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Sample records for cord-derived mesenchymal stem

  1. Effects of Hypoxia and Chitosan on Equine Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J.; Wagoner Johnson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan opens new perspectives in regenerative medicine as it enhances the properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through formation of spheroids. Hypoxia has also been proposed to enhance stemness and survival of MSCs after in vivo implantation. These characteristics are relevant to the development of an off-the-shelf source of allogenic cells for regenerative therapy of tendinopathies. Umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCM-MSCs) offer an abundant source of immature and immunoprivileged stem cells. In this study, equine UCM-MSCs (eqUCM-MSCs) conditioned for 3 and 7 days on chitosan films at 5% oxygen were compared to eqUCM-MSCs under standard conditions. Equine UCM-MSCs formed spheroids on chitosan but yielded 72% less DNA than standard eqUCM-MSCs. Expression of Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog was 4 to 10 times greater in conditioned cells at day 7. Fluorescence-labeled cells cultured for 7 days under standard conditions or on chitosan films under hypoxia were compared in a bilateral patellar tendon defect model in rats. Fluorescence was present in all treated tendons, but the modulus of elasticity under tension was greater in tendons treated with conditioned cells. Chitosan and hypoxia affected cell yield but improved the stemness of eqUCM-MSCs and their contribution to the healing of tissues. Given the abundance of allogenic cells, these properties are highly relevant to clinical applications and outweigh the negative impact on cell proliferation. PMID:27379167

  2. Effect of HSA coated iron oxide labeling on human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanganeria, Purva; Chandra, Sudeshna; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Khanna, Aparna

    2015-03-01

    Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are known for self-renewal and differentiation into cells of various lineages like bone, cartilage and fat. They have been used in biomedical applications to treat degenerative disorders. However, to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells, there is a requirement of sensitive non-invasive imaging techniques which will offer the ability to track transplanted cells, bio-distribution, proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have analyzed the efficacy of human serum albumin coated iron oxide nanoparticles (HSA-IONPs) on the differentiation of hUC-MSCs. The colloidal stability of the HSA-IONPs was tested over a long period of time (≥20 months) and the optimized concentration of HSA-IONPs for labeling the stem cells was 60 μg ml-1. Detailed in vitro assays have been performed to ascertain the effect of the nanoparticles (NPs) on stem cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed minimum release of LDH depicting the least disruptions in cellular membrane. At the same time, mitochondrial impairment of the cells was also not observed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed lesser generation of reactive oxygen species in HSA-IONPs labeled hUC-MSCs in comparison to bare and commercial IONPs. Transmission electron microscopy showed endocytic engulfment of the NPs by the hUC-MSCs. During the process, the gross morphologies of the actin cytoskeleton were found to be intact as shown by immunofluorescence microscopy. Also, the engulfment of the HSA-IONPs did not show any detrimental effect on the differentiation potential of the stem cells into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, thereby confirming that the inherent properties of stem cells were maintained.

  3. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can secrete insulin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Zahra Niki; Aleyasin, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to decreased insulin production. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells offers novel ways of diabetes treatment. MSCs can be isolated from the human umbilical cord tissue and differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Human umbilical cord-derived stem cells (hUDSCs) were obtained after birth, selected by plastic adhesion, and characterized by flow cytometric analysis. hUDSCs were transduced with nonintegrated lentivirus harboring PDX1 (nonintegrated LV-PDX1) and was cultured in differentiation medium in 21 days. Pancreatic duodenum homeobox protein-1 (PDX1) is a transcription factor in pancreatic development. Significant expressions of PDX1, neurogenin3 (Ngn3), glucagon, glucose transporter2 (Glut2), and somatostatin were detected by quantitative RT-PCR (P < 0.05). PDX1 and insulin proteins were shown by immunocytochemistry analysis. Insulin secretion of hUDSCs(PDX1+) in the high-glucose medium was 1.8 μU/mL. They were used for treatment of diabetic rats and could decrease the blood glucose level from 400 mg/dL to a normal level in 4 days. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hUDSCs are able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by transduction with nonintegrated LV-PDX1. These hUDSCs(PDX1+) have the potential to be used as a viable resource in cell-based gene therapy of type 1 diabetes.

  4. The Effects of Secretion Factors from Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kui-Xing; Xu, Liang-Liang; Rui, Yun-Feng; Huang, Shuo; Lin, Si-En; Xiong, Jiang-Hui; Li, Ying-Hui; Lee, Wayne Yuk-Wai; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Factors synthesized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contain various growth factors, cytokines, exosomes and microRNAs, which may affect the differentiation abilities of MSCs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of secretion factors of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on osteogenesis of human bone marrow derived MSCs (hBMSCs). The results showed that 20 μg/ml hUCMSCs secretion factors could initiate osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs without osteogenic induction medium (OIM), and the amount of calcium deposit (stained by Alizarin Red) was significantly increased after the hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment. Real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the expression of osteogenesis-related genes including ALP, BMP2, OCN, Osterix, Col1α and Runx2 were significantly up-regulated following hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment. In addition, we found that 10 μg hUCMSCs secretion factors together with 2×105 hBMSCs in the HA/TCP scaffolds promoted ectopic bone formation in nude mice. Local application of 10 μg hUCMSCs secretion factors with 50 μl 2% hyaluronic acid hydrogel and 1×105 rat bone marrow derived MSCs (rBMSCs) also significantly enhanced the bone repair of rat calvarial bone critical defect model at both 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Moreover, the group that received the hUCMSCs secretion factors treatment had more cartilage and bone regeneration in the defect areas than those in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggested that hUCMSCs secretion factors can initiate osteogenesis of bone marrow MSCs and promote bone repair. Our study indicates that hUCMSCs secretion factors may be potential sources for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:25799169

  5. Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Useful in Insulin Production - Another Opportunity in Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarang, Shabari; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder resulting out of T cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells may help to regenerate beta cells and/or prevent further destruction of remnant, unaffected beta cells in diabetes. We have assessed the ability of umbilical cord derived MSCs (UCMSCs) to differentiate into functional islet cells in vitro. Methods and Results We have isolated UCMSCs and allowed sequential exposure of various inducing agents and growth factors. We characterized these cells for confirmation of the presence of islet cell markers and their functionality. The spindle shaped undifferentiated UCMSCs, change their morphology to become triangular in shape. These cells then come together to form the islet like structures which then grow in size and mature over time. These cells express pancreatic and duodenal homeobox −1 (PDX-1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn-3), glucose transporter 2 (Glut 2) and other pancreatic cell markers like glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide and lose expression of MSC markers like CD73 and CD105. They were functionally active as demonstrated by release of physiological insulin and C-peptide in response to elevated glucose concentrations. Conclusions Pancreatic islet like cells with desired functionality can thus be obtained in reasonable numbers from undifferentiated UCMSCs invitro. This could help in establishing a “very definitive source” of islet like cells for cell therapy. UCMSCs could thus be a game changer in treatment of diabetes. PMID:27426087

  6. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ning-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Chen, Si-Wen; Fan, Ke-Xing; Linghu, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in the treatment of liver fibrosis. METHODS: Cultured human UC-MSCs were isolated and transfused into rats with liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). The effects of UC-MSCs transfusion on liver fibrosis were then evaluated by histopathology; serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 levels were also measured. Furthermore, Kupffer cells (KCs) in fibrotic livers were isolated and cultured to analyze their phenotype. Moreover, UC-MSCs were co-cultured with KCs in vitro to assess the effects of UC-MSCs on KCs’ phenotype, and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants. Finally, UC-MSCs and KCs were cultured in the presence of IL-4 antibodies to block the effects of this cytokine, followed by phenotypical analysis of KCs. RESULTS: UC-MSCs transfused into rats were recruited by the injured liver and alleviated liver fibrosis, increasing serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels. Interestingly, UC-MSCs promoted mobilization of KCs not only in fibrotic livers, but also in vitro. Co-culture of UC-MSCs with KCs resulted in increased production of IL-4 and IL-10. The addition of IL-4 antibodies into the co-culture system resulted in decreased KC mobilization. CONCLUSION: UC-MSCs could increase IL-4 and promote mobilization of KCs both in vitro and in vivo, subsequently alleviating the liver fibrosis induced by DMN. PMID:27468195

  7. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  8. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  9. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, LI-XUE; GUAN, HUI; LI, HAI-BO; REN, CUI-AI; LIU, LIN; CHU, JIN-JIN; DAI, LONG-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by progressive and inexorable β-cell dysfunction, leading to insulin deficiency. Novel strategies to preserve the remaining β-cells and restore β-cell function for the treatment of diabetes are urgently required. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been exploited in a variety of clinical trials aimed at reducing the burden of immune-mediated disease. The aim of the present clinical trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UCMSC) transplantation for patients with T2D. The safety and efficacy of UCMSC application were evaluated in six patients with T2D during a minimum of a 24-month follow-up period. Following transplantation, the levels of fasting C-peptide, the peak value and the area under the C-peptide release curve increased significantly within one month and remained high during the follow-up period (P<0.05). Three of the six patients became insulin free for varying lengths of time between 25 and 43 months, while the additional three patients continued to require insulin injections, although with a reduced insulin requirement. Fasting plasma glucose and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels were relatively stable in all the patients following transplantation. There was no immediate or delayed toxicity associated with the cell administration within the follow-up period. Therefore, the results indicated that transplantation of allogeneic UCMSCs may be an approach to improve islet function in patients with T2D. There were no safety issues observed during infusion and the long-term monitoring period. PMID:26136869

  11. Clinical Observation of Employment of Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongtao; Hong, Jingxin; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Ming; Bai, Wen; Wang, Jiangang; Liu, Yongjun; Wu, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), known as Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis in children aged under 17. It may cause sequelae due to lack of effective treatment. The goal of this study is to explore the therapeutic effect of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for JIA. Ten JIA patients were treated with UC-MSCs and received second infusion three months later. Some key values such as 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), TNF-α, IL-6, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were evaluated. Data were collected at 3 months and 6 months after first treatment. DAS28 score of 10 patients was between 2.6 and 3.2 at three months after infusion. WBC, ESR, and CRP were significantly decreased while Tregs were remarkably increased and IL-6 and TNF-α were declined. Similar changes of above values were found after 6 months. At the same time, the amount of NSAIDS and steroid usage in patients was reduced. However, no significant changes were found comparing the data from 3 and 6 months. These results suggest that UC-MSCs can reduce inflammatory cytokines, improve immune network effects, adjust immune tolerance, and effectively alleviate the symptoms and they might provide a safe and novel approach for JIA treatment. PMID:26770214

  12. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-xiao; Liu, Zhi-gang; Liu, Xiao-jiao; Chen, Qian-xue

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions. PMID:26981097

  13. Extracellular matrix from human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Rao, Feng; Guo, Zhi-yuan; Sun, Xun; Wang, Yi-guo; Liu, Shu-yun; Wang, Ai-yuan; Guo, Quan-yi; Meng, Hao-ye; Zhao, Qing; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shi-bi

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix, which includes collagens, laminin, or fibronectin, plays an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Recently, a Schwann cell-derived extracellular matrix with classical biomaterial was used to mimic the neural niche. However, extensive clinical use of Schwann cells remains limited because of the limited origin, loss of an autologous nerve, and extended in vitro culture times. In the present study, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs), which are easily accessible and more proliferative than Schwann cells, were used to prepare an extracellular matrix. We identified the morphology and function of hUCMSCs and investigated their effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. Compared with a non-coated dish tissue culture, the hUCMSC-derived extracellular matrix enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, upregulated gene and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in Schwann cells, and enhanced neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion neurons. These findings suggest that the hUCMSC-derived extracellular matrix promotes peripheral nerve repair and can be used as a basis for the rational design of engineered neural niches. PMID:27630705

  14. Extracellular matrix from human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Rao, Feng; Guo, Zhi-Yuan; Sun, Xun; Wang, Yi-Guo; Liu, Shu-Yun; Wang, Ai-Yuan; Guo, Quan-Yi; Meng, Hao-Ye; Zhao, Qing; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Lu, Shi-Bi

