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Sample records for cord injured cats

  1. Chondroitinase ABC Improves Basic and Skilled Locomotion in Spinal Cord Injured Cats

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Nicole J.; Howland, Dena R.

    2010-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the central nervous system following injury. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS GAG) side chains substituted on this family of molecules contribute to the limited functional recovery following injury by restricting axonal growth and synaptic plasticity. In the current study, the effects of degrading CS GAGs with Chondroitinase ABC (Ch’ase ABC) in the injured spinal cords of adult cats were assessed. Three groups were evaluated for 5 months following T10 hemisections: lesion–only, lesion + control, and lesion + Ch’ase ABC. Intraspinal control and Ch’ase ABC treatments to the lesion site began immediately after injury and continued every other day, for a total of 15 treatments, using an injectable port system. Delivery and in vivo cleavage were verified anatomically in a subset of cats across the treatment period. Recovery of skilled locomotion (ladder, peg, and beam) was significantly accelerated, on average, by >3wks in Ch’ase ABC-treated cats compared to controls. Ch’ase ABC-treated cats also showed greater recovery of specific skilled locomotor features including intralimb movement patterns and significantly greater paw placement onto pegs. Although recovery of basic locomotion (bipedal treadmill and overground) was not accelerated, intralimb movement patterns were more normal in the Ch’ase ABC-treated cats. Qualitative assessment of serotonergic-immunoreactivity also suggested that Ch’ase ABC treatment enhanced plasticity. Finally, analyses using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) indicate CS GAG content is similar in cat and human. These findings show, for the first time, that intraspinal cleavage of CS GAGs can enhance recovery of function following spinal cord injury in large animals with sophisticated motor behaviors and axonal growth requirements similar to those encountered in humans. PMID:17936753

  2. Influence of urothelial or suburothelial cholinergic receptors on bladder reflexes in chronic spinal cord injured cats.

    PubMed

    Ungerer, Timothy D; Kim, Kyoungeun A; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Roppolo, James R; Tai, Changfeng; de Groat, William C

    2016-11-01

    The effects of intravesical administration of a muscarinic receptor agonist (oxotremorine-M, OXO-M) and antagonist (atropine methyl nitrate, AMN) and of a nicotinic receptor agonist (nicotine) and antagonist (hexamethonium, C6) on reflex bladder activity were investigated in conscious female chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) cats using cystometry. OXO-M (50μM) decreased bladder capacity (BC) for triggering micturition contractions, increased maximal micturition pressure (MMP), increased frequency and area under the curve of pre-micturition contractions (PMC-AUC). Nicotine (250μM) decreased BC, increased MMP, but did not alter PMC-AUC. The effects of OXO-M on BC and PMC-AUC were suppressed by intravesical administration of AMN (50-100μM), and the effects of nicotine were blocked by hexamethonium (1mM). Antagonists infused intravesically alone did not alter reflex bladder activity. However, AMN (0.2mg/kg, subcutaneously) decreased PMC-AUC. 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, suppressed the OXO-M-induced decrease in BC but not the enhancement of PMC-AUC. These results indicate that activation of cholinergic receptors located near the lumenal surface of the bladder modulates two types of reflex bladder activity (i.e., micturition and pre-micturition contractions). The effects may be mediated by activation of receptors on suburothelial afferent nerves or receptors on urothelial cells which release transmitters that can in turn alter afferent excitability. The selective action of nicotine on BC, while OXO-M affects both BC and PMC-AUC, suggests that micturition reflexes and PMCs are activated by different populations of afferent nerves. The selective suppression of the OXO-M effect on BC by 8-OH-DPAT without altering the effect on PMCs supports this hypothesis. The failure of intravesical administration of either AMN or hexamethonium alone to alter bladder activity indicates that cholinergic receptors located near the lumenal surface do not

  3. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; hide

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  4. Retraining the injured spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Leon, R. D.; Harkema, S. J.; Hodgson, J. A.; London, N.; Reinkensmeyer, D. J.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Tillakaratne, N. J.; Timoszyk, W.; Tobin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present review presents a series of concepts that may be useful in developing rehabilitative strategies to enhance recovery of posture and locomotion following spinal cord injury. First, the loss of supraspinal input results in a marked change in the functional efficacy of the remaining synapses and neurons of intraspinal and peripheral afferent (dorsal root ganglion) origin. Second, following a complete transection the lumbrosacral spinal cord can recover greater levels of motor performance if it has been exposed to the afferent and intraspinal activation patterns that are associated with standing and stepping. Third, the spinal cord can more readily reacquire the ability to stand and step following spinal cord transection with repetitive exposure to standing and stepping. Fourth, robotic assistive devices can be used to guide the kinematics of the limbs and thus expose the spinal cord to the new normal activity patterns associated with a particular motor task following spinal cord injury. In addition, such robotic assistive devices can provide immediate quantification of the limb kinematics. Fifth, the behavioural and physiological effects of spinal cord transection are reflected in adaptations in most, if not all, neurotransmitter systems in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Evidence is presented that both the GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory systems are up-regulated following complete spinal cord transection and that step training results in some aspects of these transmitter systems being down-regulated towards control levels. These concepts and observations demonstrate that (a) the spinal cord can interpret complex afferent information and generate the appropriate motor task; and (b) motor ability can be defined to a large degree by training.

  5. Personal Adjustment Training for the Spinal Cord Injured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes experiences with Personal Achievement Skills (PAS), a group counseling process in a spinal cord injury project, emphasizing training in communication and goal setting in the context of group process. Issues in conducting such training and providing comprehensive service to the spinal cord injured are discussed in detail.…

  6. Midodrine improves ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Soler, J M; Previnaire, J G; Plante, P; Denys, P; Chartier-Kastler, E

    2007-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist midodrine given orally for anejaculation in spinal cord injured men. A total of 185 spinal cord injured patients who reported absent ejaculation during sexual intercourse and who failed to respond to penile vibratory stimulation were treated with midodrine 30 to 120 minutes before a new stimulation. The procedure was repeated weekly, increasing doses by 7.5 mg to a maximum of 30 mg. Cardiovascular effects were monitored throughout the procedure. Antegrade or retrograde ejaculation was achieved in 102 spinal cord injured men (64.6%). A positive response was more frequent in patients with complete lesions (American Spinal Injury Association A) and upper motor neuron lesions above T10. Midodrine induced a significant but moderate increase (maximum 10 mm Hg) in mean arterial pressure in all patients. The highest systolic blood pressure (more than 200 mm Hg) was seen in patients with quadriplegia. No other significant side effect was recorded. The average dose of midodrine required for ejaculation was 18.7 mg. Midodrine is a safe and efficient adjunct to penile vibratory stimulation for anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients.

  7. The vestibulospinal free fall response: a test of descending function in spinal-injured cats.

    PubMed

    Gruner, J A; Young, W; DeCrescito, V

    1984-01-01

    A major problem in spinal cord injury research is quantification of motor function in animals. Most investigators in the field currently use neurologic scoring systems, relying on subjective observations of complex behaviours and assigning scores based on arbitrary criteria. These scoring scales are prone to observer bias and are nonspecific. We describe here a simple, reproducible, noninvasive, and objective test of a limited aspect of spinal motor function in cats, based on a well-known involuntary response of animals to sudden free fall. Free fall responses, or FFRs, have been studied in many species, including man, and are thought to be carried in ventral and lateral column pathways, i.e., vestibulospinal, reticulospinal, and rubrospinal tracts. We recorded the FFRs from hind and forelimb muscles of 100 cats before and after thoracic spinal cord injury. Hindlimb FFRs were shown to have three quantifiable components: a fast synchronous activation (E1) followed by a short silent period during which spinal segmental reflexes are inhibited (I1) and a late desynchronized excitatory burst (E2). Thoracic spinal injury produced hindlimb FFR losses ranging from greatly reduced amplitude to complete absence of response. Residual FFRs correlated with the extent of ventral column preservation and locomotory ability. Individual FFR components can be preserved. For example, some injured cats exhibited only 11 responses. Our work suggests that FFRs are a reliable and sensitive test of motor recovery in spinal cord injury.

  8. Efficacy of a Metalloproteinase Inhibitor in Spinal Cord Injured Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Jonathan M.; Cohen, Noah D.; Heller, Michael; Fajt, Virginia R.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Trivedi, Alpa A.; Fandel, Thomas M.; Werb, Zena; Modestino, Augusta; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated within the acutely injured murine spinal cord and blockade of this early proteolytic activity with GM6001, a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, results in improved recovery after spinal cord injury. As matrix metalloproteinase-9 is likewise acutely elevated in dogs with naturally occurring spinal cord injuries, we evaluated efficacy of GM6001 solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide in this second species. Safety and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in naïve dogs. After confirming safety, subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that a 100 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of GM6001 resulted in plasma concentrations that peaked shortly after administration and were sustained for at least 4 days at levels that produced robust in vitro inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study was then conducted to assess efficacy of GM6001 given within 48 hours of spinal cord injury. Dogs were enrolled in 3 groups: GM6001 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 35), dimethyl sulfoxide (n = 37), or saline (n = 41). Matrix metalloproteinase activity was increased in the serum of injured dogs and GM6001 reduced this serum protease activity compared to the other two groups. To assess recovery, dogs were a priori stratified into a severely injured group and a mild-to-moderate injured group, using a Modified Frankel Scale. The Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score was then used to assess long-term motor/sensory function. In dogs with severe spinal cord injuries, those treated with saline had a mean motor score of 2 (95% CI 0–4.0) that was significantly (P<0.05; generalized linear model) less than the estimated mean motor score for dogs receiving dimethyl sulfoxide (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0–8.0) or GM6001 (mean, 5; 95% CI 2.0–8.0). As there was no independent effect of GM6001, we attribute improved neurological outcomes to dimethyl sulfoxide, a pleotropic agent that may target diverse

  9. Hydraulic resistance exercise benefits cardiovascular fitness of spinal cord injured.

    PubMed

    Cooney, M M; Walker, J B

    1986-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of hydraulic resistance exercise training on fitness in spinal cord injured patients. Ten subjects (five quadriplegics and five paraplegics; seven males and three females) participated in a 9-wk training program. Subjects trained 3 times/wk. The 9-wk program was divided into three, 3-wk periods, designated stages I, II, and III. A discontinuous arm crank protocol was used to assess VO2max before and after training. Assessment of the intensity of the hydraulic resistance exercise was made by continuous ECG monitoring during training. A 60 to 90% maximum observed heart rate was calculated for subjects. The spinal cord-injured subjects' VO2max increased 28.1%, and maximum exercise power output increased 36.7% as a result of the 9-wk training program. Both of these findings were statistically significant (P less than 0.01). The exercise intensity was within a 60 to 90% training zone during stages II and III but not during stage I training. The results of this study indicate that hydraulic resistance exercise training may produce increased cardiovascular fitness in spinal cord-injured subjects.

  10. Combining peripheral nerve grafting and matrix modulation to repair the injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Houle, John D; Amin, Arthi; Cote, Marie-Pascale; Lemay, Michel; Miller, Kassi; Sandrow, Harra; Santi, Lauren; Shumsky, Jed; Tom, Veronica

    2009-11-20

    Traumatic injury to the spinal cord (SCI) causes death of neurons, disruption of motor and sensory nerve fiber (axon) pathways and disruption of communication with the brain. One of the goals of our research is to promote axon regeneration to restore connectivity across the lesion site. To accomplish this we developed a peripheral nerve (PN) grafting technique where segments of sciatic nerve are either placed directly between the damaged ends of the spinal cord or are used to form a bridge across the lesion. There are several advantages to this approach compared to transplantation of other neural tissues; regenerating axons can be directed towards a specific target area, the number and source of regenerating axons is easily determined by tracing techniques, the graft can be used for electrophysiological experiments to measure functional recovery associated with axons in the graft, and it is possible to use an autologous nerve to reduce the possibility of graft rejection. In our lab we have performed both autologous (donor and recipient are the same animal) and heterologous (donor and recipient are different animals) grafts with comparable results. This approach has been used successfully in both acute and chronic injury situations. Regenerated axons that reach the distal end of the PN graft often fail to extend back into the spinal cord, so we use microinjections of chondroitinase to degrade inhibitory molecules associated with the scar tissue surrounding the area of SCI. At the same time we have found that providing exogenous growth and trophic molecules encourages longer distance axonal regrowth into the spinal cord. Several months after transplantation we perform a variety of anatomical, behavioral and electrophysiological tests to evaluate the recovery of function in our spinal cord injured animals. This experimental approach has been used successfully in several spinal cord injury models, at different levels of injury and in different species (mouse, rat and

  11. Expectations of life and health among spinal cord injured adults.

    PubMed

    McColl, M A; Walker, J; Stirling, P; Wilkins, R; Corey, P

    1997-12-01

    While our understanding of aging and mortality in spinal cord injury is evolving, precise estimates are still not available for expectations of life and health following a spinal cord injury. In order to derive these estimates, information about mortality and health must be combined into a single estimate. Health expectancy estimates have been widely used in the literature of the last decade to try to understand the relationship between population health and survival, both in the general population and in special populations. This study brought the benefit of this methodology to the question of long-term survival following spinal cord injury. Specifically, the study aimed to calculate life and health expectancy in a population of spinal cord injured individuals; and to estimate the effect of factors associated with survival and health. The study involved a retrospective cohort, all of whom sustained a spinal cord injury between the ages of 25 and 34 years, and between 1945 and 1990. The study predicted a median survival time of 38 years post-injury, with 43% surviving at least 40 years. These findings suggest an increase in life expectancy of about 5 years over previous research on the same cohort. Factors affecting survival were age at injury, level and completeness of lesion. Expectations of health found in the present study are similar to those found in studies of the general population. This study showed seven remaining years of poor health expected at injury, and five remaining years expected at 40 years post injury, presumably occurring at the end of life.

  12. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  13. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  14. Recovery of spinal cord function induced by direct current stimulation of the injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M C; Tator, C H; Piper, I

    1987-06-01

    Direct current stimulation has been shown by others to enhance the regeneration of several types of tissues, including nervous tissue in some species. The purpose of the present experiment was to assess the value of direct current stimulation for enhancing the recovery of spinal cord function after clip compression injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty Wistar rats underwent a 1-minute, 50-g clip compression injury at T-1, after which electrodes were placed epidurally with the anode proximal and the cathode distal to the injury site. These electrodes were attached to a stimulator implanted subcutaneously. Ten animals received stimulators that produced a constant current of 14 microA, and the remainder received stimulators with no electrical output and served as controls. Assignment of stimulators was random, and the treatment group was not identified until sacrifice. Neurological function was tested weekly for 15 weeks by the inclined plane technique, after which the animals were killed and the injured cords were examined for histological evidence of regeneration. The mean inclined plane result for the treatment group (39 +/- 5 degrees) was significantly better than that for the control group (31 +/- 6 degrees) (P less than 0.02), although there was no significant difference in histological findings between the two groups. Thus, direct current stimulation of the injured mammalian spinal cord produced improvement in neurological function and warrants further investigation.

  15. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats.

  16. Tamoxifen Promotes Axonal Preservation and Gait Locomotion Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre Valdovinos, Braniff; Duenas Jimenez, Judith Marcela; Estrada, Ismael Jimenez; Banuelos Pineda, Jacinto; Franco Rodriguez, Nancy Elizabeth; Lopez Ruiz, Jose Roberto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura Paulina; Candanedo Arellano, Ahiezer; Duenas Jimenez, Sergio Horacio

    2016-01-01

    We performed experiments in cats with a spinal cord penetrating hemisection at T13-L1 level, with and without tamoxifen treatment. The results showed that the numbers of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventral horn neurons were reduced to less than half in the nontreated animals compared with the treated ones. Also, axons myelin sheet was preserved to almost normal values in treated cats. On the contrary, in the untreated animals, their myelin sheet was reduced to 28% at 30 days after injury (DAI), in both the ipsilateral and contralateral regions of the spinal cord. Additionally, we made hindlimb kinematics experiments to study the effects of tamoxifen on cat locomotion after the injury: at 4, 16, and 30 DAI. We observed that the ipsilateral hindlimb angular displacement (AD) of the pendulum-like movements (PLM) during gait locomotion was recovered to almost normal values in treated cats. Contralateral PLM acquired similar values to those obtained in intact cats. At 4 DAI, untreated animals showed a compensatory increment of PLM occurring in the contralateral hindlimb, which was partially recovered at 30 DAI. Our findings indicate that tamoxifen exerts a neuroprotective effect and preserves or produces myelinated axons, which could benefit the locomotion recovery in injured cats. PMID:27006979

  17. Autonomic arousal feedback and emotional experience: evidence from the spinal cord injured.

    PubMed

    Chwalisz, K; Diener, E; Gallagher, D

    1988-05-01

    We interviewed spinal-cord-injured, other handicapped, and nonhandicapped subjects to investigate the relation between the perception of autonomic arousal and experienced emotion. The three groups differed significantly on only one measure of affect intensity, with the spinal-cord-injured subjects more often reporting stronger fear in their lives now compared with the past. In addition, spinal-cord-injured subjects often described intense emotional experiences. Spinal-cord-injured subjects who differed in their level of autonomic feedback differed in intensity on several measures. Subjects with greater autonomic feedback tended to report more intense levels of negative emotions. The findings indicate that the perception of autonomic arousal may not be necessary for emotional experience. There were weak trends in our data, however, suggesting that the perception of arousal may enhance the experience of emotional intensity. The subjective well-being reports of the handicapped groups were comparable to those of nonhandicapped subjects, indicating successful coping with their disability.

  18. Metabolic profile of injured human spinal cord determined using surface microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suliang; Phang, Isaac; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2016-12-01

    The management of patients having traumatic spinal cord injury would benefit from understanding and monitoring of spinal cord metabolic states. We hypothesized that the metabolism of the injured spinal cord could be visualized using Kohonen self-organizing maps. Sixteen patients with acute, severe spinal cord injuries were studied. Starting within 72 h of the injury, and for up to a week, we monitored the injury site hourly for tissue glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol using microdialysis as well as intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure. A Kohonen map, which is an unsupervised, self-organizing topology-preserving neural network, was used to analyze 3366 h of monitoring data. We first visualized the different spinal cord metabolic states. Our data show that the injured cord assumes one or more of four metabolic states. On the basis of their metabolite profiles, we termed these states near-normal, ischemic, hypermetabolic, and distal. We then visualized how patients' intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure affect spinal cord metabolism. This revealed that for more than 60% of the time, spinal cord metabolism is patient-specific; periods of high intraspinal pressure or low perfusion pressure are not associated with specific spinal cord metabolic patterns. Finally, we determined relationships between spinal cord metabolism and neurological status. Patients with complete deficits have shorter periods of near-normal spinal cord metabolic states (7 ± 4% vs. 58 ± 12%, p < 0.01, mean ± standard error) and more variable injury site metabolic responses (metabolism spread in 70 ± 11 vs. 40 ± 6 hexagons, p < 0.05), compared with patients who have incomplete neurological deficits. We conclude that Kohonen maps allow us to visualize the metabolic responses of the injured spinal cord and may thus aid us in treating patients with acute spinal cord injuries.

  19. A clinical report of entangled neonates' umbilical cord with queen's fur in Persian cat.

    PubMed

    Azari, O; Akhtardanesh, B

    2011-12-01

    A 3-year-old Persian queen was referred to Teaching Veterinary Hospital while 3 neonates' umbilical cords were entangled with the queen's tail hair. Close inspection of the cat showed that the umbilical cords of 3 kittens had twisted around together and entangled with the moms' hairs in the base of tail region. Also this complex has been warped around the left tarsus of one of the involved kittens and caused swelling and skin darkness in the involved limb. Operation was carried out urgently. After cutting the queen's involved hairs the kittens were released. Then the twisted umbilical cords and the hairs were isolated from the umbilical cord and the involved leg was released from the umbilical cords and the twisted umbilical cords were separated from each other. During one week follow up, dry gangrene occurred in the distal extremity of the injured limb and consequently, amputation was performed on the distal part of tibia. Our clinical findings suggest that long hair coats of queens could be a maternal life threatening factor for neonates' life.

  20. Sexuality and sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ramazan Yavuz; Coşkun Çelik, Evrim; Karataş, Metin

    2015-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sexual function and dysfunction in spinal cord-injured men based on self-reports of patients. Forty-seven spinal cord-injured men who completed the spinal shock and rehabilitation period were included. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire developed to assess social status, sexual activities, abilities, and sexuality education after injury. Neurologic levels of patients were classified according to American Spinal Cord Injury Association protocol. Erectile function was evaluated by International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Patients were aged between 20 and 62 years (mean: 35.2). Twenty-eight patients had T10 and above, 15 between T11 and L2, and 4 cauda conus injury. While 61.7% of the patients declared sexual activity, 93.6% declared some degree of erection. Mean IIEF-5 score was 5.3 and 87.3% of the patients had moderate to severe erectile dysfunction. Continuation of sexual activity after injury is very important and has a great impact on quality of life and interpersonal relationships for spinal cord-injured men. More attention must be given to sexuality after spinal cord injury. A very high rate of sexual dysfunction in spinal cord-injured patients was found and the importance of sexual education was emphasized in this study.

  1. Sympathetic nonadrenergic transmission contributes to autonomic dysreflexia in spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Groothuis, Jan T; Rongen, Gerard A; Deinum, Jaap; Pickkers, Peter; Danser, A H Jan; Geurts, Alexander C H; Smits, Paul; Hopman, Maria T E

    2010-03-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive episode in spinal cord-injured individuals induced by exaggerated sympathetic activity and thought to be alpha-adrenergic mediated. alpha-Adrenoceptor antagonists have been a rational first choice; nevertheless, calcium channel blockers are primarily used in autonomic dysreflexia management. However, alpha-adrenoceptor blockade may leave a residual vasoconstrictor response to sympathetic nonadrenergic transmission unaffected. The aim was to assess the alpha-adrenergic contribution and, in addition, the role of supraspinal control to leg vasoconstriction during exaggerated sympathetic activity provoked by autonomic dysreflexia in spinal cord-injured individuals and by a cold pressure test in control individuals. Upper leg blood flow was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography during supine rest and during exaggerated sympathetic activity in 6 spinal cord-injured individuals and 7 able-bodied control individuals, without and with phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and nicardipine (calcium channel blocker) infusion into the right femoral artery. Leg vascular resistance was calculated. In spinal cord-injured individuals, phentolamine significantly reduced the leg vascular resistance increase during autonomic dysreflexia (8+/-5 versus 24+/-13 arbitrary units; P=0.04) in contrast to nicardipine (15+/-10 versus 24+/-13 arbitrary units; P=0.12). In controls, phentolamine completely abolished the leg vascular resistance increase during a cold pressure test (1+/-2 versus 18+/-14 arbitrary units; P=0.02). The norepinephrine increase during phentolamine infusion was larger (P=0.04) in control than in spinal cord-injured individuals. These results indicate that the leg vascular resistance increase during autonomic dysreflexia in spinal cord-injured individuals is not entirely alpha-adrenergic mediated and is partly explained by nonadrenergic transmission, which may, in healthy subjects, be suppressed by supraspinal

  2. Mechanical characterization of the injured spinal cord after lateral spinal hemisection injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Tarun; Gilbert, Jeremy; Stelzner, Dennis; Hasenwinkel, Julie

    2012-06-10

    The glial scar formed at the site of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has been classically hypothesized to be a potent physical and biochemical barrier to nerve regeneration. One longstanding hypothesis is that the scar acts as a physical barrier due to its increased stiffness in comparison to uninjured spinal cord tissue. However, the information regarding the mechanical properties of the glial scar in the current literature is mostly anecdotal and not well quantified. We monitored the mechanical relaxation behavior of injured rat spinal cord tissue at the site of mid-thoracic spinal hemisection 2 weeks and 8 weeks post-injury using a microindentation test method. Elastic moduli were calculated and a modified standard linear model (mSLM) was fit to the data to estimate the relaxation time constant and viscosity. The SLM was modified to account for a spectrum of relaxation times, a phenomenon common to biological tissues, by incorporating a stretched exponential term. Injured tissue exhibited significantly lower stiffness and elastic modulus in comparison to uninjured control tissue, and the results from the model parameters indicated that the relaxation time constant and viscosity of injured tissue were significantly higher than controls. This study presents direct micromechanical measurements of injured spinal cord tissue post-injury. The results of this study show that the injured spinal tissue displays complex viscoelastic behavior, likely indicating changes in tissue permeability and diffusivity.

  3. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  4. Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA into injured spinal cords in rats by photomechanical waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Takahiro; Sato, Shunichi; Toyooka, Terushige; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2011-03-01

    In the central nervous system, lack of axonal regeneration leads to permanent functional disabilities. In spinal cord injury (SCI), the over-expressions of intermediate filament (IF) proteins, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin, are mainly involved in glial scar formation; these proteins work as both physical and biochemical barriers to axonal regeneration. Thus, silencing of these IF proteins would be an attractive strategy to treat SCI. In this study, we first attempted to deliver fluorescent probe-labeled siRNAs into injured spinal cords in rats by applying photomechanical waves (PMWs) to examine the capability of PMWs as a tool for siRNA delivery. Intense fluorescence from siRNAs was observed in much broader regions in the spinal cords with PMW application when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. Based on this result, we delivered siRNAs for GFAP and vimentin into injured spinal tissues in rats by applying PMWs. The treatment resulted in efficient silencing of the proteins at five days after SCI and a decrease of the cavity area in the injured tissue at three weeks after SCI when compared with those with siRNA injection alone. These results demonstrate the capability of PMWs for efficient delivery of siRNAs into injured spinal cords and treatment of SCIs.

  5. Biodegradable biomatrices and bridging the injured spinal cord: the corticospinal tract as a proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Elbert A J

    2012-07-01

    Important advances in the development of smart biodegradable implants for axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury have recently been reported. These advances are evaluated in this review with special emphasis on the regeneration of the corticospinal tract. The corticospinal tract is often considered the ultimate challenge in demonstrating whether a repair strategy has been successful in the regeneration of the injured mammalian spinal cord. The extensive know-how of factors and cells involved in the development of the corticospinal tract, and the advances made in material science and tissue engineering technology, have provided the foundations for the optimization of the biomatrices needed for repair. Based on the findings summarized in this review, the future development of smart biodegradable bridges for CST regrowth and regeneration in the injured spinal cord is discussed.

  6. Care of the Spinal Cord-Injured Patient

    PubMed Central

    Boxall, Jan

    1989-01-01

    Family physicians are often unfamiliar with the care of patients with spinal cord injuries because they may have only one such patient in their practice. Urinary tract infections, constipation, and decubitus ulcers are the most common problems, and autonomic dysreflexia the most serious emergency that family physicians treat in this population. This article addresses these areas, as well as spasticity, sexuality, depression, and the acute abdomen. PMID:20469504

  7. Inexpensive Attachment Device for Cell Therapy Administration into Injured Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Jesús; Zurita, Mercedes; Fernández, Cecilia; Cotua, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cell therapy is configured as a promising strategy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), but it requires reliable systems to achieve microinjections with different rates and volumes, according to the different characteristics of the injured spinal cord tissue and the targets previously selected. We sought to describe an original and inexpensive device for support of microinjection systems in the course of spinal cord surgery. Our attachment device consists of an arch and a system of bars that can be fixed to the operating table and on which a microinjection pump can be displaced and fixed in the course of surgery. This device has been used for therapy administration into injured spinal cords. It is easy to use and permits reproducible results. We have described an original attachment device for the support of a microinjection pump. It is applicable to spinal cord surgery and should be considered as a cheap solution for intralesional administration of cell therapy after spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel combination strategies to repair the injured mammalian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2008-01-01

    Due to the varied and numerous changes in spinal cord tissue following injury, successful treatment for repair may involve strategies combining neuroprotection (pharmacological prevention of some of the damaging intracellular cascades that lead to secondary tissue loss), axonal regeneration promotion (cell transplantation, genetic engineering to increase growth factors, neutralization of inhibitory factors, reduction in scar formation), and rehabilitation. Our goal has been to find effective combination strategies to improve outcome after injury to the adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Combination interventions tested have been implantation of Schwann cells (SCs) plus neuroprotective agents and growth factors administered in various ways, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) implantation, chondroitinase addition, or elevation of cyclic AMP. The most efficacious strategy in our hands for the acute complete transection/SC bridge model, including improvement in locomotion [Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan Scale (BBB)], is the combination of SCs, OECs, and chondroitinase administration (BBB 2.1 vs 6.6, 3 times more myelinated axons in the SC bridge, increased serotonergic axons in the bridge and beyond, and significant correlation between the number of bridge myelinated axons and functional improvement). We found the most successful combination strategy for a subacute spinal cord contusion injury (12.5-mm, 10-g weight, MASCIS impactor) to be SCs and elevation of cyclic AMP (BBB 10.4 vs 15, significant increases in white matter sparing, in myelinated axons in the implant, and in responding reticular formation and red and raphe nuclei, and a significant correlation between the number of serotonergic fibers and improvement in locomotion). Thus, in two injury paradigms, these combination strategies as well as others studied in our laboratory have been found to be more effective than SCs alone and suggest ways in which clinical application may be developed.

  9. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injured patients on long term ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chawla, J C

    1993-02-01

    Recent advances in roadside management and resuscitation techniques have resulted in an increased survival rate of people with high cervical cord injury. A few become partially or permanently ventilator dependent. Not only are these people dependent on assisted ventilation, but their speech is also compromised, along with loss of voluntary control and many other bodily functions, as they are tetraplegic. By using recent technological advancements, such as portable ventilators, phrenic nerve stimulation, environmental controls and specialised wheelchairs it has been possible to manage such patients at home. Furthermore, patients on ventilators are unable to have verbal communication. There is therefore a need for them to develop either augmentative communication or the use of alternative communication aids. Recent published reports indicate the factors other than the clinical state that may prevent such patients from taking advantage of modern advances; the main issues appear to be cost factors, community care provision and ethical considerations.

  10. Does repeated electro-ejaculation improve sperm quality in spinal cord injured men?

    PubMed

    Das, S; Dodd, S; Soni, B M; Sharma, S D; Gazvani, R; Lewis-Jones, D I

    2006-12-01

    Retrospective analysis. To assess the effect of repeated electro-ejaculation on the sperm quality in spinal cord injured men. Regional Spinal Injuries Unit, Southport, UK and Hewitt Center for Reproductive Medicine, Liverpool, UK. Retrospective, observational study of men with spinal cord injuries undergoing repeated electro-ejaculation as a part of fertility treatment. There was no improvement in the volume, sperm concentration, motility or the total motile count in the successive antegrade and retrograde samples following repeated electro-ejaculations. Electro-ejaculation is an invasive procedure and its use should be restricted to obtaining semen sample for carrying out assisted conception procedures only.

  11. Therapeutic benefit of intrathecal injection of marrow stromal cells on ischemia-injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Shi, Enyi; Kazui, Teruhisa; Jiang, Xiaojing; Washiyama, Naoki; Yamashita, Katsushi; Terada, Hitoshi; Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad

    2007-04-01

    Prophylactic transplantation of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) before spinal cord ischemia has been shown to attenuate neurologic injures. We sought to investigate the therapeutic effect of MSCs on ischemia-injured spinal cord. Marrow stromal cells were expanded in vitro and prelabeled with bromodeoxyuridine. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rabbits by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 minutes. Four groups were enrolled. About 1 x 10(8) MSCs were intrathecally injected 2 hours (group MSC-2h), 24 hours (group MSC-24h), or 48 hours (group MSC-48h) after spinal cord ischemia, respectively. The control group received intrathecal injection of medium alone. Hind-limb motor function was assessed during a 28-day recovery period with Tarlov criteria, and then histologic examination was performed. Marrow stromal cells still could be found in the spinal cord 4 weeks after transplantation. The capillary density in the ventral gray matter was significantly increased in the three MSC-treated groups (p < 0.01 versus control group, respectively). After a 28-day recovery, marked functional improvement was detected in group MSC-2h (from day 1 to 28, p < 0.05, versus control group, respectively) and group MSC-24h (from day 14 to 28, p < 0.05, versus control group, respectively), but not in group MSC-48h. The number of intact motor neurons was much greater in group MSC-2h (p < 0.05, versus control group). Intrathecal injection of MSCs enhances angiogenesis in the host spinal cord and improves the motor functional recovery after spinal cord ischemia. The therapeutic time window is critical for the therapeutic effect of MSCs.

  12. Functional Electrical Stimulation Helps Replenish Progenitor Cells in the Injured Spinal Cord of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel; Gary, Devin S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Grill, Warren M.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore control and offset atrophy to muscles after neurological injury. However, FES has not been considered as a method for enhancing CNS regeneration. This paper demonstrates that FES dramatically enhanced progenitor cell birth in the spinal cord of rats with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). A complete SCI at thoracic level 8/9 was performed on 12 rats. Three weeks later, a FES device to stimulate hindlimb movement was implanted into these rats. Twelve identically-injured rats received inactive FES implants. An additional control group of uninjured rats were also examined. Ten days after FES implantation, dividing cells were marked with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The ‘cell birth’ subgroup (half the animals in each group) was sacrificed immediately after completion of BrdU administration, and the ‘cell survival’ subgroup was sacrificed 7 days later. In the injured ‘cell birth’ subgroup, FES induced an 82-86 % increase in cell birth in the lumbar spinal cord. In the injured ‘cell survival’ subgroup, the increased lumbar newborn cell counts persisted. FES doubled the proportion of the newly-born cells which expressed nestin and other markers suggestive of tripotential progenitors. In uninjured rats, FES had no effect on cell birth/survival. This report suggests that controlled electrical activation of the CNS may enhance spontaneous regeneration after neurological injuries. PMID:20059998

  13. Modeling of spontaneous zero-lag synchronization and wave propagation in cat spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.; Cuellar, C. A.; Delgado-Lezama, R.; Rudomin, P.; Jiménez, I.; Manjarrez, E.; Mirasso, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a simple but physiologically plausible network model that can reproduce both the sinusoidal electrical wave propagation and the spontaneous zero-lag synchronization experimentally observed in the cat spinal cord. Our model enhances the hypothesis of the coexistence of two alternative assemblies in the cat spinal cord.

  14. Plasticity of Urinary Bladder Reflexes Evoked by Stimulation of Pudendal Afferent Nerves after Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Hailong; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves (PudA-to-Bladder reflex) were studied in normal and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) adult cats to examine the reflex plasticity. Physiological activation of pudendal afferent nerves by tactile stimulation of the perigenital skin elicits an inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflex in normal cats, but activates an excitatory reflex in chronic SCI cats. However, in both normal and chronic SCI cats electrical stimulation applied to the perigenital skin or directly to the pudendal nerve induces either inhibitory or excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes depending on stimulation frequency. An inhibitory response occurs at 3–10 Hz stimulation, but becomes excitatory at 20–30 Hz. The inhibitory reflex activated by electrical stimulation significantly (P<0.05) increases the bladder capacity to about 180% of control capacity in normal and chronic SCI cats. The excitatory reflex significantly (P<0.05) reduces bladder capacity to about 40% of control capacity in chronic SCI cats, but does not change bladder capacity in normal cats. Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves during slow bladder filling elicits a large amplitude bladder contraction comparable to the contraction induced by distension alone. A bladder volume about 60% of bladder capacity was required to elicit this excitatory reflex in normal cats; however, in chronic SCI cats a volume less than 20% of bladder capacity was sufficient to unmask an excitatory response. This study revealed the co-existence of both inhibitory and excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflex pathways in cats before and after chronic SCI. However our data combined with published electrophysiological data strongly indicates that the spinal circuitry for both the excitatory and inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes undergoes a marked reorganization after SCI. PMID:21192927

  15. Plasticity of urinary bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves after chronic spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Tai, Changfeng; Chen, Mang; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Hailong; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2011-03-01

    Bladder reflexes evoked by stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves (PudA-to-Bladder reflex) were studied in normal and chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) adult cats to examine the reflex plasticity. Physiological activation of pudendal afferent nerves by tactile stimulation of the perigenital skin elicits an inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflex in normal cats, but activates an excitatory reflex in chronic SCI cats. However, in both normal and chronic SCI cats electrical stimulation applied to the perigenital skin or directly to the pudendal nerve induces either inhibitory or excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes depending on stimulation frequency. An inhibitory response occurs at 3-10 Hz stimulation, but becomes excitatory at 20-30 Hz. The inhibitory reflex activated by electrical stimulation significantly (P<0.05) increases the bladder capacity to about 180% of control capacity in normal and chronic SCI cats. The excitatory reflex significantly (P<0.05) reduces bladder capacity to about 40% of control capacity in chronic SCI cats, but does not change bladder capacity in normal cats. Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferent nerves during slow bladder filling elicits a large amplitude bladder contraction comparable to the contraction induced by distension alone. A bladder volume about 60% of bladder capacity was required to elicit this excitatory reflex in normal cats; however, in chronic SCI cats a volume less than 20% of bladder capacity was sufficient to unmask an excitatory response. This study revealed the co-existence of both inhibitory and excitatory PudA-to-Bladder reflex pathways in cats before and after chronic SCI. However our data combined with published electrophysiological data strongly indicates that the spinal circuitry for both the excitatory and inhibitory PudA-to-Bladder reflexes undergoes a marked reorganization after SCI.

  16. BDNF promotes connections of corticospinal neurons onto spared descending interneurons in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Vavrek, R; Girgis, J; Tetzlaff, W; Hiebert, G W; Fouad, K

    2006-06-01

    Although regeneration of injured axons is inhibited within the adult CNS, moderate recovery can be found in patients and animals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This can be partly attributed to sprouting of spared and injured axons, rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively. Recently, it has been reported that following a thoracic SCI such sprouting can result in indirect reconnections of the lesioned axons to caudal targets via propriospinal interneurons (PrI). Here, we attempted to further promote this spontaneous repair mechanism by applying the neurotrophic factor BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), in the vicinity of the cell bodies of lesioned corticospinal neurons or NT-3, intrathecally to the cervical spinal cord. We performed a dorsal over-hemisection at the thoracic spinal cord sparing only the left ventrolateral quadrant. This type of lesion did not promote sprouting of injured corticospinal axons or re-routing via commissural PrI. Also, in rats that received NT-3 at the cervical enlargement, no increase in sprouting was found. However, animals receiving BDNF at the cell bodies of lesioned corticospinal neurons showed a significant increase in collateral sprouting and in the number of contacts with PrI. This was not observed when BDNF was administered to unlesioned animals. Although no statistical difference in the horizontal ladder walking was found between the groups, the increase in collateral sprouting and in the number of contacts correlated with the functional recovery. Hence, cell body treatment can promote plasticity of the injured CNS and may be a valuable treatment approach in conjunction with local regeneration promoting strategies.

  17. Combining peripheral nerve grafts and chondroitinase promotes functional axonal regeneration in the chronically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Tom, Veronica J; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Miller, Kassi; Santi, Lauren; Connors, Theresa; Lemay, Michel A; Houlé, John D

    2009-11-25

    Because there currently is no treatment for spinal cord injury, most patients are living with long-standing injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at promoting restoration of function to the chronically injured spinal cord have high therapeutic value. For successful regeneration, long-injured axons must overcome their poor intrinsic growth potential as well as the inhibitory environment of the glial scar established around the lesion site. Acutely injured axons that regenerate into growth-permissive peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) reenter host tissue to mediate functional recovery if the distal graft-host interface is treated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to cleave inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the scar matrix. To determine whether a similar strategy is effective for a chronic injury, we combined grafting of a peripheral nerve into a highly relevant, chronic, cervical contusion site with ChABC treatment of the glial scar and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulation of long-injured axons. We tested this combination in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site. Unlike GDNF-PBS treatment, GDNF-ChABC treatment facilitated axons to exit the PNG into host tissue and promoted some functional recovery. Electrical stimulation of axons in the peripheral nerve bridge induced c-Fos expression in host neurons, indicative of synaptic contact by regenerating fibers. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that administering ChABC to a distal graft interface allows for functional axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons.

  18. Measurement of Intraspinal Pressure After Spinal Cord Injury: Technical Note from the Injured Spinal Cord Pressure Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Werndle, Melissa C; Saadoun, Samira; Phang, Isaac; Czosnyka, Marek; Varsos, Georgios; Czosnyka, Zofia; Smielewski, Peter; Jamous, Ali; Bell, B Anthony; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is routinely measured in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We describe a novel technique that allowed us to monitor intraspinal pressure (ISP) at the injury site in 14 patients who had severe acute traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), analogous to monitoring ICP after brain injury. A Codman probe was inserted subdurally to measure the pressure of the injured spinal cord compressed against the surrounding dura. Our key finding is that it is feasible and safe to monitor ISP for up to a week in patients after TSCI, starting within 72 h of the injury. With practice, probe insertion and calibration take less than 10 min. The ISP signal characteristics after TSCI were similar to the ICP signal characteristics recorded after TBI. Importantly, there were no associated complications. Future studies are required to determine whether reducing ISP improves neurological outcome after severe TSCI.

  19. Augmentation of Voluntary Locomotor Activity by Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation in Motor-Incomplete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Krenn, Matthias; Danner, Simon M; Hofer, Christian; Kern, Helmut; McKay, William B; Mayr, Winfried; Minassian, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The level of sustainable excitability within lumbar spinal cord circuitries is one of the factors determining the functional outcome of locomotor therapy after motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. Here, we present initial data using noninvasive transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) to modulate this central state of excitability during voluntary treadmill stepping in three motor-incomplete spinal cord-injured individuals. Stimulation was applied at 30 Hz with an intensity that generated tingling sensations in the lower limb dermatomes, yet without producing muscle reflex activity. This stimulation changed muscle activation, gait kinematics, and the amount of manual assistance required from the therapists to maintain stepping with some interindividual differences. The effect on motor outputs during treadmill-stepping was essentially augmentative and step-phase dependent despite the invariant tonic stimulation. The most consistent modification was found in the gait kinematics, with the hip flexion during swing increased by 11.3° ± 5.6° across all subjects. This preliminary work suggests that tSCS provides for a background increase in activation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuitry that has partially lost its descending drive. Voluntary inputs and step-related feedback build upon the stimulation-induced increased state of excitability in the generation of locomotor activity. Thus, tSCS essentially works as an electrical neuroprosthesis augmenting remaining motor control. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Transplantation of choroid plexus epithelial cells into contusion-injured spinal cord of rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanekiyo, Kenji; Nakano, Norihiko; Noda, Toru; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Ohta, Masayoshi; Yokota, Atsushi; Fukushima, Masanori; Ide, Chizuka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of the transplantation of choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs) on locomotor improvement and tissue repair including axonal extension in spinal cord lesions was examined in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: CPECs were cultured from the choroid plexus of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats, and transplanted directly into the contusion-injured spinal cord lesions of rats of the same strain. Locomotor behaviors were evaluated based on BBB scores every week after transplantation until 4 weeks after transplantation. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed at 2 days, and every week until 5 weeks after transplantation. Results: Locomotor behaviors evaluated by the BBB score were significantly improved in cell-transplanted rats. Numerous axons grew, with occasional interactions with CPECs, through the astrocyte-devoid areas. These axons exhibited structural characteristics of peripheral nerves. GAP-43-positive axons were found at the border of the lesion 2 days after transplantation. Cavity formation was more reduced in cell-transplanted than control spinal cords. CPECs were found within the spinal cord lesion, and sometimes in association with astrocytes at the border of the lesion until 2 weeks after transplantation. Conclusion: The transplantation of CPECs enhanced locomotor improvement and tissue recovery, including axonal regeneration, in rats with SCI. PMID:26923614

  1. Time-related effects of general functional training in spinal cord-injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Taisa Amoroso Bortolato; Vicente, Juliana Mendes Yule; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Morya, Edgard; do Valle, Angela Cristina

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, experimental study with rats aimed to investigate the influence of general treatment strategies on the motor recovery of Wistar rats with moderate contusive spinal cord injury. METHODS: A total of 51 Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: control, maze, ramp, runway, and sham (laminectomy only). The rats underwent spinal cord injury at the T9-T10 levels using the NYU-Impactor. Each group was trained for 12 minutes twice a week for two weeks before and five weeks after the spinal cord injury, except for the control group. Functional motor recovery was assessed with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Scale on the first postoperative day and then once a week for five weeks. The animals were euthanized, and the spinal cords were collected for histological analysis. RESULTS: Ramp and maze groups showed an earlier and greater functional improvement effect than the control and runway groups. However, over time, unexpectedly, all of the groups showed similar effects as the control group, with spontaneous recovery. There were no histological differences in the injured area between the trained and control groups. CONCLUSION: Short-term benefits can be associated with a specific training regime; however, the same training was ineffective at maintaining superior long-term recovery. These results might support new considerations before hospital discharge of patients with spinal cord injuries. PMID:22892926

  2. Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Paralympic Committee position statement: urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stacey; Trease, Larissa; Cunningham, Corey; Hughes, David

    2015-10-01

    Patients with spinal cord injuries are at increased risk of developing symptomatic urinary tract infections. Current evidence-based knowledge regarding prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in the spinal cord injured population is limited. There are currently no urinary tract infection prevention and management guidelines specifically targeted towards elite spinal cord injured athletes. This position statement represents a set of recommendations intended to provide clinical guidelines for sport and exercise medicine physicians and other healthcare providers for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection in spinal cord injured athletes. It has been endorsed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) and the Australian Paralympic Committee (APC). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Extracellular matrix regulation of inflammation in the healthy and injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Andrew D.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the body, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structure and organization to tissues and also helps regulate cell migration and intercellular communication. In the injured spinal cord (or brain), changes in the composition and structure of the ECM undoubtedly contribute to regeneration failure. Less appreciated is how the native and injured ECM influences intraspinal inflammation and, conversely, how neuroinflammation affects the synthesis and deposition of ECM after CNS injury. In all tissues, inflammation can be initiated and propagated by ECM disruption. Molecules of ECM newly liberated by injury or inflammation include hyaluronan fragments, tenascins, and sulfated proteoglycans. These act as “damage-associated molecular patterns” or “alarmins”, i.e., endogenous proteins that trigger and subsequently amplify inflammation. Activated inflammatory cells, in turn, further damage the ECM by releasing degradative enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). After spinal cord injury (SCI), destabilization or alteration of the structural and chemical composition of the ECM affects migration, communication, and survival of all cells – neural and non-neural – that are critical for spinal cord repair. By stabilizing ECM structure or modifying their ability to trigger the degradative effects of inflammation, it may be possible to create an environment that is more conducive to tissue repair and axon plasticity after SCI. PMID:25017885

  4. Extracellular matrix regulation of inflammation in the healthy and injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Popovich, Phillip G

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the body, the extracellular matrix (ECM) provides structure and organization to tissues and also helps regulate cell migration and intercellular communication. In the injured spinal cord (or brain), changes in the composition and structure of the ECM undoubtedly contribute to regeneration failure. Less appreciated is how the native and injured ECM influences intraspinal inflammation and, conversely, how neuroinflammation affects the synthesis and deposition of ECM after CNS injury. In all tissues, inflammation can be initiated and propagated by ECM disruption. Molecules of ECM newly liberated by injury or inflammation include hyaluronan fragments, tenascins, and sulfated proteoglycans. These act as "damage-associated molecular patterns" or "alarmins", i.e., endogenous proteins that trigger and subsequently amplify inflammation. Activated inflammatory cells, in turn, further damage the ECM by releasing degradative enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). After spinal cord injury (SCI), destabilization or alteration of the structural and chemical compositions of the ECM affects migration, communication, and survival of all cells - neural and non-neural - that are critical for spinal cord repair. By stabilizing ECM structure or modifying their ability to trigger the degradative effects of inflammation, it may be possible to create an environment that is more conducive to tissue repair and axon plasticity after SCI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammatory response to Escherichia coli urinary tract infection in the neurogenic bladder of the spinal cord injured host.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rajeev; Madden-Fuentes, Ramiro J; Ortiz, Tara K; Balsara, Zarine; Tang, Yuping; Nseyo, Unwanaobong; Wiener, John S; Ross, Sherry S; Seed, Patrick C

    2014-05-01

    Urinary tract infections cause significant morbidity in patients with spinal cord injury. An in vivo spinal cord injured rat model of experimental Escherichia coli urinary tract infection mimics human disease with enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection compared to controls. We hypothesized that a dysregulated inflammatory response contributes to enhanced susceptibility to urinary tract infection. Spinal cord injured and sham injured rats were inoculated transurethrally with E. coli. Transcript levels of 84 inflammatory pathway genes were measured in bladder tissue of each group before infection, 24 hours after infection and after 5 days of antibiotic therapy. Before infection quantitative polymerase chain reaction array revealed greater than twofold up-regulation in the proinflammatory factor transcripts slc11a1, ccl4 and il1β, and down-regulation of the antimicrobial peptides lcn2 and mpo in spinal cord injured vs control bladders. At 24 hours after infection spinal cord injured bladders showed an attenuated innate immune response with decreased expression of il6, slc11a1, il1β and lcn2, and decreased il10 and slpi expression compared to controls. Despite clearance of bacteriuria with antibiotics spinal cord injured rats had delayed induction of il6 transcription and a delayed anti-inflammatory response with decreased il10 and slpi transcript levels relative to controls. Spinal cord injured bladders fail to mount a characteristic inflammatory response to E. coli infection and cannot suppress inflammation after infection is eliminated. This may lead to increased susceptibility to urinary tract infection and persistent chronic inflammation through neural mediated pathways, which to our knowledge remain to be defined. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured subjects: how to assess clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Karla Rocha; Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho de; Vasconcelos-Neto, Renata; Martins, Luiz Eduardo Barreto; Cliquet-Jr, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT) to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A) participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a paired t test. Multiple r-squared was also calculated. The 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2 were not statistically different for heart rate, distance, mean speed and blood pressure. Multiple r-squared (r2 = 0.96) explained 96% of the variation in the distance walked. The use of 6MWT in artificial gait towards assessing exercise walking capacity is reproducible and easy to apply. It can be used to assess SCI artificial gait clinical performance.

  7. Expression of neurotrimin in the normal and injured adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, I; Li, X; Marcillo, A; Salzer, J L; Levi, A D

    2006-05-01

    Neurotrimin (Ntm) is a member of the family of neural cell adhesion molecules. Its expression pattern suggests that Ntm promotes axonal fasciculation, guides nerve fibers to specific targets and stabilizes synapses as it accumulates coincident with synaptogenesis. Strong labeling of Ntm was observed in motor and sensory areas of the postnatal rat cortex. It is not known whether Ntm is present in adult human spinal cord (SC). In the present study, a monoclonal antibody specific for Ntm (1B1), is applied to the first study of the expression of Ntm in normal and injured adult human SC. (1) To investigate the expression pattern of Ntm in adult normal human SC, and (2) to observe the changes of Ntm expression after SC injury and compare the differences between normal and injured adult human SC. Human SC tissue was obtained from necropsies of patients with (n=5) and without (n=4) SC injury. The 1B1 Ntm monoclonal antibody was used for immunohistochemical staining on paraffin embedded sections with an ABC kit. (1) In total, 12 slides were analyzed for each group from both cervical and thoracic levels. Motor neurons and Clarke's neurons and glial-like cells were mild to moderately positive in all uninjured SC specimens. (2) In injured SC, no staining was observed in the injury epicenter between two and three levels proximally and distally, but was detected five levels away. (3) In patients older than 67 years of age, Ntm-positive inclusions were present in the white matter of the SC with or without injury. (4) Some meningeal cells were strongly Ntm-positive, especially in the uninjured human SC. Ntm is expressed by motor and Clarke's neurons and glial cells in uninjured human SC. The downregulation of Ntm in the injured SC suggests that its expression is regulated by afferent input. Spinal Cord (2006) 44, 275-279. doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3101840; published online 20 September 2005.

  8. A psychological study of spinal cord injured patients involved in the Madras Paraplegia Project.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, O; Balakrishnan, S; Ravindran, O S; Shanmugasundaram, T K

    1992-11-01

    The psychological features of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients involved in the Madras Paraplegia Project are described. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were studied. Based on personality tests, 11% were extroverts, 14% were introverts and 76% were neither extroverts nor introverts. Twenty-four percent of the subjects were neurotic, 11% had a depressive illness, and 26% had pathological anxiety. The study has highlighted the psychological status of SCI patients, and the usefulness of a psychiatric team in the multidisciplinary care of such patients. This is probably the first large psychological study of SCI patients from a developing country.

  9. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Gu, Rui; Liu, Jia-Bei; Li, Ye; Zhu, Qing-San

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells into the

  10. Treatment with resveratrol attenuates sublesional bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua-Dong; Shi, Ya-Min; Li, Li; Guo, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Hou, Shu-Xun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sublesional osteoporosis predisposes individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to an increased risk of low-trauma fracture. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of treatment with resveratrol (RES) on sublesional bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Complete SCI was generated by surgical transaction of the cord at the T10–12 level. Treatment with RES (400 mg·kg−1 body mass per day−1, intragastrically) was initiated 12 h after the surgery for 10 days. Then, blood was collected and femurs and tibiae were removed for evaluation of the effects of RES on bone tissue after SCI. KEY RESULTS Treatment of SCI rats with RES prevented the reduction of bone mass including bone mineral content and bone mineral density in tibiae, preserved bone structure including trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in tibiae, and preserved mechanical strength including ultimate load, stiffness, and energy in femurs. Treatment of SCI rats with RES enhanced femoral total sulfhydryl content, reduced femoral malondialdehyde and IL-6 mRNA levels. Treatment of SCI rats with RES suppressed the up-regulation of mRNA levels of PPARγ, adipose-specific fatty-acid-binding protein and lipoprotein lipase, and restored mRNA levels of Wnt1, low-density lipoprotein-related protein 5, Axin2, ctnnb1, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and receptor for IGF-1 in femurs and tibiae. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Treatment with RES attenuated sublesional bone loss in spinal-cord-injured rats, associated with abating oxidative stress, attenuating inflammation, depressing PPARγ signalling, and restoring Wnt/β-catenin and IGF-1 signalling. PMID:23848300

  11. TLR4 Deficiency Impairs Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jamie S.; Kigerl, Kristina A.; Lerch, Jessica K.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2016-01-01

    Acute oligodendrocyte (OL) death after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by robust neuron–glial antigen 2 (NG2)-positive OL progenitor proliferation and differentiation into new OLs. Inflammatory mediators are prevalent during both phases and can influence the fate of NG2 cells and OLs. Specifically, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling induces OL genesis in the naive spinal cord, and lack of TLR4 signaling impairs white matter sparing and functional recovery after SCI. Therefore, we hypothesized that TLR4 signaling may regulate oligodendrogenesis after SCI. C3H/HeJ (TLR4-deficient) and control (C3H/HeOuJ) mice received a moderate midthoracic spinal contusion. TLR4-deficient mice showed worse functional recovery and reduced OL numbers compared with controls at 24 h after injury through chronic time points. Acute OL loss was accompanied by reduced ferritin expression, which is regulated by TLR4 and needed for effective iron storage. TLR4-deficient injured spinal cords also displayed features consistent with reduced OL genesis, including reduced NG2 expression, fewer BrdU-positive OLs, altered BMP4 signaling and inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) expression, and delayed myelin phagocytosis. Expression of several factors, including IGF-1, FGF2, IL-1β, and PDGF-A, was altered in TLR4-deficient injured spinal cords compared with wild types. Together, these data show that TLR4 signaling after SCI is important for OL lineage cell sparing and replacement, as well as in regulating cytokine and growth factor expression. These results highlight new roles for TLR4 in endogenous SCI repair and emphasize that altering the function of a single immune-related receptor can dramatically change the reparative responses of multiple cellular constituents in the injured CNS milieu. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelinating cells of the CNS [oligodendrocytes (OLs)] are killed for several weeks after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), but they are replaced by resident

  12. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Che Ramli, Muhammad Danial

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:25152764

  13. Vulnerable, but strong: The spinal cord-injured patient during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Sanne

    2010-01-01

    A traumatic spinal cord injury affects the body to an extent that the patient requires the assistance of others to survive and recover. The rehabilitation phase puts the patient in a vulnerable position and involves a considerable amount of strength on the patient's part. The aim of this paper is to explore the vulnerability of the spinal cord patient and how this vulnerability connects to the necessary strength, as the patient struggles to survive the injury and get through the rehabilitation. The circumstances of 12 traumatic spinal cord-injured patients were observed in the rehabilitation unit and after discharge. A phenomenological–hermeneutic narrative approach applying Ricoeur's theory was used. Data were collected by field observation and interviews during the first 2 years after the spinal cord injury. The patient's strength during the rehabilitation was portrayed by their endurance and from their narratives of how they handled difficult situations. The patient's perception of vulnerability varied, and strength was mobilised as a response to the vulnerability to overcome the imbalance between demands and resources. Vulnerability should therefore refer to a person's experience of the situation rather than the person, as it may hinder the professionals' open, explorative approach towards the person. PMID:20927203

  14. Vulnerable, but strong: The spinal cord-injured patient during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne

    2010-10-04

    A traumatic spinal cord injury affects the body to an extent that the patient requires the assistance of others to survive and recover. The rehabilitation phase puts the patient in a vulnerable position and involves a considerable amount of strength on the patient's part. The aim of this paper is to explore the vulnerability of the spinal cord patient and how this vulnerability connects to the necessary strength, as the patient struggles to survive the injury and get through the rehabilitation.The circumstances of 12 traumatic spinal cord-injured patients were observed in the rehabilitation unit and after discharge.A phenomenological-hermeneutic narrative approach applying Ricoeur's theory was used. Data were collected by field observation and interviews during the first 2 years after the spinal cord injury.The patient's strength during the rehabilitation was portrayed by their endurance and from their narratives of how they handled difficult situations. The patient's perception of vulnerability varied, and strength was mobilised as a response to the vulnerability to overcome the imbalance between demands and resources. Vulnerability should therefore refer to a person's experience of the situation rather than the person, as it may hinder the professionals' open, explorative approach towards the person.

  15. Oral midodrine for prostaglandin e1 induced priapism in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Soler, Jean-Marc; Previnaire, Jean-Gabriel; Mieusset, Roger; Plante, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated midodrine as oral treatment for pharmacologically induced priapism in spinal cord injured patients. From 2004 to 2007 we treated 354 spinal cord injured patients with intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 to induce erection. Prolonged erection or priapism occurred in 14 cases (1.3% of intracavernous injections). High blood pressure and bradycardia (autonomic dysreflexia) were noted in 2 tetraplegic cases. Except in 2 patients oral midodrine was used as the only therapeutic approach to this event because of its alpha stimulant properties. All patients returned to the flaccid penile state within 30 to 45 minutes after midodrine administration. Oral midodrine was well tolerated with few side effects and without increasing the incidence of autonomic dysreflexia. At 6 months complete erection could be again induced by intracavernous injection in all treated patients. Midodrine administered orally is a simple and efficient treatment for the priapism induced by intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1. It could be the first line therapeutic approach before more aggressive procedures.

  16. Understanding physical activity participation in spinal cord injured populations: Three narrative types for consideration.

    PubMed

    Papathomas, Anthony; Williams, Toni L; Smith, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identity the types of physical activity narratives drawn upon by active spinal injured people. More than 50 h of semi-structured life-story interview data, collected as part of larger interdisciplinary program of disability lifestyle research, was analysed for 30 physically active male and female spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. A structural narrative analysis of data identified three narrative types which people with SCI draw on: (1) exercise is restitution, (2) exercise is medicine, and (3) exercise is progressive redemption. These insights contribute new knowledge by adding a unique narrative perspective to existing cognitive understanding of physical activity behaviour in the spinal cord injured population. The implications of this narrative typology for developing effective positive behavioural change interventions are critically discussed. It is concluded that the identified narratives types may be constitutive, as well as reflective, of physical activity experiences and therefore may be a useful tool on which to base physical activity promotion initiatives.

  17. Understanding physical activity participation in spinal cord injured populations: Three narrative types for consideration

    PubMed Central

    Papathomas, Anthony; Williams, Toni L.; Smith, Brett

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identity the types of physical activity narratives drawn upon by active spinal injured people. More than 50 h of semi-structured life-story interview data, collected as part of larger interdisciplinary program of disability lifestyle research, was analysed for 30 physically active male and female spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. A structural narrative analysis of data identified three narrative types which people with SCI draw on: (1) exercise is restitution, (2) exercise is medicine, and (3) exercise is progressive redemption. These insights contribute new knowledge by adding a unique narrative perspective to existing cognitive understanding of physical activity behaviour in the spinal cord injured population. The implications of this narrative typology for developing effective positive behavioural change interventions are critically discussed. It is concluded that the identified narratives types may be constitutive, as well as reflective, of physical activity experiences and therefore may be a useful tool on which to base physical activity promotion initiatives. PMID:26282868

  18. Gait event detection using linear accelerometers or angular velocity transducers in able-bodied and spinal-cord injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Jan M; Allum, John H J; Middleton, James W; Barriskill, Andrew; Condie, Peter; Purcell, Brendan; Li, Raymond Che Tin

    2006-12-01

    We report on three different methods of gait event detection (toe-off and heel strike) using miniature linear accelerometers and angular velocity transducers in comparison to using standard pressure-sensitive foot switches. Detection was performed with normal and spinal-cord injured subjects. The detection of end contact (EC), normally toe-off, and initial contact (IC) normally, heel strike was based on either foot linear accelerations or foot sagittal angular velocity or shank sagittal angular velocity. The results showed that all three methods were as accurate as foot switches in estimating times of IC and EC for normal gait patterns. In spinal-cord injured subjects, shank angular velocity was significantly less accurate (p<0.02). We conclude that detection based on foot linear accelerations or foot angular velocity can correctly identify the timing of IC and EC events in both normal and spinal-cord injured subjects.

