Andrew H.; Harrison, Seamus B.; Seemann, Janina; Collin, Rachel; Diaz, Robert J.; Knowlton, Nancy</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as “dead zones,” are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and <span class="hlt">assess</span> the risk of dead zones to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide. The event caused <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and massive mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and other <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated organisms, but observed shifts in community structure combined with laboratory experiments revealed that not all <span class="hlt">coral</span> species are equally sensitive to hypoxia. Analyses of global databases showed that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are associated with more than half of the known tropical dead zones worldwide, with >10% of all <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at elevated risk for hypoxia based on local and global risk factors. Hypoxic events in the tropics and associated mortality events have likely been underreported, perhaps by an order of magnitude, because of the lack of local scientific capacity for their detection. Monitoring and management plans for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience should incorporate the growing threat of coastal hypoxia and include support for increased detection and research capacity. PMID:28320966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15215854','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15215854"><span>Confronting the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> crisis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellwood, D R; Hughes, T P; Folke, C; Nyström, M</p> <p>2004-06-24</p> <p>The worldwide decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> calls for an urgent reassessment of current management practices. Confronting large-scale crises requires a major scaling-up of management efforts based on an improved understanding of the ecological processes that underlie <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience. Managing for improved resilience, incorporating the role of human activity in shaping ecosystems, provides a basis for coping with uncertainty, future changes and ecological surprises. Here we review the ecological roles of critical functional groups (for both <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes) that are fundamental to understanding resilience and avoiding phase shifts from <span class="hlt">coral</span> dominance to less desirable, degraded ecosystems. We identify striking biogeographic differences in the species richness and composition of functional groups, which highlight the vulnerability of Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for restoration of degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, management of fisheries, and the focus on marine protected areas and biodiversity hotspots as priorities for conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25276504"><span>Turf algae-mediated <span class="hlt">coral</span> damage in coastal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Belize, Central America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wild, Christian; Jantzen, Carin; Kremb, Stephan Georg</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algae contacts may negatively affect <span class="hlt">corals</span> is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algae contacts were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> in situ at 13 Belizean <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12-70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> at the remote Lighthouse <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (26-29%) when compared to the other sites (4-19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites, while the occurrence of direct <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for <span class="hlt">corals</span> (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated <span class="hlt">coral</span> damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840062','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840062"><span>Determining the Extent and Characterizing <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Habitats of the Northern Latitudes of the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract (Martin County)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walker, Brian K.; Gilliam, David S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has recently been implicated in poleward shifts of many tropical species including <span class="hlt">corals</span>; thus attention focused on higher-latitude <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities is warranted to investigate possible range expansions and ecosystem shifts due to global warming. As the northern extension of the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract (FRT), the third-largest barrier <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem in the world, southeast Florida (25–27° N latitude) is a prime region to study such effects. Most of the shallow-water FRT benthic habitats have been mapped, however minimal data and limited knowledge exist about the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities of its northernmost reaches off Martin County. First benthic habitat mapping was conducted using newly acquired high resolution LIDAR bathymetry and aerial photography where possible to map the spatial extent of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats. Quantitative data were collected to characterize benthic cover and stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> demographics and a comprehensive accuracy <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was performed. The data were then analyzed in a habitat biogeography context to determine if a new <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem region designation was warranted. Of the 374 km2 seafloor mapped, 95.2% was Sand, 4.1% was <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Colonized Pavement, and 0.7% was Other Delineations. Map accuracy <span class="hlt">assessment</span> yielded an overall accuracy of 94.9% once adjusted for known map marginal proportions. Cluster analysis of cross-shelf habitat type and widths indicated that the benthic habitats were different than those further south and warranted designation of a new <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem region. Unlike the FRT further south, <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were dominated by cold-water tolerant species and LIDAR morphology indicated no evidence of historic <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth during warmer climates. Present-day hydrographic conditions may be inhibiting poleward expansion of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities along Florida. This study provides new information on the benthic community composition of the northern FRT, serving as a baseline for future community shift and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24282542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24282542"><span>Determining the extent and characterizing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats of the northern latitudes of the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract (Martin County).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, Brian K; Gilliam, David S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has recently been implicated in poleward shifts of many tropical species including <span class="hlt">corals</span>; thus attention focused on higher-latitude <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities is warranted to investigate possible range expansions and ecosystem shifts due to global warming. As the northern extension of the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract (FRT), the third-largest barrier <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem in the world, southeast Florida (25-27° N latitude) is a prime region to study such effects. Most of the shallow-water FRT benthic habitats have been mapped, however minimal data and limited knowledge exist about the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities of its northernmost reaches off Martin County. First benthic habitat mapping was conducted using newly acquired high resolution LIDAR bathymetry and aerial photography where possible to map the spatial extent of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats. Quantitative data were collected to characterize benthic cover and stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> demographics and a comprehensive accuracy <span class="hlt">assessment</span> was performed. The data were then analyzed in a habitat biogeography context to determine if a new <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem region designation was warranted. Of the 374 km(2) seafloor mapped, 95.2% was Sand, 4.1% was <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Colonized Pavement, and 0.7% was Other Delineations. Map accuracy <span class="hlt">assessment</span> yielded an overall accuracy of 94.9% once adjusted for known map marginal proportions. Cluster analysis of cross-shelf habitat type and widths indicated that the benthic habitats were different than those further south and warranted designation of a new <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem region. Unlike the FRT further south, <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were dominated by cold-water tolerant species and LIDAR morphology indicated no evidence of historic <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth during warmer climates. Present-day hydrographic conditions may be inhibiting poleward expansion of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities along Florida. This study provides new information on the benthic community composition of the northern FRT, serving as a baseline for future community shift and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5936941','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5936941"><span>Using virtual reality to estimate aesthetic values of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clifford, Sam; Caley, M. Julian; Pearse, Alan R.; Brown, Ross; James, Allan; Christensen, Bryce; Bednarz, Tomasz; Anthony, Ken; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mengersen, Kerrie; Peterson, Erin E.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socio-economic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> aesthetics based on people's perceptions of beauty. Three observer groups with different experience to <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments (Marine Scientist, Experienced Diver and Citizen) were virtually immersed in Australian's Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR) using 360° images. Perceptions of beauty and observations were used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the importance of eight potential attributes of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-aesthetic value. Among these, heterogeneity, defined by structural complexity and colour diversity, was positively associated with <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span>-aesthetic values. There were no group-level differences in the way the observer groups perceived <span class="hlt">reef</span> aesthetics suggesting that past experiences with <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> do not necessarily influence the perception of beauty by the observer. The framework developed here provides a generic tool to help identify indicators of aesthetic value applicable to a wide variety of natural systems. The ability to estimate aesthetic values robustly adds an important dimension to the holistic conservation of the GBR, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide and other natural ecosystems. PMID:29765676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29765676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29765676"><span>Using virtual reality to estimate aesthetic values of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vercelloni, Julie; Clifford, Sam; Caley, M Julian; Pearse, Alan R; Brown, Ross; James, Allan; Christensen, Bryce; Bednarz, Tomasz; Anthony, Ken; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mengersen, Kerrie; Peterson, Erin E</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socio-economic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> aesthetics based on people's perceptions of beauty. Three observer groups with different experience to <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments (Marine Scientist, Experienced Diver and Citizen) were virtually immersed in Australian's Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR) using 360° images. Perceptions of beauty and observations were used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the importance of eight potential attributes of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-aesthetic value. Among these, heterogeneity, defined by structural complexity and colour diversity, was positively associated with <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span>-aesthetic values. There were no group-level differences in the way the observer groups perceived <span class="hlt">reef</span> aesthetics suggesting that past experiences with <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> do not necessarily influence the perception of beauty by the observer. The framework developed here provides a generic tool to help identify indicators of aesthetic value applicable to a wide variety of natural systems. The ability to estimate aesthetic values robustly adds an important dimension to the holistic conservation of the GBR, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide and other natural ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876495"><span>Quaternary <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> refugia preserved fish diversity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pellissier, Loïc; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valeriano; Cowman, Peter F; Kulbicki, Michel; Litsios, Glenn; Olsen, Steffen M; Wisz, Mary S; Bellwood, David R; Mouillot, David</p> <p>2014-05-30</p> <p>The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish richness. Comparing global historical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species, we find that distance from stable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321693&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=321693&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=hi&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Developing a multi-stressor gradient for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition to be es...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28247459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28247459"><span>Shifting paradigms in restoration of the world's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D; Blackall, Linda L; Cantin, Neal; Chakravarti, Leela J; Chan, Wing Y; Cormick, Craig; Crean, Angela; Damjanovic, Katarina; Epstein, Hannah; Harrison, Peter L; Jones, Thomas A; Miller, Margaret; Pears, Rachel J; Peplow, Lesa M; Raftos, David A; Schaffelke, Britta; Stewart, Kristen; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David; Weeks, Andrew R; Putnam, Hollie M</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Many ecosystems around the world are rapidly deteriorating due to both local and global pressures, and perhaps none so precipitously as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> through maintenance (e.g., marine-protected areas, catchment management to improve water quality), restoration, as well as global and national governmental agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., the 2015 Paris Agreement) is critical for the persistence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Despite these initiatives, the health and abundance of <span class="hlt">corals</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are rapidly declining and other solutions will soon be required. We have recently discussed options for using assisted evolution (i.e., selective breeding, assisted gene flow, conditioning or epigenetic programming, and the manipulation of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> microbiome) as a means to enhance environmental stress tolerance of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and the success of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration efforts. The 2014-2016 global <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching event has sharpened the focus on such interventionist approaches. We highlight the necessity for consideration of alternative (e.g., hybrid) ecosystem states, discuss traits of resilient <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, and propose a decision tree for incorporating assisted evolution into restoration initiatives to enhance climate resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23140101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23140101"><span>The wicked problem of China's disappearing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hughes, Terry P; Huang, Hui; Young, Matthew A L</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We examined the development of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> science and the policies, institutions, and governance frameworks for management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in China in order to highlight the wicked problem of preserving <span class="hlt">reefs</span> while simultaneously promoting human development and nation building. China and other sovereign states in the region are experiencing unprecedented economic expansion, rapid population growth, mass migration, widespread coastal development, and loss of habitat. We analyzed a large, fragmented literature on the condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in China and the disputed territories of the South China Sea. We found that <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance has declined by at least 80% over the past 30 years on coastal fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> along the Chinese mainland and adjoining Hainan Island. On offshore atolls and archipelagos claimed by 6 countries in the South China Sea, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has declined from an average of >60% to around 20% within the past 10-15 years. Climate change has affected these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> far less than coastal development, pollution, overfishing, and destructive fishing practices. Ironically, these widespread declines in the condition of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are unfolding as China's research and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-management capacity are rapidly expanding. Before the loss of <span class="hlt">corals</span> becomes irreversible, governance of China's coastal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> could be improved by increasing public awareness of declining ecosystem services, by providing financial support for training of <span class="hlt">reef</span> scientists and managers, by improving monitoring of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> dynamics and condition to better inform policy development, and by enforcing existing regulations that could protect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In the South China Sea, changes in policy and legal frameworks, refinement of governance structures, and cooperation among neighboring countries are urgently needed to develop cooperative management of contested offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/201208-development-ecotoxicology-procedures-use-assessing-health-coral-reefs','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/201208-development-ecotoxicology-procedures-use-assessing-health-coral-reefs"><span>Development of ecotoxicology procedures for use in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> health of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davies, P.S.; Marubini, F.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>There is widespread concern over the apparent worldwide decline in the health of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. However, <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods, other than long-term monitoring, have not yet been attempted. To remedy this the authors are developing ecotoxicology procedures to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the effects of water quality factors on the <span class="hlt">corals</span> themselves. Because of the problems of working with large, attached organisms, the authors have concentrated on developing small clonal preparations from <span class="hlt">corals</span> with both a branching and a massive growth-form. For branching <span class="hlt">corals</span>, tips (`nubbins`) are removed, and the cut surface ground smooth before cementing to 30mm x 30mm acrylic squares. Cores, ormore » `explants`, 25mm in diameter are removed from massive <span class="hlt">corals</span> and cemented into injection-moulded plastic cups, to protect the cut surfaces of the skeleton. Trays of up to 18 nubbins and explants may then be transferred to the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, where they are affixed to previously installed concrete breeze blocks. They may then be retrieved as required to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the effects of water quality upon them. For laboratory ecotoxicology experiments, the authors have devised a system of artificial lighting, using halide lamps, to grow <span class="hlt">coral</span> nubbins and explants under controlled conditions. To test the effects of pollutants, the authors use measurements of respiration, photosynthesis and skeletal growth rate. Growth is measured by a very simple buoyant weighing procedure, which requires only an analytical laboratory balance, and an easily-constructed plastic box-shaped chamber. The method is sufficiently sensitive to measure growth over a 24 hour period in some fast-growing <span class="hlt">corals</span>. The authors will describe the results of initial experiments, carried out at the Bellairs Research Institute, Barbados, on the effects of different levels of phosphate and nitrate in the seawater. For the first time, they are able to demonstrate the concentration-related decrease in growth rate associated with nitrate eutrophication.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26740019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26740019"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water <span class="hlt">corals</span> engineer the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework and fertilize <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities by releasing <span class="hlt">coral</span> mucus, a source of <span class="hlt">reef</span> dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span> via the so-called sponge loop. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of <span class="hlt">coral</span> mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span> sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-08/pdf/2013-26947.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-08/pdf/2013-26947.pdf"><span>78 FR 67128 - <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program; Meeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-08</p> <p>... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program; Meeting AGENCY: <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management... meeting of the U.S. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Task Force (USCRTF). The meeting will be held in Christiansted, U.S. Virgin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309811&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=dependency&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309811&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=dependency&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition indicators to local and global stressors with Bayesian networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are highly valued ecosystems that are currently imperiled. Although the value of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to human societies is only just being investigated and better understood, for many local and global economies <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are important providers of ecosystem services that su...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21320260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21320260"><span>Extinction vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron Macneil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Ohman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These <span class="hlt">assessments</span> are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. Although relatively few <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many <span class="hlt">reefs</span> where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627313','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627313"><span>Extinction vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A J; Chabanet, Pascale; Evans, Richard D; Jennings, Simon; Letourneur, Yves; Aaron MacNeil, M; McClanahan, Tim R; Öhman, Marcus C; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Wilson, Shaun K</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>With rapidly increasing rates of contemporary extinction, predicting extinction vulnerability and identifying how multiple stressors drive non-random species loss have become key challenges in ecology. These <span class="hlt">assessments</span> are crucial for avoiding the loss of key functional groups that sustain ecosystem processes and services. We developed a novel predictive framework of species extinction vulnerability and applied it to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. Although relatively few <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes are at risk of global extinction from climate disturbances, a negative convex relationship between fish species locally vulnerable to climate change vs. fisheries exploitation indicates that the entire community is vulnerable on the many <span class="hlt">reefs</span> where both stressors co-occur. Fishes involved in maintaining key ecosystem functions are more at risk from fishing than climate disturbances. This finding is encouraging as local and regional commitment to fisheries management action can maintain <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem functions pending progress towards the more complex global problem of stabilizing the climate. PMID:21320260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...350..769S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Sci...350..769S"><span>Warm-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spalding, Mark D.; Brown, Barbara E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are highly dynamic ecosystems that are regularly exposed to natural perturbations. Human activities have increased the range, intensity, and frequency of disturbance to <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Threats such as overfishing and pollution are being compounded by climate change, notably warming and ocean acidification. Elevated temperatures are driving increasingly frequent bleaching events that can lead to the loss of both <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and <span class="hlt">reef</span> structural complexity. There remains considerable variability in the distribution of threats and in the ability of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to survive or recover from such disturbances. Without significant emissions reductions, however, the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is increasingly bleak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..872P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..872P"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem decline: changing dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production and implications for <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perry, Chris</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global-scale deteriorations in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health have caused major shifts in species composition and are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. It has been suggested that one effect of these ecological changes will be to lower <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production rates, which will impair <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth potential and, ultimately, may lead to states of net <span class="hlt">reef</span> erosion. However, quantitative data to support such assertions are limited, and linkages between the ecological state of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and their past and present geomorphic performance (in other words their growth potential) are poorly resolved. Using recently collected data from sites in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, and which have undergone very different post-disturbance ecological trajectories over the last ~20-30 years, the differential impacts of disturbance on contemporary carbonate production regimes and on <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth potential can be explored. In the Caribbean, a region which has been severely impacted ecological over the last 30+ years, our datasets show that average carbonate production rates on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are now less than 50% of pre-disturbance rates, and that calculated accretion rates (mm yr-1) are an about order of magnitude lower within shallow water habitats compared to Holocene averages. Collectively, these data suggest that recent ecological declines are now propagating through the system to impact on the geomorphic performance of Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and will impair their future growth potential. In contrast, the carbonate budgets of most <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across the Chagos archipelago (central Indian Ocean), which is geographically remote and largely isolated from direct human disturbances, have recovered rapidly from major past disturbances (specifically the 1998 <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching event). The carbonate budgets on these remote <span class="hlt">reefs</span> now average +3.7 G (G = kg CaCO3 m-2 yr-1). Most significantly the production rates on Acropora-dominated <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which were most severely impacted by the 1998 bleaching event, average +8.4 G</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PNAS...98.5419K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PNAS...98.5419K"><span>The future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knowlton, Nancy</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, with their millions of species, have changed profoundly because of the effects of people, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> are subject to many of the same processes that affect other human-dominated ecosystems, but some special features merit emphasis: (i) Many dominant <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders spawn eggs and sperm into the water column, where fertilization occurs. They are thus particularly vulnerable to Allee effects, including potential extinction associated with chronic reproductive failure. (ii) The <span class="hlt">corals</span> likely to be most resistant to the effects of habitat degradation are small, short-lived "weedy" <span class="hlt">corals</span> that have limited dispersal capabilities at the larval stage. Habitat degradation, together with habitat fragmentation, will therefore lead to the establishment of genetically isolated clusters of inbreeding <span class="hlt">corals</span>. (iii) Increases in average sea temperatures by as little as 1°C, a likely result of global climate change, can cause <span class="hlt">coral</span> "bleaching" (the breakdown of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algal symbiosis), changes in symbiont communities, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> death. (iv) The activities of people near <span class="hlt">reefs</span> increase both fishing pressure and nutrient inputs. In general, these processes favor more rapidly growing competitors, often fleshy seaweeds, and may also result in explosions of predator populations. (v) Combinations of stress appear to be associated with threshold responses and ecological surprises, including devastating pathogen outbreaks. (vi) The fossil record suggests that <span class="hlt">corals</span> as a group are more likely to suffer extinctions than some of the groups that associate with them, whose habitat requirements may be less stringent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26975420"><span>The Ecological Role of Sharks on <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roff, George; Doropoulos, Christopher; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Krueck, Nils C; Aurellado, Eleanor; Priest, Mark; Birrell, Chico; Mumby, Peter J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Sharks are considered the apex predator of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, but the consequences of their global depletion are uncertain. Here we explore the ecological roles of sharks on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and, conversely, the importance of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for sharks. We find that most <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated shark species do not act as apex predators but instead function as mesopredators along with a diverse group of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish. While sharks perform important direct and indirect ecological roles, the evidence to support hypothesised shark-driven trophic cascades that benefit <span class="hlt">corals</span> is weak and equivocal. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> provide some functional benefits to sharks, but sharks do not appear to favour healthier <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments. Restoring populations of sharks is important and can yet deliver ecological surprise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805081"><span>Functionally diverse <span class="hlt">reef</span>-fish communities ameliorate <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raymundo, Laurie J; Halford, Andrew R; Maypa, Aileen P; Kerr, Alexander M</p> <p>2009-10-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, the most diverse of marine ecosystems, currently experience unprecedented levels of degradation. Diseases are now recognized as a major cause of mortality in <span class="hlt">reef</span>-forming <span class="hlt">corals</span> and are complicit in phase shifts of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems to algal-dominated states worldwide. Even so, factors contributing to disease occurrence, spread, and impact remain poorly understood. Ecosystem resilience has been linked to the conservation of functional diversity, whereas overfishing reduces functional diversity through cascading, top-down effects. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with trophically diverse <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities have less <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease than overfished <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We surveyed <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across the central Philippines, including well-managed marine protected areas (MPAs), and found that disease prevalence was significantly negatively correlated with fish taxonomic diversity. Further, MPAs had significantly higher fish diversity and less disease than unprotected areas. We subsequently investigated potential links between <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease and the trophic components of fish diversity, finding that only the density of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-feeding chaetodontid butterflyfishes, seldom targeted by fishers, was positively associated with disease prevalence. These previously uncharacterized results are supported by a second large-scale dataset from the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. We hypothesize that members of the charismatic <span class="hlt">reef</span>-fish family Chaetodontidae are major vectors of <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease by virtue of their trophic specialization on hard <span class="hlt">corals</span> and their ecological release in overfished areas, particularly outside MPAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/263045-coral-reefs-carbon-dioxide','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/263045-coral-reefs-carbon-dioxide"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buddemeier, R.W.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, that <span class="hlt">coral</span> `<span class="hlt">reefs</span> might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CorRe..33..421B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CorRe..33..421B"><span>Micro-topography mediates interactions between <span class="hlt">corals</span>, algae, and herbivorous fishes on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandl, S. J.; Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Processes occurring during the early life stages of <span class="hlt">corals</span> are important for the replenishment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages and the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. However, the factors influencing early life stages of <span class="hlt">corals</span> are not well understood, and the role of micro-topographic complexity for habitat associations of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> is largely unexplored. This study investigated the microhabitat distribution patterns of early life stages of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and a potential macroalgal competitor ( Turbinaria ornata) across two <span class="hlt">reef</span> zones (<span class="hlt">reef</span> crest and outer <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat) on Lizard Island, Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. In both <span class="hlt">reef</span> zones, both <span class="hlt">corals</span> and T. ornata were significantly more abundant in concealed microhabitats than in semi-concealed or open microhabitats (GLMM: P < 0.001). The prevalence of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> and T. ornata within concealed environments suggests that they might be effective refuges from grazing by herbivorous fishes. The density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> was positively related, and density of T. ornata negatively related to the abundance of two groups of herbivorous fishes, pairing rabbitfishes, and surgeonfishes in the genus Zebrasoma (BEST ENV-BIO: r s = 0.72, P < 0.01), which feed in concealed microhabitats. This correlative evidence suggests that crevices may be important for early life stages of both <span class="hlt">coral</span> and macroalgae, and that a specific suite of crevice-feeding fishes may influence benthic community dynamics in these microhabitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241935"><span>Novel tradable instruments in the conservation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, based on the <span class="hlt">coral</span> gardening concept for <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rinkevich, Baruch</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Nearly all <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> bordering nations have experienced net losses in <span class="hlt">reef</span> biodiversity, goods and services, even without considering the ever-developing global change impacts. In response, this overview wishes to reveal through prospects of active <span class="hlt">reef</span>-restoration, the currently non-marketed or poorly marketed <span class="hlt">reef</span> services, focusing on a single <span class="hlt">coral</span> species (Stylophora pistillata). It is implied that the integration of equity capitals and other commodification with <span class="hlt">reef</span>-restoration practices will improve total <span class="hlt">reef</span> services. Two tiers of market-related activities are defined, the traditional first-tier instruments (valuating costs/gains for extracting tradable goods and services) and novel second-tier instruments (new/expanded monetary tools developed as by-products of <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration measures). The emerging new suite of economic mechanisms based on restoration methodologies could be served as an incentive for ecosystem conservation, enhancing the sum values of all services generated by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, where the same stocks of farmed/transplanted <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies will be used as market instruments. I found that active restoration measures disclose 12 classes of second-tier goods and services, which may partly/wholly finance restoration acts, bringing to light <span class="hlt">reef</span> capitalizations that allow the expansion of markets with products that have not been considered before. The degree to which the second tier of market-related services could buffer <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> degradation is still unclear and would vary with different <span class="hlt">reef</span> types and in various <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration scenarios; however, reducing the uncertainty associated with restoration. It is expected that the expansion of markets with the new products and the enhancement of those already existing will be materialized even if <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems will recover into different statuses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703987','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703987"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M.; Mueller, Christina E.; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Al-Horani, Fuad A.; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S.; van Oevelen, Dick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water <span class="hlt">corals</span> engineer the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework and fertilize <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities by releasing <span class="hlt">coral</span> mucus, a source of <span class="hlt">reef</span> dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span> via the so-called sponge loop. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of <span class="hlt">coral</span> mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span> sponges. Furthermore, 21–40% of the mucus carbon and 32–39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments. PMID:26740019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSAH14A0010R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSAH14A0010R"><span>Spatial and Seasonal Calcification in <span class="hlt">Corals</span> and Calcareous Crusts in a Naturally Warm <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roik, A.; Roder, C.; Roethig, T.; Voolstra, C. R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Red Sea harbors highly diverse and structurally complex <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and is of interest for ocean warming studies. In the central and southern part, water temperatures rise above 30°C during summer, constituting one of the warmest <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments worldwide. Additionally, seasonal variability of temperatures allows studying changes of environmental conditions and their effects on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> processes. To explore the influence of these warm and seasonally variable habitats on <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification, we measured in situ calcification of primary and secondary <span class="hlt">reef</span>-builders in the central Red Sea. We collected calcification rates on the major habitat-forming <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera Porites, Acropora, and Pocillopora, and also on calcareous crusts (CC). The study comprised forereef and backreef environments of three <span class="hlt">reefs</span> along a cross-shelf gradient <span class="hlt">assessed</span> over four seasons of the year. Calcification patterns of all <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera were consistent across the shelf and highest in spring. In contrast to the <span class="hlt">corals</span>, CC calcification strongly increased with distance from shore, but varied to a lesser extend over the seasons demonstrating lower calcification rates during spring and summer. Interestingly, <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification rates in the central Red Sea were on average in the range of data reported from the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific. For Acropora, annual average calcification rates were even at the lower end in comparison to studies from other locations. While <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification maxima typically have been observed during summer in many <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations worldwide, we observed calcification maxima during spring in the central Red Sea indicating that summer temperatures may exceed the optima of <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcifiers. Our study provides a baseline of calcification data for the region and serves as a foundation for comparative efforts to quantify the impact of future environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17054489"><span>Conservation genetics and the resilience of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have suffered long-term decline due to a range of anthropogenic disturbances and are now also under threat from climate change. For appropriate management of these vulnerable and valuable ecosystems it is important to understand the factors and processes that determine their resilience and that of the organisms inhabiting them, as well as those that have led to existing patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biodiversity. The scleractinian (stony) <span class="hlt">corals</span> deposit the structural framework that supports and promotes the maintenance of biological diversity and complexity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and as such, are major components of these ecosystems. The success of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> is related to their obligate symbiotic association with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. These one-celled algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) live in the endodermal tissues of their <span class="hlt">coral</span> host, provide most of the host's energy budget and promote rapid calcification. Furthermore, zooxanthellae are the main primary producers on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> due to the oligotrophic nature of the surrounding waters. In this review paper, we summarize and critically evaluate studies that have employed genetics and/or molecular biology in examining questions relating to the evolution and ecology of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> and their algal endosymbionts, and that bear relevance to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation. We discuss how these studies can focus future efforts, and examine how these approaches enhance our understanding of the resilience of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12295815"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the World Bank.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatziolos, M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The World Bank¿s involvement in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation is part of a larger effort to promote the sound management of coastal and marine resources. This involves three major thrusts: partnerships, investments, networks and knowledge. As an initial partner and early supporter of the International <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Initiative (ICRI), the Bank serves as the executive planning committee of ICRI. In partnership with the World Conservation Union and the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park Authority, the Bank promotes the efforts towards the establishment and maintenance of a globally representative system of marine protected areas. In addition, the Bank invested over $120 million in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> rehabilitation and protection programs in several countries. Furthermore, the Bank developed a ¿Knowledge Bank¿ that would market ideas and knowledge to its clients along with investment projects. This aimed to put the best global knowledge on environmentally sustainable development in the hands of its staff and clients. During the celebration of 1997, as the International Year of the <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, the Bank planned to cosponsor an associated event that would highlight the significance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and encourage immediate action to halt their degradation to conserve this unique ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26564846"><span>Warm-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spalding, Mark D; Brown, Barbara E</p> <p>2015-11-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are highly dynamic ecosystems that are regularly exposed to natural perturbations. Human activities have increased the range, intensity, and frequency of disturbance to <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Threats such as overfishing and pollution are being compounded by climate change, notably warming and ocean acidification. Elevated temperatures are driving increasingly frequent bleaching events that can lead to the loss of both <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and <span class="hlt">reef</span> structural complexity. There remains considerable variability in the distribution of threats and in the ability of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to survive or recover from such disturbances. Without significant emissions reductions, however, the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is increasingly bleak. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=307798','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=307798"><span>Workshop on Biological Integrity of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> August 21-22 ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes an EPA-sponsored workshop on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biological integrity held at the Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute in La Parguera, Puerto Rico on August 21-22, 2012. The goals of this workshop were to:• Identify key qualitative and quantitative ecological characteristics (<span class="hlt">reef</span> attributes) that determine the condition of linear <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> inhabiting shallow waters (<12 m) in southwestern Puerto Rico.• Use those <span class="hlt">reef</span> attributes to recommend categorical condition rankings for establishing a biological condition gradient.• Ascertain through expert consensus those <span class="hlt">reef</span> attributes that characterize biological integrity (a natural, fully-functioning system of organisms and communities) for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. • Develop a conceptual, narrative model that describes how biological attributes of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> change along a gradient of increasing anthropogenic stress.The workshop brought together scientists with expertise in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> taxonomic groups (e.g., stony <span class="hlt">corals</span>, fishes, sponges, gorgonians, algae, seagrasses and macroinvertebrates), as well as community structure, organism condition, ecosystem function and ecosystem connectivity. The experts evaluated photos and videos from 12 stations collected during EPA <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> surveys (2010 & 2011) from Puerto Rico on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> exhibiting a wide range of conditions. The experts individually rated each station as to observed condition (“good”, “fair” or “poor”) and documented their rationale for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22870294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22870294"><span>The influence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chong-Seng, Karen M; Mannering, Thomas D; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bellwood, David R; Graham, Nicholas A J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accumulative disturbances can erode a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>'s resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> by macroalgae or other non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> organisms. These degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. High variability in benthic composition was found among <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, with a gradient from high <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> grouping at the extremes of complex <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem processes and services if more <span class="hlt">reefs</span> shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25213651"><span>Microbiota of the major South Atlantic <span class="hlt">reef</span> building <span class="hlt">coral</span> Mussismilia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernando, Samodha C; Wang, Jia; Sparling, Kimberly; Garcia, Gizele D; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Janelle R</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The Brazilian endemic scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span>, genus Mussismilia, are among the main <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders of the South Atlantic and are threatened by accelerating rates of disease. To better understand how holobiont microbial populations interact with <span class="hlt">corals</span> during health and disease and to evaluate whether selective pressures in the holobiont or neutral assembly shape microbial composition, we have examined the microbiota structure of Mussismilia <span class="hlt">corals</span> according to <span class="hlt">coral</span> lineage, environment, and disease/health status. Microbiota of three Mussismilia species (Mussismilia harttii, Mussismilia hispida, and Mussismilia braziliensis) was compared using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and clone library analysis of <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments. Analysis of biological triplicates per Mussismilia species and <span class="hlt">reef</span> site allowed <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of variability among Mussismilia species and between sites for M. braziliensis. From 173,487 V6 sequences, 6,733 <span class="hlt">coral</span>- and 1,052 water-associated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed. M. braziliensis microbiota was more similar across <span class="hlt">reefs</span> than to other Mussismilia species microbiota from the same <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Highly prevalent OTUs were more significantly structured by <span class="hlt">coral</span> lineage and were enriched in Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial OTUs from healthy <span class="hlt">corals</span> were recovered from a M. braziliensis skeleton sample at twice the frequency of recovery from water or a diseased <span class="hlt">coral</span> suggesting the skeleton is a significant habitat for microbial populations in the holobiont. Diseased <span class="hlt">corals</span> were enriched with pathogens and opportunists (Vibrios, Bacteroidetes, Thalassomonas, and SRB). Our study examines for the first time intra- and inter-specific variability of microbiota across the genus Mussismilia. Changes in microbiota may be useful indicators of <span class="hlt">coral</span> health and thus be a valuable tool for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management and conservation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=3&id=ED265063','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=3&id=ED265063"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: A Gallery Program, Grades 7-12.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD. Dept. of Education.</p> <p></p> <p>Gallery classes at the National Aquarium in Baltimore give the opportunity to study specific aquarium exhibits which demonstrate entire natural habitats. The <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> gallery class features the gigantic western Atlantic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> (325,000 gallons) with over 1,000 fish. The exhibit simulates a typical Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> and nearby sandy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51H..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51H..08G"><span>Devising a <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ocean Acidification Monitoring Portfolio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gledhill, D. K.; Jewett, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring has frequently been based only on descriptive science with limited capacity to assign specific attribution to agents of change. There is a requirement to engineer a diagnostic monitoring approach that can test predictions regarding the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems to ocean acidification, and to identify potential areas of refugia or areas of particular concern. The approach should provide the means to detect not only changes in water chemistry but also changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community structure and function which can be anticipated based upon our current understanding of paleo-OA events, experimental findings, process investigations, and modeling projections In August, 2012 a <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ocean Acidification Monitoring Portfolio Workshop was hosted by the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program and the National <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute at the Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic Center. The workshop convened researchers and project managers from around the world engaged in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems ocean acidification monitoring and research. The workshop sought to define a suite of metrics to include as part of long-term <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring efforts that can contribute to discerning specific attribution of changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in response to ocean acidification. This portfolio of observations should leverage existing and proposed monitoring initiatives and would be derived from a suite of chemical, biogeochemical and ecological measurements. This talk will report out on the key findings from the workshop which should include identifying the most valuable that should be integrated into long-term <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem monitoring that will aid in discerning changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in response to ocean acidification. The outcomes should provide: recommendations of the most efficient and robust ways to monitor these metrics; identified augmentations that would be required to current ocean acidification monitoring necessary to achieve</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..637Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..637Z"><span>The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes in the US Pacific Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Widespread declines among many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the extinction risks facing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and <span class="hlt">reef</span> sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN <span class="hlt">assessment</span> efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859909"><span>Community structure and <span class="hlt">coral</span> status across <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing intensity gradients in Palk Bay <span class="hlt">reef</span>, southeast coast of India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manikandan, B; Ravindran, J; Shrinivaasu, S; Marimuthu, N; Paramasivam, K</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes are exploited without the knowledge of their sustainability and their possible effect in altering the community structure of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem. Alteration of the community structure could cause a decline in the health of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and its services. We documented the <span class="hlt">coral</span> community structure, status of live <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages in Palk Bay at the <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing hotspots and its nearby <span class="hlt">reef</span> area with minimum fishing pressure and compared it with a control <span class="hlt">reef</span> area where <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing was banned for more than two decades. The comparison was based on the percent cover of different forms of live <span class="hlt">corals</span>, their diversity and the density and diversity of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. The <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish stock in the <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing hotspots and its neighbouring <span class="hlt">reef</span> was lower by 61 and 38%, respectively compared to the control <span class="hlt">reef</span>. The herbivore fish Scarus ghobban and Siganus javus were exploited at a rate of 250 and 105 kg month(-1) fishermen(-1), respectively, relatively high comparing the small <span class="hlt">reef</span> area. Live and dead <span class="hlt">corals</span> colonized by turf algae were predominant in both the <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing hotspots and its nearby <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems. The percent cover of healthy live <span class="hlt">corals</span> and live <span class="hlt">corals</span> colonized by turf algae was <10 and >80%, respectively, in the intensively fished <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems. The <span class="hlt">corals</span> were less diverse and the massive Porites and Favia colonies were abundant in the intensive <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishing sites. Results of this study suggest that the impact of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish exploitation was not solely restricted to the intensively fished <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, but also to the nearby <span class="hlt">reefs</span> which play a critical role in the resilience of degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS13C1710W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS13C1710W"><span>Balance of constructive and destructive carbonate processes on mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weinstein, D. K.; Klaus, J. S.; Smith, T. B.; Helmle, K. P.; Marshall, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Net carbonate accumulation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is the product of both constructive and destructive processes that can ultimately influence overall <span class="hlt">reef</span> geomorphology. Differences in these processes with depth may in part explain why the <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth-light intensity association does no result in the traditionally theorized <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion decrease with depth. Until recently, physical sampling limitations had prevented the acquisition of sedimentary data needed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> in situ carbonate accumulation in mesophotic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (30-150 m). <span class="hlt">Coral</span> framework production, secondary carbonate production (calcareous encrusters), and bioerosion, the three most critical components of net carbonate accumulation, were analyzed in mesophotic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> more than 10 km south of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands along a very gradual slope that limits sediment transport and sedimentation. Recently dead samples of the massive <span class="hlt">coral</span>, Orbicella annularis collected from three structurally different upper mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats (30-45 m) were cut parallel to the primary growth axis to identify density banding through standard x-radiographic techniques. Assuming annual banding, mesophotic linear extension rates were calculated on the order of 0.7-1.5 mm/yr. Weight change of experimental <span class="hlt">coral</span> substrates exposed for 3 years indicate differing rates (1.1-17.2 g/yr) of bioerosion and secondary accretion between mesophotic sites. When correcting bioerosion rates for high mesophotic skeletal density, carbonate accumulation rates were found to vary significantly between neighboring mesophotic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with distinctive structures. Results imply variable rates of mesophotic <span class="hlt">reef</span> net carbonate accretion with the potential to influence overall <span class="hlt">reef</span>/platform morphology, including localized mesophotic <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21955796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21955796"><span>New directions in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> microbial ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Microbial processes largely control the health and resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, and new technologies have led to an exciting wave of discovery regarding the mechanisms by which microbial communities support the functioning of these incredibly diverse and valuable systems. There are three questions at the forefront of discovery: What mechanisms underlie <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and resilience? How do environmental and anthropogenic pressures affect ecosystem function? What is the ecology of microbial diseases of <span class="hlt">corals</span>? The goal is to understand the functioning of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as integrated systems from microbes and molecules to regional and ocean-basin scale ecosystems to enable accurate predictions of resilience and responses to perturbations such as climate change and eutrophication. This review outlines recent discoveries regarding the microbial ecology of different microenvironments within <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems, and highlights research directions that take advantage of new technologies to build a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how <span class="hlt">coral</span> health is connected through microbial processes to its surrounding environment. The time is ripe for natural resource managers and microbial ecologists to work together to create an integrated understanding of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> functioning. In the context of long-term survival and conservation of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, the need for this work is immediate. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873039','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873039"><span>Status and conservation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Costa Rica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Costa Rica has <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities and <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and isolated <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific <span class="hlt">reefs</span>) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in the 1980's, but <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to <span class="hlt">reef</span> users and the general public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310828','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310828"><span>Deep <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are not universal refuges: Reseeding potential varies among <span class="hlt">coral</span> species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bongaerts, Pim; Riginos, Cynthia; Brunner, Ramona; Englebert, Norbert; Smith, Struan R.