    2016-07-01

    The extracellular matrix, which includes collagens, laminin, or fibronectin, plays an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Recently, a Schwann cell-derived extracellular matrix with classical biomaterial was used to mimic the neural niche. However, extensive clinical use of Schwann cells remains limited because of the limited origin, loss of an autologous nerve, and extended in vitro culture times. In the present study, human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs), which are easily accessible and more proliferative than Schwann cells, were used to prepare an extracellular matrix. We identified the morphology and function of hUCMSCs and investigated their effect on peripheral nerve regeneration. Compared with a non-coated dish tissue culture, the hUCMSC-derived extracellular matrix enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, upregulated gene and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in Schwann cells, and enhanced neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion neurons. These findings suggest that the hUCMSC-derived extracellular matrix promotes peripheral nerve repair and can be used as a basis for the rational design of engineered neural niches. PMID:27630705

  15. Transdifferentiation of Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Into Epidermal-Like Cells by the Mimicking Skin Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deyun; Hao, Haojie; Tong, Chuan; Liu, Jiejie; Dong, Liang; Ti, Dongdong; Hou, Qian; Liu, Huiling; Han, Weidong; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-06-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are multipotent, primitive, and have been widely used for skin tissue engineering. Their transdifferentiation is determined by the local microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the potential epidermal differentiation of UC-MSCs and the formation of epidermis substitutes in a 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, which was fabricated by UC-MSCs embedded into collagen-chitosan scaffolds (CCSs) combined with an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. Using fluorescence microscope, we observed that UC-MSCs were spindle-shaped and evenly distributed in the scaffold. Methyl thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay and Live/Dead assay indicated that the CCSs have good biocompatibility with UC-MSCs. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay showed that UC-MSCs on the surface of the CCSs were positive for the epidermal markers cytokeratin 19 and involucrin at 14 days. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin staining indicated that multilayered epidermis substitutes were established. The constructed epidermis substitutes were applied to treat full-thickness wounds in rats and proved to promote wound healing. In conclusion, manipulating the 3D microenvironment is a novel method for inducing the epidermal differentiation of MSCs to engineer epidermal substitutes, which provides an alternative strategy for skin tissue engineering. PMID:25700709

  16. Improved explant method to isolate umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yuka; Ohshimo, Jun; Shimazu, Takahisa; He, Haiping; Takahashi, Atsuko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Tsunoda, Hajime; Tojo, Arinobu; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord (UC) has become one of the major sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The common explant method of isolating UC-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) involves mincing the UCs into small fragments, which are then attached to a culture dish bottom from which the MSCs migrate. However, the fragments frequently float up from the bottom of the dish, thereby reducing the cell recovery rate. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate an improved explant method for UC-MSC isolation, which involves the use of a stainless steel mesh (Cellamigo(®); Tsubakimoto Chain Co.), to protect the tissue from floating after the minced fragments are aligned at regular intervals in culture dishes. The culture medium was refreshed every 3 days and the adherent cells and tissue fragments were harvested using trypsin. The number of UC-MSCs isolated from 1 g of UC using the explant method with Cellamigo was 2.9 ± 1.4 × 10(6)/g, which was significantly higher than that obtained without Cellamigo (0.66 ± 0.53 × 10(6)/g) (n = 6, p < 0.01) when cells reached 80-90% confluence. In addition, the processing and incubation time required to reach 80-90% confluence was reduced in the improved explant method compared with the conventional method. The UC-MSCs isolated using the improved method were positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, and HLA class I expression and negative for CD45 and HLA class II expression. The isolated UC-MSCs efficiently inhibited the responder T cells induced by allogeneic dendritic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Conclusively, we demonstrated that the use of Cellamigo improves the explant method for isolating UC-MSCs.

  17. Improved explant method to isolate umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their immunosuppressive properties.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yuka; Ohshimo, Jun; Shimazu, Takahisa; He, Haiping; Takahashi, Atsuko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Tsunoda, Hajime; Tojo, Arinobu; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord (UC) has become one of the major sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The common explant method of isolating UC-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) involves mincing the UCs into small fragments, which are then attached to a culture dish bottom from which the MSCs migrate. However, the fragments frequently float up from the bottom of the dish, thereby reducing the cell recovery rate. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate an improved explant method for UC-MSC isolation, which involves the use of a stainless steel mesh (Cellamigo(®); Tsubakimoto Chain Co.), to protect the tissue from floating after the minced fragments are aligned at regular intervals in culture dishes. The culture medium was refreshed every 3 days and the adherent cells and tissue fragments were harvested using trypsin. The number of UC-MSCs isolated from 1 g of UC using the explant method with Cellamigo was 2.9 ± 1.4 × 10(6)/g, which was significantly higher than that obtained without Cellamigo (0.66 ± 0.53 × 10(6)/g) (n = 6, p < 0.01) when cells reached 80-90% confluence. In addition, the processing and incubation time required to reach 80-90% confluence was reduced in the improved explant method compared with the conventional method. The UC-MSCs isolated using the improved method were positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, and HLA class I expression and negative for CD45 and HLA class II expression. The isolated UC-MSCs efficiently inhibited the responder T cells induced by allogeneic dendritic cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Conclusively, we demonstrated that the use of Cellamigo improves the explant method for isolating UC-MSCs. PMID:25220032

  18. A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Tran, Ivy; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have long been considered the criterion standard for stem cell sources in musculoskeletal tissue engineering. The true test of a stem cell source is a side-by-side comparison with BMSCs. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs), one such candidate with high potential, are a fetus-derived stem cell source collected from discarded tissue (Wharton's jelly) after birth. Compared with human BMSCs (hBMSCs), hUCMSCs have the advantages of abundant supply, painless collection, no donor site morbidity, and faster and longer self-renewal in vitro. In this 6-week study, a chondrogenic comparison was conducted of hBMSCs and hUCMSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for the first time. Cells were seeded on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds at 25 M cells/mL and then cultured in identical conditions. Cell proliferation, biosynthesis, and chondrogenic differentiation were assessed at weeks 0, 3, and 6 after seeding. At weeks 3 and 6, hUCMSCs produced more glycosaminoglycans than hBMSCs. At week 6, the hUCMSC group had three times as much collagen as the hBMSC group. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of collagen types I and II and aggrecan in both groups, but type II collagen staining was more intense for hBMSCs than hUCMSCs. At week 6, the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed less type I collagen messenger RNA (mRNA) with both cell types, and more type II collagen mRNA with hBMSCs, than at week 3. Therefore, it was concluded that hUCMSCs may be a desirable option for use as a mesenchymal cell source for fibrocartilage tissue engineering, based on abundant type I collagen and aggrecan production of hUCMSCs in a 3D matrix, although further investigation of signals that best promote type II collagen production of hUCMSCs is warranted for hyaline cartilage engineering.

  19. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Deqiang; Ouyang, Weixiang; Ren, Jinghua; Li, Huiyu; Hu, Jingqiong; Huang, Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). We found (1) MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2) MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3) real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4) furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy. PMID:24971310

  20. Role of Keratinocyte Growth Factor in the Differentiation of Sweat Gland-Like Cells From Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongan; Hong, Yucai; Xu, Mengyan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have higher proliferation potency and lower immune resistance than human bone marrow MSCs and can differentiate into various functional cells. Many regulatory factors, including keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), are involved in the development of skin and cutaneous appendages. Although KGF is important in wound healing, the role of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation remains unknown. In our previous work, we found the mixing medium (nine parts of basic sweat-gland [SG] medium plus one part of conditioned heat-shock SG medium) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation to sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). In this study, we further improved the inducing medium and determined the effects of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation. We found KGF expression in the SGCs and that recombinant human KGF could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into SGCs, suggesting KGF plays a pivotal role in promoting hUC-MSC differentiation to SGCs. Furthermore, the SGCs differentiated from hUC-MSCs were applied to severely burned skin of the paw of an in vivo severe combined immunodeficiency mouse burn model. Burned paws treated with SGCs could regenerate functional sparse SGs 21 days after treatment; the untreated control paws could not. Collectively, these results demonstrated that KGF is a critical growth factor for SGC differentiation from hUC-MSCs and the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs may have a potential therapeutic application for regeneration of destroyed SGs and injured skin. Significance There is growing evidence demonstrating a potential therapeutic application of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in injured skin. In the current study, conditioned media and chemically defined media with recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). Moreover, the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs could regenerate functional sparse sweat glands in a

  1. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit growth and promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying-Mei; Bao, Wei-Min; Yang, Jin-Hui; Ma, Lin-Kun; Yang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Li-Hong; Sha, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Hua-Mei; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide and remains difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the umbilical cord (UC‑MSCs) on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. UC‑MSCs were co‑cultured with HepG2 cells and biomarkers of UC‑MSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein expression of genes were determined by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Passage three and seven UC‑MSCs expressed CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105, whereas CD34 and CD45 were absent on these cells. Co‑culture with UC‑MSCs inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of HepG2 cells in a time‑dependent manner. The initial seeding density of UC‑MSCs also influenced the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells, with an increased number of UC‑MSCs causing enhanced proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis. Co‑culture with UC‑MSCs downregulated mRNA and protein expression of α‑fetoprotein (AFP), Bcl‑2 and Survivin in HepG2 cells. Thus, UC‑MSCs may inhibit growth and promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells through downregulation of AFP, Bcl‑2 and Survivin. US-MSCs may be used as a novel therapy for treating hepatocellular carcinoma in the future. PMID:27485485

  2. Inhibitor of p53-p21 pathway induces the differentiation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhong-Bao; Zhu, Li; Yin, Yi-Gang; Chen, Ge-Cai

    2016-08-01

    P53 is shown recently to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were isolated and purified from the umbilical cords of normal or cesarean term deliveries, after treatment with 20 μmol/L PFT-α for 24 h, hUCMSCs were continued to be cultured for 4 weeks, cardiac-specific protein expression of cTnI, Desmin and Nkx2.5 was determined using immunofluorescence assay and RT-PCR. The expression of p53 and p21 was detected by western blot. Results showed that no expression of cTnI, Desmin or Nkx2.5 was observed in the control and the PFT-α group at 1 week after induction. However, after 4 weeks, while control group still had little expression of cTnI, Desmin and Nkx2.5, the PFT-α group demonstrated strong expression of cTnI, Desmin and Nkx2.5 (P < 0.001). At 4 weeks after induction, differentiation rate of cardiomyogenic cells in the PFT-α group (36.98 %) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.41 %) (P < 0.01). Western blot analysis show that downregulation of p53 and p21 was seen in the PFT-α group at 4 weeks. The difference compared with the control group was statistically significant (P < 0.01). In conclusion, PFT-α can promote the differentiation of hUCMSCs into cardiomyogenic cells by modulating the p53-p21 pathway.