  19. Plasticity of the Injured Human Spinal Cord: Insights Revealed by Spinal Cord Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Cadotte, David W.; Bosma, Rachael; Mikulis, David; Nugaeva, Natalia; Smith, Karen; Pokrupa, Ronald; Islam, Omar; Stroman, Patrick W.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction While numerous studies have documented evidence for plasticity of the human brain there is little evidence that the human spinal cord can change after injury. Here, we employ a novel spinal fMRI design where we stimulate normal and abnormal sensory dermatomes in persons with traumatic spinal cord injury and perform a connectivity analysis to understand how spinal networks process information. Methods Spinal fMRI data was collected at 3 Tesla at two institutions from 38 individuals using the standard SEEP functional MR imaging techniques. Thermal stimulation was applied to four dermatomes in an interleaved timing pattern during each fMRI acquisition. SCI patients were stimulated in dermatomes both above (normal sensation) and below the level of their injury. Sub-group analysis was performed on healthy controls (n = 20), complete SCI (n = 3), incomplete SCI (n = 9) and SCI patients who recovered full function (n = 6). Results Patients with chronic incomplete SCI, when stimulated in a dermatome of normal sensation, showed an increased number of active voxels relative to controls (p = 0.025). There was an inverse relationship between the degree of sensory impairment and the number of active voxels in the region of the spinal cord corresponding to that dermatome of abnormal sensation (R2 = 0.93, p<0.001). Lastly, a connectivity analysis demonstrated a significantly increased number of intraspinal connections in incomplete SCI patients relative to controls suggesting altered processing of afferent sensory signals. Conclusions In this work we demonstrate the use of spinal fMRI to investigate changes in spinal processing of somatosensory information in the human spinal cord. We provide evidence for plasticity of the human spinal cord after traumatic injury based on an increase in the average number of active voxels in dermatomes of normal sensation in chronic SCI patients and an increased number of intraspinal connections in incomplete

  20. Persistent beneficial impact of H-reflex conditioning in spinal cord-injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Yu; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Operant conditioning of a spinal cord reflex can improve locomotion in rats and humans with incomplete spinal cord injury. This study examined the persistence of its beneficial effects. In rats in which a right lateral column contusion injury had produced asymmetric locomotion, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex eliminated the asymmetry while down-conditioning had no effect. After the 50-day conditioning period ended, the H-reflex was monitored for 100 [±9 (SD)] (range 79–108) more days and locomotion was then reevaluated. After conditioning ended in up-conditioned rats, the H-reflex continued to increase, and locomotion continued to improve. In down-conditioned rats, the H-reflex decrease gradually disappeared after conditioning ended, and locomotion at the end of data collection remained as impaired as it had been before and immediately after down-conditioning. The persistence (and further progression) of H-reflex increase but not H-reflex decrease in these spinal cord-injured rats is consistent with the fact that up-conditioning improved their locomotion while down-conditioning did not. That is, even after up-conditioning ended, the up-conditioned H-reflex pathway remained adaptive because it improved locomotion. The persistence and further enhancement of the locomotor improvement indicates that spinal reflex conditioning protocols might supplement current therapies and enhance neurorehabilitation. They may be especially useful when significant spinal cord regeneration becomes possible and precise methods for retraining the regenerated spinal cord are needed. PMID:25143542

  1. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-15

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord.

  2. A novel device for studying weight supported, quadrupedal overground locomotion in spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Marvin; Traughber, Terrance; Reinkensmeyer, David J.; de Leon, Ray D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Providing weight support facilitates locomotion in spinal cord injured animals. To control weight support, robotic systems have been developed for treadmill stepping and more recently for overground walking. New Method We developed a novel device, the body weight supported ambulatory rodent trainer (i.e. BART). It has a small pneumatic cylinder that moves along a linear track above the rat. When air is supplied to the cylinder, the rats are lifted as they perform overground walking. We tested the BART device in rats that received a moderate spinal cord contusion injury and in normal rats. Locomotor training with the BART device was not performed. Results All of the rats learned to walk in the BART device. In the contused rats, significantly greater paw dragging and dorsal stepping occurred in the hindlimbs compared to normal. Providing weight support significantly raised hip position and significantly reduced locomotor deficits. Hindlimb stepping was tightly coupled to forelimb stepping but only when the contused rats stepped without weight support. Three weeks after the contused rats received a complete spinal cord transection, significantly fewer hindlimb steps were performed. Comparison with Existing Methods Relative to rodent robotic systems, the BART device is a simpler system for studying overground locomotion. The BART device lacks sophisticated control and sensing capability, but it can be assembled relatively easily and cheaply. Conclusions These findings suggest that the BART device is a useful tool for assessing quadrupedal, overground locomotion which is a more natural form of locomotion relative to treadmill locomotion. PMID:25794460

  3. Guiding migration of transplanted glial progenitor cells in the injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-bing; Jin, Ying; Haas, Christopher; Yao, Lihua; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Wang, Yue; Wang, Chunlei; Fischer, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) is a promising strategy for generating a supportive environment for axon growth in the injured spinal cord. Here we explored the possibility of producing a migratory stream of GRPs via directional cues to create a supportive pathway for axon regeneration. We found that the axon growth inhibitor chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) strongly inhibited the adhesion and migration of GRPs, an effect that could be modulated by the adhesion molecule laminin. Digesting glycosaminoglycan side chains of CSPG with chondroitinase improved GRP migration on stripes of CSPG printed on cover glass, although GRPs were still responsive to the remaining repulsive signals of CSPG. Of all factors tested, the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) had the most significant effect in promoting the migration of cultured GRPs. When GRPs were transplanted into either normal spinal cord of adult rats or the injury site in a dorsal column hemisection model of spinal cord injury, a population of transplanted cells migrated toward the region that was injected with the lentivirus expressing chondroitinase or bFGF. These findings suggest that removing CSPG-mediated inhibition, in combination with guidance by attractive factors, can be a promising strategy to produce a migratory stream of supportive GRPs. PMID:26971438

  4. Tritherapy (Spinalon)-Elicited Spinal Locomotor Network Activation: Phase I-IIa Clinical Trial in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    efficacy of a first-in-class drug treatment called SPINALON that is designed to acutely trigger episodes of automatic walking in chronic spinal cord...neuronal systems) typically found in chronic spinal cord-injured patients. Period During the period covered by this report, the advertising to recruit...training CPG: Central Pattern Generator for locomotion Early chronic patients: 3‐6 months post‐injury Late chronic patients: More than 6 months post

  5. Chronic Expression of PPAR-δ by Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells in the Injured Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Almad, Akshata; McTigue, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation in vitro and is prevalent throughout the brain and spinal cord. Its expression after injury, however, has not been examined. Thus, we used a spinal contusion model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of PPAR-δ in naïve and injured spinal cords from adult rats. As previously reported, PPAR-δ was expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in uninjured spinal cords; PPAR-δ was also detected in NG2 cells (potential oligodendrocyte progenitors) within the white matter and gray matter. After spinal cord injury (SCI), PPAR-δ mRNA and protein were present early and increased over time. Overall PPAR-δ+ cell numbers declined at 1 day post injury (dpi), likely reflecting neuron loss, and then rose through 14 dpi. A large proportion of NG2 cells expressed PPAR-δ after SCI, especially along lesion borders. PPAR-δ+ NG2 cell numbers were significantly higher than naive by 7 dpi and remained elevated through at least 28 dpi. PPAR-δ+ oligodendrocyte numbers declined at 1 dpi and then increased over time such that >20% of oligodendrocytes expressed PPAR-δ after SCI compared with ~10% in uninjured tissue. The most prominent increase in PPAR-δ+ oligodendrocytes was along lesion borders where at least a portion of newly generated oligodendrocytes (bromode-oxyuridine +) were PPAR-δ+. Consistent with its role in cellular differentiation, the early rise in PPAR-δ+ NG2 cells followed by an increase in new PPAR-δ+ oligodendrocytes suggests that this transcription factor may be involved in the robust oligodendrogenesis detected previously along SCI lesion borders. PMID:20058304

  6. Assessment of skin blood content and oxygenation in spinal cord injured subjects during reactive hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Hagisawa, S; Ferguson-Pell, M; Cardi, M; Miller, S D

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the reactive hyperemia response following ischemia in spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals is different from that which occurs in able-bodied (AB) individuals. The reactive hyperemia response was produced by applying a pressure of 150 mmHg for 300 s, 600 s, and 900 s to the skin over the greater trochanter in 10 SCI and 10 AB subjects using a computer-controlled pneumatic indentation system. The changes in blood content and oxygenation in the superficial vessels of the skin, associated with indentation, were monitored using reflectance spectrophotometry. A brief pressure of 80 mmHg, to simulate finger pressing (blanching), was applied to the same site to detect changes in reflow behavior during the hyperemic period. The results indicate that the reactive hyperemia response in SCI group was not substantially different from AB group although the reflow rate after load release was slower in the SCI group compared with the AB group.

  7. Guillain-Barre syndrome: A possibility in a spinal cord injured patient.

    PubMed

    Jagatsinh, Yogendrasinh

    2007-07-01

    A 28-year-old male had paraplegia as a result of fracture dislocation of T12/L1 six years ago. He was functioning independently until four weeks ago, when he started complaining of trunkal paraesthesia which later progressed to include the upper extremities. The initial diagnosis was that of posttraumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While awaiting the MRI scan he developed weakness of upper limbs. The weakness restricted his self-care activities including transfers. The MRI did not show any evidence of syringomyelia. Neurological consultation and assessment yielded provisional diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The patient was treated with immunoglobulins and regained 90% of his previous neurological status. This case is reported to raise awareness among clinicians to include the possibility of the GBS in the differential diagnosis of progressive neurological loss on top of existing neurological deficiency in spinal cord injured patients.

  8. Optogenetic Interrogation of Functional Synapse Formation by Corticospinal Tract Axons in the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, Naveen; Wang, Zimei; Hoeynck, Brian; Krueger, Nicholas; Kramer, Audra; Balle, Eric; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Wheeler, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    distinguishing its function from indirect relay circuits and target field plasticity have presented technical challenges. Here we force the overexpression of Sox11 to stimulate the growth of corticospinal tract axons in the cervical spinal cord and then use specific optogenetic activation to assess their ability to directly drive postsynaptic activity in spinal cord neurons. By confirming successful synaptic integration, these data illustrate a novel optogenetic-based strategy to monitor and optimize functional reconnection by newly sprouted axons in the injured CNS. PMID:27225775

  9. Optogenetic Interrogation of Functional Synapse Formation by Corticospinal Tract Axons in the Injured Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, Naveen; Wang, Zimei; Hoeynck, Brian; Krueger, Nicholas; Kramer, Audra; Balle, Eric; Wheeler, Daniel S; Wheeler, Robert A; Blackmore, Murray G

    2016-05-25

    from indirect relay circuits and target field plasticity have presented technical challenges. Here we force the overexpression of Sox11 to stimulate the growth of corticospinal tract axons in the cervical spinal cord and then use specific optogenetic activation to assess their ability to directly drive postsynaptic activity in spinal cord neurons. By confirming successful synaptic integration, these data illustrate a novel optogenetic-based strategy to monitor and optimize functional reconnection by newly sprouted axons in the injured CNS. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365877-14$15.00/0.

  10. Hindbrain raphe stimulation boosts cyclic adenosine monophosphate and signaling proteins in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Carballosa-Gonzalez, Melissa M; Vitores, Alberto; Hentall, Ian D

    2014-01-16

    Early recovery from incomplete spinal cord contusion is improved by prolonged stimulation of the hindbrain's serotonergic nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Here we examine whether increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular signaling molecule with several known restorative actions on damaged neural tissue, could play a role. Subsequent changes in cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the transcription factor "cAMP response element-binding protein" (CREB) are also analyzed. Rats with moderate weight-drop injury at segment T8 received 2h of NRM stimulation beginning three days after injury, followed immediately by separate extraction of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord for immunochemical assay. Controls lacked injury, stimulation or both. Injury reduced cAMP levels to under half of normal in all three spinal regions. NRM stimulation completely restored these levels, while producing no significant change in non-injured rats. Pretreatment with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist pimozide (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) lowered cAMP in non-injured rats to injury amounts, which were unchanged by NRM stimulation. The phosphorylated fraction of PKA (pPKA) and CREB (pCREB) was reduced significantly in all three regions after SCI and restored by NRM stimulation, except for pCREB in lumbar segments. In conclusion, SCI produces spreading deficits in cAMP, pPKA and pCREB that are reversible by Gs protein-coupled 5-HT receptors responding to raphe-spinal activity, although these signaling molecules are not reactive to NRM stimulation in normal tissue. These findings can partly explain the benefits of NRM stimulation after SCI. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis.

    PubMed

    De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Astolfi, Laura; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Salinari, Serenella; Kurths, Jurgen; Gao, Shangkai; Cichocki, Andrzej; Colosimo, Alfredo; Babiloni, Fabio

    2007-12-01

    The present work aims at analyzing the structure of cortical connectivity during the attempt to move a paralyzed limb by a group of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Connectivity patterns were obtained by means of the Directed Transfer Function applied to the cortical signals estimated from high resolution EEG recordings. Electrical activity were estimated in normals (Healthy) and SCI patients on twelve regions of interest (ROIs) coincident with Brodmann areas. Degree distributions showed the presence of few cortical regions with a lot of outgoing connections in all the cortical networks estimated irrespectively of the frequency band investigated. For both of the groups (SCI and Healthy), bilateral cingulate motor area (CMA) acts as hub transmitting information flows. The efficiency index, allowed to assert the ordered properties of such estimated cortical networks in both populations. The comparison of such estimated networks with those obtained from random networks, elicited significant differences (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected for multiple comparisons). A statistical comparison (ANOVA) between SCI patients and healthy subjects showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the local efficiency of their respective networks. For three frequency bands (theta 4-7 Hz, alpha 8-12 Hz, and beta 13-29 Hz) the higher value observed in the spinal cord injured population entails a larger level of internal organization and fault tolerance. This fact suggests a sort of compensative mechanism as local response to the alteration in their MIF areas, which is probably due to the indirect effects of the spinal injury. (copyright) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Comparison of population pharmacokinetic models for gentamicin in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, T M; Brunnemann, S R; Segal, J L

    1993-01-01

    Population pharmacokinetic models for gentamicin were developed by using data obtained from 29 spinal cord-injured patients and 11 able-bodied control patients. With a one-compartment model, the population parameters were clearance (CL), volume of distribution (V), and their associated variances. Parameter estimates were found by using the computer program NPEM and by the standard two-stage (STS) method. NPEM uses a nonparametric approach incorporating the expectation maximization algorithm to evaluate a joint probability density function at 900 intersections over a bivariate grid. In contrast, the STS method requires conventional assumptions of normality for the underlying distributions. For NPEM, the mean CL was 97.6 ml/h/kg of body weight (coefficient of variation, 33.0% in the spinal cord-injured patients and 67.8 ml/h/kg +/- 28.2% in the able-bodied patients; the mean V was 0.31 liter/kg +/- 32.3% in the spinal cord-injured patients and 0.23 liter/kg +/- 15.8% in the able-bodied patients. For STS, the mean CL was 101.0 ml/h/kg +/- 37.5% in the spinal cord-injured patients and 65.0 ml/h/kg +/- 33.8% in the able-bodied patients; the mean V was 0.29 liter/kg +/- 34.0% in the spinal cord-injured patients and 0.21 liter/kg +/- 21.0% in the able-bodied patients. Although the means and variances found by NPEM and the STS method were similar, the NPEM analysis revealed that the distributions of CL and V, even after they were linked to weight, were positively skewed and kurtotic. The cumulative distribution functions for CL (P < 0.001) and V (P < 0.001) in spinal cord-injured patients were different from those in able-bodied patients. Unique population models are required for the initial dosage selection for spinal cord-injured patients. Future approaches for developing population models should allow the linkage of structural parameters to multiple patient covariates. PMID:8431022

  13. Near infrared Raman spectroscopic study of reactive gliosis and the glial scar in injured rat spinal cords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Tarun; Deng, Bin; Lewis-Clark, Eric; Hoellger, Kyle; Stelzner, Dennis; Hasenwinkel, Julie; Chaiken, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Comparative Raman spectra of ex vivo, saline-perfused, injured and healthy rat spinal cord as well as experiments using enzymatic digestion suggest that proteoglycan over expression may be observable in injured tissue. Comparison with authentic materials in vitro suggest the occurrence of side reactions between products of cord digestion with chondroitinase (cABC) that produce lactones and similar species with distinct Raman features that are often not overlapped with Raman features from other chemical species. Since the glial scar is thought to be a biochemical and physical barrier to nerve regeneration, this observation suggests the possibility of using near infrared Raman spectroscopy to study disease progression and explore potential treatments ex vivo and if potential treatments can be designed, perhaps to monitor potential remedial treatments within the spinal cord in vivo.

  14. Plantar cutaneous input modulates differently spinal reflexes in subjects with intact and injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Knikou, M

    2006-01-01

    Study design Spinal reflex excitability study in sensory–motor incomplete spinal cord-injured (SCI) and spinal intact subjects. Objectives To investigate the effects of plantar cutaneous afferent excitation on the soleus H-reflex and flexion reflex in both subject groups while seated. Setting Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and City University of New York, USA. Methods The flexion reflex in SCI subjects was elicited by non-nociceptive stimulation of the sural nerve. In normal subjects, it was also elicited via innocuous medial arch foot stimulation. In both cases, reflex responses were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle. Soleus H-reflexes were elicited and recorded via conventional methods. Both reflexes were conditioned by plantar cutaneous afferent stimulation at conditioning test intervals ranging from 3 to 90 ms. Results Excitation of plantar cutaneous afferents resulted in facilitation of the soleus H-reflex and late flexion reflex in SCI subjects. In normal subjects, the soleus H-reflex was depressed while the late flexion reflex was absent. The early flexion reflex was irregularly observed in SCI patients, while in normal subjects a bimodal reflex modulation pattern was observed. Conclusion The effects of plantar cutaneous afferents change following a lesion to the spinal cord leading to exaggerated activity in both flexors and extensors. This suggests impaired modulation of the spinal inhibitory mechanisms involved in the reflex modulation. Our findings should be considered in programs aimed to restore sensorimotor function and promote recovery in these patients. PMID:16534501

  15. Defining recovery neurobiology of injured spinal cord by synthetic matrix-assisted hMSC implantation.

    PubMed

    Ropper, Alexander E; Thakor, Devang K; Han, InBo; Yu, Dou; Zeng, Xiang; Anderson, Jamie E; Aljuboori, Zaid; Kim, Soo-Woo; Wang, Hongjun; Sidman, Richard L; Zafonte, Ross D; Teng, Yang D

    2017-01-31

    Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system. Also, in rat T9-T10 hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI), we demonstrated that the tailored scaffolding maintained hMSC stemness, engraftment, and led to robust motosensory improvement, neuropathic pain and tissue damage mitigation, and myelin preservation. The scaffolded nontransdifferentiated hMSCs exerted multimodal effects of neurotrophism, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, antiautoimmunity, and antiinflammation. Hindlimb locomotion was restored by reestablished integrity of submidbrain circuits of serotonergic reticulospinal innervation at lumbar levels, the propriospinal projection network, neuromuscular junction, and central pattern generator, providing a platform for investigating molecular events underlying the repair impact of nondifferentiated hMSCs. Our approach enabled investigation of recovery neurobiology components for injured adult mammalian spinal cord that are different from those involved in normal neural function. The uncovered neural circuits and their molecular and cellular targets offer a biological underpinning for development of clinical rehabilitation therapies to treat disabilities and complications of SCI.

  16. Bone marrow stromal cell transplantation preserves gammaaminobutyric acid receptor function in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shunsuke; Kuroda, Satoshi; Shichinohe, Hideo; Seki, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Takako; Tamagami, Hiroshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2006-11-01

    A surprising shortage of information surrounds the mechanisms by which bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) restore lost neurologic functions when transplanted into the damaged central nervous system. In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether BMSCs express the neuron-specific gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor when transplanted into injured spinal cord. To examine this, we harvested and cultured rat femoral BMSCs. We then subjected Sprague-Dawley rats to thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) with a pneumatic impact device. Fluorescence-labeled BMSCs (n = 7) were transplanted stereotactically or the vehicle in which these cells were cultured (n = 4) was introduced stereotactically into the rostral site of SCI at 7 days after injury. We evaluated GABA receptor function by measuring the binding potential for 125I-iomazenil (125I-IMZ) through in vitro autoradiography at 4 weeks after BMSC transplantation and simultaneously examined the fate of the transplanted BMSCs by immunocytochemistry. We found that the transplanted BMSC migrated toward the core of the injury and were densely distributed in the marginal region at 4 weeks after transplantation. BMSC transplantation significantly increased the binding potential for 125I-IMZ (p = 0.0376) and increased the number of GABA receptor-positive cells (p = 0.0077) in the marginal region of the injury site. Some of the transplanted BMSCs were positive for microtubule-associated protein-2 and the alpha1 subunit of GABA(A) receptor in the region of injury. These findings suggest that BMSCs have the potential to support the survival of neurons in the marginal region of SCI and can partly differentiate into neurons, regenerating spinal cord tissue at the site of injury.

  17. Reliability, validity and administrative burden of the community reintegration of injured service members computer adaptive test (CRIS-CAT)".

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew; Ni, Pensheng; Pirraglia, Paul A; Jette, Alan

    2012-09-17

    The Computer Adaptive Test version of the Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members measure (CRIS-CAT) consists of three scales measuring Extent of, Perceived Limitations in, and Satisfaction with community integration. The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT.The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT. This was a three-part study that included a 1) a cross-sectional field study of 517 homeless, employed, and Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans; who completed all items in the CRIS item set, 2) a cohort study with one year follow-up study of 135 OEF/OIF Veterans, and 3) a 50-person study of CRIS-CAT administration. Conditional reliability of simulated CAT scores was calculated from the field study data, and concurrent validity and known group validity were examined using Pearson product correlations and ANOVAs. Data from the cohort were used to examine the ability of the CRIS-CAT to predict key one year outcomes. Data from the CRIS-CAT administration study were used to calculate ICC (2,1) minimum detectable change (MDC), and average number of items used during CAT administration. Reliability scores for all scales were above 0.75, but decreased at both ends of the score continuum. CRIS-CAT scores were correlated with concurrent validity indicators and differed significantly between the three Veteran groups (P < .001). The odds of having any Emergency Room visits were reduced for Veterans with better CRIS-CAT scores (Extent, Perceived Satisfaction respectively: OR = 0.94, 0.93, 0.95; P < .05). CRIS-CAT scores were predictive of SF-12 physical and mental health related quality of life scores at the 1

  18. Ex-vivo expanded human blood-derived CD133+ cells promote repair of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Naosuke; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Alev, Cantas; Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Yamada, Kiyotaka; Masuda, Haruchika; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Ochi, Mitsuo; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-05-15

    Human blood-derived CD133(+) cell populations, which are believed to represent a hematopoietic/endothelial progenitor fraction, have the ability to promote the repair of injured spinal cord in animal models. However, the mechanisms by which CD133(+) cell transplantation promotes spinal cord regeneration remain to be clarified. Another possible hurdle on the way to clinical applicability of these cells is their scarce representation in the overall population of mononuclear cells. We therefore analyzed and compared ex-vivo expanded human cord blood derived CD133(+) cells with freshly isolated CD133(+) cells as well as corresponding CD133(-) control mononuclear cells in respect to their ability to promote spinal cord repair using in vitro assays and cell transplantation into a mouse spinal cord injury model. In vitro, expanded cells as well as fresh CD133(+) cells formed endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) colonies, whereas CD133(-) cells formed no EPC colonies. In vivo, the administration of fresh CD133(+) and expanded cells enhanced angiogenesis, astrogliosis, axon growth and functional recovery after injury. In contrast, the administration of CD133(-) cells failed to promote axon growth and functional recovery, but moderately enhanced angiogenesis and astrogliosis. In addition, high-dose administration of expanded cells was highly effective in the induction of regenerative processes at the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A demographic profile of 7273 traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injured patients in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Vahid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To evaluate demographic profile of traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Methods: Mobile rehabilitation teams gathered data in 20 out of 30 provinces in Iran. Of 8104 traumatic and non-traumatic SCI patients under coverage of the State Welfare Organization of Iran registered in the database, 7273 were included in the analysis. The aggregate data on SCIs, including age, gender, place of residence, education level, marital status, etiology of injury, age at the time of injury, time passed since injury, level of injury, type of cord injury, having caregiver, and occupation were recorded. Results: Of 7273 patients, 5175 (71.1%) were male. At the time of the study, 46% were in the age group 20-40 years old, 34% were more than 40, and 20% were less than 20 years old. The residential place of 26% was in villages. 23.9% were illiterate, 6.9% had high school diploma or higher. The distribution of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels of injury was 17.7, 24.4, and 57.9%, respectively. Overall, there were 49% married and 45.8% never married, while 1.4% patients were single because their partners had left them, 1.7% of partners had died, 1.9% had divorced, and 0.3% had remarried. At the time of the presentation of patients, 33% were 21-30 years-old, 17% were 31-40, and 16% were less than 20 years. About the type of cord injury, the paraplegia, paraparesia, quadriplegia, quadriparesia, and hemiparesia were present in 72.1, 12.5, 10.2, 4.0, and 1.1% of patients, respectively. Unemployment was reported in 55.6% of patients. However, 17% were unable to work, 7.1% had a job, and 3.4% were retired. Caregiver was not provided for 7.5% of them. The most prevalent causes of the injury were: trauma (57.4%), congenital (14.4%), tumors (4.4%), spinal degenerative disorder such as canal stenosis (2.2%), genetic (2.0%), infection (1.9%), scoliosis (1.1%), and miscellaneous (10.6%). Conclusions: These data will provide the information to guide

  20. Functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats using polypyrrole/iodine implants and treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mejia, Laura; Morales, Juan; Cruz, Guillermo J; Olayo, María-Guadalupe; Olayo, Roberto; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Fabela-Sánchez, Omar; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda

    2015-07-01

    Currently, there is no universally accepted treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), a pathology that can cause paraplegia or quadriplegia. Due to the complexity of TSCI, more than one therapeutic strategy may be necessary to regain lost functions. Therefore, the present study proposes the use of implants of mesoparticles (MPs) of polypyrrole/iodine (PPy/I) synthesized by plasma for neuroprotection promotion and functional recovery in combination with treadmill training (TT) for neuroplasticity promotion and maintenance of muscle tone. PPy/I films were synthesized by plasma and pulverized to obtain MPs. Rats with a TSCI produced by the NYU impactor were divided into four groups: Vehicle (saline solution); MPs (PPy/I implant); Vehicle-TT (saline solution + TT); and MPs-TT (PPy/I implant + TT). The vehicle or MPs (30 μL) were injected into the lesion site 48 h after a TSCI. Four days later, TT was carried out 5 days a week for 2 months. Functional recovery was evaluated weekly using the BBB motor scale for 9 weeks and tissue protection using histological and morphometric analysis thereafter. Although the MPs of PPy/I increased nerve tissue preservation (P = 0.03) and promoted functional recovery (P = 0.015), combination with TT did not produce better neuroprotection, but significantly improved functional results (P = 0.000) when comparing with the vehicle group. So, use these therapeutic strategies by separately could stimulate specific mechanisms of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, but when using together they could mainly potentiate different mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the preserved spinal cord tissue after a TSCI and produce a significant functional recovery. The implant of mesoparticles of polypyrrole/iodine into the injured spinal cord displayed good integration into the nervous tissue without a response of rejection, as well as an increased in the amount of preserved tissue and a better functional recovery than the group without

  1. Plantar cutaneous input modulates differently spinal reflexes in subjects with intact and injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Knikou, M

    2007-01-01

    Spinal reflex excitability study in sensory-motor incomplete spinal cord-injured (SCI) and spinal intact subjects. To investigate the effects of plantar cutaneous afferent excitation on the soleus H-reflex and flexion reflex in both subject groups while seated. Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and City University of New York, USA. The flexion reflex in SCI subjects was elicited by non-nociceptive stimulation of the sural nerve. In normal subjects, it was also elicited via innocuous medial arch foot stimulation. In both cases, reflex responses were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle. Soleus H-reflexes were elicited and recorded via conventional methods. Both reflexes were conditioned by plantar cutaneous afferent stimulation at conditioning test intervals ranging from 3 to 90 ms. Excitation of plantar cutaneous afferents resulted in facilitation of the soleus H-reflex and late flexion reflex in SCI subjects. In normal subjects, the soleus H-reflex was depressed while the late flexion reflex was absent. The early flexion reflex was irregularly observed in SCI patients, while in normal subjects a bimodal reflex modulation pattern was observed. The effects of plantar cutaneous afferents change following a lesion to the spinal cord leading to exaggerated activity in both flexors and extensors. This suggests impaired modulation of the spinal inhibitory mechanisms involved in the reflex modulation. Our findings should be considered in programs aimed to restore sensorimotor function and promote recovery in these patients. NIH, NICHD, Grant no. 1R03 HD 043951-01 and PSC CUNY Research Award no. 67051-0036.

  2. Robot-Assisted Arm Assessments in Spinal Cord Injured Patients: A Consideration of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Albisser, Urs; Rudhe, Claudia; Curt, Armin; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Robotic assistance is increasingly used in neurological rehabilitation for enhanced training. Furthermore, therapy robots have the potential for accurate assessment of motor function in order to diagnose the patient status, to measure therapy progress or to feedback the movement performance to the patient and therapist in real time. We investigated whether a set of robot-based assessments that encompasses kinematic, kinetic and timing metrics is applicable, safe, reliable and comparable to clinical metrics for measurement of arm motor function. Twenty-four healthy subjects and five patients after spinal cord injury underwent robot-based assessments using the exoskeleton robot ARMin. Five different tasks were performed with aid of a visual display. Ten kinematic, kinetic and timing assessment parameters were extracted on joint- and end-effector level (active and passive range of motion, cubic reaching volume, movement time, distance-path ratio, precision, smoothness, reaction time, joint torques and joint stiffness). For cubic volume, joint torques and the range of motion for most joints, good inter- and intra-rater reliability were found whereas precision, movement time, distance-path ratio and smoothness showed weak to moderate reliability. A comparison with clinical scores revealed good correlations between robot-based joint torques and the Manual Muscle Test. Reaction time and distance-path ratio showed good correlation with the “Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension” (GRASSP) and the Van Lieshout Test (VLT) for movements towards a predefined position in the center of the frontal plane. In conclusion, the therapy robot ARMin provides a comprehensive set of assessments that are applicable and safe. The first results with spinal cord injured patients and healthy subjects suggest that the measurements are widely reliable and comparable to clinical scales for arm motor function. The methods applied and results can serve as a

  3. Methodology for MR diffusion tensor imaging of the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Adad, J; Benali, H; Rossignol, S

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the spinal cord is challenging because of the cord's thin structure and the presence of physiological and susceptibility artifacts. To circumvent these issues, we developed a methodology for imaging the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord of cats at 3T using single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging (ss-SE-EPI). The proposed method could potentially be applied to humans since it was developed on a clinical scanner with a standard spine coil. Results provide (i) suggestions for optimal slice orientation and phase encoding direction; (ii) an assessment of the benefits of parallel imaging to reduce geometric distortions; (iii) feasibility of acquiring quality diffusion weighted data in 13 minutes at a resolution of 1.1 mm(3) and (iv) determination of axonal disruption, in two cats with complete spinal cord transection, using tractography.

  4. Respiratory interneurones in the thoracic spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, P A; Munson, J B; Sears, T A; Westgaard, R H

    1988-01-01

    1. The discharges of spontaneously firing neurones, whose activity was modulated in phase with the central respiratory cycle, were recorded in the thoracic ventral horn (T3-T9) of anaesthetized, paralysed cats. 2. Out of 310 neurones, forty-six were positively identified as motoneurones by antidromic activation or spike-triggered averaging, fifty-four were positively identified as interneurones by antidromic activation from other spinal cord segments and ninety were indirectly identified as interneurones by virtue of their positions or firing rates as compared to the motoneurones. 3. Units were classified as inspiratory (64%), expiratory (25%) or post-inspiratory (7%) according to the times of their maximum firing rates. The remaining 4% consisted of units whose discharges were either strongly locked to the respiratory pump cycle or did not fit into the other categories. All but one of the motoneurones were classified as inspiratory or expiratory. 4. Inspiratory and expiratory units were further classified as early, late or tonic according to the starting times of their discharges in the respiratory cycle. The interneurones (both positively and indirectly identified) included more of the early and tonic categories and more fast-firing units than did the motoneurones in both the inspiratory and expiratory groups. 5. The locations of the motoneurones corresponded to the known positions of the intercostal and interchondral motor nuclei, including clear segregation of inspiratory and expiratory populations. The locations of neither the interneurones nor the unidentified units were segregated according to their firing patterns. These neurones were concentrated in the medial half of the ventral horn and were found generally more dorsally than the positions of the motoneurones, though their positions overlapped considerably with this group. 6. The axons of the positively identified interneurones were identified from one to five segments caudally and mostly contralaterally

  5. Respiratory interneurones in the thoracic spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, P A; Munson, J B; Sears, T A; Westgaard, R H

    1988-01-01

    1. The discharges of spontaneously firing neurones, whose activity was modulated in phase with the central respiratory cycle, were recorded in the thoracic ventral horn (T3-T9) of anaesthetized, paralysed cats. 2. Out of 310 neurones, forty-six were positively identified as motoneurones by antidromic activation or spike-triggered averaging, fifty-four were positively identified as interneurones by antidromic activation from other spinal cord segments and ninety were indirectly identified as interneurones by virtue of their positions or firing rates as compared to the motoneurones. 3. Units were classified as inspiratory (64%), expiratory (25%) or post-inspiratory (7%) according to the times of their maximum firing rates. The remaining 4% consisted of units whose discharges were either strongly locked to the respiratory pump cycle or did not fit into the other categories. All but one of the motoneurones were classified as inspiratory or expiratory. 4. Inspiratory and expiratory units were further classified as early, late or tonic according to the starting times of their discharges in the respiratory cycle. The interneurones (both positively and indirectly identified) included more of the early and tonic categories and more fast-firing units than did the motoneurones in both the inspiratory and expiratory groups. 5. The locations of the motoneurones corresponded to the known positions of the intercostal and interchondral motor nuclei, including clear segregation of inspiratory and expiratory populations. The locations of neither the interneurones nor the unidentified units were segregated according to their firing patterns. These neurones were concentrated in the medial half of the ventral horn and were found generally more dorsally than the positions of the motoneurones, though their positions overlapped considerably with this group. 6. The axons of the positively identified interneurones were identified from one to five segments caudally and mostly contralaterally

  6. Long-term use of computerized bicycle ergometry for spinal cord injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Sipski, M L; Alexander, C J; Harris, M

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-eight spinal cord injured subjects who participated in an electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry home program were surveyed to determine perceived benefits, home exercise adherence, and predictors of continued home exercise with electrical stimulation. Subjects were classified as users or nonusers depending upon if they used the electrical stimulation ergometry on a regular basis in the home during the past four months. Nineteen subjects qualified as users and nine were nonusers. Ninety-five percent of the users cycled at least twice per week whereas the majority of the nonusers stopped regular home exercise within one month postclinic discharge. All subjects generally perceived increases in muscle bulk and endurance. Users and nonusers perceived inconsistent results related to spasticity. Minimal effects were noted with neurogenic pain and swelling. Adherence to the home exercise program was significantly related to sex of subject and pre-injury exercise habits. Results are discussed in relation to the costs and benefits of electrical stimulation bicycle ergometry in the home.

  7. Regenerating the injured kidney with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Robbins, Paul D

    2013-04-25

    Transplantation of adult stem cells is being used to facilitate repair or regeneration of damaged or diseased tissues. However, in many cases, the therapeutic effects of the injected stem cells are mediated by factors secreted by stem cells and not by differentiation of the transplanted stem cells. Recent reports have identified a class of microvesicles, termed exosomes, released by stem cells that are able to confer therapeutic effects on injured renal and cardiac tissue. In this issue of Stem Cell Research & Therapy, Zhou and colleagues demonstrate the ability of exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs), but not non-stem cell-derived exosomes, to improve acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rats. The authors demonstrate that hucMSC exosomes can reduce cisplatin-mediated renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo and increase renal epithelial cell proliferation in culture. These results suggest that stem cell-derived exosomes, which are easy to isolate and safer to use than the parental stem cells, could have significant clinical utility.

  8. Benefits of Spine Stabilization with Biodegradable Scaffolds in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nuno A.; Sousa, Rui A.; Fraga, Joana S.; Fontes, Marco; Leite-Almeida, Hugo; Cerqueira, Rui; Almeida, Armando; Sousa, Nuno; Reis, Rui L.

    2013-01-01

    Spine stabilization upon spinal cord injury (SCI) is a standard procedure in clinical practice, but rarely employed in experimental models. Moreover, the application of biodegradable biomaterials for this would come as an advantage as it would eliminate the presence of a nondegradable prosthesis within the vertebral bone. Therefore, in the present work, we propose the use of a new biodegradable device specifically developed for spine stabilization in a rat model of SCI. A 3D scaffold based on a blend of starch with polycaprolactone was implanted, replacing delaminated vertebra, in male Wistar rats with a T8-T9 spinal hemisection. The impact of spinal stabilization on the locomotor behavior was then evaluated for a period of 12 weeks. Locomotor evaluation—assessed by Basso, Beatie, and Bresnahan test; rotarod; and open field analysis—revealed that injured rats subjected to spine stabilization significantly improved their motor performance, including higher coordination and rearing activity when compared with SCI rats without stabilization. Histological analysis further revealed that the presence of the scaffolds not only stabilized the area, but also simultaneously prevented the infiltration of the injury site by connective tissue. Overall, these results reveal that SCI stabilization using a biodegradable scaffold at the vertebral bone level leads to an improvement of the motor deficits and is a relevant element for the successful treatment of SCI. PMID:22779715

  9. Walking with a powered robotic exoskeleton: Subjective experience, spasticity and pain in spinal cord injured persons.

    PubMed

    Stampacchia, Giulia; Rustici, Alessandro; Bigazzi, Samuele; Gerini, Adriana; Tombini, Tullia; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2016-06-27

    Powered robotic exoskeletons represent an emerging technology for the gait training of Spinal Cord Injured (SCI) persons. The analysis of the psychological and physical impact of such technology on the patient is crucial in terms of clinical appropriateness of such rehabilitation intervention for SCI persons. To investigate the acceptability of overground robot-assisted walking and its effect on pain and spasticity. Twenty-one SCI persons participated in a walking session assisted by a powered robotic exoskeleton. Pain assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and muscle spasticity, assessed as subjective perception using an NRS scale and as objective assessment using the Modified Ashworth scale and the Penn scale, were evaluated before and after the walking experience. Positive and negative sensations were investigated using a questionnaire. The patient's global impression of change (PGIC) scale was administrated as well. After the walking session a significant decrease in the muscle spasticity and pain intensity was observed. The SCI persons recruited in this study reported (i) a global change after the walking session, (ii) high scores on the positive and (iii) low scores on the negative sensations, thus indicating a good acceptability of the robot-assisted walking. The overground robot-assisted walking is well accepted by SCI persons and has positive effects in terms of spasticity and pain reduction.

  10. Investigations on spinal cord fMRI of cats under ketamine.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Adad, J; Hoge, R D; Leblond, H; Xie, G; Beaudoin, G; Song, A W; Krueger, G; Doyon, J; Benali, H; Rossignol, S

    2009-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the spinal cord has been the subject of intense research for the last ten years. An important motivation for this technique is its ability to detect non-invasively neuronal activity in the spinal cord related to sensorimotor functions in various conditions, such as after spinal cord lesions. Although promising results of spinal cord fMRI have arisen from previous studies, the poor reproducibility of BOLD activations and their characteristics remain a major drawback. In the present study we investigated the reproducibility of BOLD fMRI in the spinal cord of cats (N=9) by repeating the same stimulation protocol over a long period (approximately 2 h). Cats were anaesthetized with ketamine, and spinal cord activity was induced by electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves of the hind limbs. As a result, task-related signals were detected in most cats with relatively good spatial specificity. However, BOLD response significantly varied within and between cats. This variability was notably attributed to the moderate intensity of the stimulus producing a low amplitude haemodynamic response, variation in end-tidal CO(2) during the session, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in spinal fMRI time series and animal-specific vascular anatomy. Original contributions of the present study are: (i) first spinal fMRI experiment in ketamine-anaesthetized animals, (ii) extensive study of intra- and inter-subject variability of activation, (iii) characterisation of static and temporal SNR in the spinal cord and (iv) investigation on the impact of CO(2) end-tidal level on the amplitude of BOLD response.

  11. Gene Expression Changes in the Injured Spinal Cord Following Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Hernández, Joaquim; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) or olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) have demonstrated beneficial effects after spinal cord injury (SCI), providing tissue protection and improving the functional recovery. However, the changes induced by these cells after their transplantation into the injured spinal cord remain largely unknown. We analyzed the changes in the spinal cord transcriptome after a contusion injury and MSC or OEC transplantation. The cells were injected immediately or 7 days after the injury. The mRNA of the spinal cord injured segment was extracted and analyzed by microarray at 2 and 7 days after cell grafting. The gene profiles were analyzed by clustering and functional enrichment analysis based on the Gene Ontology database. We found that both MSC and OEC transplanted acutely after injury induce an early up-regulation of genes related to tissue protection and regeneration. In contrast, cells transplanted at 7 days after injury down-regulate genes related to tissue regeneration. The most important change after MSC or OEC transplant was a marked increase in expression of genes associated with foreign body response and adaptive immune response. These data suggest a regulatory effect of MSC and OEC transplantation after SCI regarding tissue repair processes, but a fast rejection response to the grafted cells. Our results provide an initial step to determine the mechanisms of action and to optimize cell therapy for SCI. PMID:24146830

  12. Submaximal exercise responses in tetraplegic, paraplegic and non spinal cord injured elite wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Leicht, C A; Bishop, N C; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2012-12-01

    It remains unclear whether similar exercise prescription, based on physiological markers, can be applied to subgroups of wheelchair athletes with different disabilities. Therefore, 25 wheelchair athletes, divided into three subgroups [eight tetraplegic (TETRA), nine paraplegic (PARA) and eight non spinal cord injured (NON-SCI)], performed an exercise test consisting of incremental submaximal stages, covering a range from 40% to 80% peak oxygen uptake (%VO(2peak) ). Oxygen uptake (VO(2)), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained for each stage. Expressed as a function of BLa, no differences were found between subgroups with respect to %VO(2peak) (group mean ± SD: 1.0 mmol/L: 53.9 ± 9.9%; 2.0 mmol/L: 70.7 ± 7.5%; 3.0 mmol/L: 78.5 ± 7.7%) and RPE [group mean (lower and upper quartile): 1.0 mmol/L: 10.8 (9.9, 12.2); 2.0 mmol/L: 13.6 (12.7, 14.3); 3.0 mmol/L: 14.9 (13.7, 16.5)]. Furthermore, no differences were found in the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the HR-VO(2) relationship in any of the subgroups (TETRA: 0.90 ± 0.12; PARA: 0.97 ± 0.02; NON-SCI: 0.96 ± 0.04). These results suggest that exercise prescription using measurements of VO(2), BLa or RPE can be based on the same recommendations in all the subgroups studied. This finding has added value for TETRA athletes, as it offers alternatives to HR monitoring. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Reliability, validity and administrative burden of the community reintegration of injured service members computer adaptive test (CRIS-CAT)”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Computer Adaptive Test version of the Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members measure (CRIS-CAT) consists of three scales measuring Extent of, Perceived Limitations in, and Satisfaction with community integration. The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT. The CRIS-CAT was developed using item response theory methods. The purposes of this study were to assess the reliability, concurrent, known group and predictive validity and respondent burden of the CRIS-CAT. Methods This was a three-part study that included a 1) a cross-sectional field study of 517 homeless, employed, and Operation Enduring Freedom / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans; who completed all items in the CRIS item set, 2) a cohort study with one year follow-up study of 135 OEF/OIF Veterans, and 3) a 50-person study of CRIS-CAT administration. Conditional reliability of simulated CAT scores was calculated from the field study data, and concurrent validity and known group validity were examined using Pearson product correlations and ANOVAs. Data from the cohort were used to examine the ability of the CRIS-CAT to predict key one year outcomes. Data from the CRIS-CAT administration study were used to calculate ICC (2,1) minimum detectable change (MDC), and average number of items used during CAT administration. Results Reliability scores for all scales were above 0.75, but decreased at both ends of the score continuum. CRIS-CAT scores were correlated with concurrent validity indicators and differed significantly between the three Veteran groups (P < .001). The odds of having any Emergency Room visits were reduced for Veterans with better CRIS-CAT scores (Extent, Perceived Satisfaction respectively: OR = 0.94, 0.93, 0.95; P < .05). CRIS-CAT scores were predictive of SF-12 physical and mental

  14. Is hydrocephalus after spinal cord injury really caused by the injured spinal cord? Two case reports and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Chrastina, J; Novák, Z; Feitová, V

    Posttraumatic hydrocephalus caused by cerebrospinal fluid circulation disturbances frequently complicates the clinical course and treatment after craniocerebral injury. Hydrocephalus complicating spinal cord injury is only exceptionally reported. The paper presents two cases of complete cervical spinal cord injury with subsequent development of hydrocephalus. The analysis of both cases and literature data confirmed the dominant role of non-spinal factors in the development of hydrocephalus after spinal cord injury. Despite the exceptional occurrence of hydrocephalus after spinal cord injury, this diagnosis should be considered in cases of delayed deterioration of a patient with cervical spinal cord injury, particularly if cerebrospinal fluid space abnormalities and posttraumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage are present. spinal cord injury hydrocephalus subarachnoid hemorrhage Blakes pouch cyst neuroendoscopy.

  15. Human mesenchymal cells from adipose tissue deposit laminin and promote regeneration of injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Karla; Nascimento, Marcos Assis; Gonçalves, Juliana Pena; Cruz, Aline Silva; Lopes, Daiana Vieira; Curzio, Bianca; Bonamino, Martin; de Menezes, João Ricardo Lacerda; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel Doria; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy to pursue the unmet need for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although several studies have shown that adult mesenchymal cells contribute to improve the outcomes of SCI, a description of the pro-regenerative events triggered by these cells is still lacking. Here we investigated the regenerative properties of human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (hADSCs) in a rat model of spinal cord compression. Cells were delivered directly into the spinal parenchyma immediately after injury. Human ADSCs promoted functional recovery, tissue preservation, and axonal regeneration. Analysis of the cord tissue showed an abundant deposition of laminin of human origin at the lesion site and spinal midline; the appearance of cell clusters composed of neural precursors in the areas of laminin deposition, and the appearance of blood vessels with separated basement membranes along the spinal axis. These effects were also observed after injection of hADSCs into non-injured spinal cord. Considering that laminin is a well-known inducer of axonal growth, as well a component of the extracellular matrix associated to neural progenitors, we propose that it can be the paracrine factor mediating the pro-regenerative effects of hADSCs in spinal cord injury.

  16. Human Mesenchymal Cells from Adipose Tissue Deposit Laminin and Promote Regeneration of Injured Spinal Cord in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Karla; Nascimento, Marcos Assis; Gonçalves, Juliana Pena; Cruz, Aline Silva; Lopes, Daiana Vieira; Curzio, Bianca; Bonamino, Martin; de Menezes, João Ricardo Lacerda; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel Doria; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy to pursue the unmet need for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although several studies have shown that adult mesenchymal cells contribute to improve the outcomes of SCI, a descripton of the pro-regenerative events triggered by these cells is still lacking. Here we investigated the regenerative properties of human adipose tissue derived stromal cells (hADSCs) in a rat model of spinal cord compression. Cells were delivered directly into the spinal parenchyma immediately after injury. Human ADSCs promoted functional recovery, tissue preservation, and axonal regeneration. Analysis of the cord tissue showed an abundant deposition of laminin of human origin at the lesion site and spinal midline; the appearance of cell clusters composed of neural precursors in the areas of laminin deposition, and the appearance of blood vessels with separated basement membranes along the spinal axis. These effects were also observed after injection of hADSCs into non-injured spinal cord. Considering that laminin is a well-known inducer of axonal growth, as well a component of the extracellular matrix associated to neural progenitors, we propose that it can be the paracrine factor mediating the pro-regenerative effects of hADSCs in spinal cord injury. PMID:24830794

  17. Neuroprotective Ferulic Acid (FA)-Glycol Chitosan (GC) Nanoparticles for Functional Restoration of Traumatically Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangbing; Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Park, Kinam; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-01-01

    An urgent unmet need exists for early-stage treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently methylprednisolone is the only therapeutic agent used in clinics, for which the efficacy is controversial and the side effect is well-known. We demonstrated functional restoration of injured spinal cord by self-assembled nanoparticles composed of ferulic acid modified glycol chitosan (FA-GC). Chitosan and ferulic acid are strong neuroprotective agents but their systemic delivery is difficult. Our data has shown a prolonged circulation time of the FA-GC nanoparticles allowing for effective delivery of both chitosan and ferulic acid to the injured site. Furthermore, the nanoparticles were found both in the gray matter and white matter. The in vitro tests demonstrated that nanoparticles protected primary neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Using a spinal cord contusion injury model, significant recovery in locomotor function was observed in rats that were intravenously administered nanoparticles at 2 h post injury, as compared to non-improvement by methylprednisolone administration. Histological analysis revealed that FA-GC treatment significantly preserved axons and myelin and also reduced cavity volume, astrogliosis, and inflammatory response at the lesion site. No obvious adverse effects of nanoparticles to other organs were found. The restorative effect of FA-GC presents a promising potential for treating human SCIs. PMID:24332460

  18. Traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord-injured patients in Quebec, Canada. Part 2: biochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, P; Guertin, P A

    2010-11-01

    Community-based, cross-sectional study. This study aimed at examining and comparing biochemical profiles (blood and urine) of traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord-injured patients (TSCIs vs NTSCIs). The Interval Rehabilitation Center, Trois-Rivieres, Province of Quebec, Canada. Medical records from a cohort of 175 chronic spinal cord-injured patients (94 TSCI and 81 NTSCI individuals) were thoroughly studied. Augmentations over time of red blood cell (erythrocyte), hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were generally found after spinal cord injury (SCI), specifically in NTSCI patients (late vs early chronic). In contrast, although leukocyte levels generally decreased over time after SCI, higher lymphocyte levels were detected only in NTSCI patients (late vs early chronic). Higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), protein and albumin serum levels were generally found over time after SCI, again, specifically in chronic NTSCI patients (late vs early chronic), whereas increased (twofold) nitrite and decreased (twofold) ubilirogen urine levels were found specifically in TSCI individuals (late vs early chronic). Clear differences were reported between subgroups of SCI patients strongly supporting the idea that therapeutic approaches aimed to treat these problems should be specifically designed for each type of patients (that is, NTSCI vs TSCI or early vs late chronic patients).

  19. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xue-man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery. PMID:27212930

  20. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve: viscoelasticity characterization.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xue-Man; Liu, Yan; Wu, Fei; Yuan, Yi; Luo, Min

    2016-04-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 10(6) human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  1. Neuroprotective ferulic acid (FA)-glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles for functional restoration of traumatically injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lee, Seung-Young; Wu, Xiangbing; Tyler, Jacqueline Y; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Park, Kinam; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-02-01

    An urgent unmet need exists for early-stage treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently methylprednisolone is the only therapeutic agent used in clinics, for which the efficacy is controversial and the side effect is well-known. We demonstrated functional restoration of injured spinal cord by self-assembled nanoparticles composed of ferulic acid modified glycol chitosan (FA-GC). Chitosan and ferulic acid are strong neuroprotective agents but their systemic delivery is difficult. Our data has shown a prolonged circulation time of the FA-GC nanoparticles allowing for effective delivery of both chitosan and ferulic acid to the injured site. Furthermore, the nanoparticles were found both in the gray matter and white matter. The in vitro tests demonstrated that nanoparticles protected primary neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Using a spinal cord contusion injury model, significant recovery in locomotor function was observed in rats that were intravenously administered nanoparticles at 2 h post injury, as compared to non-improvement by methylprednisolone administration. Histological analysis revealed that FA-GC treatment significantly preserved axons and myelin and also reduced cavity volume, astrogliosis, and inflammatory response at the lesion site. No obvious adverse effects of nanoparticles to other organs were found. The restorative effect of FA-GC presents a promising potential for treating human SCIs.

  2. Ex vivo expanded human cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells induce lung growth and alveolarization in injured newborn lungs.

    PubMed

    Mao, Quanfu; Chu, Sharon; Ghanta, Sailaja; Padbury, James F; De Paepe, Monique E

    2013-03-23

    We investigated the capacity of expanded cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells to undergo respiratory epithelial differentiation ex vivo, and to engraft and attenuate alveolar disruption in injured newborn murine lungs in vivo. Respiratory epithelial differentiation was studied in CD34+ cells expanded in the presence of growth factors and cytokines ("basic" medium), in one group supplemented with dexamethasone ("DEX"). Expanded or freshly isolated CD34+ cells were inoculated intranasally in newborn mice with apoptosis-induced lung injury. Pulmonary engraftment, lung growth and alveolarization were studied at 8 weeks post-inoculation. SP-C mRNA expression was seen in 2/7 CD34+ cell isolates expanded in basic media and in 6/7 isolates expanded in DEX, associated with cytoplasmic SP-C immunoreactivity and ultrastructural features suggestive of type II cell-like differentiation. Administration of expanding CD34+ cells was associated with increased lung growth and, in animals treated with DEX-exposed cells, enhanced alveolar septation. Freshly isolated CD34+ cells had no effect of lung growth or remodeling. Lungs of animals treated with expanded CD34+ cells contained intraalveolar aggregates of replicating alu-FISH-positive mononuclear cells, whereas epithelial engraftment was extremely rare. Expanded cord blood CD34+ cells can induce lung growth and alveolarization in injured newborn lungs. These growth-promoting effects may be linked to paracrine or immunomodulatory effects of persistent cord blood-derived mononuclear cells, as expanded cells showed limited respiratory epithelial transdifferentiation.

  3. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 92 cats with clinical signs of spinal cord disease.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rita; Platt, Simon R; Llabrés-Díaz, Francisco J; Rogers, Katherine H; de Stefani, Alberta; Matiasek, Lara A; Adams, Vicki J

    2009-02-01

    Medical records of 92 cats presented with clinical signs of spinal cord disease, which had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were reviewed. The cats were grouped into seven categories based upon the diagnosis suggested by results of MRI, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and other diagnostic procedures: neoplastic (n=25), inflammatory or infectious (n=13), traumatic (n=8), vascular (n=6), degenerative (n=5), anomalous (n=3) and those with an unremarkable MRI (n=32). There were two independent predictors of abnormal MRI findings: severity of clinical signs and presence of spinal pain. Abnormal MRI findings and speed of onset of disease were significantly associated with survival. For the 32 cats with unremarkable MRI findings, only nine died due to spinal disease and, therefore, the median survival time (MST) was not reached (lower 95% confidence interval (CI)=970 days). For the 60 cats with abnormal MRI findings, 37 died due to their disease and the MST was 138 days (95% CI: 7-807).

  4. Treadmill training promotes spinal changes leading to locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury in cats.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marina; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Rossignol, Serge

    2013-06-01

    After a spinal hemisection at thoracic level in cats, the paretic hindlimb progressively recovers locomotion without treadmill training but asymmetries between hindlimbs persist for several weeks and can be seen even after a further complete spinal transection at T13. To promote optimal locomotor recovery after hemisection, such asymmetrical changes need to be corrected. In the present study we determined if the locomotor deficits induced by a spinal hemisection can be corrected by locomotor training and, if so, whether the spinal stepping after the complete spinal cord transection is also more symmetrical. This would indicate that locomotor training in the hemisected period induces efficient changes in the spinal cord itself. Sixteen adult cats were first submitted to a spinal hemisection at T10. One group received 3 wk of treadmill training, whereas the second group did not. Detailed kinematic and electromyographic analyses showed that a 3-wk period of locomotor training was sufficient to improve the quality and symmetry of walking of the hindlimbs. Moreover, after the complete spinal lesion was performed, all the trained cats reexpressed bilateral and symmetrical hindlimb locomotion within 24 h. By contrast, the locomotor pattern of the untrained cats remained asymmetrical, and the hindlimb on the side of the hemisection was still deficient. This study highlights the beneficial role of locomotor training in facilitating bilateral and symmetrical functional plastic changes within the spinal circuitry and in promoting locomotor recovery after an incomplete spinal cord injury.

  5. Locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection/contusion injures in bonnet monkeys: footprint testing--a minireview.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Suresh Babu

    2013-07-01

    Spinal cord injuries usually produce loss or impairment of sensory, motor and reflex function below the level of damage. In the absence of functional regeneration or manipulations that promote regeneration, spontaneous improvements in motor functions occur due to the activation of multiple compensatory mechanisms in animals and humans following the partial spinal cord injury. Many studies were performed on quantitative evaluation of locomotor recovery after induced spinal cord injury in animals using behavioral tests and scoring techniques. Although few studies on rodents have led to clinical trials, it would appear imperative to use nonhuman primates such as macaque monkeys in order to relate the research outcomes to recovery of functions in humans. In this review, we will discuss some of our research evidences concerning the degree of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotor functions of bonnet monkeys that underwent spinal cord hemisection/contusion lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to discuss on the extent of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotion of macaque monkeys through the application of footprint analyzing technique. In addition, the results obtained were compared with the published data on recovery of quadrupedal locomotion of spinally injured rodents. We propose that the mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery of functions in spinal cord lesioned monkeys may be correlated to the mature function of spinal pattern generator for locomotion under the impact of residual descending and afferent connections. Moreover, based on analysis of motor functions observed in locomotion in these subjected monkeys, we understand that spinal automatism and development of responses by afferent stimuli from outside the cord could possibly contribute to recovery of paralyzed hindlimbs. This report also emphasizes the functional contribution of progressive strengthening of undamaged nerve fibers through a collateral sprouts/synaptic plasticity formed

  6. Sex differences in the effect of MK-801 on normal and spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Sampedro, M; Bailón, C; Rivas, F; Moreno, M T

    1991-01-01

    The induction of functional paraplegia in female rats by contusive spinal cord injury was not prevented by compound MK-801. However, the treatment reduced cavitation around the lesion epicenter to 14 mm3 compared to 17 mm3 in untreated controls t-test, P < 0.28) and conserved more neurons in defined regions outside the lesion epicenter (drug-treated animals vs untreated controls: 299 vs 73 neurons/mm2; t-test, P < 0.009). Thus, although MK-801 was only partially effective in preventing neuronal death secondary to contusion injury it appeared to have a definite neuroprotective effect. In view of the variety of side effects of MK-801 and the controversy on the mechanism of neuroprotection, we examined the action of the drug on non-injured animals. The effects of the drug were strongly sex-dependent. One hour after subcutaneous injection (0.5 mg/kg), female rats were hypothermic (36.8 °C treated vs 38.3 °C control) whereas male rats were hyperthermic (39.6 °C treated vs 38.4 °C control). In females, MK-801 caused cessation of cycling and appearance of numerous polymorphonuclear (PMN) phagocytes in vaginal frotis. Also, beginning 24 h after MK-801 injection, the proportion of PMN increased 400% in female blood, whereas males maintained control values. Arthritis-like joint inflammation was prominent in the toes of female rats, but males were unaffected. After continued treatment with the drug for 15 days, PMN count in female rats decreased and the animals resumed cycling. However, during this period female rats lost 20% of their weight, whereas males gained 26%. One hour after MK-801 injection large increases in blood pressure occurred in both sexes, returning to normal values 2 h later. Hypothermia does not appear to be a factor in the neuroprotective effect of MK-801, but the drug has a number of potentially dangerous side effects, particularly in female rats. Because polymorphonuclear cells are known sources of oxygen free radicals, neuroprotection by MK-801

  7. Cortical connectivity patterns during imagination of limb movements in normal subjects and in a spinal cord injured patient.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Laura; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Mattiocco, Marco; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Ursino, Mauro; Zavaglia, Melissa; Gao, Shangkai; Wei, Wu; Babiloni, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the definition and evaluation of brain connectivity has become a central one in neuroscience during the latest years, as a way to understand the organization and interaction of cortical areas during the execution of cognitive or motor tasks. In this paper we propose the use of the DTF method on cortical signals estimated from high resolution EEG recordings. An application of the proposed technique to the estimation of cortical connectivity pattern in normal subjects and in one spinal cord injured patient is also provided.

  8. Quantitative analysis by in vivo imaging of the dynamics of vascular and axonal networks in injured mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Dray, Cyril; Rougon, Geneviève; Debarbieux, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous repair capacity of spinal cord is pivotal to develop strategies to improve it. Here we design a paradigm of spinal cord lesion in the dorsal column using a 2-photon microscopy technique to dynamically and chronically monitor simultaneous changes of vascular and axonal networks in living mice up to 4 months postinjury. High-resolution images showed that early explorative sprouting of surviving injured axons resulted in extensive regrowth until and past the lesion site within 2 months. Blood vessel density was transiently up-regulated and most neurovascular interactions occurred within 2 weeks. Time-lapse analysis showed that neovessels exerted a potent growth stimulating action, but no guidance effect on neighboring sprouts, possibly because of their geometry and plasticity. Nevertheless, if reconnection depends on axon sprout density, stimulation of angiogenesis would probably be beneficial to repair. More generally, this imaging approach is showing promise to aid in monitoring brain diseases and the efficacy of potential treatments. PMID:19470644

  9. The effects of different rehabilitation strategies on the functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Al Jadid, Maher Saad Ibrahim; Bin Afif, Sabah; Al Sowyed, Abdullah Abdulmohsen; Al-Mubarak, Sultan

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study. To investigate the effects of different rehabilitation strategies on functional recovery of partial spinal cord of injured rats. Activity-based rehabilitation is promising strategy for improving functional recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 to 220 g were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (450 mg kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection, and laminectomy was performed at T7-T8 level, leaving the dura intact. A compression plate (2.2 × 5.0 mm) loaded with weight of 35 g was placed on the exposed cord for 5 minutes to create partial SCI. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 8 rats each. Group 1 served as control (SCI + without treadmill and swimming training). Whereas rats in Groups 2 and 3 were subjected to SCI as mentioned previously and received swimming training 5 minutes for Group 2 and treadmill training 5 minutes for Group 3 each day, which occurred beginning 14 days postsurgery and continued for 14 days. The spontaneous coordinate activity (SCA), Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB), and Tarlov locomotor scores were used to assess functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. Day 1 (baseline, 14 days after the surgery), there was no significant difference among the means for SCA, BBB, and Tarlov scores of all groups. After day 1, Groups 1, 2, and 3 showed continuous improvement in their BBB, Tarlov, and SCA scores. This improvement was maintained throughout the duration of the study with different levels for each group. By the end of the study, trained Groups 2 and 3 showed statistically significant improvement in their SCA, BBB, and Tarlov scores compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that 2 weeks of treadmill locomotor training and swimming training may have positive effects on functional recovery after partial SCI.