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Deep <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (that is, mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems) can act as refuges against major disturbances affecting shallow <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. It has been proposed that, through the provision of <span class="hlt">coral</span> propagules, such deep refuges may aid in shallow <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery; however, this “reseeding” hypothesis remains largely untested. We conducted a genome-wide <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of two scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> species with contrasting reproductive modes, to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential for connectivity between mesophotic (40 m) and shallow (12 m) depths on an isolated <span class="hlt">reef</span> system in the Western Atlantic (Bermuda). To overcome the pervasive issue of endosymbiont contamination associated with de novo sequencing of <span class="hlt">corals</span>, we used a novel subtraction reference approach. We have demonstrated that strong depth-associated selection has led to genome-wide divergence in the brooding species Agaricia fragilis (with divergence by depth exceeding divergence by location). Despite introgression from shallow into deep populations, a lack of first-generation migrants indicates that effective connectivity over ecological time scales is extremely limited for this species and thus precludes reseeding of shallow <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from deep refuges. In contrast, no genetic structuring between depths (or locations) was observed for the broadcasting species Stephanocoenia intersepta, indicating substantial potential for vertical connectivity. Our findings demonstrate that vertical connectivity within the same <span class="hlt">reef</span> system can differ greatly between species and that the reseeding potential of deep <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Bermuda may apply to only a small number of scleractinian species. Overall, we argue that the “deep <span class="hlt">reef</span> refuge hypothesis” holds for individual <span class="hlt">coral</span> species during episodic disturbances but should not be assumed as a broader ecosystem-wide phenomenon. PMID:28246645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448049.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448049.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: An English Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida</p> <p></p> <p>This activity book on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for middle school students is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 contains the introduction. Section 2 describes what <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are while section 3 describes how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> reproduce and grow. Section 4 discusses where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are found and section 5 describes life on a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Section 6 discusses the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411644','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411644"><span>The Influence of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Benthic Condition on Associated Fish Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chong-Seng, Karen M.; Mannering, Thomas D.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Bellwood, David R.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accumulative disturbances can erode a <span class="hlt">coral</span> reef’s resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> by macroalgae or other non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> organisms. These degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were <span class="hlt">assessed</span>. High variability in benthic composition was found among <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, with a gradient from high <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> grouping at the extremes of complex <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem processes and services if more <span class="hlt">reefs</span> shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae. PMID:22870294</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3726730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3726730"><span>Dynamic Stability of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> on the West Australian Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Monitoring changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover ranged between 3 and 44% in <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> communities in the northern regions were dominated by <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition and a better basis for conservation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:23922829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29536196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29536196"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> land use, sedimentation, and water quality stressors as predictors of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Fore, L; Smith, A; Bradley, P</p> <p>2018-03-13</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone. Total three-dimensional <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity had significant negative coefficients for LDI index, as did densities of dominant species Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, and Porites porites. However, overall stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony density was not significantly correlated with stressors. Positive relationships between <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity and ST, between <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity and ST, and between <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity and WQ were unexpected because these stressors are generally thought to negatively influence <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and health. Sponge density was greater with higher disturbance indicators (ST and WQ), consistent with reports of greater resistance by sponges to degraded water quality compared to stony <span class="hlt">corals</span>. The highest FoRAM (Foraminifera in <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> and Monitoring) indices indicating good water quality were found offshore from the main island and outside the harbor. Negative associations between stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> metrics and LDI index have been reported elsewhere in the Caribbean and highlight LDI index potential as a spatial tool to characterize land-based anthropogenic stressor gradients relevant to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Fewer relationships were found with an integrated stressor index but with similar trends in response direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28123092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28123092"><span>Drivers and predictions of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate budget trajectories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T</p> <p>2017-01-25</p> <p>Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of <span class="hlt">coral</span> mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> lost more than 90% of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. All 21 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were comparable with 1994, but on all <span class="hlt">reefs</span> where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> with higher massive <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that support resilient carbonate budgets. © 2017 The Authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310043"><span>Drivers and predictions of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate budget trajectories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Jennings, Simon; Perry, Chris T.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Climate change is one of the greatest threats to the long-term maintenance of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated tropical ecosystems, and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> bleaching and associated mortality events, which are predicted to become more frequent and intense, can alter the balance of different elements that are responsible for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth and maintenance. The geomorphic impacts of <span class="hlt">coral</span> mass mortality have received relatively little attention, particularly questions concerning temporal recovery of <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production and the factors that promote resilience of <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth potential. Here, we track the biological carbonate budgets of inner Seychelles <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from 1994 to 2014, spanning the 1998 global bleaching event when these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> lost more than 90% of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. All 21 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> had positive budgets in 1994, but in 2005 budgets were predominantly negative. By 2014, carbonate budgets on seven <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were comparable with 1994, but on all <span class="hlt">reefs</span> where an ecological regime shift to macroalgal dominance occurred, budgets remained negative through 2014. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> with higher massive <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, lower macroalgae cover and lower excavating parrotfish biomass in 1994 were more likely to have positive budgets post-bleaching. If mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the 2016 bleaching event is as severe as that of 1998, our predictions based on past trends would suggest that six of eight <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with positive budgets in 2014 would still have positive budgets by 2030. Our results highlight that <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion and framework maintenance cannot be assumed from the ecological state alone, and that managers should focus on conserving aspects of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that support resilient carbonate budgets. PMID:28123092</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..409A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..409A"><span>Temporal and taxonomic contrasts in <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth at Davies <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Kristen D.; Cantin, Neal E.; Heron, Scott F.; Lough, Janice M.; Pratchett, Morgan S.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Demographic processes, such as growth, can have an important influence on the population and community structure of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Importantly, ongoing changes in environmental conditions (e.g. ocean warming) are expected to affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, contributing to changes in the structure of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations and communities. This study quantified contemporary growth rates (linear extension and calcification) for the staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span>, Acropora muricata, at Davies <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. Growth rates were measured at three different depths (5, 10, and 15 m) over 2 yr (2012-2014) <span class="hlt">assessing</span> both seasonal and inter-annual variability. Results of this study were compared to equivalent measurements made in 1980-1982 at the same location. To assist in understanding inter-annual variability in <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, we also examined annual growth bands from massive Porites providing continuous growth and records of flooding history for Davies <span class="hlt">Reef</span> over the period 1979-2012. Linear extension rates of A. muricata were substantially (11-62%) lower in 2012-2014 compared to 1980-1982, especially at 10 and 15 m depths. These declines in growth coincide with a + 0.14 °C change in annual mean temperature. For massive Porites, however, calcification rates were highly variable among years and there was no discernible long-term change in growth despite sustained increases in temperature of 0.064 °C per decade. Apparent differences in the growth rates of Acropora between 1980-1982 and 2012-2014 may reflect inter-annual variation in <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth (as seen for massive Porites), though it is known branching Acropora is much more sensitive to changing environmental conditions than massive <span class="hlt">corals</span>. There are persistent issues in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the sensitivities of branching <span class="hlt">corals</span> to environmental change due to limited capacity for retrospective analyses of growth, but given their disproportionate contribution to habitat complexity and <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, it is critical to ascertain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23840327"><span>A Global Estimate of the Number of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Fishers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teh, Louise S L; Teh, Lydia C L; Sumaila, U Rashid</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Overfishing threatens <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers as a function of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers in 99 <span class="hlt">reef</span> countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are <span class="hlt">reef</span> gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the world's small-scale fishers fish on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and half of all <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers are in Southeast Asia. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fisheries at the appropriate scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686796','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686796"><span>A Global Estimate of the Number of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Fishers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teh, Louise S. L.; Teh, Lydia C. L.; Sumaila, U. Rashid</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Overfishing threatens <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide, yet there is no reliable estimate on the number of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers globally. We address this data gap by quantifying the number of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers on a global scale, using two approaches - the first estimates <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers as a proportion of the total number of marine fishers in a country, based on the ratio of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-related to total marine fish landed values. The second estimates <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers as a function of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> area, rural coastal population, and fishing pressure. In total, we find that there are 6 million <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers in 99 <span class="hlt">reef</span> countries and territories worldwide, of which at least 25% are <span class="hlt">reef</span> gleaners. Our estimates are an improvement over most existing fisher population statistics, which tend to omit accounting for gleaners and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers. Our results suggest that slightly over a quarter of the world’s small-scale fishers fish on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and half of all <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers are in Southeast Asia. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> evidently support the socio-economic well-being of numerous coastal communities. By quantifying the number of people who are employed as <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishers, we provide decision-makers with an important input into planning for sustainable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fisheries at the appropriate scale. PMID:23840327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E3SWC..3108013R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018E3SWC..3108013R"><span>Community Structure Of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> In Saebus Island, Sumenep District, East Java</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizmaadi, Mada; Riter, Johannes; Fatimah, Siti; Rifaldi, Riyan; Yoga, Arditho; Ramadhan, Fikri; Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Increasing degradation <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> ecosystem has created many concerns. Reduction of this damage can only be done with good and proper management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem based on existing condition. The condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem can be determined by <span class="hlt">assessing</span> its community structure. This study investigates community structure of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems around Saebus Island, Sumenep District, East Java, by using satellite imagery analysis and field observations. Satellite imagery analysis by Lyzenga methods was used to determine the observation stations and substrate distribution. Field observations were done by using Line Intercept Transect method at 4 stations, at the depth of 3 and 10 meters. The results showed that the percentage of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> coverage at the depth of 3 and 10 meters were 64.36% and 59.29%, respectively, and included in fine coverage category. This study found in total 25 genera from 13 families of <span class="hlt">corals</span> at all stations. The most common species found were Acropora, Porites, and Pocillopora, while the least common species were Favites and Montastrea. Average value of Diversity, Uniformity and Dominancy indices were 2.94, 0.8 and 0.18 which include as medium, high, and low category, respectively. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems around Saebus Island is in a good condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5075686"><span>Ecological solutions to <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation: optimizing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reef</span> restoration activities have proliferated in response to the need to mitigate <span class="hlt">coral</span> declines and recover lost <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, function, and ecosystem services. Here, we describe the recent shift from costly and complex engineering solutions to recover degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure to more economical and efficient ecological approaches that focus on recovering the living components of <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. We review the adoption and expansion of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> gardening framework in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic where practitioners now grow and outplant 10,000’s of <span class="hlt">corals</span> onto degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span> each year. We detail the steps for establishing a gardening program as well as long-term goals and direct and indirect benefits of this approach in our region. With a strong scientific basis, <span class="hlt">coral</span> gardening activities now contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">reef</span> and species recovery, provide important scientific, education, and outreach opportunities, and offer alternate livelihoods to local stakeholders. While challenges still remain, the transition from engineering to ecological solutions for <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation has opened the field of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration to a wider audience poised to contribute to <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation and recovery in regions where <span class="hlt">coral</span> losses and recruitment bottlenecks hinder natural recovery. PMID:27781176</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27781176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27781176"><span>Ecological solutions to <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation: optimizing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lirman, Diego; Schopmeyer, Stephanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reef</span> restoration activities have proliferated in response to the need to mitigate <span class="hlt">coral</span> declines and recover lost <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, function, and ecosystem services. Here, we describe the recent shift from costly and complex engineering solutions to recover degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure to more economical and efficient ecological approaches that focus on recovering the living components of <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. We review the adoption and expansion of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> gardening framework in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic where practitioners now grow and outplant 10,000's of <span class="hlt">corals</span> onto degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span> each year. We detail the steps for establishing a gardening program as well as long-term goals and direct and indirect benefits of this approach in our region. With a strong scientific basis, <span class="hlt">coral</span> gardening activities now contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">reef</span> and species recovery, provide important scientific, education, and outreach opportunities, and offer alternate livelihoods to local stakeholders. While challenges still remain, the transition from engineering to ecological solutions for <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation has opened the field of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration to a wider audience poised to contribute to <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation and recovery in regions where <span class="hlt">coral</span> losses and recruitment bottlenecks hinder natural recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20873042"><span>Mid-term <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algal dynamics and conservation status of a Gorgona Island (Tropical Eastern Pacific) <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zapata, Fernando A; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Caro-Zambrano, Carlos; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Colombian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, as other <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide, have deteriorated significantly during the last few decades due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The National Monitoring System for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> in Colombia (SIMAC) was established in 1998 to provide long-term data bases to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the changes of Colombian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> against perturbations and to identify the factors responsible for their decline or recovery. On the Pacific coast, data on <span class="hlt">coral</span> and algal cover have been collected yearly during seven consecutive years (1998-2004) from 20 permanent transects in two sites at La Azufrada <span class="hlt">reef</span>, Gorgona Island. Overall, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was high (55.1%-65.7%) and algal cover low (28.8%-37.5%) and both exhibited significant changes among years, most notably on shallow areas. Differences between sites in both <span class="hlt">coral</span> and algal cover were present since the study began and may be explained by differences in sedimentation stress derived from soil runoff. Differences between depths most likely stem from the effects of low tidal sub-aerial exposures. Particularly intense sub-aerial exposures occurred repeatedly during January-March, 2001 and accounted for a decrease in <span class="hlt">coral</span> and an increase in algal cover on shallow depths observed later that year. Additionally, the shallow area on the Northern site seems to be negatively affected by the combined effect of sedimentation and low tidal exposure. However, a decrease in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and an increase of algal cover since 2001 on deep areas at both sites remain unexplained. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">reef</span> at La Azufrada has been more resilient than other <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), recovering pre-disturbance (1979) levels of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover within a 10 year period after the 1982-83 El Niño, which caused 85% mortality. Furthermore, the effects of the 1997-98 El Niño, indicated by the difference in overall live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover between 1998 and 1999, were minor (< 6% reduction). Despite recurrent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001321','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001321"><span>NeMO-Net & Fluid Lensing: The Neural Multi-Modal Observation & Training Network for Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Using Fluid Lensing Augmentation of NASA EOS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chirayath, Ved</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>We present preliminary results from NASA NeMO-Net, the first neural multi-modal observation and training network for global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. NeMO-Net is an open-source deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and interactive active learning training software in development which will <span class="hlt">assess</span> the present and past dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. NeMO-Net exploits active learning and data fusion of mm-scale remotely sensed 3D images of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> captured using fluid lensing with the NASA FluidCam instrument, presently the highest-resolution remote sensing benthic imaging technology capable of removing ocean wave distortion, as well as hyperspectral airborne remote sensing data from the ongoing NASA <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> mission and lower-resolution satellite data to determine <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem makeup globally at unprecedented spatial and temporal scales. Aquatic ecosystems, particularly <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, remain quantitatively misrepresented by low-resolution remote sensing as a result of refractive distortion from ocean waves, optical attenuation, and remoteness. Machine learning classification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> using FluidCam mm-scale 3D data show that present satellite and airborne remote sensing techniques poorly characterize <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> percent living cover, morphology type, and species breakdown at the mm, cm, and meter scales. Indeed, current global <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover and morphology classification based on km-scale satellite data alone can suffer from segmentation errors greater than 40%, capable of change detection only on yearly temporal scales and decameter spatial scales, significantly hindering our understanding of patterns and processes in marine biodiversity at a time when these ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented anthropogenic pressures, ocean acidification, and sea surface temperature rise. NeMO-Net leverages our augmented machine learning algorithm that demonstrates data fusion of regional FluidCam (mm, cm-scale) airborne remote sensing with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC23B..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC23B..07H"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Color: Remote and In-Situ Imaging Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Structure and Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hochberg, E. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are threatened at local to global scales by a litany of anthropogenic impacts, including overfishing, coastal development, marine and watershed pollution, rising ocean temperatures, and ocean acidification. However, available data for the primary indicator of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition — proportional cover of living <span class="hlt">coral</span> — are surprisingly sparse and show patterns that contradict the prevailing understanding of how environment impacts <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition. Remote sensing is the only available tool for acquiring synoptic, uniform data on <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition at regional to global scales. Discrimination between <span class="hlt">coral</span> and other <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthos relies on narrow wavebands afforded by imaging spectroscopy. The same spectral information allows non-invasive quantification of photosynthetic pigment composition, which shows unexpected phenological trends. There is also potential to link biodiversity with optical diversity, though there has been no effort in that direction. Imaging spectroscopy underlies the light-use efficiency model for <span class="hlt">reef</span> primary production by quantifying light capture, which in turn indicates biochemical capacity for CO2 assimilation. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> calcification is strongly correlated with primary production, suggesting the possibility for an optics-based model of that aspect of <span class="hlt">reef</span> function, as well. By scaling these spectral models for use with remote sensing, we can vastly improve our understanding of <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, function, and overall condition across regional to global scales. By analyzing those remote sensing products against ancillary environmental data, we can construct secondary models to predict <span class="hlt">reef</span> futures in the era of global change. This final point is the objective of <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> (<span class="hlt">COral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Airborne Laboratory), a three-year project funded under NASA's Earth Venture Suborbital-2 program to investigate the relationship between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition at the ecosystem scale and various nominal biogeophysical forcing parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC22D..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC22D..01H"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Color: Remote and In-Situ Imaging Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Structure and Function</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hochberg, E. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are threatened at local to global scales by a litany of anthropogenic impacts, including overfishing, coastal development, marine and watershed pollution, rising ocean temperatures, and ocean acidification. However, available data for the primary indicator of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition — proportional cover of living <span class="hlt">coral</span> — are surprisingly sparse and show patterns that contradict the prevailing understanding of how environment impacts <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition. Remote sensing is the only available tool for acquiring synoptic, uniform data on <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition at regional to global scales. Discrimination between <span class="hlt">coral</span> and other <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthos relies on narrow wavebands afforded by imaging spectroscopy. The same spectral information allows non-invasive quantification of photosynthetic pigment composition, which shows unexpected phenological trends. There is also potential to link biodiversity with optical diversity, though there has been no effort in that direction. Imaging spectroscopy underlies the light-use efficiency model for <span class="hlt">reef</span> primary production by quantifying light capture, which in turn indicates biochemical capacity for CO2 assimilation. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> calcification is strongly correlated with primary production, suggesting the possibility for an optics-based model of that aspect of <span class="hlt">reef</span> function, as well. By scaling these spectral models for use with remote sensing, we can vastly improve our understanding of <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, function, and overall condition across regional to global scales. By analyzing those remote sensing products against ancillary environmental data, we can construct secondary models to predict <span class="hlt">reef</span> futures in the era of global change. This final point is the objective of <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> (<span class="hlt">COral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Airborne Laboratory), a three-year project funded under NASA's Earth Venture Suborbital-2 program to investigate the relationship between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition at the ecosystem scale and various nominal biogeophysical forcing parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22980773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22980773"><span>The continuing decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Bahrain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burt, John A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa; Khalaf, Ebtesam; Alshuwaikh, Bassem; Abdulwahab, Ahmed</p> <p>2013-07-30</p> <p>Historically <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Bahrain were among the most extensive in the southern basin of the Arabian Gulf. However, Bahrain's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have undergone significant decline in the last four decades as a result of large-scale coastal development and elevated sea surface temperature events. Here we quantitatively surveyed six sites including most major <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats around Bahrain and a <span class="hlt">reef</span> located 72 km offshore. Fleshy and turf algae now dominate Bahrain's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (mean: 72% cover), and live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover is low (mean: 5.1%). Formerly dominant Acropora were not observed at any site. The offshore Bulthama <span class="hlt">reef</span> had the highest <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (16.3%) and species richness (22 of the 23 species observed, 13 of which were exclusive to this site). All <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for which recent and historical data are available show continued degradation, and it is unlikely that they will recover under continuing coastal development and projected climate change impacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2244711','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2244711"><span>Baselines and Degradation of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> in the Northern Line Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Donner, Simon D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Konotchick, Talina; Malay, Machel; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Pantos, Olga; Paulay, Gustav; Richie, Morgan; Rohwer, Forest; Schroeder, Robert E.; Walsh, Sheila; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Knowlton, Nancy; Sala, Enric</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of <span class="hlt">reef</span> community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> without people exhibited less <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease and greater <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment relative to more inhabited <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems to the effects of global warming. PMID:18301734</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5287465','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5287465"><span>Lower Mesophotic <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R.; Hay, Kyra B.; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the zooxanthellate <span class="hlt">coral</span> community at lower mesophotic depths (60–125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park and the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were most diverse in the 60–80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the <span class="hlt">coral</span> community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of <span class="hlt">coral</span> specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and atolls of the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of <span class="hlt">corals</span> that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. PMID:28146574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28146574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28146574"><span>Lower Mesophotic <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R; Hay, Kyra B; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the zooxanthellate <span class="hlt">coral</span> community at lower mesophotic depths (60-125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park and the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities were most diverse in the 60-80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the <span class="hlt">coral</span> community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of <span class="hlt">coral</span> specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and atolls of the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of <span class="hlt">corals</span> that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27432782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27432782"><span>Evidence of extensive <span class="hlt">reef</span> development and high <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in nearshore environments: implications for understanding <span class="hlt">coral</span> adaptation in turbid settings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morgan, Kyle M; Perry, Chris T; Smithers, Scott G; Johnson, Jamie A; Daniell, James J</p> <p>2016-07-19</p> <p>Mean <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years across the central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR). Here, we present new data that documents widespread <span class="hlt">reef</span> development within the more poorly studied turbid nearshore areas (<10 m depth), and show that <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> averages 38% (twice that reported on mid- and outer-shelf <span class="hlt">reefs</span>). Of the surveyed seafloor area, 11% had distinct <span class="hlt">reef</span> or <span class="hlt">coral</span> community cover. Although the survey area represents a small subset of the nearshore zone (15.5 km(2)), this <span class="hlt">reef</span> density is comparable to that measured across the wider GBR shelf (9%). We also show that cross-shelf <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover declines with distance from the coast (R(2) = 0.596). Identified <span class="hlt">coral</span> taxa (21 genera) exhibited clear depth-stratification, corresponding closely to light attenuation and seafloor topography, with reefal development restricted to submarine antecedent bedforms. Data from this first <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of nearshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> occurrence and ecology measured across meaningful spatial scales suggests that these <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities may exhibit an unexpected capacity to tolerate documented declines in water quality. Indeed, these shallow-water nearshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may share many characteristics with their deep-water (>30 m) mesophotic equivalents and may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052888"><span>Development and implementation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria in U.S. jurisdictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S; Bell, Heidi; Davis, Wayne; Chan, Valerie; LoBue, Charles; Wiltse, Wendy</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide are declining at an alarming rate and are under continuous threat from both natural and anthropogenic environmental stressors. Warmer sea temperatures attributed to global climate change and numerous human activities at local scales place these valuable ecosystems at risk. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> provide numerous services, including shoreline protection, fishing, tourism and biological diversity, which are lost through physical damage, overfishing, and pollution. Pollution can be controlled under provisions of the Clean Water Act, but these options have not been fully employed to protect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. No U.S. jurisdiction has implemented <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria, which are narrative or quantitative water quality standards based on the condition of a biological resource or assemblage. The President's Ocean Action Plan directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop biological <span class="hlt">assessment</span> methods and biological criteria for evaluating and maintaining the health of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. EPA has formed the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Biocriteria Working Group (CRBWG) to foster development of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria through focused research, evaluation and communication among Agency partners and U.S. jurisdictions. Ongoing CRBWG activities include development and evaluation of a rapid bioassessment protocol for application in biocriteria programs; development of a survey design and monitoring strategy for the U.S. Virgin Islands; comprehensive reviews of biocriteria approaches proposed by states and territories; and assembly of data from a variety of monitoring programs for additional metrics. Guidance documents are being prepared to assist U.S. jurisdictions in reaching protective and defensible biocriteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22462739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22462739"><span>Anthropogenic mortality on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Caribbean Panama predates <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease and bleaching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed <span class="hlt">coral</span> and molluscan fossil assemblages from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation predates <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690925"><span>Trawling damage to Northeast Atlantic ancient <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall-Spencer, Jason; Allain, Valerie; Fosså, Jan Helge</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This contribution documents widespread trawling damage to cold-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at 840-1300 m depth along the West Ireland continental shelf break and at 200 m off West Norway. These <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are spectacular but poorly known. By-catches from commercial trawls for deep-water fish off West Ireland included large pieces (up to 1 m(2)) of <span class="hlt">coral</span> that had been broken from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and a diverse array of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-associated benthos. Five azooxanthellate scleractinarian <span class="hlt">corals</span> were identified in these by-catches, viz. Desmophyllum cristagalli, Enallopsammia rostrata, Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Solenosmilia variabilis. Dating of carbonate skeletons using (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry showed that the trawled <span class="hlt">coral</span> matrix was at least 4550 years old. Surveys by remotely operated vehicles in Norway showed extensive fishing damage to L. pertusa <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The urgent need for deep-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> conservation measures is discussed in a Northeast Atlantic context. PMID:11886643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152330"><span>Are <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> victims of their own past success?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renema, Willem; Pandolfi, John M; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Francesca R; Klaus, James S; Korpanty, Chelsea; Rosen, Brian R; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Wallace, Carden C; Webster, Jody M; Johnson, Kenneth G</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As one of the most prolific and widespread <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders, the staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> Acropora holds a disproportionately large role in how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will respond to accelerating anthropogenic change. We show that although Acropora has a diverse history extended over the past 50 million years, it was not a dominant <span class="hlt">reef</span> builder until the onset of high-amplitude glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations 1.8 million years ago. High growth rates and propagation by fragmentation have favored staghorn <span class="hlt">corals</span> since this time. In contrast, staghorn <span class="hlt">corals</span> are among the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">corals</span> to anthropogenic stressors, with marked global loss of abundance worldwide. The continued decline in staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance and the mounting challenges from both local stress and climate change will limit the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>' ability to provide ecosystem services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CorRe..33...45G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CorRe..33...45G"><span>Closing the circle: is it feasible to rehabilitate <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with sexually propagated <span class="hlt">corals</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guest, J. R.; Baria, M. V.; Gomez, E. D.; Heyward, A. J.; Edwards, A. J.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Sexual propagation of <span class="hlt">corals</span> specifically for <span class="hlt">reef</span> rehabilitation remains largely experimental. In this study, we refined low technology culture and transplantation approaches and <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the role of colony size and age, at time of transfer from nursery to <span class="hlt">reef</span>, on subsequent survival. Larvae from Acropora millepora were reared from gametes and settled on engineered substrates, called <span class="hlt">coral</span> plug-ins, that were designed to simplify transplantation to areas of degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Plug-ins, with laboratory spawned and settled <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruits attached, were maintained in nurseries until they were at least 7 months old before being transplanted to replicate <span class="hlt">coral</span> limestone outcrops within a marine protected area until they were 31 months old. Survival rates of transplanted <span class="hlt">corals</span> that remained at the protected in situ nursery the longest were 3.9-5.6 times higher than <span class="hlt">corals</span> transplanted to the <span class="hlt">reef</span> earlier, demonstrating that an intermediate ocean nursery stage is critical in the sexual propagation of <span class="hlt">corals</span> for <span class="hlt">reef</span> rehabilitation. 3 years post-settlement, colonies were reproductively mature, making this one of few published studies to date to rear a broadcasting scleractinian from eggs to spawning adults. While our data show that it is technically feasible to transplant sexually propagated <span class="hlt">corals</span> and rear them until maturity, producing a single 2.5-year-old <span class="hlt">coral</span> on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> cost at least US60. `What if' scenarios indicate that the cost per transplantable <span class="hlt">coral</span> could be reduced by almost 80 %, nevertheless, it is likely that the high cost per <span class="hlt">coral</span> using sexual propagation methods would constrain delivery of new <span class="hlt">corals</span> to relatively small scales in many countries with <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2015/3073/fs20153073.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2015/3073/fs20153073.pdf"><span>USGS research on Atlantic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.</p> <p>2015-10-23</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are massive, biomineralized structures that protect coastal communities by acting as barriers to hazards such as hurricanes and tsunamis. They provide sand for beaches through the natural process of erosion, support tourism and recreational industries, and provide essential habitat for fisheries. The continuing global degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems is well documented. There is a need for focused, coordinated science to understand the complex physical and biological processes and interactions that are impacting the condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and their ability to respond to a changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529748"><span>Fishing down nutrients on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A</p> <p>2016-08-16</p> <p>Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes across 110 <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35.1271M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35.1271M"><span>Ecological limitations to the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mora, Camilo; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Nyström, Magnus</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> has been broadly attributed to human stressors being too strong and pervasive, whereas biological processes that may render <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> fragile have been sparsely considered. Here we review several ecological factors that can limit the ability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to withstand disturbance. These include: (1) Many species lack the adaptive capacity to cope with the unprecedented disturbances they currently face; (2) human disturbances impact vulnerable life history stages, reducing reproductive output and the supply of recruits essential for recovery; (3) <span class="hlt">reefs</span> can be vulnerable to the loss of few species, as niche specialization or temporal and spatial segregation makes each species unique (i.e., narrow ecological redundancy); in addition, many foundation species have similar sensitivity to disturbances, suggesting that entire functions can be lost to single disturbances; and (4) feedback loops and extinction vortices may stabilize degraded states or accelerate collapses even if stressors are removed. This review suggests that the degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is due to not only the severity of human stressors but also the "fragility" of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. As such, appropriate governance is essential to manage stressors while being inclusive of ecological process and human uses across transnational scales. This is a considerable but necessary upgrade in current management if the integrity, and delivery of goods and services, of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is to be preserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..365C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12..365C"><span>Ocean acidification accelerates dissolution of experimental <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Comeau, S.; Carpenter, R. C.; Lantz, C. A.; Edmunds, P. J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification (OA) poses a severe threat to tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, yet much of what is know about these effects comes from individual <span class="hlt">corals</span> and algae incubated in isolation under high pCO2. Studies of similar effects on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities are scarce. To investigate the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities to OA, we used large outdoor flumes in which communities composed of calcified algae, <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and sediment were combined to match the percentage cover of benthic communities in the shallow back <span class="hlt">reef</span> of Moorea, French Polynesia. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> communities in the flumes were exposed to ambient (~ 400 μatm) and high pCO2 (~ 1300 μatm) for 8 weeks, and calcification rates measured for the constructed communities including the sediments. Community calcification was reduced by 59% under high pCO2, with sediment dissolution explaining ~ 50% of this decrease; net calcification of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and calcified algae remained positive but was reduced by 29% under elevated pCO2. These results show that, despite the capacity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcifiers to maintain positive net accretion of calcium carbonate under OA conditions, <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities might transition to net dissolution as pCO2 increases, particularly at night, due to enhanced sediment dissolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1112323C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1112323C"><span>Ocean acidification accelerates dissolution of experimental <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Comeau, S.; Carpenter, R. C.; Lantz, C. A.; Edmunds, P. J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification (OA) poses a severe threat to tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, yet much of what is know about these effects comes from individual <span class="hlt">corals</span> and algae incubated in isolation under high pCO2. Studies of similar effects on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities are scarce. To investigate the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities to OA, we used large outdoor flumes in which communities composed of calcified algae, <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and sediment were combined to match the percentage cover of benthic communities in the shallow back <span class="hlt">reef</span> of Moorea, French Polynesia. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> communities in the flumes were exposed to ambient (~400 μatm) and high pCO2 (~1300 μatm) for 8 weeks, and calcification rates measured for the constructed communities including the sediments. Community calcification was depressed 59% under high pCO2, with sediment dissolution explaining ~50% of this decrease; net calcification of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and calcified algae remained positive, but was reduced 29% under elevated pCO2. These results show that despite the capacity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcifiers to maintain positive net accretion of calcium carbonate under OA conditions, <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities might switch to net dissolution as pCO2 increases, particularly at night, due to enhanced sediment dissolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.265...68D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.265...68D"><span>A morphometric <span class="hlt">assessment</span> and classification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> spur and groove morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duce, S.; Vila-Concejo, A.; Hamylton, S. M.; Webster, J. M.; Bruce, E.; Beaman, R. J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Spurs and grooves (SaGs) are a common and important feature of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fore slopes worldwide. However, they are difficult to access and hence their morphodynamics and formation are poorly understood. We use remote sensing, with extensive ground truthing, to measure SaG morphometrics and environmental factors at 11,430 grooves across 17 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the southern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. We revealed strong positive correlations between groove length, orientation and wave exposure with longer, more closely-spaced grooves oriented easterly reflecting the dominant swell regime. Wave exposure was found to be the most important factor controlling SaG distribution and morphology. Gradient of the upper <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope was also an important limiting factor, with SaGs less likely to develop in steeply sloping (> 5°) areas. We used a subset of the morphometric data (11 <span class="hlt">reefs</span>) to statistically define four classes of SaG. This classification scheme was tested on the remaining six <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. SaGs in the four classes differ in morphology, groove substrate and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. These differences provide insights into SaG formation mechanisms with implications to <span class="hlt">reef</span> platform growth and evolution. We hypothesize SaG formation is dominated by <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth processes at two classes and erosion processes at one class. A fourth class may represent relic features formed earlier in the Holocene transgression. The classes are comparable with SaGs elsewhere, suggesting the classification could be applied globally with the addition of new classes if necessary. While further research is required, we show remotely sensed SaG morphometrics can provide useful insights into <span class="hlt">reef</span> platform evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318939','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318939"><span>Resetting predator baselines in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>What did <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey <span class="hlt">reef</span> shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey <span class="hlt">reef</span> sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.400B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93R.400B"><span>Low calcification in <span class="hlt">corals</span> in the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, Atreyee</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities in the Great Barrier Reef—the world's largest <span class="hlt">coral</span> reef—may now be calcifying at only about half the rate that they did during the 1970s, even though live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover may not have changed over the past 40 years, a new study finds. In recent decades, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the world, home to large numbers of fish and other marine species, have been threatened by such human activities as pollution, overfishing, global warming, and ocean acidification; the latter affects ambient water chemistry and availability of calcium ions, which are critical for <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities to calcify, build, and maintain <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparing data from <span class="hlt">reef</span> surveys during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s with present-day (2009) measurements of calcification rates in One Tree Island, a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> covering 13 square kilometers in the southern part of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Silverman et al. show that the total calcification rates (the rate of calcification minus the rate of dissolution) in these <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities have decreased by 44% over the past 40 years; the decrease appears to stem from a threefold reduction in calcification rates during nighttime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..05M"><span>A Decision Support System for Ecosystem-Based Management of Tropical <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muller-Karger, F. E.; Eakin, C.; Guild, L. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hu, C.; Lynds, S. E.; Li, J.; Vega-Rodriguez, M.; Coral Reef Watch Decision Support System Team</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We review a new collaborative program established between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to augment the NOAA <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Watch decision-support system. NOAA has developed a Decision Support System (DSS) under the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Watch (CRW) program to forecast environmental stress in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems around the world. This DSS uses models and 50 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to generate “HotSpot” and Degree Heating Week <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching indices. These are used by scientists and resource managers around the world. These users, including National Marine Sanctuary managers, have expressed the need for higher spatial resolution tools to understand local issues. The project will develop a series of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching products at higher spatial resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR data. We will generate and validate products at 1 km resolution for the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, and test global <span class="hlt">assessments</span> at 4 and 50 km. The project will also incorporate the Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Millennium Map, a 30-m resolution thematic classification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> developed by the NASA Landsat-7 Science Team, into the CRW. The Millennium Maps help understand the geomorphology of individual <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the world. The products will be available through the NOAA CRW and UNEP-WCMC web portals. The products will help users formulate policy options and management decisions. The augmented DSS has a global scope, yet it addresses the needs of local resource managers. The work complements efforts to map and monitor <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities in the U.S. territories by NOAA, NASA, and the USGS, and is a contribution to international efforts in ecological forecasting of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under changing environments, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> research, resource management, and conservation. Acknowledgement: Funding is provided by the NASA Ecological Forecasting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=241054&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=physical+AND+activity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=241054&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=physical+AND+activity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Key Ecological Interactions of <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Building <span class="hlt">Corals</span> - 11-16-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are very important marine ecosystems because they support tremendous biodiversity and <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are critical economic resources many coastal nations. Tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> structures are largely built by stony <span class="hlt">corals</span>. This presentation provides background on basic <span class="hlt">coral</span> biology t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607371"><span>Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A J; Jennings, Simon; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mouillot, David; Wilson, Shaun K</p> <p>2015-02-05</p> <p>Climate-induced <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching is among the greatest current threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, causing widespread loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. Conditions under which <span class="hlt">reefs</span> bounce back from bleaching events or shift from <span class="hlt">coral</span> to algal dominance are unknown, making it difficult to predict and plan for differing <span class="hlt">reef</span> responses under climate change. Here we document and predict long-term <span class="hlt">reef</span> responses to a major climate-induced <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching event that caused unprecedented region-wide mortality of Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Following loss of >90% live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, 12 of 21 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> recovered towards pre-disturbance live <span class="hlt">coral</span> states, while nine <span class="hlt">reefs</span> underwent regime shifts to fleshy macroalgae. Functional diversity of associated <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities shifted substantially following bleaching, returning towards pre-disturbance structure on recovering <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, while becoming progressively altered on regime shifting <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We identified threshold values for a range of factors that accurately predicted ecosystem response to the bleaching event. Recovery was favoured when <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were structurally complex and in deeper water, when density of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> and herbivorous fishes was relatively high and when nutrient loads were low. Whether <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were inside no-take marine reserves had no bearing on ecosystem trajectory. Although conditions governing regime shift or recovery dynamics were diverse, pre-disturbance quantification of simple factors such as structural complexity and water depth accurately predicted ecosystem trajectories. These findings foreshadow the likely divergent but predictable outcomes for <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in response to climate change, thus guiding improved management and adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6681C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E6681C"><span>Water flow modulates the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities to ocean acidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Comeau, S.; Edmunds, P. J.; Lantz, C. A.; Carpenter, R. C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>By the end of the century <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> likely will be affected negatively by ocean acidification (OA), but both the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities and the crossed effects of OA with other physical environmental variables are lacking. One of the least considered physical parameters is water flow, which is surprising considering its strong role in modulating the physiology of <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms and communities. In the present study, the effects of flow were tested on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities maintained in outdoor flumes under ambient pCO2 and high pCO2 (1300 μatm). Net calcification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities, including sediments, was affected by both flow and pCO2 with calcification correlated positively with flow under both pCO2 treatments. The effect of flow was less evident for sediments where dissolution exceeded precipitation of calcium carbonate under all flow speeds at high pCO2. For <span class="hlt">corals</span> and calcifying algae there was a strong flow effect, particularly at high pCO2 where positive net calcification was maintained at night in the high flow treatment. Our results demonstrate the importance of water flow in modulating the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community response to OA and highlight the need to consider this parameter when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25327767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25327767"><span>Water flow modulates the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities to ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Comeau, S; Edmunds, P J; Lantz, C A; Carpenter, R C</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>By the end of the century <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> likely will be affected negatively by ocean acidification (OA), but both the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities and the crossed effects of OA with other physical environmental variables are lacking. One of the least considered physical parameters is water flow, which is surprising considering its strong role in modulating the physiology of <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms and communities. In the present study, the effects of flow were tested on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities maintained in outdoor flumes under ambient pCO2 and high pCO2 (1300 μatm). Net calcification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities, including sediments, was affected by both flow and pCO2 with calcification correlated positively with flow under both pCO2 treatments. The effect of flow was less evident for sediments where dissolution exceeded precipitation of calcium carbonate under all flow speeds at high pCO2. For <span class="hlt">corals</span> and calcifying algae there was a strong flow effect, particularly at high pCO2 where positive net calcification was maintained at night in the high flow treatment. Our results demonstrate the importance of water flow in modulating the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community response to OA and highlight the need to consider this parameter when <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=200207','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=200207"><span>Water Quality Standards for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Protection | Science ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality standards have not been effectively applied to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The Environmental Protection Agency is promoting biocriteria and other water quality standards through collaborative development of bioassessment procedures, indicators and monitoring strategies. To support regulatory action, bioassessment indicators must be biologically meaningful, relevant to management, responsive to human disturbance, and relatively immune to natural variability. A rapid bioassessment protocol for <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> was developed and tested for regulatory applicability. Preliminary testing in the Florida Keys found indicators had sufficient precision and provided information relevant to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management. Sensitivity to human disturbance was demonstrated in the U.S. Virgin Islands for five of eight indicators tested. Once established, monitoring programs using these indicators can provide valuable, long-term records of <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition and regulatory compliance. Development of a rapid bioassement protocol for <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> was tested for regulatory applicability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949480','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4949480"><span>Evidence of extensive <span class="hlt">reef</span> development and high <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in nearshore environments: implications for understanding <span class="hlt">coral</span> adaptation in turbid settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morgan, Kyle M.; Perry, Chris T.; Smithers, Scott G.; Johnson, Jamie A.; Daniell, James J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mean <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has reportedly declined by over 15% during the last 30 years across the central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR). Here, we present new data that documents widespread <span class="hlt">reef</span> development within the more poorly studied turbid nearshore areas (<10 m depth), and show that <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> averages 38% (twice that reported on mid- and outer-shelf <span class="hlt">reefs</span>). Of the surveyed seafloor area, 11% had distinct <span class="hlt">reef</span> or <span class="hlt">coral</span> community cover. Although the survey area represents a small subset of the nearshore zone (15.5 km2), this <span class="hlt">reef</span> density is comparable to that measured across the wider GBR shelf (9%). We also show that cross-shelf <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover declines with distance from the coast (R2 = 0.596). Identified <span class="hlt">coral</span> taxa (21 genera) exhibited clear depth-stratification, corresponding closely to light attenuation and seafloor topography, with reefal development restricted to submarine antecedent bedforms. Data from this first <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of nearshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> occurrence and ecology measured across meaningful spatial scales suggests that these <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities may exhibit an unexpected capacity to tolerate documented declines in water quality. Indeed, these shallow-water nearshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may share many characteristics with their deep-water (>30 m) mesophotic equivalents and may have similar potential as refugia from large-scale disturbances. PMID:27432782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28873449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28873449"><span>Benthic community structure on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> exposed to intensive recreational snorkeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Renfro, Bobbie; Chadwick, Nanette E</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> and toward macroalgae. The use of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. We determined rates of snorkeling in 6 water sections and rates of beach visitation in 4 adjacent land sections at Akumal Bay, Mexico. For each in-water section at 1-3 m depth, we also <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the percent cover of benthic organisms including taxa of stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> and macroalgae. Rates of recreational snorkeling varied from low in the southwestern to very high (>1000 snorkelers d-1) in the northeastern sections of the bay. Stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover decreased and macroalgal cover increased significantly with levels of snorkeling, while trends varied among taxa for other organisms such as gorgonians, fire <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and sea urchins. We conclude that benthic organisms appear to exhibit taxon-specific variation with levels of recreational snorkeling. To prevent further degradation, we recommend limitation of snorkeler visitation rates, coupled with visitor education and in-water guides to reduce <span class="hlt">reef</span>-damaging behaviors by snorkelers in high-use areas. These types of management activities, integrated with <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring and subsequent readjustment of management, have the potential to reverse the damage potentially inflicted on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> by the expansion of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-based recreational snorkeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...80..435B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...80..435B"><span>Climate change and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> bleaching: An ecological <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Andrew C.; Glynn, Peter W.; Riegl, Bernhard</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Since the early 1980s, episodes of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> bleaching and mortality, due primarily to climate-induced ocean warming, have occurred almost annually in one or more of the world's tropical or subtropical seas. Bleaching is episodic, with the most severe events typically accompanying coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomena, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which result in sustained regional elevations of ocean temperature. Using this extended dataset (25+ years), we review the short- and long-term ecological impacts of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching on <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, and quantitatively synthesize recovery data worldwide. Bleaching episodes have resulted in catastrophic loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in some locations, and have changed <span class="hlt">coral</span> community structure in many others, with a potentially critical influence on the maintenance of biodiversity in the marine tropics. Bleaching has also set the stage for other declines in <span class="hlt">reef</span> health, such as increases in <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases, the breakdown of <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework by bioeroders, and the loss of critical habitat for associated <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes and other biota. Secondary ecological effects, such as the concentration of predators on remnant surviving <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations, have also accelerated the pace of decline in some areas. Although bleaching severity and recovery have been variable across all spatial scales, some <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have experienced relatively rapid recovery from severe bleaching impacts. There has been a significant overall recovery of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in the Indian Ocean, where many <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were devastated by a single large bleaching event in 1998. In contrast, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on western Atlantic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> has generally continued to decline in response to multiple smaller bleaching events and a diverse set of chronic secondary stressors. No clear trends are apparent in the eastern Pacific, the central-southern-western Pacific or the Arabian Gulf, where some <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are recovering and others are not. The majority of survivors and new recruits on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CorRe..36..561D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CorRe..36..561D"><span>Relationships between structural complexity, <span class="hlt">coral</span> traits, and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Wilson, Shaun K.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>With the ongoing loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and the associated flattening of <span class="hlt">reef</span> architecture, understanding the links between <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitat and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes is of critical importance. Here, we investigate whether considering <span class="hlt">coral</span> traits and functional diversity provides new insights into the relationship between structural complexity and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities, and whether <span class="hlt">coral</span> traits and community composition can predict structural complexity. Across 157 sites in Seychelles, Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and Australia's Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, we find that structural complexity and <span class="hlt">reef</span> zone are the strongest and most consistent predictors of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish abundance, biomass, species richness, and trophic structure. However, <span class="hlt">coral</span> traits, diversity, and life histories provided additional predictive power for models of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages, and were key drivers of structural complexity. Our findings highlight that <span class="hlt">reef</span> complexity relies on living corals—with different traits and life histories—continuing to build carbonate skeletons, and that these nuanced relationships between <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages and habitat complexity can affect the structure of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages. Seascape-level estimates of structural complexity are rapid and cost effective with important implications for the structure and function of fish assemblages, and should be incorporated into monitoring programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/cwa-404/coral-reef-guidance','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/cwa-404/coral-reef-guidance"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Guidance prepared by EPA and Army Corps of Engineers concerning <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> protection under the Clean Water Act, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, Rivers and Harbors Act, and Federal Project Authorities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817446H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817446H"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity in dissipating wave energy and coastal protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, Daniel; Rovere, Alessio; Parravicini, Valeriano; Casella, Elisa</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are the most effective natural barrier in dissipating wave energy through breaking and bed friction. The attenuation of wave energy by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats is essential in the protection and stability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> aligned coasts and <span class="hlt">reef</span> islands. However, the effectiveness of wave energy dissipation by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may be diminished under future climate change scenarios with a potential reduction of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity due to increased stress environmental stress on <span class="hlt">corals</span>. The physical roughness or rugosity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is directly related to ecological diversity, <span class="hlt">reef</span> health, and hydrodynamic roughness. However, the relationship between physical roughness and hydrodynamic roughness is not well understood despite the crucial role of bed friction in dissipating wave energy in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> aligned coasts. We examine the relationship between wave energy dissipation across a fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span> in relation to the cross-<span class="hlt">reef</span> ecological zonation and the benthic hydrodynamic roughness. Waves were measured by pressure transducers in a cross-<span class="hlt">reef</span> transect on the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> flats and post processed on a wave by wave basis to determine wave statistics such as significant wave height and wave period. Results from direct wave measurement were then used to calibrate a 1D wave dissipation model that incorporates dissipation functions due to bed friction and wave breaking. This model was used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the bed roughness required to produce the observed wave height dissipation during propagation from deep water and across the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats. Changes in wave dissipation was also examined under future scenarios of sea level rise and reduced bed roughness. Three dimensional models of the benthic <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure were produced through structure-from-motion photogrammetry surveys. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> rugosity was then determined from these surveys and related to the roughness results from the calibrated model. The results indicate that applying varying roughness coefficients as the benthic ecological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=190469','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=190469"><span>Evaluation of Stony <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Indicators for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Colonies of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition were derived from these measurements and <span class="hlt">assessed</span> for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory <span class="hlt">assessments</span> under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: <span class="hlt">Coral</span> taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic <span class="hlt">coral</span> surface area, and live <span class="hlt">coral</span> surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52D..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52D..05T"><span>Variability in <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity in the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all <span class="hlt">reef</span> regions, with rising temperature and <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between <span class="hlt">reefs</span> plays a critical role in the <span class="hlt">reef</span>'s capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larval transport between <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting <span class="hlt">coral</span> following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between <span class="hlt">reefs</span> was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between <span class="hlt">reefs</span> closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of <span class="hlt">reef</span> biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146281"><span><span class="hlt">Reef</span> ecology. Chemically mediated behavior of recruiting <span class="hlt">corals</span> and fishes: a tipping point that may limit <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dixson, Danielle L; Abrego, David; Hay, Mark E</p> <p>2014-08-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are in global decline, converting from dominance by <span class="hlt">coral</span> to dominance by seaweed. Once seaweeds become abundant, <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery is suppressed unless herbivores return to remove seaweeds, and <span class="hlt">corals</span> then recruit. Variance in the recovery of fishes and <span class="hlt">corals</span> is not well understood. We show that juveniles of both <span class="hlt">corals</span> and fishes are repelled by chemical cues from fished, seaweed-dominated <span class="hlt">reefs</span> but attracted to cues from <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated areas where fishing is prohibited. Chemical cues of specific seaweeds from degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span> repulsed recruits, and cues from specific <span class="hlt">corals</span> that are typical of healthy <span class="hlt">reefs</span> attracted recruits. Juveniles were present at but behaviorally avoided recruiting to degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span> dominated by seaweeds. For recovery, degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may need to be managed to produce cues that attract, rather than repel, recruiting <span class="hlt">corals</span> and fishes. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482262"><span>A restoration genetics guide for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baums, Iliana B</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Worldwide degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities has prompted a surge in restoration efforts. They proceed largely without considering genetic factors because traditionally, <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations have been regarded as open over large areas with little potential for local adaptation. Since, biophysical and molecular studies indicated that most populations are closed over shorter time and smaller spatial scales. Thus, it is justified to re-examine the potential for site adaptation in <span class="hlt">corals</span>. There is ample evidence for differentiated populations, inbreeding, asexual reproduction and the occurrence of ecotypes, factors that may facilitate local adaptation. Discovery of widespread local adaptation would influence <span class="hlt">coral</span> restoration projects mainly with regard to the physical and evolutionary distance from the source wild and/or captive bred propagules may be moved without causing a loss of fitness in the restored population. Proposed causes for loss of fitness as a result of (plant) restoration efforts include founder effects, genetic swamping, inbreeding and/or outbreeding depression. Direct evidence for any of these processes is scarce in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> due to a lack of model species that allow for testing over multiple generations and the separation of the relative contributions of algal symbionts and their <span class="hlt">coral</span> hosts to the overall performance of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony. This gap in our knowledge may be closed by employing novel population genetic and genomics approaches. The use of molecular tools may aid managers in the selection of appropriate propagule sources, guide spatial arrangement of transplants, and help in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the success of <span class="hlt">coral</span> restoration projects by tracking the performance of transplants, thereby generating important data for future <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation and restoration projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299100','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21299100"><span>Implications of <span class="hlt">coral</span> harvest and transplantation on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in northwestern Dominica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruckner, Andrew W; Borneman, Eric H</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the <span class="hlt">coral</span> culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID), a <span class="hlt">coral</span> farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">corals</span> for restoration and commercial sales. We <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the culture facilities of OID, the condition of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, potential impacts of <span class="hlt">coral</span> collection and benefits of <span class="hlt">coral</span> transplantation. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (9 <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, 3-20 m depth) were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> and a live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all <span class="hlt">corals</span>), P. porites (14.8%), Meandrina meandrites (14.7%) and Agaricia agaricites (9.1%) were the most abundant <span class="hlt">corals</span>, but colonies were mostly small (mean = 25 cm diameter). Montastraea annularis (complex) was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all <span class="hlt">corals</span>) and colonies were larger (mean = 70 cm). <span class="hlt">Corals</span> (pooled species) were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%), Douglas Bay (12.2%) and Coconut Outer <span class="hlt">reef</span> (20.7%). White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex), with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OlD were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites) that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-<span class="hlt">reef</span> builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium) that monopolize substrates and overgrow <span class="hlt">corals</span>. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners) showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18175015"><span>10th Anniversary Review: a changing climate for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lough, Janice M</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are charismatic ecosystems that house a significant proportion of the world's marine biodiversity. Their valuable goods and services are fundamental to the livelihood of large coastal populations in the tropics. The health of many of the world's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and the goods and services they provide, have already been severely compromised, largely due to over-exploitation by a range of human activities. These local-scale impacts, with the appropriate government instruments, support and management actions, can potentially be controlled and even ameliorated. Unfortunately, other human actions (largely in countries outside of the tropics), by changing global climate, have added additional global-scale threats to the continued survival of present-day <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Moderate warming of the tropical oceans has already resulted in an increase in mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events, affecting nearly all of the world's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> regions. The frequency of these events will only increase as global temperatures continue to rise. Weakening of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> structures will be a more insidious effect of changing ocean chemistry, as the oceans absorb part of the excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. More intense tropical cyclones, changed atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns will all affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems and the many associated plants and animals. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will not disappear but their appearance, structure and community make-up will radically change. Drastic greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are necessary to prevent the full consequences of human activities causing such alterations to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED491455.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED491455.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Education and Australian High School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stepath, Carl M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Educational programs that focus on humans and their relationship to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are becoming necessary, as <span class="hlt">reef</span> structures along the Queensland coast come under mounting ecological pressure. This paper reports on a PhD research project which investigated marine education and learning with high school students in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments along the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29773843','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29773843"><span>Loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> compromises predator-avoidance behaviour in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> damselfish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boström-Einarsson, Lisa; Bonin, Mary C; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P</p> <p>2018-05-17</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have experienced an unprecedented loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> in the past few decades and the biodiversity of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dependent species is under threat. Many <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species decline in abundance as <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead <span class="hlt">corals</span> become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony. Groups of P. moluccensis were placed on either healthy or degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies, startled using a visual stimulus and their sheltering responses compared over a 7-week period. P. moluccensis stopped sheltering amongst the <span class="hlt">coral</span> branches immediately following the death of the <span class="hlt">coral</span>, despite the presence of ample shelter space. Instead, most individuals swam away from the dead <span class="hlt">coral</span>, potentially increasing their exposure to predators. It appears that the presence of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> rather than shelter per se is the necessary cue that elicits the appropriate behavioural response to potential predators. The disruption of this link poses an immediate threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span>-associated fishes on degrading <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411062W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411062W"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> calcification and <span class="hlt">reef</span> development under natural disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wall, M.; Schmidt, G. M.; Khokkiatiwong, S.; Richter, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corals</span> are impressive ecosystem engineers shaping and influencing tropical shallow water environments through their complex carbonate framework. Calcification a key physiological process determining <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and <span class="hlt">reef</span> development, is highly dependent on constant environmental conditions, especially temperature, aragonite saturation and pH. However, not in all <span class="hlt">reef</span> areas such constant and stable conditons can be found. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> located in the Andaman Sea off the western Thai coast are subjected to large amplitude internal waves (LAIW), which induce strong oscillations in several physical and chemical environmental parameters and hence, offer the possibility to study the influence of fluctuating conditions on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Characteristics of these oscillations as well as <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework development have been studied on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of five islands, which are exposed to LAIW along their western sides and LAIW-sheltered on their eastern sides. LAIW reach these shallow water <span class="hlt">reef</span> areas all year round, however, strongest fluctuations were recorded during the dry season (November to May) with temperature drops of up to 8°C and pH values ranging from 8.22-7.90. Several (up to 12) sudden changes in environmental conditions can occur during a day, which differ in intensity and duration. Salinity, pH and oxygen are well correlated with changes in temperature and thus, temperature variability calculated as degree days cooling (DDC) was used as proxy for the complex set of environmental variability. This proxy enabled us to combine frequency and intensity of disturbances in one value and allowed for ranking each study location according to the severity of LAIW disturbances. Framework height was found to be clearly reduced in areas exposed to LAIW compared to the complex three-dimensional carbonate framework in the LAIW-sheltered <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Moreover, it showed a strong linear correlation with DDC (Rsqr=0.732, p=0.007) indicating the negative effect of pulsed disturbances on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909426"><span>Fine-scale environmental specialization of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> might be limiting <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery in the Florida Keys.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kenkel, Carly D; Almanza, Albert T; Matz, Mikhail V</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Despite decades of monitoring global <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline, we are still largely unable to explain patterns of <span class="hlt">reef</span> deterioration at local scales, which precludes the development of effective management strategies. Offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Florida Keys, USA, experience milder temperatures and lower nutrient loads in comparison to inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> yet remain considerably more degraded than nearshore patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A year-long reciprocal transplant experiment of the mustard hill <span class="hlt">coral</span> (Porites astreoides) involving four source and eight transplant locations reveals that <span class="hlt">corals</span> adapt and/or acclimatize to their local habitat on a < 10-km scale. Surprisingly, transplantation to putatively similar environmental types (e.g., offshore <span class="hlt">corals</span> moved to a novel offshore site, or along-shore transplantation) resulted in greater reductions in fitness proxies, such as <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, than cross-channel transplantation between inshore and offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The only abiotic factor showing significantly greater differences between along-shore sites was daily temperature range extremes (rather than the absolute high or low temperatures reached), providing a possible explanation for this pattern. Offshore-origin <span class="hlt">corals</span> exhibited significant growth reductions at sites with greater daily temperature ranges, which explained up to 39% of the variation in their mass gain. In contrast, daily temperature range explained at most 9% of growth variation in inshore-origin <span class="hlt">corals</span>, suggesting that inshore <span class="hlt">corals</span> are more tolerant of high-frequency temperature fluctuations. Finally, <span class="hlt">corals</span> incur trade-offs when specializing to their native <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Across <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations the coefficient of selection against <span class="hlt">coral</span> transplants was 0.07 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE). This selection against immigrants could hinder the ability of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to recolonize devastated <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, whether through assisted migration efforts or natural recruitment events, providing a unifying explanation for observed patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> decline in this <span class="hlt">reef</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..737B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..737B"><span>The status of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecology research in the Red Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berumen, M. L.; Hoey, A. S.; Bass, W. H.; Bouwmeester, J.; Catania, D.; Cochran, J. E. M.; Khalil, M. T.; Miyake, S.; Mughal, M. R.; Spaet, J. L. Y.; Saenz-Agudelo, P.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The Red Sea has long been recognized as a region of high biodiversity and endemism. Despite this diversity and early history of scientific work, our understanding of the ecology of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Red Sea has lagged behind that of other large <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. We carried out a quantitative <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of ISI-listed research published from the Red Sea in eight specific topics (apex predators, connectivity, <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, <span class="hlt">coral</span> reproductive biology, herbivory, marine protected areas, non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> invertebrates and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated bacteria) and compared the amount of research conducted in the Red Sea to that from Australia's Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR) and the Caribbean. On average, for these eight topics, the Red Sea had 1/6th the amount of research compared to the GBR and about 1/8th the amount of the Caribbean. Further, more than 50 % of the published research from the Red Sea originated from the Gulf of Aqaba, a small area (<2 % of the area of the Red Sea) in the far northern Red Sea. We summarize the general state of knowledge in these eight topics and highlight the areas of future research priorities for the Red Sea region. Notably, data that could inform science-based management approaches are badly lacking in most Red Sea countries. The Red Sea, as a geologically "young" sea located in one of the warmest regions of the world, has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics such as speciation processes as well as the capacity of <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems and organisms to adapt to global climate change. As one of the world's most biodiverse <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> regions, the Red Sea may yet have a significant role to play in our understanding of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecology at a global scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN43B0074T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN43B0074T"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> Bleaching <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Through Remote Sensing and Integrated Citizen Science (<span class="hlt">Coral</span>BASICS): Engaging Dive Instructors on <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Characterization in Southwest, Puerto Rico Coupled with the Analysis of Water Quality Using NASA Earth Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torres-Perez, J. L.; Armstrong, R.; Detres, Y.; Aragones-Fred, C.; Melendez, J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>As recurrences of extreme sea water thermal events increase with climate change, the need for continuous monitoring of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> becomes even more evident. Enabling properly trained members from the local communities to actively participate in scientific programs/research projects, provides for such monitoring at little cost once the citizens are properly trained and committed. Further, the possibility of obtaining high temporal resolution data with citizen scientists can provide for new venues to answer questions that may not be answered with traditional research approaches. The <span class="hlt">Coral</span>BASICS project engages members of the local diving industry in Puerto Rico on the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of coastal water quality and the status of Puerto Rico's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in an age of climate change and in particular, an increase in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events. The project complements remote sensing data with community-based field <span class="hlt">assessments</span> strictly supervised by the PI's. The study focuses on training citizen scientists (dive instructors) on the collection of benthic information related to the state of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> using the <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Check (fish and invertebrates ID and substrate composition) and video transects methodologies, monitoring of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events, and collecting of water quality data using a smartphone ocean color application. The data collected by citizen scientists complements the validation of Landsat-8 (OLI) imagery for water quality <span class="hlt">assessment</span>. At the same time, researchers from the University of Puerto Rico conduct field <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the bio-optical properties of waters surrounding the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> study areas. Dive instructors have been collecting benthic and water quality data for the past 4 months. Initial analysis using the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Point Count with excel extension (CPCe) software showed a dominance of gorgonians at most sites (up to 32.8%) with hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover ranging between 5.5-13.2% of the hard substrates. No <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases or bleaching</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gcrmn.org/gcrmn-publication/status-and-trends-of-caribbean-coral-reefs-1970-2012/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://gcrmn.org/gcrmn-publication/status-and-trends-of-caribbean-coral-reefs-1970-2012/"><span>Status and trends of Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: 1970-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This it the 9th status report since the Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Monitoring Network (GCRMN) was founded in 1995 was the data arm of the International <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Initiative (ICRI) to document the ecological condition or corral <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, strengthen monitoring efforts, and link existing organizations and people working on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide. The US Government provided the initial funding to help set up a global network of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> workers and has continued to provide core support. Since then, the series of reports have aimed to present the current status of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the world or particular regions, the major threats to <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and their consequences, and any initiative undertaken under the auspices of ICRI or other bodies to arrest or reverse the decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.IUCN assumed responsibility for hosting the global coordination of the GCRMN in 2010 under the scientific direction of Jeremy Jackson with the following objectives:1. Document quantitatively the global status and trends for <span class="hlt">corals</span>, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on available data from individual scientists as well as the peer reviewed scientific literature, monitoring programs, and report.2. Bring together regional experts in a series of workshops to involve them in data compilation, analysis, and synthesis.3. Integrate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> status and trends with independent environmental, management, and socioeconomic data to better understand the primary factors responsible for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline, the possible synergies among factors that may further magnify their impacts, and how these stresses may be more effectively alleviated.Work with GCRMN partners to establish simple and practical standardized protocols for future monitoring and <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.Disseminate information and results to help guide member state policy and actions.The overarching objective is to understand why some <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are much healthier than others, to identify what kinds of actions have been particularly beneficial or harmful, and to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29924857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29924857"><span>Depth and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover drive the distribution of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> macroborer across two <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maher, Rebecca L; Johnston, Michelle A; Brandt, Marilyn E; Smith, Tyler B; Correa, Adrienne M S</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Bioerosion, the removal of calcium carbonate from <span class="hlt">coral</span> frameworks by living organisms, influences a variety of <span class="hlt">reef</span> features, from their topographic complexity to the net balance of carbonate budgets. Little is known, however, about how macroborers, which bore into <span class="hlt">reef</span> substrates leaving traces greater than 0.1 mm diameter, are distributed across <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, particularly <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems with high (>50%) stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover or at mesophotic depths (≥30 m). Here, we present an accurate and efficient method for quantifying macroborer densities from stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> hosts via image analysis, using the bioeroding barnacle, Lithotrya dorsalis, and its host <span class="hlt">coral</span>, Orbicella franksi, as a case study. We found that in 2014, L. dorsalis densities varied consistently with depth and host percent cover in two Atlantic <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems: the Flower Garden Banks (FGB, northwest Gulf of Mexico) and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Although average barnacle density was nearly 4.5 times greater overall in the FGB than in the USVI, barnacle density decreased with depth in both <span class="hlt">reef</span> regions. Barnacle density also scaled negatively with increasing <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in the study areas, suggesting that barnacle populations are not strictly space-limited in their distribution and settlement opportunities. Our findings suggest that depth and host <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, and potentially, local factors may strongly influence the abundance of macroborers, and thus the rate of CaCO3 loss, in a given <span class="hlt">reef</span> system. Our image analysis method for quantifying macroborers can be standardized across historical and modern <span class="hlt">reef</span> records to better understand how borers impact host growth and <span class="hlt">reef</span> health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3057/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3057/"><span>Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Poore, D.Z.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> provide important ecosystem services such as shoreline protection and the support of lucrative industries including fisheries and tourism. Such ecosystem services are being compromised as <span class="hlt">reefs</span> decline due to <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease, climate change, overfishing, and pollution. There is a need for focused, integrated science to understand the complex ecological interactions and effects of these many stressors and to provide information that will effectively guide policies and best management practices to preserve and restore these important resources. The U.S. Geological Survey Florida Integrated Science Center (USGS-FISC) is conducting a coordinated <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Research Project beginning in 2009. Specific research topics are aimed at addressing priorities identified in the 'Strategic Science for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Ecosystems 2007-2011' document (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Planned research will include a blend of historical, monitoring, and process studies aimed at improving our understanding of the development, current status and function, and likely future changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> ecosystems. Topics such as habitat characterization and distribution, <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease, and trends in biogenic calcification are major themes of understanding <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure, ecological integrity, and responses to global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27149573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27149573"><span>Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity <span class="hlt">assessment</span> at central Red Sea <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span> protocols: i) visual benthic <span class="hlt">reef</span> surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..209U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..209U"><span>Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Although the debate about <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-<span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> on 27 inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> along the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-<span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> richness was not related to environmental setting. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29627113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29627113"><span>Do invasive <span class="hlt">corals</span> alter <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> processes? An empirical approach evaluating <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish trophic interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miranda, Ricardo J; Nunes, José de Anchieta C C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Sippo, James Z; Barros, Francisco</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>Understanding how invasive species affect key ecological interactions and ecosystem processes is imperative for the management of invasions. We evaluated the effects of invasive <span class="hlt">corals</span> (Tubastraea spp.) on fish trophic interactions in an Atlantic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Remote underwater video cameras were used to examine fish foraging activity (bite rates and food preferences) on invasive cover levels. Using a model selection approach, we found that fish feeding rates declined with increased invasive cover. For Roving Herbivores (RH) and Sessile Invertivores (SI), an abrupt reduction of fish feeding rates corresponded with higher invasive cover, while feeding rates of Territorial Herbivores (TH) and Mobile Invertivores (MI) decreased linearly with cover increase. Additionally, some fish trophic groups, such as RH, SI and Omnivores (OM), had lower densities in <span class="hlt">reef</span> sections with high invasive cover. These findings demonstrate that invasive <span class="hlt">corals</span> negatively impact fish-benthic interactions, and could potentially alter existing trophic relationships in <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5584949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5584949"><span>Benthic community structure on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> exposed to intensive recreational snorkeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Renfro, Bobbie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> and toward macroalgae. The use of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. We determined rates of snorkeling in 6 water sections and rates of beach visitation in 4 adjacent land sections at Akumal Bay, Mexico. For each in-water section at 1–3 m depth, we also <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the percent cover of benthic organisms including taxa of stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> and macroalgae. Rates of recreational snorkeling varied from low in the southwestern to very high (>1000 snorkelers d-1) in the northeastern sections of the bay. Stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover decreased and macroalgal cover increased significantly with levels of snorkeling, while trends varied among taxa for other organisms such as gorgonians, fire <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and sea urchins. We conclude that benthic organisms appear to exhibit taxon-specific variation with levels of recreational snorkeling. To prevent further degradation, we recommend limitation of snorkeler visitation rates, coupled with visitor education and in-water guides to reduce <span class="hlt">reef</span>-damaging behaviors by snorkelers in high-use areas. These types of management activities, integrated with <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring and subsequent readjustment of management, have the potential to reverse the damage potentially inflicted on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> by the expansion of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-based recreational snorkeling. PMID:28873449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336631"><span>Shifts in <span class="hlt">coral</span>-assemblage composition do not ensure persistence of <span class="hlt">reef</span> functionality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Carricart-Ganivet, Juan P; Horta-Puga, Guillermo; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto</p> <p>2013-12-12</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> communities are changing rapidly worldwide through loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and shifts in species composition. Although many <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> are likely to decline, some weedy opportunistic species might increase in abundance. Here we explore whether the reshuffling of species can maintain ecosystem integrity and functioning. Using four common Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> genera we modeled rates of <span class="hlt">reef</span> construction and complexity. We show that shifting <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages result in rapid losses in <span class="hlt">coral</span>-community calcification and <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity that are independent of changes in the total abundance of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>. These losses are considerably higher than those recently attributed to climate change. Dominance patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages seem to be the most important driver of the functioning of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and thus, the future of these ecosystems might depend not only on reductions of local and global stressors, but also on the maintenance of keystone <span class="hlt">coral</span> species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC24C1132H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC24C1132H"><span>Wave Dissipation on Low- to Super-Energy <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, D. L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are valuable, complex and bio-diverse ecosystems and are also known to be one of the most effective barriers to swell events in coastal environments. Previous research has found <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to be remarkably efficient in removing most of the wave energy during the initial breaking and transformation on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats. The rate of dissipation is so rapid that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have been referred to as rougher than any known coastal barrier. The dissipation of wave energy across <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats is crucial in maintaining the relatively low-energy conditions in the back <span class="hlt">reef</span> and lagoonal environments providing vital protection to adjacent beach or coastal regions from cyclone and storm events. A shift in the regulation of wave energy by <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats could have catastrophic consequences ecologically, socially, and economically. This study examined the dissipation of wave energy during two swell events in Tahiti and Moorea, French Polyesia. Field sites were chosen in varying degrees of exposure and geomorphology from low-energy protected sites (Tiahura, Moorea) to super-energy sites (Teahupo'o, Tahiti). Waves were measured during two moderate to large swell events in cross <span class="hlt">reef</span> transects using short-term high-resolution pressure transducers. Wave conditions were found to be similar in all back <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations despite the very different wave exposure at each <span class="hlt">reef</span> site. However, wave conditions on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats were different and mirrored the variation in wave exposure with depth over the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat the primary regulator of <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat wave height. These results indicate that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats evolve morphodynamically with the wave climate, which creates <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> geomorphologies capable of dissipating wave energy that results in similar back <span class="hlt">reef</span> wave conditions regardless of the offshore wave climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030002392&hterms=endangered+species&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dendangered%2Bspecies','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030002392&hterms=endangered+species&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dendangered%2Bspecies"><span>Clues to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Health: Integrating Radiative Transfer Modeling and Hyperspectral Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guild, Liane; Ganapol, Barry; Kramer, Philip; Armstrong, Roy; Gleason, Art; Torres, Juan; Johnson, Lee; Garfield, Toby; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>An important contribution to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> research is to improve spectral distinction between various health states of <span class="hlt">coral</span> species in areas subject to harmful anthropogenic activity and climate change. New insights into radiative transfer properties of <span class="hlt">corals</span> under healthy and stressed conditions can advance understandings of ecological processes on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and allow better <span class="hlt">assessments</span> of the impacts of large-scale bleaching and disease events, Our objective was to examine the spectral and spatial properties of hyperspectral sensors that may be used to remotely sense changes in <span class="hlt">reef</span> community health. We compare in situ <span class="hlt">reef</span> environment spectra (healthy <span class="hlt">coral</span>, stressed <span class="hlt">coral</span>, dead <span class="hlt">coral</span>, algae, and sand) with airborne hyperspectral data to identify important spectral characteristics and indices. Additionally, spectral measurements over a range of water depths, relief, and bottom types are compared to help quantify bottom-water column influences. In situ spectra were collected in July and August 2002 at the Long Rock site in the Andros Island, Bahamas coastal zone <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Our primary emphasis was on Acropora palmata (or elkhorn <span class="hlt">coral</span>), a major <span class="hlt">reef</span> building <span class="hlt">coral</span>, which is prevalent in the study area, but is suffering from white band disease. A. palmata is currently being, proposed as an endangered species because its populations have severely declined in many areas of the Caribbean. In addition to the A. palmata biotope, we have collected spectra of at least seven other <span class="hlt">coral</span> biotopes that exist within the study area, each with different <span class="hlt">coral</span> community composition, density of <span class="hlt">corals</span>, relief, and size of <span class="hlt">corals</span>. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> spectral reflectance was then input into a radiative transfer model, CORALMOD (CM1), which is based on a leaf radiative transfer model. In CM1, input <span class="hlt">coral</span> reflectance measurements produce modeled reflectance through an inversion at each visible wavelength to provide the absorption spectrum. Initially, we imposed a scattering baseline that is the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=341068&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=information&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=341068&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=information&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Implementing Biocriteria: <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Protection Using the Clean Water Act</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biological <span class="hlt">assessments</span> (surveying the presence, number, size and condition of fish, <span class="hlt">coral</span> and other biota) provide important information about the health and integrity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Biological criteria are one means under the Clean Water Act (CWA) that managers can us...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785503"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> Skeletons Provide Historical Evidence of Phosphorus Runoff on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mallela, Jennie; Lewis, Stephen E.; Croke, Barry</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recently, the inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> have declined rapidly because of deteriorating water quality. Increased catchment runoff is one potential culprit. The impacts of land-use on <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and <span class="hlt">reef</span> health however are largely circumstantial due to limited long-term data on water quality and <span class="hlt">reef</span> health. Here we use a 60 year <span class="hlt">coral</span> core record to show that phosphorus contained in the skeletons (P/Ca) of long-lived, near-shore Porites <span class="hlt">corals</span> on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> correlates with annual records of fertiliser application and particulate phosphorus loads in the adjacent catchment. Skeletal P/Ca also correlates with Ba/Ca, a proxy for fluvial sediment loading, again linking near-shore phosphorus records with river runoff. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> core records suggest that phosphorus levels increased 8 fold between 1949 and 2008 with the greatest levels coinciding with periods of high fertiliser-phosphorus use. Periods of high P/Ca correspond with intense agricultural activity and increased fertiliser application in the river catchment following agricultural expansion and replanting after cyclone damage. Our results demonstrate how <span class="hlt">coral</span> P/Ca records can be used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> terrestrial nutrient loading of vulnerable near-shore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:24086606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875218','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25875218"><span>Simplification of Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span>-fish assemblages over decades of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Paddack, Michelle J; Collen, Ben; Robertson, D Ross; Côté, Isabelle M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are becoming structurally simpler, largely due to human impacts. The consequences of this trend for <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated communities are currently unclear, but expected to be profound. Here, we <span class="hlt">assess</span> whether changes in fish assemblages have been non-random over several decades of declining <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure. More specifically, we predicted that species that depend exclusively on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat (i.e., habitat specialists) should be at a disadvantage compared to those that use a broader array of habitats (i.e., habitat generalists). Analysing 3727 abundance trends of 161 Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span>-fishes, surveyed between 1980 and 2006, we found that the trends of habitat-generalists and habitat-specialists differed markedly. The abundance of specialists started to decline in the mid-1980s, reaching a low of ~60% of the 1980 baseline by the mid-1990s. Both the average and the variation in abundance of specialists have increased since the early 2000s, although the average is still well below the baseline level of 1980. This modest recovery occurred despite no clear evidence of a regional recovery in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat quality in the Caribbean during the 2000s. In contrast, the abundance of generalist fishes remained relatively stable over the same three decades. Few specialist species are fished, thus their population declines are most likely linked to habitat degradation. These results mirror the observed trends of replacement of specialists by generalists, observed in terrestrial taxa across the globe. A significant challenge that arises from our findings is now to investigate if, and how, such community-level changes in fish populations affect ecosystem function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17303183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17303183"><span>Is proximity to land-based sources of <span class="hlt">coral</span> stressors an appropriate measure of risk to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>? An example from the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lirman, Diego; Fong, Peggy</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Localized declines in <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition are commonly linked to land-based sources of stressors that influence gradients of water quality, and the distance to sources of stressors is commonly used as a proxy for predicting the vulnerability and future status of <span class="hlt">reef</span> resources. In this study, we evaluated explicitly whether proximity to shore and connections to coastal bays, two measures of potential land-based sources of disturbance, influence <span class="hlt">coral</span> community and population structure, and the abundance, distribution, and condition of <span class="hlt">corals</span> within patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Florida <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Tract. In the Florida Keys, long-term monitoring has documented significant differences in water quality along a cross-shelf gradient. Inshore habitats exhibit higher levels of nutrients (DIN and TP), TOC, turbidity, and light attenuation, and these levels decrease with increasing distance from shore and connections to tidal bays. In clear contrast to these patterns of water quality, <span class="hlt">corals</span> on inshore patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span> exhibited significantly higher <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, higher growth rates, and lower partial mortality rates than those documented in similar offshore habitats. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> recruitment rates did not differ between inshore and offshore habitats. <span class="hlt">Corals</span> on patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span> closest to shore had well-spread population structures numerically dominated by intermediate to large colonies, while offshore populations showed narrower size-distributions that become increasingly positively skewed. Differences in size-structure of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations were attributed to faster growth and lower rates of partial mortality at inshore habitats. While the underlying causes for the favorable condition of inshore <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities are not yet known, we hypothesize that the ability of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to shift their trophic mode under adverse environmental conditions may be partly responsible for the observed patterns, as shown in other <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. This study, based on data collected from a uniform <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat type and <span class="hlt">coral</span> species</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452591"><span>Suitable Environmental Ranges for Potential <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Habitats in the Tropical Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guan, Yi; Hohn, Sönke; Merico, Agostino</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are found within a limited range of environmental conditions or tolerance limits. Estimating these limits is a critical prerequisite for understanding the impacts of climate change on the biogeography of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Here we used the diagnostic model <span class="hlt">Reef</span>Hab to determine the current environmental tolerance limits for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the global distribution of potential <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats as a function of six factors: temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, aragonite saturation state, and light. To determine these tolerance limits, we extracted maximum and minimum values of all environmental variables in corresponding locations where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are present. We found that the global, annually averaged tolerance limits for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are 21.7—29.6 °C for temperature, 28.7—40.4 psu for salinity, 4.51 μmol L-1 for nitrate, 0.63 μmol L-1 for phosphate, and 2.82 for aragonite saturation state. The averaged minimum light intensity in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is 450 μmol photons m-2 s-1. The global area of potential <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats calculated by the model is 330.5 × 103 km2. Compared with previous studies, the tolerance limits for temperature, salinity, and nutrients have not changed much, whereas the minimum value of aragonite saturation in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters has decreased from 3.28 to 2.82. The potential <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat area calculated with <span class="hlt">Reef</span>Hab is about 121×103 km2 larger than the area estimated from the charted <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, suggesting that the growth potential of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is higher than currently observed. PMID:26030287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030287','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030287"><span>Suitable environmental ranges for potential <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats in the tropical ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guan, Yi; Hohn, Sönke; Merico, Agostino</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are found within a limited range of environmental conditions or tolerance limits. Estimating these limits is a critical prerequisite for understanding the impacts of climate change on the biogeography of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Here we used the diagnostic model <span class="hlt">Reef</span>Hab to determine the current environmental tolerance limits for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the global distribution of potential <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats as a function of six factors: temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, aragonite saturation state, and light. To determine these tolerance limits, we extracted maximum and minimum values of all environmental variables in corresponding locations where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are present. We found that the global, annually averaged tolerance limits for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are 21.7-29.6 °C for temperature, 28.7-40.4 psu for salinity, 4.51 μmol L-1 for nitrate, 0.63 μmol L-1 for phosphate, and 2.82 for aragonite saturation state. The averaged minimum light intensity in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is 450 μmol photons m-2 s-1. The global area of potential <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats calculated by the model is 330.5 × 103 km2. Compared with previous studies, the tolerance limits for temperature, salinity, and nutrients have not changed much, whereas the minimum value of aragonite saturation in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters has decreased from 3.28 to 2.82. The potential <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat area calculated with <span class="hlt">Reef</span>Hab is about 121×103 km2 larger than the area estimated from the charted <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, suggesting that the growth potential of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is higher than currently observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099220"><span>The dynamics of architectural complexity on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bozec, Yves-Marie; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Mumby, Peter J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One striking feature of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems is the complex benthic architecture which supports diverse and abundant fauna, particularly of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish. <span class="hlt">Reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> are in decline worldwide, with a corresponding loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover resulting in a loss of architectural complexity. Understanding the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> architecture is therefore important to envision the ability of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to maintain functional habitats in an era of climate change. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of <span class="hlt">reef</span> topographical complexity for contemporary Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The model describes the dynamics of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and other benthic taxa under climate-driven disturbances (hurricanes and <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching). <span class="hlt">Corals</span> have a simplified shape with explicit diameter and height, allowing species-specific calculation of their colony surface and volume. Growth and the mechanical (hurricanes) and biological erosion (parrotfish) of carbonate skeletons are important in driving the pace of extension/reduction in the upper <span class="hlt">reef</span> surface, the net outcome being quantified by a simple surface roughness index (<span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity). The model accurately simulated the decadal changes of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover observed in Cozumel (Mexico) between 1984 and 2008, and provided a realistic hindcast of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony-scale (1-10 m) changing rugosity over the same period. We then projected future changes of Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity in response to global warming. Under severe and frequent thermal stress, the model predicted a dramatic loss of rugosity over the next two or three decades. Critically, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with managed parrotfish populations were able to delay the general loss of architectural complexity, as the benefits of grazing in maintaining living <span class="hlt">coral</span> outweighed the bioerosion of dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons. Overall, this model provides the first explicit projections of <span class="hlt">reef</span> rugosity in a warming climate, and highlights the need of combining local (protecting and restoring high grazing) to global (mitigation of greenhouse gas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..215W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..215W"><span>Hypoxia tolerance in <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> triggerfishes (Balistidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Corrie C.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Callan, Chatham K.; Korsmeyer, Keith E.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Despite high rates of photosynthetic oxygen production during the day, the warm waters of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are susceptible to hypoxia at night due to elevated respiration rates at higher temperatures that also reduce the solubility of oxygen. Hypoxia may be a challenge for <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fish that hide in the <span class="hlt">reef</span> to avoid predators at night. Triggerfishes (Balistidae) are found in a variety of <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats, but they also are known to find refuge in <span class="hlt">reef</span> crevices and holes at night, which may expose them to hypoxic conditions. The critical oxygen tension ( P crit) was determined as the point below which oxygen uptake could not be maintained to support standard metabolic rate (SMR) for five species of triggerfish. The triggerfishes exhibited similar levels of hypoxia tolerance as other <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> and coastal marine fishes that encounter low oxygen levels in their environment. Two species, Rhinecanthus rectangulus and R. aculeatus, had the lowest P crit ( 3.0 kPa O2), comparable to the most hypoxia-tolerant obligate <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dwelling gobies, while Odonus niger and Sufflamen bursa were moderately tolerant to hypoxia ( P crit 4.5 kPa), and Xanthichthys auromarginatus was intermediate ( P crit 3.7 kPa). These differences in P crit were not due to differences in oxygen demand, as all the species had a similar SMR once mass differences were taken into account. The results suggest that triggerfish species are adapted for different levels of hypoxia exposure during nocturnal sheltering within the <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70128539','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70128539"><span>Integration of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem process studies and remote sensing: Chapter 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brook, John; Yates, Kimberly; Halley, Robert</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, local-scale anthropogenic stress combined with global climate change is driving shifts in the state of <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthic communities from <span class="hlt">coral</span>-rich to micro- or macroalgal-dominated (Knowlton, 1992; Done, 1999). Such phase shifts in <span class="hlt">reef</span> benthic communities may be either abrupt or gradual, and case studies from diverse ocean basins demonstrate that recovery, while uncertain (Hughes, 1994), typically involves progression through successional stages (Done, 1992). These transitions in benthic community structure involve changes in community metabolism, and accordingly, the holistic evaluation of associated biogeochemical variables is of great intrinsic value (Done, 1992). Effective <span class="hlt">reef</span> management requires advance prediction of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> alteration in the face of anthropogenic stress and change in the global environment (Hatcher, 1997a). In practice, this goal requires techniques that can rapidly discern, at an early stage, sublethal effects that may cause long-term increases in mortality (brown, 1988; Grigg and Dollar, 1990). Such methods would improve our understanding of the differences in the population, community, and ecosystem structure, as well as function, between pristine and degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This knowledge base could then support scientifically based management strategies (Done, 1992). Brown (1988) noted the general lack of rigor in the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of stress on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and suggested that more quantitative approaches than currently exist are needed to allow objective understanding of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> dynamics. Sensitive techniques for the timely appraisal of pollution effects or generalized endemic stress in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are sorely lacking (Grigg and Dollar, 1990; Wilkinsin, 1992). Moreover, monitoring methods based on population inventories, sclerochronology, or reproductive biology tend to myopic and may give inconsistent results. Ideally, an improved means of evaluating <span class="hlt">reef</span> stress would discriminate mortality due to natural causes from morality to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2255M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2255M"><span>Say what? <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> sounds as indicators of community assemblages and <span class="hlt">reef</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mooney, T. A.; Kaplan, M. B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> host some of the highest diversity of life on the planet. Unfortunately, <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and biodiversity is declining or is threatened as a result of climate change and human influences. Tracking these changes is necessary for effective resource management, yet estimating marine biodiversity and tracking trends in ecosystem health is a challenging and expensive task, especially in many pristine <span class="hlt">reefs</span> which are remote and difficult to access. Many fishes, mammals and invertebrates make sound. These sounds are reflective of a number of vital biological processes and are a cue for settling <span class="hlt">reef</span> larvae. Biological sounds may be a means to quantify ecosystem health and biodiversity, however the relationship between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes and the actual taxa present remains largely unknown. This study presents a comparative evaluation of the soundscape of multiple <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, naturally differing in benthic cover and fish diversity, in the U.S. Virgin Islands National Park. Using multiple recorders per <span class="hlt">reef</span> we characterized spacio-temporal variation in biological sound production within and among <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Analyses of sounds recorded over 4 summer months indicated diel trends in both fish and snapping shrimp acoustic frequency bands with crepuscular peaks at all <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. There were small but statistically significant acoustic differences among sites on a given <span class="hlt">reef</span> raising the possibility of potentially localized acoustic habitats. The strength of diel trends in lower, fish-frequency bands were correlated with <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and fish density, yet no such relationship was found with shrimp sounds suggesting that fish sounds may be of higher relevance to tracking certain <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conditions. These findings indicate that, in spite of considerable variability within <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes, diel trends in low-frequency sound production reflect <span class="hlt">reef</span> community assemblages. Further, monitoring soundscapes may be an efficient means of establishing and monitoring <span class="hlt">reef</span> conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030391','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030391"><span>Pulley <span class="hlt">reef</span>: a deep photosynthetic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> on the West Florida Shelf, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Pulley <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (24°50′N, 83°40′W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The <span class="hlt">reef</span> is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate <span class="hlt">corals</span> are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The <span class="hlt">reef</span> provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5053Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.5053Y"><span>Mangrove habitats provide refuge from climate change for <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yates, K. K.; Rogers, C. S.; Herlan, J. J.; Brooks, G. R.; Smiley, N. A.; Larson, R. A.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Risk analyses indicate that more than 90% of the world's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will be threatened by climate change and local anthropogenic impacts by the year 2030 under "business as usual" climate scenarios. Increasing temperatures and solar radiation cause <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching that has resulted in extensive <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality. Increasing carbon dioxide reduces seawater pH, slows <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, and may cause loss of <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure. Management strategies include establishment of marine protected areas with environmental conditions that promote <span class="hlt">reef</span> resiliency. However, few resilient <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have been identified, and resiliency factors are poorly defined. Here we characterize the first natural, non-<span class="hlt">reef</span>, <span class="hlt">coral</span> refuge from thermal stress and ocean acidification and identify resiliency factors for mangrove-<span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats. We measured diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and seawater chemistry; characterized substrate parameters; and examined water circulation patterns in mangrove communities where scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> are growing attached to and under mangrove prop roots in Hurricane Hole, St. John, US Virgin Islands. Additionally, we inventoried the <span class="hlt">coral</span> species and quantified incidences of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, mortality and recovery for two major <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>, Colpophyllia natans and Diploria labyrinthiformis, growing in mangrove shaded and exposed (unshaded) areas. At least 33 species of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> were growing in association with mangroves. <span class="hlt">Corals</span> were thriving in low-light (more than 70% attenuation of incident PAR) from mangrove shading and at higher temperatures than nearby <span class="hlt">reef</span> tract <span class="hlt">corals</span>. A higher percentage of C. natans colonies was living shaded by mangroves, and no shaded colonies bleached. Fewer D. labyrinthiformis colonies were shaded by mangroves, however more unshaded colonies bleached. A combination of substrate and habitat heterogeniety, proximity of different habitat types, hydrographic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18728776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18728776"><span>Climate warming, marine protected areas and the ocean-scale integrity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R; MacNeil, M Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Jennings, Simon; Chabanet, Pascale; Clark, Susan; Spalding, Mark D; Letourneur, Yves; Bigot, Lionel; Galzin, René; Ohman, Marcus C; Garpe, Kajsa C; Edwards, Alasdair J; Sheppard, Charles R C</p> <p>2008-08-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have emerged as one of the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate variation and change. While the contribution of a warming climate to the loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has been well documented across large spatial and temporal scales, the associated effects on fish have not. Here, we respond to recent and repeated calls to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the importance of local management in conserving <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the context of global climate change. Such information is important, as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish assemblages are the most species dense vertebrate communities on earth, contributing critical ecosystem functions and providing crucial ecosystem services to human societies in tropical countries. Our <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the impacts of the 1998 mass bleaching event on <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, <span class="hlt">reef</span> structural complexity, and <span class="hlt">reef</span> associated fishes spans 7 countries, 66 sites and 26 degrees of latitude in the Indian Ocean. Using Bayesian meta-analysis we show that changes in the size structure, diversity and trophic composition of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish community have followed <span class="hlt">coral</span> declines. Although the ocean scale integrity of these <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems has been lost, it is positive to see the effects are spatially variable at multiple scales, with impacts and vulnerability affected by geography but not management regime. Existing no-take marine protected areas still support high biomass of fish, however they had no positive affect on the ecosystem response to large-scale disturbance. This suggests a need for future conservation and management efforts to identify and protect regional refugia, which should be integrated into existing management frameworks and combined with policies to improve system-wide resilience to climate variation and change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846430','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4846430"><span>Are <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> victims of their own past success?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Renema, Willem; Pandolfi, John M.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Klaus, James S.; Korpanty, Chelsea; Rosen, Brian R.; Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Wallace, Carden C.; Webster, Jody M.; Johnson, Kenneth G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As one of the most prolific and widespread <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders, the staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> Acropora holds a disproportionately large role in how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will respond to accelerating anthropogenic change. We show that although Acropora has a diverse history extended over the past 50 million years, it was not a dominant <span class="hlt">reef</span> builder until the onset of high-amplitude glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations 1.8 million years ago. High growth rates and propagation by fragmentation have favored staghorn <span class="hlt">corals</span> since this time. In contrast, staghorn <span class="hlt">corals</span> are among the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">corals</span> to anthropogenic stressors, with marked global loss of abundance worldwide. The continued decline in staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance and the mounting challenges from both local stress and climate change will limit the <span class="hlt">coral</span> reefs’ ability to provide ecosystem services. PMID:27152330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.626S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000EOSTr..81Q.626S"><span>New protection initiatives announced for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p></p> <p>Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of <span class="hlt">coral</span>, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031637','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070031637"><span>Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Observation Network/<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Early Warning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Observation System/<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21985176"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as drivers of cladogenesis: expanding <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, cryptic extinction events, and the development of biodiversity hotspots.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowman, P F; Bellwood, D R</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Diversification rates within four conspicuous <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish families (Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Pomacentridae and Apogonidae) were estimated using Bayesian inference. Lineage through time plots revealed a possible late Eocene/early Oligocene cryptic extinction event coinciding with the collapse of the ancestral Tethyan/Arabian hotspot. Rates of diversification analysis revealed elevated cladogenesis in all families in the Oligocene/Miocene. Throughout the Miocene, lineages with a high percentage of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated taxa display significantly higher net diversification rates than expected. The development of a complex mosaic of <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) during the Oligocene/Miocene appears to have been a significant driver of cladogenesis. Patterns of diversification suggest that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> acted as a refuge from high extinction, as <span class="hlt">reef</span> taxa are able to sustain diversification at high extinction rates. The IAA appears to support both cladogenesis and survival in associated lineages, laying the foundation for the recent IAA marine biodiversity hotspot. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82....1W"><span>Crisis on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> linked to climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wellington, Gerard M.; Glynn, Peter W.; Strong, Alan E.; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Wieters, Evie; Hubbard, Dennis</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Since 1982, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide have been subjected to an increased frequency of the phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. Bleaching involves the dramatic loss of pigmented, single-celled endosymbiotic algae that live within the gastrodermal cells of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> host that depends on this relationship for survival. Prior to the 1980s, and as early as the 1920s when <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> research intensified, localized bleaching events were reported and attributed to factors such as extremely low tides, hurricane damage, torrential rainstorms, freshwater runoff near <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, or toxic algal blooms [Glynn, 1993]. However, these early occurrences have recently been overshadowed by geographically larger and more frequent bleaching events whose impact has expanded to regional and global proportions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.1739Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.1739Y"><span>Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in our study ranged from -0.09 to -0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4 × 106 to 80.5 × 106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated substrate and non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25611594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25611594"><span>Forecasted <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline in marine biodiversity hotspots under climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Descombes, Patrice; Wisz, Mary S; Leprieur, Fabien; Parravicini, Valerianio; Heine, Christian; Olsen, Steffen M; Swingedouw, Didier; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David; Pellissier, Loïc</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> bleaching events threaten <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats globally and cause severe declines of local biodiversity and productivity. Related to high sea surface temperatures (SST), bleaching events are expected to increase as a consequence of future global warming. However, response to climate change is still uncertain as future low-latitude climatic conditions have no present-day analogue. Sea surface temperatures during the Eocene epoch were warmer than forecasted changes for the coming century, and distributions of <span class="hlt">corals</span> during the Eocene may help to inform models forecasting the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We coupled contemporary and Eocene <span class="hlt">coral</span> occurrences with information on their respective climatic conditions to model the thermal niche of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and its potential response to projected climate change. We found that under the RCP8.5 climate change scenario, the global suitability for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may increase up to 16% by 2100, mostly due to improved suitability of higher latitudes. In contrast, in its current range, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> suitability may decrease up to 46% by 2100. Reduction in thermal suitability will be most severe in biodiversity hotspots, especially in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Our results suggest that many contemporary hotspots for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, including those that have been refugia in the past, spatially mismatch with future suitable areas for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> posing challenges to conservation actions under climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080026034&hterms=Biodiversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBiodiversity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080026034&hterms=Biodiversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DBiodiversity"><span>Mapping the Rainforest of the Sea: Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Maps for Global Conservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Julie A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are the center of marine biodiversity, yet are under threat with an estimated 60% of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats considered at risk by the World Resources Institute. The location and extent of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the world are the basic information required for resource management and as a baseline for monitoring change. A NASA sponsored partnership between remote sensing scientists, international agencies and NGOs, has developed a new generation of global <span class="hlt">reef</span> maps based on data collected by satellites. The effort, dubbed the Millennium <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Map aims to develop new methods for wide distribution of voluminous satellite data of use to the conservation and management communities. We discuss the tradeoffs between remote sensing data sources, mapping objectives, and the needs for conservation and resource management. SeaWiFS data were used to produce a composite global shallow bathymetry map at 1 km resolution. Landsat 7/ETM+ data acquisition plans were modified to collect global <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and new operational methods were designed to generate the firstever global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> geomorphology map. We discuss the challenges encountered to build these databases and in implementing the geospatial data distribution strategies. Conservation applications include a new <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the distribution of the world s marine protected areas (UNEPWCMC), improved spatial resolution in the <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> at Risk analysis for the Caribbean (WRI), and a global basemap for the Census of Marine Life's OBIS database. The Millennium <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> map and digital image archive will pay significant dividends for local and regional conservation projects around the globe. Complete details of the project are available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/<span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28067281"><span>Spatial competition dynamics between <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> under ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horwitz, Rael; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Fine, Maoz</p> <p>2017-01-09</p> <p>Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species. Reduced growth from OA, however, is negligible when growth is already suppressed in the presence of interspecific competition. Using a spatial competition model, our analysis indicates shifts in the competitive hierarchy and a decrease in overall <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover under lowered pH. Collectively, our case study demonstrates how modified competitive performance under increasing OA will in all likelihood change the composition, structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740288H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatSR...740288H"><span>Spatial competition dynamics between <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> under ocean acidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horwitz, Rael; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Fine, Maoz</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species. Reduced growth from OA, however, is negligible when growth is already suppressed in the presence of interspecific competition. Using a spatial competition model, our analysis indicates shifts in the competitive hierarchy and a decrease in overall <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover under lowered pH. Collectively, our case study demonstrates how modified competitive performance under increasing OA will in all likelihood change the composition, structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5220319','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5220319"><span>Spatial competition dynamics between <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> under ocean acidification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horwitz, Rael; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Fine, Maoz</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Climate change, including ocean acidification (OA), represents a major threat to <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems. Although previous experiments have shown that OA can negatively affect the fitness of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>, these have not included the long-term effects of competition for space on <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth rates. Our multispecies year-long study subjected <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) to competitive interactions under present-day ocean pH (pH 8.1) and predicted end-of-century ocean pH (pH 7.6). Results showed <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth is significantly impeded by OA under intraspecific competition for five out of six study species. Reduced growth from OA, however, is negligible when growth is already suppressed in the presence of interspecific competition. Using a spatial competition model, our analysis indicates shifts in the competitive hierarchy and a decrease in overall <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover under lowered pH. Collectively, our case study demonstrates how modified competitive performance under increasing OA will in all likelihood change the composition, structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities. PMID:28067281</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832406"><span>Modelling <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Futures to Inform Management: Can Reducing Local-Scale Stressors Conserve <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> under Climate Change?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gurney, Georgina G.; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C.; Aliño, Perry M.; Johnson, Craig R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and is expected to exacerbate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of <span class="hlt">reef</span> state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state under varying climatic scenarios relating to <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state, including <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect <span class="hlt">reef</span> state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's <span class="hlt">reef</span> system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's <span class="hlt">reef</span> system, our study offers insights which could inform <span class="hlt">reef</span> management more broadly, as well as general understanding of <span class="hlt">reef</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24260347"><span>Modelling <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> futures to inform management: can reducing local-scale stressors conserve <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under climate change?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gurney, Georgina G; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Geronimo, Rollan C; Aliño, Perry M; Johnson, Craig R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate change has emerged as a principal threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and is expected to exacerbate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation caused by more localised stressors. Management of local stressors is widely advocated to bolster <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience, but the extent to which management of local stressors might affect future trajectories of <span class="hlt">reef</span> state remains unclear. This is in part because of limited understanding of the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. Models are ideal tools to aid understanding of future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state under alternative management and climatic scenarios, but to date few have been sufficiently developed to be useful as decision support tools for local management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> subject to multiple stressors. We used a simulation model of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to investigate the extent to which the management of local stressors (namely poor water quality and fishing) might influence future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state under varying climatic scenarios relating to <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. We parameterised the model for Bolinao, the Philippines, and explored how simulation modelling can be used to provide decision support for local management. We found that management of water quality, and to a lesser extent fishing, can have a significant impact on future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state, including <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery following bleaching-induced mortality. The stressors we examined interacted antagonistically to affect <span class="hlt">reef</span> state, highlighting the importance of considering the combined impact of multiple stressors rather than considering them individually. Further, by providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's <span class="hlt">reef</span> system, such as which course of management action will most likely to be effective over what time scales and at which sites, we demonstrated the utility of simulation models for supporting management. Aside from providing explicit guidance for management of Bolinao's <span class="hlt">reef</span> system, our study offers insights which could inform <span class="hlt">reef</span> management more broadly, as well as general understanding of <span class="hlt">reef</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5786882','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5786882"><span>Historical baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as estimated by expert opinion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheung, William W.L.; Bruno, John F.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are important habitats that represent global marine biodiversity hotspots and provide important benefits to people in many tropical regions. However, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change, overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. Historical baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover are important to understand how much <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has been lost, e.g., to avoid the ‘shifting baseline syndrome’. There are few quantitative observations of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover prior to the industrial revolution, and therefore baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover are difficult to estimate. Here, we use expert and ocean-user opinion surveys to estimate baselines of global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover. The overall mean estimated baseline <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was 59% (±19% standard deviation), compared to an average of 58% (±18% standard deviation) estimated by professional scientists. We did not find evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome, whereby respondents who first observed <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> more recently report lower estimates of baseline <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. These estimates of historical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> baseline cover are important for scientists, policy makers, and managers to understand the extent to which <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have become depleted and to set appropriate recovery targets. PMID:29379692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29379692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29379692"><span>Historical baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as estimated by expert opinion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eddy, Tyler D; Cheung, William W L; Bruno, John F</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are important habitats that represent global marine biodiversity hotspots and provide important benefits to people in many tropical regions. However, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change, overfishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. Historical baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover are important to understand how much <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover has been lost, e.g., to avoid the 'shifting baseline syndrome'. There are few quantitative observations of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover prior to the industrial revolution, and therefore baselines of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover are difficult to estimate. Here, we use expert and ocean-user opinion surveys to estimate baselines of global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cover. The overall mean estimated baseline <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was 59% (±19% standard deviation), compared to an average of 58% (±18% standard deviation) estimated by professional scientists. We did not find evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome, whereby respondents who first observed <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> more recently report lower estimates of baseline <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. These estimates of historical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> baseline cover are important for scientists, policy makers, and managers to understand the extent to which <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have become depleted and to set appropriate recovery targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19323170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19323170"><span>Symbiont diversity may help <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> survive moderate climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baskett, Marissa L; Gaines, Steven D; Nisbet, Roger M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Given climate change, thermal stress-related mass <span class="hlt">coral</span>-bleaching events present one of the greatest anthropogenic threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. While <span class="hlt">corals</span> and their symbiotic algae may respond to future temperatures through genetic adaptation and shifts in community compositions, the climate may change too rapidly for <span class="hlt">coral</span> response. To test this potential for response, here we develop a model of <span class="hlt">coral</span> and symbiont ecological dynamics and symbiont evolutionary dynamics. Model results without variation in symbiont thermal tolerance predict <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> collapse within decades under multiple future climate scenarios, consistent with previous threshold-based predictions. However, model results with genetic or community-level variation in symbiont thermal tolerance can predict <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> persistence into the next century, provided low enough greenhouse gas emissions occur. Therefore, the level of greenhouse gas emissions will have a significant effect on the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and accounting for biodiversity and biological dynamics is vital to estimating the size of this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010048','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090010048"><span>Photography of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> from ISS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Julie A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The photographs include <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through <span class="hlt">Reef</span>Base, and by biologist in the field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..559W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.138..559W"><span>How models can support ecosystem-based management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Janssen, Annette B. G.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Leemans, Rik; Robson, Barbara J.; van de Leemput, Ingrid A.; Mooij, Wolf M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Despite the importance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems to the social and economic welfare of coastal communities, the condition of these marine ecosystems have generally degraded over the past decades. With an increased knowledge of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem processes and a rise in computer power, dynamic models are useful tools in <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the synergistic effects of local and global stressors on ecosystem functions. We review representative approaches for dynamically modeling <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems and categorize them as minimal, intermediate and complex models. The categorization was based on the leading principle for model development and their level of realism and process detail. This review aims to improve the knowledge of concurrent approaches in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem modeling and highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate approach based on the type of question(s) to be answered. We contend that minimal and intermediate models are generally valuable tools to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the response of key states to main stressors and, hence, contribute to understanding ecological surprises. As has been shown in freshwater resources management, insight into these conceptual relations profoundly influences how natural resource managers perceive their systems and how they manage ecosystem recovery. We argue that adaptive resource management requires integrated thinking and decision support, which demands a diversity of modeling approaches. Integration can be achieved through complimentary use of models or through integrated models that systemically combine all relevant aspects in one model. Such whole-of-system models can be useful tools for quantitatively evaluating scenarios. These models allow an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the interactive effects of multiple stressors on various, potentially conflicting, management objectives. All models simplify reality and, as such, have their weaknesses. While minimal models lack multidimensionality, system models are likely difficult to interpret as they</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B53E..05E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B53E..05E"><span>Few Like it Hot: <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Reponses to Elevated Temperatures and CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eakin, C. M.; Gledhill, D. K.; Heron, S. F.; Skirving, W.; Christensen, T.; Morgan, J.; Liu, G.; Strong, A. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> live within a fairly narrow envelope of environmental conditions constrained by water temperatures, light, salinity, nutrients, bathymetry and the aragonite saturation state of seawater. As documented in numerous studies, the world's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are "in crisis" as a result of human impacts on their environment. While local stresses currently dominate, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are increasingly confronted with global-scale changes due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations. These changes are rapidly modifying the environmental envelope of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> through both increased thermal stress and ocean acidification. In the former case, there is a well-documented relationship between thermal stress and the response of <span class="hlt">corals</span> that include <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, disease, and mortality. Clear tolerance thresholds exist beyond which high temperature and accumulated thermal stress have deleterious effects. However, the synergistic effects of increasing temperature and ocean acidification are not yet fully understood. At this time, there is mounting concern that decreasing pH and aragonite saturation state will cause net <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion to cease or become negative. The threshold at which this could occur is likely to be reached much sooner than the pH drop necessary to induce carbonate dissolution. Both the thermal and chemical limits that control <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival and <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth will likely be passed before 2100 assuming even conservative projections reported in the 4th <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This talk will discuss these thresholds and their ramifications for ecosystems and resource management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26616.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-14/pdf/2011-26616.pdf"><span>76 FR 63904 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-14</p> <p>... Collection; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Program Administration AGENCY: National Oceanic and... The <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Act of 2000 (Act) was enacted to provide a framework for conserving <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Conservation Grant Program, under the Act, provides funds to broad- based...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29750192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29750192"><span>Attenuating effects of ecosystem management on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steneck, Robert S; Mumby, Peter J; MacDonald, Chancey; Rasher, Douglas B; Stoyle, George</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Managing diverse ecosystems is challenging because structuring drivers are often processes having diffuse impacts that attenuate from the people who were "managed" to the expected ecosystem-wide outcome. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes targeted for management only indirectly link to the ecosystem's foundation (<span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>). Three successively weakening interaction tiers separate management of fishing from <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance. We studied 12 islands along the 700-km eastern Caribbean archipelago, comparing fished and unfished <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Fishing reduced biomass of carnivorous (snappers and groupers) and herbivorous (parrotfish and surgeonfish) fishes. We document attenuating but important effects of managing fishing, which explained 37% of variance in parrotfish abundance, 20% of variance in harmful algal abundance, and 17% of variance in juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance. The explained variance increased when we quantified herbivory using area-specific bite rates. Local fisheries management resulted in a 62% increase in the archipelago's juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> density, improving the ecosystem's recovery potential from major disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5942913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5942913"><span>Attenuating effects of ecosystem management on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rasher, Douglas B.; Stoyle, George</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Managing diverse ecosystems is challenging because structuring drivers are often processes having diffuse impacts that attenuate from the people who were “managed” to the expected ecosystem-wide outcome. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes targeted for management only indirectly link to the ecosystem’s foundation (<span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>). Three successively weakening interaction tiers separate management of fishing from <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance. We studied 12 islands along the 700-km eastern Caribbean archipelago, comparing fished and unfished <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Fishing reduced biomass of carnivorous (snappers and groupers) and herbivorous (parrotfish and surgeonfish) fishes. We document attenuating but important effects of managing fishing, which explained 37% of variance in parrotfish abundance, 20% of variance in harmful algal abundance, and 17% of variance in juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> abundance. The explained variance increased when we quantified herbivory using area-specific bite rates. Local fisheries management resulted in a 62% increase in the archipelago’s juvenile <span class="hlt">coral</span> density, improving the ecosystem’s recovery potential from major disturbances. PMID:29750192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4247403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4247403"><span>Synergistic impacts of global warming on the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bozec, Yves-Marie; Mumby, Peter J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent epizootics have removed important functional species from Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and left communities vulnerable to alternative attractors. Global warming will impact <span class="hlt">reefs</span> further through two mechanisms. A chronic mechanism reduces <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification, which can result in depressed somatic growth. An acute mechanism, <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, causes extreme mortality when sea temperatures become anomalously high. We ask how these two mechanisms interact in driving future <span class="hlt">reef</span> state (<span class="hlt">coral</span> cover) and resilience (the probability of a <span class="hlt">reef</span> remaining within a <span class="hlt">coral</span> attractor). We find that acute mechanisms have the greatest impact overall, but the nature of the interaction with chronic stress depends on the metric considered. Chronic and acute stress act additively on <span class="hlt">reef</span> state but form a strong synergy when influencing resilience by intensifying a regime shift. Chronic stress increases the size of the algal basin of attraction (at the expense of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> basin), whereas <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching pushes the system closer to the algal attractor. Resilience can change faster—and earlier—than a change in <span class="hlt">reef</span> state. Therefore, we caution against basing management solely on measures of <span class="hlt">reef</span> state because a loss of resilience can go unnoticed for many years and then become disproportionately more difficult to restore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28090075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28090075"><span>Virus-host interactions and their roles in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Payet, Jérôme P; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality and <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) <span class="hlt">corals</span> to influence microbial community dynamics, <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and disease, and <span class="hlt">reef</span> biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> system and suggest that the influence of viruses on <span class="hlt">reef</span> function is an essential component of these globally important environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29339333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29339333"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for coastal protection: A new methodological approach and engineering case study in Grenada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reguero, Borja G; Beck, Michael W; Agostini, Vera N; Kramer, Philip; Hancock, Boze</p> <p>2018-03-15</p> <p>Coastal communities in tropical environments are at increasing risk from both environmental degradation and climate change and require urgent local adaptation action. Evidences show <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> play a critical role in wave attenuation but relatively little direct connection has been drawn between these effects and impacts on shorelines. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> are rarely <span class="hlt">assessed</span> for their coastal protection service and thus not managed for their infrastructure benefits, while widespread damage and degradation continues. This paper presents a systematic approach to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the protective role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and to examine solutions based on the <span class="hlt">reef</span>'s influence on wave propagation patterns. Portions of the shoreline of Grenville Bay, Grenada, have seen acute shoreline erosion and coastal flooding. This paper (i) analyzes the historical changes in the shoreline and the local marine, (ii) <span class="hlt">assess</span> the role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in shoreline positioning through a shoreline equilibrium model first applied to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments, and (iii) design and begin implementation of a <span class="hlt">reef</span>-based solution to reduce erosion and flooding. Coastline changes in the bay over the past 6 decades are analyzed from bathymetry and benthic surveys, historical imagery, historical wave and sea level data and modeling of wave dynamics. The analysis shows that, at present, the healthy and well-developed <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> system in the southern bay keeps the shoreline in equilibrium and stable, whereas <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation in the northern bay is linked with severe coastal erosion. A comparison of wave energy modeling for past bathymetry indicates that degradation of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> better explains erosion than changes in climate and historical sea level rise. Using this knowledge on how <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affect the hydrodynamics, a <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration solution is designed and studied to ameliorate the coastal erosion and flooding. A characteristic design provides a modular design that can meet specific engineering, ecological and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=158584&keyword=Corals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=158584&keyword=Corals&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">CORAL</span> <span class="hlt">REEF</span> BIOCRITERIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide are experiencing the greatest decline of their known existence and few tools are available to offset the growing impacts of human coastal and watershed activities. Biocriteria are a potentially effective means to evaluate and restore impaired waters, but are...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11163849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11163849"><span>Ocular media transmission of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish--can <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish see ultraviolet light?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siebeck, U E; Marshall, N J</p> <p>2001-01-15</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish are beautifully coloured and the reflectance spectra of their colour patterns may include UVa wavelengths (315-400 nm) that are largely invisible to the human eye (Losey, G. S., Cronin, T. W., Goldsmith, T. H., David, H., Marshall, N. J., & McFarland, W.N. (1999). The uv visual world of fishes: a review. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 921-943; Marshall, N. J. & Oberwinkler, J. (1999). The colourful world of the mantis shrimp. Nature, 401, 873-874). Before the possible functional significance of UV patterns can be investigated, it is of course essential to establish whether <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes can see ultraviolet light. As a means of tackling this question, in this study the transmittance of the ocular media of 211 <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species was measured. It was found that the ocular media of 50.2% of the examined species strongly absorb light of wavelengths below 400 nm, which makes the perception of UV in these fish very unlikely. The remaining 49.8% of the species studied possess ocular media that do transmit UV light, making the perception of UV possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=213743','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=213743"><span>Project Overview: A <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Manager's Guide to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Bleaching ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this report is to provide the latest scientific knowledge and discuss available management options to assist local and regional managers in responding effectively to mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events. Background A <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Manager’s Guide to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Bleaching is the result of a collaborative effort by over 50 scientists and managers to: (1) share the best available scientific information on climate-related <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching; and (2) compile a tool kit of currently available strategies for adaptive management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in a changing climate. The result is a compendium of current information, tools, and practical suggestions to aid managers in their efforts to protect <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in a way that maximizes <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience in the face of continuing climate change. The Guide is a joint publication of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Marine Park Authority, and The World Conservation Union, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. EPA’s Office of Research and Development was a major contributor to the Guide through authorship and participation in the final review and editing process for the entire report. A <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Manager’s Guide to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Bleaching is the result of a collaborative effort by over 50 scientists and managers to: (1) share the best available scientific information on climate-related <span class="hlt">coral</span> blea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0837G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0837G"><span>Feedbacks Between Wave Energy And Declining <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Structure: Implications For Coastal Morphodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grady, A. E.; Jenkins, C. J.; Moore, L. J.; Potts, D. C.; Burgess, P. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Elias, E.; Reidenbach, M. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The incident wave energy dissipated by the structural complexity and bottom roughness of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, and the carbonate sediment produced by framework-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>, provide natural shoreline protection and nourishment, respectively. Globally, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are in decline as a result of ocean warming and acidification, which is exacerbated by chronic regional stressors such as pollution and disease. As a consequence of declining <span class="hlt">reef</span> health, many <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are experiencing reduced <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and shifts to dominance by macroalgae, resulting in a loss of rugosity and thus hydrodynamic roughness. As <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> architecture is compromised and carbonate skeletons are eroded, wave energy dissipation and sediment transport patterns--along with the carbonate sediment budget of the coastal environment--may be altered. Using a Delft3D numerical model of the south-central Molokai, Hawaii, fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span>, we simulate the effects of changing <span class="hlt">reef</span> states on wave energy and sediment transport. To determine the temporally-varying effects of biotic and abiotic stressors such as storms and bleaching on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> structure and carbonate production, we couple Delft3D with CarboLOT, a model that simulates growth and competition of carbonate-producing organisms. CarboLOT is driven by the Lotka-Volterra population ecology equations and niche suitability principles, and accesses the CarboKB database for region-specific, carbonate-producing species information on growth rates, reproduction patterns, habitat suitability, as well as organism geometries. Simulations <span class="hlt">assess</span> how changing <span class="hlt">reef</span> states--which alter carbonate sediment production and <span class="hlt">reef</span> morphology and thus hydrodynamic roughness--impact wave attenuation and sediment transport gradients along <span class="hlt">reef</span>-fronted beaches. Initial results suggest that along fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> having characteristics similar to the Molokai fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span>, projected sea level rise will likely outpace <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion, and the increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2000/of00-164/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2000/of00-164/"><span>Environmental quality and preservation; <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and carbonate sands; guides to <span class="hlt">reef</span>-ecosystem health and environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lidz, Barbara H.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Introduction In recent years, the health of the entire <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys has declined markedly. In particular, loss of those <span class="hlt">coral</span> species that are the building blocks of solid <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework has significant negative implications for economic vitality of the region. What are the reasons for this decline? Is it due to natural change, or are human activities (recreational diving, ship groundings, farmland runoff, nutrient influx, air-borne contaminants, groundwater pollutants) a contributing factor and if so, to what extent? At risk of loss are biologic resources of the <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, including habitats for endangered species in shoreline mangroves, productive marine and wetland nurseries, and economic fisheries. A healthy <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem builds a protective offshore barrier to catastrophic wave action and storm surges generated by tropical storms and hurricanes. In turn, a healthy <span class="hlt">reef</span> protects the homes, marinas, and infrastructure on the Florida Keys that have been designed to capture a lucrative tourism industry. A healthy <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem also protects inland agricultural and livestock areas of South Florida whose produce and meat feed much of the United States and other parts of the world. In cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Marine Sanctuary Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues longterm investigations of factors that may affect Florida's <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. One of the first steps in distinguishing between natural change and the effects of human activities, however, is to determine how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have responded to past environmental change, before the advent of man. By so doing, accurate scientific information becomes available for Marine Sanctuary management to understand natural change and thus to <span class="hlt">assess</span> and regulate potential human impact better. The USGS studies described here evaluate the distribution (location) and historic vitality (thickness) of Holocene</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307798&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=invertebrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307798&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=invertebrates&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Workshop on Biological Integrity of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> August 21-22, 2012, Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute, Isla Magueyes, La Parguera, Puerto Rico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes an EPA-sponsored workshop on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biological integrity held at the Caribbean <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Institute in La Parguera, Puerto Rico on August 21-22, 2012. The goals of this workshop were to:• Identify key qualitative and quantitative ecological characterist...