  3. Extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 phosphorylation is required for hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Limin; Sun, Zixuan; Li, Wei; Zhu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to restore liver function by differentiating into hepatocyte like cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have investigated the signals involved in the hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs). hUCMSCs were treated with mouse fetal liver-conditioned medium (FLCM) to induce hepatic differentiation. Flow cytometry, reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array were used to detect the expression of MSC- and hepotocyte-specific markers in FLCM-treated hUCMSCs. Urea production and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity were used as indicators to evaluate liver cell characteristics. Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was analyzed in hUCMSCs by Western blotting. Following FLCM treatment, expression of MSC-specific markers decreased, while hepatocyte-specific gene expression was increased. Urea production, albumin secretion, glycogen storage, and CYP3A4 activity were significantly enhanced in FLCM-treated cells. In addition, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in a time-dependent manner through Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, and phosphorylation was sustained at a high level during hepatic induction. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and pFLAG-CMV-ERK1(K71R) (negative mutant of ERK1) reversed the expression of liver-specific genes in hUCMSCs and affected hepatic function significantly. In summary, this work shows that ERK1/2 phosphorylation plays an important role in inducing hepatic differentiation of hUCMSCs in FLCM. PMID:25576343

  4. Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells possess better immunoregulatory properties compared to their cord-derived counterparts–a paired sample study

    PubMed Central

    Talwadekar, Manasi D.; Kale, Vaijayanti P.; Limaye, Lalita S.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show immunoregulatory properties. Here, we compared MSCs obtained from placenta (P-MSCs) and umbilical cord (C-MSCs) from the same donor, for their immunomodulatory efficacy. P-MSCs and C-MSCs showed similar morphology and phenotypic profile, but different clonogenic ability. Importantly, they showed a significant difference in their immunosuppressive properties as assessed in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). The P-MSCs affected the antigen presenting ability of mononuclear cells (MNCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) significantly as compared to C-MSCs resulting in a reduced T-cell proliferation. P-MSC conditioned medium (CM) showed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation as compared to C-MSC CM, thus suggesting that a cell to cell contact is not essential. We found increased levels of IL-10 and TGFβ1 and reduction in levels of IFNγ in P-MSC MLRs as compared to C-MSC MLRs. Furthermore, the CD3+ CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells were enriched in case of P-MSCs in both, MSC-MNC and MSC-DC co-cultures. This observation was further supported by increased mRNA expression of FoxP3 in P-MSCs. Presently, cord-derived MSCs are being employed in transplantation therapies parallel to the bone marrow-derived MSCs. Our findings suggest that P-MSCs can be a better alternative to C-MSCs, to provide aid in immunological ailments. PMID:26507009

  5. Monitoring the biology stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during long-term culture in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gecai; Yue, Aihuan; Ruan, Zhongbao; Yin, Yigang; Wang, Ruzhu; Ren, Yin; Zhu, Li

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that have an immunosuppressive effect. The biological stability of MSCs in serum-free medium during long-term culture in vitro has not been elucidated clearly. The morphology, immunophenotype and multi-lineage potential were analyzed at passages 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 (P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25, respectively). The cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and karyotype of human umbilical cord-derived (hUC)-MSCs were analyzed at P3, P5, P10, P15, P20, and P25. From P3 to P25, the three defining biological properties of hUC-MSCs [adherence to plastic, specific surface antigen expression, multipotent differentiation potential] met the standards proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy for definition of MSCs. The cell cycle distribution analysis at the P25 showed that the percentage of cells at G0/G1 was increased, compared with the cells at P3 (P < 0.05). Cells at P25 displayed an increase in the apoptosis rate (to 183 %), compared to those at P3 (P < 0.01). Within subculture generations 3-20 (P3-P20), the differences between the cell apoptotic rates were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). There were no detectable chromosome eliminations, displacements, or chromosomal imbalances, as assessed by the karyotyping guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN, 2009). Long-term culture affects the biological stability of MSCs in serum-free MesenCult-XF medium. MSCs can be expanded up to the 25th passage without chromosomal changes by G-band. The best biological activity period and stability appeared between the third to 20th generations.

  6. Characterization and in vitro differentiation potency of early-passage canine amnion- and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as related to gestational age.

    PubMed

    Filioli Uranio, Manuel; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Caira, Michele; Guaricci, Antonio Ciro; Ventura, Mario; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Valentini, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Fetal adnexa are a non-controversial source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have high plasticity, a high proliferation rate, and the ability to differentiate towards multiple lineages. MSC populations have been characterized for their stemness and differentiation capabilities; more recent work has focused on MSC selection and on establishing predictable elements to discriminate the cells with the most potential for regenerative medicine. In this study, we cytogenetically and molecularly characterized and followed the in vitro proliferation and differentiation potential of early-passage canine amniotic membrane MSCs (AM-MSCs) and umbilical cord matrix MSCs (UCM-MSCs) isolated from fetuses at early (35-40 days) and late (45-55 days) gestational ages. We found that cells from both fetal gestational ages showed similar features. In all examined cell lines, the morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like. Population doublings, passaged up to 10 times, increased significantly with passage number. In both cell types, cell viability and chromosomal number and structure were not affected by gestational age at early passages. Passage-3 AM- and UCM-MSCs from both gestational phases also expressed embryonic (POU5F1) and mesenchymal (CD29, CD44) stemness markers, whereas hematopoietic and histocompatibility markers were never found in any sample. Passage-3 cell populations of each cell type were also multipotential as they could differentiate into neurocytes and osteocytes, based on cell morphology, specific stains, and molecular analysis. These results indicated that MSCs retrieved from the UCM and AM in the early and late fetal phases of gestation could be used for canine regenerative medicine.

  7. Stirred tank bioreactor culture combined with serum-/xenogeneic-free culture medium enables an efficient expansion of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Amanda; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Carmelo, Joana G; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Cabral, Joaquim M S; da Silva, Cláudia L

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are being widely explored as promising candidates for cell-based therapies. Among the different human MSC origins exploited, umbilical cord represents an attractive and readily available source of MSC that involves a non-invasive collection procedure. In order to achieve relevant cell numbers of human MSC for clinical applications, it is crucial to develop scalable culture systems that allow bioprocess control and monitoring, combined with the use of serum/xenogeneic (xeno)-free culture media. In the present study, we firstly established a spinner flask culture system combining gelatin-based Cultispher(®) S microcarriers and xeno-free culture medium for the expansion of umbilical cord matrix (UCM)-derived MSC. This system enabled the production of 2.4 (±1.1) x10(5) cells/mL (n = 4) after 5 days of culture, corresponding to a 5.3 (±1.6)-fold increase in cell number. The established protocol was then implemented in a stirred-tank bioreactor (800 mL working volume) (n = 3) yielding 115 million cells after 4 days. Upon expansion under stirred conditions, cells retained their differentiation ability and immunomodulatory potential. The development of a scalable microcarrier-based stirred culture system, using xeno-free culture medium that suits the intrinsic features of UCM-derived MSC represents an important step towards a GMP compliant large-scale production platform for these promising cell therapy candidates. PMID:27168373

  8. Nicotinamide Promotes Adipogenesis in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Is Associated with Neonatal Adiposity: The Healthy Start BabyBUMP Project

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Allison L. B.; Boyle, Kristen E.; Dabelea, Dana; Patinkin, Zachary W.; De la Houssaye, Becky; Ringham, Brandy M.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Barbour, Linda A.; Norris, Jill M.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms whereby excess maternal nutrition during pregnancy increases adiposity of the offspring are not well understood. However, nicotinamide (NAM), a fundamental micronutrient that is important in energy metabolism, has been shown to regulate adipogenesis through inhibition of SIRT1. Here we tested three novel hypotheses: 1) NAM increases the adipogenic response of human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through a SIRT1 and PPARγ pathway; 2) lipid potentiates the NAM-enhanced adipogenic response; and 3) the adipogenic response to NAM is associated with increased percent fat mass (%FM) among neonates. MSCs were derived from the umbilical cord of 46 neonates born to non-obese mothers enrolled in the Healthy Start study. Neonatal %FM was measured using air displacement plethysmography (Pea Pod) shortly after birth. Adipogenic differentiation was induced for 21 days in the 46 MSC sets under four conditions, +NAM (3mM)/–lipid (200 μM oleate/palmitate mix), +NAM/+lipid, –NAM/+lipid, and vehicle-control (–NAM/–lipid). Cells incubated in the presence of NAM had significantly higher PPARγ protein (+24%, p <0.01), FABP4 protein (+57%, p <0.01), and intracellular lipid content (+51%, p <0.01). Lipid did not significantly increase either PPARγ protein (p = 0.98) or FABP4 protein content (p = 0.82). There was no evidence of an interaction between NAM and lipid on adipogenic response of PPARγ or FABP4 protein (p = 0.99 and p = 0.09). In a subset of 9 MSC, SIRT1 activity was measured in the +NAM/-lipid and vehicle control conditions. SIRT1 enzymatic activity was significantly lower (-70%, p <0.05) in the +NAM/-lipid condition than in vehicle-control. In a linear model with neonatal %FM as the outcome, the percent increase in PPARγ protein in the +NAM/-lipid condition compared to vehicle-control was a significant predictor (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.01–0.06, p <0.001). These are the first data to support that chronic NAM

  9. Promoting the Recovery of Injured Liver with Poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyvalerate-Co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) Scaffolds Loaded with Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengshan; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Jing; Ma, Huan; Liu, Jie; Lie, Puchang; Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu; Zeng, Huilan; Li, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies are major focus of current research for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Results confirmed that WJ-MSCs isolated in this study could express the typical MSC-specific markers and be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. They could also be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBVHHx) is a new member of polyhydroxyalkanoate family and biodegradable polyester produced by bacteria. PHBVHHx scaffolds showed much higher cell attachment and viability than the other polymers tested. PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs were transplanted into liver-injured mice. Liver morphology improved after 30 days of transplantation and looked similar to normal liver. Concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly lower, and albumin was significantly higher on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that liver had similar structure of normal liver lobules and similar size and shape of normal hepatic cells, and Masson staining demonstrated that liver had less blue staining for collagen after 30 days of transplantation. Real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of the bile duct epithelial cell gene CK-19 in mouse liver is significantly lower on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the CCl4 group. Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and periodic acid–Schiff staining showed that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds expressed endothelial cell genes Flk-1, vWF, and VE-cadherin on days 14 and 30 in the WJ

  10. Nicotinamide Promotes Adipogenesis in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Is Associated with Neonatal Adiposity: The Healthy Start BabyBUMP Project.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Allison L B; Boyle, Kristen E; Dabelea, Dana; Patinkin, Zachary W; De la Houssaye, Becky; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Barbour, Linda A; Norris, Jill M; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms whereby excess maternal nutrition during pregnancy increases adiposity of the offspring are not well understood. However, nicotinamide (NAM), a fundamental micronutrient that is important in energy metabolism, has been shown to regulate adipogenesis through inhibition of SIRT1. Here we tested three novel hypotheses: 1) NAM increases the adipogenic response of human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through a SIRT1 and PPARγ pathway; 2) lipid potentiates the NAM-enhanced adipogenic response; and 3) the adipogenic response to NAM is associated with increased percent fat mass (%FM) among neonates. MSCs were derived from the umbilical cord of 46 neonates born to non-obese mothers enrolled in the Healthy Start study. Neonatal %FM was measured using air displacement plethysmography (Pea Pod) shortly after birth. Adipogenic differentiation was induced for 21 days in the 46 MSC sets under four conditions, +NAM (3mM)/-lipid (200 μM oleate/palmitate mix), +NAM/+lipid, -NAM/+lipid, and vehicle-control (-NAM/-lipid). Cells incubated in the presence of NAM had significantly higher PPARγ protein (+24%, p <0.01), FABP4 protein (+57%, p <0.01), and intracellular lipid content (+51%, p <0.01). Lipid did not significantly increase either PPARγ protein (p = 0.98) or FABP4 protein content (p = 0.82). There was no evidence of an interaction between NAM and lipid on adipogenic response of PPARγ or FABP4 protein (p = 0.99 and p = 0.09). In a subset of 9 MSC, SIRT1 activity was measured in the +NAM/-lipid and vehicle control conditions. SIRT1 enzymatic activity was significantly lower (-70%, p <0.05) in the +NAM/-lipid condition than in vehicle-control. In a linear model with neonatal %FM as the outcome, the percent increase in PPARγ protein in the +NAM/-lipid condition compared to vehicle-control was a significant predictor (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.06, p <0.001). These are the first data to support that chronic NAM exposure

  11. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress proliferation of PHA-activated lymphocytes in vitro by inducing CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) regulatory T cell production and modulating cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongna; Sun, Jinhua; Li, Yan; Duan, Wei-Ming; Bi, Jianzhong; Qu, Tingyu

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidate cells for therapeutic application in autoimmune diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. Unused human umbilical cords (UC) offer an abundant and noninvasive source of MSCs without ethical issues and are emerging as a valuable alternative to bone marrow tissue for producing MSCs. We thus investigated the immunomodulation effect of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), T cells in particular, in a co-culture system. We found that UC-MSCs efficiently suppressed the proliferation of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMCs (p<0.01). Kinetic analysis revealed that UC-MSCs primarily inhibited the division of generation 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) of PBMCs. In addition, UC-MSCs augmented the expression of CD127(+) and CD45RA(+) but reduced the expression of CD25(+) in PBMCs stimulated by PHA (p<0.05). Furthermore, UC-MSCs inhibited PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) Tregs significantly (p<0.01) but augmented PHA-resulted increase in the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs to about three times in PBMCs. The levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, PEG2, TGF-β, and IL-10 were greatly up-regulated, accompanied by a significant down-regulation of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ in the co-culture (p<0.01). Our results showed that UC-MSCs are able to suppress mitogen-induced PBMC activation and proliferation in vitro by altering T lymphocyte phenotypes, increasing the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD45RA(+) Tregs, and modulating the associated cytokine production. Further studies are warranted to investigate the therapeutic potential of UC-MSCs in immunologically-diseased conditions.