  10. Evaluation of Injured Axons Using Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence Microscopy after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in YFP-H Line Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Hideki; Oshima, Yusuke; Ogata, Tadanori; Morino, Tadao; Matsuda, Seiji; Miura, Hiromasa; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of degeneration of injured axons is important for the development of therapeutic modules for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. The aim of this study was to establish a method for time-lapse observation of injured axons in living animals after spinal cord contusion injury. YFP (yellow fluorescent protein)-H transgenic mice, which we used in this study, express fluorescence in their nerve fibers. Contusion damage to the spinal cord at the 11th vertebra was performed by IH (Infinite Horizon) impactor, which applied a pressure of 50 kdyn. The damaged spinal cords were re-exposed during the observation period under anesthesia, and then observed by two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy, which can observe deep regions of tissues including spinal cord axons. No significant morphological change of injured axons was observed immediately after injury. Three days after injury, the number of axons decreased, and residual axons were fragmented. Seven days after injury, only fragments were present in the damaged tissue. No hind-limb movement was observed during the observation period after injury. Despite the immediate paresis of hind-limbs following the contusion injury, the morphological degeneration of injured axons was delayed. This method may help clarification of pathophysiology of axon degeneration and development of therapeutic modules for the treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26184175

  11. Inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Restores Cultured Spinal Cord-Injured Neuronal Migration, Adhesion, and Dendritic Spine Development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongdong; Cao, Fujiang; Sun, Shiwei; Liu, Tao; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-08-01

    The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway plays an important role in central and peripheral neurons in functions such as dendritic arborization, neuronal polarity, and axon assembly. However, emerging evidence also shows that up-regulation of this signaling pathway may lead to the development of spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibition on properties of spinal cord-injured neurons. First, neurons from spinal cord-injured C57BL/6 J mouse pups and sham-operated C57BL/6 J mouse pups were harvested. Then, immunofluorescence, western blotting, cell adhesion and cell migration assays, and DiI labeling were employed to investigate the effect of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibition on spinal cord-injured neurons. Immunofluorescence results of synapse formation indicated that the experimental spinal cord injury model was successfully established. Western blot results identified upregulated Erk phosphorylation in the spinal cord-injured neurons, and also showed that U0126 inhibited phosphorylation of Erk, which is a downstream kinase in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Additionally, cell migration and adhesion was significantly increased in the spinal cord-injured neurons. DiI labeling results also showed an increased formation of mature spines after inhibition of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling. Taken together, these results suggested that the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway could serve as an effective treatment target for spinal cord injury.

  12. Identification of common interneurons mediating pre- and postsynaptic inhibition in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1984-06-29

    The spike-triggered averaging of dorsal and ventral root potentials permits the identification of two populations of interneurons in the intermediate nucleus of the cat spinal cord. One produced negative dorsal root potentials and inhibitory ventral root potentials, in some cases with monosynaptic latencies, suggesting that they mediate presynaptic inhibition of group I afferent fibers from muscles and postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons. The other population mediated only nonreciprocal postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons.

  13. Partial lateral corpectomy for ventral extradural thoracic spinal cord compression in a cat.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Peter; Flegel, Thomas; Böttcher, Irene C; Grevel, Vera; Oechtering, Gerhard

    2008-07-01

    A 7-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair cat was presented for ambulatory paraparesis. No trauma history was reported. Myelography and subsequent computed tomography revealed multiple ventrally located extradural spinal cord compressive lesions possibly due to intervertebral disc disease. Compression at the level of Th3-Th4 intervertebral disc space was considered responsible for the paraparesis. The lesion was approached via a right-sided lateral partial corpectomy as described for dogs. Complete spinal decompression was achieved, as documented intraoperatively by visual inspection and palpation of the spinal canal. No surgery related complications were encountered and the cat improved gradually within 8 weeks after the procedure. At 1 year follow-up only a slight proprioceptive deficit in the right hind limb could be noted. This is the first report of partial lateral corpectomy in a cat and should encourage the use of this technique even in small patients.

  14. The experience of being a partner to a spinal cord injured person: A phenomenological-hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative focuses on the personal experiences of partners to a spinal cord injured person. Using a Ricoeurian phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, we analysed seven partners’ narratives 1 and 2 years after their partner's injury. The study revealed how the injury was experienced from the partners’ perspective through the aftermath. In the acute phase after the injury, partners also felt harmed, and support was needed in relation to their own daily activities, eating, resting, and managing distress. During the institutionalized rehabilitation, partners felt torn between supporting the injured partner and the demanding tasks of everyday life outside the institution. After discharge, partners struggled for the injured partner to regain a well-functioning everyday life and for reestablishing life as a couple. The partner struggled to manage the overwhelming amount of everyday tasks. Some sought to reestablish their usual functions outside the family, whereas others focused on establishing a new life together. The partners experienced much distress and appreciated the support they got, but felt that they were mainly left to manage the difficult process on their own. PMID:22007262

  15. Functional and structural recovery of the injured spinal cord in rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Jiménez-Hernández, Violeta; Ruiz-Ornelas, Jannet; Jiménez, Ismael; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have extra-pituitary roles, including neurotrophic effects. This study was to evaluate the effects of GnRH treatment on the spinal cord injury (SCI) of rats. Ovariectomized rats were divided into: sham SCI surgery (Sham), SCI treated with saline solution (SCI + SS), and SCI treated with GnRH (SCI + GnRH). The SCI was induced by compression. One day after the lesion, SCI + GnRH group was injected with GnRH (60 µg/kg/twice/day; i.m.) for 15 days and the other groups with saline solution. To kinematic gait analysis, length and velocity of the stride were measured. In spinal cord, axonal morphometry and spared white and gray matter were analyzed by histochemistry. Protein expression of spinophilin was evaluated by western blot. The results showed that, 5 weeks after the injury, the group of animals treated with GnRH, significantly increased the length and velocity of the stride compared to SCI + SS group and they were similar to Sham group. In spinal cord, GnRH treatment increased the number and caliber of nerve axons and in the case of white matter, spared tissue was significantly higher than those animals treated with saline solution. The expression of spinophilin in spinal cord of SCI + GnRH group was slightly increased with respect to those not treated. In conclusion, GnRH treatment improves recovery of gait and decreases histopathological damage in the injured spinal cord of rat. These findings suggest that GnRH acts as a neurotrophic factor and can be used as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of SCI.

  16. Transplantation of embryonic spinal cord neurons to the injured distal nerve promotes axonal regeneration after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Fang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chaofan; Li, Wen; Wong, Wai Man; Xu, Yejun; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jianhua

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) usually results in poor functional recovery. Nerve repair is the common clinical treatment for PNI but is always obstructed by the chronic degeneration of the distal stump and muscle. Cell transplantation can alleviate the muscle atrophy after PNI, but the subsequent recovery of the locomotive function is seldom described. In this study, we combined cell transplantation and nerve repair to investigate whether the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord cells could benefit the delayed nerve repair. The experiment consisted of 3 stages: transection of the tibial nerve to induce 'pre-degeneration', a second surgery performed 2 weeks later for transplantation of E14 embryonic spinal cord cells or vehicle (culture medium) at the distal end of the injured nerve, and, 3 months later, the removal of the grafted cells and the cross-suturing of the residual distal end to the proximal end of a freshly cut ipsilateral common peroneal (CP) nerve. Cell survival and fate after the transplantation were investigated, and the functional recovery after the cross-suturing was compared between the groups. The grafted cells could survive and generate motor neurons, extending axons that were subsequently myelinated and forming synapses with the muscle. After the cross-suturing, the axonal regeneration from the proximal stump of the injured CP nerve and the functional recovery of the denervated gastrocnemius muscle were significantly promoted in the group receiving the cells. Our study presents a new perspective indicating that the transplantation of embryonic spinal cord neurons may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for PNI.

  17. Deficiency in matrix metalloproteinase-2 results in long-term vascular instability and regression in the injured mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Alpa; Zhang, Haoqian; Ekeledo, Adanma; Lee, Sangmi; Werb, Zena; Plant, Giles W.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in wound healing after spinal cord injury. Therefore, understanding the events that regulate angiogenesis has considerable relevance from a therapeutic standpoint. We evaluated the contribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 to angiogenesis and vascular stability in spinal cord injured MMP-2 knockout and wildtype (WT) littermates. While MMP-2 deficiency resulted in reduced endothelial cell division within the lesioned epicenter, there were no genotypic differences in vascularity (vascular density, vascular area, and endothelial cell number) over the first two weeks post-injury. However, by 21 days post-injury MMP-2 deficiency resulted in a sharp decline in vascularity, indicative of vascular regression. Complementary in vitro studies of brain capillary endothelial cells confirmed MMP-2 dependent proliferation and tube formation. As deficiency in MMP-2 led to prolonged MMP-9 expression in the injured spinal cord, we examined both short-term and long-term exposure to MMP-9 in vitro. While MMP-9 supported endothelial tube formation and proliferation, prolonged exposure resulted in loss of tubes, findings consistent with vascular regression. Vascular instability is frequently associated with pericyte dissociation and precedes vascular regression. Quantification of PDGFrβ+pericyte coverage of mature vessels within the glial scar (the reactive gliosis zone), a known source of MMP-9, revealed reduced coverage in MMP-2 deficient animals. These findings suggest that acting in the absence of MMP-2, MMP-9 transiently supports angiogenesis during the early phase of wound healing while its prolonged expression leads to vascular instability and regression. These findings should be considered while developing therapeutic interventions that block MMPs. PMID:27468657

  18. Effects of magnetic nanoparticle-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields on injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunjin; Choi, Yun-Kyong; Lee, Dong Heon; Park, Hee Jung; Seo, Young-Kwon; Jung, Hyun; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, Sung-Min; Park, Jung-Keug

    2013-01-01

    Transplanting mesenchymal stem cells into injured lesions is currently under study as a therapeutic approach for spinal cord injury. In this study, the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on injured rat spinal cord were investigated in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-incorporated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). A histological analysis revealed significant differences in MNP-incorporated cell distribution near the injured site under the PEMF in comparison with that in the control group. We confirmed that MNP-incorporated cells were widely distributed in the lesions under PEMF. The results suggest that MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs were guided by the PEMF near the injured site, and that PEMF exposure for 8 H per day over 4 weeks promoted behavioral recovery in spinal cord injured rats. The results show that rats with MNP-incorporated hBM-MSCs under a PEMF were more effective on the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan behavioral test and suggest that the PEMF enhanced the action of transplanted cells for recovery of the injured lesion.

  19. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs—from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns—specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients. PMID:24910602

  20. Preclinical evidence supporting the clinical development of central pattern generator-modulating therapies for chronic spinal cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Pierre A

    2014-01-01

    Ambulation or walking is one of the main gaits of locomotion. In terrestrial animals, it may be defined as a series of rhythmic and bilaterally coordinated movement of the limbs which creates a forward movement of the body. This applies regardless of the number of limbs-from arthropods with six or more limbs to bipedal primates. These fundamental similarities among species may explain why comparable neural systems and cellular properties have been found, thus far, to control in similar ways locomotor rhythm generation in most animal models. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the known structural and functional features associated with central nervous system (CNS) networks that are involved in the control of ambulation and other stereotyped motor patterns-specifically Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) that produce basic rhythmic patterned outputs for locomotion, micturition, ejaculation, and defecation. Although there is compelling evidence of their existence in humans, CPGs have been most studied in reduced models including in vitro isolated preparations, genetically-engineered mice and spinal cord-transected animals. Compared with other structures of the CNS, the spinal cord is generally considered as being well-preserved phylogenetically. As such, most animal models of spinal cord-injured (SCI) should be considered as valuable tools for the development of novel pharmacological strategies aimed at modulating spinal activity and restoring corresponding functions in chronic SCI patients.

  1. Folic Acid Modulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression, Alleviates Neuropathic Pain, and Improves Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranpuri, Gurwattan S.; Meethal, Sivan Vadakkadath; Sampene, Emmanuel; Chopra, Abhishek; Buttar, Seah; Nacht, Carrie; Moreno, Neydis; Patel, Kush; Liu, Lisa; Singh, Anupama; Singh, Chandra K.; Hariharan, Nithya; Iskandar, Bermans; Resnick, Daniel K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation. Purpose Based on above observations, in this study, we test whether FA could decrease MMP2 expression and thereby decrease SCI-induced NP. Methods Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 250–270 g received contusion spinal cord injuries (cSCIs) with a custom spinal cord impactor device that drops a 10 g weight from a height of 12.5 mm. The injured rats received either i.p. injections of FA (80 µg/kg) or water (control) 3 days prior and 17 days post-cSCI (mid phase) or for 3 days pre-cSCI and 14 days post-cSCI ending on the 42nd day of cSCI (late phase). The functional neurological deficits due to cSCI were then assessed by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scores either on post-impaction days 0 through 18 post-cSCI (mid phase) or on days 0, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 (late phase). Baseline measurements were taken the day before starting treatments. Thermal hyperalgesia (TH) testing for pain was performed on 4 days pre-cSCI (baseline data) and on days 18, 21, 28, 35, and 42 post-cSCI. Following TH testing, animals were euthanized and spinal cords harvested for MMP-2 expression analysis. Result The FA-treated groups showed higher BBB scores during mid phase (day 18) and in late phase (day 42) of injury compared to controls, suggesting enhanced functional recovery. There is a transient decline in TH in animals from the FA-treated group compared to controls when tested on days 18, 21, 28, and 35

  2. Electrical neuromodulation of the cervical spinal cord facilitates forelimb skilled function recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Monzurul; Garcia-Alias, Guillermo; Jin, Benita; Keyes, Jonathan; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Gerasimenko, Yury; Lu, Daniel C; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2017-05-01

    Enabling motor control by epidural electrical stimulation of the spinal cord is a promising therapeutic technique for the recovery of motor function after a spinal cord injury (SCI). Although epidural electrical stimulation has resulted in improvement in hindlimb motor function, it is unknown whether it has any therapeutic benefit for improving forelimb fine motor function after a cervical SCI. We tested whether trains of pulses delivered at spinal cord segments C6 and C8 would facilitate the recovery of forelimb fine motor control after a cervical SCI in rats. Rats were trained to reach and grasp sugar pellets. Immediately after a dorsal funiculus crush at C4, the rats showed significant deficits in forelimb fine motor control. The rats were tested to reach and grasp with and without cervical epidural stimulation for 10weeks post-injury. To determine the best stimulation parameters to activate the cervical spinal networks involved in forelimb motor function, monopolar and bipolar currents were delivered at varying frequencies (20, 40, and 60Hz) concomitant with the reaching and grasping task. We found that cervical epidural stimulation increased reaching and grasping success rates compared to the no stimulation condition. Bipolar stimulation (C6- C8+ and C6+ C8-) produced the largest spinal motor-evoked potentials (sMEPs) and resulted in higher reaching and grasping success rates compared with monopolar stimulation (C6- Ref+ and C8- Ref+). Forelimb performance was similar when tested at stimulation frequencies of 20, 40, and 60Hz. We also found that the EMG activity in most forelimb muscles as well as the co-activation between flexor and extensor muscles increased post-injury. With epidural stimulation, however, this trend was reversed indicating that cervical epidural spinal cord stimulation has therapeutic potential for rehabilitation after a cervical SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of urinary catheters with silver alloy coating in spinal cord injured patients: trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with non-acute spinal cord injury that carry indwelling urinary catheters have an increased risk of urinary tract infection (UTIs). Antiseptic Silver Alloy-Coated Silicone Urinary Catheters seems to be a promising intervention to reduce UTIs; however, actual evidence cannot be extrapolated to spinal cord injured patients. The aim of this trial is to make a comparison between the use of antiseptic silver alloy-coated silicone urinary catheters and the use of standard urinary catheters in spinal cord injured patients to prevent UTIs. Methods/Design The study will consist in an open, randomized, multicentre, and parallel clinical trial with blinded assessment. The study will include 742 spinal cord injured patients who require at least seven days of urethral catheterization as a method of bladder voiding. Participants will be online centrally randomized and allocated to one of the two study arms (silver alloy-coated or standard catheters). Catheters will be used for a maximum period of 30 days or removed earlier if the clinician considers it necessary. The main outcome will be the incidence of UTIs by the time of catheter removal or at day 30 after catheterization, the event that occurs first. Intention-to-treat analysis will be performed, as well as a primary analysis of all patients. Discussion The aim of this study is to assess whether silver alloy-coated silicone urinary catheters improve ITUs in spinal cord injured patients. ESCALE is intended to be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of the silver alloy-coated catheters in spinal cord injured patients. Trial registration NCT01803919 PMID:23895463

  4. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury. PMID:26807118

  5. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5(th) week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1(st) week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury.

  6. Ladder Treadmill: A Method to Assess Locomotion in Cats with an Intact or Lesioned Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Manuel; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Kundu, Aritra; Gossard, Jean-Pierre; Rossignol, Serge

    2017-05-31

    After lesions of the CNS, locomotor abilities of animals (mainly cats) are often assessed on a simple flat treadmill (FTM), which imposes little demands on supraspinal structures as is the case when walking on targets. Therefore, the aims of the present work were as follows: (1) to develop a treadmill allowing the assessment of locomotion of intact cats required to place the paws on the rungs of a moving ladder treadmill (LTM); (2) to assess the capability of cats after a unilateral spinal hemisection at T10 to cope with such a demanding locomotor task; and (3) to regularly train cats for 6 weeks on the LTM to determine whether such regular training improves locomotor recovery on the FTM. A significant improvement would indicate that LTM training maximizes the contribution of spinal locomotor circuits as well as remnant supraspinal inputs. Together, we used 9 cats (7 females, 2 males). Six were used to compare the EMG and kinematic locomotor characteristics during walking on the FTM and LTM. We found that the swing phase during LTM walking was slightly enhanced as well as some specific activity of knee flexor muscles. Fore-hindlimb coupling favored a more stable diagonal coupling. These 6 cats were then hemispinalized and trained for 6 weeks on the LTM, whereas the 3 other cats were hemispinalized and trained solely on the FTM to compare the two training regimens. Intensive LTM training after hemisection was found to change features of locomotion, such as the foot trajectory as well as diminished paw drag often observed after hemisection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper introduces a method (ladder treadmill [LTM]) to study the locomotor ability of cats with an intact spinal cord or after a unilateral hemisection to walk with a precise foot placement on the rungs fixed to an ordinary flat treadmill (FTM). Because cats are compared in various conditions (intact or hemisected at different time points) in the same enclosure on the FTM and the LTM, the changes in

  7. Comparison of the effects of electrical field stimulation and low-level laser therapy on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats.

    PubMed

    Medalha, Carla Christina; Amorim, Beatriz Oliveira; Ferreira, Jéssica Mayra; Oliveira, Poliane; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Tim, Carla; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; da Silva, Orivaldo Lopes; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and electrical stimulation (ES) on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats. Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard control group (CG); spinal cord-injured control (SC); spinal cord-injured treated with laser (SCL; GaAlAs, 830 nm, CW, 30 mW/cm, 250 J/cm(2)); and spinal cord-injured treated with electrical field stimulation (SCE; 1.5 MHz, 1:4 duty cycles, 30 mW, 20 min). Biomechanical, densitometric, and morphometric analyses were performed. SC rats showed a significant decrease in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and morphometric parameters (versus CG). SCE rats showed significantly higher values of inner diameter and internal and external areas of tibia diaphyses; and the SCL group showed a trend toward the same result (versus SC). No increase was found in either mechanical or densitometric parameters. We conclude that the mentioned treatments were able to initiate a positive bone-tissue response, maybe through stimulation of osteoblasts, which was able to determine the observed morphometric modifications. However, the evoked tissue response could not determine either biomechanical or densitometric modifications.

  8. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, free cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin responses following oral glucose challenge in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied men.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Jones, L M; Legge, M; Elder, P A

    2010-11-01

    Circulating cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured retrospectively in plasma samples following the oral glucose tolerance test in 20 spinal cord-injured men and 20 able-bodied controls. Plasma-free cortisol responses attenuated more rapidly in the able-bodied men, compared to spinal cord-injured subjects, due to significant rise in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin whereas changes in total plasma cortisol were similar in both groups. The changes in plasma-free cortisol in both groups paralleled changes in insulin and glucose and show that spinal cord-injured men had heightened exposure to free cortisol during this dynamic test. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of abdominal obesity and the propensity towards insulin resistance in spinal cord-injured men could be subtly mediated by perturbations in free cortisol. There were no significant changes in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin in either group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Clinical experience with functional electrical stimulation-assisted gait with Parastep in spinal cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Brissot, R; Gallien, P; Le Bot, M P; Beaubras, A; Laisné, D; Beillot, J; Dassonville, J

    2000-02-15

    Clinical evaluation of the Parastep method, a six-channel transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation device, in spinal cord-injured patients. To investigate the motor performances of this new technique regarding energy expenditure and to evaluate its advantages and limitations, especially in social activities involving ambulation. This study was conducted in 15 thoracic spine-injured patients. The lesion was complete except in two patients. The gait ability and the functional use were judged clinically. Energy cost was evaluated from heart rate, peak oxygen uptake, and lactatemia. Thirteen patients completed the training (mean: 20 sessions) and achieved independent ambulation with a walker. The mean walking distance, without rest, was 52.8 +/- 69 m, and the mean speed was 0.15 +/- 0.14 m/sec. One patient with incomplete lesion, who had been nonambulatory for 8 months after the injury, became able to walk without functional electrical stimulation after five sessions. The follow-up was 40 +/- 11 months. Five patients pursued using functional electrical stimulation-assisted gait as a means of physical exercise but not for ambulation in social activities. The patients experienced marked psychological benefits, with positive changes in their way of life. In three subjects, a comparison of physiologic responses to exercise between a progressive arm ergometer test and a walking test with the Parastep (Sigmedics, Inc., Northfield, IL) at a speed of 0.1 m/sec was performed, showing that the heart rate, the peak oxygen uptake, and lactatemia during gait were close to those obtained at the end of the maximal test on the ergometer. In spite of its ease of operation and good cosmetic acceptance, the Parastep approach has very limited applications for mobility in daily life, because of its modest performance associated with high metabolic cost and cardiovascular strain. However, it can be proposed as a resource to keep physical and psychological fitness in patients with

  10. Dynamic feet distance: A new functional assessment during treadmill locomotion in normal and thoracic spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Costa, Luís Maltez da; Pereira, José Eduardo; Filipe, Vítor; Couto, Pedro Alexandre; Magalhães, Luís G; Geuna, Stefano; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo A; Maurício, Ana Colette; Varejão, Artur Severo

    2017-09-29

    Of all the detrimental effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), one of the most devastating is the disruption of the ability to perform functional movement. Very little is known on the recovery of hindlimb joint kinematics after clinically-relevant contusive thoracic lesion in experimental animal models. A new functional assessment instrument, the dynamic feet distance (DFD) was used to describe the distance between the two feet throughout the gait cycle in normal and affected rodents. The purpose of this investigation was the evaluation and characterization of the DFD during treadmill locomotion in normal and T9 contusion injured rats, using three-dimensional (3D) instrumented gait analysis. Despite that normal and injured rats showed a similar pattern in the fifth metatarsal head joints distance excursion, we found a significantly wider distance between the feet during the entire gait cycle following spinal injury. This is the first study to quantify the distance between the two feet, throughout the gait cycle, and the biomechanical adjustments made between limbs in laboratory rodents after nervous system injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  12. Salvianolic acid B protects the myelin sheath around injured spinal cord axons

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhe; Ding, Lu; Qiu, Wen-feng; Wu, Hong-fu; Li, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B, an active pharmaceutical compound present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, exerts a neuroprotective effect in animal models of brain and spinal cord injury. Salvianolic acid B can promote recovery of neurological function; however, its protective effect on the myelin sheath after spinal cord injury remains poorly understood. Thus, in this study, in vitro tests showed that salvianolic acid B contributed to oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation, and the most effective dose was 20 μg/mL. For in vivo investigation, rats with spinal cord injury were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg salvianolic acid B for 8 weeks. The amount of myelin sheath and the number of regenerating axons increased, neurological function recovered, and caspase-3 expression was decreased in the spinal cord of salvianolic acid B-treated animals compared with untreated control rats. These results indicate that salvianolic acid B can protect axons and the myelin sheath, and can promote the recovery of neurological function. Its mechanism of action is likely to be associated with inhibiting apoptosis and promoting the differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. PMID:27127491

  13. Salvianolic acid B protects the myelin sheath around injured spinal cord axons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Ding, Lu; Qiu, Wen-Feng; Wu, Hong-Fu; Li, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Salvianolic acid B, an active pharmaceutical compound present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, exerts a neuroprotective effect in animal models of brain and spinal cord injury. Salvianolic acid B can promote recovery of neurological function; however, its protective effect on the myelin sheath after spinal cord injury remains poorly understood. Thus, in this study, in vitro tests showed that salvianolic acid B contributed to oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation, and the most effective dose was 20 μg/mL. For in vivo investigation, rats with spinal cord injury were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg salvianolic acid B for 8 weeks. The amount of myelin sheath and the number of regenerating axons increased, neurological function recovered, and caspase-3 expression was decreased in the spinal cord of salvianolic acid B-treated animals compared with untreated control rats. These results indicate that salvianolic acid B can protect axons and the myelin sheath, and can promote the recovery of neurological function. Its mechanism of action is likely to be associated with inhibiting apoptosis and promoting the differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

  14. Using Mixed Methods to Build Research Capacity within the Spinal Cord Injured Population of New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Martin; Derrett, Sarah; Paul, Charlotte; Beaver, Carolyn; Stace, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a 4-year longitudinal study of all people admitted to the two New Zealand spinal units commenced. It aims to (a) explore interrelationship(s) of body, self, and society for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and (b) investigate how entitlement to rehabilitation and compensation through New Zealand's Accident Compensation Corporation…

  15. Spinal cord collaterals from axons of type II slowly adapting units in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A G; Fyffe, R E; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1981-01-01

    1. The morphology of single axons, and their collaterals, of Type II slowly adapting mechanoreceptors situated at the claw bases was studied. Intra-axonal injections of horseradish peroxidase were made into the axons near their entrance to the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry. 2. Nine Type II axons were stained. All but one bifurcated into ascending and descending branches upon entering the cord. Eighty-nine collaterals arose from the axons at a mean spacing of about 570 micrometers. 3. The collaterals formed plate-like arborizations usually about 500-600 micrometers wide in the transverse plane but only 100-300 micrometers thick in the longitudinal axis of the cord. The terminal arborizations were in laminae III-VI. 4. Synaptic boutons in laminae III and IV were more numerous than in laminae V and VI. Boutons en passant were common in laminae III and IV and arranged in series of three to six, whereas in deeper laminae only two or three boutons formed a series de passage. 5. The morphology of the slowly adapting Type II collateral is discussed. 6. Some general principles of the organization of cutaneous afferent fibres in the lumbosacral cord are presented. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:7320876

  16. Ameliorative Effects of p75NTR-ED-Fc on Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Tang; Lu, Xiu-Min; Zhu, Feng; Huang, Peng; Yu, Ying; Long, Zai-Yun; Wu, Ya-Min

    2015-12-01

    As a co-receptor of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and a critical receptor for paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PirB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) mediates the inhibitory effects of myelin-associated inhibitors on axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Therefore, the p75NTR antagonist, such as recombinant p75NTR protein or its homogenates may block the inhibitory effects of myelin and promote the axonal regeneration and functional recovery. The purposes of this study are to subclone and express the extracellular domain gene of human p75NTR with IgG-Fc (hp75NTR-ED-Fc) in prokaryotic expression system and investigate the effects of the recombinant protein on axonal regeneration and functional recovery in spinal cord-injured rats. The hp75NTR-ED-Fc coding sequence was amplified from pcDNA-hp75NTR-ED-Fc by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into vector pET32a (+), then the effects of the purified recombinant protein on neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons cultured with myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) were determined, and the effects of the fusion protein on axonal regeneration, functional recovery, and its possible mechanisms in spinal cord-injured rats were further investigated. The results indicated that the purified infusion protein could promote neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons, promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and decrease RhoA activation in spinal cord-injured rats. Taken together, the findings revealed that p75NTR still may be a potential and novel target for therapeutic intervention for spinal cord injury and that the hp75NTR-ED-Fc fusion protein treatment enhances functional recovery by limiting tissue loss and stimulating axonal growth in spinal cord-injured rats, which may result from decreasing the activation of RhoA.

  17. Evidence for greater burden of peripheral arterial disease in lower extremity arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey W; Chen, David; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C

    2011-09-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and results in greater risk of death. Subclinical markers of atherosclerosis have been reported in carotid arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI), but the development of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been investigated in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spinal cord injury on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of upper-body and lower-extremity arteries. We hypothesized that the aforementioned measures of lower-extremity PAD would be worsened in SCI compared with controls and that regular participation in endurance exercise would improve these in both groups. To test these hypotheses, ABI and IMT were determined in 105 SCI and compared with 156 able-bodied controls with groups further subdivided into physically active and sedentary. ABIs were significantly lower in SCI versus controls (0.96 ± 0.12 vs. 1.06 ± 0.07, P < 0.001), indicating a greater burden of lower-extremity PAD. Upper-body IMTs were similar for brachial and carotid arteries in controls versus SCI. Lower extremity IMTs revealed similar thicknesses for both superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, but when normalized for artery diameter, individuals with SCI had greater IMT than controls in the superficial femoral (0.094 ± 0.03 vs. 0.073 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) and popliteal (0.117 ± 0.04 vs. 0.091 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) arteries. The ABI and normalized IMT of SCI compared with controls indicate that subclinical measures of lower-extremity PAD are worsened in individuals with SCI. These findings should prompt physicians to consider using the ABI as a screening method to detect lower-extremity PAD in SCI.

  18. Evidence for greater burden of peripheral arterial disease in lower extremity arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jeffrey W.; Chen, David; Bahls, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury leads to increased risk for cardiovascular disease and results in greater risk of death. Subclinical markers of atherosclerosis have been reported in carotid arteries of spinal cord-injured individuals (SCI), but the development of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has not been investigated in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spinal cord injury on ankle-brachial index (ABI) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of upper-body and lower-extremity arteries. We hypothesized that the aforementioned measures of lower-extremity PAD would be worsened in SCI compared with controls and that regular participation in endurance exercise would improve these in both groups. To test these hypotheses, ABI and IMT were determined in 105 SCI and compared with 156 able-bodied controls with groups further subdivided into physically active and sedentary. ABIs were significantly lower in SCI versus controls (0.96 ± 0.12 vs. 1.06 ± 0.07, P < 0.001), indicating a greater burden of lower-extremity PAD. Upper-body IMTs were similar for brachial and carotid arteries in controls versus SCI. Lower extremity IMTs revealed similar thicknesses for both superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, but when normalized for artery diameter, individuals with SCI had greater IMT than controls in the superficial femoral (0.094 ± 0.03 vs. 0.073 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) and popliteal (0.117 ± 0.04 vs. 0.091 ± 0.02 mm/mm lumen diameter, P < 0.01) arteries. The ABI and normalized IMT of SCI compared with controls indicate that subclinical measures of lower-extremity PAD are worsened in individuals with SCI. These findings should prompt physicians to consider using the ABI as a screening method to detect lower-extremity PAD in SCI. PMID:21742999

  19. MRI characteristics of suspected acute spinal cord infarction in two cats, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Amy D; Rusbridge, Claire; Sparkes, Andrew H; Platt, Simon R

    2005-04-01

    A 10-year-old neutered male Persian cat and a 4-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair (DSH) cat were evaluated for acute-onset severe lateralising tetraparesis and hemiplegia, respectively. Both cats also had left-sided Horner's syndrome. Neurological examination of the cats localised the lesion to cranial to C5 in the Persian and the left cervical intumescence (C6-T2) in the DSH. Physical examinations were otherwise generally unremarkable. Routine laboratory tests and spinal radiography were normal for the Persian cat and were not performed for the DSH cat. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap was attempted for the Persian cat but aborted because of gross blood contamination, and was not performed for the DSH cat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the Persian cat revealed a lesion within the spinal parenchyma at segments C1 to C3 (slightly more left-sided) which was iso- to hypointense on T1-weighted scans and hyperintense on T2-weighted scans, and which enhanced slightly with gadolinium. MRI of the DSH cat revealed a lesion within the spinal parenchyma at segment C7 (predominantly left-sided) which was hypointense on T1-weighted scans and hyperintense on T2-weighted gradient echo scans. Contrast was not administered. The MRI findings in both cases were highly suggestive of acute spinal cord infarction, based upon comparison to human cases. Both cats made full neurological recoveries with supportive treatment only. This paper describes two cases of suspected acute spinal cord infarction in the cat, demonstrates the potential diagnostic value of MRI, and discusses the clinical syndrome of this condition with a brief review of published cases.

  20. Projections from Pacinian corpuscles and rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors of glabrous skin to the cat's spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A G; Fyffe, R E; Noble, R

    1980-01-01

    1. Single axons innervating Pacinian corpuscles and rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors of the foot and toe pads were injected with horseradish peroxidase near their entrance to the lumbosacral spinal cord in cats anaesthetized with chloralose and paralysed with gallamine triethiodide. Subsequent histochemistry revealed the morphology of the intra-spinal parts of the axons. 2. All Pacinian corpuscle axons that could be traced into the dorsal root bifurcated upon entering the cord into ascending and descending branches. All Pacinian corpuscle axons gave rise to collaterals that entered the dorsal horn. 3. The collaterals of Pacinian corpuscle afferent fibres had a distinctive morphology. They provided two regions of termination, a larger dorsal region in laminae III and IV and a smaller ventral region in laminae V and VI. Within the dorsal region the terminal axons ran mainly in the longitudinal axis of the cord and carried many boutons en passant. Within the ventral region the axons ran dorso-ventrally in the transverse plane of the cord and although carrying some boutons en passant also gave rise to clusters of boutons. 4. The collaterals of rapidly adapting afferent fibres had a distinctive morphology different from that of the Pacinian corpuscle afferent fibre collaterals. The termination region of rapidly adapting afferents was limited almost exclusively to lamina III, with only slight extension into lamina IV. Boutons were mainly of the en passant type and terminal axons were generally orientated within the longitudinal axis of the cord. 5. The morphology of the afferent fibre collaterals is discussed in relation to the physiology of the dorsal horn. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:7205669

  1. Prognostic factors of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Vírseda, M; Salinas, J; Bolufer, E; Esteban, M; Méndez, S

    2013-10-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is an important complication in patients with spinal cord injury due to its frequency and morbidity. One of the most extended therapeutic options is endoscopic injection of obliteration substances in the urethral meatus. To analyze the prognostic factors of VUR treatment using obliterative substances in patients with spinal cord injury. A prospective study was performed in a cohort of 76 patients (age 48.9±14.4 years), of both genders, with spinal cord injuries, who underwent endoscopic treatment of the VUR during the years 2008 to 2011. In all the patients, a clinical history was obtained and a pre-operative videourodynamic study was performed. Another study was carried out at 7.32 months (standard deviation: 6.28 months) of the intervention. Treatment consisted in endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (62 cases) and polydimethylsiloxane (14). The statistical tests applied were the Fisher's exact test and the Student's T test comparing the means. Bilateral significance level was established at 95%. Resolution of VUR was achieved in 46 cases (61%). The statistically significant prognostic factors were age (younger aging cured patients), bilaterality and reflects great (greater grade in bilaterality in the cases with persistence of reflux) and presence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (greater percentage in the cases of reflux persistence). Stress urinary incontinence (greater percentage in cured patients), contractile potency (lower percentage in cured patients) and urethral resistance (greater percentage in cured patients) were also statistically significant prognostic factors. Among the prognostic factors that affected the endoscopic treatment results of the VUR in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD), anatomical as well as functional factors were found. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Sprouting, regeneration and circuit formation in the injured spinal cord: factors and activity

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Irin C; Schwab, Martin E

    2006-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injuries are particularly traumatic, owing to the limited capabilities of the mammalian CNS for repair. Nevertheless, functional recovery is observed in patients and experimental animals, but the degree of recovery is variable. We review the crucial characteristics of mammalian spinal cord function, tract development, injury and the current experimental therapeutic approaches for repair. Regenerative or compensatory growth of neurites and the formation of new, functional circuits require spontaneous and experimental reactivation of developmental mechanisms, suppression of the growth-inhibitory properties of the adult CNS tissue and specific targeted activation of new connections by rehabilitative training. PMID:16939978

  3. In vivo high-resolution imaging of the injured rat spinal cord using a 3.0T clinical MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Beatrice; Pillai, Deepu R; Heidemann, Robin M; Schuierer, Gerhard; Mueller, Matthias F; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schlachetzki, Felix; Weidner, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of obtaining high-resolution MR images for the detection of pathological changes occurring in the injured rat spinal cord with a routine clinical 3.0T imaging system. Adult female Fischer 344 rats received thoracic spine contusion injuries. In vivo MR imaging was performed on days 1 and 43 postinjury with a clinical head 3.0T imaging system equipped with a dedicated small animal 4-channel phased array spine surface coil using T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted spin-echo sequences. The acquired images provide good spatial resolution allowing reliable gray/white matter differentiation in the intact spinal cord as well as detection of hemorrhage, edema, and cystic degenerative changes in the injured rat spinal cord as confirmed by correlation with structural alterations in histological sections. Results from the present study demonstrate that a routine clinical MR imaging system can be employed for noninvasive analysis of pathological changes occurring in the injured rat spinal cord and thus might represent a more broadly available, powerful tool to monitor the effects of experimental therapeutic interventions in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Response pattern of cutaneous postganglionic neurones to the hindlimb on spinal cord heating and cooling in the cat.

    PubMed

    Gregor, M; Jänig, W; Riedel, W

    1976-05-12

    Single postganglionic neurones to hairy skin and hairless skin of the hindleg were investigated on spinal cord heating and spinal cord cooling in chloralose anesthetized cats. 1. Spontaneously active postganglionic neurones which were classified as vasoconstrictor neurones were depressed by spinal cord heating and excited by spinal cord cooling. The overall response to spinal cord cooling was smaller than that to spinal cord heating. 2. Postganglionic neurones to the hairless skin, which had most likely sudomotor function, responded initially to spinal cord heating with a few impulses or not at all. As judged by the skin potentials recorded from the hairless skin the sweat glands were also only weakly activated at the beginning of the heat stimuli. 3. Six silent postganglionic neurones, 3 each to the hairy skin and to the hairless skin, were excited during spinal cord heating. The response of these neurones consisted of a dynamic and a static component and started at the beginning of the heating stimuli with latencies of less than 10S. The neurones could not be excited by any other stimuli and were classified as cutaneous vasodilator neurones. 4. Quantitative analysis of 4 spontaneously active postganglionic (vasoconstrictor) neurones and 3 silent postganglionic (vasodilator) neurones revealed that the threshold of the responses of these neurones to spinal cord heating was 40-42 degrees C (on the dorsal spinal cord) and that the response increase was maximal at the highest temperatures tested (43-44 degrees C).¿

  5. Plastic Changes in Lumbar Locomotor Networks after a Partial Spinal Cord Injury in Cats.

    PubMed

    Gossard, Jean-Pierre; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Martinez, Marina; Kundu, Aritra; Escalona, Manuel; Rossignol, Serge

    2015-06-24

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), we know that plastic reorganization occurs in supraspinal structures with residual descending tracts. However, our knowledge about spinal plasticity is rather limited. Our recent studies point to changes within the spinal cord below the lesion. After a lateral left hemisection (T10), cats recovered stepping with both hindlimbs within 3 weeks. After a complete section (T13) in these cats, bilateral stepping was seen on the next day, a skill usually acquired after several weeks of treadmill training. This indicates that durable plastic changes occurred below the lesion. However, because sensory feedback entrains the stepping rhythm, it is difficult to reveal central pattern generator (CPG) adaptation. Here, we investigated whether lumbar segments of cats with a chronic hemisection were able to generate fictive locomotion-that is, without phasic sensory feedback as monitored by five muscle nerves in each hindlimb. With a chronic left hemisection, the number of muscle nerves displaying locomotor bursts was larger on the left than on the right. In addition, transmission of cutaneous reflexes was relatively facilitated on the left. Later during the acute experiment, a complete spinalization (T13) was performed and clonidine was injected to induce rhythmic activities. There were still more muscle nerves displaying locomotor bursts on the left. The results demonstrate that spinal networks were indeed modified after a hemisection with a clear asymmetry between left and right in the capacity to generate locomotion. Plastic changes in CPG and reflex transmission below the lesion are thus involved in the stepping recovery after an incomplete SCI. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359446-10$15.00/0.

  6. Complementary alternative medicine practices and beliefs in spinal cord injury and non-spinal cord injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Renuka T; Farkas, Gary J; Haidar, Shahd; Slavoski, Kristin E; Lokey, Nancy E; Hudson, Timothy R

    2017-08-06

    To compare the beliefs and practices of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), their friends and family members (F&F SCI), and healthcare professionals (HCP) regarding complementary alternative medicine (CAM). A questionnaire regarding CAM practices and beliefs was administered to participants on paper or online. An academic rehabilitation hospital. Ninety-six individuals voluntarily participated in the study. Participants included 28 patients with SCI, 36 F&F SCI, and 32 HCP. Not applicable Outcome Measures: The questionnaire assessed participants' prior or current use of 14 CAM modalities, their willingness to use CAM in the future or recommend its use, and their beliefs and opinions of CAM. Participants with SCI and their family and friends, were more likely than HCP to have used CAM (P ≤ 0.01 and P ≤ 0.03, respectively) and recommend its use (P ≤ 0.04 and P ≤ 0.03, respectively). All three groups showed statistical significance in their willingness to ever use certain CAM modalities (P ≤ 0.03 for SCI, P ≤ 0.04 for F&F SCI, and P ≤ 0.02 for HCP). SCI, F&F SCI, and HCP groups had similar beliefs and opinions regarding CAM. Patients with SCI as well as their friends and family, have significantly more experience with CAM and are more likely to recommend its use than HCP, suggesting that they are interested and find benefit in alternative healthcare. This warrants further investigation of the integration of CAM into general health practices for those with SCI.

  7. Spinal Plasticity and Behavior: BDNF-Induced Neuromodulation in Uninjured and Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Huie, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophic factor family of signaling molecules. Since its discovery over three decades ago, BDNF has been identified as an important regulator of neuronal development, synaptic transmission, and cellular and synaptic plasticity and has been shown to function in the formation and maintenance of certain forms of memory. Neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory in the hippocampus shares distinct characteristics with spinal cord nociceptive plasticity. Research examining the role BDNF plays in spinal nociception and pain overwhelmingly suggests that BDNF promotes pronociceptive effects. BDNF induces synaptic facilitation and engages central sensitization-like mechanisms. Also, peripheral injury-induced neuropathic pain is often accompanied with increased spinal expression of BDNF. Research has extended to examine how spinal cord injury (SCI) influences BDNF plasticity and the effects BDNF has on sensory and motor functions after SCI. Functional recovery and adaptive plasticity after SCI are typically associated with upregulation of BDNF. Although neuropathic pain is a common consequence of SCI, the relation between BDNF and pain after SCI remains elusive. This article reviews recent literature and discusses the diverse actions of BDNF. We also highlight similarities and differences in BDNF-induced nociceptive plasticity in naïve and SCI conditions. PMID:27721996

  8. Multiparametric MRI reveals dynamic changes in molecular signatures of injured spinal cord in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Qi, Hui-Xin; Zu, Zhongliang; Mishra, Arabinda; Tang, Chaohui; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min

    2015-10-01

    To monitor the spontaneous recovery of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) using longitudinal multiparametric MRI methods. Quantitative MRI imaging including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer (MT), and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) were conducted in anesthetized squirrel monkeys at 9.4T. The structural, cellular, and molecular features of the spinal cord were examined before and at different time points after a dorsal column lesion in each monkey. Images with MT contrast enhanced visualization of the gray and white matter boundaries and the lesion and permitted differentiation of core and rim compartments within an abnormal volume (AV). In the early weeks after SCI, both core and rim exhibited low cellular density and low protein content, with high levels of exchanging hydroxyl, amine, and amide protons, as evidenced by increased apparent diffusion coefficient, decreased fractional anisotropy, decreased MT ratio, decreased nuclear Overhauser effect, and large CEST effects. Over time, cellular density and fiber density increased, whereas amide, amine, and hydroxyl levels dropped significantly, but at differing rates. Histology confirmed the nature of the AV to be a cyst. Multiparametric MRI offers a novel method to quantify the spontaneous changes in structure and cellular and molecular compositions of SC during spontaneous recovery from injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Intraspinal stimulation for bladder voiding in cats before and after chronic spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikov, Victor; Bullara, Leo; McCreery, Douglas B.

    2007-12-01

    The long-term objective of this study is to develop neural prostheses for people with spinal cord injuries who are unable to voluntarily control their bladder. This feasibility study was performed in 22 adult cats. We implanted an array of microelectrodes into locations in the sacral spinal cord that are involved in the control of micturition reflexes. The effect of microelectrode stimulation was studied under light Propofol anesthesia at monthly intervals for up to 14 months. We found that electrical stimulation in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus at S2 level or in adjacent ventrolateral white matter produced bladder contractions insufficient for inducing voiding, while stimulation at or immediately dorsal to the dorsal gray commissure at S1 level produced strong (at least 20 mmHg) bladder contractions as well as strong (at least 40 mm Hg) external urethral sphincter relaxation, resulting in bladder voiding in 14 animals. In a subset of three animals, spinal cord transection was performed. For several months after the transection, intraspinal stimulation continued to be similarly or even more effective in inducing the bladder voiding as before the transection. We speculate that in the absence of the supraspinal connections, the plasticity in the local spinal circuitry played a role in the improved responsiveness to intraspinal stimulation.

  10. [Maximal exercise in spinal cord injured subjects: effects of an antigravity suit].

    PubMed

    Bazzi-Grossin, C; Bonnin, P; Bailliart, O; Bazzi, H; Kedra, A W; Martineaud, J P

    1996-01-01

    Paraplegics have low aerobic capacity because of the spinal cord injury. Their functional muscle mass is reduced and usually untrained. They have to use upperbody muscles for displacements and daily activities. Sympathic nervous system injury is responsible of vasomotricity disturbances in leg vessels and possible abdominal vessels, proportionally to level injury. If cord injury level is higher than T5, then sympathic cardiac efferences may be damaged. Underbody muscles atrophy and vasomotricity disturbances contribute to phlebostasis. This stasis may decrease venous return, preload and stroke volume (Starling). To maintain appropriate cardiac output, tachycardia is necessary, especially during exercise. Low stroke volume, all the more since it is associated with cardio-acceleration disturbances, may reduce cardiac output reserve, and so constitutes a limiting factor for adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to verify if use of an underlesional pressure suit may increase cardiac output reserve because of lower venous stasis, and increase performance. We studied 10 able-bodied and 14 traumatic paraplegic subjects. Able-bodied subjects were 37 +/- 6 years old, wellbeing, not especially trained with upperbody muscles: there were 2 women and 8 men. Paraplegics were 27 +/- 7 years old, wellbeing except paraplegia, five of them practiced sport regularly (athletism or basket for disabled), and the others just daily propelled their wheelchair; there were 5 women and 9 men. For 8 of them, cord injury levels were located below T7, between T1 and T6 for the others. The age disability varied from 6 months to 2 years for 9 of them, it was approximately five years for 4 of them, and 20 years for one. We used a maximal triangular arm crank exercise with an electro-magnetic ergocycle Gauthier frame. After five minutes warm up, it was proceeded in one minute successive stages until maximal oxygen consumption is raised. VO2, VCO2, RER were measured by direct method with

  11. Ceruloplasmin protects injured spinal cord from iron-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Khizr I; Kerr, Bradley J; Redensek, Adriana; López-Vales, Rubèn; Jeong, Suh Young; Ponka, Prem; David, Samuel

    2008-11-26

    CNS injury-induced hemorrhage and tissue damage leads to excess iron, which can cause secondary degeneration. The mechanisms that handle this excess iron are not fully understood. We report that spinal cord contusion injury (SCI) in mice induces an "iron homeostatic response" that partially limits iron-catalyzed oxidative damage. We show that ceruloplasmin (Cp), a ferroxidase that oxidizes toxic ferrous iron, is important for this process. SCI in Cp-deficient mice demonstrates that Cp detoxifies and mobilizes iron and reduces secondary tissue degeneration and functional loss. Our results provide new insights into how astrocytes and macrophages handle iron after SCI. Importantly, we show that iron chelator treatment has a delayed effect in improving locomotor recovery between 3 and 6 weeks after SCI. These data reveal important aspects of the molecular control of CNS iron homeostasis after SCI and suggest that iron chelator therapy may improve functional recovery after CNS trauma and hemorrhagic stroke.

  12. Outcomes of whole-body computed tomography in spinal cord-injured patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W A; de Heredia, L L; Hughes, R J; Belci, M; Meagher, T M

    2014-07-01

    Retrospective case series. To evaluate the efficacy of body computed tomography (CT) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with sepsis. Specialist acute care and rehabilitation SCI centre in United Kingdom. Patients with SCI and suspected or known sepsis, who had CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, over a 4-year period, were identified. Only patients who fulfilled the definition of sepsis or severe sepsis were included. Their medical notes and CT scans were reviewed and clinical outcomes and radiological findings recorded. Twenty-two patients with sepsis were identified including seven categorised as having severe sepsis. A specific radiological diagnosis was found in three patients (14%) and non-specific findings were found in 15 patients (68%). Although in the majority of cases, the findings were non-specific, a small number of patients had significant pathology identified by CT, which influenced their management significantly.

  13. Systematic analysis of axonal damage and inflammatory response in different white matter tracts of acutely injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Leal, W; Corkill, D J; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2005-12-20

    The mechanisms of white matter (WM) damage during secondary degeneration are a fundamental issue in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Our main goal was to describe the pattern of an acute inflammatory response and secondary damage to axons in different WM tracts of acutely injured rat spinal cord. Adult rats were deeply anesthetized and injected with 20 nmol of NMDA into the spinal cord ventral horn on T7. Animals were perfused after survival times of 1 day, 3 days and 7 days. Ten micrometer sections were submitted to immunocytochemical analysis for activated macrophages/microglia, neutrophils and damaged axons. There were inflammatory response and progressive tissue destruction of ventral WM (VWM) with formation of microcysts in both VWM and lateral WM (LWM). In the VWM, the number of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) end-bulbs increased from 1 day with a peak at 3 days, decreasing by 7 days following the injection. APP end-bulbs were present in the dorsal WM (DWM) at 3 days survival time but were not in the LWM. Electron microscopic analysis revealed different degrees of myelin disruption and axonal pathology in the vacuolated WM up to 14 mm along the rostrocaudal axis. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant loss of medium and large axons (P < 0.05), but not of small axons (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that bystander axonal damage and myelin vacuolation are important secondary component of the pathology of WM tracts following rat SCI. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these pathological events.

  14. Impaired toll like receptor-7 and 9 induced immune activation in chronic spinal cord injured patients contributes to immune dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Bilgi; Kahraman, Tamer; Gursel, Mayda; Yilmaz, Bilge

    2017-01-01

    Reduced immune activation or immunosuppression is seen in patients withneurological diseases. Urinary and respiratory infections mainly manifested as septicemia and pneumonia are the most frequent complications following spinal cord injuries and they account for the majority of deaths. The underlying reason of these losses is believed to arise due to impaired immune responses to pathogens. Here, we hypothesized that susceptibility to infections of chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients might be due to impairment in recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns and subsequently declining innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to immune dysfunction. We tested our hypothesis on healthy and chronic SCI patients with a level of injury above T-6. Donor PBMCs were isolated and stimulated with different toll like receptor ligands and T-cell inducers aiming to investigate whether chronic SCI patients display differential immune activation to multiple innate and adaptive immune cell stimulants. We demonstrate that SCI patients' B-cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cells retain their functionality in response to TLR7 and TLR9 ligand stimulation as they secreted similar levels of IL6 and IFNα. The immune dysfunction is not probably due to impaired T-cell function, since neither CD4+ T-cell dependent IFNγ producing cell number nor IL10 producing regulatory T-cells resulted different outcomes in response to PMA-Ionomycin and PHA-LPS stimulation, respectively. We showed that TLR7 dependent IFNγ and IP10 levels and TLR9 mediated APC function reduced substantially in SCI patients compared to healthy subjects. More importantly, IP10 producing monocytes were significantly fewer compared to healthy subjects in response to TLR7 and TLR9 stimulation of SCI PBMCs. When taken together this work implicated that these defects could contribute to persistent complications due to increased susceptibility to infections of chronic SCI patients. PMID:28170444

  15. Midodrine improves orgasm in spinal cord-injured men: the effects of autonomic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Soler, Jean Marc; Previnaire, Jean Gabriel; Plante, Pierre; Denys, Pierre; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Orgasm is less frequent in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) than in able-bodied subjects, and is poorly understood. To assess the effect of autonomic stimulation on orgasm in SCI men using midodrine, an alpha1-adrenergic agonist agent. Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) was performed in 158 SCI men on midodrine as part of a treatment for anejaculation, after they failed a baseline PVS. A maximum of four trials were performed, weekly, with increasing doses of midodrine. The presence and type of ejaculation, orgasm experiences, and cardiovascular data were collected. Ejaculation either antegrade or retrograde was obtained in 102 SCI men (65%). Orgasm without ejaculation was reported by 14 patients (9%) on baseline PVS. Ninety-three patients (59%) experienced orgasm during PVS on midodrine. Orgasm was significantly related to the presence of ejaculation in 86 patients (84%), and more strikingly to antegrade ejaculation (pure or mixed with retrograde), i.e., in 98% of 70 patients. Orgasm was significantly more frequent in patients with upper motor neuron and incomplete lesions who present somatic responses during PVS. There was no effect of the presence of psychogenic erection. There was a significant increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Sixteen patients, mainly tetraplegics, developed intense autonomic dysreflexia (AD) that required an oral nicardipine chlorhydrate. Orgasm is the brain's cognitive interpretation of genital sensations and somatic responses, AD, and ejaculation. Intact sacral and T10-L2 cord segments are mandatory, allowing coordination between internal and external sphincters. Autonomic stimulation with midodrine enhances orgasm rate, mainly by creating antegrade ejaculation.

  16. Tail muscle parvalbumin content is decreased in chronic sacral spinal cord injured rats with spasticity.

    PubMed

    Harris, R Luke; Bennett, David J; Levine, Max A; Putman, Charles T

    2011-12-01

    In rats, chronic sacral spinal isolation eliminates both descending and afferent inputs to motoneurons supplying the segmental tail muscles, eliminating daily tail muscle EMG activity. In contrast, chronic sacral spinal cord transection preserves afferent inputs, causing tail muscle spasticity that generates quantitatively normal daily EMG. Compared with normal rats, rats with spinal isolation and transection/spasticity provide a chronic model of progressive neuromuscular injury. Using normal, spinal isolated and spastic rats, we characterized the activity dependence of calcium-handling protein expression for parvalbumin, fast sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) and slow SERCA2. As these proteins may influence fatigue resistance, we also assayed the activities of oxidative (citrate synthase; CS) and glycolytic enzymes (glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase; GAPDH). We hypothesized that, compared with normal rats, chronic isolation would cause decreased parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 expression and CS and GAPDH activities. We further hypothesized that chronic spasticity would promote recovery of parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 expression and of CS and GAPDH activities. Parvalbumin, SERCA1 and SERCA2 were quantified with Western blotting. Citrate synthase and GAPDH activities were quantified photometrically. Compared with normal rats, spinal isolation caused large decreases in parvalbumin (95%), SERCA1 (70%) and SERCA2 (68%). Compared with spinal isolation, spasticity promoted parvalbumin recovery (ninefold increase) and a SERCA2-to-SERCA1 transformation (84% increase in the ratio of SERCA1 to SERCA2). Compared with normal values, CS and GAPDH activities decreased in isolated and spastic muscles. In conclusion, with complete paralysis due to spinal isolation, parvalbumin expression is nearly eliminated, but with muscle spasticity after spinal cord transection, parvalbumin expression partly recovers. Additionally, spasticity after transection causes a

  17. Design of the advanced commode-shower chair for spinal cord-injured individuals.

    PubMed

    Malassigné, P; Nelson, A L; Cors, M W; Amerson, T L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this development project was to design a new commode-shower chair that can be safely used by individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and their caregivers. The need for this new design was consumer-driven. Patients and caregivers identified the following fatal flaws in the commode-shower chairs used in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) centers: 1) risk for patient falls during transfers, propelling, and while leaning over for showering; 2) risk for pressure ulcers due to inadequate padding and seat positioning for lengthy bowel care regimes; 3) inadequate caregiver access to the perianal area of the patient to perform bowel care procedures; and, 4) wheel-related inability to properly position the chair directly over the toilet. The new, self-propelled chair addresses each of these concerns. Lockable, swing-away, pivoting armrests and improved, lever-activated brakes were designed to facilitate safe transfers. An innovative foot-lift was invented to facilitate washing of feet. Larger handrims were designed to aid in propulsion in wet environments. To prevent pressure ulcers, a chair frame and padding combination was designed to facilitate a seating position that optimally distributes body weight to prevent the development of pressure ulcers in the sacral and ischial areas. To address the common risk of heel ulcers, footrests, featuring edgeless, rounded heel cups, were designed. A new tubular chair frame, a new seat and smaller wheels were designed to enhance caregiver access and ensure proper chair positioning over the toilet. Following its successful clinical evaluation at the Milwaukee and Tampa VA Medical SCI Centers, the Advanced commode-shower chair is being patented by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The VA has partnered with Everest & Jennings, to make this chair available commercially.

  18. Exercise pressor reflex function following acute hemi-section of the spinal cord in cats

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Megan N.; Ichiyama, Ronaldo M.; Iwamoto, Gary A.; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients post spinal cord injury (SCI). The prescription of exercise as a therapeutic modality for disease prevention in this population is promising. It is logical to suggest that the sooner an exercise program can begin the more benefit the patient will receive from the therapy. However, the time point after injury at which the requisite circulatory responses needed to support exercise are viable remains largely unknown. The skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR) significantly contributes to cardiovascular control during exercise in healthy individuals. Experiments in patients with a chronic lateral hemi-section of the spinal cord (Brown-Séquard syndrome) suggest that the EPR, although blunted, is operational when examined months to years post injury. However, whether this critically important reflex remains functional immediately after lateral SCI or, in contrast, experiences a period of reduced capacity due to spinal shock has not been established. This study was designed to assess EPR function after acute lateral transection of the spinal cord. The EPR was selectively activated in seven decerebrate cats via electrically stimulated static contraction of the triceps surae muscles of each hindlimb before and after lateral hemi-section of the T13–L2 region of the spinal cord. Compared to responses prior to injury, increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly decreased when contracting the hindlimb either ipsilateral to the lesion (MAP = 17 ± 3 mmHg before and 9 ± 2 mmHg after) or contralateral to the lesion (MAP = 22 ± 5 mmHg before and 12 ± 4 mmHg after). The heart rate (HR) response to stimulation of the EPR was largely unaffected by induction of acute SCI. The findings suggest that the EPR maintains the ability to importantly contribute to cardiovascular regulation during exercise immediately following a Brown-Séquard-like injury. PMID:23403764

  19. Cutaneous inputs from the back abolish locomotor-like activity and reduce spastic-like activity in the adult cat following complete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Frigon, Alain; Thibaudier, Yann; Johnson, Michael D.; Heckman, C.J.; Hurteau, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    Spasticity is a condition that can include increased muscle tone, clonus, spasms, and hyperreflexia. In this study, we report the effect of manually stimulating the dorsal lumbosacral skin on spontaneous locomotor-like activity and on a variety of reflex responses in 5 decerebrate chronic spinal cats treated with clonidine. Cats were spinalized 1 month before the terminal experiment. Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae muscles. Crossed reflexes were elicited by electrically stimulating the right tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. Windup of reflex responses was evoked by electrically stimulating the left tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. We found that pinching the skin of the back abolished spontaneous locomotor-like activity. We also found that back pinch abolished the rhythmic activity observed during reflex testing without eliminating the reflex responses. Some of the rhythmic episodes of activity observed during reflex testing were consistent with clonus with an oscillation frequency greater than 3 Hz. Pinching the skin of the back effectively abolished rhythmic activity occurring spontaneously or evoked during reflex testing, irrespective of oscillation frequency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that locomotion and clonus are produced by common central pattern-generators. Stimulating the skin of the back could prove helpful in managing undesired rhythmic activity in spinal cord-injured humans. PMID:22487200

  20. Cutaneous inputs from the back abolish locomotor-like activity and reduce spastic-like activity in the adult cat following complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Frigon, Alain; Thibaudier, Yann; Johnson, Michael D; Heckman, C J; Hurteau, Marie-France

    2012-06-01

    Spasticity is a condition that can include increased muscle tone, clonus, spasms, and hyperreflexia. In this study, we report the effect of manually stimulating the dorsal lumbosacral skin on spontaneous locomotor-like activity and on a variety of reflex responses in 5 decerebrate chronic spinal cats treated with clonidine. Cats were spinalized 1 month before the terminal experiment. Stretch reflexes were evoked by stretching the left triceps surae muscles. Crossed reflexes were elicited by electrically stimulating the right tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. Wind-up of reflex responses was evoked by electrically stimulating the left tibial or superficial peroneal nerves. We found that pinching the skin of the back abolished spontaneous locomotor-like activity. We also found that back pinch abolished the rhythmic activity observed during reflex testing without eliminating the reflex responses. Some of the rhythmic episodes of activity observed during reflex testing were consistent with clonus with an oscillation frequency greater than 3 Hz. Pinching the skin of the back effectively abolished rhythmic activity occurring spontaneously or evoked during reflex testing, irrespective of oscillation frequency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that locomotion and clonus are produced by common central pattern-generators. Stimulating the skin of the back could prove helpful in managing undesired rhythmic activity in spinal cord-injured humans.

  1. Tethered spinal cord and an intradural lipoma associated with a meningocele in a Manx-type cat.

    PubMed

    Plummer, S B; Bunch, S E; Khoo, L H; Spaulding, K A; Kornegay, J N

    1993-10-15

    An 8-month-old neutered male Manx-type cat was evaluated because of clear fluid that had been draining from a skin mass dorsocaudal to the sacrum for 1 week. Neurologically, the cat had poor postural reactions and poor withdrawal reflexes in the hind limbs. Ultrasonography of the dorsal sacral area revealed a 3-cm-long hypoechoic tract extending from the skin mass cranioventrally to the area of the sacrum. The tract appeared to contain a circular mass. Results of myelography and computed tomography helped to confirm the diagnosis of a meningocutaneous tract containing a mass. Surgical exploration was performed and the tract was excised. Histologic changes were similar to those in human beings with tethered spinal cord syndrome and an intradural lumbosacral lipoma. Surgery was indicated in this cat to prevent progression of neurologic signs associated with tethered cord syndrome and to prevent problems associated with loss of CSF through a fistulated meningocele.