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734086','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734086"><span>Climate-Smart Design for Ecosystem Management: A Test Application for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>West, Jordan M; Courtney, Catherine A; Hamilton, Anna T; Parker, Britt A; Julius, Susan H; Hoffman, Jennie; Koltes, Karen H; MacGowan, Petra</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The interactive and cumulative impacts of climate change on natural resources such as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> present numerous challenges for conservation planning and management. Climate change adaptation is complex due to climate-stressor interactions across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This leaves decision makers worldwide faced with local, regional, and global-scale threats to ecosystem processes and services, occurring over time frames that require both near-term and long-term planning. Thus there is a need for structured approaches to adaptation planning that integrate existing methods for vulnerability <span class="hlt">assessment</span> with design and evaluation of effective adaptation responses. The <span class="hlt">Corals</span> and Climate Adaptation Planning project of the U.S. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Task Force seeks to develop guidance for improving <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management through tailored application of a climate-smart approach. This approach is based on principles from a recently-published guide which provides a framework for adopting forward-looking goals, based on <span class="hlt">assessing</span> vulnerabilities to climate change and applying a structured process to design effective adaptation strategies. Work presented in this paper includes: (1) examination of the climate-smart management cycle as it relates to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>; (2) a compilation of adaptation strategies for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> drawn from a comprehensive review of the literature; (3) in-depth demonstration of climate-smart design for place-based crafting of robust adaptation actions; and (4) feedback from stakeholders on the perceived usefulness of the approach. We conclude with a discussion of lessons-learned on integrating climate-smart design into real-world management planning processes and a call from stakeholders for an "adaptation design tool" that is now under development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70188141','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70188141"><span>Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated substrate and non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122685','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70122685"><span>African and Asian dust: from desert soils to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrison, Virginia H.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Foreman, William T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Holmes, Charles W.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Richardson, Laurie L.; Ritchie, Kim B.; Smith, Garriet W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> throughout the world, but none adequately accounts for the lack of recovery of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> or the wide geographical distribution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases. The processes driving the decline remain elusive. Hundreds of millions of tons of dust transported annually from Africa and Asia to the Americas may be adversely affecting <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and other downwind ecosystems. Viable microorganisms, macro- and micronutrients, trace metals, and an array of organic contaminants carried in the dust air masses and deposited in the oceans and on land may play important roles in the complex changes occurring on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28623288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28623288"><span>Seabirds supply nitrogen to <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> on remote Pacific islets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lorrain, Anne; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Benzoni, Francesca; Barjon, Lucie; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura; Menkes, Christophe; Gillikin, David P; Payri, Claude; Jourdan, Hervé; Boussarie, Germain; Verheyden, Anouk; Vidal, Eric</p> <p>2017-06-16</p> <p>Seabirds concentrate nutrients from large marine areas on their nesting islands playing an important ecological role in nutrient transfer between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here we investigate the role of guano on <span class="hlt">corals</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across scales by analyzing the stable nitrogen isotopic (δ 15 N) values of the scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> Pocillopora damicornis on fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around two Pacific remote islets with large seabird colonies. Marine stations closest to the seabird colonies had higher nitrate + nitrite concentrations compared to more distant stations. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> and zooxanthellae δ 15 N values were also higher at these sites, suggesting that guano-derived nitrogen is assimilated into <span class="hlt">corals</span> and contributes to their nitrogen requirements. The spatial extent of guano influence was however restricted to a local scale. Our results demonstrate that seabird-derived nutrients not only spread across the terrestrial ecosystem, but also affect components of the adjacent marine ecosystem. Further studies are now needed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> if this nutrient input has a positive or negative effect for <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Such studies on remote islets also open fresh perspectives to understand how nutrients affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> isolated from other anthropogenic stressors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22391236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22391236"><span>Spatial and temporal variations in <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth on an inshore turbid <span class="hlt">reef</span> subjected to multiple disturbances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Browne, N K</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> growth rates (linear extension, density, calcification rates) of three fast-growing <span class="hlt">corals</span> (Acropora, Montipora, Turbinaria) were studied in situ on Middle <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, an inshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> located on the central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR), to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the influence of changing environmental conditions on <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition and <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth. Middle <span class="hlt">Reef</span> is subjected to both local (e.g. high sediment loads) and global (e.g. <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching) disturbance events, usually associated with reduced <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. Results indicated, however, that Acropora growth rates (mean linear extension = 6.3 cm/year) were comparable to those measured at similar depths on offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on the GBR. Montipora linear extension (2.9 cm/year) was greater than estimates available from both clear-water and turbid <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and Turbinaria's dense skeleton (1.3 g/cm(3)) may be more resilient to physical damage as ocean pH falls. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> growth was found to vary between <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats due to spatial differences in water motion and sediment dynamics, and temporally with lower calcification rates during the summer months when SSTs (monthly average 29 °C) and rainfall (monthly total >500 mm) were high. In summary, <span class="hlt">corals</span> on Middle <span class="hlt">Reef</span> are robust and resilient to their marginal environmental conditions, but are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances during the summer months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036832"><span>Identification and prevalence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases on three Western Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Séré, Mathieu G; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H</p> <p>2015-06-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> diseases have caused a substantial decline in the biodiversity and abundance of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. To date, more than 30 distinct diseases of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> have been reported, which cause progressive tissue loss and/or affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, reproductive capacity, recruitment, species diversity and the abundance of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated organisms. While <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease research has increased over the last 4 decades, very little is known about <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases in the Western Indian Ocean. Surveys conducted at multiple sites in Reunion, South Africa and Mayotte between August 2010 and June 2012 revealed the presence of 6 main <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases: black band disease (BBD), white syndrome (WS), pink line syndrome (PLS), growth anomalies (GA), skeleton eroding band (SEB) and Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Overall, disease prevalence was higher in Reunion (7.5 ± 2.2%; mean ± SE) compared to South Africa (3.9 ± 0.8%) and Mayotte (2.7 ± 0.3%). Across locations, Acropora and Porites were the genera most susceptible to disease. Spatial variability was detected in both Reunion and South Africa, with BBD and WS more prevalent on shallow than deep <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. There was also evidence of seasonality in 2 diseases: the prevalence of BBD and WS was higher in summer than winter. This was the first study to investigate the ecology of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases, providing both qualitative and quantitative data, on Western Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and surveys should be expanded to confirm these patterns.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME12A..05R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME12A..05R"><span>The importance of spatial fishing behavior for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rassweiler, A.; Lauer, M.; Holbrook, S. J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are dynamic systems in which disturbances periodically reduce <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover but are normally followed by recovery of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> community. However, human activity may have reduced this resilience to disturbance in many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems, as an increasing number of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have undergone persistent transitions from <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated to macroalgal-dominated community states. Fishing on herbivores may be one cause of reduced <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience, as lower herbivory can make it easier for macroalgae to become established after a disturbance. Despite the acknowledged importance of fishing, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential for feedbacks between ecosystem state and fisher behavior. Here we couple methods from environmental anthropology and ecology to explore these feedbacks between small-scale fisheries and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Moorea, French Polynesia. We document how aspects of ecological state such as the abundance of macroalgae affect people's preference for fishing in particular lagoon habitats. We then incorporate biases towards fishing in certain ecological states into a spatially explicit bio-economic model of ecological dynamics and fishing in Moorea's lagoons. We find that feedbacks between spatial fishing behavior and ecological state can have critical effects on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Presence of these spatial behaviors consistently leads to more coherence across the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scape. However, whether this coherence manifests as increased resilience or increased fragility depends on the spatial scales of fisher movement and the magnitudes of disturbance. These results emphasize the potential importance of spatially-explicit fishing behavior for <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience, but also the complexity of the feedbacks involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23610632"><span>Boring sponges, an increasing threat for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> bleaching is a stress response of <span class="hlt">corals</span> induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that cover the entire distributional range of <span class="hlt">corals</span> along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was used to describe the present condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> beyond their survival threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3631402','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3631402"><span>Boring sponges, an increasing threat for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carballo, José L; Bautista, Eric; Nava, Héctor; Cruz-Barraza, José A; Chávez, Jesus A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> bleaching is a stress response of <span class="hlt">corals</span> induced by a variety of factors, but these events have become more frequent and intense in response to recent climate-change-related temperature anomalies. We tested the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Seventeen <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that cover the entire distributional range of <span class="hlt">corals</span> along the Mexican Pacific coast were studied between 2005/2006, and later between 2009/2010. Most of these <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were previously impacted by bleaching events, which resulted in <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortalities. Sponge abundance and species richness was used as an indicator of bioerosion, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was used to describe the present condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are currently highly invaded (46% of the samples examined) by a very high diversity of boring sponges (20 species); being the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework the substrate most invaded (56%) followed by the rubbles (45%), and the living colonies (36%). The results also indicated that boring sponges are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework. In summary, the eastern <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affected by bleaching phenomena, mainly provoked by El Niño, present a high diversity and abundance of boring sponges, which are weakening the union of the colony with the <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework and promoting their dislodgment. These phenomena will probably become even more intense and severe, as temperatures are projected to continue to rise under the scenarios for future climate change, which could place many eastern <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> beyond their survival threshold. PMID:23610632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191960','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70191960"><span>New interventions are needed to save <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anthony, Ken; Bay, Line K.; Costanza, Robert; Firn, Jennifer; Gunn, John; Harrison, Peter; Heyward, Andrew; Lundgren, Petra; Mead, David; Moore, Tom; Mumby, Peter J.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Robertson, John; Runge, Michael C.; Suggett, David J.; Schaffelke, Britta; Wachenfeld, David; Walshe, Terry</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Since 2014, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide have been subjected to the most extensive, prolonged and damaging heat wave in recorded history1. Large sections of Australia’s Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR) bleached in response to heat stress in 2016 and 2017 — the first back-to-back event on record. Such severe <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching results in widespread loss of <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat and biodiversity. Globally, we are facing catastrophic decline of these ecosystems, which sustain services valued at around $US 10 trillion per year2, are home to over a million species3, and feed and support the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people4. Model predictions indicate that mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching could become the new norm by 2050 (ref. 5). Critically, even if global warming can be kept within 1.5⁰C above preindustrial levels, shallow tropical seas would warm at least 0.4°C in coming decades, triggering frequent bleaching of the most sensitive habitat-forming <span class="hlt">coral</span> species6. This outlook poses a time-critical decision challenge for management and conservation. Existing conservation approaches, despite innovative governance arrangements7, could simply become insufficient to protect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under any expected climate future. Thus, for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to remain resilient and their services sustained, we argue that new and potentially riskier interventions must be implemented alongside conventional management efforts and strong action to curb global warming. We build the case for this strategy below.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs025-02/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs025-02/"><span>U.S. <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>; imperiled national treasures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Field, M.E.; Cochran, S.A.; Evans, K.R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are home to 25% of all marine species. However, the tiny colonial animals that build these intricate limestone masses are dying at alarming rates. If this trend continues, in 20 years the living <span class="hlt">corals</span> on many of the world's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will be dead and the ecosystems that depend on them severely damaged. As part of the effort to protect our Nation's extensive <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are working to better understand the processes that affect the health of these ecologically and economically important ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024871','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024871"><span>Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Andrefouet, S.; Kramer, Philip; Torres-Pulliza, D.; Joyce, K.E.; Hochberg, E.J.; Garza-Perez, R.; Mumby, P.J.; Riegl, Bernhard; Yamano, H.; White, W.H.; Zubia, M.; Brock, J.C.; Phinn, S.R.; Naseer, A.; Hatcher, B.G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ten IKONOS images of different <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites distributed around the world were processed to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the potential of 4-m resolution multispectral data for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat mapping. Complexity of <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments, established by field observation, ranged from 3 to 15 classes of benthic habitats containing various combinations of sediments, carbonate pavement, seagrass, algae, and <span class="hlt">corals</span> in different geomorphologic zones (forereef, lagoon, patch <span class="hlt">reef</span>, <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats). Processing included corrections for sea surface roughness and bathymetry, unsupervised or supervised classification, and accuracy <span class="hlt">assessment</span> based on ground-truth data. IKONOS classification results were compared with classified Landsat 7 imagery for simple to moderate complexity of <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats (5-11 classes). For both sensors, overall accuracies of the classifications show a general linear trend of decreasing accuracy with increasing habitat complexity. The IKONOS sensor performed better, with a 15-20% improvement in accuracy compared to Landsat. For IKONOS, overall accuracy was 77% for 4-5 classes, 71% for 7-8 classes, 65% in 9-11 classes, and 53% for more than 13 classes. The Landsat classification accuracy was systematically lower, with an average of 56% for 5-10 classes. Within this general trend, inter-site comparisons and specificities demonstrate the benefits of different approaches. Pre-segmentation of the different geomorphologic zones and depth correction provided different advantages in different environments. Our results help guide scientists and managers in applying IKONOS-class data for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> mapping applications. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDE39002A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..DFDE39002A"><span>Vertical variations of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> drag forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asher, Shai; Niewerth, Stephan; Koll, Katinka; Shavit, Uri; LWI Collaboration; Technion Collaboration</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Corals</span> rely on water flow for the supply of nutrients, particles and energy. Therefore, modeling of processes that take place inside the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, such as respiration and photosynthesis, relies on models that describe the flow and concentration fields. Due to the high spatial heterogeneity of branched <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, depth average models are usually applied. Such an average approach is insufficient when the flow spatial variation inside the <span class="hlt">reef</span> is of interest. We report on measurements of vertical variations of drag force that are needed for developing 3D flow models. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> skeletons were densely arranged along a laboratory flume. Two <span class="hlt">corals</span> were CT-scanned and replaced with horizontally sliced 3D printed replicates. Drag profiles were measured by connecting the slices to costume drag sensors and velocity profiles were measured using a LDV. The measured drag of whole colonies was in excellent agreement with previous studies; however, these studies never showed how drag varies inside the <span class="hlt">reef</span>. In addition, these distributions of drag force showed an excellent agreement with momentum balance calculations. Based on the results, we propose a new drag model that includes the dispersive stresses, and consequently displays reduced vertical variations of the drag coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..487A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CorRe..32..487A"><span>Live <span class="hlt">coral</span> repels a common <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish ectoparasite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artim, J. M.; Sikkel, P. C.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are undergoing rapid changes as living <span class="hlt">corals</span> give way to dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> on which other benthic organisms grow. This decline in live <span class="hlt">coral</span> could influence habitat availability for fish parasites with benthic life stages. Gnathiid isopod larvae live in the substratum and are common blood-feeding parasites of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. We examined substrate associations and preferences of a common Caribbean gnathiid, Gnathia marleyi. Emergence traps set over predominantly live <span class="hlt">coral</span> substrata captured significantly fewer gnathiids than traps set over dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> substrata. In laboratory experiments, gnathiids preferred dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> and sponge and tended to avoid contact with live <span class="hlt">coral</span>. When live gnathiids were added to containers with dead or live <span class="hlt">coral</span>, significantly fewer were recovered from the latter after 24 h. Our data therefore suggest that live <span class="hlt">coral</span> is not suitable microhabitat for parasitic gnathiid isopods and that a decrease in live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover increases available habitat for gnathiids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630142"><span>Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gove, Jamison M.; Williams, Gareth J.; McManus, Margaret A.; Heron, Scott F.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Foley, David G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem structure and function, including <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637939"><span>Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem structure and function, including <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29134196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29134196"><span>Environmental controls on modern scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale calcification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Courtney, Travis A; Lebrato, Mario; Bates, Nicholas R; Collins, Andrew; de Putron, Samantha J; Garley, Rebecca; Johnson, Rod; Molinero, Juan-Carlos; Noyes, Timothy J; Sabine, Christopher L; Andersson, Andreas J</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. The influence of environmental variables on <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony ( Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis ) and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. On the basis of multimodel climate simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and assuming sufficient <span class="hlt">coral</span> nutrition, our results suggest that P. astreoides and D. labyrinthiformis <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rates in Bermuda could increase throughout the 21st century as a result of gradual warming predicted under a minimum CO 2 emissions pathway [representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6] with positive 21st-century calcification rates potentially maintained under a reduced CO 2 emissions pathway (RCP 4.5). These results highlight the potential benefits of rapid reductions in global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for 21st-century Bermuda <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the ecosystem services they provide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3222..419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3222..419M"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring by the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miyazaki, Tadakuni; Tokumura, Kimiaki; Sugita, Mikio</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>The casi has the spatial resolution of about 3 m X 3 m at the ground level and its spectral resolution is about 6 nm. The wavelength range for the measurement is from 430 to 870 nm and the number of the bands is 72 bands. An airplane carrying casi flew over Kuroshima Island, Okinawa and acquired image data of Kuroshima Island and the surrounding sea area. The flight courses were 6 courses at the altitude of 9,000 feet and 2 courses of 6,000 feet. At the same time, spectral measurements of the sea surface and several <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> underwater were carried out at an area of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off Kuroshima Island. The supervised and unsupervised classification were applied to the casi imageries to extract and classify the area of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off Kuroshima Island. The produced classification maps of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were compared with the ground truth map of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> made by the professional divers to evaluate the results. The results showed significant similarity of the distribution pattern of corral <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=321693&keyword=climate%20change&subject=climate%20change%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=10/23/2011&dateendpublishedpresented=10/23/2016&sortby=pubdateyear&','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=321693&keyword=climate%20change&subject=climate%20change%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=10/23/2011&dateendpublishedpresented=10/23/2016&sortby=pubdateyear&"><span>Developing a multi-stressor gradient for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> | Science ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition to be established. Developing stressor gradients presents challenges including: stressors which co-occur but operate at different or unknown spatial and temporal scales, inconsistent data availability measuring stressor levels, and unknown effects on exposed <span class="hlt">reef</span> biota. We are developing a generalized stressor model using Puerto Rico as case study location, to represent the cumulative spatial/temporal co-occurrence of multiple anthropogenic stressors. Our approach builds on multi-stressor research in streams and rivers, and focuses on three high-priority stressors identified by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> experts: land-based sources of pollution (LBSP), global climate change (GCC) related temperature anomalies, and fishing pressure. Landscape development intensity index, based on land use/land cover data, estimates human impact in watersheds adjacent to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and is proxy for LBSP. NOAA’s retrospective daily thermal anomaly data is used to determine GCC thermal anomalies. Fishing pressure is modeled using gear-specific and fishery landings data. Stressor data was adjusted to a common scale or weighted for relative importance, buffered to account for diminished impact further from source, and compared wit</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1429M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1429M"><span><span class="hlt">Coral-reef</span> front migration in the Ryukyu Arc: responses of high latitude <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to Quaternary climatic changes in North Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsuda, H.; Iryu, Y.; Machiyama, H.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are tropic to subtropic coastal ecosystems comprising very diverse organisms. Their community structure and geographic and local distribution are highly controlled by various environmental factors. Thus, their ancient counterparts, <span class="hlt">reef</span> deposits, provide important, high-resolution records of geoscientific events in tropic to subtropic shallow waters, such as vertical and lateral tectonic movements, sea-level fluctuations, paleoclimatic changes, and paleoceanographic variations. In order to clarify relationships between <span class="hlt">reef</span> formation and geoscientific events, it is necessary to investigate the <span class="hlt">reef</span> deposits at relatively higher latitudes within <span class="hlt">reef</span> provinces, because such <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were considered to be more sensitive to the environmental changes than those in proximal areas. It can be, therefore, considered that the northern or southern limit of <span class="hlt">reef</span> formation, herein termed the '<span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> front', may have migrated to higher and lower latitudes, respectively, responding to Pleistocene global warming and cooling associated with rapid, cyclic changes in climate and oceanographic conditions and with glacioeustatic sea-level rises and falls. Thus, this study mainly aims (1) to depict paleoeclimatic and paleoceanographic fluctuations in tropic to subtropic shallow-waters in details by reconstructing the <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> front migration, (2) how and to what extent the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> responded to rapid environmental changes, and (3) to evaluate a role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in a global carbon cycle. To resolve the problems described above, the Ryukyu Islands are one of the best fields. In this proposal, we will insist that the multiple drilling that covers submarine (IODP) and land (ICDP) areas is the only way to complete our purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022452','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022452"><span>Testing a multi-tiered stress-gradient model for risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> using sediment constituents from <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lidz, B.H.; Hallock, P.; ,</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are threatened worldwide by stresses ranging from local to global in extent. One of the major challenges in studies of <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline is understanding how to distinguish between changes resulting from natural, anthropogenic, local, and global environmental perturbations. As such, a conceptual risk-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> model is developed that includes tiers for natural stresses, global/regional stresses, and local anthropogenic stresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27905045"><span>Differential response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities to Caulerpa spp. bloom in the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Indian Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manikandan, B; Ravindran, J</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and threaten the existence of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Continuous monitoring of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, respectively. The two <span class="hlt">reefs</span> varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an <span class="hlt">assessment</span> on the response of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom. Surveys in 2012 revealed a live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover of 36.8 and 14.6% in GoM and PB, respectively. Live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was lost at an annual rate of 4% in PB due to the Caulerpa racemosa blooms that occurred in 2013 and 2014. In GoM, the loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was estimated to be 16.5% due to C. taxifolia bloom in 2013. Tissue regeneration by the foliose and branching <span class="hlt">coral</span> morphotypes aided the recovery of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in GoM, whereas the chances for the recovery of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover in PB <span class="hlt">reef</span> were low, primarily due to frequent algal blooms, and the existing live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was mainly due to the abundance of slow-growing massive <span class="hlt">corals</span>. In combination, results of this study suggested that the recovery of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> after a macroalgal bloom largely depends on <span class="hlt">coral</span> species composition and the frequency of stress events. A further study linking macroalgal bloom to its specific cause is essential for the successful intervention and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17883494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17883494"><span>Lag effects in the impacts of mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish, fisheries, and ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graham, Nicholas A J; Wilson, Shaun K; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Robinson, Jan; Bijoux, Jude P; Daw, Tim M</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Recent episodes of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching have led to wide-scale loss of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> and raised concerns over the effectiveness of existing conservation and management efforts. The 1998 bleaching event was most severe in the western Indian Ocean, where <span class="hlt">coral</span> declined by up to 90% in some locations. Using fisheries-independent data, we <span class="hlt">assessed</span> the long-term impacts of this event on fishery target species in the Seychelles, the overall size structure of the fish assemblage, and the effectiveness of two marine protected areas (MPAs) in protecting fish communities. The biomass of fished species above the size retained in fish traps changed little between 1994 and 2005, indicating no current effect on fishery yields. Biomass remained higher in MPAs, indicating they were effective in protecting fish stocks. Nevertheless, the size structure of the fish communities, as described with size-spectra analysis, changed in both fished areas and MPAs, with a decline in smaller fish (<30 cm) and an increase in larger fish (>45 cm). We believe this represents a time-lag response to a reduction in <span class="hlt">reef</span> structural complexity brought about because fishes are being lost through natural mortality and fishing, and are not being replaced by juveniles. This effect is expected to be greater in terms of fisheries productivity and, because congruent patterns are observed for herbivores, suggests that MPAs do not offer <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> long-term resilience to bleaching events. Corallivores and planktivores declined strikingly in abundance, particularly in MPAs, and this decline was associated with a similar pattern of decline in their preferred <span class="hlt">corals</span>. We suggest that climate-mediated disturbances, such as <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, be at the fore of conservation planning for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15101411"><span>Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara</p> <p>2004-02-07</p> <p>Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes could reflect adaptations to nocturnal hypoxia in tide pools. It may also be needed to enable fishes to reside deep within branching <span class="hlt">coral</span> at night to avoid predation. Widespread hypoxia tolerance in a habitat with such an extreme biodiversity as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> indicate that there is a wealth of hypoxia related adaptations to be discovered in <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26695523"><span>Climate-change refugia: shading <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> by turbidity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cacciapaglia, Chris; van Woesik, Robert</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have recently experienced an unprecedented decline as the world's oceans continue to warm. Yet global climate models reveal a heterogeneously warming ocean, which has initiated a search for refuges, where <span class="hlt">corals</span> may survive in the near future. We hypothesized that some turbid nearshore environments may act as climate-change refuges, shading <span class="hlt">corals</span> from the harmful interaction between high sea-surface temperatures and high irradiance. We took a hierarchical Bayesian approach to determine the expected distribution of 12 <span class="hlt">coral</span> species in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, between the latitudes 37°N and 37°S, under representative concentration pathway 8.5 (W m(-2) ) by 2100. The turbid nearshore refuges identified in this study were located between latitudes 20-30°N and 15-25°S, where there was a strong coupling between turbidity and tidal fluctuations. Our model predicts that turbidity will mitigate high temperature bleaching for 9% of shallow <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat (to 30 m depth) - habitat that was previously considered inhospitable under ocean warming. Our model also predicted that turbidity will protect some <span class="hlt">coral</span> species more than others from climate-change-associated thermal stress. We also identified locations where consistently high turbidity will likely reduce irradiance to <250 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , and predict that 16% of <span class="hlt">reef-coral</span> habitat ≤30 m will preclude <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and <span class="hlt">reef</span> development. Thus, protecting the turbid nearshore refuges identified in this study, particularly in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the northern Philippines, the Ryukyu Islands (Japan), eastern Vietnam, western and eastern Australia, New Caledonia, the northern Red Sea, and the Arabian Gulf, should become part of a judicious global strategy for <span class="hlt">reef-coral</span> persistence under climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768796"><span>The growth of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> science in the Gulf: a historical perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burt, John A</p> <p>2013-07-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> science has grown exponentially in recent decades in the Gulf. Analysis of literature from 1950 to 2012 identified 270 publications on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Gulf, half of which were published in just the past decade. This paper summarizes the growth and evolution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> science in the Gulf by examining when, where and how research has been conducted on Gulf <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, who conducted that research, and what themes and taxa have dominated scientific interest. The results demonstrate that there has been significant growth in our understanding of the valuable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Gulf, but also highlight the fact that we are documenting an increasingly degraded ecosystem. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> scientists must make a concerted effort to improve dialogue with regional <span class="hlt">reef</span> management and decision-makers if we are to stem the tide of decline in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Gulf. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597261','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3597261"><span>Ocean acidification and warming will lower <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anthony, Kenneth R N; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Mumby, Peter J; Marshall, Paul A; Cao, Long; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Ocean warming and acidification from increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 represent major global threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and are in many regions exacerbated by local-scale disturbances such as overfishing and nutrient enrichment. Our understanding of global threats and local-scale disturbances on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is growing, but their relative contribution to <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience and vulnerability in the future is unclear. Here, we analyse quantitatively how different combinations of CO2 and fishing pressure on herbivores will affect the ecological resilience of a simplified benthic <span class="hlt">reef</span> community, as defined by its capacity to maintain and recover to <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated states. We use a dynamic community model integrated with the growth and mortality responses for branching <span class="hlt">corals</span> (Acropora) and fleshy macroalgae (Lobophora). We operationalize the resilience framework by parameterizing the response function for <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth (calcification) by ocean acidification and warming, <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and mortality by warming, macroalgal mortality by herbivore grazing and macroalgal growth via nutrient loading. The model was run for changes in sea surface temperature and water chemistry predicted by the rise in atmospheric CO2 projected from the IPCC's fossil-fuel intensive A1FI scenario during this century. Results demonstrated that severe acidification and warming alone can lower <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience (via impairment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and increased <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality) even under high grazing intensity and low nutrients. Further, the threshold at which herbivore overfishing (reduced grazing) leads to a coral–algal phase shift was lowered by acidification and warming. These analyses support two important conclusions: Firstly, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> already subjected to herbivore overfishing and nutrification are likely to be more vulnerable to increasing CO2. Secondly, under CO2 regimes above 450–500 ppm, management of local-scale disturbances will become critical to keeping <span class="hlt">reefs</span> within an Acropora-rich domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-26/pdf/2011-27745.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-26/pdf/2011-27745.pdf"><span>76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> Fishery in the...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-26</p> <p>...-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> Fishery in the South Atlantic... the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for <span class="hlt">Coral</span>, <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the... Aquariums to collect, with certain conditions, various species of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish and live rock in Federal waters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378059"><span>Facilitation in Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: high densities of staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> foster greater <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huntington, Brittany E; Miller, Margaret W; Pausch, Rachel; Richter, Lee</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Recovery of the threatened staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population. In contrast, partial mortality, branch growth, and fish community composition did not vary with staghorn density at the three other study locations where staghorn densities were lower overall. This suggests that density-dependent effects between the <span class="hlt">coral</span> and fish community may only manifest at high staghorn densities. We then evaluated one facilitative mechanism for such density-dependence, whereby abundant fishes sheltering in dense staghorn aggregations deliver nutrients back to the <span class="hlt">coral</span>, fueling faster <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth, thereby creating more fish habitat. Indeed, dense staghorn aggregations within the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly higher growth rates, tissue nitrogen, and zooxanthellae densities than sparse aggregations. Similarly, higher tissue nitrogen was induced in a macroalgae bioassay outplanted into the same dense and sparse aggregations, confirming greater bioavailability of nutrients at high staghorn densities. Our findings inform staghorn restoration efforts, suggesting that the most effective targets may be higher <span class="hlt">coral</span> densities than previously thought. These <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dense aggregations may reap the benefits of positive facilitation between the staghorn and fish community, favoring the growth and survivorship of this threatened species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC52A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC52A..02B"><span>Bioconstructor Guild Analysis to <span class="hlt">Assess</span> Maldivian <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> Following Ocean Warming and <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Bleaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, C. N.; Morri, C.; Montefalcone, M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Extreme climatic anomalies related to global warming have triggered <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events across most tropical regions. The hot wave of 1998 El Niño caused mass <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality throughout the Indian Ocean. The Maldives has been among the most affected countries, with 60-100% <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality reported. Hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, which dropped to less than 10% after the bleaching, returned to pre-bleaching values of around 50% only by 2014. Between 1997 and 2015, we evaluated the change in cover on Maldivian <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats of different bioconstructor guilds: i) primary builders are those organisms that build the <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework and therefore assure <span class="hlt">reef</span> aggradation; ii) secondary builders provide calcareous material to fill in the frame; iii) binders are encrusters that consolidate the <span class="hlt">reef</span> edifice; iv) bafflers are soft-bodied algae and colonial invertebrates that, although not actively participating in the bioconstruction, help retaining sediment; v) abiotic attributes (rock, rubble, sand) evidently do not give any contribution to the bioconstruction. A bioconstruction potential index (BCP) was devised using the following formula: BCP = Σin (siCi%) × 100-1where, n is the number of bioconstructor guilds (5, in this case), si is an importance score assigned to the ith guild, and Ci% is the cover of the ith guild. In this study, the value of si has been established at 3 for the primary builders, 2 for the secondary builders, 1 for the binders, 0 for the bafflers, and -1 for the abiotic attributes. Therefore, BCP ranges theoretically from 3, in the unrealistic case of 100% cover by primary constructors, to -1, when only abiotic attributes are present and no bioconstruction is possible, the <span class="hlt">reef</span> thus being prone to erosion and drowning. When applied to the Maldives data, BCP provided clear threshold values to evaluate constructional capacity. Negative values characterised Maldivian <span class="hlt">reefs</span> between 1999 and 2003-3007. Values between 0 and 1 depict <span class="hlt">reefs</span> capable of constratal growth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5043323','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5043323"><span>Colour thresholds in a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vorobyev, M.; Marshall, N. J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are ‘tuned’ differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish. Here, the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> associated triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, was tested behaviourally to determine the limits of its colour vision. This is the first demonstration of behavioural colour discrimination thresholds in a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> species and is a critical step in our understanding of communication and speciation in this vibrant colourful habitat. Fish were trained to discriminate between a reward colour stimulus and series of non-reward colour stimuli and the discrimination thresholds were found to correspond well with predictions based on the receptor noise limited visual model and anatomy of the eye. Colour discrimination abilities of both <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish and a variety of animals can therefore now be predicted using the parameters described here. PMID:27703704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4100925"><span>Sediment and Turbidity Associated with Offshore Dredging Increase <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Disease Prevalence on Nearby <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pollock, F. Joseph; Lamb, Joleah B.; Field, Stuart N.; Heron, Scott F.; Schaffelke, Britta; Shedrawi, George; Bourne, David G.; Willis, Bette L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In recent decades, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems have declined to the extent that <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are now threatened globally. While many water quality parameters have been proposed to contribute to <span class="hlt">reef</span> declines, little evidence exists conclusively linking specific water quality parameters with increased disease prevalence in situ. Here we report evidence from in situ <span class="hlt">coral</span> health surveys confirming that chronic exposure to dredging-associated sediment plumes significantly increase the prevalence of white syndromes, a devastating group of globally important <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> health surveys were conducted along a dredging-associated sediment plume gradient to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relationship between sedimentation, turbidity and <span class="hlt">coral</span> health. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> exposed to the highest number of days under the sediment plume (296 to 347 days) had two-fold higher levels of disease, largely driven by a 2.5-fold increase in white syndromes, and a six-fold increase in other signs of compromised <span class="hlt">coral</span> health relative to <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with little or no plume exposure (0 to 9 days). Multivariate modeling and ordination incorporating sediment exposure level, <span class="hlt">coral</span> community composition and cover, predation and multiple thermal stress indices provided further confirmation that sediment plume exposure level was the main driver of elevated disease and other compromised <span class="hlt">coral</span> health indicators. This study provides the first evidence linking dredging-associated sedimentation and turbidity with elevated <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence in situ. Our results may help to explain observed increases in global <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence in recent decades and suggest that minimizing sedimentation and turbidity associated with coastal development will provide an important management tool for controlling <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease epizootics. PMID:25029525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25029525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25029525"><span>Sediment and turbidity associated with offshore dredging increase <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence on nearby <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pollock, F Joseph; Lamb, Joleah B; Field, Stuart N; Heron, Scott F; Schaffelke, Britta; Shedrawi, George; Bourne, David G; Willis, Bette L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In recent decades, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems have declined to the extent that <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are now threatened globally. While many water quality parameters have been proposed to contribute to <span class="hlt">reef</span> declines, little evidence exists conclusively linking specific water quality parameters with increased disease prevalence in situ. Here we report evidence from in situ <span class="hlt">coral</span> health surveys confirming that chronic exposure to dredging-associated sediment plumes significantly increase the prevalence of white syndromes, a devastating group of globally important <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> health surveys were conducted along a dredging-associated sediment plume gradient to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relationship between sedimentation, turbidity and <span class="hlt">coral</span> health. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> exposed to the highest number of days under the sediment plume (296 to 347 days) had two-fold higher levels of disease, largely driven by a 2.5-fold increase in white syndromes, and a six-fold increase in other signs of compromised <span class="hlt">coral</span> health relative to <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with little or no plume exposure (0 to 9 days). Multivariate modeling and ordination incorporating sediment exposure level, <span class="hlt">coral</span> community composition and cover, predation and multiple thermal stress indices provided further confirmation that sediment plume exposure level was the main driver of elevated disease and other compromised <span class="hlt">coral</span> health indicators. This study provides the first evidence linking dredging-associated sedimentation and turbidity with elevated <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence in situ. Our results may help to explain observed increases in global <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence in recent decades and suggest that minimizing sedimentation and turbidity associated with coastal development will provide an important management tool for controlling <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease epizootics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520698','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA520698"><span>Proceedings of the SERDP <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Monitoring and <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>the U.S. that have <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> within their jurisdictions. Biscayne National Park, the Dry Tortugas , and U.S. Virgin Island parks at St. John and...Signs Monitoring Networks Dry Tortugas NP Buck Island <span class="hlt">Reef</span> NM Virgin Islands National Park Biscayne NP South Florida/Caribbean Network Florida/Caribbean...Buck Island, Dry Tortugas and Biscayne • Extensive sites – 4 10m permanent transects per site – 18 sites in DRTO Virgin Islands NP % l i v e c o r</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19432648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19432648"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: threats and conservation in an era of global change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riegl, Bernhard; Bruckner, Andy; Coles, Steve L; Renaud, Philip; Dodge, Richard E</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are iconic, threatened ecosystems that have been in existence for approximately 500 million years, yet their continued ecological persistence seems doubtful at present. Anthropogenic modification of chemical and physical atmospheric dynamics that cause <span class="hlt">coral</span> death by bleaching and newly emergent diseases due to increased heat and irradiation, as well as decline in calcification caused by ocean acidification due to increased CO(2), are the most important large-scale threats. On more local scales, overfishing and destructive fisheries, coastal construction, nutrient enrichment, increased runoff and sedimentation, and the introduction of nonindigenous invasive species have caused phase shifts away from <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Already approximately 20% of the world's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are lost and approximately 26% are under imminent threat. Conservation science of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is well advanced, but its practical application has often been lagging. Societal priorites, economic pressures, and legal/administrative systems of many countries are more prone to destroy rather than conserve <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems. Nevertheless, many examples of successful conservation exist from the national level to community-enforced local action. When effectively managed, protected areas have contributed to regeneration of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and stocks of associated marine resources. Local communities often support <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> conservation in order to raise income potential associated with tourism and/or improved resource levels. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> create an annual income in S-Florida alone of over $4 billion. Thus, no conflict between development, societal welfare, and <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> conservation needs to exist. Despite growing threats, it is not too late for decisive action to protect and save these economically and ecologically high-value ecosystems. Conservation science plays a critical role in designing effective strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19211057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19211057"><span>Linking social and ecological systems to sustain <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fisheries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Daw, Tim M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Wilson, Shaun K; Hughes, Terence P</p> <p>2009-02-10</p> <p>The ecosystem goods and services provided by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are critical to the social and economic welfare of hundreds of millions of people, overwhelmingly in developing countries [1]. Widespread <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation is severely eroding these goods and services, but the socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are poorly understood [2]. We examine relationships between human population density, a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development, <span class="hlt">reef</span> complexity, and the condition of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean. In fished sites, fish biomass was negatively related to human population density, but it was best explained by <span class="hlt">reef</span> complexity and a U-shaped relationship with socioeconomic development. The biomass of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes was four times lower at locations with intermediate levels of economic development than at locations with both low and high development. In contrast, average biomass inside fishery closures was three times higher than in fished sites and was not associated with socioeconomic development. Sustaining <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fisheries requires an integrated approach that uses tools such as protected areas to quickly build <span class="hlt">reef</span> resources while also building capacities and capital in societies over longer time frames to address the complex underlying causes of <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1810002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1810002"><span>Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes could reflect adaptations to nocturnal hypoxia in tide pools. It may also be needed to enable fishes to reside deep within branching <span class="hlt">coral</span> at night to avoid predation. Widespread hypoxia tolerance in a habitat with such an extreme biodiversity as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> indicate that there is a wealth of hypoxia related adaptations to be discovered in <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. PMID:15101411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874812"><span>Towards a new paleotemperature proxy from <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> occurrences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lauchstedt, Andreas; Pandolfi, John M; Kiessling, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-09-05</p> <p>Global mean temperature is thought to have exceeded that of today during the last interglacial episode (LIG, ~ 125,000 yrs b.p.) but robust paleoclimate data are still rare in low latitudes. Occurrence data of tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> may provide new proxies of low latitude sea-surface temperatures. Using modern <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> distributions we developed a geographically explicit model of sea surface temperatures. Applying this model to <span class="hlt">coral</span> occurrence data of the LIG provides a latitudinal U-shaped pattern of temperature anomalies with cooler than modern temperatures around the equator and warmer subtropical climes. Our results agree with previously published estimates of LIG temperatures and suggest a poleward broadening of the habitable zone for <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> during the LIG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28895945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28895945"><span>Excess labile carbon promotes the expression of virulence factors in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> bacterioplankton.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cárdenas, Anny; Neave, Matthew J; Haroon, Mohamed Fauzi; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Rädecker, Nils; Wild, Christian; Gärdes, Astrid; Voolstra, Christian R</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Coastal pollution and algal cover are increasing on many <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, resulting in higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. High DOC concentrations strongly affect microbial activity in <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters and select for copiotrophic, often potentially virulent microbial populations. High DOC concentrations on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are also hypothesized to be a determinant for switching microbial lifestyles from commensal to pathogenic, thereby contributing to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation, but evidence is missing. In this study, we conducted ex situ incubations to <span class="hlt">assess</span> gene expression of planktonic microbial populations under elevated concentrations of naturally abundant monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose) in algal exudates and sewage inflows. We assembled 27 near-complete (>70%) microbial genomes through metagenomic sequencing and determined associated expression patterns through metatranscriptomic sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a shift in the central carbohydrate metabolism and the induction of metalloproteases, siderophores, and toxins in Alteromonas, Erythrobacter, Oceanicola, and Alcanivorax populations. Sugar-specific induction of virulence factors suggests a mechanistic link for the switch from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle, particularly relevant during increased algal cover and human-derived pollution on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Although an explicit test remains to be performed, our data support the hypothesis that increased availability of specific sugars changes net microbial community activity in ways that increase the emergence and abundance of opportunistic pathogens, potentially contributing to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-06/pdf/2013-26599.