  12. Systemic transplantation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells-educated T regulatory cells improved the impaired cognition in AβPPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongna; Yang, Hui; Xie, Zhaohong; Wei, Lifei; Bi, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of most prevalent dementias, which is characterized by the deposition of extracellular amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles within neurons. Although stereotaxic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the hippocampus of AD animal model as immunomodulatory cells has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to prevent the progress of AD, it is invasive and difficult for clinical perform. Systemic and central nervous system inflammation play an important role in pathogenesis of AD. T regulatory cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in maintaining systemic immune homeostasis, indicating that transplantation of Tregs could prevent the progress of the inflammation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether systemic transplantation of purified autologous Tregs from spleens of AβPPswe/PS1dE9 double-transgenic mice after MSCs from human umbilical cords (UC-MSCs) education in vitro for 3 days could improve the neuropathology and cognition deficits in AβPPswe/PS1dE9 double-transgenic mice. We observed that systemic transplantation of autologous Tregs significantly ameliorate the impaired cognition and reduced the Aβ plaque deposition and the levels of soluble Aβ, accompanied with significantly decreased levels of activated microglia and systemic inflammatory factors. In conclusion, systemic transplantation of autologous Tregs may be an effective and safe intervention to prevent the progress of AD.

  13. Low levels of TGF-β1 enhance human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell fibronectin production and extend survival time in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Qingshen; Qi, Lei; Dai, Xiaoyu; Liu, Huan; Wang, Yunshan

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cellular source for cell‑based therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the use of MSCs is limited by their low incorporation rate in the graft environment. The majority of cells are lost from the graft within 1 month, due to reduced microenvironment or local inflammation at the graft site. The extracellular matrix (ECM) may assist the survival and expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to identify an effective approach to increase ECM expression levels by MSCs in order to enhance the therapeutic effect and survival rate of MSCs at the injury site. The concentration‑dependent effect of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 on human umbilical cord (hUC)‑MSC proliferation and expression of ECM genes was investigated. MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and expanded from hUC. A low concentration of TGF‑β1 (0.1 ng/ml) exhibited the optimal effect on hUC‑MSC proliferation and markedly stimulated the expression of ECM genes, particularly fibronectin (FN). Furthermore, treatment with TGF‑β1 caused no alteration in the immunophenotype and differentiation capacity of MSCs. In vivo experiments in rats demonstrated that intravenous injection of control UC-MSCs or TGF-β1-pre-treated UC-MSCs reduced the severity of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury, assessed using histology, measurements of the wet‑dry lung weight ratio, and neutrophil count and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. However, the short‑term (48 h) therapeutic effects of untreated and TGF‑β1‑pre‑treated UC‑MSCs were similar. The survival of MSCs in damaged lungs, determined by Sry gene expression levels, were significantly increased in MSCs pre‑treated with TGF‑β1. In conclusion, pre‑treatment of MSCs with a low concentration of TGF‑β1 enhanced the expression of ECM components, particularly FN, thus, improving the survival and potential therapeutic benefits of MSCs

  14. Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy.

    PubMed

    Arutyunyan, Irina; Elchaninov, Andrey; Makarov, Andrey; Fatkhudinov, Timur

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents current evidence on the properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, including origin, proliferative potential, plasticity, stability of karyotype and phenotype, transcriptome, secretome, and immunomodulatory activity. A review of preclinical studies and clinical trials using this cell type is performed. Prospects for the use of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the umbilical cord, in cell transplantation are associated with the need for specialized biobanking and transplant standardization criteria. PMID:27651799

  15. Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents current evidence on the properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, including origin, proliferative potential, plasticity, stability of karyotype and phenotype, transcriptome, secretome, and immunomodulatory activity. A review of preclinical studies and clinical trials using this cell type is performed. Prospects for the use of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the umbilical cord, in cell transplantation are associated with the need for specialized biobanking and transplant standardization criteria.

  16. Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents current evidence on the properties of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, including origin, proliferative potential, plasticity, stability of karyotype and phenotype, transcriptome, secretome, and immunomodulatory activity. A review of preclinical studies and clinical trials using this cell type is performed. Prospects for the use of mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the umbilical cord, in cell transplantation are associated with the need for specialized biobanking and transplant standardization criteria. PMID:27651799

  17. In vitro cardiomyogenic potential of human umbilical vein-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Khatami, Shohreh . E-mail: khatamibiochem@yahoo.com; Mortazavi, Yousef; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2006-02-10

    Cardiomyocyte loss in the ischemically injured human heart often leads to irreversible defects in cardiac function. Recently, cellular cardiomyoplasty with mesenchymal stem cells, which are multipotent cells with the ability to differentiate into specialized cells under appropriate stimuli, has emerged as a new approach for repairing damaged myocardium. In the present study, the potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into cells with characteristics of cardiomyocyte was investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from endothelial/subendothelial layers of the human umbilical cords using a method similar to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cell isolation. Isolated cells were characterized by transdifferentiation ability to adipocytes and osteoblasts, and also with flow cytometry analysis. After treatment with 5-azacytidine, the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were morphologically transformed into cardiomyocyte-like cells and expressed cardiac differentiation markers. During the differentiation, cells were monitored by a phase contrast microscope and their morphological changes were demonstrated. Immunostaining of the differentiated cells for sarcomeric myosin (MF20), desmin, cardiac troponin I, and sarcomeric {alpha}-actinin was positive. RT-PCR analysis showed that these differentiated cells express cardiac-specific genes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a cardiomyocyte-like ultrastructure and typical sarcomers. These observations confirm that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be chemically transformed into cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a source of cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty.

  18. Neural Growth Factor Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Derived-Neural Precursor/Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neural growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of SC-NPSCs. Methods NPSCs (2×104) were suspended in 100 µL of neurobasal medium containing NGF-7S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cultured in a 96-well plate for 12 days. NPSC proliferation was analyzed five times for either concentration of NGF (0.02 and 2 ng/mL). Sixteen rats after SCI were randomly allocated into two groups. In group 1 (SCI-vehicle group, n=8), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. In group 2 (SCI-NGF group, n=8), the animals received single doses of NGF (Sigma-Aldrich). A dose of 0.02 ng/mL of NGF or normal saline as a vehicle control was intra-thecally injected daily at 24 hour intervals for 7 days. For Immunohistochemistry analysis, rats were sacrificed after one week and the spinal cords were obtained. Results The elevation of cell proliferation with 0.02 ng/mL NGF was significant (p<0.05) but was not significant for 2 ng/mL NGF. The optical density was increased in the NGF 0.02 ng/mL group compared to the control group and NGF 2 ng/mL groups. The density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group (p<0.05). High power microscopy revealed that the density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group. Conclusion SC-NPSC proliferation is an important pathway in the functional recovery of SCI. NGF enhances SC-NPSC proliferation in vitro and in

  19. Neural Growth Factor Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Derived-Neural Precursor/Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, regenerative therapies have been used in clinical trials (heart, cartilage, skeletal). We don't make use of these treatments to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients yet, but regenerative therapies are rising interest in recent study about SCI. Neural precursor/stem cell (NPSC) proliferation is a significant event in functional recovery of the central nervous system (CNS). However, brain NPSCs and spinal cord NPSCs (SC-NPSCs) have many differences including gene expression and proliferation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neural growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of SC-NPSCs. Methods NPSCs (2×104) were suspended in 100 µL of neurobasal medium containing NGF-7S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cultured in a 96-well plate for 12 days. NPSC proliferation was analyzed five times for either concentration of NGF (0.02 and 2 ng/mL). Sixteen rats after SCI were randomly allocated into two groups. In group 1 (SCI-vehicle group, n=8), animals received 1.0 mL of the saline vehicle solution. In group 2 (SCI-NGF group, n=8), the animals received single doses of NGF (Sigma-Aldrich). A dose of 0.02 ng/mL of NGF or normal saline as a vehicle control was intra-thecally injected daily at 24 hour intervals for 7 days. For Immunohistochemistry analysis, rats were sacrificed after one week and the spinal cords were obtained. Results The elevation of cell proliferation with 0.02 ng/mL NGF was significant (p<0.05) but was not significant for 2 ng/mL NGF. The optical density was increased in the NGF 0.02 ng/mL group compared to the control group and NGF 2 ng/mL groups. The density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group (p<0.05). High power microscopy revealed that the density of nestin in the SCI-NGF group was significantly increased over the SCI-vehicle group. Conclusion SC-NPSC proliferation is an important pathway in the functional recovery of SCI. NGF enhances SC-NPSC proliferation in vitro and in

  20. Dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Paul T

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian teeth harbour mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which contribute to tooth growth and repair. These dental MSCs possess many in vitro features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, including clonogenicity, expression of certain markers, and following stimulation, differentiation into cells that have the characteristics of osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Teeth and their support tissues provide not only an easily accessible source of MSCs but also a tractable model system to study their function and properties in vivo In addition, the accessibility of teeth together with their clinical relevance provides a valuable opportunity to test stem cell-based treatments for dental disorders. This Review outlines some recent discoveries in dental MSC function and behaviour and discusses how these and other advances are paving the way for the development of new biologically based dental therapies. PMID:27381225

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for refractory scleroderma: a report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Abi Saab, Majid; Abi Chahine, Nassim; Margossian, Talar

    2016-01-01

    We treated 2 patients with progressive, refractory scleroderma with a combined immunotherapy approach using plasmapheresis followed by rituximab and then intravenous umbilical-cord-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Both patients improved subjectively and objectively for over a year. Upon recurrence of their symptoms, the patients were treated again with allogeneic MSCs alone with a very good response. The combination was well tolerated and effective suggesting a large scale study may be warranted in progressive, refractory Scleroderma. PMID:27777937

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells, autoimmunity and rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El-Jawhari, J.J.; El-Sherbiny, Y.M.; Jones, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of literature pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) immunomodulation has focussed on bone marrow-derived MSC that are systemically infused to alleviate inflammatory conditions. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the commonest autoimmune joint disease that has witnessed significant therapeutic advances in the past decade, but remains stubbornly difficult to treat in a subset of cases. Pre-clinical research has demonstrated that bone marrow, adipose, synovial and umbilical cord-derived MSC all suppress the functions of different immune cells thus raising the possibility of new therapies for autoimmune diseases including RA. Indeed, preliminary evidence for MSC efficacy has been reported in some cases of RA and systemic lupus erythromatosis. The potential use of bone marrow-MSC (BM-MSC) for RA therapy is emerging but the use of synovial MSC (S-MSC) to suppress the exaggerated immune response within the inflamed joints remains rudimentary. Synovial fibroblasts that are likely derived from S-MSCs, also give rise to a cell-cultured progeny termed fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which are key players in the perpetuation of joint inflammation and destruction. A better understanding of the link between these cells and their biology could be a key to developing novel MSC-based strategies for therapy. The review briefly focuses on BM-MSC and gives particular attention to joint niche synovial MSC and FLS with respect to immunoregulatory potential therapy roles. PMID:24518000

  3. Establishment of a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Bank

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Khushnuma; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells have generated great amount of interest amongst the scientific community for their potential therapeutic applications for unmet medical needs. We have demonstrated the plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the umbilical cord matrix. Their immunological profile makes it even more interesting. We have demonstrated that the umbilical cord is an inexhaustible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Being a very rich source, instead of discarding this tissue, we worked on banking these cells for regenerative medicine application for future use. The present paper gives a detailed account of our experience in the establishment of a mesenchymal stem cell bank at our facility. PMID:21826152

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cardiology.