  2. Improvement in hemodynamic responses to metaboreflex activation after one year of training in spinal cord injured humans.

    PubMed

    Milia, Raffaele; Roberto, Silvana; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Olla, Sergio; Sanna, Irene; Angius, Luca; Bassareo, Pierpaolo; Pinna, Marco; Tocco, Filippo; Concu, Alberto; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals show an altered hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation due to a reduced capacity to vasoconstrict the venous and arterial vessels below the level of the lesion. Exercise training was found to enhance circulating catecholamines and to improve cardiac preload and venous tone in response to exercise in SCI subjects. Therefore, training would result in enhanced diastolic function and capacity to vasoconstrict circulation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that one year of training improves hemodynamic response to metaboreflex activation in these subjects. Nine SCI individuals were enrolled and underwent a metaboreflex activation test at the beginning of the study (T0) and after one year of training (T1). Hemodynamics were assessed by impedance cardiography and echocardiography at both T0 and T1. Results show that there was an increment in cardiac output response due to metaboreflex activity at T1 as compared to T0 (545.4 ± 683.9 mL · min(-1) versus 220.5 ± 745.4 mL · min(-1), P < 0.05). Moreover, ventricular filling rate response was higher at T1 than at T0. Similarly, end-diastolic volume response was increased after training. We concluded that a period of training can successfully improve hemodynamic response to muscle metaboreflex activation in SCI subjects.

  3. The influence of orthosis options on walking parameters in spinal cord-injured patients: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Arazpour, M; Samadian, M; Ebrahimzadeh, K; Ahmadi Bani, M; Hutchins, S W

    2016-06-01

    Orthoses for various joints sections are considered to greatly influence the gait function and energy expenditure in spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients. The aim of this review was to determine the influence of orthoses characteristics and options on the improvement of walking in patients with SCI. A search was performed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method, based on selected keywords; studies were identified electronically in the Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and PubMed databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method was used to report the results. Assessment of the quality of all articles was performed based on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale). Twelve studies evaluated the effects of different hip joint options on walking parameters and energy expenditure. Five studies investigated the role of knee joint options on gait parameters and compensatory trunk motion. Only five studies analyzed modified ankle joints on gait parameters in SCI patients. Nine studies analyzed gait parameters in SCI patients as powered orthoses and exoskeleton. These studies had a low level of evidence according to the PEDro score (2/10). The various joint types of orthoses appear to be critical in the improvement of walking in patients with SCI. In particular, 'user friendly' orthoses that support the related structure such as the hip joint with a reciprocating mechanism, activated knee joint and movable ankle joint with dorsiflexion assist enable SCI patients to optimize their walking pattern when wearing an orthoses system.

  4. Extracellular vimentin is a novel axonal growth facilitator for functional recovery in spinal cord-injured mice

    PubMed Central

    Shigyo, Michiko; Tohda, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is an intracellular protein that is involved in various cellular processes. Several groups have recently reported that vimentin also appears in the extracellular space and shows novel protein activity. We previously reported that denosomin improved motor dysfunction in mice with a contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). At the injured area, astrocytes expressing and secreting vimentin were specifically increased, and axonal growth occurred in a vimentin-dependent manner in denosomin-treated mice. However, the axonal growth that was induced by extracellular vimentin was only investigated in vitro in the previous study. Here, we sought to clarify whether increased extracellular vimentin can promote the axonal extension related to motor improvement after SCI in vivo. Extracellular vimentin treatment in SCI mice significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction. In vimentin-treated mice, 5-HT-positive axons increased significantly at the rostral and central areas of the lesion, and the total axonal densities increased in the central and caudal parts of the lesioned area. This finding suggests that increased axonal density may contribute to motor improvement in vimentin-treated mice. Thus, our in vivo data indicate that extracellular vimentin may be a novel neurotrophic factor that enhances axonal growth activity and motor function recovery after SCI. PMID:27323867

  5. Gait restoration in a spinal cord injured subject via neuromuscular electrical stimulation controlled by an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, F; Granat, M H; Cliquet, A

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to restore gait in spinal cord injured subjects have stumbled on control difficulties associated to the neuromuscular system's non-linearity and time-variance. Thus, a simple autoadaptive artificial neural network has been devised to control gait swing generation by means of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Both theoretical and experimental approaches were taken. The computer-based system consisted of a three-layer artificial neural network that read angular data from the hip, knee and ankle joints. The output signal consisted of variations on the applied stimulation pulse width. Surface electrical stimulation was applied to the femoral and peroneal nerves of one leg. Neural network training included off-line supervised learning schemes. The system was tested on a male subject with an incomplete C6-level lesion. Several tests were run to determine whether the off-line trained neural network could correctly control the motion. The effect of on-line learning upon the control performance was also evaluated. The system was found to control the motion with success only at times. Control performance was found to improve in response to the application of on-line learning. Learning stability following on-line learning was found to be satisfactory. In a final test, the artificial neural system had appropriate responses to an initial perturbation, which suggests that further research in this area should be pursued.

  6. [Ejaculation capacity in spinal cord injured patients carrying an endo-urethral stent for incontinentation: Descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Tamarelle, B; Charvier, K; Del Aguila, C; Courtois, F; Rode, G; Ruffion, A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of endo-urethral stent (EUP) of incontinentation in spinal cord injured (SCI) men on ejaculation capacity. Presence of ejaculation after EUP. Modification on ejaculation type, stimulation mode, possibility of sperm conservation in the same population. A descriptive monocentric study including SCI subjects which underwent placement or change of temporary (Mémokath™ or Allium™) or definitive (Mémotherm™) EUP between January 2004 and January 2014 with at least one ejaculatory test. Are identified for each patient: the presence of ejaculation, type of ejaculation, stimulation mode used, number of frozen specimen and results from semen analysis. Over 11 men with tetraplegia, complete for motricity, there were 8 (72%) for whom ejaculation was possible after laying EUP. Of these, 6 (55%) had an antegrade or antero-retrograde ejaculation. It was not possible to make a freezing straw in four of them due to infection of semen (2) or terato-oligo-astenospermia (1) or absence of reproductive project (1). In this small sample, it was found that over 70% ejaculation have been preserved after laying EUP and more than 50% with antegrade or antero-retrograde ejaculation. A larger study would identify how EUP may alter the ejaculatory capacity or quality of the ejaculate. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Total haemoglobin mass but not cardiac volume adapts to long-term endurance exercise in highly trained spinal cord injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Ruthardt, Sebastian; Schmidt, Michael; Ahlgrim, Christoph; Roecker, Kai; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2009-03-01

    The oxygen transport system is an important component in the limitation of endurance performance in able-bodied and paraplegic athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the total haemoglobin mass (tHb, carbon monoxide rebreathing method) and cardiac volume (HV, echocardiography) in 25 highly endurance trained male spinal cord injured (mainly paraplegic) athletes (SCI-TRAINED) and to compare the results with those of 10 untrained spinal cord injured controls (SCI-UNTRAINED) and in 25 able-bodied elite endurance athletes (TRAINED). tHb and tHb/kg were higher in SCI-TRAINED than in SCI-UNTRAINED (748 +/- 110 vs. 629 +/- 209 g (464 +/- 68 vs. 390 +/- 130 mmol) (mean +/- SD), P = 0.02 and 10.3 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.9 +/- 2.0 g/kg (6.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg), P < 0.0001), while HV and HV/kg showed no significant differences between the two groups (765 +/- 93 vs. 793 +/- 164 ml and 10.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 10.3 +/- 2.5 ml/kg). No difference between SCI-TRAINED and TRAINED was found for septal diameter (9.5 +/- 1.0 mm vs. 9.7 +/- 0.7 mm). However, tHb and tHb/kg in SCI-TRAINED was lower than in TRAINED [896 +/- 123 g (556 +/- 76 mmol), P = 0.0003 and 12.6 +/- 1.3 g/kg (7.8 +/- 0.8 mmol), P < 0.0001]. In spinal cord injured athletes, tHb but not HV adapts moderately to chronic endurance exercise, although tHb in spinal cord injured athletes does not reach the level of able-bodied-trained persons.

  8. Human astrocytes derived from glial restricted progenitors support regeneration of the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Haas, Christopher; Fischer, Itzhak

    2013-06-15

    Cellular transplantation using neural stem cells and progenitors is a promising therapeutic strategy that has the potential to replace lost cells, modulate the injury environment, and create a permissive environment for the regeneration of injured host axons. Our research has focused on the use of human glial restricted progenitors (hGRP) and derived astrocytes. In the current study, we examined the morphological and phenotypic properties of hGRP prepared from the fetal central nervous system by clinically-approved protocols, compared with astrocytes derived from hGRP prepared by treatment with ciliary neurotrophic factor or bone morphogenetic protein 4. These differentiation protocols generated astrocytes that showed morphological differences and could be classified along an immature to mature spectrum, respectively. Despite these differences, the cells retained morphological and phenotypic plasticity upon a challenge with an alternate differentiation protocol. Importantly, when hGRP and derived astrocytes were transplanted acutely into a cervical dorsal column lesion, they survived and promoted regeneration of long ascending host sensory axons into the graft/lesion site, with no differences among the groups. Further, hGRP taken directly from frozen stocks behaved similarly and also supported regeneration of host axons into the lesion. Our results underscore the dynamic and permissive properties of human fetal astrocytes to promote axonal regeneration. They also suggest that a time-consuming process of pre-differentiation may not be necessary for therapeutic efficacy, and that the banking of large quantities of readily available hGRP can be an appropriate source of permissive cells for transplantation.

  9. Spinal-Cord-Injured Individual's Experiences of Having a Partner: A Phenomenological-Hermeneutic Study.

    PubMed

    Angel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Having a partner is a strong factor in adaptation to the new life situation with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Still, more knowledge in detail about the partner's influences according to the experiences of individuals with SCI could contribute to the understanding of the situation after an injury. The aim of this phenomenological-hermeneutic article is to achieve a deeper understanding of nine individuals' experiences the first 2 years after SCI. In rehabilitation after SCI, the partner supported the SCI individual's life spirit by not giving up and by still seeing possibilities in the future. The partner reinforced the SCI individual's commitment to life by sharing experiences; providing love, trust, and hope; and giving priority to the best things in life for the SCI individual. This implied cohabitation providing concrete help and an intimacy that helped to cope with problems and anxieties and allowed SCI individuals the ability to self-realize. This promoted feelings of profound gratitude but also dependency. Thus, the SCI individual benefitted from the partner's support mentally and physically, which enabled a life that would not otherwise be possible.

  10. Effects Of treadmill training on hindlimb muscles of spinal cord-injured mice.

    PubMed

    Battistuzzo, Camila R; Rank, Michelle M; Flynn, Jamie R; Morgan, David L; Callister, Robin; Callister, Robert J; Galea, Mary P

    2017-02-01

    Treadmill training is known to prevent muscle atrophy after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the training duration required to optimize recovery has not been investigated. Hemisected mice were randomized to 3, 6, or 9 weeks of training or no training. Muscle fiber type composition and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed using ATPase histochemistry. Muscle fiber type composition of SCI animals did not change with training. However, 9 weeks of training increased the CSA of type IIB and IIX fibers in TA and MG muscles. Nine weeks of training after incomplete SCI was effective in preventing atrophy of fast-twitch muscles, but there were limited effects on slow-twitch muscles and muscle fiber type composition. These data provide important evidence of the benefits of exercising paralyzed limbs after SCI. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 55: 232-242, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects.

  12. Quantitative analysis of local changes in patellar cartilage in spinal cord injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Pirnog, Cristian; Székely, Gábor; Stüssi, Edgar

    2007-03-01

    Most studies investigating articular cartilage changes use global parameters and neglect the large topological variation in the response of cartilage to immobilization and remobilization. We hypothesized a registration-based semi-automatic segmentation method would be highly reproducible to detect local changes in patellar articular cartilage thickness. We also hypothesized thinning of the cartilage is detectable in the smaller subregions of the patella in patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and the use of difference maps would allow us to detect early local thinning of the patellar cartilage. To determine the reproducibility, magnetic resonance images of the knee of seven healthy volunteers were acquired four times. Longitudinal changes were measured in the knees of seven patients with SCI as soon as possible, 6 months, and 12 months after the injury. Thickness maps and morphologic parameters for the cartilage of the patella and the four sub-regions were computed. The individual difference maps of 43% of the patients showed local areas of substantial thinning 6 and 12 months after injury.

  13. Dimensions of Quality of Life in Spinal Cord Injured Veterans of Iran: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Vahid; Dehghan, Faezeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to shed light on the identification of themes and sub-themes of the quality of life (QOL) in Iranian veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies have reported decreased QOL in SCI patients which encompass all aspects of their life. Little is known about QOL in SCI veterans from Iran. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify related aspects of such patients through in-depth patient interviews. The present study was a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the Veterans Department of Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. The participants were 11 SCI veterans and 4 veteran spouses. The data was collected by means of in-depth interviews and the use of the constant comparison method. The five themes of QOL included social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental resulted from 7530 primary codes. We noted 29 QOL sub-themes. This article addresses different dimensions of QOL for SCI veterans. The current study suggests that the main aspects that should be evaluated in SCI veterans are the social, economic, cultural, medical, and environmental issues which affect their QOL. Moreover, participants put the most weight on their financial situation.

  14. A quantitative study of genital skin flora in male spinal cord-injured outpatients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T A; Waites, K B

    1993-06-01

    Skin flora from the perineum, penis and urethra of 15 adult male outpatients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and neurogenic bladder dysfunction were compared with that of 10 neurologically normal controls. Gram-positive cocci and diphtheroids were the predominant isolates from controls with no enteric organisms recovered except Escherichia coli in four instances. Among SCI patients, in addition to normal Gram-positive flora, one species of Gram-negative rod was isolated from three patients, two species from five patients, three species from three patients, four species from three patients and five species from one individual. Skin isolates included various members of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Enterococcus. Average bacterial counts in perineal, penile and urethral cultures from SCI patients were each 1 log greater than in controls. Bacteria were isolated from 12 of 14 urine cultures obtained from SCI patients immediately after collection of skin cultures. Organisms isolated from urine were present in one or more skin sites in every instance. Differences in skin flora between SCI patients and neurologically normal persons may be the result of variables such as antibiotic usage, presence of a condom catheter, skin moisture, urine leakage, pH, skin temperature, personal hygiene and/or neurogenic bowel management.

  15. Baclofen and the Release of Neuropeptides in the Cat Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Morton, C. R.; Hutchison, W. D.; Lacey, G.

    1992-01-01

    The antibody microprobe technique was used to study the effect of baclofen on the release of immunoreactive substance P and immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide within the lower lumbar spinal cord of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized spinalized cats. Both peptides were released in the region of the substantia gelatinosa during ipsilateral noxious cutaneous stimulation or high-intensity electrical stimulation of a hind limb nerve. Intravenous administration of baclofen suppressed the excitation of lumbar dorsal horn neurons, but did not produce detectable alterations of the evoked release of immunoreactive substance P or immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in the superficial grey matter dorsal to these neurons. The results suggest that the antinociceptive action of baclofen does not involve a reduction of the intraspinal release of substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide from the central terminals of nociceptive sensory fibres.

  16. Prophylactic neuroprotection with A91 improves the outcome of spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, A; Sosa, M; García, E; Flores, A; Cruz, Y; Mestre, H; Martiñón, S; Pineda-Rodríguez, B A; Gutiérrez-Ospina, G

    2013-10-25

    Iatrogenic injury to the spinal cord (SC) is not an uncommon complication of spinal surgery. In an attempt to establish a preventive therapy for anticipated SC injury, we tested the effect of a single dose (SD) vaccine vs. the addition of a booster dose (BD) of a neural-derived peptide (A91) prior to SC contusion. Immunization with A91 immediately after SC injury has demonstrated to induce significant tissue protection and motor recovery. After injury, only the BD vaccination schedule had a neuroprotective effect. It was capable of improving neurological recovery that was always significantly higher than the one observed in rats with SD immunization or those only treated with PBS. Toward the end of study, animals treated with an A91 BD presented a BBB score of 9.75±0.17 (mean±standard deviation) while rats treated with SD or PBS had a score of 6.6±0.7 and 5.6±0.6 respectively. In the next step we attempted to corroborate the neuroprotective effect induced by A91 immunization. For this purpose, we assessed the survival of rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) and ventral horn neurons (VHNs) sixty days after SC injury. BD vaccination induced a significant survival of both RSNs and VHNs after injury. Finally, the failure or success of this therapy (SD or BD respectively) was associated with a lower (SD) or higher (BD) A91-specific T cell proliferation. Prophylactic neuroprotection with an initial and subsequent booster dose of A91 may improve recovery after SC injury sustained during invasive spinal surgery procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Limb oxygenation during the cold pressor test in spinal cord-injured humans.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Hobara, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Azusa; Ogata, Toru

    2012-04-01

    To investigate changes in tissue oxygenation in the arm and leg during the cold pressor test in humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects with SCI at cervical 6 (n=7) and subjects with SCI at thoracic 5 or thoracic 6 (n=5) experienced 3-min cold water immersion of the foot and subsequent 10-min recovery. Changes in tissue oxygenation and blood pressure were determined. Tissue oxygenation was assessed by hemoglobin/myoglobin concentration (Hb/MbO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean arterial blood pressures increased significantly by 15±9 and 6±6 mmHg during cold water immersion in the cervical and thoracic SCI groups, respectively (P<0.001). Hb/MbO2 in the arm decreased significantly by 23±15 μM cm during cold water immersion only in the cervical SCI group (P<0.001), whereas Hb/MbO2 in the leg decreased significantly by 82±56 μM cm during cold water immersion only in the thoracic SCI group (P<0.001). Afferent activity coming from below the lesion due to cold stimuli would reflexively enhance sympathetic activity in both the arm and leg in individuals with cervical SCI but only in the leg in individuals with thoracic SCI. A decrease in tissue oxygenation might have been caused by sympathetic vasoconstriction. The reduction of tissue oxygenation in the arm was marked in individuals with cervical SCI, suggesting differential control of arm oxygenation and leg oxygenation in the region below SCI.

  18. Exercise Guidelines to Promote Cardiometabolic Health in Spinal Cord Injured Humans: Time to Raise the Intensity?

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Tom E; Metcalfe, Richard S; Vollaard, Niels B; Bilzon, James L

    2017-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared with the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by nondisabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic upper-body exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population. As such, these guidelines and their physiological basis require reappraisal. In this special communication, we propose that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a viable alternative exercise strategy to promote vigorous-intensity exercise and prevent cardiometabolic disease in persons with SCI. Supplementing the limited data from SCI cohorts with consistent findings from studies in nondisabled populations, we present strong evidence to suggest that HIIT is superior to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin sensitivity, and vascular function. The potential application and safety of HIIT in this population is also discussed. We conclude that increasing exercise intensity could offer a simple, readily available, time-efficient solution to improve cardiometabolic health in persons with SCI. We call for high-quality randomized controlled trials to examine the efficacy and safety of HIIT in this population. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to sexual activity: counselling spinal cord injured women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Julia, P E; Othman, A S

    2011-07-01

    This study is a cross-sectional, face-to-face interview. To examine the sexual activity in a sample of Malaysian women with traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs), identify the physical and psychological barriers to it, and explore their experiences with sexual counseling and rehabilitation. This study was conducted at the Spinal Rehabilitation Unit of a teaching hospital. All women who attended scheduled check-ups, over 1 year, and who met the inclusion criteria (age above 18 years, spinal injury of traumatic aetiology, living in the community and having completed the rehabilitation) were consecutively included in a face-to-face interview using a self-constructed questionnaire. Sociodemographic and disability-related variables, barriers to sexual activity/satisfaction and experiences of sexual rehabilitation services were obtained. During the study period, 33/36 subjects were recruited. Although 67% indicated interest in sexual activity, only 24% was sexually active. The frequency of sexual activity declined after the injury, from 4.6 times per month to 1.5 times per month. Feeling unattractive, unable to satisfy the partner and less confident about sexual ability were top three psychological barriers to sexual activity, and the top three physical barriers were impaired genital sensation, positioning and vaginal lubrication. In all, 50% received some sexual information during rehabilitation. Rehabilitation professionals were expected to initiate sexual counseling by 62.5% of subjects. The effect of SCIs on sexual function is tremendous. Sexual counseling services must be improved and take into account the impact of psychological factors.

  20. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  1. Objective measures of neighborhood environment and self-reported physical activity in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huifang; Tomey, Kristin; Chen, David; Savar, Nina L; Rimmer, James H; Braunschweig, Carol L

    2008-08-01

    To assess the relationship between objective neighborhood environment and self-reported physical activity (PA) and between PA and obesity-related risk factors in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). A cross-sectional study. Urban university. Men with SCI (N=131), 20 to 59 years old, at least 1 year postinjury and using wheelchair for mobility most of the time. Not applicable. Metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and low-high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and high C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as total PA metabolic equivalent score. Lower PA was associated with higher prevalence rate for elevated triglycerides, metabolic syndrome, and high CRP. Compared with those in low PA tertile, those in high PA tertile had significantly lower odds for elevated triglycerides (odds ratio [OR]=.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], .04-.80), metabolic syndrome (OR=.15; 95% CI, .03-.66) and high CRP (OR=.17; 95% CI, .04-.71) while adjusting for relevant factors. In crude analysis, lower PA was associated with neighborhood environmental characteristics including shorter distance to nearest transit stops, smaller mean block area, greater number of transit stops, high vacant housing, and higher neighborhood crime rate. In multivariate analysis higher total crime was the only risk factor significantly associated with lower PA level. Those living in higher crime rate neighborhoods had 86% lower odds of having greater than median PA level (OR=.14; 95% CI, .04-.49) than their counterparts. In men with SCI, lower PA is independently associated with having elevated triglycerides, metabolic syndrome, and high CRP. Additionally, lower PA is associated with higher neighborhood crime rate.

  2. The Effects of Body Mass Composition and Cushion Type on Seat-Interface Pressure in Spinal Cord Injured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Hee; Beom, Jaewon; Yuk, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of body mass composition and cushion type on seat-interface pressure in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects. Methods Twenty SCI patients and control subjects were included and their body mass composition measured. Seat-interface pressure was measured with participants in an upright sitting posture on a wheelchair with three kinds of seat cushion and without a seat cushion. We also measured the pressure with each participant in three kinds of sitting postures on each air-filled cushion. We used repeated measure ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman correlation coefficient for statistical analysis. Results The total skeletal muscle mass and body water in the lower extremities were significantly higher in the control group, whilst body fat was significantly higher in the SCI group. However, the seat-interface pressure and body mass composition were not significantly correlated in both groups. Each of the three types of seat cushion resulted in significant reduction in the seat-interface pressure. The SCI group had significantly higher seatinterface pressure than the control group regardless of cushion type or sitting posture. The three kinds of sitting posture did not result in a significant reduction of seat-interface pressure. Conclusion We confirmed that the body mass composition does not have a direct effect on seat-interface pressure. However, a reduction of skeletal muscle mass and body water can influence the occurrence of pressure ulcers. Furthermore, in order to minimize seat-interface pressure, it is necessary to apply a method fitted to each individual rather than a uniform method. PMID:26798612

  3. The Effects of Body Mass Composition and Cushion Type on Seat-Interface Pressure in Spinal Cord Injured Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang Hee; Beom, Jaewon; Yuk, Jee Hyun; Ahn, Seung-Chan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of body mass composition and cushion type on seat-interface pressure in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients and healthy subjects. Twenty SCI patients and control subjects were included and their body mass composition measured. Seat-interface pressure was measured with participants in an upright sitting posture on a wheelchair with three kinds of seat cushion and without a seat cushion. We also measured the pressure with each participant in three kinds of sitting postures on each air-filled cushion. We used repeated measure ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman correlation coefficient for statistical analysis. The total skeletal muscle mass and body water in the lower extremities were significantly higher in the control group, whilst body fat was significantly higher in the SCI group. However, the seat-interface pressure and body mass composition were not significantly correlated in both groups. Each of the three types of seat cushion resulted in significant reduction in the seat-interface pressure. The SCI group had significantly higher seatinterface pressure than the control group regardless of cushion type or sitting posture. The three kinds of sitting posture did not result in a significant reduction of seat-interface pressure. We confirmed that the body mass composition does not have a direct effect on seat-interface pressure. However, a reduction of skeletal muscle mass and body water can influence the occurrence of pressure ulcers. Furthermore, in order to minimize seat-interface pressure, it is necessary to apply a method fitted to each individual rather than a uniform method.

  4. Risk Analyses of Pressure Ulcer in Tetraplegic Spinal Cord-Injured Persons: A French Long-Term Survey.

    PubMed

    Le Fort, Marc; Espagnacq, Maude; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Ravaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    To identify the long-term clinical, individual, and social risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers (PUs) in traumatic spinal cord-injured persons with tetraplegia (TSCIt). Cohort survey with self-applied questionnaires in 1995 and 2006. Thirty-five French-speaking European physical medicine and rehabilitation centers participating in the Tetrafigap surveys. Tetraplegic adults (N=1641) were surveyed after an initial posttraumatic period of at least 2 years. Eleven years later, a follow-up was done for 1327 TSCIt, among whom 221 had died and 547 could be surveyed again. Not applicable. The proportion of PUs documented at the various defined time points, relative to the medical and social situations of the TSCIt, by using univariate analyses followed by logistic regression. Of the participants, 73.4% presented with a PU during at least 1 period after their injury. Four factors had an effect on the occurrence of PUs in the long-term. Protective features for this population were incomplete motor impairment (odds ratio, 0.5) and the ability to walk (odds ratio, 0.2), whereas a strong predictive factor was the development of a PU during the initial posttrauma phase (odds ratio, 2.7). Finally, a significant situational factor was the lack of a social network (odds ratio, 3.1). We believe that the highlighting of a motor incomplete feature of SCI (protective against the development of a PU) and of a medical risk factor, an early PU (which served as a definitive marker of the trajectory of TSCIt), together with a social situational factor, indicates the crucial role of initial management and long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute hemodynamic responses of spinal cord injured individuals to functional neuromuscular stimulation-induced knee extension exercise.

    PubMed

    Figoni, S F; Glaser, R M; Rodgers, M M; Hooker, S P; Ezenwa, B N; Collins, S R; Mathews, T; Suryaprasad, A G; Gupta, S C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare acute hemodynamic responses of spinal cord injured (SCI) quadriplegics (quads), and paraplegics (paras) during a graded-intensity knee extension (KE) exercise test utilizing functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) of paralyzed quadriceps muscles. Seven quads and seven paras (N = 14) performed a series of 4-minute stages of bilateral alternating FNS-KE exercise (approximately zero to 70 degree range of motion at the knee and 6 KE/min/leg) at ankle loads of 0, 5, 10, and 15 kg/leg. Physiologic responses were determined with open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and auscultation. Comparing rest with peak FNS-KE for both groups combined, FNS-KE exercise elicited significant (p less than 0.05) increases in oxygen uptake (130 percent), pulmonary ventilation (120 percent), respiratory exchange ratio (37 percent), arteriovenous oxygen difference (57 percent), cardiac output (32 percent), stroke volume (41 percent), mean arterial pressure (18 percent), and rate-pressure product (23 percent). Heart rate increased significantly by 11 percent from the 5- to the 15-kg/leg stages. Physiologic responses of quads and paras were very similar, except for lower (p less than 0.05) arterial pressures, rate-pressure product, and peripheral vascular resistance in quads. This graded FNS-KE exercise up to the 15-kg/leg load induced relatively small but appropriate increases in aerobic metabolism and cardiopulmonary responses that appear to be safe and easily tolerated by quads and paras. Arterial pressure needs to be monitored carefully in quads to prevent excessive hypertension or hypotension. Although FNS-KE exercise has been shown to elicit peripheral adaptations to improve muscle strength and endurance, it is probably not an effective central cardiovascular training tool for all but the least fit SCI individuals. This information is important for understanding the effects of FNS use during more complex activities such

  6. The morphology of hair follicle afferent fibre collaterals in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1977-11-01

    1. The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into single axons that innervated hair follicle receptors to study the morphology of their collaterals in the dorsal horn of the cord. The axons were impaled near the dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral spinal cord of anaesthetized cats and HRP injected by passing current through the intra-axonal micro-electrode. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry.2. Thirteen hair-follicle afferent fibres were stained including six that innervated tylotrichs (type T hair follicle afferent units) and one that innervated guard hairs (type G unit). The remaining six axons were not classified according to hair type, but, on the basis of their axonal conduction velocities, would have been either type G or T.3. Eleven axons could be traced back into the dorsal roots. Eight of these, upon entering the cord, turned and ran towards the brain. They did not divide into rostral and caudal branches. Three of the eleven did divide and gave rise to both rostral and caudal branches.4. Sixty-three collaterals were given off the thirteen stained axons. All well-filled collaterals had a strikingly similar morphology. They descended through laminae I-III of the dorsal horn into the deeper parts of lamina IV or into lamina V, before turning and ascending back into superficial lamina IV and lamina III where they branched profusely to give rise to their terminal arborizations. Terminal boutons, most commonly of the ;en passant' type, were numerous in lamina III, but were also seen in the dorsal part of lamina IV and in ventral lamina II. None were observed in dorsal lamina II or near the junction of the grey and white matter (lamina I) or in lamina V.5. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from a single hair follicle afferent fibre were in line with one another in the longitudinal axis of the cord. In the better-stained preparations the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals from a single axon formed a

  7. Capsid protein genetic analysis and viral spread to the spinal cord in cats experimentally infected with feline calicivirus (FCV).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Sato, Y; Ohe, K; Sakai, S; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Kishikawa, S; Yamamoto, S; Kiuchi, A; Hara, M; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    2005-08-01

    We investigated primitively the molecular basis of the neural spread of a feline calcivirus isolate (FCV-S) from the spinal cord of a cat that died after manifesting excitation. Experimental infections of cats with three clones from parent virus isolate FCV-S, isolated based on plaque size, were performed, and virus recovery from the spinal cord and the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the viral capsid protein region (ORF2) were compared. In the experimental infection with the one-time cloned virus (C1L1) isolated from a large plaque, the C1L1 was recovered from the spinal cord. In contrast, seven-times cloned C6L7 (from large plaque) and five-times cloned C5S2 (isolated from small plaque) were not recovered from the spinal cord. Genetic analysis of the capsid protein gene of the three viral clones revealed that four bases were different and two amino acids were different at positions 34 (Val in C6L7 and Ala in C1L1 and C5S2) and 46 (Leu in C6L7 and Pro in C1L1 and C5S2) between C6L7 (with large plaque) and C5S2 (with small plaque). The amino acid at position 434 of C1L1 was different from those of C6L7 and C5S2 (Gly in C1L1, D (Asp) in C6L7 and C5S2). From these results, the plaque size seemed not to be related to the spread of virus to the spinal cord. Clone C1L1, which spread to the spinal cord, had a difference of one amino acid from the other two clones, which may be related to the ability to spread to the spinal cord.

  8. Presynaptic depolarization of unmyelinated primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Calvillo, O; Madrid, J; Rudomín, P

    1982-06-01

    Low intensity (1-20 micro A) intraspinal stimulation produces in the sural nerve of the anesthetized cat short latency responses (3-4 ms) due to antidromic activation of fibers conducting in the A range (43-65 m/s). With higher stimulus intensities (up to 400 micro A) late responses (120-250 ms latency) may also be recorded. Simultaneous recording from two sites in the sural nerve shows that the peripheral processes of the fibers generating the late responses have a conduction velocity between 0.8-1.3 m/s. Collision between antidromic and orthodromic responses further indicates that these fibers have a peripheral threshold 20-25 times that of the A fibers. The late responses were largest when the intraspinal stimulating electrode was located in the dorsal horn, in the region corresponding to Laminae II and III of Rexed. The above observations suggest that the late responses are due to population responses of C fibers which are antidromically activated in the dorsal horn. The excitability of the C fiber terminals is increased by conditioning stimuli applied to other cutaneous afferents with a time course resembling that of the excitability increase of the A fibers on the same nerve. It is suggested that the effectiveness of synaptic transmission from C fibers to second order cells may be modulated presynaptically. In the decerebrate cat the antidromic responses of C fibers are reduced, but not abolished, by reversible spinalization produced by cooling or by sectioning the thoracic spinal cord. This suggests in addition that in the decerebrate preparation the presynaptic effectiveness of the C fiber (presumably nociceptive) input may be tonically decreased by supraspinal influences.

  9. Treatment of chronically injured spinal cord with neurotrophic factors stimulates betaII-tubulin and GAP-43 expression in rubrospinal tract neurons.

    PubMed

    Storer, Paul D; Dolbeare, Dirk; Houle, John D

    2003-11-15

    Exogenous neurotrophic factors provided at a spinal cord injury site promote regeneration of chronically injured rubrospinal tract (RST) neurons into a peripheral nerve graft. The present study tested whether the response to neurotrophins is associated with changes in the expression of two regeneration-associated genes, betaII-tubulin and growth-associated protein (GAP)-43. Adult female rats were subjected to a right full hemisection lesion via aspiration of the C3 spinal cord. A second aspiration lesion was made 4 weeks later and gel foam saturated in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was applied to the lesion site for 60 min. Using in situ hybridization, RST neurons were examined for changes in mRNA levels of betaII-tubulin and GAP-43 at 1, 3, and 7 days after treatment. Based on analysis of gene expression in single cells, there was no effect of BDNF treatment on either betaII-tubulin or GAP-43 mRNA expression at any time point. betaII-Tubulin mRNA levels were enhanced significantly at 1 and 3 days in animals treated with GDNF relative to levels in animals treated with PBS. Treatment with GDNF did not affect GAP-43 mRNA levels at 1 and 3 days, but at 7 days there was a significant increase in mRNA expression. Interestingly, 7 days after GDNF treatment, the mean cell size of chronically injured RST neurons was increased significantly. Although GDNF and BDNF both promote axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons, only GDNF treatment is associated with upregulation of betaII-tubulin or GAP-43 mRNA. It is not clear from the present study how exogenous BDNF stimulates regrowth of injured axons.

  10. The Effect of Nitric Oxide Inhibition in Spinal Cord Injured Humans with and without Preserved Sympathetic Control of the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachael; Celermajer, David; Macefield, Vaughan; Sander, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) causes a hypertensive response, which has been attributed both to inhibition of peripheral NO-mediated vasodilatation and to inhibition of central nervous NO-production leading to a later onset sympathetic vasoconstriction. In the present study we aimed to test the importance of these two mechanisms by comparing the time-courses of the hypertensive responses in spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects with varying degrees of loss of sympathetic vascular control depending on level of injury as well as able-bodied controls. We hypothesized that high level SCI with no sympathetic vasoconstrictor control would have an abbreviated time-course of the hypertensive response to the NO-inhibitor L-NAME, because they would lack the late onset sympathetic component to the hypertensive response. NO production was blocked in 12 subjects with SCI and 6 controls by intravenous infusion of L-NAME (1.55–2.7 mg/kg). We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular conductance in the carotid, brachial, and femoral arteries before, during, and after 1 h of L-NAME in a 4-h protocol. Peak increases in mean arterial pressure were significantly larger in high level SCI vs. controls: 32 ± 6 vs. 12 ± 2 mmHg (both groups received 1.55 mg/kg). The decreases in vascular conductance in the brachial and femoral vascular beds were also larger in the high level SCI group, whereas decreases in heart rate and carotid conductance were not significantly different between the groups. There were no indications of any abbreviated responses in blood pressure or vascular conductance in the high level SCI compared to control. The mid level and low-level SCI subject had responses similar to controls. These data confirm previous reports that NO inhibition causes a larger increase in blood pressure in high level SCI, and extend these data by providing evidence for differences in vascular conductance in the limbs. The current data do not support an

  11. Effects of 4-aminopyridine on synaptic transmission in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, E; Lundberg, A; Rudomin, P; Sykova, E

    1982-05-20

    An analysis was made of effects of 0.1-1.0 mg/kg 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) i.v. on excitatory and inhibitory spinal reflex pathways in lightly anaesthetized or decerebrated cats. The effects appeared within the first minutes of the injection, reached maximum after about 10-15 min and remained stable during at least several hours. 4-AP enhanced the following synaptic actions on motoneurones: monosynaptic excitation from Ia afferents and descending tracts, disynaptic and polysynaptic excitation from group Ib, group II, cutaneous and high threshold muscle afferents, disynaptic inhibition from Ia and Ib afferents and recurrent and polysynaptic inhibition from different afferents. 4-AP also increased primary afferent depolarization and excitation of ascending tract cells by peripheral stimuli. In the case of the disynaptic inhibitory pathways it has been shown that 4-AP may enhance the excitation of the interposed interneurones but it also increases the action of these interneurones on the motoneurones; monosynaptic inhibition evoked in motoneurones by electrical stimulation of the axons of the inhibitory interneurones was used as a test response in these experiments. No indications were found of direct effects of 4-AP on excitability of afferent fibres or motoneurones to electrical stimuli. No systematic changes were either found in the membrane potential of motoneurones or in the duration of action potentials of these neurones or primary afferents. It is therefore concluded that small doses of 4-AP enhance synaptic transmission in the spinal cord by an action at a presynaptic level.

  12. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis accelerates the recovery of polysynaptic reflex potentials after transient spinal cord ischemia in cats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, T; Sekikawa, T; Suzuki, T; Moriya, H; Nakaya, H

    1997-04-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of neuronal injury in vascular stroke. On the other hand, NO is suggested to play a neuroprotective role by increasing blood flow during cerebral ischemia. In order to evaluate the role of NO in the spinal cord ischemia, effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the recovery of reflex potentials after a transient spinal cord ischemia were examined in urethane-chloralose anesthetized spinal cats. Spinal cord ischemia was produced by occlusion of the thoracic aorta and the both internal mammary arteries for 10 min. Regional blood flow (RBF) in the spinal cord was continuously measured with a laser-Doppler flow meter. The monosynaptic (MSR) and polysynaptic reflex (PSR) potentials elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve, were recorded from the L7 or S1 ventral root. The recovery process of spinal reflex potentials was reproducible when the oclusion was repeated twice at an interval of 120 min. Pretreatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg/kg), a NOS inhibitor significantly accelerated the recovery of PSR potentials after spinal cord ischemia. The accelerating effect of L-NMMA on the recovery of PSR potentials was abolished by co-administration of L-arginine (1 mg/kg/min) but not by that of D-arginine (1 mg/kg/min). L-NMMA failed to improve RBF in the spinal cord during ischemia and reperfusion. Nitroprusside (10 microg/kg/min), a NO donor, retarded the recovery of PSR potentials after spinal cord ischemia. These results suggest that NO production has a significant influence on the functional recovery after transient spinal cord ischemia.

  13. Intersegmental synchronization of spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurons in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, E; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2003-02-01

    Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity made in the lumbosacral spinal segments of the anesthetized cat have disclosed the existence of a set of neurons in Rexed's laminae III-VI that discharged in a highly synchronized manner during the occurrence of spontaneous negative cord dorsum potentials (nCDPs) and responded to stimulation of low-threshold cutaneous fibers (<1.5x T) with mono- and polysynaptic latencies. The cross-correlation between the spontaneous discharges of pairs of synchronic neurons was highest when they were close to each other, and decreased with increasing longitudinal separation. Simultaneous recordings of nCDPs from several segments in preparations with the peripheral nerves intact have disclosed the existence of synchronized spontaneous nCDPs in segments S1-L4. These potentials lasted between 25 and 70 ms and were usually larger in segments L7-L5, where they attained amplitudes between 50 and 150 micro V. The transection of the intact ipsilateral hindlimb cutaneous and muscle nerves, or the section of the dorsal columns between the L5 and L6, or between the L6 and L7 segments in preparations with already transected nerves, had very small effects on the intersegmental synchronization of the spontaneous nCDPs and on the power spectra of the cord dorsum potentials recorded in the lumbosacral enlargement. In contrast, sectioning the ipsilateral dorsal horn and the dorsolateral funiculus at these segmental levels strongly decoupled the spontaneous nCDPs generated rostrally from those generated caudally to the lesion and reduced the magnitude of the power spectra throughout the whole frequency range. These results indicate that the lumbosacral intersegmental synchronization between the spontaneous nCDPs does not require sensory inputs and is most likely mediated by intra- and intersegmental connections. It is suggested that the occurrence of spontaneous synchronized nCDPs is due to the activation of tightly coupled arrays of neurons, each

  14. Cardio Respiratory Adaptations with Long Term Personalized Exercise Program in a T12 Spinal Cord Injured Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Christoulas, Kosmas; Evaggelinou, Christina; Vrabas, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological adaptations in cardio respiratory endurance with a personalized exercise program with arm-cranking exercise in a paraplegic person (incomplete T12 spinal cord injury). A 32 year-old man with spinal cord injury (T12) participated in the present study performing 30 minutes arm cranking…

  15. 'It was hard but you did it': the co-production of 'work' in a clinical setting among spinal cord injured adults and their physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on what takes place during the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured (SCI) adults. It analyses the cardinal rehabilitation task of transforming the compromised, limited and injured corporeal style of newly injured adults (best described phenomenologically as an 'I cannot do' or 'I no longer can') into a new style of embodiment, one in which 'I am newly abled'. This transformation is not a passive, surrendering experience. Rather, as informants repeatedly noted, 'rehabilitation is hard work'. This paper examines that 'work'. This paper draws from observational and interview data collected over an 18-month period in a metropolitan rehabilitation centre in the Midwestern United States. It presents an exemplar case of a clinical setting, that between a physical therapist and her SCI client. The interactional and meaning-making nature of clinical encounters are explicated, revealing the collaborative and situational constitution of rehabilitation work. Experience-near, phenomenologically informed, research is shown to be a valuable way of understanding rehabilitation practices and how they might affect inpatients and staff.

  16. Experimental Strategies to Bridge Large Tissue Gaps in the Injured Spinal Cord after Acute and Chronic Lesion.

    PubMed

    Brazda, Nicole; Estrada, Veronica; Voss, Christian; Seide, Klaus; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Hans Werner

    2016-04-05

    After a spinal cord injury (SCI) a scar forms in the lesion core which hinders axonal regeneration. Bridging the site of injury after an insult to the spinal cord, tumor resections, or tissue defects resulting from traumatic accidents can aid in facilitating general tissue repair as well as regenerative growth of nerve fibers into and beyond the affected area. Two experimental treatment strategies are presented: (1) implantation of a novel microconnector device into an acutely and completely transected thoracic rat spinal cord to readapt severed spinal cord tissue stumps, and (2) polyethylene glycol filling of the SCI site in chronically lesioned rats after scar resection. The chronic spinal cord lesion in this model is a complete spinal cord transection which was inflicted 5 weeks before treatment. Both methods have recently achieved very promising outcomes and promoted axonal regrowth, beneficial cellular invasion and functional improvements in rodent models of spinal cord injury. The mechanical microconnector system (mMS) is a multi-channel system composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS lumen thus pulling the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. After its implantation into the 1 mm tissue gap the tissue is sucked into the device. Furthermore, the inner walls of the mMS are microstructured for better tissue adhesion. In the case of the chronic spinal cord injury approach, spinal cord tissue - including the scar-filled lesion area - is resected over an area of 4 mm in length. After the microsurgical scar resection the resulting cavity is filled with polyethylene glycol (PEG 600) which was found to provide an excellent substratum for cellular invasion, revascularization, axonal regeneration and even compact remyelination in vivo.

  17. The spinal control of ejaculation revisited: a systematic review and meta-analysis of anejaculation in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Chéhensse, Clément; Bahrami, Stéphane; Denys, Pierre; Clément, Pierre; Bernabé, Jacques; Giuliano, François

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND After spinal cord injury (SCI), most men cannot ejaculate without medical assistance. A major advance in the knowledge of the spinal control of ejaculation has been achieved with the discovery of a spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE) in the rat. The aim of this report was to review studies about ejaculation after SCI in order to revisit the spinal control of ejaculation and especially to assess the existence of an SGE in man. METHODS Studies were identified from Embase, PubMed, EBSCOhost and Cochrane Library. Studies were eligible when they specify the occurrence of antegrade ejaculation as a function of the neurological characterization of SCI. Studies were excluded when ejaculation was elicited by rectal electrical stimulation or when ejaculation could not be discriminated from climax. Meta-analyses were performed to assess the reference ejaculation rates for each procedure used to elicit ejaculation, i.e. masturbation or coïtus, penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or acetylcholine esterase (AchE) inhibitors prior to masturbation. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the procedure used to elicit ejaculation on (i) the completeness of the SCI and (ii) the upper and lower limits of the SCI. To assess the existence of an SGE, the effect of concurrent lesions of different spinal segments was assessed by means of a stratified bivariate analysis. RESULTS From 523 studies, 45 were selected (n = 3851). Ejaculation occurred in response to masturbation or coïtus, PVS or AchE inhibitors followed by masturbation in, respectively, 11.8% (n = 1161), 47.4% (n = 597) and 54.7% (n = 309) of patients with complete SCI and in, respectively, 33.2% (n = 343), 52.8% (n = 305) and 78.1% (n = 32) of patients with incomplete SCI. Ejaculation, in the case of complete lesion of the sympathetic centres (T12 to L2), of the parasympathetic and somatic centres (S2-S4) or of all spinal ejaculation centres (T12 to S5) occurred in response to PVS in none of the patients

  18. Spinal Glia Division Contributes to Conditioning Lesion-Induced Axon Regeneration Into the Injured Spinal Cord: Potential Role of Cyclic AMP-Induced Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaqing; Angert, Mila; Nishihara, Tasuku; Shubayev, Igor; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I

    2015-06-01

    Regeneration of sensory neurons after spinal cord injury depends on the function of dividing neuronal-glial antigen 2 (NG2)-expressing cells. We have shown that increases in the number of dividing NG2-positive cells through short-term pharmacologic inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases contributes to recovery after spinal cord injury. A conditioning sciatic nerve crush (SNC) preceding spinal cord injury stimulates central sensory axon regeneration via the intraganglionic action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Here, using bromodeoxyuridine, mitomycin (mitosis inhibitor), and cholera toxin B tracer, we demonstrate that SNC-induced division of spinal glia is related to the spinal induction of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and contributes to central sensory axon growth into the damaged spinal cord. Dividing cells were mainly NG2-positive and Iba1-positive and included myeloid NG2-positive populations. The cells dividing in response to SNC mainly matured into oligodendrocytes and microglia within the injured spinal cord. Some postmitotic cells remained NG2-reactive and were associated with regenerating fibers. Moreover, intraganglionic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression was induced after administration of SNC or cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog (dbcAMP) to dorsal root ganglia in vivo and in primary adult dorsal root ganglia cultures. Collectively, these findings support a novel model whereby a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activated regeneration program induced in sensory neurons by a conditioning peripheral nerve lesion uses tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 to protect against short-term proteolysis, enabling glial cell division and promoting axon growth into the damaged CNS.

  19. Olfactory ensheathing glia: their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Elske H P; de Bree, Freddy M; Verhaagen, Joost

    2007-11-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are a specialized type of glia that guide primary olfactory axons from the neuroepithelium in the nasal cavity to the brain. The primary olfactory system is able to regenerate after a lesion and OEG contribute to this process by providing a growth-supportive environment for newly formed axons. In the spinal cord, axons are not able to restore connections after an injury. The effects of OEG transplants on the regeneration of the injured spinal cord have been studied for over a decade. To date, of all the studies using only OEG as a transplant, 41 showed positive effects, while 13 studies showed limited or no effects. There are several contradictory reports on the migratory and axon growth-supporting properties of transplanted OEG. Hence, the regenerative potential of OEG has become the subject of intense discussion. In this review, we first provide an overview of the molecular and cellular characteristics of OEG in their natural environment, the primary olfactory nervous system. Second, their potential to stimulate regeneration in the injured spinal cord is discussed. OEG influence scar formation by their ability to interact with astrocytes, they are able to remyelinate axons and promote angiogenesis. The ability of OEG to interact with scar tissue cells is an important difference with Schwann cells and may be a unique characteristic of OEG. Because of these effects after transplantation and because of their role in primary olfactory system regeneration, the OEG can be considered as a source of neuroregeneration-promoting molecules. To identify these molecules, more insight into the molecular biology of OEG is required. We believe that genome-wide gene expression studies of OEG in their native environment, in culture and after transplantation will ultimately reveal unique combinations of molecules involved in the regeneration-promoting potential of OEG.

  20. Sepsis of the hip due to pressure sore in spinal cord injured patients: advocacy for a one-stage surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Le Fort, M; Rome-Saulnier, J; Lejeune, F; Bellier-Waast, F; Touchais, S; Kieny, P; Duteille, F; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2014-11-04

    Study design:Retrospective study reporting characteristics and management of septic arthritis of the hip due to pressure sores in spinal cord-injured patients.Objectives:To describe clinical and biological data of septic arthritis of the hip and its treating management.Setting:The database of the regional SCI referral center, Nantes, France.Methods:We retrospectively collected data from 33 cases of septic arthritis of the hip in the medical files of 26 patients.Results:We analyzed 33 cases of septic arthritis of the hip treated in one French referent center for spinal cord-injured patients from January 1988 to December 2009. Most patients had a thoracic complete paraplegia and nearly two-third (17 out of 26) had no systematic follow-up. In 25 out of 33 cases, the septic arthritis of the hip was due to a trochanteric pressure sore. The causal pressure sore was most frequently associated with a persistent drainage. The standard radiological examination led to the diagnosis in 30 cases and, in 7 questionable cases, magnetic resonance imaging was more contributory. Surgery always consisted of a wide carcinological-like excision and of a subtrochanteric proximal femoral resection including both greater and lesser trochanters. A musculocutaneous flap was realized for all cases and the choice of the muscle depended on the localization of the causal pressure sore but also of the remaining choices, as most of the patients had already undergone a prior surgery. An antibiotic treatment was adapted to multiple samples during surgery.Conclusion:We do advocate for a one-stage procedure including a subtrochanteric proximal femoral resection and a musculocutaneous flap.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 4 November 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.170.

  1. A functional progesterone receptor is required for immunomodulation, reduction of reactive gliosis and survival of oligodendrocyte precursors in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Labombarda, Florencia; Jure, Ignacio; Gonzalez, Susana; Lima, Analia; Roig, Paulina; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael; De Nicola, Alejandro F

    2015-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone have been increasingly recognized in several neuropathological models, including spinal cord inflammation. In the present investigation, we explored the regulation of proinflammatory factors and enzymes by progesterone at several time points after spinal cord injury (SCI) in male rats. We also demonstrated the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) in inhibiting inflammation and reactive gliosis, and in enhancing the survival of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPC) in injured PR knockout (PRKO) mice receiving progesterone. First, after SCI in rats, progesterone greatly attenuated the injury-induced hyperexpression of the mRNAs of interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), all involved in oligodendrocyte damage. Second, the role of the PR was investigated in PRKO mice after SCI, in which progesterone failed to reduce the high expression of IL1β, IL6, TNFα and IκB-α mRNAs, the latter being considered an index of reduced NF-κB transactivation. These effects occurred in a time framework coincident with a reduction in the astrocyte and microglial responses. In contrast to wild-type mice, progesterone did not increase the density of OPC and did not prevent apoptotic death of these cells in PRKO mice. Our results support a role of PR in: (a) the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone; (b) the modulation of astrocyte and microglial responses and (c) the prevention of OPC apoptosis, a mechanism that would enhance the commitment of progenitors to the remyelination pathway in the injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Differential effects of myelin basic protein-activated Th1 and Th2 cells on the local immune microenvironment of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yue-Juan; Xie, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, An-You; Jiang, Zheng-Song; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Chen; Xi, Jin; Lü, He-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) activated T cells (MBP-T) play an important role in the damage and repair process of the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether these cells play a beneficial or detrimental role is still a matter of debate. Although some studies showed that MBP-T cells are mainly helper T (Th) cells, their subtypes are still not very clear. One possible explanation for MBP-T immunization leading to conflicting results may be the different subtypes of T cells are responsible for distinct effects. In this study, the Th1 and Th2 type MBP-T cells (MBP-Th1 and -Th2) were polarized in vitro, and their effects on the local immune microenvironment and tissue repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) after adoptive immunization were investigated. In MBP-Th1 cell transferred rats, the high levels of pro-inflammatory cells (Th1 cells and M1 macrophages) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, -β, IL-1β) were detected in the injured spinal cord; however, the anti-inflammatory cells (Th2 cells, regulatory T cells, and M2 macrophages) and cytokines (IL-4, -10, and -13) were found in MBP-Th2 cell transferred animals. MBP-Th2 cell transfer resulted in decreased lesion volume, increased myelination of axons, and preservation of neurons. This was accompanied by significant locomotor improvement. These results indicate that MBP-Th2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects on the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of Th2 cells may alter the local microenvironment from one primarily populated by Th1 and M1 cells to another dominated by Th2, Treg, and M2 cells and is conducive for SCI repair.

  3. Projections from the rostral mesencephalic reticular formation to the spinal cord - An HRP and autoradiographical tracing study in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, G.; Cowie, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase was injected, or implanted unilaterally, into various levels of the spinal cord of anesthetized cats, to trace the distribution of projections to the spinal cord, of neurons in Field H of Forel, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal with adjacent reticular formation (INC-RF). Results indicate that, unlike the neurons projecting to the extraocular muscle motoneurons, the major portion of the spinally projecting neurons are not located in the riMLF or INC proper, but in adjacent areas, i.e., the ventral and lateral parts of the caudal third of the Field H of Forel and in the INC-RF. Neurons in caudal Field H of Forel, project, via the ventral part of the ventral funicululs, to the lateral part of the upper cervical ventral horn.

  4. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  5. Projections from the rostral mesencephalic reticular formation to the spinal cord - An HRP and autoradiographical tracing study in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, G.; Cowie, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase was injected, or implanted unilaterally, into various levels of the spinal cord of anesthetized cats, to trace the distribution of projections to the spinal cord, of neurons in Field H of Forel, including the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal with adjacent reticular formation (INC-RF). Results indicate that, unlike the neurons projecting to the extraocular muscle motoneurons, the major portion of the spinally projecting neurons are not located in the riMLF or INC proper, but in adjacent areas, i.e., the ventral and lateral parts of the caudal third of the Field H of Forel and in the INC-RF. Neurons in caudal Field H of Forel, project, via the ventral part of the ventral funicululs, to the lateral part of the upper cervical ventral horn.

  6. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  7. Traumatic spinal cord injury caused by suspected hyperflexion of the atlantoaxial joint in a 10-year-old cat

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Angela; Hammond, Gawain

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 10-year-old cat presented 5 days after a traumatic event with acute recumbency followed by some clinical improvement. The neuroanatomical localisation was the C1–C5 spinal cord segments. Initial survey radiographs, including lateral flexed views, showed no convincing abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a marked focal intramedullary lesion at the level of the dens and suspected oedema extending over C2–C3 vertebrae, suggesting early syrinx formation. The cat made an initial excellent recovery on restricted exercise without medical treatment. The MRI changes largely resolved on follow-up MRI 4 weeks later yet recurred following a relapse 4 months later. At this stage, a post-traumatic syrinx had developed. Moreover, the suspected atlantoaxial instability was finally diagnosed on radiography with fully flexed lateral views. A hyperflexion injury causing tearing of the atlantoaxial ligaments was considered most likely given the lack of malformations or fractures. The cat made a full recovery on conservative management. Relevance and novel information This is the first report of sequential MRI findings in a cat with atlantoaxial instability. Moreover, post-traumatic syringomyelia formation following atlantoaxial injury has not been reported. Sequential MRI aids in the diagnosis of hyperflexion injury if survey radiographs fail to identify atlantoaxial instability. PMID:28491364

  8. Specific and potassium components in the depolarization of the la afferents in the spinal cord of the cat.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M; Vyklicky, L

    1983-08-01

    In the cat spinal cord, primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of group Ia fibers of extensor muscles is produced by high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz) of group I muscle flexor afferents without significant increases in extracellular potassium. On the other hand, the PAD produced by stimulation of mixed and pure cutaneous nerves correlates well with increases in potassium ions. We conclude that the PAD produced by group I muscle afferents results from the activation of specific pathways making axo-axonic synapses with the Ia fiber terminals. The PAD of Ia fibers resulting from activation of cutaneous nerves involves instead unspecific accumulation of potassium ions.

  9. [Central pattern generators in the spinal cord of the cat and their relevance in rehabilitation after spinal lesion].

    PubMed

    Dillenseger, A; Schulze, S; Martens, H; Schmidt, M J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the spinal cord to recover after partial or complete transection, and even reinitiate motor function, was investigated in several studies in cats. It has been shown that even after a complete spinalisation at the level of T12/T13, the possibility of restoration of hind-limb function is good. Central pattern generators (CPGs), located in the spinal cord, play an important role in this situation. Although CPGs alone are unable to restore function, the combination of CPGs with targeted and consistent mobility training and, in some cases, hind-limb sensory stimulation is essential to improve function. These result in a reorganisation of the CPGs and neuronal networks in the spinal cord. The age of the animal at the time of injury and the extent and localisation of lesions, play a crucial role in recovery. A new focus of research is the influence of neurotransmitters/neuromodulators on spinal-cord regeneration. How and to what extent these factors support locomotor training remains for further clinical investigation.

  10. Ultrastructure of pacinian corpuscle primary afferent terminals in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Semba, K; Masarachia, P; Malamed, S; Jacquin, M; Harris, S; Egger, M D

    1984-06-04

    The glabrous skin of the hindlimb of the cat contains 3 types of low-threshold mechanoreceptors: Pacinian corpuscles (PC), and slowly and rapidly adapting receptors. In the present study, 12 primary afferent fibers transmitting impulses from PC were injected intra-axonally with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the spinal cord to examine the morphology of their terminals in the dorsal horn. At the light microscopic level, terminal arborizations were observed in laminae II-VI of the dorsal horn, extending up to 7 mm rostrocaudally in and near the seventh lumbar segment. Bouton-like swellings, predominantly (67%) of the en passant type, were distributed in two discrete clusters, one concentrated rostrally in Rexed's laminae III-IV, and the other concentrated caudally in lamina V. At the electron microscopic level, a combination of morphometric and serial reconstructive analyses with 3 fibers revealed the following. Boutons labelled with HRP invariably contained clear round vesicles, approximately 40 nm in diameter. Labelled bouton sections had longest dimensions of 1.84 +/- 0.63 micron. Their shapes varied from rounded to elongated forms with occasional scalloped appearances. A majority (73%) of the contacts associated with HRP-filled boutons were made with dendritic spines and shafts. Thick postsynaptic densities were usually associated with these synapses, although thinner densities were also observed. 24% of the contacts made by labelled boutons were synapse-like contacts with unlabelled vesicle-containing structures. The vesicles in the unlabelled structures were usually pleomorphic, but sometimes round. These contacts were identified as 'synapse-like' because labelling obscured possible landmarks necessary for definitive identification of synapses. However, in most of these contacts, there was an accumulation of vesicles near the cleft on the unlabelled side, suggesting that the labelled boutons were postsynaptic. Only 3% of the contacts made by labelled boutons

  11. Responses of the Acutely Injured Spinal Cord to Vibration that Simulates Transport in Helicopters or Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Manouchehri, Neda; Melnyk, Angela D; Chak, Jason; Tigchelaar, Seth; So, Kitty; Okon, Elena B; Jiang, Shudong; Kinsler, Rachel; Barazanji, Khalid; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2016-12-15

    In the military environment, injured soldiers undergoing medical evacuation via helicopter or mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle (MRAP) are subjected to vibration and shock inherent to the transport vehicle. We conducted the present study to assess the consequences of such vibration on the acutely injured spinal cord. We used a porcine model of spinal cord injury (SCI). After a T10 contusion-compression injury, animals were subjected to 1) no vibration (n = 7-8), 2) whole body vibration at frequencies and amplitudes simulating helicopter transport (n = 8), or 3) whole body vibration simulating ground transportation in an MRAP ambulance (n = 7). Hindlimb locomotor function (using Porcine Thoracic Injury Behavior Scale [PTIBS]), Eriochrome Cyanine histochemistry and biochemical analysis of inflammatory and neural damage markers were analyzed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) expression levels for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were similar between the helicopter or MRAP group and the unvibrated controls. Spared white/gray matter tended to be lower in the MRAP-vibrated animals than in the unvibrated controls, especially rostral to the epicenter. However, spared white/gray matter in the helicopter-vibrated group appeared normal. Although there was a relationship between the extent of sparing and the extent of locomotor recovery, no significant differences were found in PTIBS scores between the groups. In summary, exposures to vibration in the context of ground (MRAP) or aeromedical (helicopter) transportation did not significantly impair functional outcome in our large animal model of SCI. However, MRAP vibration was associated with increased tissue damage around the injury site, warranting caution around exposure to vehicle vibration acutely after SCI.

  12. Feline ischaemic myelopathy with a predilection for the cranial cervical spinal cord in older cats.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Katherine M; De Risio, Luisa; Theobald, Anita; Garosi, Laurent; Lowrie, Mark

    2014-12-01

    All previous studies on feline ischaemic myelopathy (IM) have reported an acute onset of a single event with no recurrence of clinical signs. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and long-term follow-up data in cats presumptively diagnosed with cervical IM in the territory of the ventral spinal artery (VSA). Eight cats (four females and four males) were included with a mean age of 14 years and 2 months. Neurological status at the time of presentation ranged from ambulatory tetraparesis to tetraplegia with nociception present. Six cats had marked cervical ventroflexion. All eight cats were diagnosed with one or more concurrent medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (n = 2), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and hypertension (n = 6). Median time to ambulation was 5.7 days (range 2-14 days). Long-term follow-up ranged from 7 months to 3 years and 3 months (median 1 year and 2 months). Five cats had no reported recurrence of clinical signs and 3/8 had a chronic relapsing disease course. One cat had an acute recurrence of clinical signs 4 months after the first event and was euthanased. Two cats had acute onsets of suspected intracranial infarctions, one of which had further suspected intracranial infarcts every 3 months and was euthanased after one of these. This study highlights the importance of performing ancillary diagnostic tests in older cats presenting with IM, particularly when VSA embolisation is suspected.