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-06/pdf/2013-26599.pdf"><span>78 FR 66683 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Special <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystem Fishing Permit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-06</p> <p>... the Western Pacific; Special <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystem Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... special <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fishing permit. SUMMARY: NMFS issued a Special <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystem Fishing Permit that authorizes Kampachi Farms, LLC, to culture and harvest a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem management unit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18182370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18182370"><span>A clear human footprint in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Caribbean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mora, Camilo</p> <p>2008-04-07</p> <p>The recent degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide is increasingly well documented, yet the underlying causes remain debated. In this study, we used a large-scale database on the status of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities in the Caribbean and analysed it in combination with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and environmental databases to decouple confounding factors and identify the drivers of change in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. Our results indicated that human activities related to agricultural land use, coastal development, overfishing and climate change had created independent and overwhelming responses in fishes, <span class="hlt">corals</span> and macroalgae. While the effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) increased the biomass of fish populations, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders and macroalgae followed patterns of change independent of MPAs. However, we also found significant ecological links among all these groups of organisms suggesting that the long-term stability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as a whole requires a holistic and regional approach to the control of human-related stressors in addition to the improvement and establishment of new MPAs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24151155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24151155"><span>Opposite latitudinal gradients in projected ocean acidification and bleaching impacts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey Allen; Manzello, Derek; Planes, Serge</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the services they provide are seriously threatened by ocean acidification and climate change impacts like <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. Here, we present updated global projections for these key threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> based on ensembles of IPCC AR5 climate models using the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) experiments. For all tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations, we project absolute and percentage changes in aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) for the period between 2006 and the onset of annual severe bleaching (thermal stress >8 degree heating weeks); a point at which it is difficult to believe <span class="hlt">reefs</span> can persist as we know them. Severe annual bleaching is projected to start 10-15 years later at high-latitude <span class="hlt">reefs</span> than for <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in low latitudes under RCP8.5. In these 10-15 years, Ωarag keeps declining and thus any benefits for high-latitude <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of later onset of annual bleaching may be negated by the effects of acidification. There are no long-term refugia from the effects of both acidification and bleaching. Of all <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations, 90% are projected to experience severe bleaching annually by 2055. Furthermore, 5% declines in calcification are projected for all <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations by 2034 under RCP8.5, assuming a 15% decline in calcification per unit of Ωarag. Drastic emissions cuts, such as those represented by RCP6.0, result in an average year for the onset of annual severe bleaching that is ~20 years later (2062 vs. 2044). However, global emissions are tracking above the current worst-case scenario devised by the scientific community, as has happened in previous generations of emission scenarios. The projections here for conditions on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are dire, but provide the most up-to-date <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of what the changing climate and ocean acidification mean for the persistence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24340025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24340025"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat response to climate change scenarios.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freeman, Lauren A; Kleypas, Joan A; Miller, Arthur J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are threatened by both climate change and direct anthropogenic stress. Climate change will alter the physico-chemical environment that <span class="hlt">reefs</span> currently occupy, leaving only limited regions that are conducive to <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitation. Identifying these regions early may aid conservation efforts and inform decisions to transplant particular <span class="hlt">coral</span> species or groups. Here a species distribution model (Maxent) is used to describe habitat suitable for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth. Two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5, RCP8.5) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Earth System Model were used with Maxent to determine environmental suitability for <span class="hlt">corals</span> (order Scleractinia). Environmental input variables best at representing the limits of suitable <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth regions were isolated using a principal component analysis. Climate-driven changes in suitable habitat depend strongly on the unique region of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> used to train Maxent. Increased global habitat loss was predicted in both climate projections through the 21(st) century. A maximum habitat loss of 43% by 2100 was predicted in RCP4.5 and 82% in RCP8.5. When the model is trained solely with environmental data from the Caribbean/Atlantic, 83% of global habitat was lost by 2100 for RCP4.5 and 88% was lost for RCP8.5. Similarly, global runs trained only with Pacific Ocean <span class="hlt">reefs</span> estimated that 60% of suitable habitat would be lost by 2100 in RCP4.5 and 90% in RCP8.5. When Maxent was trained solely with Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, suitable habitat worldwide increased by 38% in RCP4.5 by 2100 and 28% in RCP8.5 by 2050. Global habitat loss by 2100 was just 10% for RCP8.5. This projection suggests that shallow tropical sites in the Indian Ocean basin experience conditions today that are most similar to future projections of worldwide conditions. Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may thus be ideal candidate regions from which to select the best strands of <span class="hlt">coral</span> for potential re-seeding efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5665425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5665425"><span>Biomarker profiling in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> of Tonga’s Ha’apai and Vava’u archipelagos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Dempsey, Alexandra C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Given the significant threats towards Earth’s <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, there is an urgent need to document the current physiological condition of the resident organisms, particularly the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building scleractinians themselves. Unfortunately, most of the planet’s <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are understudied, and some have yet to be seen. For instance, the Kingdom of Tonga possesses an extensive <span class="hlt">reef</span> system, with thousands of hectares of unobserved <span class="hlt">reefs</span>; little is known about their ecology, nor is there any information on the health of the resident <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Given such knowledge deficiencies, 59 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across three Tongan archipelagos were surveyed herein, and pocilloporid <span class="hlt">corals</span> were sampled from approximately half of these surveyed sites; 10 molecular-scale response variable were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> in 88 of the sampled colonies, and 12 colonies were found to be outliers based on employment of a multivariate statistics-based aberrancy detection system. These outliers differed from the statistically normally behaving colonies in having not only higher RNA/DNA ratios but also elevated expression levels of three genes: 1) Symbiodinium zinc-induced facilitator-like 1-like, 2) host <span class="hlt">coral</span> copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, and 3) host green fluorescent protein-like chromoprotein. Outliers were also characterized by significantly higher variation amongst the molecular response variables <span class="hlt">assessed</span>, and the response variables that contributed most significantly to colonies being delineated as outliers differed between the two predominant <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> species sampled, Pocillopora damicornis and P. acuta. These closely related species also displayed dissimilar temporal fluctuation patterns in their molecular physiologies, an observation that may have been driven by differences in their feeding strategies. Future works should attempt to determine whether <span class="hlt">corals</span> displaying statistically aberrant molecular physiology, such as the 12 Tongan outliers identified herein, are indeed characterized by a diminished capacity for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28793810"><span>Remote Sensing Tropical <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: The View from Above.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Purkis, Sam J</p> <p>2018-01-03</p> <p>Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. As favored by modern <span class="hlt">corals</span>, <span class="hlt">reef</span>-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil <span class="hlt">reefs</span> form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here. Interpretation of satellite images has done much to reveal the grand spatial and temporal tapestry of tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparative sedimentology, whereby modern environments are contrasted with the rock record to improve interpretation, has been particularly transformed by observations made from orbit. Satellite mapping has also become a keystone technology to quantify the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> crisis-it can be deployed not only directly to quantify the distribution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities, but also indirectly to establish a climatology for their physical environment. This article reviews the application of remote sensing to tropical coralgal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in order to communicate how this fast-growing technology might be central to addressing the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> crisis and to look ahead at future developments in the science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ARMS...10..149P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018ARMS...10..149P"><span>Remote Sensing Tropical <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: The View from Above</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purkis, Sam J.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. As favored by modern <span class="hlt">corals</span>, <span class="hlt">reef</span>-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil <span class="hlt">reefs</span> form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here. Interpretation of satellite images has done much to reveal the grand spatial and temporal tapestry of tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Comparative sedimentology, whereby modern environments are contrasted with the rock record to improve interpretation, has been particularly transformed by observations made from orbit. Satellite mapping has also become a keystone technology to quantify the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> crisis—it can be deployed not only directly to quantify the distribution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities, but also indirectly to establish a climatology for their physical environment. This article reviews the application of remote sensing to tropical coralgal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in order to communicate how this fast-growing technology might be central to addressing the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> crisis and to look ahead at future developments in the science.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5677334','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5677334"><span>Environmental controls on modern scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale calcification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Courtney, Travis A.; Lebrato, Mario; Bates, Nicholas R.; Collins, Andrew; de Putron, Samantha J.; Garley, Rebecca; Johnson, Rod; Molinero, Juan-Carlos; Noyes, Timothy J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Andersson, Andreas J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. The influence of environmental variables on <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. On the basis of multimodel climate simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) and assuming sufficient <span class="hlt">coral</span> nutrition, our results suggest that P. astreoides and D. labyrinthiformis <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rates in Bermuda could increase throughout the 21st century as a result of gradual warming predicted under a minimum CO2 emissions pathway [representative concentration pathway (RCP) 2.6] with positive 21st-century calcification rates potentially maintained under a reduced CO2 emissions pathway (RCP 4.5). These results highlight the potential benefits of rapid reductions in global anthropogenic CO2 emissions for 21st-century Bermuda <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:29134196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759697','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4759697"><span>Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Negri, Andrew P.; Brinkman, Diane L.; Flores, Florita; Botté, Emmanuelle S.; Jones, Ross J.; Webster, Nicole S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Risks posed by oil spills to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately <span class="hlt">assess</span> toxicity to relevant <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to <span class="hlt">coral</span> (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l−1, similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l−1 TPAH) was far less than <span class="hlt">coral</span> in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. PMID:26892387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26892387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26892387"><span>Acute ecotoxicology of natural oil and gas condensate to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> larvae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Negri, Andrew P; Brinkman, Diane L; Flores, Florita; Botté, Emmanuelle S; Jones, Ross J; Webster, Nicole S</p> <p>2016-02-19</p> <p>Risks posed by oil spills to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are difficult to evaluate, partially due to the absence of studies that adequately <span class="hlt">assess</span> toxicity to relevant <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> species. Here we experimentally tested the acute toxicity of condensate, representing a fraction of light crude oil, to <span class="hlt">coral</span> (Acropora tenuis) and sponge (Rhopaloeides odorabile) larvae. The metamorphosis of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae was inhibited at total petroleum aromatic hydrocarbon (TPAH) concentrations of water accommodated fractions (WAF) as low as 103 μg l(-1), similar to concentrations detected in seawater following large spills. The sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae increased by 40% when co-exposed to UV light that they might encounter in shallow reefal systems. Condensate WAF was more toxic to <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae than predicted by summing the toxicity of its main components (benzene, toluene, p-xylene and napthalene). In contrast, the sensitivity of sponge larvae to condensate WAF (>10,000 μg l(-1) TPAH) was far less than <span class="hlt">coral</span> in the presence and absence of UV, but similar to that of other marine invertebrates. While these results highlight the relative sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae to oil, further research is needed to better understand and predict the impacts and risks posed by hydrocarbons to tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-46.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol1-sec7-46.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.46 - Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span>... pelagic fish, baitfish, lobsters, conch, whelk, <span class="hlt">corals</span>, sponges and all associated <span class="hlt">reef</span> invertebrates, and... OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.46 Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-46.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title36-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title36-vol1-sec7-46.pdf"><span>36 CFR 7.46 - Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> National Monument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span>... pelagic fish, baitfish, lobsters, conch, whelk, <span class="hlt">corals</span>, sponges and all associated <span class="hlt">reef</span> invertebrates, and... OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.46 Virgin Islands <span class="hlt">Coral</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4444195"><span>Linking Demographic Processes of Juvenile <span class="hlt">Corals</span> to Benthic Recovery Trajectories in Two Common <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Roff, George; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mumby, Peter J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are dynamic ecosystems that host diverse <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages with different life-history strategies. Here, we quantified how juvenile (<50 mm) <span class="hlt">coral</span> demographics influenced benthic <span class="hlt">coral</span> structure in <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat and <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope habitats on the southern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. Permanent plots and settlement tiles were monitored every six months for three years in each habitat. These environments exhibited profound differences: the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope was characterised by 95% less macroalgal cover, and twice the amount of available settlement substrata and rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement than the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat. Consequently, post-settlement <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival in the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope was substantially higher than that of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, and resulted in a rapid increase in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover from 7 to 31% in 2.5 years. In contrast, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat remained low (~10%), whereas macroalgal cover increased from 23 to 45%. A positive stock-recruitment relationship was found in brooding <span class="hlt">corals</span> in both habitats; however, brooding <span class="hlt">corals</span> were not directly responsible for the observed changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. Rather, the rapid increase on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope resulted from high abundances of broadcast spawning Acropora recruits. Incorporating our results into transition matrix models demonstrated that most <span class="hlt">corals</span> escape mortality once they exceed 50 mm, but for smaller <span class="hlt">corals</span> mortality in brooders was double those of spawners (i.e. acroporids and massive <span class="hlt">corals</span>). For <span class="hlt">corals</span> on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that growth and mortality of larger juveniles (21–50 mm) highly influenced population dynamics; whereas the recruitment, growth and mortality of smaller <span class="hlt">corals</span> (<20 mm) had the highest influence on <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope population dynamics. Our results provide insight into the population dynamics and recovery trajectories in disparate <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats, and highlight the importance of acroporid recruitment in driving rapid increases in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover following large-scale perturbation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26009892"><span>Linking demographic processes of juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span> to benthic recovery trajectories in two common <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doropoulos, Christopher; Ward, Selina; Roff, George; González-Rivero, Manuel; Mumby, Peter J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are dynamic ecosystems that host diverse <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages with different life-history strategies. Here, we quantified how juvenile (<50 mm) <span class="hlt">coral</span> demographics influenced benthic <span class="hlt">coral</span> structure in <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat and <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope habitats on the southern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. Permanent plots and settlement tiles were monitored every six months for three years in each habitat. These environments exhibited profound differences: the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope was characterised by 95% less macroalgal cover, and twice the amount of available settlement substrata and rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement than the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat. Consequently, post-settlement <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival in the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope was substantially higher than that of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, and resulted in a rapid increase in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover from 7 to 31% in 2.5 years. In contrast, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat remained low (~10%), whereas macroalgal cover increased from 23 to 45%. A positive stock-recruitment relationship was found in brooding <span class="hlt">corals</span> in both habitats; however, brooding <span class="hlt">corals</span> were not directly responsible for the observed changes in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. Rather, the rapid increase on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope resulted from high abundances of broadcast spawning Acropora recruits. Incorporating our results into transition matrix models demonstrated that most <span class="hlt">corals</span> escape mortality once they exceed 50 mm, but for smaller <span class="hlt">corals</span> mortality in brooders was double those of spawners (i.e. acroporids and massive <span class="hlt">corals</span>). For <span class="hlt">corals</span> on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that growth and mortality of larger juveniles (21-50 mm) highly influenced population dynamics; whereas the recruitment, growth and mortality of smaller <span class="hlt">corals</span> (<20 mm) had the highest influence on <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope population dynamics. Our results provide insight into the population dynamics and recovery trajectories in disparate <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats, and highlight the importance of acroporid recruitment in driving rapid increases in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover following large-scale perturbation in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25196132"><span>Operationalizing resilience for adaptive <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management under global environmental change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability is critical for successful <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> globally, successful adaptive management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310291','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310291"><span>Operationalizing resilience for adaptive <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management under global environmental change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anthony, Kenneth RN; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas AJ; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability is critical for successful <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce <span class="hlt">reef</span> vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> globally, successful adaptive management of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29054085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29054085"><span>Species-specific profiles and risk <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of perfluoroalkyl substances in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes from the South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Chang-Gui; Yu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Huang, Xue-Yong; Wei, Chao-Shuai; Wang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Wei-Bin; Qin, Zhen-Jun</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The contamination profiles of sixteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were examined in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish samples collected from the South China Sea (SCS) where no information about this topic was available in the literature. The results revealed that six PFAS were found in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish samples from the SCS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most predominant PFAS contaminant detected in most of the samples, with the highest concentration value of 27.05 ng/g wet weight (ww) observed in Cephalopholis urodelus. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and Perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were the second and third dominant PFAS, respectively. Mean PFOS concentrations in muscle of seven <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish varied from 0.29 ng/g ww in Lethrinus olivaceus to 10.78 ng/g ww in Cephalopholis urodelus. No significant linear relationship was observed between PFOS levels and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish traits (length, weight) collected in this region. Average daily intake of PFOS for the seven <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes ranged from 0.79 ng/kg/d for Lethrinus olivaceus to 29.53 ng/kg/d for Cephalopholis urodelus. The hazard ratio (HR) values for human consumption of PFOS-contaminated <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes ranged from 0.04 to 1.48, with Cephalopholis urodelus having the highest HR value of 1.18 (higher than 1) among the species, indicating frequent consumption of Cephalopholis urodelus might pose potential health risk to local population. The present work have provided the first hand data of PFAS in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes in the SCS and indirectly demonstrated the existence of low level PFAS pollution in the SCS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4309678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4309678"><span>Effect of Phase Shift from <span class="hlt">Corals</span> to Zoantharia on <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Fish Assemblages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cruz, Igor C. S.; Loiola, Miguel; Albuquerque, Tiago; Reis, Rodrigo; de Anchieta C. C. Nunes, José; Reimer, James D.; Mizuyama, Masaru; Kikuchi, Ruy K. P.; Creed, Joel C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Consequences of <span class="hlt">reef</span> phase shifts on fish communities remain poorly understood. Studies on the causes, effects and consequences of phase shifts on <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities have only been considered for <span class="hlt">coral</span>-to-macroalgae shifts. Therefore, there is a large information gap regarding the consequences of novel phase shifts and how these kinds of phase shifts impact on fish assemblages. This study aimed to compare the fish assemblages on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under normal conditions (relatively high cover of <span class="hlt">corals</span>) to those which have shifted to a dominance of the zoantharian Palythoa cf. variabilis on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Todos os Santos Bay (TSB), Brazilian eastern coast. We examined eight <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, where we estimated cover of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and P. cf. variabilis and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish richness, abundance and body size. Fish richness differed significantly between normal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (48 species) and phase-shift <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (38 species), a 20% reduction in species. However there was no difference in fish abundance between normal and phase shift <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. One fish species, Chaetodon striatus, was significantly less abundant on normal <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The differences in fish assemblages between different <span class="hlt">reef</span> phases was due to differences in trophic groups of fish; on normal <span class="hlt">reefs</span> carnivorous fishes were more abundant, while on phase shift <span class="hlt">reefs</span> mobile invertivores dominated. PMID:25629532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CorRe..36....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CorRe..36....1B"><span>Working with, not against, <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fisheries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birkeland, Charles</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The fisheries policies of some Pacific island nations are more appropriate to the biology of their resources than are some of the fisheries policies of more industrialized countries. Exclusive local ownership of natural resources in Palau encourages adjustive management on biologically relevant scales of time and space and promotes responsibility by reducing the tragedy of the commons. The presence of large individuals in fish populations and adequate size of spawning aggregations are more efficient and meaningful cues for timely management than are surveys of abundance or biomass. Taking fish from populations more than halfway to their carrying capacity is working favorably with the fishery because removing fish potentially increases resource stability by negative feedback between stock size and population production. Taking the same amount of fish from a population below half its carrying capacity is working against the fishery, making the population unstable, because reducing the reproductive stock potentially accelerates reduction of the population production by positive feedback. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> fish are consumed locally, while Palauan laws ban the export of <span class="hlt">reef</span> resources. This is consistent with the high gross primary production with little excess net production from undisturbed <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems. The relatively rapid growth rates, short life spans, reliable recruitment and wide-ranging movements of open-ocean fishes such as scombrids make them much more productive than <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fishes. The greater fisheries yield per square kilometer in the open ocean multiplied by well over a thousand times the area of the exclusive economic zone than that of Palau's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> should encourage Palauans to keep <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes for subsistence and to feed tourists open-ocean fishes. Fisheries having only artisanal means should be encouraged to increase the yield and sustainability by moving away from <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to bulk harvesting of nearshore pelagics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439049"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> Settlement on a Highly Disturbed Equatorial <span class="hlt">Reef</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bauman, Andrew G.; Guest, James R.; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A.; Steinberg, Peter D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Processes occurring early in the life stages of <span class="hlt">corals</span> can greatly influence the demography of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations, and successful settlement of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Although <span class="hlt">corals</span> in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems, our understanding of the role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement in the persistence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement was low (~54.72 spat m-2 yr-1) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March–May and September–November, coinciding with annual <span class="hlt">coral</span> spawning periods (March–April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December–February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant <span class="hlt">coral</span> spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure (‘others’; i.e. sediment-tolerant <span class="hlt">coral</span> taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992562"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial <span class="hlt">reef</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Processes occurring early in the life stages of <span class="hlt">corals</span> can greatly influence the demography of <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations, and successful settlement of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Although <span class="hlt">corals</span> in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems, our understanding of the role of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement in the persistence of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual <span class="hlt">coral</span> spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant <span class="hlt">coral</span> spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant <span class="hlt">coral</span> taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28658295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28658295"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish predator maintains olfactory acuity in degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Natt, Michael; Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the world are rapidly degrading due to a range of environmental stressors. Habitat degradation modifies the sensory landscape within which predator-prey interactions occur, with implications for olfactory-mediated behaviours. Predator naïve settlement-stage damselfish rely on conspecific damage-released odours (i.e., alarm odours) to inform risk <span class="hlt">assessments</span>. Yet, species such as the Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, become unable to respond appropriately to these cues when living in dead-degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats, leading to increased mortality through loss of vigilance. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> fish predators also rely on odours from damaged prey to locate, <span class="hlt">assess</span> prey quality and engage in prey-stealing, but it is unknown whether their responses are also modified by the change to dead-degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats. Implications for prey clearly depend on how their predatory counterparts are affected, therefore the present study tested whether olfactory-mediated foraging responses in the dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus, a common predator of P. amboinensis, were similarly affected by <span class="hlt">coral</span> degradation. A y-maze was used to measure the ability of Ps. fuscus to detect and move towards odours, against different background water sources. Ps. fuscus were exposed to damage-released odours from juvenile P. amboinensis, or a control cue of seawater, against a background of seawater treated with either healthy or dead-degraded hard <span class="hlt">coral</span>. Predators exhibited an increased time allocation to the chambers of y-mazes injected with damage-released odours, with comparable levels of response in both healthy and dead-degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> treated waters. In control treatments, where damage-released odours were replaced with a control seawater cue, fish showed no increased preference for either chamber of the y-maze. Our results suggest that olfactory-mediated foraging behaviours may persist in Ps. fuscus within dead-degraded <span class="hlt">coral</span> habitats. Ps. fuscus may consequently gain a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60993&keyword=zooxanthellae&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60993&keyword=zooxanthellae&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">ASSESSING</span> UV IRRADIANCE IN CARIBBEAN <span class="hlt">REEF</span> <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> AND DNA DAMAGE IN THEIR <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> AND ZOOXANTHELLAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>UV penetration into the water near <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may be increasing as a consequence of global climate change. Calm waters associated with ENSO conditions can enhance stratification that increases the amount of photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in surfa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS23B..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMOS23B..04S"><span>Environmental Variability in the Florida Keys: Impacts on <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Resilience and Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soto, I. M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Environmental variability contributes to both mass mortality and resilience in tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. We <span class="hlt">assess</span> variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color in the Florida Keys using satellite imagery, and provide insight into how this variability is associated with locations of resilient <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities (those unaffected by or able to recover from major events). The project tests the hypothesis that areas with historically low environmental variability promote lower levels of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience. Time series of SST from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors and ocean color derived quantities (e.g., turbidity and chlorophyll) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS) are being constructed over the entire Florida Keys region for a period of twelve and nine years, respectively. These data will be compared with historical <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover data derived from Landsat imagery (1984-2002). Improved understanding of the causes of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline or resilience will help protect and manage these natural treasures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3184997','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3184997"><span>Historical Reconstruction Reveals Recovery in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kittinger, John N.; Pandolfi, John M.; Blodgett, Jonathan H.; Hunt, Terry L.; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Bruce A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, including a historical recovery in the MHI (∼AD 1400–1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (∼AD 1950–2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>103 km2). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251680"><span>River discharge reduces <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity in Palau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Golbuu, Yimnang; van Woesik, Robert; Richmond, Robert H; Harrison, Peter; Fabricius, Katharina E</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> community structure is often governed by a suite of processes that are becoming increasingly influenced by land-use changes and related terrestrial discharges. We studied sites along a watershed gradient to examine both the physical environment and the associated biological communities. Transplanted <span class="hlt">corals</span> showed no differences in growth rates and mortality along the watershed gradient. However, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, <span class="hlt">coral</span> richness, and <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony density increased with increasing distance from the mouth of the bay. There was a negative relationship between <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and mean suspended solids concentration. Negative relationships were also found between terrigenous sedimentation rates and the richness of adult and juvenile <span class="hlt">corals</span>. These results have major implications not only for Pacific islands but for all countries with <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems downstream of rivers. Land development very often leads to increases in river runoff and suspended solids concentrations that reduce <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity on adjacent <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22090385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22090385"><span>Microbial to <span class="hlt">reef</span> scale interactions between the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L</p> <p>2012-04-22</p> <p>Competition between <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> and benthic algae is of key importance for <span class="hlt">reef</span> dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on <span class="hlt">corals</span>. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over <span class="hlt">corals</span> when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70007383','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70007383"><span>Transplantation of storm-generated <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments to enhance Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: A successful method but not a solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrison, Virginia H.; Ward, Greg A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In response to dramatic losses of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale <span class="hlt">coral</span> transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-generated <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community.  The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building species on local <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.  Storm-produced <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments of two threatened <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragment survival and transplanted to degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.  Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments to dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> substrate.  Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place.  Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only.  Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10.  Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a solution. No <span class="hlt">coral</span> conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS54A..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS54A..01A"><span>The <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> pH-stat: An Important Defense Against Ocean Acidification? (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andersson, A. J.; Yeakel, K.; Bates, N.; de Putron, S.; Collins, A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Concerns have been raised on how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will be affected by ocean acidification (OA), but there are currently no direct predictions on how seawater CO2 chemistry and pH within <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> might change in response to OA. Projections of future changes in seawater pH and aragonite saturation state have only been applied to open ocean conditions surrounding <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environments rather than the <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems themselves. The seawater CO2 chemistry within heterogenous <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems can be significantly different from that of the open ocean depending on the residence time, community composition and the major biogeochemical processes occurring on the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, i.e., net ecosystem organic carbon production and calcification, which combined act to modify the seawater chemistry. We argue that these processes and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in general could as a pH-stat, partly regulating seawater pH on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> and offsetting changes in seawater chemistry imposed by ocean acidification. Based on observations from the Bermuda <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>, we show that a range of anticipated biogeochemical responses of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities to OA by the end of this century could partially offset changes in seawater pH by an average of 12% to 24%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25959987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25959987"><span>Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> stewardship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 <span class="hlt">reef</span> geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. © 2015 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032683','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032683"><span>Storm-generated <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments - A viable source of transplants for <span class="hlt">reef</span> rehabilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrison, V.; Ward, G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> throughout the world have been damaged by storms, diseases, <span class="hlt">coral</span> predators, temperature anomalies, and human activities. During the past three decades, recovery has been limited and patchy. Although a damaged <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> cannot be restored to its original condition, interest in <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration is increasing. In a pilot project in the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, and Porites porites were collected from donor <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and transplanted to nearby degraded <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Sixty <span class="hlt">coral</span> fragments were attached to dead-<span class="hlt">coral</span> substrate (usually A. palmata skeletons), at similar depths from which they had been collected (1-3.5 m), using nylon cable ties. Seventy-five intact colonies were designated as controls. Study colonies were <span class="hlt">assessed</span> at 6-month intervals for 2 years (1999-2001) and annually thereafter (through 2004). One-fourth of the 135 colonies and fragments monitored were alive at the conclusion of the 5-year study. Survival of control and transplanted A. cervicornis and P. porites was very low (median survival 2.4 and 1.8 years, respectively), with no significant differences between transplant and control colonies. Site and depth did not contribute significantly to A. palmata colony survival, but colony size and transplant/control status did. Probability of survival increased with colony size. Median survival for A. palmata was 1.3 years for transplant and 4.3 years for natural colonies when not controlled for size. A. palmata was the only viable candidate for <span class="hlt">reef</span> rehabilitation. Storm swells were the primary cause of mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27550394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27550394"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes may not be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran</p> <p>2016-08-23</p> <p>Biological sounds produced on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may provide settlement cues to marine larvae. Sound fields are composed of pressure and particle motion, which is the back and forth movement of acoustic particles. Particle motion (i.e., not pressure) is the relevant acoustic stimulus for many, if not most, marine animals. However, there have been no field measurements of <span class="hlt">reef</span> particle motion. To address this deficiency, both pressure and particle motion were recorded at a range of distances from one Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn and mid-morning on three separate days. Sound pressure attenuated with distance from the <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn. Similar trends were apparent for particle velocity but with considerable variability. In general, average sound levels were low and perhaps too faint to be used as an orientation cue except very close to the <span class="hlt">reef</span>. However, individual transient sounds that exceeded the mean values, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, might be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, depending on the hearing abilities of the larva. If sound is not being used as a long-range cue, it might still be useful for habitat selection or other biological activities within a <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4994009','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4994009"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes may not be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Biological sounds produced on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may provide settlement cues to marine larvae. Sound fields are composed of pressure and particle motion, which is the back and forth movement of acoustic particles. Particle motion (i.e., not pressure) is the relevant acoustic stimulus for many, if not most, marine animals. However, there have been no field measurements of <span class="hlt">reef</span> particle motion. To address this deficiency, both pressure and particle motion were recorded at a range of distances from one Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn and mid-morning on three separate days. Sound pressure attenuated with distance from the <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn. Similar trends were apparent for particle velocity but with considerable variability. In general, average sound levels were low and perhaps too faint to be used as an orientation cue except very close to the <span class="hlt">reef</span>. However, individual transient sounds that exceeded the mean values, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, might be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, depending on the hearing abilities of the larva. If sound is not being used as a long-range cue, it might still be useful for habitat selection or other biological activities within a <span class="hlt">reef</span>. PMID:27550394</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631862K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631862K"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes may not be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Biological sounds produced on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may provide settlement cues to marine larvae. Sound fields are composed of pressure and particle motion, which is the back and forth movement of acoustic particles. Particle motion (i.e., not pressure) is the relevant acoustic stimulus for many, if not most, marine animals. However, there have been no field measurements of <span class="hlt">reef</span> particle motion. To address this deficiency, both pressure and particle motion were recorded at a range of distances from one Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn and mid-morning on three separate days. Sound pressure attenuated with distance from the <span class="hlt">reef</span> at dawn. Similar trends were apparent for particle velocity but with considerable variability. In general, average sound levels were low and perhaps too faint to be used as an orientation cue except very close to the <span class="hlt">reef</span>. However, individual transient sounds that exceeded the mean values, sometimes by up to an order of magnitude, might be detectable far from the <span class="hlt">reef</span>, depending on the hearing abilities of the larva. If sound is not being used as a long-range cue, it might still be useful for habitat selection or other biological activities within a <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18079392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18079392"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under rapid climate change and ocean acidification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Mumby, P J; Hooten, A J; Steneck, R S; Greenfield, P; Gomez, E; Harvell, C D; Sale, P F; Edwards, A J; Caldeira, K; Knowlton, N; Eakin, C M; Iglesias-Prieto, R; Muthiga, N; Bradbury, R H; Dubi, A; Hatziolos, M E</p> <p>2007-12-14</p> <p>Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with <span class="hlt">corals</span> becoming increasingly rare on <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems. The result will be less diverse <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities and carbonate <span class="hlt">reef</span> structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving <span class="hlt">reefs</span> increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that predict increasingly serious consequences for <span class="hlt">reef</span>-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the <span class="hlt">Reef</span> 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.9319P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRC..122.9319P"><span>Vulnerability of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> to Bioerosion From Land-Based Sources of Pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prouty, Nancy G.; Cohen, Anne; Yates, Kimberly K.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; White, Darla</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification (OA), the gradual decline in ocean pH and [CO32-] caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2, poses a significant threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, depressing rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, and enhancing rates of bioerosion and dissolution. As ocean pH and [CO32-] decline globally, there is increasing emphasis on managing local stressors that can exacerbate the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to the effects of OA. We show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes <span class="hlt">corals</span> to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cores collected in the Pacific under equivalent low pH conditions but living in oligotrophic waters. Heavier <span class="hlt">coral</span> nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values pinpoint not only site-specific eutrophication, but also a sewage nitrogen source enriched in 15N. Our results show that eutrophication of <span class="hlt">reef</span> seawater by land-based sources of pollution can magnify the effects of OA through nutrient driven-bioerosion. These conditions could contribute to the collapse of coastal <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems sooner than current projections predict based only on ocean acidification.<abstract type="synopsis"><title type="main">Plain Language SummaryWe show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes <span class="hlt">corals</span> to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cores collected in the Pacific. With many of Maui's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in significant decline reducing any stressors at a local scale is important to sustaining future <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384423"><span>Doom and boom on a resilient <span class="hlt">reef</span>: climate change, algal overgrowth and <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; McCook, Laurence J; Dove, Sophie; Berkelmans, Ray; Roff, George; Kline, David I; Weeks, Scarla; Evans, Richard D; Williamson, David H; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events, with consequent increases in <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of <span class="hlt">corals</span> by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a <span class="hlt">reef</span> back to <span class="hlt">coral</span> dominance. In 2006, mass bleaching of <span class="hlt">corals</span> on inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> caused high <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality. Here we show that this <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata), colonizing dead <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons, but that <span class="hlt">corals</span> on these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of <span class="hlt">corals</span> by recruitment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissue, very high competitive ability of the <span class="hlt">corals</span> allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient <span class="hlt">reef</span>, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience under rapid climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909578"><span>Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken</p> <p>2016-03-17</p> <p>Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in <span class="hlt">coral</span>, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.531..362A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.531..362A"><span>Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; MacLaren, Jana K.; Mason, Benjamin M.; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L.; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO32-], and Ω. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in <span class="hlt">coral</span>, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994CorRe..13..161B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994CorRe..13..161B"><span>Mass spawning of <span class="hlt">corals</span> on a high latitude <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Babcock, R. C.; Wills, B. L.; Simpson, C. J.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Evidence is presented that at least 60% of the 184 species of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> found on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Western Australia) participate in a late summer mass spawning. These populations are thus reproductively active, despite most species being at the extreme southern limit of their latitudinal range (28° 29°S). In the present study, <span class="hlt">coral</span> mass spawning occurred in the same month on both temperate (Houtman-Abrolhos) and tropical (Ningaloo) <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Western Australia, despite more than two months difference in the timing of seasonal temperture minima between the two regions. This concurrence in the month of spawning suggests that temperature does not operate as a simple direct proximate cue for seasonal spawning synchrony in these populations. Seasonal variation in photoperiod may provide a similar and more reliable signal in the two regions, and thus might be more likely to synchronize the seasonal reproductive rhythms of these <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Also there is overlap in the nights of mass spawning on the Houtman Abrolhos and tropical <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of Western Australia, despite significant differences in tidal phase and amplitude between the two regions. This indicates that tidal cycle does not synchronize with the night(s) of spawning on these <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Spawning is more likely to be synchronised by lunar cycles. The co-occurrence of the mass spawning with spring tides in Houtman Abrolhos <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations may be evidence of a genetic legacy inherited from northern, tropical ancestors. Micro-tidal regimes in the Houtman Abrolhos region may have exerted insufficient selective pressure to counteract this legacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175026','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175026"><span>A geological perspective on the degradation and conservation of western Atlantic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Toth, Lauren T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Continuing <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> degradation in the western Atlantic is resulting in loss of ecological and geologic functions of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. With the goal of assisting resource managers and stewards of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in setting and measuring progress toward realistic goals for <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> conservation and restoration, we examined <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation in this region from a geological perspective. The importance of ecosystem services provided by <span class="hlt">coral</span> reefs—as breakwaters that dissipate wave energy and protect shorelines and as providers of habitat for innumerable species—cannot be overstated. However, the few <span class="hlt">coral</span> species responsible for <span class="hlt">reef</span> building in the western Atlantic during the last approximately 1.5 million years are not thriving in the 21st century. These species are highly sensitive to abrupt temperature extremes, prone to disease infection, and have low sexual reproductive potential. Their vulnerability and the low functional redundancy of branching <span class="hlt">corals</span> have led to the low resilience of western Atlantic <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. The decrease in live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover over the last 50 years highlights the need for study of relict (senescent) <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which, from the perspective of coastline protection and habitat structure, may be just as important to conserve as the living <span class="hlt">coral</span> veneer. Research is needed to characterize the geological processes of bioerosion, <span class="hlt">reef</span> cementation, and sediment transport as they relate to modern-day changes in <span class="hlt">reef</span> elevation. For example, although parrotfish remove nuisance macroalgae, possibly promoting <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment, they will not save Atlantic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from geological degradation. In fact, these fish are quickly nibbling away significant quantities of Holocene <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework. The question of how different biota covering dead <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affect framework resistance to biological and physical erosion needs to be addressed. Monitoring and managing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with respect to physical resilience, in addition to ecological resilience, could optimize the expenditure of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2989627','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2989627"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rasher, Douglas B</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are disappearing due to global warming, overfishing, ocean acidification, pollution, and interactions of these and other stresses. Ecologically informed management of fishes that facilitate <span class="hlt">corals</span> by suppressing seaweeds may be our best bet for bringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> back from the brink of extinction. PMID:21173844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355025"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> communities of the remote atoll <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Meiji <span class="hlt">Reef</span>) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian <span class="hlt">coral</span> check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive <span class="hlt">corals</span> were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole <span class="hlt">coral</span> community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. Spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover was highest in the patch <span class="hlt">reef</span> within the lagoon, followed by the fore <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope, <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch <span class="hlt">reef</span>. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> cover in the fore <span class="hlt">reef</span> revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore <span class="hlt">reef</span> slope had higher <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (< 10 %). The <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities of the inner <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat were characterized by higher <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora <span class="hlt">corals</span>, while lower <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat. Destructive fishing and <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching were two major threats to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480935"><span>Satellite imaging <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and factors incorporating properties of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> landscape that resist stress or promote <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other <span class="hlt">reef</span> regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20814570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20814570"><span>Prioritizing land and sea conservation investments to protect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klein, Carissa J; Ban, Natalie C; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beger, Maria; Game, Edward T; Grantham, Hedley S; Green, Alison; Klein, Travis J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Treml, Eric; Wilson, Kerrie; Possingham, Hugh P</p> <p>2010-08-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming) and in the sea (e.g. overfishing). Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification). Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and apply it to the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4534412','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4534412"><span>Length-Based <span class="hlt">Assessment</span> of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species <span class="hlt">assessed</span> in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2596901','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2596901"><span>A clear human footprint in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Caribbean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mora, Camilo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The recent degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide is increasingly well documented, yet the underlying causes remain debated. In this study, we used a large-scale database on the status of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities in the Caribbean and analysed it in combination with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and environmental databases to decouple confounding factors and identify the drivers of change in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities. Our results indicated that human activities related to agricultural land use, coastal development, overfishing and climate change had created independent and overwhelming responses in fishes, <span class="hlt">corals</span> and macroalgae. While the effective implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) increased the biomass of fish populations, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> builders and macroalgae followed patterns of change independent of MPAs. However, we also found significant ecological links among all these groups of organisms suggesting that the long-term stability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as a whole requires a holistic and regional approach to the control of human-related stressors in addition to the improvement and establishment of new MPAs. PMID:18182370</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8273R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8273R"><span>Water column productivity and temperature predict <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> regeneration across the Indo-Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riegl, B.; Glynn, P. W.; Wieters, E.; Purkis, S.; D'Angelo, C.; Wiedenmann, J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Predicted increases in seawater temperatures accelerate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline due to mortality by heat-driven <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. Alteration of the natural nutrient environment of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> reduces tolerance of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to heat and light stress and thus will exacerbate impacts of global warming on <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Still, many <span class="hlt">reefs</span> demonstrate remarkable regeneration from past stress events. This paper investigates the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and water column productivity on recovery of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In 71 Indo-Pacific sites, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover changes over the past 1-3 decades correlated negative-exponentially with mean SST, chlorophyll a, and SST rise. At six monitoring sites (Persian/Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, northern and southern Galápagos, Easter Island, Panama), over half of all <span class="hlt">corals</span> were <31 years, implying that measured environmental variables indeed shaped populations and community. An Indo-Pacific-wide model suggests <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the northwest and central Indian Ocean, as well as the central west Pacific, are at highest risk of degradation, and those at high latitudes the least. The model pinpoints regions where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> presently have the best chances for survival. However, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> best buffered against temperature and nutrient effects are those that current studies suggest to be most at peril from future ocean acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653128"><span>Water column productivity and temperature predict <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> regeneration across the Indo-Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Riegl, B; Glynn, P W; Wieters, E; Purkis, S; d'Angelo, C; Wiedenmann, J</p> <p>2015-02-05</p> <p>Predicted increases in seawater temperatures accelerate <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline due to mortality by heat-driven <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching. Alteration of the natural nutrient environment of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> reduces tolerance of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to heat and light stress and thus will exacerbate impacts of global warming on <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Still, many <span class="hlt">reefs</span> demonstrate remarkable regeneration from past stress events. This paper investigates the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and water column productivity on recovery of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In 71 Indo-Pacific sites, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover changes over the past 1-3 decades correlated negative-exponentially with mean SST, chlorophyll a, and SST rise. At six monitoring sites (Persian/Arabian Gulf, Red Sea, northern and southern Galápagos, Easter Island, Panama), over half of all <span class="hlt">corals</span> were <31 years, implying that measured environmental variables indeed shaped populations and community. An Indo-Pacific-wide model suggests <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the northwest and central Indian Ocean, as well as the central west Pacific, are at highest risk of degradation, and those at high latitudes the least. The model pinpoints regions where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> presently have the best chances for survival. However, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> best buffered against temperature and nutrient effects are those that current studies suggest to be most at peril from future ocean acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27902715"><span>Local Stressors, Resilience, and Shifting Baselines on <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLean, Matthew; Cuetos-Bueno, Javier; Nedlic, Osamu; Luckymiss, Marston; Houk, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Understanding how and why <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora <span class="hlt">corals</span> and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce. A proxy for fishing access best predicted the relative change in fish assemblage condition over time, and in turn, declining fish condition was the only factor correlated with declining <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition, suggesting overfishing may have reduced ecosystem resilience. Additionally, a proxy for watershed pollution predicted modern <span class="hlt">coral</span> assemblage condition, suggesting pollution is also reducing resilience in densely populated areas. Altogether, it appears that unsustainable fishing reduced ecosystem resilience, as fish composition has shifted to smaller species in lower trophic levels, driven by losses of large predators and herbivores. While prior literature and anecdotal reports indicate that major disturbance events have been rare in Kosrae, small localized disturbances coupled with reduced resilience may have slowly degraded <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition through time. Improving <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> resilience in the face of climate change will therefore require improved understanding and management of growing artisanal fishing pressure and watershed pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U53A..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U53A..03M"><span>Quantifying Ocean Acidification and its Impacts to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manzello, D.; Gledhill, D. K.; Enochs, I.; Andersson, A. J.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Ocean Acidification (OA) describes the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the world's oceans and consequent decline in seawater pH and calcium carbonate saturation state. OA is of particular concern for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems because it is expected to reduce the calcification rates of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> and other calcifiers, and may simultaneously increase the erosive abilities of key bioeroding taxa. Despite these concerns, we have little understanding of how OA will manifest in the real-world or, if, and how much of the world-wide trajectory of <span class="hlt">reef</span> decline can be attributed to OA. With this in mind, we will present recommendations for monitoring OA of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters, as well as its ecosystem impacts over time. Different approaches and metrics, including their individual strengths and weaknesses, will be discussed. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to quantify the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems in the real-world to robustly predict their structure and function in a high-CO2 world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22944243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22944243"><span>Unseen players shape benthic competition on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to <span class="hlt">coral</span> morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM), direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in <span class="hlt">coral</span>-algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of <span class="hlt">coral</span>, macroalgae also directly harm the <span class="hlt">corals</span> via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream <span class="hlt">corals</span>, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing near real-time trajectories for a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>, a vital metric for conservation and restoration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22038059"><span>Effects of herbivory, nutrients, and <span class="hlt">reef</span> protection on algal proliferation and <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth on a tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rasher, Douglas B; Engel, Sebastian; Bonito, Victor; Fraser, Gareth J; Montoya, Joseph P; Hay, Mark E</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Maintaining <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resilience against increasing anthropogenic disturbance is critical for effective <span class="hlt">reef</span> management. Resilience is partially determined by how processes, such as herbivory and nutrient supply, affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery versus macroalgal proliferation following disturbances. However, the relative effects of herbivory versus nutrient enrichment on algal proliferation remain debated. Here, we manipulated herbivory and nutrients on a <span class="hlt">coral</span>-dominated <span class="hlt">reef</span> protected from fishing, and on an adjacent macroalgal-dominated <span class="hlt">reef</span> subject to fishing and riverine discharge, over 152 days. On both <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, herbivore exclusion increased total and upright macroalgal cover by 9-46 times, upright macroalgal biomass by 23-84 times, and cyanobacteria cover by 0-27 times, but decreased cover of encrusting coralline algae by 46-100% and short turf algae by 14-39%. In contrast, nutrient enrichment had no effect on algal proliferation, but suppressed cover of total macroalgae (by 33-42%) and cyanobacteria (by 71% on the protected <span class="hlt">reef</span>) when herbivores were excluded. Herbivore exclusion, but not nutrient enrichment, also increased sediment accumulation, suggesting a strong link between herbivory, macroalgal growth, and sediment retention. Growth rates of the <span class="hlt">corals</span> Porites cylindrica and Acropora millepora were 30-35% greater on the protected versus fished <span class="hlt">reef</span>, but nutrient and herbivore manipulations within a site did not affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. Cumulatively, these data suggest that herbivory rather than eutrophication plays the dominant role in mediating macroalgal proliferation, that macroalgae trap sediments that may further suppress herbivory and enhance macroalgal dominance, and that <span class="hlt">corals</span> are relatively resistant to damage from some macroalgae but are significantly impacted by ambient <span class="hlt">reef</span> condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116343&keyword=microbiota&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116343&keyword=microbiota&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">CORAL</span> CONDITION: HOW TO FATHOM THE DECLINE OF <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> <span class="hlt">REEF</span> ECOSYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have experienced unprecedented levels of bleaching, disease and mortality during the last three decades. The goal of EPA-ORD research is to identify the culpable stressors in different species, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and regions using integrated field and laboratory studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484119','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3484119"><span>Predicting the Location and Spatial Extent of Submerged <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Habitat in the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> World Heritage Area, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bridge, Tom; Beaman, Robin; Done, Terry; Webster, Jody</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Aim <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities occurring in deeper waters have received little research effort compared to their shallow-water counterparts, and even such basic information as their location and extent are currently unknown throughout most of the world. Using the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> as a case study, habitat suitability modelling is used to predict the distribution of deep-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. We test the effectiveness of a range of geophysical and environmental variables for predicting the location of deep-water <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. Location Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. Methods Maximum entropy modelling is used to identify the spatial extent of two broad communities of habitat-forming megabenthos phototrophs and heterotrophs. Models were generated using combinations of geophysical substrate properties derived from multibeam bathymetry and environmental data derived from Bio-ORACLE, combined with georeferenced occurrence records of mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities from autonomous underwater vehicle, remotely operated vehicle and SCUBA surveys. Model results are used to estimate the total amount of mesophotic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat on the GBR. Results Our models predict extensive but previously undocumented <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities occurring both along the continental shelf-edge of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and also on submerged <span class="hlt">reefs</span> inside the lagoon. Habitat suitability for phototrophs is highest on submerged <span class="hlt">reefs</span> along the outer-shelf and the deeper flanks of emergent <span class="hlt">reefs</span> inside the GBR lagoon, while suitability for heterotrophs is highest in the deep waters along the shelf-edge. Models using only geophysical variables consistently outperformed models incorporating environmental data for both phototrophs and heterotrophs. Main Conclusion Extensive submerged <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities that are currently undocumented are likely to occur throughout the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. High-quality bathymetry data can be used</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25714443"><span>A diverse assemblage of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> thriving in a dynamic intertidal <span class="hlt">reef</span> setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richards, Zoe T; Garcia, Rodrigo A; Wallace, Carden C; Rosser, Natalie L; Muir, Paul R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The susceptibility of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, <span class="hlt">corals</span> can be seen thriving in unusually harsh <span class="hlt">reef</span> settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard <span class="hlt">corals</span> occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity) with those experienced at four other more typical tropical <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs), prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what <span class="hlt">corals</span> may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, <span class="hlt">coral</span> predator and disease outbreaks and <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CorRe..34..807E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CorRe..34..807E"><span>Movement patterns of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus) on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinoza, Mario; Heupel, Michelle. R.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Understanding how sharks use <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is essential for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> risk of exposure to fisheries, habitat loss, and climate change. Despite a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, little is known about the spatial ecology of silvertip sharks ( Carcharhinus albimarginatus), compromising the ability to effectively manage their populations. We examined the residency and movements of silvertip sharks in the central Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR). An array of 56 VR2W acoustic receivers was used to monitor shark movements on 17 semi-isolated <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Twenty-seven individuals tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored from 70 to 731 d. Residency index to the study site ranged from 0.05 to 0.97, with a mean residency (±SD) of 0.57 ± 0.26, but most individuals were detected at or near their tagging <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Clear seasonal patterns were apparent, with fewer individuals detected between September and February. A large proportion of the tagged population (>71 %) moved regularly between <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Silvertip sharks were detected less during daytime and exhibited a strong diel pattern in depth use, which may be a strategy for optimizing energetic budgets and foraging opportunities. This study provides the first detailed examination of the spatial ecology and behavior of silvertip sharks on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Silvertip sharks remained resident at <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats over long periods, but our results also suggest this species may have more complex movement patterns and use larger areas of the GBR than common <span class="hlt">reef</span> shark species. Our findings highlight the need to further understand the movement ecology of silvertip sharks at different spatial and temporal scales, which is critical for developing effective management approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27761342','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27761342"><span>Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W; Eggleston, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> populations, and the productive <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to <span class="hlt">coral</span> larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span>, Orbicella faveolata , was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and <span class="hlt">reef</span> characteristics, with sounds at the loudest <span class="hlt">reef</span> generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key <span class="hlt">coral</span> species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512010S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512010S"><span>Breathing of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> cay: Tracing tidally driven seawater recirculation in permeable <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Isaac R.; Erler, Dirk; Tait, Douglas; Eyre, Bradley D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are characterized by high gross productivity in spite of low nutrient concentrations. This apparent paradox may be partially reconciled if seawater recirculation in permeable sediments over large (meters) and long (hours to days) scales is an important source of recycled nitrogen and phosphorus to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In this paper we use radon (222Rn, a natural tracer) to quantify tidally driven pore water (or groundwater) exchange between (1) an offshore <span class="hlt">coral</span> cay island and its fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span> lagoon and (2) a <span class="hlt">reef</span> lagoon and the surrounding ocean. As seawater infiltrates Heron Island at high tide, it acquires a radon signal that can be detected when pore waters emerge from carbonate sands at low tide. A nonsteady state model indicated that vertical pore water upwelling rates (or saline submarine groundwater discharge) were >40 cm/d within the <span class="hlt">reef</span> lagoon and >100 cm/d outside the lagoon at low tide. Within the lagoon, tidal pumping and temperature-driven convection were the main driving forces of pore water advection. At low tide, the <span class="hlt">reef</span> lagoon level is about 1 m higher than the surrounding ocean. As a result, a steep hydraulic gradient develops at the <span class="hlt">reef</span> edge, driving unidirectional filtration through the <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework. Groundwaters were highly enriched in nitrate (average of 530 μmol, likely influenced by bird guano) relative to lagoon waters (1.9 μmol). Rough but conservative estimates indicated that groundwater-derived nitrate fluxes (7.9 mmol/m2/d) can replace the entire lagoon nitrate inventory every <19 days. We speculate that as offshore <span class="hlt">coral</span> islands "breath" (inhale seawater at high tide and exhale groundwater at low tide), they release nutrients that lead to sustained productivity within <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24282670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24282670"><span>Effects of ocean acidification on the dissolution rates of <span class="hlt">reef-coral</span> skeletons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Woesik, Robert; van Woesik, Kelly; van Woesik, Liana; van Woesik, Sandra</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification threatens the foundation of tropical <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This study investigated three aspects of ocean acidification: (i) the rates at which perforate and imperforate <span class="hlt">coral</span>-colony skeletons passively dissolve when pH is 7.8, which is predicted to occur globally by 2100, (ii) the rates of passive dissolution of <span class="hlt">corals</span> with respect to <span class="hlt">coral</span>-colony surface areas, and (iii) the comparative rates of a vertical <span class="hlt">reef</span>-growth model, incorporating passive dissolution rates, and predicted sea-level rise. By 2100, when the ocean pH is expected to be 7.8, perforate Montipora <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons will lose on average 15 kg CaCO3 m(-2) y(-1), which is approximately -10.5 mm of vertical reduction of <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework per year. This rate of passive dissolution is higher than the average rate of <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth over the last several millennia and suggests that <span class="hlt">reefs</span> composed of perforate Montipora <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons will have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise under ocean acidification. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> composed of primarily imperforate <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons will not likely dissolve as rapidly, but our model shows they will also have trouble keeping up with sea-level rise by 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29539634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29539634"><span>Carbon dioxide addition to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters suppresses net community calcification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albright, Rebecca; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Koweek, David A; Ninokawa, Aaron; Wolfe, Kennedy; Rivlin, Tanya; Nebuchina, Yana; Young, Jordan; Caldeira, Ken</p> <p>2018-03-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> feed millions of people worldwide, provide coastal protection and generate billions of dollars annually in tourism revenue. The underlying architecture of a <span class="hlt">reef</span> is a biogenic carbonate structure that accretes over many years of active biomineralization by calcifying organisms, including <span class="hlt">corals</span> and algae. Ocean acidification poses a chronic threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> by reducing the saturation state of the aragonite mineral of which <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons are primarily composed, and lowering the concentration of carbonate ions required to maintain the carbonate <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Reduced calcification, coupled with increased bioerosion and dissolution, may drive <span class="hlt">reefs</span> into a state of net loss this century. Our ability to predict changes in ecosystem function and associated services ultimately hinges on our understanding of community- and ecosystem-scale responses. Past research has primarily focused on the responses of individual species rather than evaluating more complex, community-level responses. Here we use an in situ carbon dioxide enrichment experiment to quantify the net calcification response of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat to acidification. We present an estimate of community-scale calcification sensitivity to ocean acidification that is, to our knowledge, the first to be based on a controlled experiment in the natural environment. This estimate provides evidence that near-future reductions in the aragonite saturation state will compromise the ecosystem function of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Natur.555..516A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Natur.555..516A"><span>Carbon dioxide addition to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> waters suppresses net community calcification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albright, Rebecca; Takeshita, Yuichiro; Koweek, David A.; Ninokawa, Aaron; Wolfe, Kennedy; Rivlin, Tanya; Nebuchina, Yana; Young, Jordan; Caldeira, Ken</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> feed millions of people worldwide, provide coastal protection and generate billions of dollars annually in tourism revenue. The underlying architecture of a <span class="hlt">reef</span> is a biogenic carbonate structure that accretes over many years of active biomineralization by calcifying organisms, including <span class="hlt">corals</span> and algae. Ocean acidification poses a chronic threat to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> by reducing the saturation state of the aragonite mineral of which <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons are primarily composed, and lowering the concentration of carbonate ions required to maintain the carbonate <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Reduced calcification, coupled with increased bioerosion and dissolution, may drive <span class="hlt">reefs</span> into a state of net loss this century. Our ability to predict changes in ecosystem function and associated services ultimately hinges on our understanding of community- and ecosystem-scale responses. Past research has primarily focused on the responses of individual species rather than evaluating more complex, community-level responses. Here we use an in situ carbon dioxide enrichment experiment to quantify the net calcification response of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat to acidification. We present an estimate of community-scale calcification sensitivity to ocean acidification that is, to our knowledge, the first to be based on a controlled experiment in the natural environment. This estimate provides evidence that near-future reductions in the aragonite saturation state will compromise the ecosystem function of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37...37N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37...37N"><span><span class="hlt">Reef</span>-scale modeling of <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification responses to ocean acidification and sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Takashi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Blanco, Ariel C.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>To predict <span class="hlt">coral</span> responses to future environmental changes at the <span class="hlt">reef</span> scale, the <span class="hlt">coral</span> polyp model (Nakamura et al. in <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> 32:779-794, 2013), which reconstructs <span class="hlt">coral</span> responses to ocean acidification, flow conditions and other factors, was incorporated into a <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. This coupled <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale model was compared to observations from the Shiraho fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span>, Ishigaki Island, Japan, where the model accurately reconstructed spatiotemporal variation in <span class="hlt">reef</span> hydrodynamic and geochemical parameters. The simulated <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rate exhibited high spatial variation, with lower calcification rates in the nearshore and stagnant water areas due to isolation of the inner <span class="hlt">reef</span> at low tide, and higher rates on the offshore side of the inner <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat. When water is stagnant, bottom shear stress is low at night and thus oxygen diffusion rate from ambient water to the inside of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> polyp limits respiration rate. Thus, calcification decreases because of the link between respiration and calcification. A scenario analysis was conducted using the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-scale model with several pCO2 and sea-level conditions based on IPCC (Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth <span class="hlt">assessment</span> report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013) scenarios. The simulation indicated that the <span class="hlt">coral</span> calcification rate decreases with increasing pCO2. On the other hand, sea-level rise increases the calcification rate, particularly in the nearshore and the areas where water is stagnant at low tide under present conditions, as mass exchange, especially oxygen exchange at night, is enhanced between the <span class="hlt">corals</span> and their ambient seawater due to the reduced stagnant period. When both pCO2 increase and sea-level rise occur concurrently, the calcification rate generally decreases due to the effects of ocean acidification. However, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..235W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CorRe..29..235W"><span>Auditory sensitivity in settlement-stage larvae of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, K. J.; Higgs, D. M.; Cato, D. H.; Leis, J. M.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The larval phase of most species of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes is spent away from the <span class="hlt">reef</span> in the pelagic environment. At the time of settlement, these larvae need to locate a <span class="hlt">reef</span>, and recent research indicates that sound emanating from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> may act as a cue to guide them. Here, the auditory abilities of settlement-stage larvae of four species of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes (families Pomacentridae, Lutjanidae and Serranidae) and similar-sized individuals of two pelagic species (Carangidae) were tested using an electrophysiological technique, auditory brainstem response (ABR). Five of the six species heard frequencies in the 100-2,000 Hz range, whilst one carangid species did not detect frequencies higher than 800 Hz. The audiograms of the six species were of similar shape, with best hearing at lower frequencies between 100 and 300 Hz. Strong within-species differences were found in hearing sensitivity both among the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> species and among the pelagic species. Larvae of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> species had significantly more sensitive hearing than the larvae of the pelagic species. The results suggest that settlement-stage larval <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes may be able to detect <span class="hlt">reef</span> sounds at distances of a few 100 m. If true hearing thresholds are lower than ABR estimates, as indicated in some comparisons of ABR and behavioural methods, the detection distances would be much larger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5136584','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5136584"><span>Natural bounds on herbivorous <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoey, Andrew S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Williams, Ivor D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Humans are an increasingly dominant driver of Earth's biological communities, but differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is crucial. Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining <span class="hlt">coral</span> dominance on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and are widely affected by human activities, principally fishing. We <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relative importance of human and biophysical (habitat and oceanographic) drivers on the biomass of five herbivorous functional groups among 33 islands in the central and western Pacific Ocean. Human impacts were clear for some, but not all, herbivore groups. Biomass of browsers, large excavators, and of all herbivores combined declined rapidly with increasing human population density, whereas grazers, scrapers, and detritivores displayed no relationship. Sea-surface temperature had significant but opposing effects on the biomass of detritivores (positive) and browsers (negative). Similarly, the biomass of scrapers, grazers, and detritivores correlated with habitat structural complexity; however, relationships were group specific. Finally, the biomass of browsers and large excavators was related to island geomorphology, both peaking on low-lying islands and atolls. The substantial variability in herbivore populations explained by natural biophysical drivers highlights the need for locally appropriate management targets on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:27881745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27881745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27881745"><span>Natural bounds on herbivorous <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heenan, Adel; Hoey, Andrew S; Williams, Gareth J; Williams, Ivor D</p> <p>2016-11-30</p> <p>Humans are an increasingly dominant driver of Earth's biological communities, but differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is crucial. Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining <span class="hlt">coral</span> dominance on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and are widely affected by human activities, principally fishing. We <span class="hlt">assess</span> the relative importance of human and biophysical (habitat and oceanographic) drivers on the biomass of five herbivorous functional groups among 33 islands in the central and western Pacific Ocean. Human impacts were clear for some, but not all, herbivore groups. Biomass of browsers, large excavators, and of all herbivores combined declined rapidly with increasing human population density, whereas grazers, scrapers, and detritivores displayed no relationship. Sea-surface temperature had significant but opposing effects on the biomass of detritivores (positive) and browsers (negative). Similarly, the biomass of scrapers, grazers, and detritivores correlated with habitat structural complexity; however, relationships were group specific. Finally, the biomass of browsers and large excavators was related to island geomorphology, both peaking on low-lying islands and atolls. The substantial variability in herbivore populations explained by natural biophysical drivers highlights the need for locally appropriate management targets on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. © 2016 The Authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23838417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23838417"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> recruitment and potential recovery of eutrophied and blast fishing impacted <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawall, Yvonne; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Litaay, Magdalena; Maddusila, Andi; Richter, Claudio</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> recruitment was <span class="hlt">assessed</span> in highly diverse and economically important Spermonde Archipelago, a <span class="hlt">reef</span> system subjected to land-based sources of siltation/pollution and destructive fishing, over a period of 2 years. Recruitment on settlement tiles reached up to 705 spat m(-2) yr(-1) and was strongest in the dry season (July-October), except off-shore, where larvae settled earlier. Pocilloporidae dominated near-shore, while a more diverse community of Acroporidae, Poritidae and others settled in the less polluted mid-shelf and off-shore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Non-<span class="hlt">coral</span> fouling community appeared to hardly influence initial <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement on the tiles, although, this does not necessarily infer low <span class="hlt">coral</span> post-settlement mortality, which may be enhanced at the near- and off-shore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> as indicated by increased abundances of potential space competitors on natural substrate. Blast fishing showed no local reduction in <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment and live hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover increased in oligotrophic <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, indicating potential for <span class="hlt">coral</span> recovery, if managed effectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25956544"><span>The influence of fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colony size and agonistic behaviour of territorial damselfish on associated <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leal, Isabela Carolina Silva; de Araújo, Maria Elisabeth; da Cunha, Simone Rabelo; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Cipresso</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Branching hydrocorals from the genus Millepora play an important ecological role in South Atlantic <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, where branching scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> are absent. Previous studies have shown a high proportion of <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species using branching fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies as shelter, breeding, and feeding sites. However, the effects of Millepora spp. colony size and how the agonistic behaviour of a competitive damselfish affect the associated <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish community are still unknown. The present study examined how fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colony volume and the presence of a highly territorial and aggressive damselfish (Brazilian endemic Stegastes fuscus) affects the <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish community associated with the fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> Millepora alcicornis. M. alcicornis colonies were surveyed from September 2012 to April 2013 at Tamandaré <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> off Northeast Brazil. Our results show that the abundance and richness of <span class="hlt">coral</span> associated fish was positively correlated with M. alcicornis <span class="hlt">coral</span> colony volume. Additionally, behaviour of S. fuscus, the most abundant <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish species found associated with fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies (almost 57% of the fish community), was also influenced by fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colony volume. There was a clear trend of increased agonistic behaviour and feeding on <span class="hlt">coral</span> polyps as colony volume increased. This trend was reversed for the non-occupational swimming category, which decreased as M. alcicornis colony volume increased. Behavioural ontogenetic changes were also detected for S. fuscus individuals. Juveniles mainly showed two distinct behaviours: sheltered on <span class="hlt">coral</span> branches and feeding on <span class="hlt">coral</span> polyps. In contrast, adults presented greater equitability among the behavioural categories, mostly non-occupational swimming around <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies and agonistic behaviour. Lastly, S. fuscus individuals actively defended fire-<span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies from intruders. A large number of agonistic interactions occurred against potential food competitors, which were mainly roving herbivores, omnivores, and sessile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282354','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3282354"><span>Microbial to <span class="hlt">reef</span> scale interactions between the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> Montastraea annularis and benthic algae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barott, Katie L.; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Rohwer, Forest L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Competition between <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> and benthic algae is of key importance for <span class="hlt">reef</span> dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span> Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral–CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on <span class="hlt">corals</span>. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over <span class="hlt">corals</span> when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:22090385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21661558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21661558"><span>Alternative stable states and phase shifts in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> under anthropogenic stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fung, Tak; Seymour, Robert M; Johnson, Craig R</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Ecosystems with alternative stable states (ASS) may shift discontinuously from one stable state to another as environmental parameters cross a threshold. Reversal can then be difficult due to hysteresis effects. This contrasts with continuous state changes in response to changing environmental parameters, which are less difficult to reverse. Worldwide degradation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, involving "phase shifts" from <span class="hlt">coral</span> to algal dominance, highlights the pressing need to determine the likelihood of discontinuous phase shifts in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, in contrast to continuous shifts with no ASS. However, there is little evidence either for or against the existence of ASS for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. We use dynamic models to investigate the likelihood of continuous and discontinuous phase shifts in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> subject to sustained environmental perturbation by fishing, nutrification, and sedimentation. Our modeling results suggest that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with or without anthropogenic stress can exhibit ASS, such that discontinuous phase shifts can occur. We also find evidence to support the view that high macroalgal growth rates and low grazing rates on macroalgae favor ASS in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Further, our results suggest that the three stressors studied, either alone or in combination, can increase the likelihood of both continuous and discontinuous phase shifts by altering the competitive balance between <span class="hlt">corals</span> and algae. However, in contrast to continuous phase shifts, we find that discontinuous shifts occur only in model <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with parameter values near the extremes of their empirically determined ranges. This suggests that continuous shifts are more likely than discontinuous shifts in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Our results also suggest that, for ecosystems in general, tackling multiple human stressors simultaneously maximizes resilience to phase shifts, ASS, and hysteresis, leading to improvements in ecosystem health and functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29582529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29582529"><span>How can "Super <span class="hlt">Corals</span>" facilitate global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> survival under rapid environmental and climatic change?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camp, Emma F; Schoepf, Verena; Suggett, David J</p> <p>2018-03-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are in a state of rapid global decline via environmental and climate change, and efforts have intensified to identify or engineer <span class="hlt">coral</span> populations with increased resilience. Concurrent with these efforts has been increasing use of the popularized term "Super <span class="hlt">Coral</span>" in both popular media and scientific literature without a unifying definition. However, how this subjective term is currently applied has the potential to mislead inference over factors contributing to <span class="hlt">coral</span> survivorship, and the future trajectory of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> form and functioning. Here, we discuss that the information required to support a single definition does not exist, and in fact may never be appropriate, i.e. "How Super is Super"? Instead, we advocate caution of this term, and suggest a workflow that enables contextualization and clarification of superiority to ensure that inferred or asserted survivorship is appropriate into future <span class="hlt">reef</span> projections. This is crucial to robustly unlock how "Super <span class="hlt">Corals</span>" can be integrated into the suite of management options required to facilitate <span class="hlt">coral</span> survival under rapid environmental and climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70121413','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70121413"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> recovery in Florida and the Persian Gulf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shinn, Eugene A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Long-term observations and study of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> destruction by hurricanes in the Florida Keys show, surprisingly, that although <span class="hlt">corals</span> are devastated on a grand scale during storms, recovery is rapid. Recovery occurs because of the widespread scattering of live fragments, many of which become growth sites of new colonies. <span class="hlt">Reef</span> recovery from death by chilling in the Persian Gulf was well under way when last observed, but it is not yet known if the recovery rate was as rapid as recovery from the storm destruction in Florida. Recovery from death by chilling requires settlement of transported <span class="hlt">coral</span> larvae and a substrate suitable for larval attachment. Such resettlement is subject to the effects of currents, predators, pollution, and competition for substrate. A growth rate of 10 cm per year combined with geometrical progression of branch formation accounts for rapid recovery. Although calculated <span class="hlt">coral</span> proliferation seems unusually high, it has been confirmed by serial underwater photographs spanning ten years. More precise measurements of growth and branching are needed, along with growth data for other common <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Such data would be useful for predicting standing crop of a restocked or transplanted <span class="hlt">reef</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22436464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22436464"><span>Extended geographic distribution of several Indo-Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weil, E; Irikawa, A; Casareto, B; Suzuki, Y</p> <p>2012-03-20</p> <p>Other than <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching, few <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases or diseases of other <span class="hlt">reef</span> organisms have been reported from Japan. This is the first report of lesions similar to Porites ulcerative white spots (PUWS), brown band disease (BrB), pigmentation response (PR), and crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) for this region. To <span class="hlt">assess</span> the health status and disease prevalence, qualitative and quantitative surveys (3 belt transects of 100 m² each on each <span class="hlt">reef</span>) were performed in March and September 2010 on 2 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Ginowan-Ooyama <span class="hlt">reef</span> complex off Okinawa, and 2 protected <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off Zamani Island, in the Kerama Islands 40 km west of Okinawa. Overall, mean (±SD) disease prevalence was higher in Ginowan-Ooyama (9.7 ± 7.9%) compared to Zamami (3.6 ± 4.6%). Porites lutea was most affected by PUWS at Ooyama (23.1 ± 10.4 vs. 4.5 ± 5.2%). White syndrome (WS) mostly affected Acropora cytherea (12. 5 ± 18.0%) in Zamami and Oxipora lacera (10.2 ± 10%) in Ooyama. Growth anomalies (GA) and BrB were only observed on A. cytherea (8.3 ± 6.2%) and A. nobilis (0.8%) at Zamami. Black band disease affected Pachyseris speciosa (6.0 ± 4.6%) in Ooyama only. Pigmentation responses (PR) were common in massive Porites in both localities (2.6 ± 1.9 and 5.6 ± 2.3% respectively). Crustose coralline white syndrome (CCWS) was observed in both localities. These results significantly expand the geographic distribution of PUWS, BrB, PR and CCWS in the Indo-Pacific, indicating that the northernmost <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the western Pacific are susceptible to a larger number of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855391"><span>Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resistance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J.; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B.; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E.; Rohwer, Forest</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that <span class="hlt">reef</span>-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease) on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27097927</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27097927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27097927"><span>Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> resistance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest</p> <p>2016-04-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that <span class="hlt">reef</span>-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease) on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance. © 2016 The Author(s).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030855','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030855"><span>Permanent 'phase shifts' or reversible declines in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover? Lack of recovery of two <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in St. John, US Virgin Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rogers, C.S.; Miller, J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have changed dramatically in the last 3 to 4 decades, with significant loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and increases in algae. Here we present trends in benthic cover from 1989 to 2003 at 2 <span class="hlt">reefs</span> (Lameshur <span class="hlt">Reef</span> and Newfound <span class="hlt">Reef</span>) off St. John, US Virgin Islands (USVI). <span class="hlt">Coral</span> cover has declined in the fore-<span class="hlt">reef</span> zones at both sites, and no recovery is evident. At Lameshur <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Hurricane Hugo (1989) caused significant physical damage and loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span>. We suggest that macroalgae rapidly colonized new substrate made available by this storm and have hindered or prevented growth of adult <span class="hlt">corals</span>, as well as settlement and survival of new <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruits. Overfishing of herbivorous fishes in the USVI and loss of shelter for these fishes because of major storms has presumably reduced the levels of herbivory that formerly controlled algal abundance. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> cover declined at Newfound <span class="hlt">Reef</span> from 1999 to 2000, most likely because of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases. The trends that we have documented, loss of <span class="hlt">coral</span> followed by no evidence of recovery, appear similar to findings from other studies in the Caribbean. We need to focus on functional shifts in the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that result in their inability to recover from natural and human-caused stressors. ?? Inter-Research 2006.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028349','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028349"><span>Pleistocene <span class="hlt">corals</span> of the Florida keys: Architects of imposing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> - Why?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lidz, B.H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Five asymmetrical, discontinuous, stratigraphically successive Pleistocene <span class="hlt">reef</span> tracts rim the windward platform margin off the Florida Keys. Built of large head <span class="hlt">corals</span>, the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are imposing in relief (???30 m high by 1 km wide), as measured from seismic profiles. Well dated to marine oxygen isotope substages 5c, 5b, and 5a, <span class="hlt">corals</span> at depth are inferred to date to the Stage 6/5 transition. The size of these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> attests to late Pleistocene conditions that repeatedly induced vigorous and sustained <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. In contrast, the setting today, linked to Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, is generally deemed marginal for <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion. Incursion onto the <span class="hlt">reef</span> tract of waters that contain seasonally inconsistent temperature, salinity, turbidity, and nutrient content impedes <span class="hlt">coral</span> growth. Fluctuating sea level and consequent settings controlled deposition. The primary dynamic was position of eustatic zeniths relative to regional topographic elevations. Sea level during the past 150 ka reached a maximum of ???10.6 m higher than at present ???125 ka, which gave rise to an inland <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> (Key Largo Limestone) and ooid complex (Miami Limestone) during isotope substage 5e. These formations now form the Florida Keys and a bedrock ridge beneath The Quicksands (Gulf of Mexico). High-precision radiometric ages and depths of dated <span class="hlt">corals</span> indicate subsequent apices remained ???15 to 9 m, respectively, below present sea level. Those peaks provided accommodation space sufficient for vertical <span class="hlt">reef</span> growth yet exposed a broad landmass landward of the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> for >100 ka. With time, space, lack of bay waters, and protection from the Gulf of Mexico, <span class="hlt">corals</span> thrived in clear oceanic waters of the Gulf Stream, the only waters to reach them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Remote+AND+sensing&pg=2&id=EJ727876','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Remote+AND+sensing&pg=2&id=EJ727876"><span>Satellite Remote Sensing of <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: By Learning about <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>, Students Gain an Understanding of Ecosystems and How Cutting-Edge Technology Can Be Used to Study Ecological Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Palandro, David; Thoms, Kristin; Kusek, Kristen; Muller-Karger, Frank; Greely, Teresa</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are one of the most important ecosystems on the planet, providing sustenance to both marine organisms and humans. Yet they are also one of the most endangered ecosystems as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> coverage has declined dramatically in the past three decades. Researchers continually seek better ways to map <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> coverage and monitor changes…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29315312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29315312"><span>Taking the metabolic pulse of the world's <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cyronak, Tyler; Andersson, Andreas J; Langdon, Chris; Albright, Rebecca; Bates, Nicholas R; Caldeira, Ken; Carlton, Renee; Corredor, Jorge E; Dunbar, Rob B; Enochs, Ian; Erez, Jonathan; Eyre, Bradley D; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Gledhill, Dwight; Kayanne, Hajime; Kline, David I; Koweek, David A; Lantz, Coulson; Lazar, Boaz; Manzello, Derek; McMahon, Ashly; Meléndez, Melissa; Page, Heather N; Santos, Isaac R; Schulz, Kai G; Shaw, Emily; Silverman, Jacob; Suzuki, Atsushi; Teneva, Lida; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Shoji</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide, <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> locations across the globe. In light of these results, we consider the suitability of using these two metrics developed from total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measurements collected on different spatiotemporal scales to monitor <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> biogeochemistry under anthropogenic change. All <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in this study were net calcifying for the majority of observations as inferred from alkalinity depletion relative to offshore, although occasional observations of net dissolution occurred at most locations. However, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with lower net calcification potential (i.e., lower TA depletion) could shift towards net dissolution sooner than <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with a higher potential. The percent influence of organic carbon fluxes on total changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (i.e., NCP compared to the sum of NCP and NCC) ranged from 32% to 88% and reflected inherent biogeochemical differences between <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> with the largest relative percentage of NCP experienced the largest variability in seawater pH for a given change in DIC, which is directly related to the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> ability to elevate or suppress local pH relative to the open ocean. This work highlights the value of measuring <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate chemistry when evaluating their susceptibility to ongoing global environmental change and offers a baseline from which to guide future conservation efforts aimed at preserving these valuable ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1827T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1827T"><span>Preliminary numerical simulation for shallow strata stability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> in South China Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Qinqin; Zhan, Wenhuan; Zhang, Jinchang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are the geologic material and special rock and soil, which live in shallow water of the tropic ocean and are formed through biological and geological action. Since infrastructure construction is being increasingly developed on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> during recent years, it is necessary to evaluate the shallow strata stability of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the South China Sea. The paper is to study the borehole profiles for shallow strata of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in the South China Sea, especially in the hydrodynamic marine environment?, and to establish a geological model for numerical simulation with Geo-Studio software. Five drilling holes show a six-layer shallow structure of South China Sea, including filling layer, mid-coarse sand, <span class="hlt">coral</span> sand gravel, fine sand, limestone debris and <span class="hlt">reef</span> limestone. The shallow <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> profile next to lagoon is similar to "layers cake", in which the right side close to the sea is analogous to "block cake". The simulation results show that <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> stability depends on wave loads and earthquake strength, as well as the physical properties of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> themselves. The safety factor of the outer <span class="hlt">reef</span> is greater than 10.0 in the static condition, indicating that outer <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are less affected by the wave and earthquake. However, the safety factor next to lagoon is ranging from 0.1 to 4.9. The main reason for the variations that the strata of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> close to the sea are thick. For example, the thickness of <span class="hlt">reef</span> limestone is more than 10 m and equivalent to the block. When the thickness of inside strata is less than 10 m, they show weak engineering geological characteristics. These findings can provide useful information for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> constructions in future. This work was funded by National Basic Research Program of China (contract: 2013CB956104) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (contract: 41376063).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025482','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025482"><span>Monitoring the <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease, plague type II, on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, J.; Rogers, C.; Waara, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In July 1997, conspicuous white patches of necrotic tissue and bare skeleton began to appear on scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> in several bays around St. John, US Virgin Islands. Analysis of diseased <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissue from five different species confirmed the presence of a Sphingomonas-like bacterium, the pathogen for plague type II. To date, 14 species of hard <span class="hlt">corals</span> have been affected by plague type II around St. John. This disease was monitored at Haulover and Tektite <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> at depths of 7-12 meters. The study site at Tektite <span class="hlt">Reef</span> has >50% cover by scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> with 90% of hard <span class="hlt">corals</span> being composed of Montastraea annular is. Monthly surveys at Tektite <span class="hlt">Reef</span> from December 1997 to May 2001 documented new incidence of disease (bare white patches of skeleton) every month with associated loss of living <span class="hlt">coral</span> and 90.5% of all disease patches occurred on M. annularis. The frequency of disease within transects ranged from 3 to 58%, and the area of disease patches ranged from 0.25 to 9000 cm2. The average percent cover by the disease within 1 m2 ranged from 0.01% (?? 0.04 SD) to 1.74% (?? 9.08 SD). Photo-monitoring of 28 diseased <span class="hlt">corals</span> of 9 species begun in September 1997 at Haulover <span class="hlt">Reef</span> revealed no recovery of diseased portions with all necrotic tissue being overgrown rapidly by turf algae, usually within less than one month. Most <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies suffered partial mortality. Very limited recruitment (e.g., of Agaricia spp., Favia spp. and sponges) has been noted on the diseased areas. This <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease has the potential to cause more loss of live <span class="hlt">coral</span> on St. John <span class="hlt">reefs</span> than any other stress to date because it targets the dominant <span class="hlt">reef</span> building species, M. annularis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192936"><span>Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shapiro, Orr H; Fernandez, Vicente I; Garren, Melissa; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Debaillon-Vesque, François P; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Vardi, Assaf; Stocker, Roman</p> <p>2014-09-16</p> <p>The exchange of nutrients and dissolved gasses between <span class="hlt">corals</span> and their environment is a critical determinant of the growth of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies and the productivity of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. To date, this exchange has been assumed to be limited by molecular diffusion through an unstirred boundary layer extending 1-2 mm from the <span class="hlt">coral</span> surface, with <span class="hlt">corals</span> relying solely on external flow to overcome this limitation. Here, we present direct microscopic evidence that, instead, <span class="hlt">corals</span> can actively enhance mass transport through strong vortical flows driven by motile epidermal cilia covering their entire surface. Ciliary beating produces quasi-steady arrays of counterrotating vortices that vigorously stir a layer of water extending up to 2 mm from the <span class="hlt">coral</span> surface. We show that, under low ambient flow velocities, these vortices, rather than molecular diffusion, control the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the <span class="hlt">coral</span> and its environment, enhancing mass transfer rates by up to 400%. This ability of <span class="hlt">corals</span> to stir their boundary layer changes the way that we perceive the microenvironment of <span class="hlt">coral</span> surfaces, revealing an active mechanism complementing the passive enhancement of transport by ambient flow. These findings extend our understanding of mass transport processes in <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> and may shed new light on the evolutionary success of <span class="hlt">corals</span> and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029403"><span>A geological perspective on the degradation and conservation of western Atlantic <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuffner, Ilsa B; Toth, Lauren T</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Continuing <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> degradation in the western Atlantic is resulting in loss of ecological and geologic functions of <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. With the goal of assisting resource managers and stewards of <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in setting and measuring progress toward realistic goals for <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> conservation and restoration, we examined <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation in this region from a geological perspective. The importance of ecosystem services provided by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>-as breakwaters that dissipate wave energy and protect shorelines and as providers of habitat for innumerable species-cannot be overstated. However, the few <span class="hlt">coral</span> species responsible for <span class="hlt">reef</span> building in the western Atlantic during the last approximately 1.5 million years are not thriving in the 21st century. These species are highly sensitive to abrupt temperature extremes, prone to disease infection, and have low sexual reproductive potential. Their vulnerability and the low functional redundancy of branching <span class="hlt">corals</span> have led to the low resilience of western Atlantic <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. The decrease in live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover over the last 50 years highlights the need for study of relict (senescent) <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which, from the perspective of coastline protection and habitat structure, may be just as important to conserve as the living <span class="hlt">coral</span> veneer. Research is needed to characterize the geological processes of bioerosion, <span class="hlt">reef</span> cementation, and sediment transport as they relate to modern-day changes in <span class="hlt">reef</span> elevation. For example, although parrotfish remove nuisance macroalgae, possibly promoting <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment, they will not save Atlantic <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from geological degradation. In fact, these fish are quickly nibbling away significant quantities of Holocene <span class="hlt">reef</span> framework. The question of how different biota covering dead <span class="hlt">reefs</span> affect framework resistance to biological and physical erosion needs to be addressed. Monitoring and managing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with respect to physical resilience, in addition to ecological resilience, could optimize the expenditure of resources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA410910','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA410910"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Protection Implementation Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-10-19</p> <p>DoD is advancing <span class="hlt">coral</span> with stinging cells on their tentacles. Thesymbiotic algae ( zooxanthellae ) living in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation by developing...symbiotic micro-algae, named natural resources professional to render an opinion, zooxanthellae . based on a minimum of a site visit and current general...both pages. The differing colors are caused by symbiotic zooxanthellae and tissue pigments which vary among individuals: Giant clams are threatened</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........88S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........88S"><span>Effects of changing temperatures on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health: Implications for management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selig, Elizabeth Rose</p> <p></p> <p>Human-induced climate change has already led to substantial changes in a variety of ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are particularly vulnerable to rises in ocean temperature as a result of climate change because they already live near their thermal limits. However, we know little about the spatial patterns of temperature anomalies, areas of greater than usual temperature, which cause <span class="hlt">coral</span> mortality and increased rates of <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease. These gaps in knowledge make it difficult to design effective management strategies for mitigating the effects of ocean warming. My dissertation research uses a combination of a new satellite ocean temperature dataset, field surveys on <span class="hlt">coral</span> health, and data on marine protected area (MPA) boundaries to analyze how ocean temperatures are affecting <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> health at regional and global scales. I discovered that temperature anomalies are spatially and temporally variable from 1985-2005 even during El Nino events. They are also typically less than 50 km2, smaller than the resolution of many climate models. In addition, I found a strong relationship on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> between the number of temperature anomalies and the number of cases of white syndrome, a prevalent <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease. Results from this study suggest that temperature anomalies are playing a major role in the observed decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> over the last 30-40 years. This decline highlights the importance of determining whether MPAs, one of the most common management tools are effective in restoring <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. My analyses demonstrated that MPAs can confer some ecosystem resilience through fisheries management and land management practices at regional scales. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> cover on <span class="hlt">reefs</span> inside of MPAs did not change over time, while unprotected <span class="hlt">reefs</span> experienced declines in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover. However, MPAs do not moderate the effect of thermal stress on <span class="hlt">corals</span> or reduce <span class="hlt">coral</span> decline at rates that can offset losses from thermal stress and other major natural and human-caused disturbances</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS22D..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMOS22D..08G"><span>Clues to <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Ecosystem Health: Spectral Analysis Coupled with Radiative Transfer Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.; Johnson, L.; Garfield, N.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are among the world's most productive and biologically rich ecosystems and are some of the oldest ecosystems on Earth. Coralline structures protect coastlines from storms, maintain high diversity of marine life, and provide nurseries for marine species. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> play a role in carbon cycling through high rates of organic carbon metabolism and calcification. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> provide fisheries habitat that are the sole protein source for humans on remote islands. <span class="hlt">Reefs</span> respond immediately to environmental change and therefore are considered "canaries" of the oceans. However, the world's <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are in peril: they have shrunk 10-50% from their historical extent due to climate change and anthropogenic activity. An important contribution to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> research is improved spectral distinction of <span class="hlt">reef</span> species' health where anthropogenic activity and climate change impacts are high. Relatively little is known concerning the spectral properties of <span class="hlt">coral</span> or how <span class="hlt">coral</span> structures reflect and transmit light. New insights into optical processes of <span class="hlt">corals</span> under stressed conditions can lead to improved interpretation of airborne and satellite data and forecasting of immediate or long-term impacts of events such as bleaching and disease in <span class="hlt">coral</span>. We are investigating the spatial and spectral resolution required to detect remotely changes in <span class="hlt">reef</span> health by coupling spectral analysis of in situ spectra and airborne spectral data with a new radiative transfer model called CorMOD2. Challenges include light attenuation by the water column, atmospheric scattering, and scattering caused by the <span class="hlt">coral</span> themselves that confound the spectral signal. In CorMOD2, input <span class="hlt">coral</span> reflectance measurements produce modeled absorption through an inversion at each visible wavelength. The first model development phase of CorMOD2 imposes a scattering baseline that is constant regardless of <span class="hlt">coral</span> condition, and further specifies that <span class="hlt">coral</span> is optically thick. Evolution of CorMOD2 is towards a <span class="hlt">coral</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...76..876W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...76..876W"><span>Microbial photosynthesis in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> sediments (Heron <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Werner, Ursula; Blazejak, Anna; Bird, Paul; Eickert, Gabriele; Schoon, Raphaela; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Bissett, Andrew; de Beer, Dirk</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>We investigated microphytobenthic photosynthesis at four stations in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> sediments at Heron <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. The microphytobenthos was dominated by diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, as indicated by biomarker pigment analysis. Conspicuous algae firmly attached to the sand grains (ca. 100 μm in diameter, surrounded by a hard transparent wall) were rich in peridinin, a marker pigment for dinoflagellates, but also showed a high diversity based on cyanobacterial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Specimens of these algae that were buried below the photic zone exhibited an unexpected stimulation of respiration by light, resulting in an increase of local oxygen concentrations upon darkening. Net photosynthesis of the sediments varied between 1.9 and 8.5 mmol O 2 m -2 h -1 and was strongly correlated with Chl a content, which lay between 31 and 84 mg m -2. An estimate based on our spatially limited dataset indicates that the microphytobenthic production for the entire <span class="hlt">reef</span> is in the order of magnitude of the production estimated for <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Photosynthesis stimulated calcification at all investigated sites (0.2-1.0 mmol Ca 2+ m -2 h -1). The sediments of at least three stations were net calcifying. Sedimentary N 2-fixation rates (measured by acetylene reduction assays at two sites) ranged between 0.9 to 3.9 mmol N 2 m -2 h -1 and were highest in the light, indicating the importance of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In <span class="hlt">coral</span> fingers no N 2-fixation was measurable, which stresses the importance of the sediment compartment for <span class="hlt">reef</span> nitrogen cycling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2930002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2930002"><span>Prioritizing Land and Sea Conservation Investments to Protect <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klein, Carissa J.; Ban, Natalie C.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Beger, Maria; Game, Edward T.; Grantham, Hedley S.; Green, Alison; Klein, Travis J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Treml, Eric; Wilson, Kerrie; Possingham, Hugh P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have exceptional biodiversity, support the livelihoods of millions of people, and are threatened by multiple human activities on land (e.g. farming) and in the sea (e.g. overfishing). Most conservation efforts occur at local scales and, when effective, can increase the resilience of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to global threats such as climate change (e.g. warming water and ocean acidification). Limited resources for conservation require that we efficiently prioritize where and how to best sustain <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we develop the first prioritization approach that can guide regional-scale conservation investments in land- and sea-based conservation actions that cost-effectively mitigate threats to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, and apply it to the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle, an area of significant global attention and funding. Using information on threats to marine ecosystems, effectiveness of management actions at abating threats, and the management and opportunity costs of actions, we calculate the rate of return on investment in two conservation actions in sixteen ecoregions. We discover that marine conservation almost always trumps terrestrial conservation within any ecoregion, but terrestrial conservation in one ecoregion can be a better investment than marine conservation in another. We show how these results could be used to allocate a limited budget for conservation and compare them to priorities based on individual criteria. Conclusions/Significance Previous prioritization approaches do not consider both land and sea-based threats or the socioeconomic costs of conserving <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. A simple and transparent approach like ours is essential to support effective <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> conservation decisions in a large and diverse region like the <span class="hlt">Coral</span> Triangle, but can be applied at any scale and to other marine ecosystems. PMID:20814570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..473C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CorRe..30..473C"><span>Selective feeding by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes on <span class="hlt">coral</span> lesions associated with brown band and black band disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chong-Seng, K. M.; Cole, A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.; Willis, B. L.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Recent studies have suggested that corallivorous fishes may be vectors for <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease, but the extent to which fishes actually feed on and thereby potentially transmit <span class="hlt">coral</span> pathogens is largely unknown. For this study, in situ video observations were used to <span class="hlt">assess</span> the level to which fishes fed on diseased <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissues at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>. Surveys conducted at multiple locations around Lizard Island revealed that <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease prevalence, especially of brown band disease (BrB), was higher in lagoon and backreef locations than in exposed <span class="hlt">reef</span> crests. Accordingly, video cameras were deployed in lagoon and backreef habitats to record feeding by fishes during 1-h periods on diseased sections of each of 44 different <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies. Twenty-five species from five fish families (Blennidae, Chaetodontidae, Gobiidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) were observed to feed on infected <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissues of staghorn species of Acropora that were naturally infected with black band disease (BBD) or brown band disease (BrB). Collectively, these fishes took an average of 18.6 (±5.6 SE) and 14.3 (±6.1 SE) bites per hour from BBD and BrB lesions, respectively. More than 40% (408/948 bites) and nearly 25% (314/1319 bites) of bites were observed on lesions associated with BBD and BrB, respectively, despite these bands each representing only about 1% of the substratum available. Moreover, many corallivorous fishes ( Labrichthys unilineatus, Chaetodon aureofasciatus, C. baronessa, C. lunulatus, C. trifascialis, Cheiloprion labiatus) selectively targeted disease lesions over adjacent healthy <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissues. These findings highlight the important role that <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes may play in the dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> diseases, either as vectors for the spread of <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease or in reducing <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease progression through intensive and selective consumption of diseased <span class="hlt">coral</span> tissues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28696067"><span>The contribution of microbial biotechnology to mitigating <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> degradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Damjanovic, Katarina; Blackall, Linda L; Webster, Nicole S; van Oppen, Madeleine J H</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The decline of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> due to anthropogenic disturbances is having devastating impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here we highlight the potential and challenges of microbial manipulation strategies to enhance <span class="hlt">coral</span> tolerance to stress and contribute to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> restoration and protection. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24935524"><span>Identifying the ichthyoplankton of a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> using DNA barcodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hubert, Nicolas; Espiau, Benoit; Meyer, Christopher; Planes, Serge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Marine fishes exhibit spectacular phenotypic changes during their ontogeny, and the identification of their early stages is challenging due to the paucity of diagnostic morphological characters at the species level. Meanwhile, the importance of early life stages in dispersal and connectivity has recently experienced an increasing interest in conservation programmes for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. This study aims at <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for the automated identification of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish larvae through large-scale ecosystemic sampling. Fish larvae were mainly collected using bongo nets and light traps around Moorea between September 2008 and August 2010 in 10 sites distributed in open waters. Fish larvae ranged from 2 to 100 mm of total length, with the most abundant individuals being <5 mm. Among the 505 individuals DNA barcoded, 373 larvae (i.e. 75%) were identified to the species level. A total of 106 species were detected, among which 11 corresponded to pelagic and bathypelagic species, while 95 corresponded to species observed at the adult stage on neighbouring <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This study highlights the benefits and pitfalls of using standardized molecular systems for species identification and illustrates the new possibilities enabled by DNA barcoding for future work on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish larval ecology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641083','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26641083"><span>No <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Is an Island: Integrating <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schill, Steven R; Raber, George T; Roberts, Jason J; Treml, Eric A; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We integrated <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008-2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report <span class="hlt">coral</span> larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important <span class="hlt">reef</span> network connections. The identification of important <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671564"><span>No <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Is an Island: Integrating <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Connectivity Data into the Design of Regional-Scale Marine Protected Area Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schill, Steven R.; Raber, George T.; Roberts, Jason J.; Treml, Eric A.; Brenner, Jorge; Halpin, Patrick N.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We integrated <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity data for the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico into a conservation decision-making framework for designing a regional scale marine protected area (MPA) network that provides insight into ecological and political contexts. We used an ocean circulation model and regional <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> data to simulate eight spawning events from 2008–2011, applying a maximum 30-day pelagic larval duration and 20% mortality rate. <span class="hlt">Coral</span> larval dispersal patterns were analyzed between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> across jurisdictional marine zones to identify spatial relationships between larval sources and destinations within countries and territories across the region. We applied our results in Marxan, a conservation planning software tool, to identify a regional <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> MPA network design that meets conservation goals, minimizes underlying threats, and maintains <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity. Our results suggest that approximately 77% of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> identified as having a high regional connectivity value are not included in the existing MPA network. This research is unique because we quantify and report <span class="hlt">coral</span> larval connectivity data by marine ecoregions and Exclusive Economic Zones (EZZ) and use this information to identify gaps in the current Caribbean-wide MPA network by integrating asymmetric connectivity information in Marxan to design a regional MPA network that includes important <span class="hlt">reef</span> network connections. The identification of important <span class="hlt">reef</span> connectivity metrics guides the selection of priority conservation areas and supports resilience at the whole system level into the future. PMID:26641083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170012202','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170012202"><span>A 3D Active Learning Application for NeMO-Net, the NASA Neural Multi-Modal Observation and Training Network for Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>van den Bergh, Jarrett; Schutz, Joey; Li, Alan; Chirayath, Ved</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>NeMO-Net, the NASA neural multi-modal observation and training network for global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, is an open-source deep convolutional neural network and interactive active learning training software aiming to accurately <span class="hlt">assess</span> the present and past dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems through determination of percent living cover and morphology as well as mapping of spatial distribution. We present an interactive video game prototype for tablet and mobile devices where users interactively label morphology classifications over mm-scale 3D <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> imagery captured using fluid lensing to create a dataset that will be used to train NeMO-Nets convolutional neural network. The application currently allows for users to classify preselected regions of <span class="hlt">coral</span> in the Pacific and will be expanded to include additional regions captured using our NASA FluidCam instrument, presently the highest-resolution remote sensing benthic imaging technology capable of removing ocean wave distortion, as well as lower-resolution airborne remote sensing data from the ongoing NASA <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> campaign. Active learning applications present a novel methodology for efficiently training large-scale Neural Networks wherein variances in identification can be rapidly mitigated against control data. NeMO-Net periodically checks users input against pre-classified <span class="hlt">coral</span> imagery to gauge their accuracy and utilize in-game mechanics to provide classification training. Users actively communicate with a server and are requested to classify areas of <span class="hlt">coral</span> for which other users had conflicting classifications and contribute their input to a larger database for ranking. In partnering with Mission Blue and IUCN, NeMO-Net leverages an international consortium of subject matter experts to classify areas of confusion identified by NeMO-Net and generate additional labels crucial for identifying decision boundary locations in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H31G1591V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.H31G1591V"><span>A 3D Active Learning Application for NeMO-Net, the NASA Neural Multi-Modal Observation and Training Network for Global <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Assessment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van den Bergh, J.; Schutz, J.; Chirayath, V.; Li, A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>NeMO-Net, the NASA neural multi-modal observation and training network for global <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>, is an open-source deep convolutional neural network and interactive active learning training software aiming to accurately <span class="hlt">assess</span> the present and past dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems through determination of percent living cover and morphology as well as mapping of spatial distribution. We present an interactive video game prototype for tablet and mobile devices where users interactively label morphology classifications over mm-scale 3D <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> imagery captured using fluid lensing to create a dataset that will be used to train NeMO-Net's convolutional neural network. The application currently allows for users to classify preselected regions of <span class="hlt">coral</span> in the Pacific and will be expanded to include additional regions captured using our NASA FluidCam instrument, presently the highest-resolution remote sensing benthic imaging technology capable of removing ocean wave distortion, as well as lower-resolution airborne remote sensing data from the ongoing NASA <span class="hlt">CORAL</span> campaign.Active learning applications present a novel methodology for efficiently training large-scale Neural Networks wherein variances in identification can be rapidly mitigated against control data. NeMO-Net periodically checks users' input against pre-classified <span class="hlt">coral</span> imagery to gauge their accuracy and utilizes in-game mechanics to provide classification training. Users actively communicate with a server and are requested to classify areas of <span class="hlt">coral</span> for which other users had conflicting classifications and contribute their input to a larger database for ranking. In partnering with Mission Blue and IUCN, NeMO-Net leverages an international consortium of subject matter experts to classify areas of confusion identified by NeMO-Net and generate additional labels crucial for identifying decision boundary locations in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">assessment</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448050.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED448050.pdf"><span>Arrecifes de <span class="hlt">Coral</span>: Una Coleccion de Actividades en Espanol para Estudiantes de Escuela Intermedia (<span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span>: A Spanish Compilation of Activities for Middle School Students).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walker, Sharon H.; Newton, R. Amanda; Ortiz, Alida</p> <p></p> <p>This activity book for middle school students on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is divided into 10 sections. Section 1 is the introduction. Section 2 describes what <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are while section 3 describes how <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> reproduce and grow. Section 4 describes where <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are found, and section 5 describes life on a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. Section 6 describes the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4419544','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4419544"><span>Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: sponges overgrow <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E.; Henkel, Timothy P.; Vicente, Jan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of <span class="hlt">corals</span> by sponges, and mean <span class="hlt">coral</span> contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with <span class="hlt">corals</span> by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:25945305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945305"><span>Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>: sponges overgrow <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span> from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of <span class="hlt">corals</span> by sponges, and mean <span class="hlt">coral</span> contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with <span class="hlt">corals</span> by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5624545-taphonomy-coral-reefs-from-southern-lagoon-belize','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5624545-taphonomy-coral-reefs-from-southern-lagoon-belize"><span>Taphonomy of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from Southern Lagoon of Belize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of <span class="hlt">coral</span> debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representativemore » <span class="hlt">reef</span>, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn <span class="hlt">coral</span> Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living <span class="hlt">corals</span> are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of <span class="hlt">corals</span> accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of <span class="hlt">coral</span> debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of <span class="hlt">coral</span> rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036029','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036029"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> evolution on rapidly subsiding margins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Webster, J.M.; Braga, J.C.; Clague, D.A.; Gallup, C.; Hein, J.R.; Potts, D.C.; Renema, W.; Riding, R.; Riker-Coleman, K.; Silver, E.; Wallace, L.M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A series of well-developed submerged <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are preserved in the Huon Gulf (Papua New Guinea) and around Hawaii. Despite different tectonics settings, both regions have experienced rapid subsidence (2-6??m/ka) over the last 500??ka. Rapid subsidence, combined with eustatic sea-level changes, is responsible for repeated drowning and backstepping of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> over this period. Because we can place quantitative constraints on these systems (i.e., <span class="hlt">reef</span> drowning age, eustatic sea-level changes, subsidence rates, accretion rates, basement substrates, and paleobathymetry), these areas represent unique natural laboratories for exploring the roles of tectonics, <span class="hlt">reef</span> accretion, and eustatic sea-level changes in controlling the evolution of individual <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, as well as backstepping of the entire system. A review of new and existing bathymetric, radiometric, sedimentary facies and numerical modeling data indicate that these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> have had long, complex growth histories and that they are highly sensitive, recording drowning not only during major deglaciations, but also during high-frequency, small-amplitude interstadial and deglacial meltwater pulse events. Analysis of five generalized sedimentary facies shows that <span class="hlt">reef</span> drowning is characterized by a distinct biological and sedimentary sequence. Observational and numerical modeling data indicate that on precessional (20??ka) and sub-orbital timescales, the rate and amplitude of eustatic sea-level changes are critical in controlling initiation, growth, drowning or sub-aerial exposure, subsequent re-initiation, and final drowning. However, over longer timescales (> 100-500??ka) continued tectonic subsidence and basement substrate morphology influence broad scale <span class="hlt">reef</span> morphology and backstepping geometries. Drilling of these <span class="hlt">reefs</span> will yield greatly expanded stratigraphic sections compared with similar <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on slowly subsiding, stable and uplifting margins, and thus they represent a unique archive of sea-level and climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1112895J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1112895J"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production models at a global scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, N. S.; Ridgwell, A.; Hendy, E. J.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Calcification by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> communities is estimated to account for half of all carbonate produced in shallow water environments and more than 25% of the total carbonate buried in marine sediments globally. Production of calcium carbonate by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> is therefore an important component of the global carbon cycle. It is also threatened by future global warming and other global change pressures. Numerical models of reefal carbonate production are essential for understanding how carbonate deposition responds to environmental conditions including future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but these models must first be evaluated in terms of their skill in recreating present day calcification rates. Here we evaluate four published model descriptions of <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate production in terms of their predictive power, at both local and global scales, by comparing carbonate budget outputs with independent estimates. We also compile available global data on <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification to produce an observation-based dataset for the model evaluation. The four calcification models are based on functions sensitive to combinations of light availability, aragonite saturation (Ωa) and temperature and were implemented within a specifically-developed global framework, the Global <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Accretion Model (GRAM). None of the four models correlated with independent rate estimates of whole <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification. The temperature-only based approach was the only model output to significantly correlate with <span class="hlt">coral</span>-calcification rate observations. The absence of any predictive power for whole <span class="hlt">reef</span> systems, even when consistent at the scale of individual <span class="hlt">corals</span>, points to the overriding importance of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover estimates in the calculations. Our work highlights the need for an ecosystem modeling approach, accounting for population dynamics in terms of mortality and recruitment and hence <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, in estimating global <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate budgets. In addition, validation of <span class="hlt">reef</span> carbonate budgets is severely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246425&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=marine+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246425&Lab=NHEERL&keyword=marine+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reef</span> Biological Criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24258715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24258715"><span>Global <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of the status of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> herbivorous fishes: evidence for fishing effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, C B; Friedlander, A M; Green, A G; Hardt, M J; Sala, E; Sweatman, H P; Williams, I D; Zgliczynski, B; Sandin, S A; Smith, J E</p> <p>2014-01-07</p> <p>On <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, herbivorous fishes consume benthic primary producers and regulate competition between fleshy algae and <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">corals</span>. Many of these species are also important fishery targets, yet little is known about their global status. Using a large-scale synthesis of peer-reviewed and unpublished data, we examine variability in abundance and biomass of herbivorous <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes and explore evidence for fishing impacts globally and within regions. We show that biomass is more than twice as high in locations not accessible to fisheries relative to fisheries-accessible locations. Although there are large biogeographic differences in total biomass, the effects of fishing are consistent in nearly all regions. We also show that exposure to fishing alters the structure of the herbivore community by disproportionately reducing biomass of large-bodied functional groups (scraper/excavators, browsers, grazer/detritivores), while increasing biomass and abundance of territorial algal-farming damselfishes (Pomacentridae). The browser functional group that consumes macroalgae and can help to prevent <span class="hlt">coral</span>-macroalgal phase shifts appears to be most susceptible to fishing. This fishing down the herbivore guild probably alters the effectiveness of these fishes in regulating algal abundance on <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. Finally, data from remote and unfished locations provide important baselines for setting management and conservation targets for this important group of fishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC24C1131H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSEC24C1131H"><span>Observations of turbulent mixing in a shallow <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Z. C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In situ measurements of waves, currents, and turbulence are presented to study turbulence properties within a depression that is surrounded by multiple <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> colonies in a fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span> in Hobihu, Nan-Wan Bay, southern Taiwan. Turbulence was measured using a dual velocimetry technique, and wave bias contamination in the turbulence is controlled using ogive curve testing of the turbulent shear stress. The observed turbulent dissipation rate is approximately five times greater than simultaneous observations over the nearby sandy bottom site, which indicates stronger mixing within the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> than on sandy bottoms. Energetic downward momentum flux exists due to sweeping process; the turbulent kinetic energy is transported downward into the depression through the mechanisms of vertical turbulent transport and advection. The observed turbulent dissipation rate exceeds the shear production rate, which suggests that transport terms or other source terms might be important. The wake flow caused by the resistance force of <span class="hlt">coral</span> colonies is examined. The form drag coefficient was estimated from the time-averaged alongshore linear momentum between two sites upstream and within the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>. The work done due to the form drag, which is termed the wake production, is found to strongly correlate and approximate well to the observed turbulent dissipation rate. The effects of waves and currents on the wake production are discussed. The observed TSS can be described well by classic turbulence closure model when the empirical stability function is adjusted. This study suggests that the complex canopy structure of multiple colonies and the coexistence of the wave-induced and current flows are significant factors for energetic turbulence in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span>, which could have positive effects to the health of the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17776712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17776712"><span>Interoceanic differences in the reproduction of <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thresher, R E</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>Eggs of demersal spawning <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fishes of the tropical western Atlantic are smaller than those of related species in the western Pacific. Decreased egg volume may result in increased fecundity per unit body weight of Atlantic species, a factor that may underlie apparent differences in the stability of the respective <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> fish communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..373L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..373L"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching using small unmanned aerial systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Joshua; Hunter, Cynthia; Lukacazyk, Trent; Franklin, Erik C.</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are an affordable, effective complement to existing <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring and <span class="hlt">assessment</span> tools. sUAS provide repeatable low-altitude, high-resolution photogrammetry to address fundamental questions of spatial ecology and community dynamics for shallow <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Here, we qualitatively describe the use of sUAS to survey the spatial characteristics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover and the distribution of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching across patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Kānéohe Bay, Hawaii, and address limitations and anticipated technology advancements within the field of UAS. Overlapping sub-decimeter low-altitude aerial <span class="hlt">reef</span> imagery collected during the 2015 <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching event was used to construct high-resolution <span class="hlt">reef</span> image mosaics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching responses on four Kānéohe Bay patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, totaling 60,000 m2. Using sUAS imagery, we determined that paled, bleached and healthy <span class="hlt">corals</span> on all four <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were spatially clustered. Comparative analyses of data from sUAS imagery and in situ diver surveys found as much as 14% difference in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover values between survey methods, depending on the size of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> and area surveyed. When comparing the abundance of unhealthy <span class="hlt">coral</span> (paled and bleached) between sUAS and in situ diver surveys, we found differences in cover from 1 to 49%, depending on the depth of in situ surveys, the percent of <span class="hlt">reef</span> area covered with sUAS surveys and patchiness of the bleaching response. This study demonstrates the effective use of sUAS surveys for <span class="hlt">assessing</span> the spatial dynamics of <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching at colony-scale resolutions across entire patch <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and evaluates the complementarity of data from both sUAS and in situ diver surveys to more accurately characterize the spatial ecology of <span class="hlt">coral</span> communities on <span class="hlt">reef</span> flats and slopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068343','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068343"><span>Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W.; Eggleston, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> populations, and the productive <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to <span class="hlt">coral</span> larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span>, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between <span class="hlt">reef</span> sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and <span class="hlt">reef</span> characteristics, with sounds at the loudest <span class="hlt">reef</span> generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on <span class="hlt">coral</span> settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key <span class="hlt">coral</span> species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species. PMID:27761342</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-220.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-220.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-220.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-220.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-220.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.220 - Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.220 Section 665.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.220 Hawaii <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24254491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24254491"><span><span class="hlt">Assessing</span> the ecological effects of human impacts on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Bocas del Toro, Panama.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Environmental and biological <span class="hlt">reef</span> monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to <span class="hlt">assess</span> impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened <span class="hlt">reef</span> health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (δ(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 μg l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 μg l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to <10 % with extremely low diversities (7 hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> species). The hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> species Porites furcata dominated the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in highly impacted areas and showed a strong recovery after bleaching and a higher tolerance to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard <span class="hlt">coral</span> species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29146203','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29146203"><span>Responses of <span class="hlt">reef</span> building <span class="hlt">corals</span> to microplastic exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reichert, Jessica; Schellenberg, Johannes; Schubert, Patrick; Wilke, Thomas</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>Pollution of marine environments with microplastic particles (i.e. plastic fragments <5 mm) has increased rapidly during the last decades. As these particles are mainly of terrestrial origin, coastal ecosystems such as <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are particularly threatened. Recent studies revealed that microplastic ingestion can have adverse effects on marine invertebrates. However, little is known about its effects on small-polyp stony <span class="hlt">corals</span> that are the main framework builders in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. The goal of this study is to characterise how different <span class="hlt">coral</span> species I) respond to microplastic particles and whether the exposure might II) lead to health effects. Therefore, six small-polyp stony <span class="hlt">coral</span> species belonging to the genera Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites were exposed to microplastics (polyethylene, size 37-163 μm, concentration ca. 4000 particles L -1 ) over four weeks, and responses and effects on health were documented. The study showed that the <span class="hlt">corals</span> responded differentially to microplastics. Cleaning mechanisms (direct interaction, mucus production) but also feeding interactions (i.e. interaction with mesenterial filaments, ingestion, and egestion) were observed. Additionally, passive contact through overgrowth was documented. In five of the six studied species, negative effects on health (i.e. bleaching and tissue necrosis) were reported. We here provide preliminary knowledge about <span class="hlt">coral</span>-microplastic-interactions. The results call for further investigations of the effects of realistic microplastic concentrations on growth, reproduction, and survival of stony <span class="hlt">corals</span>. This might lead to a better understanding of resilience capacities in <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3799737','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3799737"><span>Environmental Records from Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> <span class="hlt">Corals</span>: Inshore versus Offshore Drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walther, Benjamin D.; Kingsford, Michael J.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The biogenic structures of stationary organisms can be effective recorders of environmental fluctuations. These proxy records of environmental change are preserved as geochemical signals in the carbonate skeletons of scleractinian <span class="hlt">corals</span> and are useful for reconstructions of temporal and spatial fluctuations in the physical and chemical environments of <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystems, including The Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> (GBR). We compared multi-year monitoring of water temperature and dissolved elements with analyses of chemical proxies recorded in Porites <span class="hlt">coral</span> skeletons to identify the divergent mechanisms driving environmental variation at inshore versus offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. At inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, water Ba/Ca increased with the onset of monsoonal rains each year, indicating a dominant control of flooding on inshore ambient chemistry. Inshore multi-decadal records of <span class="hlt">coral</span> Ba/Ca were also highly periodic in response to flood-driven pulses of terrigenous material. In contrast, an offshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> at the edge of the continental shelf was subject to annual upwelling of waters that were presumed to be richer in Ba during summer months. Regular pulses of deep cold water were delivered to the <span class="hlt">reef</span> as indicated by in situ temperature loggers and <span class="hlt">coral</span> Ba/Ca. Our results indicate that although much of the GBR is subject to periodic environmental fluctuations, the mechanisms driving variation depend on proximity to the coast. Inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are primarily influenced by variable freshwater delivery and terrigenous erosion of catchments, while offshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are dominated by seasonal and inter-annual variations in oceanographic conditions that influence the propensity for upwelling. The careful choice of sites can help distinguish between the various factors that promote Ba uptake in <span class="hlt">corals</span> and therefore increase the utility of <span class="hlt">corals</span> as monitors of spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions. PMID:24204743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135992','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135992"><span>Response of <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> on a fringing <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Lager, Claire V.; Lager, Dan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. <span class="hlt">Corals</span> were grown on wire platforms with attached <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore) to 3 mg l−1(offshore). Natural <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> development on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental <span class="hlt">corals</span> held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the <span class="hlt">reef</span> flat reduced <span class="hlt">coral</span> recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the <span class="hlt">corals</span> showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural <span class="hlt">coral</span> coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5119242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5119242"><span>Detecting sedimentation impacts to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> resulting from dredging the Port of Miami, Florida USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Groves, Carolyn E.; Griffin, Sean; Moore, Tom; Wilber, Pace; Gregg, Kurtis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> feature referred to as the Inner <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, particularly in the sector north of the channel. A confounding regional warm-water mass bleaching event followed by a <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease outbreak during this same time frame made the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of dredging-related impacts to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> adjacent to the federal channel difficult but still feasible. The current study sought to better understand the sedimentation impacts that occurred in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environment surrounding Port of Miami, to distinguish those impacts from other regional events or disturbances, and provide supplemental information on impact <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that will inform discussions on compensatory mitigation requirements. To this end, in-water field <span class="hlt">assessments</span> conducted after the completion of dredging and a time series analysis of tagged <span class="hlt">corals</span> photographed pre-, during, and post-dredging, are used to discern dredging-related sedimentation impacts for the Inner <span class="hlt">Reef</span> north. Results indicate increased sediment accumulation, severe in certain times and places, and an associated biological response (e.g., higher prevalence of partial mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span>) extended up to 700 m from the channel, whereas project-associated monitoring was limited to 50 m from the channel. These results can contribute to more realistic prediction of areas of indirect effect from dredging projects needed to accurately evaluate proposed projects and design appropriate compliance monitoring. Dredging projects near valuable and sensitive habitats subject to local and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27896036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27896036"><span>Detecting sedimentation impacts to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> resulting from dredging the Port of Miami, Florida USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Margaret W; Karazsia, Jocelyn; Groves, Carolyn E; Griffin, Sean; Moore, Tom; Wilber, Pace; Gregg, Kurtis</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-<span class="hlt">assessment</span> monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> feature referred to as the Inner <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, particularly in the sector north of the channel. A confounding regional warm-water mass bleaching event followed by a <span class="hlt">coral</span> disease outbreak during this same time frame made the <span class="hlt">assessment</span> of dredging-related impacts to <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> adjacent to the federal channel difficult but still feasible. The current study sought to better understand the sedimentation impacts that occurred in the <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> environment surrounding Port of Miami, to distinguish those impacts from other regional events or disturbances, and provide supplemental information on impact <span class="hlt">assessment</span> that will inform discussions on compensatory mitigation requirements. To this end, in-water field <span class="hlt">assessments</span> conducted after the completion of dredging and a time series analysis of tagged <span class="hlt">corals</span> photographed pre-, during, and post-dredging, are used to discern dredging-related sedimentation impacts for the Inner <span class="hlt">Reef</span> north. Results indicate increased sediment accumulation, severe in certain times and places, and an associated biological response (e.g., higher prevalence of partial mortality of <span class="hlt">corals</span>) extended up to 700 m from the channel, whereas project-associated monitoring was limited to 50 m from the channel. These results can contribute to more realistic prediction of areas of indirect effect from dredging projects needed to accurately evaluate proposed projects and design appropriate compliance monitoring. Dredging projects near valuable and sensitive habitats subject to local and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18755672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18755672"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish smell leaves to find island homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dixson, Danielle L; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge; Pratchett, Morgan S; Srinivasan, Maya; Syms, Craig; Thorrold, Simon R</p> <p>2008-12-22</p> <p>Recent studies have shown that some <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish larvae return to natal <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, while others disperse to distant <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. However, the sensory mechanisms used to find settlement sites are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that larvae use olfactory cues to navigate home or find other suitable <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats. Here we show a strong association between the clownfish Amphiprion percula and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> surrounding offshore islands in Papua New Guinea. Host anemones and A. percula are particularly abundant in shallow water beneath overhanging rainforest vegetation. A series of experiments were carried out using paired-choice flumes to evaluate the potential role of water-borne olfactory cues in finding islands. Recently settled A. percula exhibited strong preferences for: (i) water from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with islands over water from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> without islands; (ii) water collected near islands over water collected offshore; and (iii) water treated with either anemones or leaves from rainforest vegetation. Laboratory reared-juveniles exhibited the same positive response to anemones and rainforest vegetation, suggesting that olfactory preferences are innate rather than learned. We hypothesize that A. percula use a suite of olfactory stimuli to locate vegetated islands, which may explain the high levels of self-recruitment on island <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This previously unrecognized link between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and island vegetation argues for the integrated management of these pristine tropical habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2605840','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2605840"><span><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish smell leaves to find island homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dixson, Danielle L; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L; Planes, Serge; Pratchett, Morgan S; Srinivasan, Maya; Syms, Craig; Thorrold, Simon R</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies have shown that some <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish larvae return to natal <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, while others disperse to distant <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. However, the sensory mechanisms used to find settlement sites are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that larvae use olfactory cues to navigate home or find other suitable <span class="hlt">reef</span> habitats. Here we show a strong association between the clownfish Amphiprion percula and <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> surrounding offshore islands in Papua New Guinea. Host anemones and A. percula are particularly abundant in shallow water beneath overhanging rainforest vegetation. A series of experiments were carried out using paired-choice flumes to evaluate the potential role of water-borne olfactory cues in finding islands. Recently settled A. percula exhibited strong preferences for: (i) water from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> with islands over water from <span class="hlt">reefs</span> without islands; (ii) water collected near islands over water collected offshore; and (iii) water treated with either anemones or leaves from rainforest vegetation. Laboratory reared-juveniles exhibited the same positive response to anemones and rainforest vegetation, suggesting that olfactory preferences are innate rather than learned. We hypothesize that A. percula use a suite of olfactory stimuli to locate vegetated islands, which may explain the high levels of self-recruitment on island <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. This previously unrecognized link between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and island vegetation argues for the integrated management of these pristine tropical habitats. PMID:18755672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4675M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4675M"><span>Hysteresis between <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> calcification and the seawater aragonite saturation state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMahon, Ashly; Santos, Isaac R.; Cyronak, Tyler; Eyre, Bradley D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>predictions of how ocean acidification (OA) will affect <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> assume a linear functional relationship between the ambient seawater aragonite saturation state (Ωa) and net ecosystem calcification (NEC). We quantified NEC in a healthy <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> lagoon in the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span> during different times of the day. Our observations revealed a diel hysteresis pattern in the NEC versus Ωa relationship, with peak NEC rates occurring before the Ωa peak and relatively steady nighttime NEC in spite of variable Ωa. Net ecosystem production had stronger correlations with NEC than light, temperature, nutrients, pH, and Ωa. The observed hysteresis may represent an overlooked challenge for predicting the effects of OA on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. If widespread, the hysteresis could prevent the use of a linear extrapolation to determine critical Ωa threshold levels required to shift <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> from a net calcifying to a net dissolving state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=2&id=EJ939859','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=coral+AND+reefs&pg=2&id=EJ939859"><span>Monitoring Growth of Hard <span class="hlt">Corals</span> as Performance Indicators for <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crabbe, M. James; Karaviotis, Sarah; Smith, David J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Digital videophotography, computer image analysis and physical measurements have been used to monitor sedimentation rates, <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, genera richness, rugosity, and estimated recruitment dates of massive <span class="hlt">corals</span> at three different sites in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, Indonesia, and on the <span class="hlt">reefs</span> around Discovery Bay, Jamaica.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol13-sec665-420.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-420.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-420.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-420.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-420.pdf"><span>50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved] ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230930','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19230930"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching thresholds: formalising the linkage for the inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> of the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wooldridge, Scott A</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The threats of wide-scale <span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching and <span class="hlt">reef</span> demise associated with anthropogenic climate change are widely known. Here, the additional role of poor water quality in lowering the thermal tolerance (i.e. bleaching 'resistance') of symbiotic <span class="hlt">reef</span> <span class="hlt">corals</span> is considered. In particular, a quantitative linkage is established between terrestrially-sourced dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) loading and the upper thermal bleaching thresholds of inshore <span class="hlt">reefs</span> on the Great Barrier <span class="hlt">Reef</span>, Australia. Significantly, this biophysical linkage provides concrete evidence for the oft-expressed belief that improved <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> management will increase the regional-scale survival prospects of <span class="hlt">corals</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> to global climate change. Indeed, for inshore <span class="hlt">reef</span> areas with a high runoff exposure risk, it is shown that the potential benefit of this 'local' management imperative is equivalent to approximately 2.0-2.5 degrees C in relation to the upper thermal bleaching limit; though in this case, a potentially cost-prohibitive reduction in end-of-river DIN of >50-80% would be required. An integrated socio-economic modelling framework is outlined that will assist future efforts to understand (optimise) the alternate tradeoffs that the water quality/<span class="hlt">coral</span> bleaching linkage presents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380059','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3380059"><span>Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing <span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">Reefs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing <span class="hlt">reefs</span> in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among <span class="hlt">reef</span> zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reef</span> fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural <span class="hlt">reefs</span> and improve the design of artificial <span class="hlt">reefs</span>. PMID:22745664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..121K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018CorRe..37..121K"><span>Acoustic and biological trends on <span class="hlt">coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> off Maui, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Lammers, Marc O.; Zang, Eden; Aran Mooney, T.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coral</span> <span class="hlt">reefs</span> are characterized by high biodiversity, and evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">reef</span> soundscapes reflect local species assemblages. To investigate how sounds produced on a given <span class="hlt">reef</span> relate to abiotic and biotic parameters and how that relationship may change over time, an observational study was conducted between September 2014 and January 2016 at seven Hawaiian <span class="hlt">reefs</span> that varied in <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, rugosity, and fish assemblages. The <span class="hlt">reefs</span> were equipped with temperature loggers and acoustic recording devices that recorded on a 10% duty cycle. Benthic and fish visual survey data were collected four times over the course of the study. On average, <span class="hlt">reefs</span> ranged from 0 to 80% live <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover, although changes between surveys were noted, in particular during the major El Niño-related bleaching event of October 2015. Acoustic analyses focused on two frequency bands (50-1200 and 1.8-20.5 kHz) that corresponded to the dominant spectral features of the major sound-producing taxa on these <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, fish, and snapping shrimp, respectively. In the low-frequency band, the presence of humpback whales (December-May) was a major contributor to sound level, whereas in the high-frequency band sound level closely tracked water temperature. On shorter timescales, the magnitude of the diel trend in sound production was greater than that of the lunar trend, but both varied in strength among <span class="hlt">reefs</span>, which may reflect differences in the species assemblages present. Results indicated that the magnitude of the diel trend was related to fish densities at low frequencies and <span class="hlt">coral</span> cover at high frequencies; however, the strength of these relationships varied by season. Thus, long-term acoustic recordings capture the substantial acoustic variability present in <span class="hlt">coral-reef</span> ecosystems and provide insight into the presence and relative abundance of sound-producing organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27386515"><span>Genetic markers for antioxidant capacity in a <span class="hlt">reef</span>-building <span class="hlt">coral</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Young K; Lundgren, Petra; Lutz, Adrian; Raina, Jean-Baptiste; Howells, Emily J; Paley, Allison S; Willis, Bette L; van Oppen, Madeleine J H</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The current lack of understanding of the genetic basis underlying environmental stress tolerance in <span class="hlt">reef</span>-