    PubMed

    White, Ian A; Sanina, Cristina; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for more deaths globally than any other single disease. There are on average 1.5 million episodes of myocardial infarction (heart attack) each year in the United States alone with roughly one-third resulting in death. There is therefore a major need for developing new and effective strategies to promote cardiac repair. Intramyocardial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as a leading contender in the pursuit of clinical intervention and therapy. MSCs are potent mediators of cardiac repair and are therefore an attractive tool in the development of preclinical and clinical trials. MSCs are capable of secreting a large array of soluble factors, which have had demonstrated effects on pathogenic cardiac remolding, fibrosis, immune activation, and cardiac stem cell proliferation within the damaged heart. MSCs are also capable of differentiation into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, although the relative contribution of trilineage differentiation and paracrine effectors on cardiac repair remains the subject of active investigation. PMID:27236666

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Nurkovic, Jasmin; Dolicanin, Zana; Mustafic, Fahrudin; Mujanovic, Rifat; Memic, Mensur; Grbovic, Vesna; Skevin, Aleksandra Jurisic; Nurkovic, Selmina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Regenerative medicine and rehabilitation contribute in many ways to a specific plan of care based on a patient’s medical status. The intrinsic self-renewing, multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells offer great promise in the treatment of numerous autoimmune, degenerative, and graft-versus-host diseases, as well as tissue injuries. As such, mesenchymal stem cells represent a therapeutic fortune in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to discuss possibilities, limitations, and future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells. [Subjects and Methods] The authors have identified and discussed clinically and scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that have met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Direct treatment of muscle injuries, stroke, damaged peripheral nerves, and cartilage with mesenchymal stem cells has been demonstrated to be effective, with synergies seen between cellular and physical therapies. Over the past few years, several researchers, including us, have shown that there are certain limitations in the use of mesenchymal stem cells. Aging and spontaneous malignant transformation of mesenchymal stem cells significantly affect the functionality of these cells. [Conclusion] Definitive conclusions cannot be made by these studies because limited numbers of patients were included. Studies clarifying these results are expected in the near future. PMID:27390452

  6. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Cíntia de Vasconcellos; Telles, Paloma Dias da Silva; Nascimento, Ivana Lucia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and dental pulp. These plastic adherent cells are morphologically similar to fibroblasts and have a high proliferative potential. This special group of cells possesses two essential characteristics: self-renewal and differentiation, with appropriate stimuli, into various cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered immunologically privileged, since they do not express costimulatory molecules, required for complete T cell activation, on their surface. Several studies have shown that these cells exert an immunosuppressive effect on cells from both innate and acquired immunity systems. Mesenchymal stem cells can regulate the immune response in vitro by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells, as well as by suppressing the proliferation and function of T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. These special properties of mesenchymal stem cells make them a promising strategy in the treatment of immune mediated disorders, such as graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells, and also those involved in the differentiation of these cells in various lineages is primordial for their successful and safe application in different areas of medicine. PMID:23580887

  7. Osteogenic potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells cultured with umbilical cord blood-derived fibrin: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Baba, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yasuharu; Ishiguro, Masashi; Kumazawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Kazuya; Ikemoto, Shigehiro; Takeda, Akira; Uchinuma, Eiju

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the potential for osteogenesis via regenerative medicine using autologous tissues (umbilical cord (UC) and umbilical cord blood (UCB)) in nude mice. The study was designed to provide the three elements required for regenerative medicine (cell, scaffold, and growth factor) and autoserum for culture by means of autologous tissues. Mesenchymal stromal cells were obtained from UC (UC-MSCs). Fibrin, platelet-rich-plasma, and autoserum were obtained from UCB as scaffold, growth factor and serum for culture respectively. UC-MSCs were obtained from Wharton jelly and cultured with UCB-derived fibrin (UCB-fibrin) for 3-4 weeks to induce their differentiation into osteoblasts. They were implanted subcutaneously into the dorsum of male nude mice for 6 weeks prior to undergoing assessment. The assessments performed were haematoxylin and eosin, and alizarin red staining, immunohistochemical staining of human mitochondria, scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess the expressions of osteoblast markers. Consequently, the differentiation of UC-MSCs into osteoblasts and the production of hydroxyapatite were verified. This study suggested the possible formation of bone tissue using biomedical materials obtained from UC and UCB.

  8. Monolayered mesenchymal stem cells repair scarred myocardium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Yanagawa, Bobby; Tanaka, Koichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Ishino, Kozo; Ishida, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Kangawa, Kenji; Sano, Shunji; Okano, Teruo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Mori, Hidezo

    2006-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells that can differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we show, using cell sheet technology, that monolayered mesenchymal stem cells have multipotent and self-propagating properties after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts. We cultured adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells characterized by flow cytometry using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Four weeks after coronary ligation, we transplanted the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells onto the scarred myocardium. After transplantation, the engrafted sheet gradually grew to form a thick stratum that included newly formed vessels, undifferentiated cells and few cardiomyocytes. The mesenchymal stem cell sheet also acted through paracrine pathways to trigger angiogenesis. Unlike a fibroblast cell sheet, the monolayered mesenchymal stem cells reversed wall thinning in the scar area and improved cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction. Thus, transplantation of monolayered mesenchymal stem cells may be a new therapeutic strategy for cardiac tissue regeneration. PMID:16582917

  9. Ephrin-B3 decreases the survival of adult rat spinal cord-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro and after transplantation into the injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin Yan Susan; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2013-02-01

    Although transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPC) encourages regeneration and repair after spinal cord injury (SCI), the survival of transplanted NSPC is limited. Ephrin-B3 has been shown to reduce the death of endogenous NSPC in the subventricular zone of the mouse brain without inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Due to similarities in the environment of the brain and spinal cord, we hypothesized that ephrin-B3 might reduce the death of both transplanted and endogenous spinal cord-derived NSPC. Both normal and injured (26 g clip compression) spinal cords were examined. Ephrin-B3-Fc was tested, and Fc fragments and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as controls. We found that EphA4 receptors were expressed by spinal cord-derived NSPC and expressed in the normal and injured rat spinal cord (higher expression in the latter). In vitro, ephrin-B3-Fc did not significantly reduce the survival of NSPC except at 1 μg/mL (P<0.05), but Fc fragments alone reduced NSPC survival at all doses in a dose-dependent fashion. In vivo, intrathecal infusion of ephrin-B3-Fc increased the proliferation of endogenous ependymal cells and the proportion of proliferating cells that expressed the glial fibrillary acidic protein astrocytic marker in the injured spinal cord compared with the infusion of PBS (P<0.05). However, in the injured spinal cord, the infusion of either ephrin-B3-Fc or Fc fragments alone caused a 20-fold reduction in the survival of transplanted NSPC (P<0.001). Thus, after SCI, ephrin-B3-Fc and Fc fragments are toxic to transplanted NSPC.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andria N; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T; Muffley, Lara A; Isik, F Frank; Gibran, Nicole S; Hocking, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  12. Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goepfert, C.; Slobodianski, A.; Schilling, A. F.; Adamietz, P.; Pörtner, R.

    Mesenchymal progenitor cells known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from various tissues. Since they are able to differentiate along the mesenchymal lineages of cartilage and bone, they are regarded as promising sources for the treatment of skeletal defects. Tissue regeneration in the adult organism and in vitro engineering of tissues is hypothesized to follow the principles of embryogenesis. The embryonic development of the skeleton has been studied extensively with respect to the regulatory mechanisms governing morphogenesis, differentiation, and tissue formation. Various concepts have been designed for engineering tissues in vitro based on these developmental principles, most of them involving regulatory molecules such as growth factors or cytokines known to be the key regulators in developmental processes. Growth factors most commonly used for in vitro cultivation of cartilage tissue belong to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family. In this chapter, in vivo actions of members of these growth factors described in the literature are compared with in vitro concepts of cartilage engineering making use of these growth factors.

  13. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cesarz, Zoe; Tamama, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown. PMID:26649054

  14. Immune Modulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bifari, Francesco; Lisi, Veronica; Mimiola, Elda; Pasini, Annalisa; Krampera, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their stromal progeny may be considered powerful regulatory cells, a sort of dendritic cell counterpart, which influence all the main immune effectors and functional roles in vivo, as well as potential applications in the treatment of a number of human immunological diseases. By choosing MSC tissue origin, cell dose, administration route, and treatment schedule, all the potential side effects related to MSC use, including tumor growth enhancement, have to be well considered to maximize the benefits of MSC-depen-dent immune regulation without significant risks for the patients. PMID:21547117

  15. The secretome of mesenchymal stem cells: potential implications for neuroregeneration.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Anisimov, Sergey V

    2013-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have shown regenerative properties in many tissues. This feature had originally been ascribed to their multipotency and thus their ability to differentiate into tissue-specific cells. However, many researchers consider the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells the most important player in the observed reparative effects of these cells. In this review, we specifically focus on the potential neuroregenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells, summarize several possible mechanisms of neuroregeneration and list key factors mediating this effect. We illustrate examples of mesenchymal stem cell treatment in central nervous system disorders including stroke, neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple system atrophy and cerebellar ataxia) and inflammatory disease (such as multiple sclerosis). We specifically highlight studies where mesenchymal stem cells have entered clinical trials.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe

    2009-05-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells harboring a wide range of differentiations and non-human leukocyte antigen-restricted immunosuppressive properties that lead to an increasing use of MSC in immunomodulation and in regenerative medicine. To produce MSC, definitive standards are still lacking. Whatever the starting material used (e.g., bone marrow, adipose tissue, or cord blood), numerous parameters including cell plating density, number of passages, and culture medium, play a major role in the culture process and have to be determined. To date, the different production processes have been effective, and based on phenotypic analysis and differentiation potential, a first set of simple controls have been defined. However, controls of the final product should provide precise data on efficacy and safety. The next challenge will be to develop production processes that reach good manufacturing practices goals and to define more accurate control methods of cultivated MSC.