  13. Crossed and uncrossed projections to the cat sacrocaudal spinal cord: III. Axons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Ritz, L A; Murray, C R; Foli, K

    2001-10-01

    We have investigated the projection patterns of peptidergic small-diameter primary afferent fibers to the cat sacrocaudal spinal cord, a region associated with midline structures of the lower urogenital system and of the tail. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) primary afferent fibers were observed within the superficial laminae, rostrally as the typical inverted U-shaped band that capped the separate dorsal horns (S1 to rostral S2) and caudally as a broad band that spanned the entire mediolateral extent of the fused dorsal horns (caudal S2 and caudal). Within the dorsal gray commissure, labeling was seen as a periodic vertical, midline band. CGRP-IR labeling was prevalent in an extensive mediolateral distribution at the base of the dorsal horn, originating from both lateral and medial collateral bundles that extend from the superficial dorsal horn. Some bundles, in part traveling within the dorsal commissure, conspicuously crossed the midline. In addition to the robust projection to the superficial dorsal horn, there was a more extensive distribution of CGRP-IR fibers within the deeper portions of the cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn than has been reported for other regions of the cat spinal cord. Presumably, these deep projections convey visceral information to projection or segmental neurons at the neck of the dorsal horn and in the region of the central canal. This deep distribution overlaps the reported projections of the pelvic and pudendal nerves. In addition, the contralateral projections of CGRP-IR fibers may form an anatomical substrate of the bilateral receptive fields for selective dorsal horn neurons. The density and variety of CGRP-IR projection patterns is a reflection of the functional attributes of the innervated structures.

  14. Morphology and organization of axon collaterals from afferent fibres of slowly adapting type I units in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A G; Rose, P K; Snow, P J

    1978-01-01

    1. The morphology of the collaterals of single axons innervating Type I slowly adapting receptors was studied by using the intra-axonal injection of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase in anaesthetized cats. The axons were impaled near their dorsal root entrance zone in the lumbosacral cord. The morphology was revealed by subsequent histochemistry. 2. Thirteen Type I axons were stained, nine with receptors in the hairy skin and four with receptors in the glabrous foot pad skin. Twelve axons could be traced back into their dorsal roots and 11 of these divided into rostral and caudal branches shortly after entering the spinal cord. 3. One hundred and twelve collaterals were given off the thirteen axons and all well filled collaterals had a similar morphology. In the dorsal horn they gave rise to wide elliptical areas of terminal arborization (in transverse sections of cord) that were limited to laminae III, IV and the dorsal part of lamina V. The terminal arborizations of collaterals from the same axon were in line in the saggittal plane, but only rarely did the terminal arborizations of adjacent collaterals overlap; usually there was a gap between adjacent terminal arborizations. 4. Synaptic boutons of Type I units from hairy skin were mainly of the "en passant" variety whereas those of Type I units from glabrous skin were generally "boutons terminaux" with very few boutons "de passage". 5. The morphology of axon collaterals of Type I units is compared with that of hair follicle units. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:650514

  15. Prevalence and risk-factors of neurogenic heterotopic ossification in traumatic spinal cord and traumatic brain injured patients admitted to specialised units in Australia.

    PubMed

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Marshall, R; Jelbart, M; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2014-03-01

    To identify the prevalence and risk factors in the development of Neurogenic Heterotopic Ossification (NHO) in traumatic brain and spinal cord injured patients admitted to specialised units. An audit protocol was used to gather all clinically relevant data, in specific patient groups, relating to the prevalence of NHO, and was statistically analysed to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) patients at high risk of developing NHO. 262 TBI and 151 TSCI patients were identified. NHO was diagnosed in 10 and 16 patients with TBI and TSCI, respectively; 18 clinically relevant characteristics were analysed for association with NHO in these patient groups. The only common variables associated with NHO in both neurological conditions were deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary emboli (DVT/PE). The prevalence of NHO in TBI patients is less than one-third of that found in TSCI patients, ~4% and 11%, respectively. This study also suggests that the risk factors associated with NHO in TBI patients are distinct from those identified as risk factors in TSCI patients.

  16. The Impact of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Wound Healing in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients With Pressure Injuries: A Retrospective Comparison Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Cheryl A; Selleck, Cynthia; Chen, Yuying; Tang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing evidence-based guidelines on smoking cessation in persons with spinal cord injuries and pressure injuries. We also evaluated the impact of smoking on pressure injury healing in this population. The sample population included 158 spinal cord-injured patients with pressure injuries (29 females and 129 males). There were 83 in the control group and 75 in the intervention group, with a mean age of 44 years in both groups. The research setting was an outpatient wound clinic located in a large medical center in the southeastern United States. A retrospective chart review was completed. Data were reviewed 6 months before and 6 months after implementation of the US Department of Health and Human Services Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. We evaluated the number and size of wounds, achievement of smoking cessation, and demographic information. Forty-eight percent of the control group participants and 57% of the intervention group participants smoked cigarettes at baseline. Smoking cessation doubled with the use of the clinical practice guidelines (P = .03). Smokers presented with a greater number of pressure injuries than nonsmokers. They experienced a mean increase rather than reduction in wound size. Nearly half (45.5%) of the intervention group participants who desired to have surgery had it performed, compared with only 34.9% of the control group participants (P = .35). Our findings demonstrate a positive influence with use of clinical practice guidelines to help individuals stop smoking. Results also confirm findings of previous studies supporting the negative impact of smoking on pressure injury healing in persons with spinal cord injuries.

  17. Safety profile and probe placement accuracy of intraspinal pressure monitoring for traumatic spinal cord injury: Injured Spinal Cord Pressure Evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Phang, Isaac; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Saadoun, Samira; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE A novel technique for monitoring intraspinal pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury was recently described. This is analogous to monitoring intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. Because intraspinal pressure monitoring is a new technique, its safety profile and impact on early patient care and long-term outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury are unknown. The object of this study is to review all patients who had intraspinal pressure monitoring to date at the authors' institution in order to define the accuracy of intraspinal pressure probe placement and the safety of the technique. METHODS At the end of surgery to fix spinal fractures, a pressure probe was inserted intradurally to monitor intraspinal pressure at the injury site. Postoperatively, CT scanning was performed within 48 hours and MRI at 2 weeks and 6 months. Neurointensive care management and complications were reviewed. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade was determined on admission and at 2 to 4 weeks and 12 to 18 months postoperation. RESULTS To date, 42 patients with severe traumatic spinal cord injuries (AIS Grades A-C) had undergone intraspinal pressure monitoring. Monitoring started within 72 hours of injury and continued for up to a week. Based on postoperative CT and MRI, the probe position was acceptable in all patients, i.e., the probe was located at the site of maximum spinal cord swelling. Complications were probe displacement in 1 of 42 patients (2.4%), CSF leakage that required wound resuturing in 3 of 42 patients (7.1%), and asymptomatic pseudomeningocele that was diagnosed in 8 of 42 patients (19.0%). Pseudomeningocele was diagnosed on MRI and resolved within 6 months in all patients. Based on the MRI and neurological examination results, there were no serious probe-related complications such as meningitis, wound infection, hematoma

  18. A Model of Glial Scarring Analogous to the Environment of a Traumatically Injured Spinal Cord Using Kainate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop an in vitro model analogous to the environment of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the authors evaluated change of astrogliosis following treatments with kainate and/or scratch, and degree of neurite outgrowth after treatment with a kainate inhibitor. Methods Astrocytes were obtained from the rat spinal cord. Then, 99% of the cells were confirmed to be GFAP-positive astrocytes. For chemical injury, the cells were treated with kainate at different concentrations (10, 50 or 100 µM). For mechanical injury, two kinds of uniform scratches were made using a plastic pipette tip by removing strips of cells. For combined injury (S/K), scratch and kainate were provided. Cord neurons from rat embryos were plated onto culture plates immediately after the three kinds of injuries and some cultures were treated with a kainate inhibitor. Results Astro-gliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], vimentin, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan [CSPG], rho-associated protein kinase [ROCK], and ephrin type-A receptor 4 [EphA4]) was most prominent after treatment with 50 µM kainate and extensive scratch injury in terms of single arm (p<0.001) and in the S/K-induced injury model in view of single or combination (p<0.001). Neurite outgrowth in the seeded spinal cord (β-III tubulin) was the least in the S/K-induced injury model (p<0.001) and this inhibition was reversed by the kainate inhibitor (p<0.001). Conclusion The current in vitro model combining scratch and kainate induced glial scarring and inhibitory molecules and restricted neurite outgrowth very strongly than either the mechanically or chemically-induced injury model; hence, it may be a useful tool for research on SCI. PMID:27847705

  19. Spinal Rhythm Generation by Step-Induced Feedback and Transcutaneous Posterior Root Stimulation in Complete Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Danner, Simon M; Mayr, Winfried; Bruce, Joy A; McKay, W Barry; Tansey, Keith E

    2016-03-01

    The human lumbosacral spinal circuitry can generate rhythmic motor output in response to different types of inputs after motor-complete spinal cord injury. To explore spinal rhythm generating mechanisms recruited by phasic step-related sensory feedback and tonic posterior root stimulation when provided alone or in combination. We studied stepping in 4 individuals with chronic, clinically complete spinal cord injury using a robotic-driven gait orthosis with body weight support over a treadmill. Electromyographic data were collected from thigh and lower leg muscles during stepping with 2 hip-movement conditions and 2 step frequencies, first without and then with tonic 30-Hz transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) over the lumbar posterior roots. Robotic-driven stepping alone generated rhythmic activity in a small number of muscles, mostly in hamstrings, coinciding with the stretch applied to the muscle, and in tibialis anterior as stance-phase synchronized clonus. Adding tonic 30-Hz tSCS increased the number of rhythmically responding muscles, augmented thigh muscle activity, and suppressed clonus. tSCS could also produce rhythmic activity without or independent of step-specific peripheral feedback. Changing stepping parameters could change the amount of activity generated but not the multimuscle activation patterns. The data suggest that the rhythmic motor patterns generated by the imposed stepping were responses of spinal reflex circuits to the cyclic sensory feedback. Tonic 30-Hz tSCS provided for additional excitation and engaged spinal rhythm-generating networks. The synergistic effects of these rhythm-generating mechanisms suggest that tSCS in combination with treadmill training might augment rehabilitation outcomes after severe spinal cord injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Use of autologous mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow for the treatment of naturally injured spinal cord in dogs.

    PubMed

    Penha, Euler Moraes; Meira, Cássio Santana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Mendonça, Marcus Vinícius Pinheiro; Gravely, Faye Alice; Pinheiro, Cláudia Maria Bahia; Pinheiro, Taiana Maria Bahia; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The use of stem cells in injury repair has been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation in four dogs with natural traumatic spinal cord injuries. MSC were cultured in vitro, and proliferation rate and cell viability were evaluated. Cell suspensions were prepared and surgically administered into the spinal cord. The animals were clinically evaluated and examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Ten days after the surgical procedure and MSC transplantation, we observed a progressive recovery of the panniculus reflex and diminished superficial and deep pain response, although there were still low proprioceptive reflexes in addition to a hyperreflex in the ataxic hind limb movement responses. Each dog demonstrated an improvement in these gains over time. Conscious reflex recovery occurred simultaneously with moderate improvement in intestine and urinary bladder functions in two of the four dogs. By the 18th month of clinical monitoring, we observed a remarkable clinical amelioration accompanied by improved movement, in three of the four dogs. However, no clinical gain was associated with alterations in magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that MSC are potential candidates for the stem cell therapy following spinal cord injury.

  1. Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow for the Treatment of Naturally Injured Spinal Cord in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Euler Moraes; Meira, Cássio Santana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Mendonça, Marcus Vinícius Pinheiro; Gravely, Faye Alice; Pinheiro, Cláudia Maria Bahia; Pinheiro, Taiana Maria Bahia; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The use of stem cells in injury repair has been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation in four dogs with natural traumatic spinal cord injuries. MSC were cultured in vitro, and proliferation rate and cell viability were evaluated. Cell suspensions were prepared and surgically administered into the spinal cord. The animals were clinically evaluated and examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Ten days after the surgical procedure and MSC transplantation, we observed a progressive recovery of the panniculus reflex and diminished superficial and deep pain response, although there were still low proprioceptive reflexes in addition to a hyperreflex in the ataxic hind limb movement responses. Each dog demonstrated an improvement in these gains over time. Conscious reflex recovery occurred simultaneously with moderate improvement in intestine and urinary bladder functions in two of the four dogs. By the 18th month of clinical monitoring, we observed a remarkable clinical amelioration accompanied by improved movement, in three of the four dogs. However, no clinical gain was associated with alterations in magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that MSC are potential candidates for the stem cell therapy following spinal cord injury. PMID:24723956

  2. Inhibition of spinal c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) improves locomotor activity of spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Martini, Alessandra C; Forner, Stefânia; Koepp, Janice; Rae, Giles Alexander

    2016-05-16

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated in central nervous system injuries, yet the roles within neurodegeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) still remain partially elucidated. We aimed to investigate the changes in expression of the three MAPKs following SCI and the role of spinal c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in motor impairment following the lesion. SCI induced at the T9 level resulted in enhanced expression of phosphorylated MAPKs shortly after trauma. SCI increased spinal cord myeloperoxidase levels, indicating a local neutrophil infiltration, and elevated the number of spinal apoptotic cells. Intrathecal administration of a specific inhibitor of JNK phosphorylation, SP600125, given at 1 and 4h after SCI, reduced the p-JNK expression, the number of spinal apoptotic cells and many of the histological signs of spinal injury. Notably, restoration of locomotor performance was clearly ameliorated by SP600125 treatment. Altogether, the results demonstrate that SCI induces activation of spinal MAPKs and that JNK plays a major role in mediating the deleterious consequences of spinal injury, not only at the spinal level, but also those regarding locomotor function. Therefore, inhibition of JNK activation in the spinal cord shortly after trauma might constitute a feasible therapeutic strategy for the functional recovery from SCI.

  3. Movements elicited by electrical stimulation of muscles, nerves, intermediate spinal cord, and spinal roots in anesthetized and decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Yoichiro; Mushahwar, Vivian K; Stein, Richard B; Prochazka, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The hind limb was constrained to move in the sagittal plane against a spring load. Ventral-root stimulation only produced movements down and back; the direction moved systematically backward the more caudal the stimulated roots. In contrast, dorsal-root stimulation only produced movements up and forward. Thus, neither method alone could produce the full range of normal movements. Muscle, nerve, and intraspinal stimulation within the intermediate regions of the gray matter generated discrete, selective movements in a wide range of directions. Muscle stimulation required an order of magnitude more current. Single microwire electrodes located in the spinal gray matter could activate a synergistic group of muscles, and generally had graded recruitment curves, but the direction of movement occasionally changed abruptly as stimulus strength increased. Nerve stimulation produced the largest movements against the spring load (>80% of the passive range of motion) and was the most reproducible from animal to animal. However, recruitment curves with nerve stimulation were quite steep, so fine control of movement might be difficult. The muscle, nerve, and spinal cord all seem to be feasible sites to restore motor function. The pros and cons from this study may be helpful in deciding the best site for a particular application, but further tests are needed in the chronically transected spinal cord to assess the applicability of these results to human patients.

  4. Temporal and Regional Expression of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Its Receptor in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Ana Beatriz W.; Forner, Stefania; Martini, Alessandra C.; Patrício, Eliziane S.; Clarke, Julia R.; Costa, Robson; Felix-Alves, João; Vieira, Vilberto José; de Andrade, Edinéia Lemos; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Calixto, João Batista

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of movement, sensibility, and autonomic control at the level of the lesion and at lower parts of the body. Several experimental strategies have been used in attempts to increase endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and repair, but with limited success. It is known that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR) can enhance synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. However, their role in the injury has never been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in expression levels of both GIP and GIPR in acute and chronic phases of SCI in rats. Following SCI (2 to 24 h after damage), the rat spinal cord showed a lesion in which the epicenter had a cavity with hemorrhage and necrosis. Furthermore, the lesion cavity also showed ballooned cells 14 and 28 days after injury. We found that SCI induced increases in GIPR expression in areas neighboring the site of injury at 6 h and 28 days after the injury. Moreover, higher GIP expression was observed in these regions on day 28. Neuronal projections from the injury epicenter showed an increase in GIP immunoreactivity 24 h and 14 and 28 days after SCI. Interestingly, GIP was also found in progenitor cells at the spinal cord canal 24 h after injury, whereas both GIP and GIPR were present in progenitor cells at the injury epicenter 14 days after in SCI animals. These results suggest that GIP and its receptor might be implicated with neurogenesis and the repair process after SCI. PMID:26421658

  5. Gene Expression Profiling in the Injured Spinal Cord of Trachemys scripta elegans: An Amniote with Self-Repair Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Valentin-Kahan, Adrián; García-Tejedor, Gabriela B.; Robello, Carlos; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E.; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Slider turtles are the only known amniotes with self-repair mechanisms of the spinal cord that lead to substantial functional recovery. Their strategic phylogenetic position makes them a relevant model to investigate the peculiar genetic programs that allow anatomical reconnection in some vertebrate groups but are absent in others. Here, we analyze the gene expression profile of the response to spinal cord injury (SCI) in the turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. We found that this response comprises more than 1000 genes affecting diverse functions: reaction to ischemic insult, extracellular matrix re-organization, cell proliferation and death, immune response, and inflammation. Genes related to synapses and cholesterol biosynthesis are down-regulated. The analysis of the evolutionary distribution of these genes shows that almost all are present in most vertebrates. Additionally, we failed to find genes that were exclusive of regenerating taxa. The comparison of expression patterns among species shows that the response to SCI in the turtle is more similar to that of mice and non-regenerative Xenopus than to Xenopus during its regenerative stage. This observation, along with the lack of conserved “regeneration genes” and the current accepted phylogenetic placement of turtles (sister group of crocodilians and birds), indicates that the ability of spinal cord self-repair of turtles does not represent the retention of an ancestral vertebrate character. Instead, our results suggest that turtles developed this capability from a non-regenerative ancestor (i.e., a lineage specific innovation) that was achieved by re-organizing gene expression patterns on an essentially non-regenerative genetic background. Among the genes activated by SCI exclusively in turtles, those related to anoxia tolerance, extracellular matrix remodeling, and axonal regrowth are good candidates to underlie functional recovery. PMID:28223917

  6. Gene Expression Profiling in the Injured Spinal Cord of Trachemys scripta elegans: An Amniote with Self-Repair Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Valentin-Kahan, Adrián; García-Tejedor, Gabriela B; Robello, Carlos; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Slider turtles are the only known amniotes with self-repair mechanisms of the spinal cord that lead to substantial functional recovery. Their strategic phylogenetic position makes them a relevant model to investigate the peculiar genetic programs that allow anatomical reconnection in some vertebrate groups but are absent in others. Here, we analyze the gene expression profile of the response to spinal cord injury (SCI) in the turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. We found that this response comprises more than 1000 genes affecting diverse functions: reaction to ischemic insult, extracellular matrix re-organization, cell proliferation and death, immune response, and inflammation. Genes related to synapses and cholesterol biosynthesis are down-regulated. The analysis of the evolutionary distribution of these genes shows that almost all are present in most vertebrates. Additionally, we failed to find genes that were exclusive of regenerating taxa. The comparison of expression patterns among species shows that the response to SCI in the turtle is more similar to that of mice and non-regenerative Xenopus than to Xenopus during its regenerative stage. This observation, along with the lack of conserved "regeneration genes" and the current accepted phylogenetic placement of turtles (sister group of crocodilians and birds), indicates that the ability of spinal cord self-repair of turtles does not represent the retention of an ancestral vertebrate character. Instead, our results suggest that turtles developed this capability from a non-regenerative ancestor (i.e., a lineage specific innovation) that was achieved by re-organizing gene expression patterns on an essentially non-regenerative genetic background. Among the genes activated by SCI exclusively in turtles, those related to anoxia tolerance, extracellular matrix remodeling, and axonal regrowth are good candidates to underlie functional recovery.

  7. Temporal and Regional Expression of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Its Receptor in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ana Beatriz W; Forner, Stefania; Martini, Alessandra C; Patrício, Eliziane S; Clarke, Julia R; Costa, Robson; Felix-Alves, João; Vieira, Vilberto José; de Andrade, Edinéia Lemos; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Calixto, João Batista; Figueiredo, Claudia Pinto

    2016-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of movement, sensibility, and autonomic control at the level of the lesion and at lower parts of the body. Several experimental strategies have been used in attempts to increase endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and repair, but with limited success. It is known that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and its receptor (GIPR) can enhance synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and axonal outgrowth. However, their role in the injury has never been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in expression levels of both GIP and GIPR in acute and chronic phases of SCI in rats. Following SCI (2 to 24 h after damage), the rat spinal cord showed a lesion in which the epicenter had a cavity with hemorrhage and necrosis. Furthermore, the lesion cavity also showed ballooned cells 14 and 28 days after injury. We found that SCI induced increases in GIPR expression in areas neighboring the site of injury at 6 h and 28 days after the injury. Moreover, higher GIP expression was observed in these regions on day 28. Neuronal projections from the injury epicenter showed an increase in GIP immunoreactivity 24 h and 14 and 28 days after SCI. Interestingly, GIP was also found in progenitor cells at the spinal cord canal 24 h after injury, whereas both GIP and GIPR were present in progenitor cells at the injury epicenter 14 days after in SCI animals. These results suggest that GIP and its receptor might be implicated with neurogenesis and the repair process after SCI.

  8. A reassessment of a classic neuroprotective combination therapy for spinal cord injured rats: LPS/pregnenolone/indomethacin

    PubMed Central

    Popovich, Phillip G.; Tovar, C. Amy; Wei, Ping; Fisher, Lesley; Jakeman, Lyn B.; Basso, D. Michele

    2012-01-01

    These experiments were completed as part of an NIH-NINDS contract entitled “Facilities of Research Excellence-Spinal Cord Injury (FORE-SCI)—Replication”. Our goal was to replicate data from a paper published by Dr. Lloyd Guth and colleagues in which combined injections of lipopolysaccharide, indomethacin and pregnenolone (referred to herein as LIP therapy) conferred marked neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Specifically, post-injury injection of the combination LIP therapy was found to significantly reduce tissue damage at/nearby the site of injury and significantly improve recovery of locomotor function. In this report, we confirm the primary observations made by Guth et al., however, the effects of LIP treatment were modest. Specifically, LIP treatment improved myelin and axon sparing, axonal sprouting while reducing lesion cavitation. However, spontaneous recovery of locomotion, as assessed using historical (Tarlov scoring) and more current rating scales (i.e., BBB scoring), was not affected by LIP treatment. Instead, more refined parameters of functional recovery (paw placement accuracy during grid walk) revealed a significant effect of treatment. Possible explanations for the neuroprotective effects of LIP therapy are described along with reasons why the magnitude of neuroprotection may have differed between this study and that of Guth and colleagues. PMID:22177997

  9. Surgical techniques influence local environment of injured spinal cord and cause various grafted cell survival and integration.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shaoping; Saltos, Tatiana M; Iredia, Idiata W; Tom, Veronica J

    2017-09-22

    Cellular transplantation to repair a complete spinal cord injury (SCI) is tremendously challenging due to the adverse local milieu for graft survival and growth. Results from cell transplantation studies yield great variability, which may possibly be due to the surgical techniques employed to induce an SCI. In order to delineate the influence of surgery on such inconsistency, we compared lesion morphology and graft survival as well as integration from different lesion methodologies of SCI. Surgical techniques, including a traditional approach cut+microaspiration, and two new approaches, cut alone as well as crush, were employed to produce a complete SCI, respectively. Approximately half of the rats in each group received injury only, whereas the other half received grafts of fetal brainstem cells into the lesion gap. Eight weeks after injury with or without graft, histological analysis showed that the cut+microaspiration surgery resulted in larger lesion cavities and severe fibrotic scars surrounding the cavity, and cellular transplants rarely formed a tissue bridge to penetrate the barrier. In contrast, the majority of cases treated with cut alone or crush exhibited smaller cavities and less scarring; the grafts expanded and blended extensively with the host tissue, which often built continuous tissue bridging the rostral and caudal cords. Scarring and cavitation were significantly reduced when microaspiration was avoided in SCI surgery, facilitating graft/host tissue fusion for signal transmission. The result suggests that microaspiration frequently causes severe scars and cavities, thus impeding graft survival and integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Calpain Inhibitor Enhances the Survival of Schwann Cells In Vitro and after Transplantation into the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Guller, Yelena; Raffa, Scott J.; Hurtado, Andres; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the diversity of cells available for transplantation into sites of spinal cord injury (SCI), and the known ability of transplanted cells to integrate into host tissue, functional improvement associated with cellular transplantation has been limited. One factor potentially limiting the efficacy of transplanted cells is poor cell survival. Recently we demonstrated rapid and early death of Schwann cells (SCs) within the first 24 h after transplantation, by both necrosis and apoptosis, which results in fewer than 20% of the cells surviving beyond 1 week. To enhance SC transplant survival, in vitro and in vivo models to rapidly screen compounds for their ability to promote SC survival are needed. The current study utilized in vitro models of apoptosis and necrosis, and based on withdrawal of serum and mitogens and the application of hydrogen peroxide, we screened several inhibitors of apoptosis and necrosis. Of the compounds tested, the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 enhanced SC survival both in vitro in response to oxidative stress induced by application of H2O2, and in vivo following delayed transplantation into the moderately contused spinal cord. The results support the use of calpain inhibitors as a promising new treatment for promoting the survival of transplanted cells. They also suggest that in vitro assays for cell survival may be useful for establishing new compounds that can then be tested in vivo for their ability to promote transplanted SC survival. PMID:20568964

  11. Motor imagery in spinal cord injured people is modulated by somatotopic coding, perspective taking, and post-lesional chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Scandola, Michele; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Pozeg, Polona; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Motor imagery (MI) allows one to mentally represent an action without necessarily performing it. Importantly, however, MI is profoundly influenced by the ability to actually execute actions, as demonstrated by the impairment of this ability as a consequence of lesions in motor cortices, limb amputations, movement limiting chronic pain, and spinal cord injury. Understanding MI and its deficits in patients with motor limitations is fundamentally important as development of some brain-computer interfaces and daily life strategies for coping with motor disorders are based on this ability. We explored MI in a large sample of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a comprehensive battery of questionnaires to assess the ability to imagine actions from a first-person or a third-person perspective and also imagine the proprioceptive components of actions. Moreover, we correlated MI skills with personality measures and clinical variables such as the level and completeness of the lesion and the presence of chronic pain. We found that the MI deficits (1) concerned the body parts affected by deafferentation and deefferentation, (2) were present in first- but not in third-person perspectives, and (3) were more altered in the presence of chronic pain. MI is thus closely related to bodily perceptions and representations. Every attempt to devise tools and trainings aimed at improving autonomy needs to consider the cognitive changes due to the body-brain disconnection. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Zhang, Delong; Huff, Terry B.; Wang, Xiaofei; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2011-10-01

    In vivo imaging of white matter is important for the mechanistic understanding of demyelination and evaluation of remyelination therapies. Although white matter can be visualized by a strong coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal from axonal myelin, in vivo repetitive CARS imaging of the spinal cord remains a challenge due to complexities induced by the laminectomy surgery. We present a careful experimental design that enabled longitudinal CARS imaging of de- and remyelination at single axon level in live rats. In vivo CARS imaging of secretory phospholipase A2 induced myelin vesiculation, macrophage uptake of myelin debris, and spontaneous remyelination by Schwann cells are sequentially monitored over a 3 week period. Longitudinal visualization of de- and remyelination at a single axon level provides a novel platform for rational design of therapies aimed at promoting myelin plasticity and repair.

  13. Modulation of bladder afferent signals in normal and spinal cord-injured rats by purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Alvaro; Somogyi, George T.; Boone, Timothy B.; Ford, Anthony P.; Smith, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE • To evaluate the role of bladder sensory purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors on modulating the activity of lumbosacral neurones and urinary bladder contractions in vivo in normal or spinal cord-injured (SCI) rats with neurogenic bladder overactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS • SCI was induced in female rats by complete transection at T8 – T9 and experiments were performed 4 weeks later, when bladder overactivity developed. Non-transected rats were used as controls (normal rats). • Neural activity was recorded in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and field potentials were acquired in response to intravesical pressure steps via a suprapubic catheter. Field potentials were recorded under control conditions, after stimulation of bladder mucosal purinergic receptors with intravesical ATP (1 mm), and after intravenous injection of the P2X3/P2X2/3 antagonist AF-353 (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). • Cystometry was performed in urethaneanaesthetised rats intravesically infused with saline. AF-353 (10 mg/kg) was systemically applied after baseline recordings; the rats also received a second dose of AF-353 (20 mg/kg). Changes in the frequency of voiding (VC) and non-voiding (NVC) contractions were evaluated. RESULTS • SCI rats had significantly higher frequencies for field potentials and NVC than NL rats. Intravesical ATP increased field potential frequency in control but not SCI rats, while systemic AF-353 significantly reduced this parameter in both groups. • AF-353 also reduced the inter-contractile interval in control but not in SCI rats; however, the frequency of NVC in SCI rats was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION • The P2X3/P2X2/3 receptors on bladder afferent nerves positively regulate sensory activity and NVCs in overactive bladders. PMID:22540742

  14. Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of sacral anterior root stimulation for rehabilitation of bladder dysfunction in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Bénard, Antoine; Verpillot, Elise; Grandoulier, Anne-Sophie; Perrouin-Verbe, Brigitte; Chêne, Geneviève; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe

    2013-10-01

    Urinary disorders account for 10% of deaths in patients with complete spinal cord injury. Sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) may be a valuable therapeutic option to restore complete and voluntary micturition (CVM), but questions on its cost-effectiveness remain. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SARS to restore CVM in patients with complete spinal cord injury. We conducted a nonrandomized, multicenter, parallel-group cohort study comparing SARS vs. current medical treatments with catheterization or reflex micturition. CVM was assessed at 12 months (end of follow-up) by urodynamic examination. Medical and nonmedical costs were measured in the perspective of the French national health insurance. Linear regression models were used to estimate the incremental net benefit ((Equation is included in full-text article.); λ = willingness-to-pay) adjusted for potential confounders, and P (INB >0) (i.e., probability of SARS being cost-effective vs medical treatment) for different values of λ. Twenty-five patients were included in each group in 2005 to 2009. At inclusion, mean age was 41 years; 45 (90%) patients were male, and 29 (59%) patients were paraplegic. At 12 months, 15 (60%) patients with SARS had a CVM vs. 3 (12%) patients with medical treatment (P < .001). The total mean cost was 42,803 €; and 8762 €, respectively (P < .001). After adjustment for CVM and voiding methods at inclusion, P (INB >0) was 74% at λ = 100,000 €. This probability was 94% in a sensitivity analysis excluding 6 patients presenting a CVM at inclusion. The effectiveness and cost of SARS are much higher than for medical treatment. Our results inform decision makers of the opportunity to reimburse SARS in this vulnerable population.

  15. Monoamine Release in the Cat Lumbar Spinal Cord during Fictive Locomotion Evoked by the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region.

    PubMed

    Noga, Brian R; Turkson, Riza P; Xie, Songtao; Taberner, Annette; Pinzon, Alberto; Hentall, Ian D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cat's lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites) increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD) for NE and 5-HT, respectively. For both substances, release usually began prior to the onset of locomotion typically earliest in the IZ/VH and peaks were positively correlated with net activity in peripheral nerves. Monoamine levels gradually returned to baseline levels or below at the end of stimulation in most trials. Monoamine oxidase and uptake inhibitors increased the release magnitude, time-to-peak (TTP) and decline-to-baseline. These results demonstrate that spinal monoamine release is modulated on a timescale of seconds, in tandem with centrally-generated locomotion and indicate that MLR-evoked locomotor activity involves concurrent activation of descending monoaminergic and reticulospinal pathways. These gradual changes in space and time of monoamine concentrations high enough to strongly activate various receptors subtypes on locomotor activated neurons further suggest that during MLR-evoked locomotion, monoamine action is, in part, mediated by extrasynaptic neurotransmission in

  16. Absence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities and spinal cord lesions after iotrolan cervical myelography in normal cats: an open placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Patsikas, M N; Koutinas, A; Vlemas, I; Polizopoulou, Z; Moustardas, N; Tzegas, S; Dessiris, A K

    1999-10-01

    Iotrolan (Isovist 300, Schering AG) at a volume of 0.5 ml/kg B.W. was injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern of 12 cats (Isovist group); the same volume of normal saline was injected in four other cats (control group). Two ml of CSF was collected from each anaesthetized cat by cisternal tap immediately before, and 7 and 15 days after, injection. The physical characteristics, specific gravity, total cell count and total protein concentration of each CSF sample were recorded. The cats were euthanized on day 15 immediately after CSF samples and spinal cord specimens had been obtained. Spinal cord histopathology was examined with the aid of light and transmission electron microscopy. The physical characteristics of all the CSF samples were within the reference range. No significant differences were found for CSF specific gravity, total cell count and total protein concentration between the pre-injection samples and those collected 7 and 15 days post-injection in both groups; no spinal cord lesions were detected in histopathology.

  17. The role of audio-visual feedback in a thought-based control of a humanoid robot: a BCI study in healthy and spinal cord injured people.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Gergondet, Pierre; Fusco, Gabriele; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Aglioti, Salvatore

    2016-08-03

    The efficient control of our body and successful interaction with the environment are possible through the integration of multisensory information. Brain-computer interface (BCI) may allow people with sensorimotor disorders to actively interact in the world. In this study, visual information was paired with auditory feedback to improve the BCI control of a humanoid surrogate. Healthy and spinal cord injured (SCI) people were asked to embody a humanoid robot and complete a pick-and-place task by means of a visual evoked potentials BCI system. Participants observed the remote environment from the robot's perspective through a head mounted display. Human-footsteps and computer-beep sounds were used as synchronous/asynchronous auditory feedback. Healthy participants achieved better placing accuracy when listening to human footstep sounds relative to a computergenerated sound. SCI people demonstrated more difficulty in steering the robot during asynchronous auditory feedback conditions. Importantly, subjective reports highlighted that the BCI mask overlaying the display did not limit the observation of the scenario and the feeling of being in control of the robot. Overall, the data seem to suggest that sensorimotor-related information may improve the control of external devices. Further studies are required to understand how the contribution of residual sensory channels could improve the reliability of BCI systems.

  18. [Early surgery management of pelvic region pressure ulcers versus directed cicatrization in a population of spinal cord injured patients].

    PubMed

    Le Chapelain, L; Fyad, J P; Beis, J M; Thisse, M O; André, J M

    2001-12-01

    To estimate the benefit brought by an early surgery management of pelvis region pressure ulcers compared to medical processing in a population of subjects spinal cord disabled. The studied population consist of 53 patients (62 pressure ulcers) divided into two groups: the group 1 includes 30 patients (34 pressure ulcers) presenting pressure ulcers stage III or IV (NPUAP scale) with early surgery management, included consecutively during a period of 2 years; the group 2 includes 23 patients (28 escarres) included in a retrospective way, with medical processing by the same team of care. The criteria of judgment are the delay of healing and the delay of delivery of the station sat in the armchair. In the group 1, the average delay of healing is of 42 days and the average delay of delivery for the armchair of 39 days. In the group 2 healing can be obtained only in 13 cases and in an average delay of 180 days. Differences are significant (p < 0.05). The originality of this study results in the comparison of two processing within two groups of patients having close demographic characteristics. It clearly shows the interest of the early surgery of the pelvic pressure ulcers comparing to medical processing and illustrates the requirement for a close cooperation between teams specialized in plastic surgery and teams specialized physical medicine.

  19. The Impact of Living in a Care Home on the Health and Wellbeing of Spinal Cord Injured People

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brett; Caddick, Nick

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, 20% of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are discharged from rehabilitation into an elderly care home. Despite this, and knowledge that the home is central to health and wellbeing, little research has examined the impact of being in care homes on the health and wellbeing of people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to address this gap. Twenty adults who lived in care homes or had done so recently for over two years were interviewed in-depth. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Analyses revealed that living in a care home environment severely damages quality of life, physical health and psychological wellbeing in the short and long-term. Reasons why quality of life, health, and wellbeing were damaged are identified. These included a lack of freedom, control, and flexibility, inability to participate in community life, inability to sustain relationships, safety problems, restricted participation in work and leisure time physical activity, lack of meaning, self-expression, and a future, loneliness, difficulties with the re-housing process, depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions. It is concluded that for people with SCI, the care home environment violates social dignity, is oppressive, and denies human rights. Implications for housing and health care policies are also offered. PMID:25884273

  20. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of completely paralyzed abdominal muscles in spinal cord-injured patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hascakova-Bartova, R; Dinant, J-F; Parent, A; Ventura, M

    2008-06-01

    Prospective placebo-controlled. The effect of abdominal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in patients with spinal cord injury. The principal parameters observed in this study are lung capacity, colonic transit, patient satisfaction of used method and of aesthetics effect on abdominal wall. Centre de Traumatologie et de Réadaptation, Brussels, Belgium. A total of 10 volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to two groups-the effective electrical stimulation group (ESG) and the placebo-controlled group (PG). NMES of abdominal muscles was performed 25 min per day for 8 weeks. NMES significantly decreased forced vital capacity (FVC) in ESG but not in PG. In ESG, colonic transit was accelerated in ascending, transverse and descending colon but transit in rectosigmoideum was not affected. In PG, no variations in colonic transit were observed. Satisfaction scale shows a better influence on aesthetics effect in ESG than in PG. This pilot study shows that NMES of paralyzed abdominal muscles positively affects colonic transit except in rectosigmoideum segment and negatively affects FVC. It could be a simple self-used method to regulate colonic transfer with considerably good cosmetic effect on abdominal wall. However, regular verification of FVC will probably be necessary.

  1. Early versus late surgical decompression for traumatic thoracic/thoracolumbar (T1-L1) spinal cord injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Niakan, Amin; Haghnegahdar, Ali; Shahlaee, Abtin; Saadat, Soheil; Barzideh, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of surgical decompression <24 (early) versus 24-72 hours (late) in thoracic/thoracolumbar traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 35 T1-L1 TSCI patients including early (n=16) and late (n=19) surgical decompression was conducted in the neurosurgery department of Shahid Rajaee Hospital from September 2010. Pre- and postoperative American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), ASIA motor/sensory scores, length of hospitalization, complications, postoperative vertebral height restoration/rebuilding and angle reduction, and 12-month loss of height restoration/rebuilding and angle reduction were evaluated. Results: Sixteen patients (46%) had complete TSCI. No AIS change was seen in 17 (52%) patients. Complete TSCI patients had no motor improvement. The AIS change in this group was solely due to increased sensory scores. For incomplete TSCI, the mean motor score improved from 77 (±22) to 92 (±12) in early, and from 68 (±22) to 82 (±16) in late surgery. One deep vein thrombosis was observed in each group. There were 2 wound infections, one CSF leak, one case of meningitis, and one decubitus ulcer in the late surgery group. Six screw revisions were required. Conclusion: Our primary results show overall AIS and motor score improvement in both groups. Motor improvement was only observed in incomplete TSCI. Two-grade improvements in AIS were seen in 3 early, and one late surgery patient. PMID:24983279

  2. Electron microscopic observations of terminals of functionally identified afferent fibers in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Egger, M D; Freeman, N C; Malamed, S; Masarachia, P; Proshansky, E

    1981-02-23

    Using the method of intra-axonal injection of horseradish peroxidase, functionally identified afferent fibers from three slowly adapting (Type I) receptors and one Pacinian corpuscle in the glabrous skin of the hind paw of the cat were stained. Electron microscopic observation of the terminals of these fibers revealed predominantly axodendritic asymmetric synapses containing round, clear vesicles. Multiple synapses on a single dendrite were observed, separated by as little as 900 mm from one another.

  3. Physical exercise is associated with better fat mass distribution and lower insulin resistance in spinal cord injured individuals

    PubMed Central

    D’Oliveira, Giselle Louise C.; Figueiredo, Flávia A.; Passos, Magna Cottini Fonseca; Chain, Amina; Bezerra, Flávia F.; Koury, Josely Correa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare total and regional body composition and their relationship with glucose homeostasis in physically active and non-active individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (c-SCI). Methods Individuals with lesion level between C5–C7 were divided into two groups: physically active (PA; n = 14; who practiced physical exercise for at least 3 months, three times per week or more, minimum of 150 minutes/week): and non-physically active (N-PA n = 8). Total fat mass (t-FM) and regional fat mass (r-FM) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results PA group present lower (P < 0.01) total fat mass (t-FM), % and kg, regional fat mass (r-FM), % and kg, FPI levels and HOMA index, while they had higher (P < 0.001) total free fat mass (t-FFM), %, and regional free fat mass (r-FFM), %, compared to the N-PA group. In the N-PA group, FPI and HOMA index were negatively (P < 0.05) correlated with FFM% (r = −0.71, −0.69, respectively) and positively correlated to trunk-FM (r = 0.71, 0.69, respectively) and trunk-FM:t-FM (kg) ratio (r = 0.83, 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Physical exercise is associated with lower t-FM, r-FM, and insulin resistance, which could contribute to the decrease of the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in individuals with c-SCI. PMID:24090139

  4. Sustained improvements in neurological function in spinal cord injured patients treated with oral 4-aminopyridine: three cases.

    PubMed

    Potter, P J; Hayes, K C; Hsieh, J T; Delaney, G A; Segal, J L

    1998-03-01

    Preclinical trials of intravenously administered 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) have demonstrated transient improvements in neurological function in patients with longstanding spinal cord injury (SCI). The present report describes three patients with SCI who responded favourably in preclinical trials and who were subsequently administered oral (capsule) 4-AP (10 mg b.i.d. or t.i.d.) over a 4 month interval. The three patients (two male: 1 female) all had incomplete tetraplegia (ASIA levels C and D) with the neurological level of the lesion between C5-C7. Following the administration of 4-AP the patients demonstrated marked and sustained reductions in upper (n = 1) or lower extremity (n = 2) spasticity. Other clinical benefits of 4-AP were reduced pain (n = 1), restored muscle strength (n = 3), improved sensation (n = 2), voluntary control of bowel function (n = 1), and sustained penile tumescence (n = 2). The patients exhibited improved hand function (n = 1), enhanced mobility in transfers and gait (n = 2), with improved energy and endurance. Only trivial side effects (transient light-headedness) were observed. In one case, the enhanced neurological function allowed the patient to stand with support for the first time post injury (16 years). The time course of therapeutic response to the initial dose matched the pharmacokinetic elimination profile derived from serum and urine analysis. There was no evidence of renal or hepatic toxicity with prolonged use. These results indicate a therapeutic benefit of oral 4-Aminopyridine in the management of various neurological deficits in a select group of SCI patients.

  5. Human Cord Blood Stem Cells Generate Human Cytokeratin 18-Negative Hepatocyte-Like Cells in Injured Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amar Deep; Cantz, Tobias; Richter, Rudolf; Eckert, Klaus; Henschler, Reinhard; Wilkens, Ludwig; Jochheim-Richter, Andrea; Arseniev, Lubomir; Ott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of adult bone marrow (BM) cells into nonhematopoietic cells is a rare phenomenon. Several reports, however, suggest that human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-derived cells give rise to hepatocytes after transplantation into nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Therefore, we analyzed the hepatic differentiation potential of hUCB cells and compared the frequency of newly formed hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of recipient NOD-SCID mice after transplantation of hUCB versus murine BM cells. Mononuclear cell preparations of hUCB cells or murine BM from enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic or wild-type mice were transplanted into sublethally irradiated NOD-SCID mice. Liver regeneration was induced by carbon tetrachloride injury with and without sub-sequent hepatocyte growth factor treatment. By immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction, we detected clusters of hepatocyte-like cells in the livers of hUCB-transplanted mice. These cells expressed human albumin and Hep Par 1 but mouse CK18, suggesting the formation of chimeric hepatocyte-like cells. Native fluorescence microscopy and double immunofluorescence failed to detect single hepatocytes derived from transplanted enhanced green fluorescent protein-transgenic mouse BM. Fluorescent in situ hybridization rarely revealed donor-derived hepatocyte-like cells after cross-gender mouse BM transplantation. Thus, hUCB cells have differentiation capabilities different from murine BM cells after transplantation into NOD-SCID mice, demonstrating the importance of further testing before hUCB cells can be used therapeutically. PMID:16049339

  6. Skeletal muscle signaling associated with impaired glucose tolerance in spinal cord-injured men and the effects of contractile activity

    PubMed Central

    Yarar-Fisher, Ceren; Bickel, C. Scott; Windham, Samuel T.; McLain, Amie B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying poor glucose tolerance in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), along with its improvement after several weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced resistance exercise (NMES-RE) training, remain unclear, but presumably involve the affected skeletal musculature. We, therefore, investigated skeletal muscle signaling pathways associated with glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation at rest and shortly after a single bout of NMES-RE in SCI (n = 12) vs. able-bodied (AB, n = 12) men. Subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test during visit 1 and ≈90 NMES-RE isometric contractions of the quadriceps during visit 2. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and 10 and 60 min after, NMES-RE. We assessed transcript levels of GLUT-4 by quantitative PCR and protein levels of GLUT-4 and phosphorylated- and total AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α, CaMKII, Akt, and AS160 by immunoblotting. Impaired glucose tolerance in SCI was confirmed by higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose concentrations than AB at all time points after glucose ingestion, despite equivalent insulin responses to the glucose load. GLUT-4 protein content was lower (P < 0.05) in SCI vs. AB at baseline. Main group effects revealed higher phosphorylation in SCI of AMPK-α, CaMKII, and Akt (P < 0.05), and Akt phosphorylation increased robustly (P < 0.05) following NMES-RE in SCI only. In SCI, low skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein concentration may, in part, explain poor glucose tolerance, whereas heightened phosphorylation of relevant signaling proteins (AMPK-α, CaMKII) suggests a compensatory effort. Finally, it is encouraging to find (based on Akt) that SCI muscle remains both sensitive and responsive to mechanical loading (NMES-RE) even ≈22 yr after injury. PMID:23766505

  7. Comparison of health related quality of life between two groups of veteran and non-veteran spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Salamati, Payman; Rostami, Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Taheri, Taher; Tajabadi, Maryam; Ranjbari, Ghazale; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to both healthy controls and the normal population. The aim of this study was to compare HRQOL between two groups of veteran and non-veteran SCI patients. All male paraplegic non-veterans who had sustained complete SCI before 1988 and were residents of Tehran province (Iran), and a similar group of SCI veterans who consecutively participated in a health screening program were enrolled in this study. Patients fewer than 35 and older than 65 years of age were not included in this study. The participants were interviewed based on the Persian version of SF-36 questionnaire by two psychologists. Eight sub-scales and two physical and mental component summaries of the instrument were assessed. We used chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney U, independent t-test and linear regression for analysis. Overall, 25 veterans and 22 non-veterans were enrolled in the study. The mean age, time since injury and the presence of comorbid illnesses were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). A greater number of veterans were married (p= 0.003) and employed (p= 0.047). On average, veterans had more years of formal education than non-veterans (p= 0.001). The mean (SD) bodily pain sub-scale was 72.73(31.253) for non-veterans and 49.7 (28.287) for veterans (p=0.011). Absence of comorbid illnesses was associated with a better physical component summary (p< 0.001). Employment was associated with a better mental component summary (p= 0.022). We did not find any differences in HRQOL between the two groups except for the bodily pain sub-scale. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.

  8. Comparison of health related quality of life between two groups of veteran and non-veteran spinal cord injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Rostami, Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Taheri, Taher; Tajabadi, Maryam; Ranjbari, Ghazale; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to both healthy controls and the normal population. The aim of this study was to compare HRQOL between two groups of veteran and non-veteran SCI patients. Methods: All male paraplegic non-veterans who had sustained complete SCI before 1988 and were residents of Tehran province (Iran), and a similar group of SCI veterans who consecutively participated in a health screening program were enrolled in this study. Patients fewer than 35 and older than 65 years of age were not included in this study. The participants were interviewed based on the Persian version of SF-36 questionnaire by two psychologists. Eight sub-scales and two physical and mental component summaries of the instrument were assessed. We used chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney U, independent t-test and linear regression for analysis. Results: Overall, 25 veterans and 22 non-veterans were enrolled in the study. The mean age, time since injury and the presence of comorbid illnesses were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). A greater number of veterans were married (p= 0.003) and employed (p= 0.047). On average, veterans had more years of formal education than non-veterans (p= 0.001). The mean (SD) bodily pain sub-scale was 72.73(31.253) for non-veterans and 49.7 (28.287) for veterans (p=0.011). Absence of comorbid illnesses was associated with a better physical component summary (p< 0.001). Employment was associated with a better mental component summary (p= 0.022). Conclusion: We did not find any differences in HRQOL between the two groups except for the bodily pain sub-scale. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended. PMID:26157716

  9. A non-invasive method to produce pressure ulcers of varying severity in a spinal cord-injured rat model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A K; Goodwin, C R; Sarabia-Estrada, R; Lay, F; Ansari, A M; Steenbergen, C; Pang, C; Cohen, R; Born, L J; Matsangos, A E; Ng, C; Marti, G P; Abu-Bonsrah, N; Phillips, N A; Suk, I; Sciubba, D M; Harmon, J W

    2016-12-01

    Experimental study. The objective of this study was to establish a non-invasive model to produce pressure ulcers of varying severity in animals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A mid-thoracic (T7-T9) left hemisection was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats. At 7 days post SCI, rats received varying degrees of pressure on the left posterior thigh region. Laser Doppler Flowmetry was used to record blood flow. Animals were killed 12 days after SCI. A cardiac puncture was performed for blood chemistry, and full-thickness tissue was harvested for histology. Doppler blood flow after SCI prior to pressure application was 237.808±16.175 PFUs at day 7. Following pressure application, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow in all pressure-applied groups in comparison with controls with a mean perfusion of 118.361±18.223 (P<0.001). White blood cell counts and creatine kinase for each group were statistically significant from the control group (P=0.0107 and P=0.0028, respectively). We have created a novel animal model of pressure ulcer formation in the setting of a SCI. Histological analysis revealed different stages of injury corresponding to the amount of pressure the animals were exposed to with decreased blood flow immediately after the insult along with a subsequent marked increase in blood flow the next day, conducive to an ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and a possible inflammatory response following tissue injury. Following ischemia and hypoxia secondary to microcirculation impairment, free radicals generate lipid peroxidation, leading to ischemic tissue damage. Future studies should be aimed at measuring free radicals during this period of increased blood flow, following tissue ischemia.

  10. Does the preclinical evidence for functional remyelination following engraftment into the injured spinal cord support progression to clinical trials?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Scott A.; Bankston, Andrew N.; Burke, Darlene A.; Ohri, Sujata Saraswat; Whittemore, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews all historical literature in which rodent-derived myelinating cells have been engrafted into the contused adult rodent spinal cord. From 2,500 initial PubMed citations identified, human cells grafts, bone mesenchymal stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, non-myelinating cell grafts, and rodent grafts into hemisection or transection models were excluded, resulting in the 67 studies encompassed in this review. Forty five of those involved central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells, including neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), neural restricted precursor cells (NRPs) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and 22 studies involved Schwann cells (SC). Of the NSPC/NPC/OPC grafts, there was no consistency with respect to the types of cells grafted and/or the additional growth factors or cells co-grafted. Enhanced functional recovery was reported in 31/45 studies, but only 20 of those had appropriate controls making conclusive interpretation of the remaining studies impossible. Of those 20, 19 were properly powered and utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Ten of those 19 studies reported the presence of graft-derived myelin, 3 reported evidence of endogenous remyelination or myelin sparing, and 2 reported both. For the SC grafts, 16/21 reported functional improvement, with 11 having appropriate cellular controls and 9/11 using proper statistical analyses. Of those 9, increased myelin was reported in 6 studies. The lack of consistency and replication among these preclinical studies are discussed with respect to the progression of myelinating cell transplantation therapies into the clinic. PMID:27085393

  11. Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase reduces detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injured rats

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Minoru; Sugaya, Kimio; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; Chancellor, Michael B.; de Groat, William C.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding the 67 Kd form of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) gene product, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis enzyme, can suppress detrusor overactivity (DO) in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. One week after spinalization, HSV vectors expressing GAD and green fluorescent protein (GFP) (HSV-GAD) were injected into the bladder wall. SCI rats without HSV injection (HSV-untreated) and those injected with lacZ-encoding reporter gene HSV vectors (HSV-LacZ) were used as controls. Three weeks after viral injection, continuous cystometry was performed under awake conditions in all three groups. In the HSV-GAD group, the number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions (NVCs) were significantly decreased (40–45% and 38–40%, respectively) along with an increase in voiding efficiency, compared with HSV-untreated and HSV-LacZ groups, but micturition pressure was not different among the three groups. Intrathecal application of bicuculline partly reversed the decreased number and amplitude of NVCs, and decreased voiding efficiency in the HSV-GAD group. In the HSV-GAD group, GAD67 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) compared with the HSV-LacZ group while 57% of DRG cells were GFP-positive, and these neurons showed increased GAD67-like immunoreactivity compared with the HSV-LacZ group. These results indicate that GAD gene therapy effectively suppresses DO following SCI predominantly via activation of spinal GABAA receptors. Thus, HSV-based GAD gene transfer to bladder afferent pathways may represent a novel approach for the treatment of neurogenic DO. PMID:19225548

  12. Lower limb conduit artery endothelial responses to acute upper limb exercise in spinal cord injured and able-bodied men

    PubMed Central

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Au, Jason S; Ditor, David S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular improvements in the nonactive regions during exercise are likely primarily mediated by increased shear rate (SR). Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience sublesional vascular deconditioning and could potentially benefit from upper body exercise-induced increases in lower body SR. The present study utilized a single bout of incremental arm-crank exercise to generate exercise-induced SR changes in the superficial femoral artery in an effort to evaluate the acute postexercise impact on superficial femoral artery endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and determine regulatory factors in the nonactive legs of individuals with and without SCI. Eight individuals with SCI and eight age, sex, and waist-circumference-matched able-bodied (AB) controls participated. Nine minutes of incremental arm-crank exercise increased superficial femoral artery anterograde SR (P = 0.02 and P < 0.01), retrograde SR (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01), and oscillatory shear index (OSI) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) in both SCI and AB, respectively. However, these SR alterations resulted in acute postexercise increases in FMD in the AB group only (SCI 6.0 ± 1.2% to 6.3 ± 2.7%, P = 0.74; AB 7.5 ± 1.4% to 11.2 ± 1.4%, P = 0.03). While arm exercise has many cardiovascular benefits and results in changes in SR patterns in the nonactive legs, these changes are not sufficient to induce acute changes in FMD among individuals with SCI, and therefore are less likely to stimulate exercise training-associated improvements in nonactive limb endothelial function. Understanding the role of SR patterns on FMD brings us closer to designing effective strategies to combat impaired vascular function in both healthy and clinical populations. PMID:25847920

  13. Stochastic resonance in the spinal cord and somatosensory cortex of the cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjarrez, Elias; Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Perez, Hugo; Mendez, Ignacio; Hernandez-Paxtian, Zulma; Flores, Amira

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of stochastic resonance (SR) in spinal and cortical potentials elicited by periodic tactile stimuli in the anaesthetised cat. The periodic tactile stimuli were applied on the central pad of the hindpaw and the noisy tactile stimuli on the glabrous skin of the third hindpaw digit. This protocol allowed that the signal and noise were mixed not in the skin but in the somatosensory regions of the central nervous system. The results show that a particular level of tactile noise can increase the amplitude of the spinal and cortical potentials elicited by periodic tactile stimuli. The topographical distribution of evoked potentials indicates that the effects of noise were spatially restricted. All cats showed distinct SR behavior at the spinal and cortical stages of the sensory encoding. Such SR was abolished in the cortical but not in the spinal recording after the sectioning of the ascending pathways. This suggests that the spinal neurones may also contribute to the SR observed at the cortical level. The present study documents the first evidence that the SR phenomenon occurs in the spinal and cortical somatosensory system itself and not only in the peripheral sensory receptors.

  14. The release of acetylcholine from the spinal cord of the cat by antidromic stimulation of motor nerves

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, M.; Rudomin, P.

    1966-01-01

    1. ACh was measured in the effluent from the perfused lumbosacral cord of the cat with or without stimulation of the central ends of the cut left sciatic and femoral nerves after section of the left dorsal roots. 2. In about 30% of the preparations ACh was obtained in the samples collected at rest (average 3·3 ng/min); the amount of ACh release was increased 1·3-9 times by stimulation of the peripheral nerves. The average amount of ACh collected during stimulation of the peripheral nerves at 5/sec was 6·9 ng/min. Antidromic motor nerve impulses responsible for the ACh release were likely to be only those in alpha motor fibres. 3. There was a depression in ACh release/stimulus as the stimulus frequency was increased more than 10/sec. Such changes in ACh release with various stimulus frequencies were correlated with depression in the response of Renshaw cells to excitation through motor-axon collaterals. 4. Amounts of ACh release during stimulation of the peripheral nerves at 5/sec were significantly increased for 1 or 2 min after a short tetanic stimulation of the nerves. 5. Intravenous injection of dihydro-β-erythroidine did not reduce the amount of ACh release produced by stimulation of the peripheral nerves. 6. It is concluded that antidromic impulses in alpha motor fibres liberate ACh from the presynaptic terminals at the central synapses on Renshaw cells. PMID:5972160

  15. The release of acetylcholine from the spinal cord of the cat by antidromic stimulation of motor nerves.

    PubMed

    Kuno, M; Rudomin, P

    1966-11-01

    1. ACh was measured in the effluent from the perfused lumbosacral cord of the cat with or without stimulation of the central ends of the cut left sciatic and femoral nerves after section of the left dorsal roots.2. In about 30% of the preparations ACh was obtained in the samples collected at rest (average 3.3 ng/min); the amount of ACh release was increased 1.3-9 times by stimulation of the peripheral nerves. The average amount of ACh collected during stimulation of the peripheral nerves at 5/sec was 6.9 ng/min. Antidromic motor nerve impulses responsible for the ACh release were likely to be only those in alpha motor fibres.3. There was a depression in ACh release/stimulus as the stimulus frequency was increased more than 10/sec. Such changes in ACh release with various stimulus frequencies were correlated with depression in the response of Renshaw cells to excitation through motor-axon collaterals.4. Amounts of ACh release during stimulation of the peripheral nerves at 5/sec were significantly increased for 1 or 2 min after a short tetanic stimulation of the nerves.5. Intravenous injection of dihydro-beta-erythroidine did not reduce the amount of ACh release produced by stimulation of the peripheral nerves.6. It is concluded that antidromic impulses in alpha motor fibres liberate ACh from the presynaptic terminals at the central synapses on Renshaw cells.