  17. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  18. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Steffens, D; Braghirolli, D I; Fernandes, R A; Netto, C A; Pranke, P

    2012-02-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for nonmusculoskeletal diseases: emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tom K; Ho, Jennifer H; Lee, Oscar K

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are stem/progenitor cells originated from the mesoderm and can different into multiple cell types of the musculoskeletal system. The vast differentiation potential and the relative ease for culture expansion have established mesenchymal stem cells as the building blocks in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications for a variety of musculoskeletal diseases, including repair of fractures and bone defects, cartilage regeneration, treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and correction of genetic diseases such as osteogenesis imperfect. However, research in the past decade has revealed differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells beyond lineages of the mesoderm, suggesting broader applications than originally perceived. In this article, we review the recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell research with respect to their emerging properties and applications in nonmusculoskeletal diseases. PMID:19523328

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells in multiple sclerosis - translation to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dulamea, A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterized by an aberrant activation of the immune system and combining demyelination with neurodegeneration. Studies on experimental models of multiple sclerosis revealed immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells therapy in multiple sclerosis patients showed tolerability, safety on short term, some immunomodulatory properties reducing the Th1 proinflammatory response and the inflammatory MRI parameters. The author reviews the data about experimental studies and clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms Regulating Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Campo, Flor M.; Riancho, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) have emerged in the last few years as one of the most promising therapeutic cell sources and, in particular, as an important tool for regenerative medicine of skeletal tissues. Although they present a more restricted potency than Embryonic Stem (ES) cells, the use of hMCS in regenerative medicine avoids many of the drawbacks characteristic of ES cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. The challenge in using these cells lies into developing precise protocols for directing cellular differentiation to generate a specific cell lineage. In order to achieve this goal, it is of the upmost importance to be able to control de process of fate decision and lineage commitment. This process requires the coordinate regulation of different molecular layers at transcriptional, posttranscriptional and translational levels. At the transcriptional level, switching on and off different sets of genes is achieved not only through transcriptional regulators, but also through their interplay with epigenetic modifiers. It is now well known that epigenetic changes take place in an orderly way through development and are critical in the determination of lineage-specific differentiation. More importantly, alteration of these epigenetic changes would, in many cases, lead to disease generation and even tumour formation. Therefore, it is crucial to elucidate how epigenetic factors, through their interplay with transcriptional regulators, control lineage commitment in hMSCs. PMID:27019612

  2. Concise review: mesenchymal stem cells for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Inverardi, Luca; Ricordi, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have already made their mark in the young field of regenerative medicine. Easily derived from many adult tissues, their therapeutic worth has already been validated for a number of conditions. Unlike embryonic stem cells, neither their procurement nor their use is deemed controversial. Here we review the potential use of MSCs for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus, a devastating chronic disease in which the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (the β-cells) are the target of an autoimmune process. It has been hypothesized that stem cell-derived β-cells may be used to replenish the islet mass in diabetic patients, making islet transplantation (a form of cell therapy that has already proven effective at clinically restoring normoglycemia) available to millions of prospective patients. Here we review the most current advances in the design and application of protocols for the differentiation of transplantable β-cells, with a special emphasis in analyzing MSC potency according to their tissue of origin. Although no single method appears to be ripe enough for clinical trials yet, recent progress in reprogramming (a biotechnological breakthrough that relativizes the thus far insurmountable barriers between embryonal germ layers) bodes well for the rise of MSCs as a potential weapon of choice to develop personalized therapies for type 1 diabetes. PMID:23197641

  3. Polarized Macrophages Have Distinct Roles in the Differentiation and Migration of Embryonic Spinal-cord-derived Neural Stem Cells After Grafting to Injured Sites of Spinal Cord.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Jingjing; Bian, Ganlan; Liu, Ling; Xue, Qian; Liu, Fangfang; Yu, Caiyong; Zhang, Haifeng; Song, Bing; Chung, Sookja K; Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently provokes serious detrimental outcomes because neuronal regeneration is limited in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the creation of a permissive environment for transplantation therapy with neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) is a promising strategy to replace lost neuronal cells, promote repair, and stimulate functional plasticity after SCI. Macrophages are important SCI-associated inflammatory cells and a major source of secreted factors that modify the lesion milieu. Here, we used conditional medium (CM) from bone marrow-derived M1 or M2 polarized macrophages to culture murine NS/PCs. The NS/PCs showed enhanced astrocytic versus neuronal/oligodendrocytic differentiation in the presence of M1- versus M2-CM. Similarly, cotransplantation of NS/PCs with M1 and M2 macrophages into intact or injured murine spinal cord increased the number of engrafted NS/PC-derived astrocytes and neurons/oligodendrocytes, respectively. Furthermore, when cotransplantated with M2 macrophages, the NS/PC-derived neurons integrated into the local circuitry and enhanced locomotor recovery following SCI. Interesting, engrafted M1 macrophages promoted long-distance rostral migration of NS/PC-derived cells in a chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4)-dependent manner, while engrafted M2 macrophages resulted in limited cell migration of NS/PC-derived cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that the cotransplantation of NS/PCs together with polarized macrophages could constitute a promising therapeutic approach for SCI repair.

  4. Clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoun

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent progenitor cells with multilineage potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin, such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. In addition, MSCs can migrate to sites of inflammation and exert potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects through interactions between lymphocytes associated with both the innate and adaptive immune system. Along with these unique therapeutic properties, their ease of accessibility and expansion suggest that use of MSCs may be a useful therapeutic approach for various disorders. In the clinical setting, MSCs are being explored in trials of various conditions, including orthopedic injuries, graft versus host disease following bone marrow transplantation, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and liver diseases. Furthermore, genetic modification of MSCs to overexpress antitumor genes has provided prospects for clinical use as anticancer therapy. Here, we highlight the currently reported uses of MSCs in clinical trials and discuss their efficacy as well as their limitations. PMID:23864795

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Battiwalla, Minoo; Hematti, Peiman

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) of bone marrow (BM) origin not only provide the supportive microenvironmental niche for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) but are also capable of differentiating into various cell types of mesenchymal origin, such as bone, fat, and cartilage. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that MSCs have low inherent immunogenicity, modulate/suppress immunological responses through interactions with immune cells, and home to damaged tissues to participate in regeneration processes through their diverse biological properties. MSCs derived from BM are being evaluated for a wide range of clinical applications including disorders as diverse as myocardial infarction or newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus type-1. However, their use in HSC transplantation, either for enhancement of hematopoietic engraftment or for treatment/prevention of graft versus host disease, is far ahead of other indications. Ease of isolation and ex vivo expansion of MSCs, combined with their intriguing immunomodulatory properties, and their impressive record of safety in a wide variety of clinical trials make these cells promising candidates for further investigation. PMID:19728189

  6. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI.

  7. Labeling and Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Quantum Dots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, adipose and muscle cells. Adult derived MSCs are being actively investigated because of their potential to be utilized for therapeutic cell-based transplantation. Methods...

  8. [Basic biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and human umbilical cord].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhen-Xia; Shi, Qing; Wang, Da-Kun; Li, Dong; Lyu, Ming

    2013-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord (UC) are the major sources of mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutics. This study was aimed to compare the basic biologic characteristics of bone marrow-derived and umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC and UC-MSC) and their immunosuppressive capability in vitro. The BM-MSC and UC-MSC were cultured and amplified under same culture condition. The growth kinetics, phenotypic characteristics and immunosuppressive effects of UC-MSC were compared with those of BM-MSC.Gene chip was used to compare the genes differentially expressed between UC-MSC and BM-MSC. The results showed that UC-MSC shared most of the characteristics of BM-MSC, including morphology and immunophenotype. UC-MSC could be ready expanded for 30 passages without visible changes. However, BM-MSC grew slowly, and the mean doubling time increased notably after passage 6. Both UC-MSC and BM-MSC could inhibit phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, in which BM-MSC mediated more inhibitory effect. Compared with UC-MSC, BM-MSC expressed more genes associated with immune response. Meanwhile, the categories of up-regulated genes in UC-MSC were concentrated in organ development and growth. It is concluded that the higher proliferation capacity, low human leukocyte antigen-ABC expression and immunosuppression make UC-MSC an excellent alternative to BM-MSC for cell therapy. The differences between BM-MSC and UC-MSC gene expressions can be explained by their ontogeny and different microenvironment in origin tissue. These differences can affect their efficacy in different therapeutic applications.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, L; Krampera, M; Schrezenmeier, H; Bourin, P; Giordano, R

    2010-02-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells/Multipotent Marrow Stromal Cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem cells present in all tissues, as part of the perivascular population. As multipotent cells, MSCs can differentiate into different tissues originating from mesoderm ranging from bone and cartilage, to cardiac muscle. Conflicting data show that MSCs could be pluripotent and able to differentiate into tissues and cells of non-mesodermic origin as neurons or epithelial cells. Moreover, MSCs exhibit non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive properties. This wide range of properties leads to increasing uses of MSC for immunomodulation or tissue repair. Based on their immunosuppressive properties MSC are used particularly in the treatment of graft versus host disease, For tissue repair, MSCs can work by different ways from cell replacement to paracrine effects through the release of cytokines and to regulation of immune/inflammatory responses. In regenerative medicine, trials are in progress or planed for healing/repair of different tissue or organs as bone, cartilage, vessels, myocardium, or epithelia. Although it has been demonstrated that ex-vivo expansion processes using fetal bovine serum, recombinant growth factors (e.g. FGF2) or platelet lysate are feasible, definitive standards to produce clinical-grade MSC are still lacking. MSCs have to be produced according GMP and regulation constraints. For answering to the numerous challenges in this fast developing field of biology and medicine, integrative networks linking together research teams, cell therapy laboratories and clinical teams are needed.

  10. Biocompatibility and Favorable Response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Fibronectin-Gold Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Huey-Shan; Tang, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Chien-Hsun; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chu, Mei-Yun; Sun, Wei-Shen; Kao, Wei-Chien; Hsien-Hsu, Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    A simple surface modification method, comprising of a thin coating with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and fibronectin (FN), was developed to improve the biocompatibility required for cardiovascular devices. The nanocomposites from FN and AuNPs (FN-Au) were characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The biocompatibility of the nanocomposites was evaluated by the response of monocytes and platelets to the material surface in vitro. FN-Au coated surfaces demonstrated low monocyte activation and platelet activation. The behavior of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on FN-Au was further investigated. MSCs on FN-Au nanocomposites particularly that containing 43.5 ppm of AuNPs (FN-Au 43.5 ppm) showed cell proliferation, low ROS generation, as well as increases in the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which may account for the enhanced MSC migration on the nanocomposites. These results suggest that the FN-Au nanocomposite thin film coating may serve as a potential and simple solution for the surface modification of blood-contacting devices such as vascular grafts. PMID:23826082

  11. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Biancone, Luigi; Bruno, Stefania; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to reverse acute and chronic kidney injury in different experimental models by paracrine mechanisms. This paracrine action may be accounted for, at least in part, by microvesicles (MVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in a horizontal transfer of mRNA, microRNA and proteins. MVs, released as exosomes from the endosomal compartment, or as shedding vesicles from the cell surface, are now recognized as being an integral component of the intercellular microenvironment. By acting as vehicles for information transfer, MVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. This exchange of information between the injured cells and stem cells has the potential to be bi-directional. Thus, MVs may either transfer transcripts from injured cells to stem cells, resulting in reprogramming of their phenotype to acquire specific features of the tissue, or conversely, transcripts could be transferred from stem cells to injured cells, restraining tissue injury and inducing cell cycle re-entry of resident cells, leading to tissue self-repair. Upon administration with a therapeutic regimen, MVs mimic the effect of mesenchymal stem cells in various experimental models by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating cell proliferation. In this review, we discuss whether MVs released from mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to be exploited in novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues, as an alternative to stem cell-based therapy. PMID:22851627

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice and put these on a Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. Initially after treatment, we found higher levels of circulating regulatory T cells. In the long-term, overall numbers of effector T cells were reduced by MSC treatment. Moreover, MSC-treated mice displayed a significant 33% reduction in circulating monocytes and a 77% reduction of serum CCL2 levels. Most strikingly, we found a previously unappreciated effect on lipid metabolism. Serum cholesterol was reduced by 33%, due to reduced very low-density lipoprotein levels, likely a result of reduced de novo hepatic lipogenesis as determined by a reduced expression of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and lipoprotein lipase. MSCs significantly affected lesion development, which was reduced by 33% in the aortic root. These lesions contained 56% less macrophages and showed a 61% reduction in T cell numbers. We show here for the first time that MSC treatment affects not only inflammatory responses but also significantly reduces dyslipidaemia in mice. This makes MSCs a potent candidate for atherosclerosis therapies. PMID:26490642

  13. [Mesenchymal stem cells and their immunological properties].

    PubMed

    Lisianyĭ, M I

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are found in a variety of tissues, including bone marrow, skin and adipose tissue and can be expanded easily in vitro. MSC are thought to have tissue regenerative properties, in the first place via their multilineage differentiation capacity. In addition, MSC have potent immunomodulatory capacity. They inhibit the proliferation of T cells and inhibit dendritic cell maturation. These properties make MSC promising for a diversity of clinical applications; for example, for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases and bone marrow rejection. Different studies have attributed the immunosuppressive effect of MSC to different immunosuppressive factors. These include indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), HLA-G, nitric oxide, interleukines. The long-term ability of allogeneic MSCs to preserve function in the infarcted heart is limited by a biphasic immune response whereby they transition from an immunoprivileged to an immunogenic state after differentiation, which is associated with an alteration in major histocompatibility complex--immune antigen profile. These findings provide critical information about the immunosuppression of MSCs and for better application of MSCs in treating immune disorders.

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Eom, Young Woo; Shim, Kwang Yong; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the most effective treatment for end-stage liver fibrosis is liver transplantation; however, transplantation is limited by a shortage of donor organs, surgical complications, immunological rejection, and high medical costs. Recently, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been suggested as an effective alternate approach for the treatment of hepatic diseases. MSCs have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, and therapeutic value exists in their immune-modulatory properties and secretion of trophic factors, such as growth factors and cytokines. In addition, MSCs can suppress inflammatory responses, reduce hepatocyte apoptosis, increase hepatocyte regeneration, regress liver fibrosis and enhance liver functionality. Despite these advantages, issues remain; MSCs also have fibrogenic potential and the capacity to promote tumor cell growth and oncogenicity. This paper summarizes the properties of MSCs for regenerative medicine and their therapeutic mechanisms and clinical application in the treatment of liver fibrosis. We also present several outstanding risks, including their fibrogenic potential and their capacity to promote pre-existing tumor cell growth and oncogenicity.

  15. Stressed stem cells: Temperature response in aged mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Sethe, Sebastian; Scutt, Andrew M

    2006-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from young (6 week) and aged (56 week) Wistar rats were cultured at standard (37 degrees C) and reduced (32 degrees C) temperature and compared for age markers and stress levels. (ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyls, lipofuscin, SOD, GPx, apoptosis, proteasome activity) and heat shock proteins (HSP27, -60, -70, -90). Aged MSCs display many of the stress markers associated with aging in other cell types, but results vary across marker categories and are temperature dependant. In young MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature had a generally beneficial effect: the anti-apoptotic heat shock proteins HSP 27, HSP70, and HSP90 were up-regulated; pro-apoptotic HSP60 was downregulated; SOD, GPx increased; and levels in ROS, NO, TBARS, carbonyl, and lipofuscin were diminished. Apoptosis was reduced, but also proteasome activity. In contrast, in aged MSCs, culturing at reduced temperature generally produced no 'beneficial' changes in these parameters, and can even have detrimental effects. Implications for tissue engineering and for stem cell gerontology are discussed. The results suggest that a 'hormesis' theory of stress response can be extended to MSCs, but that cooling cultivation temperature stress produces positive effects in young cells only.

  16. [Advances in the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in promoting wound healing].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjing; Sun, Haobo; Lyu, Guozhong

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability of self-renewal and multiple differentiation potential, thus exert immunomodulatory effect during tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem cells can stimulate angiogenesis and promote tissue repair through transdifferentiation and secreting a variety of growth factors and cytokines. This review outlines the advances in the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells in promoting wound healing, including alleviation of inflammatory response, induction of angiogenesis, and promotion of migration of mesenchymal stem cells to the site of tissue injury.

  17. Inactivated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain Immunomodulatory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Luk, Franka; de Witte, Samantha F H; Korevaar, Sander S; Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Franquesa, Marcella; Strini, Tanja; van den Engel, Sandra; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Roy, Debashish; Dor, Frank J M F; Horwitz, Edwin M; de Bruin, Ron W F; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2016-09-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are studied as a cell therapeutic agent for treatment of various immune diseases. However, therapy with living culture-expanded cells comes with safety concerns. Furthermore, development of effective MSC immunotherapy is hampered by lack of knowledge of the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic components of MSC. Such knowledge allows better identification of diseases that are responsive to MSC treatment, optimization of the MSC product, and development of therapy based on functional components of MSC. To close in on the components that carry the therapeutic immunomodulatory activity of MSC, we generated MSC that were unable to respond to inflammatory signals or secrete immunomodulatory factors, but preserved their cellular integrity [heat-inactivated MSC (HI-MSC)]. Secretome-deficient HI-MSC and control MSC showed the same biodistribution and persistence after infusion in mice with ischemic kidney injury. Both control and HI-MSC induced mild inflammatory responses in healthy mice and dramatic increases in interleukin-10, and reductions in interferon gamma levels in sepsis mice. In vitro experiments showed that opposite to control MSC, HI-MSC lacked the capability to suppress T-cell proliferation or induce regulatory B-cell formation. However, both HI-MSC and control MSC modulated monocyte function in response to lipopolysaccharides. The results of this study demonstrate that, in particular disease models, the immunomodulatory effect of MSC does not depend on their secretome or active cross-talk with immune cells, but on recognition of MSC by monocytic cells. These findings provide a new view on MSC-induced immunomodulation and help identify key components of the therapeutic effects of MSC.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  19. Immunophenotypic characterization of ovine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad R; Chandrashekran, Anil; Smith, Roger K W; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2016-05-01

    The clinical potential of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has led to the essential development of analytical tools such as antibodies against membrane-bound proteins for the immunophenotypic characterization of human and rodent cells. Such tools are frequently lacking for emerging large animal models like the sheep that have greater relevance for the study of human musculoskeletal diseases. The present study identified a set of commercial nonspecies specific monoclonal antibodies for the immunophenotypic characterization of ovine MSCs. A protocol combining the less destructive proteolytic activity of accutase and EDTA was initially developed for the detachment of cells from plastic with minimum loss of cell surface antigens. A range of commercially available antibodies against human or rodent MSC antigens were then tested in single and multistain-based assays for their cross-reactivity to bone marrow derived ovine MSCs. Antibody clones cross-reactive to ovine CD73 (96.9% ± 5.9), CD90 (99.6% ± 0.3), CD105 (99.1 ± 1.5), CD271 (97.7 ± 2.0), and MHC1 (94.0% ± 7.2) antigens were identified using previously reported CD29, CD44, and CD166 as positive controls. Multistaining analysis indicated the colocalization of these antigens on MSCs. Furthermore, antibody clones identified to cross-react against white blood cell antigens exhibited either negative (CD117 (0.1% ± 0.1)) or low (MHCII (10.5% ± 16.0); CD31 (14.6% ± 4.2), and CD45 (39.4% ± 31.8)) cross-reactivity with ovine MSCs. The validation of these antibody clones to sheep MSC antigens is essential for studies utilizing this large animal model for stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27077783

  20. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression. PMID:27679683

  1. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-09-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression. PMID:27679683

  2. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression.

  3. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  4. Combination Cell Therapy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Stem Cells for Brain Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. Method and Materials The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. Result The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. Conclusions The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats. PMID:26019759

  5. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  6. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  7. Cinnamtannin B-1 Promotes Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Accelerates Wound Healing in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kosuke; Kuge, Katsunori; Ozawa, Noriyasu; Sahara, Shunya; Zaiki, Kaori; Nakaoji, Koichi; Hamada, Kazuhiko; Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Maeda, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Substances that enhance the migration of mesenchymal stem cells to damaged sites have the potential to improve the effectiveness of tissue repair. We previously found that ethanol extracts of Mallotus philippinensis bark promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells and improved wound healing in a mouse model. We also demonstrated that bark extracts contain cinnamtannin B-1, a flavonoid with in vitro migratory activity against mesenchymal stem cells. However, the in vivo effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells and underlying mechanism of this action remain unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on in vivo migration of mesenchymal stem cells and wound healing in mice. In addition, we characterized cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells pharmacologically and structurally. The mobilization of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells into the blood circulation was enhanced in cinnamtannin B-1-treated mice as shown by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood cells. Whole animal imaging analysis using luciferase-expressing mesenchymal stem cells as a tracer revealed that cinnamtannin B-1 increased the homing of mesenchymal stem cells to wounds and accelerated healing in a diabetic mouse model. Additionally, the cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells was pharmacologically susceptible to inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, lipoxygenase, and purines. Furthermore, biflavonoids with similar structural features to cinnamtannin B-1 also augmented the migration of mesenchymal stem cells by similar pharmacological mechanisms. These results demonstrate that cinnamtannin B-1 promoted mesenchymal stem cell migration in vivo and improved wound healing in mice. Furthermore, the results reveal that cinnamtannin B-1-induced migration of mesenchymal stem cells may be mediated by specific signaling pathways, and the flavonoid skeleton may be relevant to its effects on

  8. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells by bioconjugated quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhranti S; Clark, Paul A; Moioli, Eduardo K; Stroscio, Michael A; Mao, Jeremy J

    2007-10-01

    Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells.

  9. Labeling of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Bioconjugated Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bhranti S.; Clark, Paul A.; Moioli, Eduardo K.; Stroscio, Michael A.; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term labeling of stem cells during self-replication and differentiation benefits investigations of development and tissue regeneration. We report the labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) during self-replication, and multilineage differentiations into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic cells. QD-labeled hMSCs remained viable as unlabeled hMSCs from the same subpopulation. These findings suggest the use of bioconjugated QDs as an effective probe for long-term labeling of stem cells. PMID:17887799

  10. Challenge of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Against Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Şener, Leyla Türker; Albeniz, Işıl

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in embryonic development and tissue regeneration in adult life owing to their high competency and self-renewal features. MSCs represent an important stem cell population with multipotent capabilities that may have high utility for translational clinical applications. MSCs can differentiate into a variety of cell types, especially fascia originated cells, and provide soluble factors for regeneration of tissues and organs. In in vitro environments, stem cells are capable of reproducing while preserving their properties; therefore, assuming stem cells could be reproduced in sufficient quantity, they would be appropriate for genetic operations. Stem cells can be used in tissue engineering, preventing rejection of bone marrow/ stem cell grafts by supporting hematopoiesis and recovery of autoimmune diseases, and cell therapy through their immunosuppressive properties. Mesenchymal stem cells have the potential capability to renew deformed organs and assist in tissue repair. In the field of wound healing, use of BM-MSCs is effective through modulating inflammation, extracellular matrix production, migration of keratinocytes, and angiogenesis for cell therapies. A significant complication of diabetes is diabetic foot ulcers, which affect quality of life and threaten life. In this article, we review recent studies with favorable results related to MSCs, which have become an important area of study in terms of tissue regeneration and regenerative medicine with diabetic foot ulcers.

  11. Improvement of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into the endoderm lineage by four step sequential method in biocompatible biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Azandeh, Saeed; Mohammad Gharravi, Anneh; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Khodadi, Ali; Hashemi Tabar, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of the study described here, was to investigate the potential of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSCs) into hepatocyte like cells in a sequential 2D and 3D differentiation protocols as alternative therapy. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from the umbilical cord (UC) and CD markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. For hepatic differentiation of UC-MSCs, cells were induced with a sequential 4-step protocol in 3D and 2D culture system. Urea concentration and albumin secretion into the culture medium was quantified by ELISA. Gene expression levels of AFP, ALB, and CK18 were determined by RT-PCR. Data were statistically analyzed by the SPSS software. The difference between the mean was considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Growth factor dependent morphological changes from elongated fibroblast-like cells to round epithelial cell morphology were observed in 2D culture. Cell proliferation analysis showed round-shaped morphology with clear cytoplasm and nucleus on the alginate scaffold in 3D culture. The mean valuses of albumin production and urea secretion were significantly higher in the 3D Culture system when compared with the 2D culture (p = 0.005 vs p = 0.001), respectively. Treatment of cells with TSA in the final step of differentiation induced an increased expression of CK18 and a decreased expression of αFP in both the 3D and 2D cultures (p = 0.026), but led to a decreased albumin gene expression, and an increased expression in the 2D culture (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated that sequential exposure of UC-MSCs with growth factors in 3D culture improves hepatic differentiation. PMID:27340619

  12. Mitochondrial respiration regulates adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmin; Marsboom, Glenn; Toth, Peter T; Rehman, Jalees

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells which can be isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue as well as other tissues and have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of mesenchymal cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Differentiation of stem cells into mature cell types is guided by growth factors and hormones, but recent studies suggest that metabolic shifts occur during differentiation and can modulate the differentiation process. We therefore investigated mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration and the mitochondrial membrane potential during adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs. In addition, we inhibited mitochondrial function to assess its effects on adipogenic differentiation. Our data show that mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption increase markedly during adipogenic differentiation, and that reducing mitochondrial respiration by hypoxia or by inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain significantly suppresses adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we used a novel approach to suppress mitochondrial activity using a specific siRNA-based knockdown of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), which also resulted in an inhibition of adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, our data demonstrates that increased mitochondrial activity is a prerequisite for MSC differentiation into adipocytes. These findings suggest that metabolic modulation of adult stem cells can maintain stem cell pluripotency or direct adult stem cell differentiation.