  16. Modulation of synaptic effectiveness of Ia and descending fibers in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomín, P; Núñez, R; Madrid, J

    1975-09-01

    1. In the unanesthetized spinal cord, conditioning stimulation of low-threshold afferents (below 1.3 times threshold strength) in the biceps semitendinosus (BST) nerve often reduced the peak amplitude of the monosynaptic Ia EPSPs evoked in gastrocnemius motoneurons without affecting the monosynaptic component of the EPSPs evoked by stimulation of the ipsilateral ventral funiculus (VF) in the thoracic cord. 2. Volleys to the BST nerve comprising higher threshold afferents (usually above 1.4 times threshold strength) reduced the peak amplitude of the monosynaptic Ia and VF EPSPs and shortened their falling phase. 3. Conditioning volleys to low-threshold cutaneous afferents often increased the Ia-EPSP peak amplitude, sometimes without affecting the monosynaptic component of the VF EPSP. 4. In most cases the Ia nd VF monosynaptic EPSPs elicited in a given motoneuron summated nonlinearly. The amount of nonlinear summation between Ia and VF monosynaptic EPSPs was often reduced by low-threshold BST conditioning volleys. These observations suggest that in many instances, both species of fibers end in "electrotonically close" synaptic loci over the motoneuron surface. Therefore, amplitude changes of monosynaptic Ia EPSPs produced by conditioning afferent volleys without concomitant changes of monosynaptic VF EPSPs do not appear to result from postsynaptic remote conductance changes and may be attributed to a presynaptic mechanism. 5. At the time of occurrence of the Ia and VF monosynaptic EPSP the variance of the motoneuron membrane potential may be increased above base-line levels with a time course approximately matching the EPSP itself. Conditioning stimulation of BST afferents usually reduced Ia EPSP variance, often without affecting or even increasing the variance of the monosynaptic VF EPSPs. These observations provide additional evidence that Ia EPSP variability is introduced, at least in part, through the segmental pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization

  17. Monosynaptic EPSPs in cat lumbosacral motoneurones from group Ia afferents and fibres descending in the spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P J; Jack, J J; Kullmann, D M

    1989-01-01

    1. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were elicited in lumbosacral motoneurones of pentobarbitone-anaesthetized cats by stimulating the ventral quadrants (VQ) of the thoracic spinal cord. These EPSPs were compared with monosynaptic EPSPs from small numbers of group Ia afferents, obtained by stimulating hindlimb muscle nerves with most of the dorsal roots severed. 2. EPSPs with average peak amplitude less than 1 mV were selected for fluctuation analysis. Three out of fourteen (21%) VQ EPSPs with peak voltage less than 150 mu V fluctuated in amplitude from trial to trial no more than could be accounted for by the background intracellular noise. Similarly, nine out of thirty-nine (23%) Ia EPSPs smaller than 150 mu V fluctuated to a comparable extent as the noise. These results are consistent with the view that there is little variation in the postsynaptic signal produced by an individual transmitter release event. 3. Of the EPSPs which did fluctuate more than the background noise, maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the fluctuation patterns of ten VQ and fourteen Ia EPSPs. This was achieved by assuming that synaptic signals sum linearly with noise, but without constraining the results to conform to a statistical description of transmitter release. The fluctuation of both VQ and Ia EPSPs was made up of discrete amplitudes separated by roughly equal increments, in accordance with the quantal hypothesis of synaptic transmission. 4. Fluctuation patterns were obtained simultaneously for VQ and Ia EPSPs in seven motoneurones. The amplitudes of the quanta, defined as the mean increments between discrete amplitudes, were correlated (r = 0.90), suggesting common postsynaptic mechanisms. 5. For most EPSPs the time course of the voltage transient could be used to estimate the electrical distance from the soma at which the synaptic current was injected. There was a comparable distribution for VQ and Ia EPSPs. For those in which a quantal analysis was performed

  18. Mechanisms involved in the depolarization of cutaneous afferents produced by segmental and descending inputs in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M

    1987-01-01

    The relative contribution of specific and unspecific (potassium) components involved in the generation of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of cutaneous fibres was analyzed in the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat. To this end we examined the correlation between the intraspinal threshold changes of single afferent fibres in the sural nerve produced by segmental and descending inputs and the negative DC potential shifts produced by these same stimuli at the site of excitability testing, the latter taken as indicators of the changes in extracellular concentration of potassium ions. Stimulation of the ipsilateral brain-stem reticular formation and of the contralateral red nucleus with 100-200 Hz trains reduced very effectively the intraspinal threshold of sural nerve fibres ending in the dorsal horn practically without producing any negative DC potential shifts at the site of excitability testing. However, negative DC potential shifts were produced more ventrally, in the intermediate nucleus and/or motor nucleus. Stimulation of the sural and superficial peroneus nerves with pulses at 2 Hz and strengths below 2 xT, also reduced the intraspinal threshold of single SU fibres without producing significant DC potential changes at the site of excitability testing. On the other hand, 100 Hz trains with strengths above 2 xT produced negative DC potential shifts and a proportional reduction of the intraspinal threshold of the SU fibres. The PAD of sural fibres produced by stimulation of rubro-spinal and reticulo-spinal fibres as well as by stimulation of sensory nerves with low frequency trains was unaffected or slightly increased, by i.v. injection of strychnine (0.2 mg/kg), but was readily abolished 5-10 min after the i.v. injection of picrotoxin (2 mg/kg). The results suggest that activation of reticulo-spinal and rubro-spinal fibres, as well as stimulation of cutaneous nerves with low frequencies and low strengths, produce PAD of cutaneous fibres involving activation

  19. Specific and nonspecific mechanisms involved in generation of PAD of group Ia afferents in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, I; Rudomín, P; Solodkin, M; Vyklický, L

    1984-11-01

    In the spinal cord of the anesthetized cat, we measured the changes in extracellular concentration of potassium ions [K+]e and the negative DC shifts produced by stimulation of muscle, cutaneous and mixed afferent nerves, together with alterations in the threshold of single group Ia fibers that were tested at the same site as the potassium measurements. This approach provided information on the extent to which the excitability changes of single Ia-fibers can be correlated with the changes in [K+]e occurring at the same site. Stimulation of the tibial (TIB) nerve and of the cutaneous sural (SU), and superficial peroneous (SP) nerve (100-Hz trains lasting 30-60 s) with stimulus strengths of 10-15 times threshold increased the concentration of [K+]e in the dorsal horn by 2-5 mmol/l above the resting value of 3 mmol/l. This was in clear contrast with the very small [K+]e increases produced at the same site during stimulation of muscle nerves, such as the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt), gastrocnemius soleus (GS), and deep peroneus (DP), which were generally smaller than 0.25 mmol/l. Stimulation of the PBSt and GS muscle nerves did produce small, but clear, increases of [K+]e (up to 0.3 mmol/l) in the region of the intermediate nucleus, where these fibers synapse with second order cells. These changes were nevertheless smaller than those produced at the same site by stimulation of the TIB, SU, and SP nerves. The peak amplitudes of the [K+]e transients produced by long-lasting 100-Hz trains applied to cutaneous and/or to muscle nerves showed a linear relationship with the amplitudes of the slow negative DC shifts, which were simultaneously recorded from the NaCl barrel of the potassium electrode assembly. Stimulus trains (100 Hz) applied to group I muscle afferents (PBSt and DP) very effectively reduced the threshold for intraspinal activation of individual group I GS fibers but produced negligible negative DC shifts at the same site. On the other hand, 100-Hz

  20. Rehabilitation of injured U.S. servicemember with traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, and bilateral amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pai, Ajit B; Jasper, Nicholas R; Cifu, David X

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of injuries that can arise from combat situations, specifically as a result of the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts, is challenging. As injured troops leave the war zone early for medical care, they are treated by an interwoven system of care that includes both the Department of Defense and Veterans Health Administration. Physicians across these settings are increasingly faced with patients who have multiple rehabilitation diagnoses as a result of the severity of blast injuries; therefore, the importance of active communication across the system must be highlighted. This case describes the seamless transition of an injured soldier across the continuum of care.

  1. Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

  2. Triple projections of neurones located in S1 and S2 segments of the cat spinal cord to the C6 segment, the cerebellum and the reticular formation.

    PubMed

    Grottel, K; Krutki, P; Mrówczyński, W

    1998-11-01

    Electrophysiological investigation of neurones in sacral segments of the spinal cord was performed in alpha-chloralose-anaesthetized cats in order to establish whether at least some ascending tract neurones could diverge to three different centres located in the brainstem, the cerebellum or the spinal cord. Recordings of antidromic action potentials from cells in S1 and S2 segments were taken following stimulation of the contralateral gigantocellular nucleus, contralateral restiform body and ipsi- and contralateral grey matter of the C6 spinal segment. Antidromic responses allowed identification of several types of neurones that differed in their pattern of supraspinal or propriospinal projections. In eighteen out of a total of sixty-three neurones triple projections to all the above structures were found. In the majority of cells investigated their axons divided into two branches ascending both ipsi- and contralaterally in the lateral funiculi of the spinal cord. Their cell bodies were distributed in laminae VII-VIII except for a minor group of neurones that projected to the C6 segment only, which were located in laminae V-VI. The latter group also displayed lower values of axonal conduction velocities. Comparison of conduction velocities in proximal and distal parts of axons revealed significant slowing in most, raising the possibility that additional collaterals were present to other spinal or supraspinal centres. Dual and triple projections from most cells in this study suggest that such a divergence may be a more common feature of ascending tract neurones than has been reported before.

  3. Vocational Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poor, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews historical development of organized vocational rehabilitation programming for the spinal cord injured in the United States. Significant factors that affect vocational rehabilitation outcomes with spinal cord injured persons are listed and discussed. (Author)

  4. Exogenous BDNF enhances the integration of chronically injured axons that regenerate through a peripheral nerve grafted into a chondroitinase-treated spinal cord injury site.

    PubMed

    Tom, Veronica J; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Miller, Kassi; Domitrovich, Cheryl; Bouyer, Julien; Zhukareva, Victoria; Klaw, Michelle C; Lemay, Michel A; Houlé, John D

    2013-01-01

    Although axons lose some of their intrinsic capacity for growth after their developmental period, some axons retain the potential for regrowth after injury. When provided with a growth-promoting substrate such as a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), severed axons regenerate into and through the graft; however, they stop when they reach the glial scar at the distal graft-host interface that is rich with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. We previously showed that treatment of a spinal cord injury site with chondroitinase (ChABC) allows axons within the graft to traverse the scar and reinnervate spinal cord, where they form functional synapses. While this improvement in outgrowth was significant, it still represented only a small percentage (<20%) of axons compared to the total number of axons that regenerated into the PNG. Here we tested whether providing exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via lentivirus in tissue distal to the PNG would augment regeneration beyond a ChABC-treated glial interface. We found that ChABC treatment alone promoted axonal regeneration but combining ChABC with BDNF-lentivirus did not increase the number of axons that regenerated back into spinal cord. Combining BDNF with ChABC did increase the number of spinal cord neurons that were trans-synaptically activated during electrical stimulation of the graft, as indicated by c-Fos expression, suggesting that BDNF overexpression improved the functional significance of axons that did reinnervate distal spinal cord tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exogenous BDNF enhances the integration of chronically injured axons that regenerate through a peripheral nerve grafted into a chondroitinase-treated spinal cord injury site

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Veronica J.; Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R.; Miller, Kassi; Domitrovich, Cheryl; Bouyer, Julien; Zhukareva, Victoria; Klaw, Michelle C.; Lemay, Michel A.; Houlé, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Although axons lose some of their intrinsic capacity for growth after their developmental period, some axons retain the potential for regrowth after injury. When provided with a growth-promoting substrate such as a peripheral nerve graft (PNG), severed axons regenerate into and through the graft; however, they stop when they reach the glial scar at the distal graft-host interface that is rich with inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. We previously showed that treatment of a spinal cord injury site with chondroitinase (ChABC) allows axons within the graft to traverse the scar and reinnervate spinal cord, where they form functional synapses. While this improvement in outgrowth was significant, it still represented only a small percentage (<20%) of axons compared to the total number of axons that regenerated into the PNG. Here we tested whether providing exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via lentivirus in tissue distal to the PNG would augment regeneration beyond a ChABC-treated glial interface. We found that ChABC treatment alone promoted axonal regeneration but combining ChABC with BDNF-lentivirus did not increase the number of axons that regenerated back into spinal cord. Combining BDNF with ChABC did increase the number of spinal cord neurons that were trans-synaptically activated during electrical stimulation of the graft, as indicated by c-Fos expression, suggesting that BDNF overexpression improved the functional significance of axons that did reinnervate distal spinal cord tissue. PMID:23022460

  6. Changes in correlation between spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurones lead to differential recruitment of inhibitory pathways in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Rodríguez, E; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2012-04-01

    Simultaneous recordings of cord dorsum potentials along the lumbo-sacral spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat revealed the occurrence of spontaneous synchronous negative (n) and negative-positive (np) cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). The npCDPs, unlike the nCDPs, appeared preferentially associated with spontaneous negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) resulting from primary afferent depolarization. Spontaneous npCDPs recorded in preparations with intact neuroaxis or after spinalization often showed a higher correlation than the nCDPs recorded from the same pair of segments. The acute section of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves further increased the correlation between paired sets of npCDPs and reduced the correlation between the nCDPs recorded from the same pair of segments. It is concluded that the spontaneous nCDPs and npCDPs are produced by the activation of interconnected sets of dorsal horn neurones located in Rexed's laminae III–IV and bilaterally distributed along the lumbo-sacral spinal cord. Under conditions of low synchronization in the activity of this network of neurones there would be a preferential activation of the intermediate nucleus interneurones mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition. Increased synchronization in the spontaneous activity of this ensemble of dorsal horn neurones would recruit the interneurones mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition and, at the same time, reduce the activation of pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. Central control of the synchronization in the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurones and its modulation by cutaneous inputs is envisaged as an effective mechanism for the selection of alternative inhibitory pathways during the execution of specific motor or sensory tasks.

  7. Changes in correlation between spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurones lead to differential recruitment of inhibitory pathways in the cat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, D; Rodríguez, E; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous recordings of cord dorsum potentials along the lumbo-sacral spinal cord of the anaesthetized cat revealed the occurrence of spontaneous synchronous negative (n) and negative–positive (np) cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). The npCDPs, unlike the nCDPs, appeared preferentially associated with spontaneous negative dorsal root potentials (DRPs) resulting from primary afferent depolarization. Spontaneous npCDPs recorded in preparations with intact neuroaxis or after spinalization often showed a higher correlation than the nCDPs recorded from the same pair of segments. The acute section of the sural and superficial peroneal nerves further increased the correlation between paired sets of npCDPs and reduced the correlation between the nCDPs recorded from the same pair of segments. It is concluded that the spontaneous nCDPs and npCDPs are produced by the activation of interconnected sets of dorsal horn neurones located in Rexed's laminae III–IV and bilaterally distributed along the lumbo-sacral spinal cord. Under conditions of low synchronization in the activity of this network of neurones there would be a preferential activation of the intermediate nucleus interneurones mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition. Increased synchronization in the spontaneous activity of this ensemble of dorsal horn neurones would recruit the interneurones mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition and, at the same time, reduce the activation of pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. Central control of the synchronization in the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurones and its modulation by cutaneous inputs is envisaged as an effective mechanism for the selection of alternative inhibitory pathways during the execution of specific motor or sensory tasks. PMID:22271870

  8. A retinoic acid receptor β agonist (CD2019) overcomes inhibition of axonal outgrowth via phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in the injured adult spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Marta; Yip, Ping; Davies, Meirion; Bradbury, Elizabeth; Doherty, Patrick; McMahon, Stephen; Maden, Malcolm; Corcoran, Jonathan P.T.

    2010-01-01

    After spinal cord injury in the adult mammal, axons do not normally regrow and this commonly leads to paralysis. Retinoic acid (RA) can stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro of both the embryonic central and peripheral nervous system, via activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) β2. We show here that regions of the adult CNS, including the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, express RARβ2. We show that when cerebellar neurons are grown in the presence of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) which inhibits neurite outgrowth, RARβ can be activated in a dose dependent manner by a RARβ agonist (CD2019) and neurite outgrowth can occur via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. In a model of spinal cord injury CD2019 also acts through PI3K signalling to induce axonal outgrowth of descending corticospinal fibres and promote functional recovery. Our data suggest that RARβ agonists may be of therapeutic potential for human spinal cord injuries. PMID:19800972

  9. A retinoic acid receptor beta agonist (CD2019) overcomes inhibition of axonal outgrowth via phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in the injured adult spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Marta; Yip, Ping; Davies, Meirion; Bradbury, Elizabeth; Doherty, Patrick; McMahon, Stephen; Maden, Malcolm; Corcoran, Jonathan P T

    2010-01-01

    After spinal cord injury in the adult mammal, axons do not normally regrow and this commonly leads to paralysis. Retinoic acid (RA) can stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro of both the embryonic central and peripheral nervous system, via activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2. We show here that regions of the adult CNS, including the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, express RARbeta2. We show that when cerebellar neurons are grown in the presence of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) which inhibits neurite outgrowth, RARbeta can be activated in a dose dependent manner by a RARbeta agonist (CD2019) and neurite outgrowth can occur via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. In a model of spinal cord injury CD2019 also acts through PI3K signalling to induce axonal outgrowth of descending corticospinal fibres and promote functional recovery. Our data suggest that RARbeta agonists may be of therapeutic potential for human spinal cord injuries.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a novel five-degrees-of-freedom user command controller in people with spinal cord injury and non-injured for full upper extremity neuroprosthesis, wearable powered orthoses and prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Scott, Timothy R D; Vare, Veronica A

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis for a user command controller monitoring head position for artificial control of the proximal upper limb was performed. The controller was evaluated by having subjects complete target matching tasks manipulating a simulated on-screen hand representation to investigate the effects of target location and target speed on performance. Sixteen subjects took part in the study, 11 of whom had sustained cervical spinal cord injuries. The subjects were able to control the on-screen hand with overall low sensitivity of performance with the controller to target position in its five-degrees-of-freedom. The optimal speed was found to be a compromise between low speed and high accuracy but longer completion time and fast speed for short completion time with lower accuracy. The results demonstrated the robustness of the controller across a population of non-injured subjects and those with tetraplegia.

  11. Effects of spinal and peripheral nerve lesions on the intersegmental synchronization of the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurons in the cat lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    García, C A; Chávez, D; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    2004-05-06

    In the anesthetized and paralyzed cat, spontaneous negative cord dorsum potentials (nCDPs) appeared synchronously in the L3 to S1 segments, both ipsi- and contralaterally. The acute section of both the intact sural and the superficial peroneal nerve increased the variability of the spontaneous nCDPs without affecting their intersegmental coupling. On the other hand, the synchronization between the spontaneous nCDPs recorded in segments L5-L6 was strongly reduced following an interposed lesion of the left (ipsilateral) dorsolateral spinal quadrant and it was almost completely abolished by an additional lesion of the contralateral dorsolateral quadrant at the same level. Our observations support the existence of a system of spontaneously active dorsal horn neurons that is bilaterally distributed along the lumbosacral segments and affects, in a synchronized and organized manner, impulse transmission along many reflex pathways, including those mediating presynaptic inhibition.

  12. Single, high-dose intraspinal injection of chondroitinase reduces glycosaminoglycans in injured spinal cord and promotes corticospinal axonal regrowth after hemisection but not contusion.

    PubMed

    Iseda, Tsutomu; Okuda, Tetsuhito; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Mathew, Marlon; Ahmed, Sameer; Chang, Yu-Wen; Young, Wise; Grumet, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth, and treatment with chondroitinase ABC promotes axonal regeneration in some models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the spatiotemporal appearance of CSPG expression between spinal cord contusion and hemisection models, and (2) to evaluate chondroitinase treatment effects on axonal regrowth in the two injury models. After hemisection, CSPG-immunoreactivity (IR) in the injury site rose to peak levels at 18 days but then decreased dramatically by 49 days; in contrast, CSPG-IR remained high for at least 49 days after contusion. After hemisection, many anterogradely labeled corticospinal tract (CST) axons remained close to CSPG-rich lesion sites, but after contusion, most CST axons retracted by approximately 1 mm rostral from the rostral-most CSPG-rich cyst. Intraspinal injection of chondroitinase at 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks following injury dramatically reduced CSPG-IR in both injury models within 4 days, and CSPG-IR remained low for at least 3 weeks. After the chondroitinase treatment, many axons grew around the lesion site in hemisected spinal cords but not in contused spinal cords. We propose that improved axonal growth in hemisected spinal cords is due to decreased inhibition resulting from degradation of CSPGs located adjacent to severed CST axons. However, in spinal cord contusions, retracted CST axons fail to grow across gliotic regions that surround CSPG-rich injury sites despite efficient degradation with chondroitinase, suggesting that other inhibitors of axonal growth persist in the gliotic regions.

  13. Markovian Analysis of the Sequential Behavior of the Spontaneous Spinal Cord Dorsum Potentials Induced by Acute Nociceptive Stimulation in the Anesthetized Cat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mario; Béjar, Javier; Esposito, Gennaro; Chávez, Diógenes; Contreras-Hernández, Enrique; Glusman, Silvio; Cortés, Ulises; Rudomín, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study we developed a Machine Learning procedure for the automatic identification and classification of spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). This study further supported the proposal that in the anesthetized cat, the spontaneous CDPs recorded from different lumbar spinal segments are generated by a distributed network of dorsal horn neurons with structured (non-random) patterns of functional connectivity and that these configurations can be changed to other non-random and stable configurations after the noceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in the anesthetized cat. Here we present a study showing that the sequence of identified forms of the spontaneous CDPs follows a Markov chain of at least order one. That is, the system has memory in the sense that the spontaneous activation of dorsal horn neuronal ensembles producing the CDPs is not independent of the most recent activity. We used this markovian property to build a procedure to identify portions of signals as belonging to a specific functional state of connectivity among the neuronal networks involved in the generation of the CDPs. We have tested this procedure during acute nociceptive stimulation produced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin in intact as well as spinalized preparations. Altogether, our results indicate that CDP sequences cannot be generated by a renewal stochastic process. Moreover, it is possible to describe some functional features of activity in the cord dorsum by modeling the CDP sequences as generated by a Markov order one stochastic process. Finally, these Markov models make possible to determine the functional state which produced a CDP sequence. The proposed identification procedures appear to be useful for the analysis of the sequential behavior of the ongoing CDPs recorded from different spinal segments in response to a variety of experimental procedures including the changes produced by acute nociceptive stimulation. They are

  14. Modeling zero-lag synchronization of dorsal horn neurons during the traveling of electrical waves in the cat spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hideyuki; Cuellar, Carlos A; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Rudomin, Pablo; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; Manjarrez, Elias; Mirasso, Claudio R

    2013-01-01

    The first electrophysiological evidence of the phenomenon of traveling electrical waves produced by populations of interneurons within the spinal cord was reported by our interdisciplinary research group. Two interesting observations derive from this study: first, the negative spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) that are superimposed on the propagating sinusoidal electrical waves are not correlated with any scratching phase; second, these CDPs do not propagate along the lumbosacral spinal segments, but they appear almost simultaneously at different spinal segments. The aim of this study was to provide experimental data and a mathematical model to explain the simultaneous occurrence of traveling waves and the zero-lag synchronization of some CDPs. PMID:24303110

  15. Modeling zero-lag synchronization of dorsal horn neurons during the traveling of electrical waves in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideyuki; Cuellar, Carlos A; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo; Rudomin, Pablo; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; Manjarrez, Elias; Mirasso, Claudio R

    2013-07-01

    The first electrophysiological evidence of the phenomenon of traveling electrical waves produced by populations of interneurons within the spinal cord was reported by our interdisciplinary research group. Two interesting observations derive from this study: first, the negative spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) that are superimposed on the propagating sinusoidal electrical waves are not correlated with any scratching phase; second, these CDPs do not propagate along the lumbosacral spinal segments, but they appear almost simultaneously at different spinal segments. The aim of this study was to provide experimental data and a mathematical model to explain the simultaneous occurrence of traveling waves and the zero-lag synchronization of some CDPs.

  16. Novel potassium channel blocker, 4-AP-3-MeOH, inhibits fast potassium channels and restores axonal conduction in injured guinea pig spinal cord white matter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Smith, Daniel; Fu, Yan; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Bryn, Steven; Borgens, Richard; Shi, Riyi

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated that 4-aminopyridine-3-methanol (4-AP-3-MeOH), a 4-aminopyridine derivative, significantly restores axonal conduction in stretched spinal cord white-matter strips and shows no preference in restoring large and small axons. This compound is 10 times more potent when compared with 4-AP and other derivatives in restoring axonal conduction. Unlike 4-AP, 4-AP-3-MeOH can restore axonal conduction without changing axonal electrophysiological properties. In addition, we also have confirmed that 4-AP-3-MeOH is indeed an effective blocker of I(A) based on patch-clamp studies using guinea pig dorsal root ganglia cells. Furthermore, we have also provided the critical evidence to confirm the unmasking of potassium channels following mechanical injury. Taken together, our data further supports and implicates the role of potassium channels in conduction loss and its therapeutic value as an effective target for intervention to restore function in spinal cord trauma. Furthermore, due to its high potency and possible low side effect of impacting electrophysiological properties, 4-AP-3-MeOH is perhaps the optimal choice in reversing conduction block in spinal cord injury compared with other derivatives previously reported from this group.

  17. The calcium binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, and calretinin have specific patterns of expression in the gray matter of cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Anelli, Roberta; Heckman, C J

    2005-12-01

    Calcium binding proteins (CBPs) regulate intracellular levels of calcium (Ca(2+)) ions. CBPs are particularly interesting from a morphological standpoint, because they are differentially expressed in certain sub-populations of cells in the nervous system of various species of vertebrate animals. However, knowledge on the cellular regulation governing such cell-specific CBP expression is still incomplete. In this work on the L7 segment of the cat spinal cord, we analyzed the localization and morphology of neurons expressing the CBPs calbindin-28 KD (CB), parvalbumin (PV), and calretinin (CR), and co-expressing CB and PV, CB and CR, and PV and CR. Single CBP-positive ((+)) neurons showed specific distributions: (1) CB was present in small neurons localized in laminae I, II, III and X, in small to medium size neurons in laminae III-VI, and in medium to large neurons in laminae VI-VIII; (2) PV was present in small size neurons in laminae III and IV and in medial portions of laminae V and VI, medium neurons and in lamina X at the border with lamina VII, in medium to large neurons in laminae VII and VIII; (3) CR labeling was detected in small size neurons in laminae I, II, III and VIII, in medium to large size neurons in laminae I and III-VII, and in small to medium size neurons in lamina X. Double labeled neurons were a small minority of the CBP(+) cells. Co-expression of CB and PV was seen in 1 to 2% of the CBP(+) cells, and they were detected in the ventral and intermediate portions of lamina VII and in lamina X. Co-localization of CB and CR was present in 0.3% of the cells and these cells were localized in lamina II. Double labeling for PV and CR occurred in 6% of the cells, and the cells were localized in ventral part of lamina VII and in lamina VIII. Overall, these results revealed distinct and reproducible patterns of localization of the neurons expressing single CBPs and co-expressing two of them. Distinct differences of CBP expression between cat and other

  18. Injured mice at the gym: review, results and considerations for combining chondroitinase and locomotor exercise to enhance recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, Lyn B; Hoschouer, Emily L; Basso, D Michele

    2011-03-10

    Exercise provides a number of important benefits after spinal cord injury in clinical studies and animal models. However, the amount of functional improvement in overground locomotion obtained with exercise alone has been limited thus far, for reasons that are still poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the complex network of endogenous extracellular matrix components, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), can inhibit exercise-induced remodeling and limit plasticity of spared circuitry in the adult central nervous system. Recent animal studies have shown that chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can enhance plasticity in the adult nervous system by cleaving glycosaminoglycan sidechains from CSPGs. In this article we review the current literature on plasticity observed with locomotor training and following degradation of CSPGs with ChABC and then present a rationale for the use of exercise combined with ChABC to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We also present results of a preliminary study that tested the simplest approach for combining these treatments; use of a single intraparenchymal injection of ChABC administered to the lumbar enlargement of mice with voluntary wheel running exercise after a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury. The results are negative, yet serve to highlight limitations in our understanding of the most effective protocols for combining these approaches. Further work is directed to identify the timing, type, and quantity of exercise and pharmacological interventions that can be used to maximize functional improvements by strengthening appropriate synaptic connections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute Putrescine Supplementation with Schwann Cell Implantation Improves Sensory and Serotonergic Axon Growth and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Iorgulescu, J Bryan; Patel, Samik P; Louro, Jack; Andrade, Christian M; Sanchez, Andre R; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) transplantation exhibits significant potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and its use as a therapeutic modality has now progressed to clinical trials for subacute and chronic human SCI. Although SC implants provide a receptive environment for axonal regrowth and support functional recovery in a number of experimental SCI models, axonal regeneration is largely limited to local systems and the behavioral improvements are modest without additional combinatory approaches. In the current study we investigated whether the concurrent delivery of the polyamine putrescine, started either 30 min or 1 week after SCI, could enhance the efficacy of SCs when implanted subacutely (1 week after injury) into the contused rat spinal cord. Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations that play an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell division, cytoskeletal organization, and cell differentiation. We show that the combination of putrescine with SCs provides a significant increase in implant size, an enhancement in axonal (sensory and serotonergic) sparing and/or growth, and improved open field locomotion after SCI, as compared to SC implantation alone. These findings demonstrate that polyamine supplementation can augment the effectiveness of SCs when used as a therapeutic approach for subacute SCI repair.

  20. Injured mice at the gym: review, results and considerations for combining chondroitinase and locomotor exercise to enhance recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Jakeman, Lyn B.; Hoschouer, Emily L.; Basso, D. Michele

    2010-01-01

    Exercise provides a number of important benefits after spinal cord injury in clinical studies and animal models. However, the amount of functional improvement in overground locomotion obtained with exercise alone has been limited thus far, for reasons that are still poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the complex network of endogenous extracellular matrix components, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), can inhibit exercise-induced remodeling and limit plasticity of spared circuitry in the adult central nervous system. Recent animal studies have shown that chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can enhance plasticity in the adult nervous system by cleaving glycosaminoglycan sidechains from CSPGs. In this article we review the current literature on plasticity observed with locomotor training and following degradation of CSPGs with ChABC and then present a rationale for the use of exercise combined with ChABC to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We also present results of a preliminary study that tested the simplest approach for combining these treatments; use of a single intraparenchymal injection of ChABC administered to the lumbar enlargement of mice with voluntary wheel running exercise after a mid-thoracic spinal contusion injury. The results are negative, yet serve to highlight limitations in our understanding of the most effective protocols for combining these approaches. Further work is directed to identify the timing, type, and quantity of exercise and pharmacological interventions that can be used to maximize functional improvements by strengthening appropriate synaptic connections. PMID:20558254

  1. Acute Putrescine Supplementation with Schwann Cell Implantation Improves Sensory and Serotonergic Axon Growth and Functional Recovery in Spinal Cord Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iorgulescu, J. Bryan; Patel, Samik P.; Louro, Jack; Andrade, Christian M.; Sanchez, Andre R.; Pearse, Damien D.

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) transplantation exhibits significant potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair and its use as a therapeutic modality has now progressed to clinical trials for subacute and chronic human SCI. Although SC implants provide a receptive environment for axonal regrowth and support functional recovery in a number of experimental SCI models, axonal regeneration is largely limited to local systems and the behavioral improvements are modest without additional combinatory approaches. In the current study we investigated whether the concurrent delivery of the polyamine putrescine, started either 30 min or 1 week after SCI, could enhance the efficacy of SCs when implanted subacutely (1 week after injury) into the contused rat spinal cord. Polyamines are ubiquitous organic cations that play an important role in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell division, cytoskeletal organization, and cell differentiation. We show that the combination of putrescine with SCs provides a significant increase in implant size, an enhancement in axonal (sensory and serotonergic) sparing and/or growth, and improved open field locomotion after SCI, as compared to SC implantation alone. These findings demonstrate that polyamine supplementation can augment the effectiveness of SCs when used as a therapeutic approach for subacute SCI repair. PMID:26550496

  2. Local delivery of chondroitinase ABC with or without stromal cell-derived factor 1α promotes functional repair in the injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Tator, Charles H; Shoichet, Molly S

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for which functional recovery remains elusive. Due to the complex nature of SCI pathology, a combination treatment strategy will likely be required for success. We hypothesized that tissue and functional repair would be achieved in a rat model of impact-compression SCI by combining degradation of the glial scar, using chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), with recruitment of endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs), using stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF). To test this hypothesis, we designed a crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogel (XMC) for minimally invasive, localized, and sustained intrathecal drug delivery. ChABC was released from XMC using protein-peptide affinity interactions while SDF was delivered by electrostatic affinity interactions from polymeric nanoparticles embedded in XMC. Rats with SCI were treated acutely with a combination of SDF and ChABC, SDF alone, ChABC alone, or vehicle alone, and compared to injury only. Treatment with ChABC, both alone and in combination with SDF, resulted in faster and more sustained behavioural improvement over time than other groups. The significantly reduced chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan levels and greater distribution of NPCs throughout the spinal cord tissue with ChABC delivery, both alone and in combination with SDF, may explain the improved locomotor function. Treatment with SDF alone had no apparent effect on NPC number or distribution nor synergistic effect with ChABC delivery. Thus, in this model of SCI, tissue and functional repair is attributed to ChABC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Blockade of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Spinal-Cord-Injured Dogs Results in a Long-Term Increase in Bladder Compliance.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jonathan M; Cohen, Noah D; Fandel, Thomas M; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Mankin, Joseph; Griffin, John F; Kerwin, Sharon C; Boudreau, C Elizabeth; Trivedi, Alpa; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2017-09-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is often accompanied by reduced bladder compliance, which contributes to adverse conditions including urinary tract infections and vesicoureteral reflux. Reduced compliance is, in part, attributed to extensive remodeling of the bladder wall, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), known for their ability to remodel the ECM, improves bladder compliance in dogs with SCI. We first evaluated dogs with naturally occurring SCIs resulting from intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). After characterizing the natural history of urological recovery by cystometry in healthy dogs (n = 10) and dogs with SCIs (n = 20), we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in dogs with IVDH-associated SCIs to assess the efficacy of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, GM6001, given within 48 h post-injury. The primary outcomes were bladder compliance, as measured by cystometry, and an ordinal gait score (Texas Spinal Cord Injury Score; TSCIS) at day 42 post-SCI. Dogs (n = 93) were randomized to receive either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or GM6001+DMSO. There were transient, but significantly (p = 0.023) greater, adverse events (31 of 42; 74%) in the GM6001-treated group relative to vehicle controls (22 of 46; 48%). Whereas there were no differences in TSCIS between treatment groups at day 42 (p = 0.9679), bladder compliance was significantly higher in dogs treated with GM6001+DMSO compared to controls (p = 0.0272). Further studies are needed to determine whether this inhibition results from a direct interaction with the bladder wall or indirectly through neural-based mechanisms.

  4. Intermittent hypoxia promotes recovery of respiratory motor function in spinal cord-injured mice depleted of serotonin in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Komnenov, Dragana; Solarewicz, Julia Z; Afzal, Fareeza; Nantwi, Kwaku D; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effect of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the recovery of respiratory and limb motor function in mice genetically depleted of central nervous system serotonin. Electroencephalography, diaphragm activity, ventilation, core body temperature, and limb mobility were measured in spontaneously breathing wild-type (Tph2(+/+)) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 knockout (Tph2(-/-)) mice. Following a C2 hemisection, the mice were exposed daily to IH (i.e., twelve 4-min episodes of 10% oxygen interspersed with 4-min normoxic periods followed by a 90-min end-recovery period) or normoxia (i.e., sham protocol, 21% oxygen) for 10 consecutive days. Diaphragm activity recovered to prehemisection levels in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice following exposure to IH but not normoxia [Tph2(+/+) 1.3 ± 0.2 (SE) vs. 0.3 ± 0.2; Tph2(-/-) 1.06 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1, standardized to prehemisection values, P < 0.01]. Likewise, recovery of tidal volume and breathing frequency was evident, although breathing frequency values did not return to prehemisection levels within the time frame of the protocol. Partial recovery of limb motor function was also evident 2 wk after spinal cord hemisection. However, recovery was not dependent on IH or the presence of serotonin in the central nervous system. We conclude that IH promotes recovery of respiratory function but not basic motor tasks. Moreover, we conclude that spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery of respiratory and motor limb function is not dependent on serotonin in the central nervous system in a mouse model of spinal cord injury.

  5. Pre-Hospital Care Management of a Potential Spinal Cord Injured Patient: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Evidence-Based Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Henry; Singh, Jeffrey; Nathens, Avery; MacDonald, Russell D.; Travers, Andrew; Tallon, John; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An interdisciplinary expert panel of medical and surgical specialists involved in the management of patients with potential spinal cord injuries (SCI) was assembled. Four key questions were created that were of significant interest. These were: (1) what is the optimal type and duration of pre-hospital spinal immobilization in patients with acute SCI?; (2) during airway manipulation in the pre-hospital setting, what is the ideal method of spinal immobilization?; (3) what is the impact of pre-hospital transport time to definitive care on the outcomes of patients with acute spinal cord injury?; and (4) what is the role of pre-hospital care providers in cervical spine clearance and immobilization? A systematic review utilizing multiple databases was performed to determine the current evidence about the specific questions, and each article was independently reviewed and assessed by two reviewers based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Guidelines were then created related to the questions by a national Canadian expert panel using the Delphi method for reviewing the evidence-based guidelines about each question. Recommendations about the key questions included: the pre-hospital immobilization of patients using a cervical collar, head immobilization, and a spinal board; utilization of padded boards or inflatable bean bag boards to reduce pressure; transfer of patients off of spine boards as soon as feasible, including transfer of patients off spinal boards while awaiting transfer from one hospital institution to another hospital center for definitive care; inclusion of manual in-line cervical spine traction for airway management in patients requiring intubation in the pre-hospital setting; transport of patients with acute traumatic SCI to the definitive hospital center for care within 24 h of injury; and training of emergency medical personnel in the pre-hospital setting to apply criteria to clear patients of cervical spinal injuries, and immobilize patients

  6. The effect of a spinal cord hemisection on changes in nitric oxide synthase pools in the site of injury and in regions located far away from the injured site.

    PubMed

    Lukácová, Nadezda; Kolesárová, Mária; Kuchárová, Karolína; Pavel, Jaroslav; Kolesár, Dalibor; Radonák, Jozef; Marsala, Martin; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Langfort, Jozef; Marsala, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to examine the nitric oxide synthase activities (constitutive and inducible) in the site of injury in response to Th10-Th11 spinal cord hemisection and, to determine whether unilateral disconnection of the spinal cord influences the NOS pools on the contra- and ipsilateral sides in segments located far away from the epicentre of injury. 2. A radioassay detection was used to determine Ca(2+)-dependent and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities. Somal, axonal and neuropil neuronal nitric oxide synthase was assessed by immunocytochemical study. A quantitative assessment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was made by an image analyser. The level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein was measured by the Western blot analysis. 3. Our data show the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and a decrease of Ca(2+)-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in the injured site analysed 1 and 7 days after surgery. In segments remote from the epicentre of injury the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity was increased at both time points. Ca(2+)-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity had decreased in L5-S1 segments in a group of animals surviving for 7 days. A hemisection performed at thoracic level did not cause significant difference in the nitric oxide synthase activities and in the level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein between the contra- and ipsilateral sides in C6-Th1 and L5-S1 segments taken as a whole. Significant differences were observed, but only when the spinal cord was analysed segment by segment, and/or was divided into dorsal and ventral parts. The cell counts in the cervicothoracic (C7-Th1) and lumbosacral (L5-S1) enlargements revealed changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity on the ipsilateral side of the injury. The densitometric area measurements confirmed the reduction of somal, neuropil and axonal neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive staining in

  7. Correlation of motor control in the supine position and assistive device used for ambulation in chronic incomplete spinal cord-injured persons.

    PubMed

    Tang, S F; Tuel, S M; McKay, W B; Dimitrijevic, M R

    1994-01-01

    Neurocontrol of movement after spinal cord injury (SCI) is often spared, but few studies have investigated the chronic incomplete SCI patient. Multichannel surface electromyography (SEMG) can describe characteristics of neurocontrol during a series of volitional and reflex events. The relationship of these neurocontrol characteristics to clinical function is incompletely described. This study, retrospectively, evaluated the relationship between neurocontrol patterns evoked by lower limb movement in the supine position and the assistive device used for ambulation in chronic, incomplete SCI persons. The records of 15 neurologically healthy (9 male, 6 female) and 36 incomplete SCI persons (27 male, 9 female) (C2-T10) were used. SEMG was recorded from both quadriceps, adductors, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae muscles and displayed on a stripchart for analysis. SEMG patterns of activity recorded in the supine position during volitional, unilateral, multijoint (hip and knee flexion and extension) movement attempts were characterized, divided into seven groups and compared with the subjects' self-selected ambulation device (independent, cane, crutches, walker or nonambulatory). The neurocontrol patterns recorded in the supine position correlated well with the SCI subjects ambulatory assistive device. Marked decreases in motor unit output and/or loss of motor organization were found in the nonambulatory group. Coactivation of proximal muscles, poor timing of muscle activity and radiation of activity into contralateral muscles were also noted in subjects who required a walker or crutches. To a lesser degree, abnormal motor patterns were also noted in subjects who ambulated with a cane or independently.

  8. Acceptable outcome following resection of bilateral large popliteal space heterotopic ossification masses in a spinal cord injured patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ramin; Haghpanah, Babak

    2010-06-22

    Spinal cord injury is a well-known predisposing factor for development of heterotopic ossification around the joints especially hip and elbow. Heterotopic ossification about the knee is usually located medially, laterally or anteriorly; besides, the knee is generally fixed in flexion. There are only a few reports of heterotopic bone formation at the posterior aspect of the knee (popliteal space) and fixation of both knees in extension; so, there is little experience in operative management of such a problem.Here, we present a 39-years old paraplegic man who was referred to us five years after trauma with a request of above knee amputation due to sever impairment of his life style and adaptive capacity for daily living because of difficulties in using wheelchair. The principle reason for the impairment was fixed full extension of both knees as the result of bilateral large heterotopic ossification masses in popliteal fossae. The bony masses were surgically resected with acceptable outcome. The anatomic position of the ossified masses as well as ankylosis of both knees in full extension, and the acceptable functional outcome of surgery which was done after a long period of five years following injury makes this case unique.

  9. Acceptable outcome following resection of bilateral large popliteal space heterotopic ossification masses in a spinal cord injured patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a well-known predisposing factor for development of heterotopic ossification around the joints especially hip and elbow. Heterotopic ossification about the knee is usually located medially, laterally or anteriorly; besides, the knee is generally fixed in flexion. There are only a few reports of heterotopic bone formation at the posterior aspect of the knee (popliteal space) and fixation of both knees in extension; so, there is little experience in operative management of such a problem. Here, we present a 39-years old paraplegic man who was referred to us five years after trauma with a request of above knee amputation due to sever impairment of his life style and adaptive capacity for daily living because of difficulties in using wheelchair. The principle reason for the impairment was fixed full extension of both knees as the result of bilateral large heterotopic ossification masses in popliteal fossae. The bony masses were surgically resected with acceptable outcome. The anatomic position of the ossified masses as well as ankylosis of both knees in full extension, and the acceptable functional outcome of surgery which was done after a long period of five years following injury makes this case unique. PMID:20569483

  10. [Metabolic changes and nutritional status in the spinal cord injured patient ASIA A. Evaluation and monitoring with routine laboratories, a feasible option].

    PubMed

    Dufoo, Manuel; Oseguera, Araceli Cruz; Dufoo-Olvera, Manuel; López, Ozcar García; Palacios, Jesús López; Trejo, Antonio Aburto; Toledo, Gabriel Carranco; Esparza, Everardo de la Rosa; Zazueta, Alberto Ibarra; Ortíz, Eloy Vásquez

    2007-01-01

    Spinal Cord Injury ASIA A (tetraplegia) is a frequent pathology that may affect population regardless of age, sex or race, and that can induce metabolic abnormalities that may worsen the nutritional status of these patients. There are no existing specific protocols to treat these disorders in the specialized units in Mexico. We analyzed 16 patients at the Spine Clinic SS-DF, 18 years or older without any drug treatment or any previous disease, known or diagnosed when admitted to the hospital. Laboratory samples were obtained as well as the nutritional status was calculated at their admittance and discharge. Individually calculated nutritional support was administered starting at their third day of hospital stay. 100% of the patients showed some type of metabolic disorder associated to the neurological injury. 50% of the patients were classified with severe malnutrition, 25% moderate and 25% mild, all improved at their discharge. We confirmed the presence of metabolic changes in these patients, the efficacy of routine laboratory in the Spine Clinic SS-DF for their evaluation, and that adequate nutritional support may help correct metabolic disorders in this patients.

  11. Suppression of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by herpes simplex virus vector-mediated gene delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase in spinal cord injures rats

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Minoru; Sugaya, Kimio; Saito, Seiichi; Chancellor, Michael B.; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; de Groat, William C.; Glorioso, Joseph C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding genes of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis enzyme, can suppress detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Materials and Methods One week after spinalization, HSV vectors expressing GAD and green fluorescent protein (HSV-GAD) were injected to the bladder wall. SCI rats without HSV injection (sham) and those injected with LacZ-encoding HSV vectors (HSV-LacZ) were used as controls. Three weeks after viral injection, simultaneous recordings of urethral pressure and intravesical pressure were performed under an awake condition in three groups. Results In the HSV-GAD group, the urethral pressure rise during bladder contractions was significantly reduced by 77–79% compared with sham or HSV-LacZ groups, but bladder activity and urethral baseline pressure were not different among three groups. Intrathecal application of bicuculline, a GABAA antagonist, almost completely reversed the decrease in urethral pressure rise during bladder contractions whereas intrathecal saclofen, a GABAB antagonist, partially reversed it. In the HSV-GAD group, GAD67 mRNA was significantly increased in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia, where bladder afferents originate, compared with the HSV-LacZ group. Conclusions HSV-based GAD gene transfer to bladder afferent pathway may represent a novel approach for the treatment of DSD in SCI. PMID:20663524

  12. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  13. UPLC-MS/MS assay of riluzole in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): Application in samples from spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mahua; Grossman, Robert G; Toups, Elizabeth G; Chow, Diana S-L

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of riluzole in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in clinical samples from patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Riluzole and its labeled internal standard (IS) were isolated from plasma and CSF by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate. Riluzole (m/z 235→166) and IS (m/z 238→169) were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a positive mode. The assay was linear in the concentration range of 0.5 (LLOQ, signal/noise ratio>10)-800ng/ml in plasma, and 1.0 (LLOQ)-800ng/ml in CSF samples. The intra- and inter-day accuracy in plasma were 94.2-110.0% and 97.8-102.0%, respectively, and those in CSF were 87.6-105.1% and 91.9-98.8%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision were 2.2-7.2% and 4.0-9.1%, respectively, in plasma, and 1.4-14.1% and 2.6-11.5%, respectively in CSF. Matrix effect was negligible from both matrices with signal percentages of 97.6-100.6% in plasma and 99.4-106.4% in CSF. The recoveries were >75% in plasma, >84% in CSF with low protein (53.9mg/dl), and >68% in CSF with high protein (348.2mg/dl). This method was successfully applied to quantify riluzole concentrations in plasma and CSF from patients with SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An electron microscopic study of terminals of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptive afferent fibers in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Semba, K; Masarachia, P; Malamed, S; Jacquin, M; Harris, S; Yang, G; Egger, M D

    1985-02-08

    The intra-axonal horseradish peroxidase technique was used to examine the central terminals of 7 A beta primary afferent fibers from rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of the cat's hindpaw. At the light microscopic level, labelled collaterals were seen to bear occasional boutonlike swellings, mostly (75-82%) of the en passant type. These swellings were distributed more or less uniformly from lamina III to a dorsal part of lamina VI in the dorsal horn, over a maximum longitudinal extent of about 4 mm. At the electron microscopic level, we observed that labelled boutons of RA afferent fibers were 1.0 to 3.3 micrometers in longest sectional dimension, and contained clear, round synaptic vesicles. They frequently formed asymmetric axospinous and axodendritic synapses and commonly appeared to receive contacts from unlabelled structures containing flattened or pleomorphic vesicles plus occasional large dense-cored vesicles. The examination of synaptic connectivity over the entire surface of individual boutons indicated that RA afferent boutons each made contacts with an average of one spine and one dendrite and, in addition, appeared to be postsynaptic to an average of two unlabelled vesicle-containing structures. This synaptic organization was, in general, more complex than that we had seen previously in Pacinian corpuscle (PC) and slowly adapting (SA) type I mechanoreceptive afferent fibers. Our findings indicate that RA, SA, and PC afferent terminals, while displaying some differential synaptic organizations, have many morphological and synaptological characteristics in common. These afferent terminals, in turn, seem to be generally distinguishable from the terminals of muscle spindle Ia afferents or unmyelinated primary afferents.

  15. Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0587 TITLE: Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch ...Directing Spinal Cord Plasticity: The Impact of Stretch Therapy on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury. 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1...ABSTRACT Essentially all spinal cord injured patients receive stretching therapies beginning within the first few weeks post-injury. Despite

  16. Myelinated primary afferents of the sacral spinal cord responding to slow filling and distension of the cat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Häbler, H J; Jänig, W; Koltzenburg, M

    1993-04-01

    1. A total of sixty-five sacral afferent neurones with myelinated fibres supplying the urinary bladder was recorded from the sacral roots S2 in anaesthetized cats. All afferent units were identified with electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. The discharge properties were quantitatively evaluated using slow filling at rates of 1-2 ml min-1 and isotonic distension to preset pressure levels. Eight afferents were studied prior to and after acute sacral de-efferentation of the urinary bladder. 2. All afferent units were silent when the bladder was empty and responded in a graded manner to an increase of intravesical pressure. During slow filling the level of afferent activity correlated closely with the level of the intravesical pressure. All afferents behaved like slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with both a dynamic and static component of their discharge. With the exception of two units the intraluminal pressure threshold was below 25 mmHg. Thus virtually all myelinated afferents respond in the pressure range that is reached during a non-painful micturition cycle. 3. The stimulus-response functions of the afferents were similar regardless of whether intravesical pressure was increased by slow filling or by distension. However, during slow filling stimulation response functions often exhibited steeper slopes between 5 and 25 mmHg indicating that relatively small changes of intravesical pressure result in large changes of afferent activity. Nevertheless, all units displayed monotonically increasing stimulus response functions throughout the innocuous and noxious pressure level. 4. The stimulus-response functions of the afferent neurones did not change after acute de-efferentation of the urinary bladder, although the rapid phasic fluctuations of afferent activity that are produced by small contractions of the urinary bladder under normal conditions largely disappeared. This means that contractions and distension activate the afferent endings by a common mechanism

  17. Myelinated primary afferents of the sacral spinal cord responding to slow filling and distension of the cat urinary bladder.

    PubMed Central

    Häbler, H J; Jänig, W; Koltzenburg, M

    1993-01-01

    1. A total of sixty-five sacral afferent neurones with myelinated fibres supplying the urinary bladder was recorded from the sacral roots S2 in anaesthetized cats. All afferent units were identified with electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve. The discharge properties were quantitatively evaluated using slow filling at rates of 1-2 ml min-1 and isotonic distension to preset pressure levels. Eight afferents were studied prior to and after acute sacral de-efferentation of the urinary bladder. 2. All afferent units were silent when the bladder was empty and responded in a graded manner to an increase of intravesical pressure. During slow filling the level of afferent activity correlated closely with the level of the intravesical pressure. All afferents behaved like slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with both a dynamic and static component of their discharge. With the exception of two units the intraluminal pressure threshold was below 25 mmHg. Thus virtually all myelinated afferents respond in the pressure range that is reached during a non-painful micturition cycle. 3. The stimulus-response functions of the afferents were similar regardless of whether intravesical pressure was increased by slow filling or by distension. However, during slow filling stimulation response functions often exhibited steeper slopes between 5 and 25 mmHg indicating that relatively small changes of intravesical pressure result in large changes of afferent activity. Nevertheless, all units displayed monotonically increasing stimulus response functions throughout the innocuous and noxious pressure level. 4. The stimulus-response functions of the afferent neurones did not change after acute de-efferentation of the urinary bladder, although the rapid phasic fluctuations of afferent activity that are produced by small contractions of the urinary bladder under normal conditions largely disappeared. This means that contractions and distension activate the afferent endings by a common mechanism

  18. Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. II. Noradrenergic innervation and colocalization with NEα 1a or NEα 2b receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Noga, Brian R; Johnson, Dawn M G; Riesgo, Mirta I; Pinzon, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is a strong modulator and/or activator of spinal locomotor networks. Thus noradrenergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the noradrenergic innervation of functionally related, locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord. This was accomplished by immunohistochemical colocalization of noradrenergic fibers using dopamine-β-hydroxylase or NEα(1A) and NEα(2B) receptors with cells expressing the c-fos gene activity-dependent marker Fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, precollicular-postmamillary decerebrate cats, in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The majority of Fos labeled neurons, especially abundant in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar (T13-L7) region of locomotor animals, showed close contacts with multiple noradrenergic boutons. A small percentage (10-40%) of Fos neurons in the T7-L7 segments showed colocalization with NEα(1A) receptors. In contrast, NEα(2B) receptor immunoreactivity was observed in 70-90% of Fos cells, with no obvious rostrocaudal gradient. In comparison with results obtained from our previous study on the same animals, a significantly smaller proportion of Fos labeled neurons were innervated by noradrenergic than serotonergic fibers, with significant differences observed for laminae VII and VIII in some segments. In lamina VII of the lumbar segments, the degree of monoaminergic receptor subtype/Fos colocalization examined statistically generally fell into the following order: NEα(2B) = 5-HT(2A) ≥ 5-HT(7) = 5-HT(1A) > NEα(1A). These results suggest that noradrenergic modulation of locomotion involves NEα(1A)/NEα(2B) receptors on noradrenergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments. Further study of the functional role of these receptors in locomotion is warranted.

  19. Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. II. Noradrenergic innervation and colocalization with NEα1a or NEα2b receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dawn M. G.; Riesgo, Mirta I.; Pinzon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is a strong modulator and/or activator of spinal locomotor networks. Thus noradrenergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the noradrenergic innervation of functionally related, locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord. This was accomplished by immunohistochemical colocalization of noradrenergic fibers using dopamine-β-hydroxylase or NEα1A and NEα2B receptors with cells expressing the c-fos gene activity-dependent marker Fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, precollicular-postmamillary decerebrate cats, in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The majority of Fos labeled neurons, especially abundant in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar (T13-L7) region of locomotor animals, showed close contacts with multiple noradrenergic boutons. A small percentage (10–40%) of Fos neurons in the T7-L7 segments showed colocalization with NEα1A receptors. In contrast, NEα2B receptor immunoreactivity was observed in 70–90% of Fos cells, with no obvious rostrocaudal gradient. In comparison with results obtained from our previous study on the same animals, a significantly smaller proportion of Fos labeled neurons were innervated by noradrenergic than serotonergic fibers, with significant differences observed for laminae VII and VIII in some segments. In lamina VII of the lumbar segments, the degree of monoaminergic receptor subtype/Fos colocalization examined statistically generally fell into the following order: NEα2B = 5-HT2A ≥ 5-HT7 = 5-HT1A > NEα1A. These results suggest that noradrenergic modulation of locomotion involves NEα1A/NEα2B receptors on noradrenergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments. Further study of the functional role of these receptors in locomotion is warranted. PMID:21307324

  20. Synaptic potentials of primary afferent fibers and motoneurons evoked by single intermediate nucleus interneurons in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I

    1987-05-01

    Spike-triggered averaging of dorsal and ventral root potentials was used in anesthetized cats to disclose possible synaptic connections of spinal interneurons in the intermediate nucleus with afferent fibers and/or motoneurons. With this method we have been able to document the existence of a distinct group of interneurons whose activity was associated with the recording of inhibitory potentials in the ventral roots (iVRPs), but not with negative dorsal root potentials (nDRPs). The iVRPs had mean durations of 60.8 +/- 22.1 ms and latencies between 1.7 and 5.1 ms relative to the onset of the interneuronal spikes. Within this group of neurons it was possible to characterize two categories depending on their responses to segmental inputs. Most type A interneurons were mono- or disynaptically activated by group I muscle afferents and polysynaptically by low threshold (1.08-1.69 X T) cutaneous fibers. Type B interneurons were instead polysynaptically activated by group II muscle and by cutaneous fibers with thresholds ranging from 1.02 to 3.1 X T. Whenever tested, both type A and B interneurons could be antidromically activated from Clarke's columns. There was a second group of interneurons whose activity was associated with the generation of both iVRPs and nDRPs. These potentials had mean durations of 107.5 +/- 35.6 and 131.5 +/- 32 ms, respectively, and onset latencies between 1.7 and 6.1 ms. The interneurons belonging to this group, which appear not to send axonal projections to Clarke's column, could be classified in three categories depending on their responses to peripheral inputs. Type C interneurons responded mono- or disynaptically to group I muscle volleys and polysynaptically to intermediate threshold (1.22-2.7 X T) cutaneous afferents. Type D interneurons were polysynaptically activated by group II muscle afferents (2.3-8.5 X T) and by intermediate threshold (1.4-3 X T) cutaneous fibers and type E interneurons only by group I muscle afferents with mono- or

  1. Selective cortical and segmental control of primary afferent depolarization of single muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Eguibar, J R; Quevedo, J; Rudomin, P

    1997-03-01

    This study was primarily aimed at investigating the selectivity of the cortico-spinal actions exerted on the pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents ending within the intermediate nucleus at the L6-L7 segmental level. To this end we analyzed, in the anesthetized cat, the effects produced by electrical stimulation of sensory nerves and of the cerebral cortex on (a) the intraspinal threshold of pairs of single group I afferent fibers belonging to the same or to different hindlimb muscles and (b) the intraspinal threshold of two collaterals of the same muscle afferent fiber. Afferent fibers were classified in three categories, according to the effects produced by stimulation of segmental nerves and of the cerebral cortex. Twenty-five of 40 fibers (62.5%) were depolarized by stimulation of group I posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) or tibialis (Tib) fibers, but not by stimulation of the cerebral cortex or of cutaneous and joint nerves, which instead inhibited the PBSt- or Tib-induced PAD (type A PAD pattern, usually seen in Ia fibers). The remaining 15 fibers (37.5%) were all depolarized by stimulation of the PBSt or Tib nerves and the cerebral cortex. Stimulation of cutaneous and joint nerves produced PAD in 10 of those 15 fibers (type B PAD pattern) and inhibited the PBSt- or Tib-induced PAD in the 5 remaining fibers (type C PAD pattern). Fibers with a type B or C PAD pattern are likely to be Ib. Not all sites in the cerebral cortex inhibited with the same effectiveness the segmentally induced PAD of group I fibers with a type A PAD pattern. With the weakest stimulation of the cortical surface, the most effective sites that inhibited the PAD of individual fibers were surrounded by less effective sites, scattered all along the motor cortex (area 4gamma and 6) and sensory cortex (areas 3, 2 and 1), far beyond the area of projection of group I fibers from the hindlimb. With higher strengths of

  2. PAD and PAH response patterns of group Ia- and Ib-fibers to cutaneous and descending inputs in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I

    1986-10-01

    The characteristics of the primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of Ia- and Ib-fibers generated by segmental and descending inputs have been analyzed in the spinal cord of anesthetized cats. The PAD was inferred from the changes produced by conditioning inputs on the intraspinal stimulus current required to produce a constant antidromic firing of single group I afferent fibers from the gastrocnemius (GS) or posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) nerves. Group I GS and PBSt fibers ending in the intermediate nucleus could be classified in three different types according to their PAD patterns in response to stimulation of cutaneous nerves and of descending fibers. In one set of group I fibers stimulation of cutaneous nerves and of the ipsilateral brain stem reticular formation, or the contralateral red nucleus, produced no PAD, but was able to inhibit the PAD generated by stimulation of group I fibers from flexors (type A PAD pattern). PBSt nerve fibers with this PAD pattern had peripheral thresholds and conduction velocities between 1.01 and 1.56 times threshold and 76.3 to 118 m/s, respectively. A second set of group I fibers was found to be depolarized by cutaneous nerves as well as by stimulation of rubrospinal and reticulospinal fibers (type B PAD pattern). The peripheral thresholds and conduction velocities of PBSt afferent fibers with a type B PAD pattern were of 1.66-2.03 times threshold and 71-83 m/s, respectively. We found a third set of group I fibers that were also depolarized by reticulospinal and rubrospinal inputs, but not by cutaneous nerves that instead inhibited the PAD elicited by group I volleys in flexor nerves (type C PAD pattern). All PBSt afferent fibers with a type C PAD pattern, with the exception of two, had peripheral thresholds and velocities between 1.46 and 2.16 times threshold and between 72 and 89 m/s, respectively. Stimulation of the Deiter's nucleus was found to depolarize the intraspinal terminals of a small fraction of group I

  3. Sites of action of segmental and descending control of transmission on pathways mediating PAD of Ia- and Ib-afferent fibers in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomín, P; Jiménez, I; Solodkin, M; Dueñas, S

    1983-10-01

    The present series of investigations was aimed to disclose the possible sites of action of excitatory and inhibitory inputs on tho-interneuron pathway mediating the primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of group I afferents of extensor muscles in the cat spinal cord. To this end we compared the effects produced by stimulation of segmental and descending pathways on the PAD generated either by stimulation of group I fibers of flexor muscles or by intraspinal microstimulation. It was assumed that under the appropriate conditions the PAD produced by intraspinal microstimulation results from the activation of the last-order interneurons in the PAD pathway and may, therefore, allow detection pathway. The PAD of single group I afferent fibers was determined in barbiturate-anesthetized preparations by measuring the test stimulus current required to maintain a constant probability of antidromic firing. This was achieved by means of a feedback system that continuously adjusted the test stimulus current to the required values. The PAD of individual group Ia gastrocnemius soleus (GS) fibers that is produced by activation of the low-threshold afferents of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve was found to be inhibited by conditioning stimulation of the relatively low-threshold cutaneous fibers and also by stimulation of supraspinal structures such as the ipsilateral brain stem reticular formation, the contralateral red nucleus, and the contralateral pyramidal tract. In contrast, the PAD of group Ia fibers produced by microstimulation applied in the intermediate nucleus could be inhibited only by stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation but not by stimulation of the other descending inputs presently tested or by stimulation of cutaneous nerves. PAD of group Ia fibers was produced also by microstimulation applied within the motor nucleus. However, in most fibers the resulting PAD could not be inhibited either by stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation

  4. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 may help downregulate TNF-Alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 (p70) in the neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patient with urinary tract infections: a two-case study.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Hayes, Keith; Summers, Kelly; Reid, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to be of concern, due to complications that can occur. An emerging concept that is a common underlying pathophysiological process is involved, wherein pathogens causing UTI have a role in inflammatory progression. We hypothesized that members of the commensal flora, such as lactobacilli, may counter this reaction through anti-inflammatory mediation. This was assessed in a pilot two-patient study in which probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri were administered to one patient and placebo to another, both along with antibiotics to treat acute UTI. Urinary TNF-alpha was significantly downregulated (P = .015) in the patient who received the probiotic and who used intermittent catheterization compared with patient on placebo and using an indwelling catheter. The extent to which this alteration resulted in improved well-being in spinal cord injured patients remains to be determined in a larger study.

  5. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 May Help Downregulate TNF-Alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 (p70) in the Neurogenic Bladder of Spinal Cord Injured Patient with Urinary Tract Infections: A Two-Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Anukam, Kingsley C.; Hayes, Keith; Summers, Kelly; Reid, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The management of urinary tract infection (UTI) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to be of concern, due to complications that can occur. An emerging concept that is a common underlying pathophysiological process is involved, wherein pathogens causing UTI have a role in inflammatory progression. We hypothesized that members of the commensal flora, such as lactobacilli, may counter this reaction through anti-inflammatory mediation. This was assessed in a pilot two-patient study in which probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri were administered to one patient and placebo to another, both along with antibiotics to treat acute UTI. Urinary TNF-alpha was significantly downregulated (P = .015) in the patient who received the probiotic and who used intermittent catheterization compared with patient on placebo and using an indwelling catheter. The extent to which this alteration resulted in improved well-being in spinal cord injured patients remains to be determined in a larger study. PMID:19753131

  6. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  7. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  8. [Lameness of the hindlimbs of the cat].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V

    1989-08-01

    About six to seven per cent of cats presented at the clinic show neurological signs. The largest group consists of traumatized cats. A complete neurological examination is essential for localizing the lesion and establishing a prognosis. Differential diagnosis for paraparesis/paraplegia of pelvic limbs in cats are discussed. Cats are demonstrated which had spinal cord trauma, disc protrusion, aortic thromboembolism and lumbosacral stenosis and the importance of the evaluation of x-rays, cerebrospinal fluid examination and myelography is stressed.

  9. Spinal neurons bursting in phase with fictive scratching are not related to spontaneous cord dorsum potentials.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, C A; Trejo, A; Linares, P; Delgado-Lezama, R; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Abyazova, L M; Baltina, T V; Manjarrez, E

    2014-04-25

    Spontaneous cord dorsum potentials (spontaneous CDPs) are produced by the activation of dorsal horn neurons distributed along the L4 to S1 spinal cord segments, in Rexed's laminae III-VI, in the same region in which there are interneurons rhythmically bursting during fictive scratching in cats. An interesting observation is that spontaneous CDPs are not rhythmically superimposed on the sinusoidal CDPs generated during fictive scratching episodes, thus suggesting that the interneurons producing both types of CDPs belong to different spinal circuits. In order to provide experimental data to support this hypothesis, we recorded unitary activity of neurons in the L6 spinal cord segment. We found that the neurons firing rhythmically during the sinusoidal CDPs associated with the extensor, flexor or intermediate phases of scratching were not synchronized with the spontaneous CDPs. Moreover, we found that the neurons firing during the spontaneous CDPs were not synchronized with the sinusoidal CDPs. These results suggest that the neurons involved in the occurrence of spontaneous CDPs are not part of the spinal cord central pattern generators (CPGs). This study will be relevant for understanding the relationships between the spinal cord neuronal populations firing spontaneously and the CPGs, in the intact and injured spinal cord. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacologic analysis of inhibition produced by last-order intermediate nucleus interneurons mediating nonreciprocal inhibition of motoneurons in cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Quevedo, J; Solodkin, M

    1990-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drugs blocking glycinergic and GABAergic transmission on the postsynaptic inhibition of hindlimb motoneurons produced by activation of last-order laminae V-VI interneurons, which are coexcited by muscle and cutaneous afferents and have axonal branches projecting to the Clarke's column. 2. In anesthetized cats with right spinal cord hemisected and both dorsal columns cut between L4 and L5 segments, stimulation of the Clarke's column (CC) at L3-L4 level produced a short-latency, presumably monosynaptic, inhibitory potential that could be recorded either from L7 or S1 ventral rootlets by means of the sucrose-gap technique (iVRP) or intracellularly from hindlimb motoneurons (IPSP). These potentials have been attributed to antidromic activation of a population of last-order interneurons mediating nonreciprocal inhibition of motoneurons. 3. The early iVRP and IPSP produced by CC stimulation was practically abolished 10-20 s after the intravenous injection of strychnine (0.1 mg/kg) and replaced by an excitatory synaptic potential followed by delayed, slow, strychnine-resistant inhibitory potential. 4. Monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited by stimulation of group I gastrocnemius (GS) afferents were inhibited during the occurrence of the CC-iVRP. This inhibition was significantly reduced after intravenous strychnine. On the other hand, the inhibition of the GS-MSR, produced by conditioning stimulation of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) nerve with trains of pulses applied 25-35 ms before the test stimulus, was practically unchanged after the intravenous injection of strychnine. 5. The CC-iVRP and the associated inhibition of GS-MSRs were not significantly affected after the intravenous injection of 0.1 mg/kg of picrotoxin, which clearly reduced the dorsal root potentials (DRP), the late component of the iVRP, and the inhibition of MSRs produced by PBSt volleys. 6. The effect of strychnine and picrotoxin

  11. Meningomyelitis due to nematode infection in four cats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, M; Mieres, M; Moroni, M; Mora, A; Barrios, N; Simeone, C; Lindsay, D S

    2010-06-24

    Spinal cord parasitic migrations in cats are uncommon. This report describes four cases of chronic hindlimb paraparesis in cats associated with nematode infection. Complete neurologic, hematologic, serum chemistry and radiographic examination was performed on all animals. Computed tomographic (CT)-myelographic examination at the lumbar area in one cat showed a slight swelling of the spinal cord. Necropsy examination of the spinal cord revealed generalized edema and marked submeningeal hemorrhage at the thoracic region in three cats. On histopathologic examination, numerous sections of adult nematodes and eggs were present in histological sections of the affected spinal cord segments in all cats. The morphologic features of the nematode, location and appearance of the lesions suggest that the parasite responsible for the paralysis in these cats is Gurltia paralysans.

  12. Acute renal failure in four cats treated with paromomycin.

    PubMed

    Gookin, J L; Riviere, J E; Gilger, B C; Papich, M G

    1999-12-15

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in 4 cats receiving paromomycin orally for treatment of infectious enteritis. All 4 cats responded to fluid therapy and recovered normal or near-normal renal function; however, 3 of the cats subsequently became deaf and developed cataracts. Toxicoses were attributed to a combination of an excessive dosage of paromomycin and absorption of the drug across injured intestinal mucosal epithelium. Pharmacokinetic studies are needed to further define the disposition of paromomycin after oral administration to cats.

  13. Nutrition of People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This conference proceeding summarizes current knowledge about the nutritional status and needs of the spinal cord injured patient. Topics covered include the aspects of spinal cord injury that influence nutrient intakes and status, and the nutrients most likely to be problematic in this diverse gro...

  14. Spinal dural ossification causing neurological signs in a cat.

    PubMed

    Antila, Johanna M; Jeserevics, Janis; Rakauskas, Mindaugas; Anttila, Marjukka; Cizinauskas, Sigitas

    2013-06-19

    A six-year-old Ragdoll cat underwent examination due to a six-month history of slowly progressive gait abnormalities. The cat presented with an ambulatory tetraparesis with a neurological examination indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. Radiographs of the spine showed a radiopaque irregular line ventrally in the vertebral canal dorsal to vertebral bodies C3-C5. In this area, magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural extramedullary/extradural lesion compressing the spinal cord. The spinal cord was surgically decompressed. The cause of the spinal cord compression was dural ossification, a diagnosis confirmed by histopathological examination of the surgically dissected sample of dura mater. The cat gradually improved after the procedure and was ambulating better than prior to the surgery. The cat's locomotion later worsened again due to ossified plaques in the dura causing spinal cord compression on the same cervical area as before. Oral prednisolone treatment provided temporary remission. Ten months after surgery, the cat was euthanized due to severe worsening of gait abnormalities, non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Necropsy confirmed spinal cord compression and secondary degenerative changes in the spinal cord on cervical and lumbar areas caused by dural ossification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of spinal dural ossification in a cat. The reported cat showed neurological signs associated with these dural changes. Dural ossification should be considered in the differential diagnosis of compressive spinal cord disorders in cats.

  15. THE "BRAIN INJURED" ADOLESCENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GORDON, SOL

    WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE BRAIN INJURED ADOLESCENT AND THE PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES FACED BY THE ADOLESCENT AND HIS PARENTS. EIGHTEEN QUESTIONS ASKED BY PARENTS OF THESE CHILDREN ARE DISCUSSED. THE AREAS COVERED ARE-- (1) SOCIAL EXPERIENCES, (2) GUIDED INDEPENDENCE, (3) SOCIAL SKILLS, (4) SUCCESS EXPERIENCES, (5) LEISURE TIME…

  16. Lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease in six cats.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennipher E; Dhupa, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of six cats diagnosed with lumbosacral intervertebral disk disease were reviewed. Clinical signs included reluctance to jump, low tail carriage, elimination outside the litter box, reluctance to ambulate, pelvic-limb paresis, urinary incontinence, and constipation. All cats had lumbosacral hyperpathia on palpation. Computed tomography in four cats revealed evidence of extradural spinal cord compression at the seventh lumbar (L(7)) to first sacral (S(1)) vertebral interspace. Compression was confirmed via myelography in three of these four cats, with confirmation in the fourth cat at the time of decompressive laminectomy. Each of the six cats underwent dorsal decompressive laminectomy at the L(7) to S(1) interspace. Postoperative clinical follow-up lasted 3 to 35 months, with most cats having excellent outcomes.

  17. Effect of spinal cord lesions on forelimb target-reaching and on visually guided switching of target-reaching in the cat.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, L G; Lundberg, A; Alstermark, B; Isa, T; Tantisira, B

    1997-11-01

    Cats were trained to reach to an illuminated tube placed horizontally at shoulder level and retrieve food with the forepaw. The trajectory of an infrared light emitting diode, taped to the wrist dorsum, was recorded with a SELSPOT-like recording system. Movement paths and velocity profiles were compared before and after lesions: (1) in dorsal C5, transecting cortico- and rubrospinal pathways to the forelimb segments so that the cats could only use the C3-C4 propriospinal neurones (PNs) to command reaching, (2) in the ventral part of the lateral funicle in C5, transecting the axons of C3-C4 PNs so that the cats had to use circuitry in the forelimb segments to command reaching. Comparison of trajectories and velocity profiles before and after lesion 1 did not reveal any major qualitative change. After lesion 2, the last third of the movement was fragmented with separate lifting and protraction. Switching of target-reaching occurred when illumination was shifted to another tube during the ongoing movement. The switching latency measured from the time of illumination shift to the earliest change in movement trajectory had a minimal value of 50-60 ms. Short latencies were present after lesion 1 as well as lesion 2 which suggest that fast switching mediated by the C3-C4 PNs and the interneuronal system in the forelimb segments is controlled in parallel by the brain. In order to test a hypothesis that fast switching depends on the tectospinal and tecto-reticulospinal pathways (the tecto-reticulo-spinal system) a ventral lesion was made in C2 aiming at interrupting these pathways. Large ventral C2 lesions tended to block conduction in the more dorsally located rubrospinal (less in corticospinal) axons probably due to compression during surgery. When conduction in the rubrospinal tract was completely interrupted by a ventral C2 lesion which also completely transected the axons of the tecto-reticulo-spinal system, then there was a prolongation of the switching latency with

  18. Galactorrhea: a complication of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yarkony, G M; Novick, A K; Roth, E J; Kirschner, K L; Rayner, S; Betts, H B

    1992-09-01

    Galactorrhea, a secretion of milk or milk-like products from the breast in the absence of parturition, has been reported to occur in women with spinal cord injuries in association with amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Four cases of galactorrhea in association with spinal cord injury are reported. Galactorrhea developed in four spinal cord injured women who had thoracic paraplegia. The onset of galactorrhea was from one month to five months after injury. Although the onset of galactorrhea may have been related to prescribed medications in all four cases, insufficient data exist to draw conclusions. The three women whose galactorrhea persisted declined treatment and galactorrhea continuing for more than two years in one instance. We conclude that galactorrhea with or without amenorrhea may develop after a spinal cord injury and that spinal cord injured women may have an enhanced sensitivity to medication-induced galactorrhea.

  19. Tonic differential supraspinal modulation of PAD and PAH of segmental and ascending intraspinal collaterals of single group I muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Lomelí, J; Quevedo, J

    2004-11-01

    We compared in the anesthetized cat the effects of reversible spinalization by cold block on primary afferent depolarization (PAD) and primary afferent hyperpolarization (PAH) elicited in pairs of intraspinal collaterals of single group I afferents from the gastrocnemius nerve, one of the pairs ending in the L3 segment, around the Clarke's column nuclei, and the other in the L6 segment within the intermediate zone. PAD in each collateral was estimated by independent computer-controlled measurement of the intraspinal current required to maintain a constant probability of antidromic firing. The results indicate that the segmental and ascending collaterals of individual afferents are subjected to a tonic PAD of descending origin affecting in a differential manner the excitatory and inhibitory actions of cutaneous and joint afferents on the pathways mediating the PAD of group I fibers. The PAD-mediating networks appear to function as distributed systems whose output will be determined by the balance of the segmental and supraspinal influences received at that moment. It is suggested that the descending differential modulation of PAD enables the intraspinal arborizations of the muscle afferents to function as dynamic systems, in which information transmitted to segmental reflex pathways and to Clarke's column neurons by common sources can be decoupled by sensory and descending inputs, and funneled to specific targets according to the motor tasks to be performed.

  20. Effects of PAD on conduction of action potentials within segmental and ascending branches of single muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Lomelí, J; Castillo, L; Linares, P; Rudomin, P

    2000-11-01

    In anesthetized and paralyzed cats under artificial respiration, we examined the extent to which primary afferent depolarization (PAD) might affect invasion of action potentials in intraspinal axonal and/or terminal branches of single muscle afferents. To this end, one stimulating micropipette was placed at the L6 spinal level within the intermediate or motor nucleus, and another one at the L3 level, in or close to Clarke's column. Antidromically conducted responses produced in single muscle afferents by stimulation at these two spinal levels were recorded from fine lateral gastrocnemius nerve filaments. In all fibers examined, stimulation of one branch, with strengths producing action potentials, increased the intraspinal threshold of the other branch when applied at short conditioning testing stimulus intervals (<1.5-2.0 ms), because of the refractoriness produced by the action potentials invading the tested branch. Similar increases in the intraspinal threshold were found in branches showing tonic PAD and also during the PAD evoked by stimulation of group I afferent fibers in muscle nerves. It is concluded that during tonic or evoked PAD, axonal branches in the dorsal columns and myelinated terminals of muscle afferents ending deep in the L6 and L3 segmental levels continue to be invaded by action potentials. These findings strengthen the view that presynaptic inhibition of muscle afferents produced by activation of GABAergic mechanisms is more likely to result from changes in the synaptic effectiveness of the afferent terminals than from conduction failure because of PAD.

  1. Differential modulation of primary afferent depolarization of segmental and ascending intraspinal collaterals of single muscle afferents in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Lomelí, J; Quevedo, J

    2004-06-01

    We examined primary afferent depolarization (PAD) in the anesthetized cat elicited in 109 pairs of intraspinal collaterals of single group I afferents from the gastrocnemius nerve, one of the pair ending in the L3 segment, around the Clarke's column nuclei, and the other in the L6 segment within the intermediate zone. Tests for refractoriness were made to assess whether the responses produced by intraspinal stimulation in the L3 and L6 segments were due to activation of collaterals of the same afferent fiber. PAD in each collateral was estimated by independent computer-controlled measurement of the intraspinal current required to maintain a constant probability of antidromic firing. In most fibers, stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) nerve with trains of pulses maximal for group I afferents had a qualitatively similar effect but produced a larger PAD in the L6 than in the L3 collaterals. Stimulation of cutaneous nerves (sural and superficial peroneus) with single pulses and of the posterior articular nerve, the ipsilateral reticular formation, nucleus raphe magnus and contralateral motor cortex with trains of pulses often had qualitatively different effects. They could produce PAD and/or facilitate the PBSt-induced PAD in one collateral, and produce PAH and/or inhibit the PAD in the other collateral. These patterns could be changed in a differential manner by sensory or supraspinal conditioning stimulation. In summary, the present investigation suggests that the segmental and ascending collaterals of individual afferents are not fixed routes for information transmission, but parts of dynamic systems in which information transmitted to segmental reflex pathways and to Clarke's column neurons by common sources can be decoupled by sensory and descending inputs and funneled to specific targets according to the motor tasks to be performed.

  2. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in hematologic diseases in patients over 15 years old: long-term experience at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, P; Nervi, B; Bertin, P; Poggi, H; Lagos, M; Selman, C; Pizarro, I; Jara, V; Wiestruck, A; Barriga, F

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who require a sibling stem cell transplantation do not have a matched donor. In our experience, only 1/3 patients have a matched unrelated donor (MUD); therefore, the majority of the patients will require umbilical cord blood (UCB). Patients treated for hematologic diseases with UCB transplants were included. UCB selection and conditioning regimens were performed according to the Minnesota group. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, infection prevention, and patient care were performed according to institutional guidelines. We analyzed patients and graft demography, neutrophil and platelet recovery, chimerism kinetics, GVHD incidence, overall (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We included 29 patients with a median age of 34.8 years (range 15-55). Eighteen were male and the median weight was 72.6 kg (range 54-100). Nineteen patients had acute leukemia. Myeloablative (MA) conditioning was used in 27 patients. Seventeen received double UCB (DUCB) grafts. Median total nucleated cell (10(7)/kg) was 4.2 (range 3.9-4.9) and 4.4 (range 2.8-6.3) for single UCB (SUCB) and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 24.7 (range 14-43) and 25.8 days (range 14-52) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for platelet engraftment was 147 (range 30-516) and 81 days (range 37-200) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. All the patients receiving MA conditioning had >95% chimerism shortly after transplant. Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD was 41% and 20%, respectively. Localized chronic GVHD was seen in 14% of the patients. Median follow-up was 16.7 months (range 1-63). Five-year OS and PFS were 38% and 39%, respectively. One-year TRM was 42%. UCB transplantation is associated with potential cure of hematologic malignancies and our results are similar to other series. Studies are needed to decrease mortality and improve immune

  3. Dental Apical Papilla as Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    De Berdt, P; Vanacker, J; Ucakar, B; Elens, L; Diogenes, A; Leprince, J G; Deumens, R; des Rieux, A

    2015-11-01

    Stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) represent great promise regarding treatment of neural tissue damage, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). They derive from the neural crest, express numerous neurogenic markers, and mediate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. The goal of the present work was to investigate for the first time their potential to promote motor recovery after SCI in a rat hemisection model when delivered in their original stem cell niche-that is, by transplantation of the human apical papilla tissue itself into the lesion. Control groups consisted of animals subjected to laminectomy only (shams) and to lesion either untreated or injected with a fibrin hydrogel with or without human SCAP. Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor scores at 1 and 3 d postsurgery confirmed early functional decline in all SCI groups. This significant impairment was reversed, as seen in CatWalk analyses, after transplantation of apical papilla into the injured spinal cord wound, whereas the other groups demonstrated persistent functional impairment. Moreover, tactile allodynia did not develop as an unwanted side effect in any of the groups, even though the SCAP hydrogel group showed higher expression of the microglial marker Iba-1, which has been frequently associated with allodynia. Notably, the apical papilla transplant group presented with reduced Iba-1 expression level. Masson trichrome and human mitochondria staining showed the preservation of the apical papilla integrity and the presence of numerous human cells, while human cells could no longer be detected in the SCAP hydrogel group at the 6-wk postsurgery time point. Altogether, our data suggest that the transplantation of a human apical papilla at the lesion site improves gait in spinally injured rats and reduces glial reactivity. It also underlines the potential interest for the application of delivering SCAP in their original niche, as compared with use of a fibrin hydrogel.

  4. Electrical stimulation of the sural cutaneous afferent nerve controls the amplitude and onset of the swing phase of locomotion in the spinal cat

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Krupka, Alexander J.; AuYong, Nicholas; Miller, Kassi; Prilutsky, Boris I.

    2011-01-01

    Sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the control of locomotion and in the recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Investigations in reduced preparations have shown that the locomotor cycle can be modified through the activation of afferent feedback at various phases of the gait cycle. We investigated the effect of phase-dependent electrical stimulation of a cutaneous afferent nerve on the locomotor pattern of trained spinal cord-injured cats. Animals were first implanted with chronic nerve cuffs on the sural and sciatic nerves and electromyographic electrodes in different hindlimb muscles. Cats were then transected at T12 and trained daily to locomote on a treadmill. We found that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve can enhance the ongoing flexion phase, producing higher (+129%) and longer (+17.4%) swing phases of gait even at very low threshold of stimulation. Sural nerve stimulation can also terminate an ongoing extension and initiate a flexion phase. A higher prevalence of early switching to the flexion phase was observed at higher stimulation levels and if stimulation was applied in the late stance phase. All flexor muscles were activated by the stimulation. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve may be used to increase the magnitude of the swing phase and control the timing of its onset after spinal cord injury and locomotor training. PMID:21389308

  5. Electrical stimulation of the sural cutaneous afferent nerve controls the amplitude and onset of the swing phase of locomotion in the spinal cat.

    PubMed

    Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen; Krupka, Alexander J; AuYong, Nicholas; Miller, Kassi; Prilutsky, Boris I; Lemay, Michel A

    2011-05-01

    Sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the control of locomotion and in the recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Investigations in reduced preparations have shown that the locomotor cycle can be modified through the activation of afferent feedback at various phases of the gait cycle. We investigated the effect of phase-dependent electrical stimulation of a cutaneous afferent nerve on the locomotor pattern of trained spinal cord-injured cats. Animals were first implanted with chronic nerve cuffs on the sural and sciatic nerves and electromyographic electrodes in different hindlimb muscles. Cats were then transected at T12 and trained daily to locomote on a treadmill. We found that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve can enhance the ongoing flexion phase, producing higher (+129%) and longer (+17.4%) swing phases of gait even at very low threshold of stimulation. Sural nerve stimulation can also terminate an ongoing extension and initiate a flexion phase. A higher prevalence of early switching to the flexion phase was observed at higher stimulation levels and if stimulation was applied in the late stance phase. All flexor muscles were activated by the stimulation. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve may be used to increase the magnitude of the swing phase and control the timing of its onset after spinal cord injury and locomotor training.

  6. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  7. Cat Batiks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buban, Marcia H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses an art activity where fourth-grade students created backgrounds using melted paraffin and a variety of paints for their cat batik/collage. Explains that after the students created their backgrounds, they assembled their paper cats for the collage using smaller shapes glued together and wax to add texture for fur. (CMK)

  8. Superficial swab versus deep-tissue biopsy for the microbiological diagnosis of local infection in advanced-stage pressure ulcers of spinal-cord-injured patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, S; Negosanti, L; Sgarzani, R; Trapani, F; Pignanelli, S; Battilana, M; Capirossi, R; Brillanti Ventura, D; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Tumietto, F; Cristini, F; Viale, P

    2017-04-19

    To assess the predictive value of superficial ulcer swab culture to make a microbiological diagnosis of deep wound infections in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with advanced-stage pressure ulcers. From July 2011 to February 2014, we performed a prospective, single-centre study on adult SCI patients undergoing scheduled surgical debridement and reconstruction for advanced-stage pressure ulcers, at Montecatone Rehabilitation Institute, a 150-bed hospital dedicated to SCI care. Three superficial ulcer swabs were preoperatively collected using the Levine technique, then sent for culture. In surgery, multiple bone and soft-tissue specimens were taken and sent for culture and histological examination. No antibiotics were administered before surgery. The results of swabs and intraoperative specimens were compared. In all, 116 patients were included, median age 49 years; a majority were males with post-traumatic paraplegia. According to intraoperative specimen cultures, the most common micro-organisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, found in 31, 27, and 16 cases, respectively. Concordance between superficial swabs and intraoperative specimen culture was found in only in 25 out of 116 cases (22%). The main reason for non-concordance was the yielding of different micro-organisms (41 out of 116); false negatives (swab negative/intraoperative positive) accounted for 31 out of 116 and false positives (swab positive/intraoperative negative) for 19 out of 116. When compared with intraoperative specimens, sensitivity and specificity of the swab culture were 80% and 54%, respectively. Our results confirm that in patients with advanced-stage pressure ulcers, the cultures of a superficial ulcer swab are not useful in either the diagnosis of a superinfection or the prediction of the role of involved micro-organisms. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Astronomy CATS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissenden, Gina; Prather, Edward E.; Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Astronomy Education's (CAE's) NSF-funded Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program is a grassroots multi-institutional effort to increase the capacity for astronomy education research and improve science literacy in the United States.Our primary target population is the 500,000 college students who each year enroll in an introductory general education (a breadth requirement for non-science majors) Earth, Astronomy, and Space Science (EASS) course (Fraknoi 2001, AGI 2006).An equally important population for our efforts is the individuals who are, or will be, teaching these students. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss the goals of CAE and CATS, the varied personnel that make up the CATS collective, the diverse projects we've undertaken, and the many challenges we have had to work through to make CATS a success.

  10. Disseminated sarcocystosis in a cat with lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J F; Ficken, M D; Luttgen, P J; Frey, M S

    1988-10-01

    Cysts of the protozoan Sarcocystis sp were found in skeletal and cardiac musculature in a 1.5-year-old cat with lymphosarcoma. The cat was FeLV-positive and had grossly visible neoplastic involvement of the spinal cord, mediastinum, bone marrow, and kidneys. Ultrastructural examination of the parasitic cyst wall suggested that the species in this case was different from that described in the only other reported case. It was hypothesized that immunosuppression from FeLV infection permitted an aberrant life cycle with encystment of Sarcocystis sp in this cat.

  11. Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. I. Serotonergic innervation and co-localization of 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Noga, Brian R; Johnson, Dawn M G; Riesgo, Mirta I; Pinzon, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Monoamines are strong modulators and/or activators of spinal locomotor networks. Thus monoaminergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serotonergic innervation of locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord following induction of hindlimb locomotion. This was determined by immunohistochemical co-localization of serotonin (5-HT) fibers or 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors with cells expressing the activity-dependent marker c-fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, decerebrate cats in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. Abundant c-fos immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar segments of locomotor animals. Control sections from the same segments showed significantly fewer labeled neurons, mostly within the dorsal horn. Multiple serotonergic boutons were found in close apposition to the majority (80-100%) of locomotor cells, which were most abundant in lumbar segments L3-7. 5-HT7 receptor immunoreactivity was observed on cells across the thoraco-lumbar segments (T7-L7), in a dorsoventral gradient. Most locomotor-activated cells co-localized with 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors, with largest numbers in laminae VII and VIII. Co-localization of c-fos and 5-HT7 receptor was highest in the L5-L7 segments (>90%) and decreased rostrally (to approximately 50%) due to the absence of receptors on cells within the intermediolateral nucleus. In contrast, 60-80 and 35-80% of c-fos immunoreactive cells stained positive for 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively, with no rostrocaudal gradient. These results indicate that serotonergic modulation of locomotion likely involves 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors located on the soma and proximal dendrites of serotonergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments.

  12. Locomotor-Activated Neurons of the Cat. I. Serotonergic Innervation and Co-Localization of 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A Receptors in the Thoraco-Lumbar Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Noga, Brian R.; Johnson, Dawn M. G.; Riesgo, Mirta I.; Pinzon, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Monoamines are strong modulators and/or activators of spinal locomotor networks. Thus monoaminergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serotonergic innervation of locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord following induction of hindlimb locomotion. This was determined by immunohistochemical co-localization of serotonin (5-HT) fibers or 5-HT7/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors with cells expressing the activity-dependent marker c-fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, decerebrate cats in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. Abundant c-fos immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar segments of locomotor animals. Control sections from the same segments showed significantly fewer labeled neurons, mostly within the dorsal horn. Multiple serotonergic boutons were found in close apposition to the majority (80–100%) of locomotor cells, which were most abundant in lumbar segments L3–7. 5-HT7 receptor immunoreactivity was observed on cells across the thoraco-lumbar segments (T7–L7), in a dorsoventral gradient. Most locomotor-activated cells co-localized with 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors, with largest numbers in laminae VII and VIII. Co-localization of c-fos and 5-HT7 receptor was highest in the L5–L7 segments (>90%) and decreased rostrally (to ∼50%) due to the absence of receptors on cells within the intermediolateral nucleus. In contrast, 60–80 and 35–80% of c-fos immunoreactive cells stained positive for 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively, with no rostrocaudal gradient. These results indicate that serotonergic modulation of locomotion likely involves 5-HT7/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors located on the soma and proximal dendrites of serotonergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments. PMID:19571190

  13. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner’s syndrome in a cat. PMID:24155462

  14. Dural tear and myelomalacia caused by an airgun pellet in a cat.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Cristian; Ródenas, Sergio; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old cat was presented with severe neurological deficits secondary to a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury caused by an airgun pellet. This report describes, for the first time, the myelographic findings of a dural rupture in a cat and also describes a bilateral Horner's syndrome in a cat.

  15. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  16. Cat scratch disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of chronic ...

  17. Fas and FasL expression in the spinal cord following cord hemisection in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Jia, Liu; Yu, Zou; Hui, Li; Yu-Guang, Guan; Xin-Fu, Zhou; Chao, You; Yanbin, Xiyang; Xi, Zhan; Jun, Wang; Xin-Hua, Heng; Xin-Hua, Hen; Ting-Hua, Wang

    2011-03-01

    The changes of endogenous Fas/FasL in injured spinal cord, mostly in primates, are not well known. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes in the expression of Fas and FasL and explored their possible roles in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and associated precentral gyrus following T(11) spinal cord hemisection in the adult rhesus monkey. A significant functional improvement was seen with the time going on in monkeys subjected to cord hemisection. Apoptotic cells were also seen in the ventral horn of injured spinal cord with TUNEL staining, and a marked increase presents at 7 days post operation (dpo). Simultaneously, the number of Fas and FasL immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cords caudal and rostral to injury site and their intracellular optical density (OD) in the ipsilateral side of injury site at 7 dpo increased significantly more than that of control group and contralateral sides. This was followed by a decrease and returned to normal level at 60 dpo. No positive neurons were observed in precentral gyrus. The present results may provide some insights to understand the role of Fas/FasL in the spinal cord but not motor cortex with neuronal apoptosis and neuroplasticity in monkeys subjected to hemisection spinal cord injury.

  18. Management of Low Compliant Bladder in Spinal Cord Injured Patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Hee

    2010-09-01

    Low bladder compliance means an abnormal volume and pressure relationship, and an incremental rise in bladder pressure during the bladder filling. It is well known that at the time bladder capacity decreases, intravesical pressure increases, and the risk of upper deterioration increases. Hypocompliance is usually thought to be the range from 1.0 to 20.0 mL/cmH2 O. Though the exact cause of hypocompliance is not known, it may be caused by changes in the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the bladder, changes in detrusor muscle tone, or combinations of the two. Management aims at increasing bladder capacity with low intravesical pressure. The main is a medical therapy with antimuscarinics combined with clean intermittent catheterization. The results are sometimes unsatisfactory. Various drugs or agents through the mouth or the bladder, including oxybutynin, new antimuscarinics, capsaicin and resiniferatoxin were tried. Among them botulinum toxin-A is promising. Some patients eventually required surgical intervention in spite of the aggressive medical therapy. Finally most patients undergo the surgical treatment including autoaugmentation, diversion, and augmentation cystoplasty. Among them augmentation cystoplasty still seems the only clearly verified treatment method.

  19. Strategies for endogenous spinal cord repair: HPMA hydrogel to recruit migrating endogenous stem cells.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Jeffrey, Araceli; Oregel, Karlos; Wiggins, Laurent; Valera, Remelyn; Bosnoyan, Kathrin; Agbo, Chioma; Awosika, Oluwole; Zhao, Paul M; de Vellis, Jean; Woerly, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Injury to the spinal cord disrupts ascending and descending axonal pathways and causes tissue damage with a subsequent limited cellular regeneration. Successful treatment would encompass the restoration of the cytoarchitecture, homeostasis and function all in dear need. Transplantation-based treatments using exogenous cells are the most favoured approach. Yet, with the advent of the stem cell concept and continuous progress in the field it became clear that the endogenous potential for repair is greater than previously thought. As an alternative to neural grafting, we and other researchers have aimed at understanding what are the elements needed for a successful repair with self progenitors that would give rise to the cell types needed to restore function of the central nervous system. Some studies involve both scaffolds and cell grafts. Here we describe studies on spinal cord repair using what we call "endogenous tissue engineering for regenerative medicine". The approach involves a hydrogel that mimics the natural milieu where endogenous pre-existing and newly formed cells populate the gel progressively allowing for the integration of CNS self populations leading to a successful recovery of function. Highlight aspects learned from this type of studies are that: Endogenous reconstruction of the injured spinal cord is possible by using the adequate support. The contribution of nestin-expressing progenitors to spinal cord regeneration is continuous and substantial both, in the reconstructed segment as well as, along the distal and caudal segments of the reconstructed spinal cord. Most of these cells appear to have been in a quiescent state until the injury occurred and only a small fraction of these neural progenitors was produced via cell proliferation. The hydrogel combined with exercise was necessary and sufficient to restore locomotor function in cats that underwent spinal transaction followed by reconstructive surgery. This recovery of function was first seen

  20. Stressors experienced by injured athletes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lynne; Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon; Mitchell, Ian

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the stressors experienced by injured athletes during three phases of their recovery from sport injury, and (b) to explore the differences in the stressors experienced by team as compared to individual-sport athletes. Participants comprised previously injured high-level rugby union players (n = 5) and golfers (n = 5). Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the stressors participants experienced during three phases of injury (onset, rehabilitation and return to competitive sport). Within- and cross-case analyses showed that athletes experienced sport, medical/physical, social and financial stressors. There were a number of differences in the stressors experienced across the three phases and between team and individual-sport athletes. Findings have important implications for the design and implementation of interventions aimed at managing the potentially stressful sport injury experience and facilitating injured athletes' return to competitive sport.

  1. Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes regeneration after adult zebrafish spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Strand, Nicholas S; Hoi, Kimberly K; Phan, Tien M T; Ray, Catherine A; Berndt, Jason D; Moon, Randall T

    2016-09-02

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate their injured spinal cord and regain control of caudal tissues. It was recently shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for spinal cord regeneration in the larval zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanisms of regeneration may or may not be conserved between larval and adult zebrafish. To test this, we assessed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. We show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is increased after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. Moreover, overexpression of Dkk1b inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the regenerating spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Dkk1b overexpression also inhibited locomotor recovery, axon regeneration, and glial bridge formation in the injured spinal cord. Thus, our data illustrate a conserved role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult and larval zebrafish spinal cord regeneration.

  2. Reduction in antioxidant enzyme expression and sustained inflammation enhance tissue damage in the subacute phase of spinal cord contusive injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) forms a disadvantageous microenvironment for tissue repair at the lesion site. To consider an appropriate time window for giving a promising therapeutic treatment for subacute and chronic SCI, global changes of proteins in the injured center at the longer survival time points after SCI remains to be elucidated. Methods Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteome analysis and western blotting, we examined the differential expression of the soluble proteins isolated from the lesion center (LC) at day 1 (acute) and day 14 (subacute) after a severe contusive injury to the thoracic spinal cord at segment 10. In situ apoptotic analysis was used to examine cell apoptosis in injured spinal cord after adenoviral gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, administration of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) was performed to analyze hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats with SCI using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale. Results Our results showed a decline in catalase (CAT) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) found at day 14 after SCI. Accordingly, gene transfer of SOD was introduced in the injured spinal cord and found to attenuate cell apoptosis. Galectin-3, β-actin, actin regulatory protein (CAPG), and F-actin-capping protein subunit β (CAPZB) at day 14 were increased when compared to that detected at day 1 after SCI or in sham-operated control. Indeed, the accumulation of β-actin+ immune cells was observed in the LC at day 14 post SCI, while most of reactive astrocytes were surrounding the lesion center. In addition, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG)-related proteins with 40-kDa was detected in the LC at day 3-14 post SCI. Delayed treatment with chondroitinase ABC (chABC) at day 3 post SCI improved the hindlimb locomotion in SCI rats. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the differential expression in proteins related to signal transduction, oxidoreduction and stress

  3. Combined transplantation of GDAsBMP and hr-decorin in spinal cord contusion repair

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Li, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Li; Davies, Stephen JA

    2013-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury, astrocyte proliferation and scar formation are the main factors inhibiting the regeneration and growth of spinal cord axons. Recombinant decorin suppresses inflammatory reactions, inhibits glial scar formation, and promotes axonal growth. Rat models of T8 spinal cord contusion were created with the NYU impactor and these models were subjected to combined transplantation of bone morphogenetic protein-4-induced glial-restricted precursor-derived astrocytes and human recombinant decorin transplantation. At 28 days after spinal cord contusion, double-immunofluorescent histochemistry revealed that combined transplantation inhibited the early inflammatory response in injured rats. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was secreted by transplanted cells, protected injured axons. The combined transplantation promoted axonal regeneration and growth of injured motor and sensory neurons by inhibiting astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation, with astrocytes forming a linear arrangement in the contused spinal cord, thus providing axonal regeneration channels. PMID:25206533

  4. Cat scratch disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... t scratch and bite. Don't allow a cat to lick your skin, eyes, mouth, or open wounds or scratches. Use flea control measures to lower the risk your cat develops the disease. Don't touch feral cats. ...

  5. Cell transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Assinck, Peggy; Duncan, Greg J; Hilton, Brett J; Plemel, Jason R; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2017-04-25

    Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements. The five most commonly proposed mechanisms include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, axon regeneration, neuronal relay formation and myelin regeneration. A better understanding of the mechanisms whereby these cells promote functional improvements, as well as an appreciation of the obstacles in implementing these therapies and effectively modeling spinal cord injury, will be important to make cell transplantation a viable clinical option and may lead to the development of more targeted therapies.

  6. PHYSICAL MEDICINE FOR INJURED HANDS

    PubMed Central

    Dorinson, S. Malvern

    1955-01-01

    The functional concepts of treatment of the injured hand by use of the various modalities of physical medicine, including heat, massage, electrical stimulation, passive exercises, active exercises, occupational therapy and splints are discussed. Immobilization is often necessary to correct anatomical injuries. Mobilization activities using physical medicine are just as necessary to correct functional deficiencies of the hand occurring either from the injury or the enforced immobilization following an injury. PMID:14364288

  7. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater than 95%. m-T7 agar yielded 8- to 38-fold more coliforms than did m-Endo agar LES. The geometric mean of coliforms recovered by m-Endo agar LES was less than 1 confirmed coliform per 100 ml, although m-T7 agar yielded 5.7 to 67.5 confirmed coliforms per 100 ml. In addition, the majority of these samples giving positive results on m-T7 agar produced no detectable counts on m-Endo agar LES. These findings indicated that coliforms were injured and largely undetected by use of accepted analytical media in the systems examined. PMID:3513698

  8. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males

    PubMed Central

    Datto, Jeffrey P.; Bastidas, Johana C.; Miller, Nicole L.; Shah, Anna K.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Marcillo, Alexander E.; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint. PMID:25715192

  9. Female Rats Demonstrate Improved Locomotor Recovery and Greater Preservation of White and Gray Matter after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Compared to Males.

    PubMed

    Datto, Jeffrey P; Bastidas, Johana C; Miller, Nicole L; Shah, Anna K; Arheart, Kristopher L; Marcillo, Alexander E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint.

  10. Male fertility and sexual function after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, D J; Hill, S T; Baker, H W G

    2006-01-01

    Spinal cord injury has an enormous impact upon the sexual relationship of a man and his partner. Erection may be partial or absent, orgasm altered or impossible, and fertility severely impaired. New understanding of the physiology of sexual function and improved treatment can enable most cord-injured men to achieve erections suitable for sexual satisfaction. Modern methods of sperm collection and fertility treatment mean that many can also be fathers. The best results are obtained by a team approach involving rehabilitation and reproductive medicine clinicians, nurses, spinal cord injury specialists and counselors with the cord-injured man and his partner. Erections can be achieved by drugs, such as sildenafil, that block phosphodiesterase 5, prolonging the action of nitric oxide with resultant smooth muscle relaxation. Intracavernosal prostaglandin E1 and mechanical systems, such as vacuum pumps and constriction rings, are also effective. Sexual gratification can be promoted in the context of an understanding relationship in which the cord-injured person can gain pleasure from pleasing his partner and also from his partner's exploration of erotogenic areas not affected by the spinal cord injury. An emphasis on the broader view of sexuality in relationships allows for a continuance and strengthening of bonds between the couple. Vibration ejaculation or electroejaculation can be used to collect semen. For a limited period in the acute phase, usually for about 6-12 days after injury, normal semen can be obtained by electroejaculation from some cord-injured men. With chronic spinal cord injury the semen is of variable quality. Some patients have necrospermia, which may be improved by regular ejaculation. Others have poor quality semen or spermatogenic disorders and, in this situation, in vitro fertilization techniques must be used to achieve parenthood. Trials of assisted ejaculation help individualize cost-effective management of the infertility.

  11. Optical monitoring of spinal cord hemodynamics, a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kwon, Brian K.; Streijger, Femke; Manouchehri, Neda; So, Kitty; Shortt, Katelyn; Cripton, Peter A.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: After an acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), the spinal cord is subjected to ischemia, hypoxia, and increased hydrostatic pressure which exacerbate further secondary damage and neuronal deficit. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for non-invasive and real-time monitoring of these changes within the injured spinal cord in an animal model. NIRS is a non-invasive optical technique that utilizes light in the near infrared spectrum to monitor changes in the concentration of tissue chromophores from which alterations in tissues oxygenation and perfusion can be inferred in real time. Methods: A custom-made miniaturized NIRS sensor was developed to monitor spinal cord hemodynamics and oxygenation noninvasively and in real time simultaneously with invasive, intraparenchymal monitoring in a pig model of SCI. The spinal cord around the T10 injury site was instrumented with intraparenchymal probes inserted directly into the spinal cord to measure oxygen pressure, blood flow, and hydrostatic pressure, and the same region of the spinal cord was monitored with the custom-designed extradural NIRS probe. We investigated how well the extradural NIRS probe detected intraparenchymal changes adjacent to the injury site after alterations in systemic blood pressure, global hypoxia, and traumatic injury generated by a weight-drop contusion. Results: The NIRS sensor successfully identified periods of systemic hypoxia, re-ventilation and changes in spinal cord perfusion and oxygenation during alterations of mean arterial pressure and following spinal cord injury. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that extradural NIRS monitoring of the spinal cord is feasible as a non-invasive optical method to identify changes in spinal cord hemodynamics and oxygenation in real time. Further development of this technique would allow clinicians to monitor real-time physiologic changes within the injured spinal cord during the

  12. Cervical Vertebral Body Chordoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Hampel, R; Taylor-Brown, F; Priestnall, S L

    2016-05-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered female Maine Coon cat with a 6-week history of progressive ataxia was diagnosed with a cervical vertebral body mass using magnetic resonance imaging. The mass displaced and compressed the cervical spinal cord. The cat was humanely destroyed and necropsy examination confirmed a mass within the second cervical vertebral body. Microscopically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated ('physaliferous') cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin and the final diagnosis was a cervical, vertebral body chordoma. This is only the third report of a chordoma in this species and the first in this location. Chordoma should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for tumours arising from the cervical vertebrae in the cat.

  13. Hypothermia for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Mann, Cody; Sohn, Hong Moon; Hilibrand, Alan S; Phillips, Frank M; Wang, Jeffrey C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Interest in systemic and local hypothermia extends back over many decades, and both have been investigated as potential neuroprotective interventions in a number of clinical settings, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, and both intracranial and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. The recent use of systemic hypothermia in an injured National Football League football player has focused a great deal of attention on the potential use of hypothermia in acute spinal cord injury. To provide spinal clinicians with an overview of the biological rationale for using hypothermia, the past studies and current clinical applications of hypothermia, and the basic science studies and clinical reports of the use of hypothermia in acute traumatic spinal cord injury. A review of the English literature on hypothermia was performed, starting with the original clinical description of the use of systemic hypothermia in 1940. Pertinent basic science and clinical articles were identified using PubMed and the bibliographies of the articles. Each article was reviewed to provide a concise description of hypothermia's biological rationale, current clinical applications, complications, and experience as a neuroprotective intervention in spinal cord injury. Hypothermia has a multitude of physiologic effects. From a neuroprotective standpoint, hypothermia slows basic enzymatic activity, reduces the cell's energy requirements, and thus maintains Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. As such, systemic hypothermia has been shown to be neuroprotective in patients after cardiac arrest, although its benefit in other clinical settings such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, and intracranial aneurysm surgery has not been demonstrated. Animal studies of local and systemic hypothermia in traumatic spinal cord injury models have produced mixed results. Local hypothermia was actively studied in the 1970s in human acute traumatic spinal cord injury, but no case series of

  14. Electro-acupuncture upregulates CGRP expression after rat spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Jie; Li, Shu-Min; Ding, Ying; He, Bing; Keegan, Jack; Dong, Hongxin; Ruan, Jing-Wen; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a variety of important roles within the nervous system. Increasing CGRP expression could improve the survival of injured neurons and prevent neuronal loss. In this study, we first evaluated in vitro the neuroprotective function of CGRP on mechanically injured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of rats. We then verified this result through exogenous administration of CGRP in a spinal cord transected completely in rats. Finally, we investigated the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on CGRP expression following the spinal cord transected completely in rats. We found that EA can improve CGRP expression, and exogenous CGRP may promote the survival of injured neurons, both in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that CGRP may be a specific neuropeptide expressed in GV-EA treatment of spinal cord injuries (SCI), and that CGRP may play a neuroprotective role in survival of neurons injured mechanically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise-Dependent Modulation of Neurourological Health Following Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    2008). 6. N. Yoshimura et al., Bladder overactivity and hyperexcitability of bladder afferent neurons after intrathecal delivery of nerve growth...factor in rats. J Neurosci 26, 10847 (Oct 18, 2006). 7. S. Seki et al., Immunoneutralization of nerve growth factor in lumbosacral spinal cord reduces...immunoneutralization of nerve growth factor in lumbosacral spinal cord in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 171, 478 (Jan, 2004). 9. F. Bao, A. Brown, G. A

  16. Repair of spinal cord injury with neuronal relays: From fetal grafts to neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Joseph F; Steward, Oswald

    2015-09-04

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the long axonal tracts of the spinal cord leading to devastating loss of function. Cell transplantation in the injured spinal cord has the potential to lead to recovery after SCI via a variety of mechanisms. One such strategy is the formation of neuronal relays between injured long tract axons and denervated neurons. The idea of creating a neuronal relay was first proposed over 25 years ago when fetal tissue was first successfully transplanted into the injured rodent spinal cord. Advances in labeling of grafted cells and the development of neural stem cell culturing techniques have improved the ability to create and refine such relays. Several recent studies have examined the ability to create a novel neuronal circuit between injured axons and denervated targets. This approach is an alternative to long-distance regeneration of damaged axons that may provide a meaningful degree of recovery without direct recreation of lost pathways. This brief review will examine the contribution of fetal grafting to current advances in neuronal grafting. Of particular interest will be the ability of transplanted neurons derived from fetal grafts, neural precursor cells and neural stem cells to reconnect long distance motor and sensory pathways of the injured spinal cord. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury.

  17. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression--cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-05

    A recent study performed on 1.3 million patients showed a strong association between being bitten by a cat and probability of being diagnosed with depression. Authors suggested that infection with cat parasite Toxoplasma could be the reason for this association. A cross sectional internet study on a non-clinical population of 5,535 subjects was undertaken. The subjects that reported having been bitten by a dog and a cat or scratched by a cat have higher Beck depression score. They were more likely to have visited psychiatrists, psychotherapists and neurologists in past two years, to have been previously diagnosed with depression (but not with bipolar disorder). Multivariate analysis of models with cat biting, cat scratching, toxoplasmosis, the number of cats at home, and the age of subjects as independent variables showed that only cat scratching had positive effect on depression (p = 0.004). Cat biting and toxoplasmosis had no effect on the depression, and the number of cats at home had a negative effect on depression (p = 0.021). Absence of association between toxoplasmosis and depression and five times stronger association of depression with cat scratching than with cat biting suggests that the pathogen responsible for mood disorders in animals-injured subjects is probably not the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii but another organism; possibly the agent of cat-scratched disease - the bacteria Bartonella henselae.

  18. Surgical management of a recurrent spinal meningioma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sumner, J P; Simpson, D J

    2007-07-01

    A 13-year-old male neutered Persian crossbred cat was evaluated for hindlimb paresis, ataxia and urinary incontinence that had been progressing over the previous 3 months. Neurologically, the cat had thoracolumbar spinal cord deficits and a myelogram detected the presence of a mass compressing the thoracic spinal cord. A hemilaminectomy was performed to excise the soft tissue mass, subsequently identified histologically as a psammomatous meningioma. The cat regained ambulatory function and continence following surgery until a recurrence of paresis and ataxia 36 months later. A second myelogram suggested local recurrence of the tumour, which was confirmed by histological examination of the tumour after its removal at a second laminectomy. The cat again regained normal neurological function, until a further recurrence 16 months after the second surgery. The meningioma was surgically debulked a third time and the cat regained ambulation and continence postoperatively. This case demonstrates the successful use of repeated surgical resection in the management of a recurrent spinal meningioma in a cat. The cat was ambulatory and continent at a follow-up examination 63 months after the initial presentation.

  19. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat.

    PubMed

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  20. Beyond medicalization: Self-injuring acts revisited.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Inger

    2016-07-01

    For too long, medical/psychiatric and psychological studies, with focus on emotional sensitivity, personality traits, and correlation with psychopathology, have dominated research on self-injuring acts. The phenomenon thus has been defined as a predominantly medical issue. However, a large body of community prevalence studies show self-injuring acts to be a common phenomenon in society, and most of those who self-injure are unknown in psychiatric or other clinical settings. This article describes and analyzes the medicalization of self-injuring acts and argues a need to move research on self-injuring acts out of the medical paradigm. There is a need to explicitly explore the impact of social, cultural, structural, and gendered factors surrounding and influencing self-injuring acts. A non-medical approach, beyond the limits of the medical perspective, would feed research forward and create a more nuanced view on this widespread social phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Acute intervertebral disc extrusion in a cat: clinical and MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Lamb, C R; Wesselingh, K; Targett, M P

    2002-03-01

    A 5 year old, neutered male, domestic shorthaired cat had acute left hemiparesis and Horner's syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a loss of the normal signal from the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc at C3/4, narrowing of the ventral subarachnoid space and slight dorsal displacement of the spinal cord and a focal hyperintense lesion affecting the left side of the spinal cord at the same level. The presumptive diagnosis was focal spinal cord oedema associated with intervertebral disc extrusion. A traumatic aetiology was suspected. The cat was treated conservatively and improved gradually over a period of 6 months. Copyright 2002 ESFM and AAFP.

  2. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations.

  3. Rehabilitation of the Injured Worker

    PubMed Central

    van Schoor, J.T.; Wright, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Workers' Compensation Board is mostly involved in secondary and tertiary prevention of work-related accidents and disease. Through its new Medical Rehabilitation Strategy, the board will help to ensure that optimal health care programs are available to injured workers. For workers who are left with restricted function, even after the best possible health care, vocational rehabilitation or tertiary prevention programs are offered. In both phases the primary care physician has a key function and must be familiar with the “state of the art” treatment of so-called minor trauma and activity-related disorders. Physicians also must recognize the importance of providing a reasonable prognosis as early as possible because it will drive the vocational rehabilitation planning process. PMID:21248924

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spanish Announcements Connect With Us Digital Press Kit Cat-Scratch Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ( ... play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten playing with a ...

  5. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  6. [Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats].

    PubMed

    Willi, B; Kook, P H; Quante, S; Boretti, F; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Grest, P; Scherrer, O; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Nussberger, J; Reusch, C E

    2012-12-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an elevated aldosterone secretion by the adrenals. The present case series describes 7 cats with primary hyperaldosteronism, which were presented between 2002 and 2011. Common clinical symptoms were weakness, anorexia, cervical ventroflexion and blindness. All cats showed hypokalemia. In 6 cats, blood pressure was determined: 5 cats showed hypertension, of which 4 animals exhibited retinal detachment and blindness. In the ultrasonographic examination, unilateral adrenomegaly was present in 6 cats whereas one animal showed normal adrenals. In 4 cats, the serum aldosterone concentration was above the reference range. Five cats underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, which was accomplished uneventfully and returned the electrolytes back to normal. Histopathological examination of the adrenals revealed 2 carcinomas and 4 adenomas; one cat with ultrasonographic normal adrenals exhibited bilateral nodular hyperplasia.

  7. A Comparative Study of Visual Depth Perception of Brain-Injured and Nonbrain-Injured Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Elise

    1972-01-01

    The brain-injured group performed with greater error scores and required more time to complete the tasks; although the brain-injured group took more time on the binocular tasks, their performance scores were similar to the nonbrain-injured group scores. (Author)

  8. Clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics of Gurltia paralysans myelopathy in domestic cats from Chile.

    PubMed

    Mieres, Marcelo; Gómez, Marcelo A; Lillo, Carla; Rojas, Marcela A; Moroni, Manuel; Muñoz, Pamela; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Wiegand, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Gurltia paralysans is a rare metastrongylid nematode of domestic cats that is found mainly in the veins of the spinal cord subarachnoid space and parenchyma. Endemic regions for G. paralysans mainly include Chile and Argentina. The ante mortem diagnosis of gurltiosis is difficult and based primarily on neurological signs, epidemiological factors, and the exclusion of other causes of feline myelopathies. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to describe clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics in nine domestic cats naturally infected with G. paralysans. Imaging tests included radiography, myelography, computed tomographic myelography (myelo-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neurological signs included paraparesis, paraplegia, pelvic limb ataxia and proprioceptive deficits, pelvic limb tremors, lumbosacral hyperesthesia, and tail trembling or atony. Complete blood count findings included a decrease in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration value in eight cats. Eosinophilia in peripheral blood was observed in three cats, and thrombocytopenia was observed in three cats. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mononuclear pleocytosis in five cases. Myelo-CT showed diffuse enlargement of the spinal cord at the midthoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions in all cats. Magnetic resonance image findings in the thoracic and lumbar region demonstrated multiple small nodular areas of T2 hyperintensity in the periphery of the spinal cord parenchyma. Localized intraparenchymal areas of increased T2 intensity were also observed in the thoracolumbar spinal cord and lumbosacral conus medullaris. In conclusion, G. paralysans should be considered as a differential diagnosis for domestic cats in endemic regions that have this combination of clinical and imaging characteristics.

  9. Malnutrition in Spinal Cord Injury: More Than Nutritional Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Denervation of the spinal cord below the level of injury leads to complications producing malnutrition. Nutritional status affects mortality and pathology of injured subjects and it has been reported that two thirds of individuals enrolled in rehabilitation units are malnourished. Therefore, the aim should be either to maintain an optimal nutritional status, or supplement these subjects in order to overcome deficiencies in nutrients or prevent obesity. This paper reviews methods of nutritional assessment and describes the physiopathological mechanisms of malnutrition based on the assumption that spinal cord injured subjects need to receive adequate nutrition to promote optimal recovery, placing nutrition as a first line treatment and not an afterthought in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. PMID:22870169

  10. CATS Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

      CATS Featured Articles       A Slice of Cirrus: Image of ... just hours before by the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. Nighttime View of Raung Volcanic Plume : Natural Hazards  - The CATS instrument slices through darkness to reveal the vertical structure of a ...

  11. Metabolism of Escherichia coli injured by copper.

    PubMed

    Domek, M J; Robbins, J E; Anderson, M E; McFeters, G A

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli injured by copper in carbonate buffer simulating the drinking water environment showed decreased oxygen utilization. Oxygraph measurements revealed that copper-injured bacteria had a rate of oxygen utilization that was less than 25% of that of control cells. Respirometry experiments measured rates over a longer period of time and showed similar trends. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C nmr) and gas chromatography were used to identify differences in metabolism between healthy and injured populations of E. coli. The rate of glucose utilization by injured cells under anaerobic conditions was 64% of that of healthy cells. The rates of lactate and ethanol accumulation were 88 and 50% of the control, respectively. The 13C nmr studies of oxygenated cultures revealed differences in the accumulation of acetate and glutamine. Aerobic utilization of glucose and succinate by injured cells were 87 and 21% of the rate of the controls, respectively. Additional studies revealed injured cells had a decreased ability to reduce 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) with a variety of carbohydrate substrates. Injured cells reduced greater quantities of INT than healthy cells when NADH was used as a substrate. A comparison of metabolic end products suggested that injured cells also had considerable differences in carbon flow compared with healthy cells.

  12. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Regulation of Axon Regeneration by MicroRNAs after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Teng, Zhao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury. This article reviews the role and mechanism of differentially expressed microRNAs in regulating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury, as well as their therapeutic potential for promoting axonal regeneration and repair of the injured spinal cord. PMID:27818801

  13. Fluoro-jade B stains quiescent and reactive astrocytes in the rodent spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin J; Fugaccia, Isabella; Scheff, Stephen W

    2003-11-01

    In an attempt to label dying neurons in the injured spinal cord, we used the novel fluorescein derivative Fluoro-Jade B, which has been reported to specifically label dead or dying neurons in the brain. Rats and mice were subjected to a moderate level of spinal cord injury using an IH impact device and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days post injury. Spinal cord tissue was processed for Fluoro-Jade B histochemistry and included sections throughout the injured region of the cord. No Fluoro-Jade positive neurons were observed in sections from any time point postinjury at any level of the spinal cord. Instead, Fluoro-Jade labeled astrocytes in uninjured control animals and injured animals. The specificity of astrocytic staining was confirmed by co-localizaton of Fluoro-Jade with glial fibrillary acidic protein. We also subjected a group of rats to a sequential cortical contusion injury and spinal cord injury. Sections from these animals showed numerous Fluoro-Jade positive neurons in the hippocampal formation and thalamus underlying the cortical contusion; however, the staining pattern in the spinal cord was identical to those animals that had received spinal cord injury alone.

  14. Macrophage activation and its role in repair and pathology after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gensel, John C; Zhang, Bei

    2015-09-04

    The injured spinal cord does not heal properly. In contrast, tissue repair and functional recovery occur after skin or muscle injuries. The reason for this dichotomy in wound repair is unclear but inflammation, and specifically macrophage activation, likely plays a key role. Macrophages have the ability to promote the repair of injured tissue by regulating transitions through different phase of the healing response. In the current review we compare and contrast the healing and inflammatory responses between spinal cord injuries and tissues that undergo complete wound resolution. Through this comparison, we identify key macrophage phenotypes that are inaptly triggered or absent after spinal cord injury and discuss spinal cord stimuli that contribute to this maladaptive response. Sequential activation of classic, pro-inflammatory, M1 macrophages and alternatively activated, M2a, M2b, and M2c macrophages occurs during normal healing and facilitates transitions through the inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases of repair. In contrast, in the injured spinal cord, pro-inflammatory macrophages potentiate a prolonged inflammatory phase and remodeling is not properly initiated. The desynchronized macrophage activation after spinal cord injury is reminiscent of the inflammation present in chronic, non-healing wounds. By refining the role macrophages play in spinal cord injury repair we bring to light important areas for future neuroinflammation and neurotrauma research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Spinal cord injury.

  15. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood or amniotic epithelial stem cells alleviates mechanical allodynia after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Min-Soo; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Park, Sang-Bum; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI), and a variety of different stem cell types have been grafted into humans suffering from spinal cord trauma or into animal models of spinal injury. Although several studies have reported functional motor improvement after transplantation of stem cells into injured spinal cord, the benefit of these cells for treating SCI-induced neuropathic pain is not clear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of transplanting human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) or amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) on SCI-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and thermal hyperalgesia (TH) in T13 spinal cord hemisected rats. Two weeks after SCI, hUCB-MSCs or hAESCs were transplanted around the spinal cord lesion site, and behavioral tests were performed to evaluate changes in SCI-induced MA and TH. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were also performed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects on SCI-induced inflammation and the nociceptive-related phosphorylation of the NMDA NR1 receptor subunit. While transplantation of hUCB-MSCs showed a tendency to reduce MA, transplantation of hAESCs significantly reduced MA. Neither hUCB-MSC nor hAESC transplantation had any effect on SCI-induced TH. Transplantation of hAESCs also significantly reduced the SCI-induced increase in NMDA receptor NR1 subunit phosphorylation (pNR1) expression in the spinal cord. Both hUCB-MSCs and hAESCs reduced the SCI-induced increase in spinal cord expression of the microglial marker, F4/80, but not the increased expression of GFAP or iNOS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transplantation of hAESCs into the injured spinal cord can suppress mechanical allodynia, and this effect seems to be closely associated with the modulation of spinal cord microglia activity and NR1 phosphorylation.

  16. Evaluation of acute traumatic coagulopathy in dogs and cats following blunt force trauma.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Dara L; Prittie, Jennifer; Buriko, Yekaterina; Lamb, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) in dogs and cats following blunt trauma and to relate coagulation variables with injury severity and admission variables. Prospective, single center, observational study from 2013 to 2014. Urban private referral hospital. Eighteen and 19 client-owned dogs and cats, respectively, sustaining blunt trauma within 8 hours of presentation without prior resuscitation; 17 healthy staff and client-owned control cats METHODS: Blood samples were collected upon presentation for measurement of blood gas, lactate, blood glucose, ionized calcium, PCV, total plasma protein, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, platelet count, and thromboelastography. ATC was diagnosed in 1 dog and 1 cat on presentation. Hypercoagulability was documented in 4/18 (22%) of dogs and 1/19 (5.3%) of cats. In dogs, prolongation of PT (P = 0.018), aPTT (P = 0.013) and decrease in maximum amplitude (MA) (P = 0.027) were significantly associated with injury severity as measured by the animal trauma triage (ATT) score. In cats, PT, aPTT, MA, and clot strength (G) were not associated with injury severity. In cats, increasing blood glucose and lactate were significantly associated with decreasing MA (P = 0.041, P = 0.031) and G (P = 0.014, P = 0.03). In both dogs (P = 0.002) and cats (P = 0.007), fibrinogen concentration was significantly correlated with G. ATC is rare in minimally injured dogs and cats following blunt trauma. In dogs, ATT score is significantly associated with PT, aPTT, and MA, suggesting an increased risk of ATC in more severely injured animals. ATT score does not appear to predict coagulopathies in cats. Future studies including more severely injured animals are warranted to better characterize coagulation changes associated with blunt trauma. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  18. Spinal Cord Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal cord tumor Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your ... as vertebral tumors. Tumors that begin within the spinal cord itself are called spinal cord tumors. There are ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  20. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury. PMID:25657742

  1. U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-26

    implementing legislation. See, e.g. Yuen Jin v. Mukasey 538 F.3d 143(2nd Cir. 2008) (CAT Article 3 is not self-executing); Castellano- Chacon v...alien’s claim to reopen removal proceedings to assert a CAT claim based on her fear of female genital mutilation in Ghana: although the practice was...conspiracies to commit such crimes .52 Additionally, persons within the jurisdiction of the United States who conspire to kill, maim, or injure persons

  2. Maximal cardiac output during arm exercise in the sitting position after cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hostettler, Stefanie; Leuthold, Lorenz; Brechbühl, Jörg; Mueller, Gabi; Illi, Sabine K; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-02-01

    To determine and compare haemodynamic responses at maximal arm-crank (ACE) and wheelchair exercise (WCE) in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and pair-matched able-bodied individuals. Nine male, motor-complete cervical spinal cord injured and 9 able-bodied individuals performed graded, maximal ACE and WCE. Cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume were determined at rest and at maximal exercise in cervical spinal cord injured individuals. In able-bodied individuals, measurements were performed at rest and at the maximal workload of the matched cervical spinal cord injured individuals. In cervical spinal cord injured, maximal cardiac output (ACE 7.4 (standard deviation (SD) 1.6); WCE 7.3 (SD 2.1) l/min) and heart rate (ACE 101 (SD 22); WCE 103 (SD 27) bpm) increased significantly compared with rest (4.6 (SD 1.0) l/min; 65 (SD 12) bpm), while stroke volume (ACE 77 (SD 22); WCE 73 (SD 21) ml) did not differ from rest (73 (SD 20) ml). In able-bodied individuals, cardiac output (rest 4.8 (SD 1.4); ACE 10.7 (SD 1.8); WCE 10.3 (SD 2.2) l/min), heart rate (rest 68 (SD 10); ACE 103 (SD 27); WCE 109 (SD 27) bpm), and stroke volume (rest 70 (SD 10); ACE 105 (SD 20); WCE 96 (SD 17) ml) increased significantly compared with rest. Cardiac output and stroke volume were significantly lower in cervical spinal cord injured compared with able-bodied individuals at the same workloads. Haemodynamic responses to maximal exercise were similar for both exercise modes in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury. The lower cardiac output in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury compared with able-bodied individuals at equivalent workloads reflects the inability of the circulatory system to increase stroke volume.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinases as a Therapeutic Target to Improve Neurologic Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    patterns in a multicenter study of acute spinal cord injury . Spine 24S: S68–S86. 46. Zhang H, Chang M, Hansen CN, Basso DM, Noble-Haeusslein LJ (2011... Cervical Spinal Cord Injury : Opportunities to Enhance the Time to Definitive Treatment. J Neurotrauma 30: 487–491. MMP Inhibition in Spinal Cord Injured...are evaluating efficacy of GM6001, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor in a murine model of spinal cord injury (UCSF) and in dogs (Texas A & M

  4. Carpal joint injuries in cats - an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Nakladal, B; vom Hagen, F; Brunnberg, M; Gross, M; Nietz, H; Brunnberg, L

    2013-01-01

    Injuries of the carpal joint are rare in cats. The most common cause is a fall from a height, known as 'high-rise syndrome'. So far, only limited data about carpal joint injuries (CJI) in cats are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, aetiology, location, and type of CJI in cats. Case records of cats diagnosed with CJI between 1998 and 2010 were retrospectively analysed. Data concerning signalment, history and type of CJI, accompanying systemic injuries and further orthopaedic injuries were collected. During the study period, 73 cats were diagnosed with CJI (87 injured carpal joints) and the prevalence in our hospital population was 0.26% (73 out of  28,482). Cats with CJI were more likely to be presented in the period from April-October (85%, p = 0.003) compared with the rest of the year. Carpal joint injuries were caused by a fall from a height in 72.6% of the cases. Of all carpal joints, the antebrachiocarpal joint was predominantly injured (50.6%, p = 0.001) and this was commonly caused by a fall from the fourth floor or higher (p = 0.002). The carpometacarpal joint was predominantly affected by a fall from heights up to the third floor (p = 0.004). The data of this study confirm previous data with respect to time of occurrence and cause of injury. Of note, the height of the fall appears to influence the location of the injury within the carpus of cats.

  5. Enrichment of spinal cord cell cultures with motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Spinal cord cell cultures contain several types of neurons. Two methods are described for enriching such cultures with motoneurons (defined here simply as cholinergic cells that are capable of innervating muscle). In the first method, 7-day embryonic chick spinal cord neurons were separated according to size by 1 g velocity sedimentation. It is assumed that cholinergic motoneurons are among the largest cells present at this stage. The spinal cords were dissociated vigorously so that 95-98% of the cells in the initial suspension were isolated from one another. Cells in leading fractions (large cell fractions: LCFs) contain about seven times as much choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity per unit cytoplasm as do cells in trailing fractions (small cell fractions: SCFs). Muscle cultures seeded with LCFs develop 10-70 times as much CAT as cultures seeded with SCFs and six times as much CAT as cultures seeded with control (unfractionated) spinal cord cells. More than 20% of the large neurons in LCF-muscle cultures innervate nearby myotubes. In the second method, neurons were gently dissociated from 4-day embryonic spinal cords and maintained in vitro. This approach is based on earlier observations that cholinergic neurons are among the first cells to withdraw form the mitotic cycle in the developing chick embryo (Hamburger, V. 1948. J. Comp. Neurol. 88:221- 283; and Levi-Montalcini, R. 1950. J. Morphol. 86:253-283). 4-Day spinal cord-muscle cultures develop three times as much CAT as do 7-day spinal cord-muscle plates, prepared in the same (gentle) manner. More than 50% of the relatively large 4-day neurons innervate nearby myotubes. Thus, both methods are useful first steps toward the complete isolation of motoneurons. Both methods should facilitate study of the development of cholinergic neurons and of nerve-muscle synapse formation. PMID:566275

  6. The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Delayed Fetal Spinal Cord Tissue Transplantation on Respiratory Function Following Mid-Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Lai, Sih-Rong; Shao, Yu-Han; Chen, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kun-Ze

    2017-01-17

    Respiratory impairment due to damage of the spinal respiratory motoneurons and interruption of the descending drives from brainstem premotor neurons to spinal respiratory motoneurons is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following cervical spinal cord injury. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of delayed transplantation of fetal spinal cord (FSC) tissue on respiratory function in rats with mid-cervical spinal cord injury. Embryonic day-14 rat FSC tissue was transplanted into a C4 spinal cord hemilesion cavity in adult male rats at 1 week postinjury. The histological results showed that FSC-derived grafts can survive, fill the lesion cavity, and differentiate into neurons and astrocytes at 8 weeks post-transplantation. Some FSC-derived graft neurons exhibited specific neurochemical markers of neurotransmitter (e.g., serotonin, noradrenalin, or acetylcholine). Moreover, a robust expression of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic fibers was observed within FSC-derived grafts. Retrograde tracing results indicated that there was a connection between FSC-derived grafts and host phrenic nucleus. Neurophysiological recording of the phrenic nerve demonstrated that phrenic burst amplitude ipsilateral to the lesion was significantly greater in injured animals that received FSC transplantation than in those that received buffer transplantation under high respiratory drives. These results suggest that delayed FSC transplantation may have the potential to repair the injured spinal cord and promote respiratory functional recovery after mid-cervical spinal cord injury.

  7. Spinal cord injury in youth.

    PubMed

    Apple, D F; Anson, C A; Hunter, J D; Bell, R B

    1995-02-01

    To identify special characteristics of the pediatric spinal cord-injured (SCI) population, we analyzed a database of 1,770 traumatic SCI patients; 88 (5%) fell into the two pediatric subgroups: 0-12 years (n = 26) and 13-15 years (n = 62) at time of injury. Differences between age groups were identified with regard to demographics, neurologic characteristics, associated injuries and complications, and management. Mode level of bony injury was C2 in preteens, C4 in teens, and C4-C5 in adults. Scoliosis developed far more frequently in children, particularly preteens (23%), than in adults (5%). Violent etiologies, predominantly gunshots, accounted for a disproportionate share of injuries to preteens (19%) and African-Americans (28%), as compared with adults (12%) and Caucasians (7%). This last finding underscores the urgent need to mount a response to the nationwide proliferation of gunshot-related SCI in children and minorities.

  8. Emerging concepts in myeloid cell biology after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Alicia L; Popovich, Phillip G

    2011-04-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects the activation, migration, and function of microglia, neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. Because these myeloid cells can positively and negatively affect survival of neurons and glia, they are among the most commonly studied immune cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate myeloid cell activation and recruitment after SCI have not been adequately defined. In general, the dynamics and composition of myeloid cell recruitment to the injured spinal cord are consistent between mammalian species; only the onset, duration, and magnitude of the response vary. Emerging data, mostly from rat and mouse SCI models, indicate that resident and recruited myeloid cells are derived from multiple sources, including the yolk sac during development and the bone marrow and spleen in adulthood. After SCI, a complex array of chemokines and cytokines regulate myelopoiesis and intraspinal trafficking of myeloid cells. As these cells accumulate in the injured spinal cord, the collective actions of diverse cues in the lesion environment help to create an inflammatory response marked by tremendous phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Indeed, it is difficult to attribute specific reparative or injurious functions to one or more myeloid cells because of convergence of cell function and difficulties in using specific molecular markers to distinguish between subsets of myeloid cell populations. Here we review each of these concepts and include a discussion of future challenges that will need to be overcome to develop newer and improved immune modulatory therapies for the injured brain or spinal cord.

  9. Cat scratch encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silver, B E; Bean, C S

    1991-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually benign, self-limited and without sequelae. Margileth has established four clinical criteria, three of which must be satisfied to make the diagnosis: 1) a history of animal exposure, usually kitten, with primary skin or ocular lesions; 2) regional chronic adenopathy without other apparent cause; 3) a positive cat scratch disease antigen skin test; and 4) lymph node biopsy demonstrating noncaseating granulomas and germinal center hyperplasia. Central nervous system involvement in cat scratch disease has been previously reported, although it is extremely uncommon. In a several-month period, we encountered two cases of cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy. The intents of this paper are twofold: 1) to briefly review the current literature on cat scratch disease, 2) to demonstrate that cat scratch disease complicated by encephalopathy presents acutely with seizures, posturing and coma and resolves rapidly with supportive care.

  10. Effects of early surgical decompression on functional and histological outcomes after severe experimental thoracic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jalan, Devesh; Saini, Neginder; Zaidi, Mohammad; Pallottie, Alexandra; Elkabes, Stella; Heary, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In acute traumatic brain injury, decompressive craniectomy is a common treatment that involves the removal of bone from the cranium to relieve intracranial pressure. The present study investigated whether neurological function following a severe spinal cord injury improves after utilizing either a durotomy to decompress the intradural space and/or a duraplasty to maintain proper flow of cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS Sixty-four adult female rats (n = 64) were randomly assigned to receive either a 3- or 5-level decompressive laminectomy (Groups A and B), laminectomy + durotomy (Groups C and D), or laminectomy + duraplasty with graft (Group E and F) at 24 hours following a severe thoracic contusion injury (200 kilodynes). Duraplasty involved the use of DuraSeal, a hydrogel dural sealant. Uninjured and injured control groups were included (Groups G, H). Hindlimb locomotor function was assessed by open field locomotor testing (BBB) and CatWalk gait analysis at 35 days postinjury. Bladder function was analyzed and bladder wall thickness was assessed histologically. At 35 days postinjury, mechanical and thermal allodynia were assessed by the Von Frey hair filament and hotplate paw withdrawal tests, respectively. Thereafter, the spinal cords were dissected, examined for gross anomalies at the injury site, and harvested for histological analyses to assess lesion volumes and white matter sparing. ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS There was no significant improvement in motor function recovery in any treatment groups compared with injured controls. CatWalk gait analysis indicated a significant decrease in interlimb coordination in Groups B, C, and D (p < 0.05) and swing speed in Groups A, B, and D. Increased mechanical pain sensitivity was observed in Groups A, C, and F (p < 0.05). Rats in Group C also developed thermal pain hypersensitivity. Examination of spinal cords demonstrated increased lesion volumes in Groups C and F and increased white matter

  11. Injured athletes' perceptions about social support.

    PubMed

    Clement, Damien; Shannon, Vanessa R

    2011-11-01

    According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes' health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes' psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted. To examine injured athletes' perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support. Descriptive. Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions. 49 injured athletes. Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey. Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support. Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete's experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes' rehabilitation and well-being.

  12. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  13. Barotrauma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Manning, M M; Brunson, D B

    1994-07-01

    A 3.5-year-old domestic long-hair cat was admitted to the veterinary hospital for routine procedures, including dental prophylaxis. The cat appeared clinically normal. General anesthesia was induced, and 30 minutes later, the pop-off valve was inadvertently left in a closed position. The cat developed pneumothorax, which was treated via thoracentesis and administration of oxygen. The condition resolved and the cat was released from the hospital to its owner. Barotrauma resulted because of high pressure in the anesthetic circuit. Barotrauma is a life-threatening complication of general anesthesia.

  14. Therapeutic Stimulation for Restoration of Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Ievins, Aiva; Moritz, Chet T

    2017-09-01

    Paralysis due to spinal cord injury can severely limit motor function and independence. This review summarizes different approaches to electrical stimulation of the spinal cord designed to restore motor function, with a brief discussion of their origins and the current understanding of their mechanisms of action. Spinal stimulation leads to impressive improvements in motor function along with some benefits to autonomic functions such as bladder control. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms underlying these improvements and the optimal spinal stimulation approaches for restoration of motor function are largely unknown. Finally, spinal stimulation may augment other therapies that address the molecular and cellular environment of the injured spinal cord. The fact that several stimulation approaches are now leading to substantial and durable improvements in function following spinal cord injury provides a new perspectives on the previously "incurable" condition of paralysis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Spontaneous lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion in cats: literature review and case presentations.

    PubMed

    Kathmann, I; Cizinauskas, S; Rytz, U; Lang, J; Jaggy, A

    2000-12-01

    Reports on intervertebral disc disease in cats are rare in the veterinary literature. It has been postulated that intervertebral disc protrusion is a frequent finding during necropsy in cats, without having any clinical relevance (King and Smith 1958, King & Smith 1960a, King & Smith 1960b). However, a total of six cases with disc protrusions and clinically significant neurological deficits have been reported over the past decade. (Heavner 1971, Seim & Nafe 1981, Gilmore 1983, Littlewood et al 1984, Sparkes & Skerry 1990, Bagley et al 1995). As in dogs, there are also two types of intervertebral disc disease in cats: Hansen's type I (extrusion), and type II (herniation). Cervical spinal cord involvement was more commonly recognised in cats than the lumbar or the thoraco lumbar area. Cats over 15 years were mainly affected (King & Smith 1958, King & Smith 1960a, King & Smith 1960b). We describe two cats with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusions. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses, treatment and follow-up.

  16. The meaning of living with spinal cord injury 5 to 10 years after the injury.

    PubMed

    DeSanto-Madeya, Susan

    2006-04-01

    A phenomenological study was conducted with 20 spinal cord injured persons and their family members to examine the meaning of living with spinal cord injury 5 to 10 years after the initial injury. Seven themes emerged from the data. The themes are looking for understanding to a life that is unknown, stumbling along an unlit path, viewing self through a stained glass window, challenging the bonds of love, being chained to the injury, moving forward in a new way of life, and reaching normalcy. The uncovered meanings enhance our understanding and appreciation that living with spinal cord injury is a continuous learning experience. The study findings may be useful in the development of self-care strategies and ongoing interventions that focus on maintaining physical and psychological health for both spinal cord injured persons and their family members throughout the course of living with the disability.

  17. Effect of cervical spinal cord hemisection on the expression of axon growth markers.

    PubMed

    Vinit, Stéphane; Darlot, Fannie; Stamegna, Jean-Claude; Gauthier, Patrick; Kastner, Anne

    2009-10-25

    To evaluate the plasticity processes occurring in the spared and injured tissue after partial spinal cord injury, we have compared the level of axon growth markers after a C2 cervical hemisection in rats between the contralateral (spared) and ipsilateral (injured) cervical cord using western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques. In the ipsilateral spinal cord 7 days after injury, although GAP-43 levels were increased in the ventral horn caudal to the injury, they were globally decreased in the whole structure (C1-C6). By contrast, in the contralateral intact side 7 days and 1 month after injury, we have found an increase of GAP-43 and betaIII tubulin levels, suggesting that processes of axonal sprouting may occur in the spinal region contralateral to the injury. This increase of GAP-43 in the contralateral spinal cord after cervical hemisection may account, at least partially, to the spontaneous ipsilateral recovery observed after a cervical hemisection.

  18. Examinee Issues in CAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    The perspective of the examinee during the administration of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is discussed, focusing on issues of test development. Item review is the first issue discussed. Virtually no CATs provide the opportunity for the examinee to go back and review, and possibly change, answers. There are arguments on either side of the…

  19. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  20. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  1. Neural plasticity after spinal cord injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Lianying; Wang, Chunxin; Yang, Maoguang

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity changes of uninjured nerves can result in a novel neural circuit after spinal cord injury, which can restore sensory and motor functions to different degrees. Although processes of neural plasticity have been studied, the mechanism and treatment to effectively improve neural plasticity changes remain controversial. The present study reviewed studies regarding plasticity of the central nervous system and methods for promoting plasticity to improve repair of injured central nerves. The results showed that synaptic reorganization, axonal sprouting, and neurogenesis are critical factors for neural circuit reconstruction. Directed functional exercise, neurotrophic factor and transplantation of nerve-derived and non-nerve-derived tissues and cells can effectively ameliorate functional disturbances caused by spinal cord injury and improve quality of life for patients. PMID:25774179

  2. State of cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren; Driscoll, Carlos; Pontius, Joan; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2008-06-01

    Our knowledge of cat family biology was recently expanded to include a genomics perspective with the completion of a draft whole genome sequence of an Abyssinian cat. The utility of the new genome information has been demonstrated by applications ranging from disease gene discovery and comparative genomics to species conservation. Patterns of genomic organization among cats and inbred domestic cat breeds have illuminated our view of domestication, revealing linkage disequilibrium tracks consequent of breed formation, defining chromosome exchanges that punctuated major lineages of mammals and suggesting ancestral continental migration events that led to 37 modern species of Felidae. We review these recent advances here. As the genome resources develop, the cat is poised to make a major contribution to many areas in genetics and biology.

  3. Comparative study of aural microflora in healthy cats, allergic cats and cats with systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Drouet, Clémence; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2014-12-01

    Twenty healthy cats (group 1) with clinically normal ears, 15 cats with systemic disease (group 2) and 15 allergic cats (group 3) were included in a prospective study. The experimental unit was the ear. A clinical score was established for each ear canal after otoscopic examination. Microbial population was assessed on cytological examination of smears performed with the cotton-tipped applicator smear technique. Fungal population was significantly more prominent in allergic cats (P <0.001) and in diseased cats compared with healthy cats (P <0.02). Bacterial population was significantly higher in allergic cats than in healthy cats (P <0.001) and cats suffering from systemic disease (P <0.001). Bacterial overgrowth was also higher in cats with systemic disease than healthy cats. In cats from group 2, only fungal overgrowth was associated with otitis severity. In group 3, only bacterial overgrowth was associated with otitis severity.

  4. [Mortality structure following spine and spinal cord injuries].

    PubMed

    Bazilevskaia, Z V; Golovnykh, L L; Kirkinskaia, T A

    1980-01-01

    In a group of 520 patients with injury to the spine and spinal cord 125 died within 10 years. The highest fatality rate (76.0 +/0 3.8) is recorded in the first year after the injury. In the following 10 years the fatality rate was uniform and ranged between 1.6 and 4.1%. This value increases with the patient's age, the severity of the spinal cord injury, and the degree of damage to the spinal ligamento-bursal apparatus. Among the total number of injured, 76% have a survival period of more than 10 years.

  5. c-fos-like immunoreactivity in the cat's neuraxis following moderate hypoxia or hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Larnicol, N; Wallois, F; Berquin, P; Gros, F; Rose, D

    1994-01-01

    The overall pattern of c-fos immunoreactivity was studied in the brainstem and spinal cord of cats subjected to moderate hypoxia or hypercapnia. In control cats (normoxic, normocapnic), c-fos was expressed mainly in pontine and periaqueductal grey but not in brainstem structures engaged in respiratory control nor in the spinal cord. Both hypoxia and hypercapnia induced c-fos expression in the parabrachial area (pneumotaxic center). In the retrotrapezoid nucleus, a structure involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis and chemoreception, immunoreactivity was detected in hypoxic but not in hypercapnic cats. Neurons in the nucleus raphe pallidus preferentially expressed c-fos in response to hypercapnia. Labelled neurons were concentrated in the dorsal and gelatinosus subnuclei of the solitary tract following hypoxia and hypercapnia, respectively. Our data suggest that some neurons that express c-fos in hypoxic or hypercapnic cats may be involved in coordination of cardiovascular and respiratory function.

  6. Narrating the self-injured body

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Illness narratives have traditionally been used as a conceptual tool for exploring experiences of chronic illness or disease. In this paper, I suggest that Frank's typology of illness narratives (chaos, restitution and quest) also offers an illuminating approach to analysing accounts of self-injury, demonstrating the diverse ways in which self-injury is practiced, experienced and narrated. Drawing on 24 narrative interviews with 12 people who had self-injured, I focus on participants’ accounts of their self-injured bodies. The approach is phenomenological, and concerned with talk about the experience of living with and in a body that has been marked by self-injury. Thus, the act of self-injury is not the sole focus, and particular attention is paid to accounts of the bodily aftermath: scars, marks and wounds. Scars left by self-injury can be seen as communicative, and the analysis developed here demonstrates some of the various ways that these marks may be read. Attending to these diverse narratives can contribute to the provision of compassionate, non-judgemental care for patients who have self-injured. Further, highlighting the existence of different ways of narrating the self-injured body may offer an optimistic resource for people who have self-injured. PMID:24812335

  7. Strengthening care of injured children globally

    PubMed Central

    Abantanga, Francis; Goosen, Jacques; Joshipura, Manjul; Juillard, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Part of the solution to the growing problem of child injury is to strengthen the care that injured children receive. This paper will point out the potential health gains to be made by doing this and will then review recent advances in the care of injured children in individual institutions and countries. It will discuss how these individual efforts have been aided by increased international attention to trauma care. Although there are no major, well-funded global programmes to improve trauma care, recent guidance documents developed by WHO and a broad network of collaborators have stimulated increased global attention to improving planning and resources for trauma care. This has in turn led to increased attention to strengthening trauma care capabilities in countries, including needs assessments and implementation of WHO recommendations in national policy. Most of these global efforts, however, have not yet specifically addressed children. Given the special needs of the injured child and the high burden of injury-related death and disability among children, clearly greater emphasis on childhood trauma care is needed. Trauma care needs assessments being conducted in a growing number of countries need to focus more on capabilities for care of injured children. Trauma care policy development needs to better encompass childhood trauma care. More broadly, the growing network of individuals and groups collaborating to strengthen trauma care globally needs to engage a broader range of stakeholders who will focus on and champion the improvement of care for injured children. PMID:19551257

  8. Acute and Chronic Changes in Aquaporin 4 Expression After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nesic, Olivera; Lee, Julieann; Ye, Zaiming; Unabia, Geda C.; Rafati, Danny; Hulsebosch, Claire E.; Perez-Polo, J. Regino

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the expression levels and distribution of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has not been studied. We have found AQP4 in gray and white matter astrocytes in both uninjured and injured rat spinal cords. AQP4 was detected in astrocytic processes that were tightly surrounding neurons and blood vessels, but more robustly in glia limitans externa and interna, which were forming an interface between spinal cord parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Such spatial distribution of AQP4 suggests a critical role that astrocytes expressing AQP4 play in the transport of water from blood/CSF to spinal cord parenchyma and vice versa. SCI induced biphasic changes in astrocytic AQP4 levels, including its early down-regulation and subsequent persistent up-regulation. However, changes in AQP4 expression did not correlate well with the onset and magnitude of astrocytic activation, when measured as changes in GFAP expression levels. It appears that reactive astrocytes began expressing increased levels of AQP4 after migrating to the wound area (thoracic region) two weeks after SCI, and AQP4 remained significantly elevated for months after SCI. We also showed that increased levels of AQP4 spread away from the lesion site to cervical and lumbar segments, but only in chronically injured spinal cords. Although overall AQP4 expression levels increased in chronically-injured spinal cords, AQP4 immunolabeling in astrocytic processes forming glia limitans externa was decreased, which may indicate impaired water transport through glia limitans externa. Finally, we also showed that SCI-induced changes in AQP4 protein levels correlate, both temporally and spatially, with persistent increases in water content in acutely and chronically injured spinal cords. Although correlative, this finding suggests a possible link between AQP4 and impaired water transport/edema/syringomyelia in contused spinal cords. PMID:17074445

  9. Strategies for neuroprotection following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Kiwerski, Jerzy; Nyka, Izabela; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    Progress in neuropathology has made possible the description of local responses of neural tissue in early stages after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The recent identification of multiple factors responsible for secondary spinal cord damage and for potential regenerative abilities has not resulted in the development of a standard for neuroprotective therapy in SCI patients. The paper reviews current knowledge concerning the sequence of biochemical events in the injured spinal cord and gives an overview of therapeutic possibilities for preventing the spread of secondary injury. The literature survey has led to the following conclusions: 1. The primary zone of traumatic damage enlarges due to local vascular disturbances, hypoxia, and the resulting inflammation. 2. Inflammation in the region of secondary injury, apart from having a destructive impact, is the source of substances which may induce neural tissue repair. 3. The administration of methylprednisolone and surgical decompression of the spinal cord within several hours after SCI improves functional and neurological outcomes in patients with incomplete neurological deficits. Currently there is no sufficient scientific evidence to support the safety and efficacy of other neuroprotective methods in humans.

  10. Early Management of the Critically Injured

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Donald J.

    1966-01-01

    A plan for the early management of the critically injured patient is described with emphasis on the priorities of management of injuries to certain organ-systems. The most important priorities are the establishment and maintenance of adequate ventilation and adequate circulation. The general surgeon is best qualified to assume full responsibility for the proper care of the critically injured, of patients with multiple injuries, and of patients in traumatic shock. He must assume the risk of transfusing unmatched whole blood and of deferring non-essential radiographs. The emergency and radiology departments may have to be by-passed to save the life of the critically injured patient. The measures required to establish a clear airway, to treat complications which can impair ventilation, to manage shock and hemorrhage and the possible complications of massive transfusions of blood are reviewed. PMID:5922504

  11. Long-term survival after childhood spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Shavelle, Robert M; Devivo, Michael J; Paculdo, David R; Vogel, Lawrence C; Strauss, David J

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether persons who incur a spinal cord injury as children are at increased risk of mortality compared with persons injured as adults given comparable current age, sex, and injury severity. A total of 25,340 persons admitted to the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center database or the National Shriners Spinal Cord Injury database who were not ventilator dependent and who survived more than 2 years after injury were included in this study. These persons contributed 274,020 person-years of data, with 3844 deaths, over the 1973-2004 study period. Data were analyzed using pooled repeated observations analysis of person-years. For each person-year the outcome variable was survival/mortality, and the explanatory variables included current age, sex, race, cause of injury, severity of injury, and age at injury (the focus of the current analysis). Other factors being equal, persons who were less than 16 years of age at time of injury had a 31% (95% CI = 3%-65%) increase in the annual odds of dying compared with persons injured at older ages (P= 0.013). This increased risk did not vary significantly by current age, sex, race, injury severity, or era of injury (P > 0.05). Life expectancy for persons injured as children appears to be slightly lower than that of otherwise comparably injured persons who suffered their injuries as adults. Nonetheless, persons who are injured young can enjoy relatively long life expectancies, ranging from approximately 83% of normal life expectancy for persons with minimal deficit incomplete injuries to approximately 50% of normal in high-cervical-level injuries without ventilator dependence.

  12. CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AL-TR-1 993-0025 AD-A264 069 CATS EYES ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES A R M Joseph C. Antonio DTIC S ELECTET University of Dayton Research Institute MAY 13...Final November 1992 - January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C F33615-90-C-0005 CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures PE - 62205F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...the loss of NVG performance resulting from improper goggle adjustments. This report describes correct adjustment procedures for the CATS EYES NVG system

  13. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  14. Giardia infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Stephanie; Griffin, Brenda

    2010-08-01

    The protozoon Giardia duodenalis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of cats. While most Giardia-infected cats are asymptomatic, acute small bowel diarrhea, occasionally with concomitant weight loss, may occur. Giardia poses a diagnostic challenge, but newer tests, including a commercially available ELISA kit, have improved clinicians' ability to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Several treatment options have been reported, and although none has been shown to be universally effective, most cases can be successfully managed with drug therapy, supportive measures, and environmental control. Current recommendations suggest that combination therapy with fenbendazole and metronidazole may be the safest, most effective treatment option for symptomatic cats.

  15. Permethrin toxicosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Linnett, P-J

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of all adverse experience reports received by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority's Adverse Experience Reporting Program for veterinary medicines since 1995, showed that permethrin toxicity in cats usually occurred after the owner applied a canine permethrin-containing product, typically a spot-on. Cats are also at risk from grooming or being in direct contact with recently treated dogs. This paper reviews permethrin toxicosis and its treatment in cats, incorporating information from the Australian and selected overseas veterinary pharmacovigilance programs.

  16. Diabetes mellitus in cats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jacquie S; Marshall, Rhett D

    2005-01-01

    Feline diabetes is a multifactorial disease with genetic and environmental factors, including diet, excess body weight, and physical inactivity, involved in its pathogenesis. Although type 2 diabetes is most common in cats, most cats are insulin-dependent at the time of diagnosis. If good glycemic control can be achieved early after diagnosis, a substantial proportion of diabetic cats go into clinical remission. Diabetic remission may be facilitated by using a low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet combined with a long-acting insulin, such as glargine, administered twice daily. Rather than just controlling clinical signs, these new treatment modalities make curing feline diabetes a realistic goal for practitioners.

  17. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Aloe, Luigi; Bianchi, Patrizia; De Bellis, Alberto; Soligo, Marzia; Rocco, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons and if such therapeutic approach could be of value in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats with intact and injured spinal cord received daily intranasal nerve growth factor administration in both nostrils for 1 day or for 3 consecutive weeks. We found an increased content of nerve growth factor and enhanced expression of nerve growth factor receptor in the spinal cord 24 hours after a single intranasal administration of nerve growth factor in healthy rats, while daily treatment for 3 weeks in a model of spinal cord injury improved the deficits in locomotor behaviour and increased spinal content of both nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors. These outcomes suggest that the intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. They also suggest exploiting the possible therapeutic role of intranasally delivered nerve growth factor for the neuroprotection of damaged spinal nerve cells. PMID:25206755

  18. Soluble Axoplasm Enriched from Injured CNS Axons Reveals the Early Modulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Patrick; Broom, Lucy J.; Quraishe, Shmma; Dalton, Paul D.; Skipp, Paul; Newman, Tracey A.; Perry, V. Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Axon injury and degeneration is a common consequence of diverse neurological conditions including multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. The molecular events underlying axon degeneration are poorly understood. We have developed a novel method to enrich for axoplasm from rodent optic nerve and characterised the early events in Wallerian degeneration using an unbiased proteomics screen. Our detergent-free method draws axoplasm into a dehydrated hydrogel of the polymer poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), which is then recovered using centrifugation. This technique is able to recover axonal proteins and significantly deplete glial contamination as confirmed by immunoblotting. We have used iTRAQ to compare axoplasm-enriched samples from naïve vs injured optic nerves, which has revealed a pronounced modulation of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton. To confirm the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton in injured axons we focused on the RhoA pathway. Western blotting revealed an augmentation of RhoA and phosphorylated cofilin in axoplasm-enriched samples from injured optic nerve. To investigate the localisation of these components of the RhoA pathway in injured axons we transected axons of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. We observed an early modulation of filamentous actin with a concomitant redistribution of phosphorylated cofilin in injured axons. At later time-points, RhoA is found to accumulate in axonal swellings and also colocalises with filamentous actin. The actin cytoskeleton is a known sensor of cell viability across multiple eukaryotes, and our results suggest a similar role for the actin cytoskeleton following axon injury. In agreement with other reports, our data also highlights the role of the RhoA pathway in axon degeneration. These findings highlight a previously unexplored area of axon biology, which may open novel avenues to prevent axon degeneration. Our method for isolating CNS axoplasm also represents a new

  19. Experimental studies on spinal cord function using evoked action potentials.

    PubMed

    Soeda, S; Satomi, K; Hirabayashi, K

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on cats to determine the use of conductive evoked spinal cord action potentials in diagnosing motor function of the spinal cord. Direct stimulation from the dura produced three negative wave potentials, N1, N2 and N3. The intraspinal pathway of N2 and N3 was the dorsal column. The pathways of N1, determined by dorsal and ventral epidural recording, were the dorsilateral funicle and the extrapyramidal tracts. A collision experiment between potential N1 and pyramidal tract action potential did not reflect the function of the tract as the amplitude of the action potential was too small. Nevertheless, it is considered that conductive evoked spinal cord action potentials could become a valuable method of assessing spinal cord function as they reflect the function of the extrapyramidal tracts, as well as of the dorsilateral funicle and the dorsal column.

  20. Orthopedic problems in geriatric dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Brian S

    2005-05-01

    Senior dogs and cats with orthopedic injuries and diseases often require a treatment plan that differs from that of younger patients. Injured bone and soft tissues tend to heal more slowly in the geriatric patient. The older animal is likely to have a less competent immune system and may have compromised metabolic and endocrine function. Pre-existing musculoskeletal problems may make ambulation difficult for an animal convalescing from a new orthopedic problem. Special attention is often needed when treating these patients for fractures, joint instability, infection, and neoplasia. In general, issues that should be addressed in the geriatric patient include reducing intraoperative and anesthesia time, enhancing bone and soft tissue healing, return to early function, control of postoperative pain, physical therapy, and proper nutrition.

  1. Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disparities Neural Interfaces Parkinson's Disease Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cells Traumatic Brain Injury Trans-Agency Activities Interagency Research ... Disparities Neural Interfaces Parkinson's Disease Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cells Traumatic Brain Injury Trans-Agency Activities Interagency Research ...

  2. Cat-Eyed Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-13

    Bright, high altitude clouds, like those imaged here, often appear more filamentary or streak-like than clouds imaged at slightly deeper levels in Saturn atmosphere. This view also shows one of the many cat eye vortices.

  3. Cat tongue Velcro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  4. Nutritional support in the critically injured.

    PubMed

    Fox, Vicki J; Miller, Julie; McClung, Meredith

    2004-12-01

    Nutritional support must be an integral part of the management of trauma victims. This article compares the stress response, a maladaptive response, and starvation, an adaptive process, examines the clinical research regarding total parenteral nutrition and total enteral nutrition, provides an evidence-based approach to initiating nutritional support in critically injured patients, and discusses considerations in selecting nutritional formulas.

  5. Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    lateral thoracic, lower abdom- inal, or groin areas are chosen. Since harvesting includes removal of all regenerative dermal layers down to adipose tissue...Understanding and managing burn pain : part 1. Am J Nursing 2009;109:4. 113Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient

  6. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient.

    PubMed

    Elfving, U

    1980-01-01

    Team work is required in the treatment of the thermally injured patient--nursing staff being part of the team. The nurses are with the patient for 24 hours a day and they have to understand the objectives of all other members of the team involved in the treatment as well as thoroughly mastering their own work. For the nursing staff the care of the thermally injured patient is a challenge. The work demands strong motivation and interest--it includes at times painful treatment, isolation and also constant alertness. It is important that the nursing staff is given continuous training so that they are able to give the required care efficiently and to keep up active interest. Practical work is the best way of getting aquainted with the complex forms of treatment of the thermally injured patient. It also lessens the fear of a badly burned patient. Nursing care of the thermally injured patient consists of good basic care, local attention and active observation. The basic care consists of basic hygiene, diet, observation of the patient's psychological condition, giving emotional support, encouraging initiative physiotherapy and postural treatment.

  7. The Head-Injured College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.

    Intended for use by professionals as well as head-injured college students and their families, the text provides basic information about head injuries, brain anatomy, the effects of injury to the various areas of the brain, and the major factors in recovery and rehabilitation. It examines the viability of college attendance for the head-injured…

  8. Medical field management of the injured diver.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, K

    1999-03-01

    This article discusses the history of medical field management of the injured diver, and presents a comprehensive medical equipment list for field treatment as well as treatment protocols. Case reports are used to illustrate the principles and outcome of medical field management.

  9. The Head-Injured College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cooper B.

    Intended for use by professionals as well as head-injured college students and their families, the text provides basic information about head injuries, brain anatomy, the effects of injury to the various areas of the brain, and the major factors in recovery and rehabilitation. It examines the viability of college attendance for the head-injured…

  10. CATS Installed on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On Jan. 22, 2015, robotic flight controllers successfully installed NASA’s Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS) onboard the International Space Station. CATS will collect data about clouds, volcanic ash plumes and tiny airborne particles that can help improve our understanding of aerosol and cloud interactions, and improve the accuracy of climate change models. CATS had been mounted inside the SpaceX Dragon cargo craft’s unpressurized trunk since it docked at the station on Jan. 12. Ground controllers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, used one of the space station’s robotic arms, called the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator, to extract the instrument from the capsule. The NASA-controlled arm passed the instrument to a second robotic arm— like passing a baton in a relay race. This second arm, called the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System, is controlled by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. The Japanese-controlled arm installed the instrument to the Space Station’s Japanese Experiment Module, making CATS the first NASA-developed payload to fly on the Japanese module. CATS is a lidar remote-sensing instrument designed to last from six months to three years. It is specifically intended to demonstrate a low-cost, streamlined approach to developing science payloads on the space station. CATS launched aboard the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft on Jan. 10 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. To learn more about the impact of CATS data, visit: www.nasa.gov/cats/ NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  11. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. Instead, ...

  12. Perspectives on tissue-engineered nerve regeneration for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Suk; Lee, Hai Bang

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few decades, substantial progress has been made to safely improve nerve function in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients through the regeneration of injured nerve tissue. This perspective focuses on an extensive overview of SCI research as well as tissue-engineered nerve regeneration for the treatment of SCI.

  13. Properties of a calicivirus isolated from cats dying in an agitated state.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ohe, K; Fukuyama, M; Furuhata, K; Kishikawa, S; Sakai, S; Kiuchi, A; Hara, M; Watanabe, T; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    In June 1993, two of five pet cats kept in Yokohama city in Japan suddenly became agitated and died. Feline calicivirus (FCV) was isolated from them. One strain (FCV-S) was isolated from the spinal cord, lung and tonsil of cat 1, another (FCV-B) from the ileum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord of cat 2, and a third (FCV-SAKURA) from the oral cavity of one of the three surviving cats which showed no clinical signs. These three strains were equally resistant to pH 3.0 and serologically similar to each other, but distinct from strain F9. A genetic analysis, using a 208 base pair fragment from region E of the capsid, showed that FCV-Ari had a 70.4 per cent nucleotide and 77.3 per cent amino acid homology and FCV-F9 had a 68.6 per cent nucleotide and 73.9 per cent amino acid homology with the three strains, indicating that these two strains were genetically distinct from the three new isolates. Unvaccinated cats and cats which had been vaccinated against FCV-F9 developed watery diarrhoea but did not become agitated after the administration of FCV-S. The FCV-S strain did not induce signs of excitability after it was administered orally to specific pathogen-free cats.

  14. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  15. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  16. Histopathological and behavioral characterization of a novel cervical spinal cord displacement contusion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pearse, D D; Lo, T P; Cho, K S; Lynch, M P; Garg, M S; Marcillo, A E; Sanchez, A R; Cruz, Y; Dietrich, W D

    2005-06-01

    Cervical contusive trauma accounts for the majority, of human spinal cord injury (SCI), yet experimental use of cervical contusion injury models has been limited. Considering that (1) the different ways of injuring the spinal cord (compression, contusion, and transection) induce very different processes of tissue damage and (2) the architecture of the spinal cord is not uniform, it is important to use a model that is more clinically applicable to human SCI. Therefore, in the current study we have developed a rat model of contusive, cervical SCI using the Electromagnetic Spinal Cord Injury Device (ESCID) developed at Ohio State University (OSU) to induce injury by spinal cord displacement. We used the device to perform mild, moderate and severe injuries (0.80, 0.95, and 1.1 mm displacements, respectively) with a single, brief displacement of <20 msec upon the exposed dorsal surface of the C5 cervical spinal cord of female (180-200 g) Fischer rats. Characterization of the model involved the analysis of the temporal histopathological progression of the injury over 9 weeks using histochemical stains to analyze white and gray mater integrity and immunohistochemistry to examine cellular changes and physiological responses within the injured spinal cord. Accompanying the histological analysis was a comprehensive determination of the behavioral functionality of the animals using a battery of motor tests. Characterization of this novel model is presented to enable and encourage its future use in the design and experimental testing of therapeutic strategies that may be used for human SCI.

  17. Respiration following Spinal Cord Injury: Evidence for Human Neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hoh, Daniel J.; Mercier, Lynne M.; Hussey, Shaunn P.; Lane, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory dysfunction is one of the most devastating consequences of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) with impaired breathing being a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. However, there is mounting experimental and clinical evidence for moderate spontaneous respiratory recovery, or “plasticity”, after some spinal cord injuries. Pre-clinical models of respiratory dysfunction following SCI have demonstrated plasticity at neural and behavioral levels that result in progressive recovery of function. Temporal changes in respiration after human SCI have revealed some functional improvements suggesting plasticity paralleling that seen in experimental models – a concept that has been previously under-appreciated. While the extent of spontaneous recovery remains limited, it is possible that enhancing or facilitating neuroplastic mechanisms may have significant therapeutic potential. The next generation of treatment strategies for SCI and related respiratory dysfunction should aim to optimize these recovery processes of the injured spinal cord for lasting functional restoration. PMID:23891679

  18. Injury alters intrinsic functional connectivity within the primate spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li Min; Mishra, Arabinda; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Gore, John C

    2015-05-12

    Recent demonstrations of correlated low-frequency MRI signal variations between subregions of the spinal cord at rest in humans, similar to those found in the brain, suggest that such resting-state functional connectivity constitutes a common feature of the intrinsic organization of the entire central nervous system. We report our detection of functional connectivity within the spinal cords of anesthetized squirrel monkeys at rest and show that the strength of connectivity within these networks is altered by the effects of injuries. By quantifying the low-frequency MRI signal correlations between different horns within spinal cord gray matter, we found distinct functional connectivity relationships between the different sensory and motor horns, a pattern that was similar to activation patterns evoked by nociceptive heat or tactile stimulation of digits. All horns within a single spinal segment were functionally connected, with the strongest connectivity occurring between ipsilateral dorsal and ventral horns. Each horn was strongly connected to the same horn on neighboring segments, but this connectivity reduced drastically along the spinal cord. Unilateral injury to the spinal cord significantly weakened the strength of the intrasegment horn-to-horn connectivity only on the injury side and in slices below the lesion. These findings suggest resting-state functional connectivity may be a useful biomarker of functional integrity in injured and recovering spinal cords.

  19. Tert-butylhydroquinone protects the spinal cord against inflammatory response produced by spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Ni, Hongbin; Hou, Xiaoshan; Ming, Xing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhu, Tiansheng; Jiang, Jian; Wang, Handong; Liang, Weibang

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in our previous studies to play an important role in protection against spinal cord injury (SCI) induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect the spinal cord against SCI-induced inflammatory damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. Three groups were analyzed: a sham group, a SCI group, and a SCI+rhEPO group (n=16 per group). We measured Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) binding activities by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we also measured hindlimb locomotion function by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The results showed that the induction of the Nrf2 activity by tBHQ markedly decreased NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokines production in the injured spinal cord. Administration of tBHQ also significantly attenuated SCI induced hindlimb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. To conclude, pre-treatment with tBHQ could attenuate the spinal cord inflammatory response after SCI.

  20. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages.

  1. Examining the properties and therapeutic potential of glial restricted precursors in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Kazuo; Haas, Christopher; Fischer, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of spinal cord injury, glial restricted precursors (GRPs) and immature astrocytes offer the potential to modulate the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord and promote host axon regeneration. Nevertheless clinical application of cellular therapy for the repair of spinal cord injury requires strict quality-assured protocols for large-scale production and preservation that necessitates long-term in vitro expansion. Importantly, such processes have the potential to alter the phenotypic and functional properties and thus therapeutic potential of these cells. Furthermore, clinical use of cellular therapies may be limited by the inflammatory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord, altering the phenotypic and functional properties of grafted cells. This report simulates the process of large-scale GRP production and demonstrates the permissive properties of GRP following long-term in vitro culture. Furthermore, we defined the phenotypic and functional properties of GRP in the presence of inflammatory factors, and call attention to the importance of the microenvironment of grafted cells, underscoring the importance of modulating the environment of the injured spinal cord. PMID:27212899

  2. Upregulation of complement inhibitors in association with vulnerable cells following contusion-induced spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Aileen J; Najbauer, Joseph; Huang, Wencheng; Young, Wise; Robert, Stephanie

    2005-03-01

    We have previously described the activation of the classical, alternative, and terminal complement cascade pathways after acute contusion spinal cord injury using the New York University (NYU) weight-drop impactor. In the present study, we examined the induction of protein regulators of the complement cascade, factor H (FH), and clusterin, in the same experimental paradigm. The spinal cord of laminectomized adult rats was subjected to mild or severe injury using impactor weight-drop heights of 12.5 and 50 mm, respectively. The spinal cords of control and injured animals were evaluated at 1, 7, and 42 days after injury. Immunocytochemistry revealed a robust increase in the numbers and intensity of staining of FH, and clusterin-positive cells in the injured cord at all three time points, with the highest increases observed at 1 and 42 days after injury. FH and clusterin-positive cells were observed among neurons as well as oligodendrocytes. The increased expression was detected both rostrally and caudally from the injury site, in the latter case at distances up to 20 mm. The precise biological significance of injury-induced upregulation of these proteins remains to be determined. However, FH and clusterin are potent regulators of complement activity targeting upstream (FH) and downstream (clusterin) molecules of the pro-inflammatory cascade, which could be of vital importance in preventing a "runaway" inflammatory reaction in the injured spinal cord.

  3. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems.

  4. Hearing disorders in cats.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2017-03-01

    Practical relevance: Auditory function is a sense that is central to life for cats - being important in situational awareness of potential predators, pursuit of prey, and for communication with conspecifics, humans and other species. Deafness in cats is most frequently the result of a genetic disorder, strongly associated with white fur and blue eyes, but may also result from acquired causes such as advancing age, ototoxic drugs, infection, environmental noise and physical trauma. Deafness can be sensorineural, where there is loss of cochlear hair cells, or conductive, where sound is muffled on its way to the inner ear. Clinical challenges: Establishing whether a cat is deaf can be difficult as behavioral testing of hearing is subjective and does not reliably detect unilateral deafness. Brainstem auditory evoked response testing is an objective measure but is limited in its availability. Currently, sensorineural deafness is irreversible because no treatments are available to restore lost hair cells. Conductive hearing loss can usually be treated, although full hearing recovery following otitis media may take weeks as the body clears the middle ear of debris. Evidence base: The author draws on the published literature and his extensive research on clinical aspects and molecular genetics of deafness, principally in companion animals, to review types and forms of deafness in cats. He also discusses current diagnostic approaches and provides brief advice for managing cats with hearing loss.

  5. The Function of FGFR1 Signalling in the Spinal Cord: Therapeutic Approaches Using FGFR1 Ligands after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Lawrence D. F.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive research is ongoing that concentrates on finding therapies to enhance CNS regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to cure paralysis. This review sheds light on the role of the FGFR pathway in the injured spinal cord and discusses various therapies that use FGFR activating ligands to promote regeneration after SCI. We discuss studies that use peripheral nerve grafts or Schwann cell grafts in combination with FGF1 or FGF2 supplementation. Most of these studies show evidence that these therapies successfully enhance axon regeneration into the graft. Further they provide evidence for partial recovery of sensory function shown by electrophysiology and motor activity evidenced by behavioural data. We also present one study that indicates that combination with additional, synergistic factors might further drive the system towards functional regeneration. In essence, this review summarises the potential of nerve and cell grafts combined with FGF1/2 supplementation to improve outcome even after severe spinal cord injury. PMID:28197342

  6. Accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pang, T Y; Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Ahmad, M M; Nasir, M T; Harwant, S

    2000-03-01

    This study examines the accident characteristics of injured motorcyclists in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of motorcyclists who are at higher fatality risk and subsequently be the targeted group for the fatality-reduction countermeasures. A total of 412 motorcycle crash victims with serious or fatal injuries were analysed. The results showed that the injured motorcyclists were predominant young, novice riders of less than 3 years licensure and male. A fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a larger engine capacity motorcycle, collision with a heavy vehicle, head on collision, and collision at a non-junction road. In contrast, a non-fatal outcome was more likely to be associated with a small engine capacity motorcycle, collision with another motorcycle or passenger car, junction accidents, and side or rear collisions.

  7. Acute Management for the Injured Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Geoffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    If not optimally treated, a hand injury can lead to disability which often has considerable economic and social implications. The role of the primary care physician is to diagnose the injury correctly and initiate management which will keep this disability to a minimum. This is best achieved by making a composite diagnosis to include all the injured components of the hand. The emphasis must be on early mobilization of the injured area and the maintenance of mobility in all joints of the upper limb. Early referral to physiotherapy and occupational therapy departments is highly desirable. The major pitfall in managing hand injuries is over zealous treatment of the fracture at the expense of the soft tissue injury, resulting in iatrogenic stiffness. PMID:21274226

  8. Rehabilitation methods for the burn injured individual.

    PubMed

    Spires, M Catherine; Kelly, Brian M; Pangilinan, Percival H

    2007-11-01

    Physiatrists play a critical role in managing the medical and functional consequences of serious burn injuries. Goals of rehabilitation include wound healing, scar prevention, hypertrophic scarring suppression, full range of motion, strengthening, and independent mobility and activities of daily living. This article is an overview of burn rehabilitation principles and patient management. The ultimate rehabilitation goal is independence in all spheres of an individual's life. Achievement of independence depends on the commitment of the injured individual and the entire health care team.

  9. Long-Distance Axonal Growth from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Paul; Woodruff, Grace; Wang, Yaozhi; Graham, Lori; Hunt, Matt; Wu, Di; Boehle, Eileen; Ahmad, Ruhel; Poplawski, Gunnar; Brock, John; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a healthy 86 year-old male were differentiated into neural stem cells and grafted into adult immunodeficient rats after spinal cord injury. Three months after C5 lateral hemisections, iPSCs survived and differentiated into neurons and glia, and extended tens of thousands of axons from the lesion site over virtually the entire length of the rat central nervous system. These iPSC-derived axons extended through adult white matter of the injured spinal cord, frequently penetrating gray matter and forming synapses with rat neurons. In turn, host supraspinal motor axons penetrated human iPSC grafts and formed synapses. These findings indicate that intrinsic neuronal mechanisms readily overcome the inhibitory milieu of the adult injured spinal cord to extend many axons over very long distances; these capabilities persist even in neurons reprogrammed from very aged human cells. PMID:25123310

  10. Current Concept of Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic condition associated with significant neurological deficit, social, and financial burdens. Over the past decades, various treatments including medication, surgery, and rehabilitation therapy for SCI have been performed, but there were no definite treatment option to improve neurological function of patients with chronic SCI. Therefore, new treatment trials with stem cells have been studied to regenerate injured spinal cord. Among various types of stem cells, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells is highly expected as candidates for the stem cell therapy. The result of the current research showed that direct intramedullary injection to the injured spinal cord site in subacute phase is most effective. Neurological examination, electrophysiologic studies, and magnetic resonance imaging are commonly used to assess the effectiveness of treatment. Diffusion tensor imaging visualizing white matter tract can be also alternative option to identify neuronal regeneration. Despite various challenging issues, stem cell therapy will open new perspectives for SCI treatment. PMID:27857906

  11. Home Health Care for California's Injured Workers

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Boustead, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The California Department of Industrial Relations/Division of Worker's Compensation asked RAND to provide technical assistance in developing a fee schedule for home health services provided to injured workers. The fee schedule needs to address the full spectrum of home health services ranging from skilled nursing and therapy services to unskilled personal care or chore services that may be provided by family members. RAND researchers consulted with stakeholders in the California workers’ compensation system to outline issues the fee schedule should address, reviewed home health fee schedules used by other payers, and conducted interviews with WC administrators from other jurisdictions to elicit their experiences. California stakeholders identified unskilled attendant services as most problematic in determining need and payment rates, particularly services furnished by family members. RAND researchers concentrated on fee schedule options that would result in a single fee schedule covering the full range of home health care services furnished to injured workers and made three sets of recommendations. The first set pertains to obtaining additional information that would highlight the policy issues likely to occur with the implementation of the fee schedule and alternatives for assessing an injured worker's home health care needs. Another approach conforms most closely with the Labor Code requirements. It would integrate the fee schedules used by Medicare, In-Home Health Supportive Services, and the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. The third approach would base the home health fee schedule on rules used by the federal Office of Workers’ Compensation. PMID:28083362

  12. Amelioration of motor/sensory dysfunction and spasticity in a rat model of acute lumbar spinal cord injury by human neural stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intraspinal grafting of human neural stem cells represents a promising approach to promote recovery of function after spinal trauma. Such a treatment may serve to: I) provide trophic support to improve survival of host neurons; II) improve the structural integrity of the spinal parenchyma by reducing syringomyelia and scarring in trauma-injured regions; and III) provide neuronal populations to potentially form relays with host axons, segmental interneurons, and/or α-motoneurons. Here we characterized the effect of intraspinal grafting of clinical grade human fetal spinal cord-derived neural stem cells (HSSC) on the recovery of neurological function in a rat model of acute lumbar (L3) compression injury. Methods Three-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats received L3 spinal compression injury. Three days post-injury, animals were randomized and received intraspinal injections of either HSSC, media-only, or no injections. All animals were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone acetate from the day of cell grafting and survived for eight weeks. Motor and sensory dysfunction were periodically assessed using open field locomotion scoring, thermal/tactile pain/escape thresholds and myogenic motor evoked potentials. The presence of spasticity was measured by gastrocnemius muscle resistance and electromyography response during computer-controlled ankle rotation. At the end-point, gait (CatWalk), ladder climbing, and single frame analyses were also assessed. Syrinx size, spinal cord dimensions, and extent of scarring were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Differentiation and integration of grafted cells in the host tissue were validated with immunofluorescence staining using human-specific antibodies. Results Intraspinal grafting of HSSC led to a progressive and significant improvement in lower extremity paw placement, amelioration of spasticity, and normalization in thermal and tactile pain/escape thresholds at

  13. StreamCat

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the conterminous USA.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Hill, R.A., M. Weber , S. Leibowitz , T. Olsen , and D.J. Thornbrugh. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) Dataset: A database of watershed metrics for the conterminous USA. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION. American Water Resources Association, Middleburg, VA, USA, 9, (2015).

  14. Presumptive sialadenosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Boydell, P; Pike, R; Crossley, D

    2000-12-01

    A cat was presented with signs associated with enlargement of the mandibular salivary glands. Histological findings were normal, consistent with a diagnosis of sialadenosis, and the cat responded to symptomatic treatment with oral phenobarbitone.

  15. Improving the Efficiency and Efficacy of Glibenclamide in Limiting Progressive Hemorrhagic Necrosis Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    outcomes in rat models of spinal cord injury, with the principal mechanism of action being amelioration of post-traumatic hemorrhagic necrosis ( PHN ). We...post-traumatic hemorrhagic necrosis ( PHN ) is an early prognostic indicator of long-term functional recovery in human spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent...preclinical data indicate that PHN can be reduced and functional recovery improved in spinal injured rats using glibenclamide, an FDA approved anti

  16. Knowledge brokering with injured workers: Perspectives of injured worker groups and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Lynn; McDermid, Joy; Kothari, Anita; Lindsay, Rob; Brake, Phil; Page, Peter; Argyle, Colin; Gagnon, Crystal; Knott, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the barriers and facilitators in brokering knowledge brokering knowledge to help injured workers make informed decisions about recovery and to support their transitions to return to work (RTW). Perceptions of 63 Injured Worker Groups (IWGs) and 43 Health Care Professionals (HCPs) in facilitating and brokering knowledge were examined. Critical theory and participatory action research approaches informed the development of a multi-stakeholder research team and the study design to support an exploration into knowledge exchange and transfer. Data was analyzed using a critical occupational perspective to reveal the source of barriers and to identify the facilitators of the knowledge exchange and transfer process. Barriers in transferring knowledge included system barriers, a lack of information accessibility, and problems with variations in injured worker capacity and experience using information. IWG and HCP participants lacked expertise in knowledge transfer. Findings also revealed the interactive knowledge transfer processes that IWGs and HCPs use to help injured workers understand and use information. Change is required to improve knowledge exchange and transfer of information for and to persons with injuries and disabilities. Suggested changes include the development of a sustainable knowledge transfer community of practice, a best practice guide for knowledge brokers such as IWGs and HCPs, and a process for ongoing assessment and evaluation of injured worker information needs and preferences.

  17. Umbilical cord and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Olaya-C, M; Salcedo-Betancourt, J; Galvis, S H; Ortiz, A M; Gutierrez, S; Bernal, J E

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with abnormalities in the umbilical cord in several ways: morphological, biochemical and functional. Alteration in blood vessels of the placenta, decidua and circulatory system of the fetus might be related to factors that cause preeclampsia and may be associated with alterations of the umbilical cord. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between each type of umbilical cord abnormality and the different subtypes of hypertensive gestational disorders. We conducted a prospective study on consecutive autopsies and its placentas, looking for abnormalities in the umbilical cord's features and their clinical associations. Umbilical cord abnormalities including length, diameter, insertion, entanglements, knots and coils were associated with maternal gestational hypertension. In women with gestational hypertension, umbilical cord abnormalities are associated with fetal and neonatal consequences.

  18. Estrogen attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in female cats.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Petra M; Kaufman, M P

    2003-10-01

    In humans, the pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise are less in women than in men. The difference has been attributed to the effect of estrogen on the exercise pressor reflex. Estrogen receptors are abundant in areas of the dorsal horn receiving input from group III and IV muscle afferents, which comprise the sensory limb of the exercise pressor reflex arc. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of estrogen on the spinal pathway of the exercise pressor reflex arc. Previously, we found that the threshold concentration of 17beta-estradiol needed to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in male decerebrate cats was 10 microg/ml (Schmitt PM and Kaufman MP. J Appl Physiol 94: 1431-1436, 2003). The threshold concentration for female cats, however, is not known. Consequently, we applied 17beta-estradiol to a well covering the L6-S1 spinal cord in decerebrate female cats. The exercise pressor reflex was evoked by electrical stimulation of the L7 or S1 ventral root, a maneuver that caused the hindlimb muscles to contract statically. We found that the pressor response to contraction averaged 38 +/- 7 mmHg before the application of 17beta-estradiol (0.01 microg/ml) to the spinal cord, whereas it averaged only 23 +/- 4 mmHg 30 min after application (P < 0.05). Recovery of the pressor response to contraction was not obtained for 2 h after application of 17beta-estradiol. Application of 17beta-estradiol in a dose of 0.001 microg/ml had no effect on the exercise pressor reflex (n = 5). We conclude that the concentration of 17beta-estradiol required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex is 1,000 times more dilute in female cats than that needed to attenuate this reflex in male cats.

  19. The pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction spinal cord injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zheng, Chao; Wu, Ji; Xue, Jing; Huang, Rongrong; Wu, Di; Song, Yueming

    2017-06-27

    A reliable experimental rabbit model of distraction spinal cord injury (SCI) was established to successfully simulate gradable and replicable distraction SCI. However, further research is needed to elucidate the pathologic mechanisms underlying distraction SCI. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic mechanisms underlying lumbar distraction SCI in rabbits. This is an animal laboratory study. Using a self-designed spine distractor, the experimental animals were divided into a control group and 10%, 20%, and 30% distraction groups. Pathologic changes to the spinal cord microvessels in the early stage of distraction SCI were identified by perfusion of the spinal cord vasculature with ink, production of transparent specimens, observation by light microscopy, and observation of corrosion casts of the spinal cord microvascular architecture by scanning electron microscopy. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations in the injured spinal cord tissue were measured after 8 hours. With an increasing degree and duration of distraction, the spinal cord microvessels were only partially filled and had the appearance of spasm until rupture and hemorrhage were observed. The MDA concentration increased and the SOD concentration decreased in the spinal cord tissue. Changes to the internal and external spinal cord vessels led to spinal cord ischemia, which is a primary pathologic mechanism of distraction SCI. Lipid peroxidation mediated by free radicals took part in secondary pathologic damage of distraction SCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CATS User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    The Consequences Assessment Tool Set ( CATS ) addresses the need to predict damage and analyze consequences from natural and technological disasters...Winner of numerous awards, including the 1996 Ford Foundation Innovations in American Government Award, CATS employs a suite of hazard, casualty and...terrorist incidents, involving weapons of mass destruction, and industrial accidents. CATS depicts damage extent, probabilities and numbers of

  1. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A What's in ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  2. Noninvasive Spinal Cord Stimulation: Technical Aspects and Therapeutic Applications.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Orioli, Andrea; Frey, Vanessa; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation can be used to increase the motor output of multiple spinal segments and modulate cortico-spinal excitability. The application of direct current through the scalp as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation are known to influence brain excitability, and hence can also modulate other central nervous system structures, including spinal cord. This study aimed to evaluate the effects and the therapeutic usefulness of these noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques in healthy subjects and in the neurorehabilitation of patients with spinal cord disorders, as well as to discuss the possible mechanisms of action. A comprehensive review that summarizes previous studies using noninvasive spinal cord stimulation is lacking. PubMed (MEDLINE) and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify the most relevant published studies. We performed here an extensive review in this field. By decreasing the spinal reflex excitability, electrical and magnetic trans-spinal stimulation could be helpful in normalizing reflex hyperexcitability and treating hypertonia in subjects with lesions to upper motor neurons. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, based on applying direct current through the skin, influences the ascending and descending spinal pathways as well as spinal reflex excitability, and there is increasing evidence that it also can induce prolonged functional neuroplastic changes. When delivered repetitively, magnetic stimulation could also modulate spinal cord functions; however, at present only a few studies have documented spastic-reducing effects induced by repetitive spinal magnetic stimulation. Moreover, paired peripheral and transcranial stimulation can be used to target the spinal cord and may have potential for neuromodulation in spinal cord-injured subjects. Noninvasive electrical and magnetic spinal stimulation may provide reliable means to characterize important neurophysiologic and

  3. Vibrational Schroedinger Cats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.

  4. The molecular cat.

    PubMed

    Pedio, Maddalena; Chergui, Majed

    2009-02-23

    A manifestation of electronic entanglement in core-level spectroscopic measurements of diatomic molecules, reported recently by Schöffler and co-workers, is discussed. The results are reminiscent of Schrödinger's famous Gedanken experiment with the cat (see picture).

  5. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  6. Midkine in repair of the injured nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Matsuda, Fumiyo; Ikutomo, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Midkine (MK) is a growth factor with neurotrophic and neurite outgrowth activities. It was expressed in the peri-ischaemic area in the acute phase of cerebral infarction in rat brains. Astrocytes were the origin of MK in this occasion. MK has been assessed in terms of its effects on neural injury. The administration of MK into the lateral ventricle immediately prior to ischaemia prevented cell death in the hippocampal CA1 neurons degenerated by transient forebrain ischaemia in gerbils. MK administration was also beneficial in rats with neural injury, especially after kainic acid-induced seizures. Gene therapy with mouse MK cDNA using an adenovirus was effective in reducing the cerebral infarction volume and in increasing the number of neuronal precursor cells in the subventricular zone of the rat brain. MK mRNA and MK protein were found in spinal cord motor neurons of the anterior horn in both the acute phase of sciatic nerve injury and 3 weeks later. MK immunoreactivity was also found in the proximal side of a sciatic nerve-injured site in sciatic nerve axons. MK receptors were expressed in Schwann cells after injury, suggesting crosstalk between axons and Schwann cells. MK was also present in nerve terminals and influenced ACh receptor clustering during neuromuscular development in Xenopus. Thus, MK may also be involved in reinforcing and maintaining the synapse. All these findings indicate the therapeutic potential of MK for promoting repair of the nervous system after injury. Linked Articles This article is part of a th