  13. Noggin Is Novel Inducer of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anandi; Chanda, Diptiman; Isayeva, Tatyana; Tsuladze, George; Garvey, W. T.; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2012-01-01

    Noggin is a glycosylated-secreted protein known so far for its inhibitory effects on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by sequestering the BMP ligand. We report here for the first time a novel mechanism by which noggin directly induces adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells independently of major human adipogenic signals through C/EBPδ, C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Evaluation of a possible mechanism for noggin-induced adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells identified the role of Pax-1 in mediating such differentiation. The relevance of elevated noggin levels in obesity was confirmed in a preclinical, immunocompetent mouse model of spontaneous obesity and in human patients with higher body mass index. These data clearly provide a novel role for noggin in inducing adipogenesis and possibly obesity and further indicates the potential of noggin as a therapeutic target to control obesity. PMID:22351751

  14. MicroRNAs and mesenchymal stem cells: hope for pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhaowei; Fang, Zhenfei; Hu, Xinqun; Zhou, Shenghua

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a devastating and refractory disease and there is no cure for this disease. Recently, microRNAs and mesenchymal stem cells emerged as novel methods to treat pulmonary hypertension. More than 20 kinds of microRNAs may participate in the process of pulmonary hypertension. It seems microRNAs or mesenchymal stem cells can ameliorate some symptoms of pulmonary hypertension in animals and even improve heart and lung function during pulmonary hypertension. Nevertheless, the relationship between mesenchymal stem cells, microRNAs and pulmonary hypertension is not clear. And the mechanisms underlying their function still need to be investigated. In this study we review the recent findings in mesenchymal stem cells - and microRNAs-based pulmonary hypertension treatment, focusing on the potential role of microRNAs regulated mesenchymal stem cells in pulmonary hypertension and the role of exosomes between mesenchymal stem cells and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26313730

  15. Functionally Active Gap Junctions between Connexin 43-Positive Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Levinskii, A B; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Chekhonin, V P

    2015-05-01

    The formation of functional gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and cells of low-grade rat glioma C6 cells was studied in in vitro experiments. Immunocytochemical analysis with antibodies to connexin 43 extracellular loop 2 showed that mesenchymal stem cells as well as C6 glioma cells express the main astroglial gap junction protein connexin 43. Analysis of migration activity showed that mesenchymal stem cells actively migrate towards C6 glioma cells. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 form functionally active gap junctions mediating the transport of cytoplasmic dye from glioma cells to mesenchymal stem cells in the opposite direction. Fluorometry showed that the intensity of transport of low-molecular substances through heterologous gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and glioma cells is similar to that through homologous gap junctions between glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy of high-grade gliomas.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of HGF-Expressing Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Mice with Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunxia; Li, Qiongshu; Meng, Fanwei; Huang, Xingyu; Li, Chan; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoping; He, Yixin; Liu, Jia; Hu, Xiang; Hu, Ji-Fan; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) are particularly attractive cells for cellular and gene therapy in acute liver failure (ALF). However, the efficacy of this cell therapy in animal studies needs to be significantly improved before it can be translated into clinics. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of UCMSCs that overexpress hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in an acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure mouse model. We found that the HGF-UCMSC cell therapy protected animals from acute liver failure by reducing liver damage and prolonging animal survival. The therapeutic effect of HGF-UCMSCs was associated with the increment in serum glutathione (GSH) and hepatic enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis, including γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that HGF-UCMSCs were mobilized to the injured areas of the liver. Additionally, HGF-UCMSCs modulated apoptosis by upregulating the antiapoptotic Bcl2 and downregulating proapoptotic genes, including Bax and TNFα. Taken together, these data suggest that ectopic expression of HGF in UCMSCs protects animals from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure through antiapoptosis and antioxidation mechanisms. PMID:27057357

  17. Effect of Microenvironment on Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Hepatocytes In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gai; Han, Xiaolei; Ma, Xin; Wu, Honghai; Qin, Yabin; Liu, Jianfang; Hu, Yuqin; Hong, Yang; Hou, Yanning

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are considered to be an ideal cell source for cell therapy of many diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the microenvironment to the hepatic differentiation potential of hUCMSCs in vitro and in vivo and to explore their therapeutic use in acute liver injury in rats. We established a new model to simulate the liver tissue microenvironment in vivo using liver homogenate supernatant (LHS) in vitro. This induced environment could drive hUCMSCs to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells within 7 days. The differentiated cells expressed hepatocyte-specific markers and demonstrated hepatocellular functions. We also injected hUCMSCs into rats with CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury. The hUCMSCs were detected in the livers of recipient rats and expressed the human hepatocyte-specific markers, suggesting that hUCMSCs could differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vivo in the liver tissue microenvironment. Levels of biochemistry markers improved significantly after transplantation of hUCMSCs compared with the nontransplantation group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the liver tissue microenvironment may contribute to the differentiation of hUCMSCs into hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27088093

  18. Therapeutic Potential of HGF-Expressing Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Mice with Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunxia; Li, Qiongshu; Meng, Fanwei; Huang, Xingyu; Li, Chan; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoping; He, Yixin; Liu, Jia; Hu, Xiang; Hu, Ji-Fan; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) are particularly attractive cells for cellular and gene therapy in acute liver failure (ALF). However, the efficacy of this cell therapy in animal studies needs to be significantly improved before it can be translated into clinics. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of UCMSCs that overexpress hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in an acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure mouse model. We found that the HGF-UCMSC cell therapy protected animals from acute liver failure by reducing liver damage and prolonging animal survival. The therapeutic effect of HGF-UCMSCs was associated with the increment in serum glutathione (GSH) and hepatic enzymes that maintain redox homeostasis, including γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that HGF-UCMSCs were mobilized to the injured areas of the liver. Additionally, HGF-UCMSCs modulated apoptosis by upregulating the antiapoptotic Bcl2 and downregulating proapoptotic genes, including Bax and TNFα. Taken together, these data suggest that ectopic expression of HGF in UCMSCs protects animals from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure through antiapoptosis and antioxidation mechanisms. PMID:27057357

  19. Angiopoietin-1 gene-modified human mesenchymal stem cells promote angiogenesis and reduce acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jie; He, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Dao-Hai; Lin, Sheng-Ping; Gong, Jian; Meng, Hong-Bo; Yang, Ting-Song; Sun, Wei; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-Shun

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can serve as a vehicle for gene therapy. Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1) plays an important role in the regulation of endothelial cell survival, vascular stabilization, and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs might be a potential therapeutic approach for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats. Human umbilical cord-derived MSCs with or without transfection with lentiviral vectors containing the ANGPT1 gene were delivered through the tail vein of rats 12 h after induction of SAP. Administration of MSCs alone significantly reduced pancreatic injury and inflammation, as reflected by reductions in pancreatitis severity scores and serum amylase and lipase levels as well as reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6). Furthermore, administration of ANGPT1-transfected MSCs resulted in not only further reductions in pancreatic injury and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, but also promotion of pancreatic angiogenesis. These results suggest that MSCs and ANGPT1 have a synergistic role in the treatment of SAP. ANGPT1 gene-modified MSCs may be developed as a potential novel therapy strategy for the treatment of SAP. PMID:25120736

  20. Immunomodulation regulates mesenchymal stem cell-based bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Su, Y; Shi, S; Liu, Y

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based regenerative medicine represents a promising frontier for bone reconstruction. Significant efforts have been devoted to clarifying the capacities of MSCs to repair or reconstruct bone tissue. This review provides a concise summary of current knowledge pertaining to the possible mechanisms of MSC action in the regeneration of bone, with particular focus on the interplay between donor MSCs and host immune response in the process of new bone regeneration.

  1. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Nasef, A; Fouillard, L; El-Taguri, A; Lopez, M

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have elicited a great clinical interest, particularly in the areas of regenerative medicine and induction of tolerance in allogeneic transplantation. Previous reports demonstrated the feasibility of transplanting MSCs, which generates new prospects in cellular therapy. Recently, injection of MSCs induced remission of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This review summarizes the knowledge and possible future clinical uses of MSCs. PMID:21503244

  2. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nasef, A; Fouillard, L; El-Taguri, A; Lopez, M

    2007-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have elicited a great clinical interest, particularly in the areas of regenerative medicine and induction of tolerance in allogeneic transplantation. Previous reports demonstrated the feasibility of transplanting MSCs, which generates new prospects in cellular therapy. Recently, injection of MSCs induced remission of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This review summarizes the knowledge and possible future clinical uses of MSCs.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells: Molecular characteristics and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Rastegar, Farbod; Shenaq, Deana; Huang, Jiayi; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; He, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Liang; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Wagner, Eric R; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Gao, Jian-Li; Kim, Stephanie H; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Bi, Yang; Su, Yuxi; Zhu, Gaohui; Luo, Jinyong; Luo, Xiaoji; Qin, Jiaqiang; Reid, Russell R; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Deng, Zhong-Liang; He, Tong-Chuan

    2010-08-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into tissues of both mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal origin. MSCs can differentiate into osteoblastic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages, although recent studies have demonstrated that MSCs are also able to differentiate into other lineages, including neuronal and cardiomyogenic lineages. Since their original isolation from the bone marrow, MSCs have been successfully harvested from many other tissues. Their ease of isolation and ex vivo expansion combined with their immunoprivileged nature has made these cells popular candidates for stem cell therapies. These cells have the potential to alter disease pathophysiology through many modalities including cytokine secretion, capacity to differentiate along various lineages, immune modulation and direct cell-cell interaction with diseased tissue. Here we first review basic features of MSC biology including MSC characteristics in culture, homing mechanisms, differentiation capabilities and immune modulation. We then highlight some in vivo and clinical evidence supporting the therapeutic roles of MSCs and their uses in orthopedic, autoimmune, and ischemic disorders.

  4. The Effects of Graphene Nanostructures on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Kanakia, Shruti; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    We report the effects of two-dimensional graphene nanostructures; graphene nano-onions (GNOs), graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs), and graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) on viability, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cytotoxicity of GNOs, GONRs, and GONPs dispersed in distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[amino(polyethylene glycol)] (DSPE-PEG), on adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) was assessed by AlamarBlue and Calcein AM viability assays at concentrations ranging from 5–300 μg/ml for 24 or 72 hours. Cytotoxicity of the 2D graphene nanostructures was found to be dose dependent, not time dependent, with concentrations less than 50 μg/ml showing no significant differences compared to untreated controls. Differentiation potential of adMSCs to adipocytes and osteoblasts, --characterized by Oil Red O staining and elution, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium matrix deposition and Alizarin Red S staining-- did not change significantly when treated with the three graphene nanoparticles at a low (10 μg/ml) and high (50 μg/ml) concentration for 24 hours. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal Raman spectroscopy indicated cellular uptake of only GNOs and GONPs. The results lay the foundation for the use of these nanoparticles at potentially safe doses as ex vivo labels for MSC-based imaging and therapy. PMID:24674462

  5. The mechanosensor of mesenchymal stem cells: mechanosensitive channel or cytoskeleton?

    PubMed

    Xiao, E; Chen, Chider; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells. MSCs and their potential for use in regenerative medicine have been investigated extensively. Recently, the mechanisms by which MSCs detect mechanical stimuli have been described in detail. As in other cell types, both mechanosensitive channels, such as transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), and the cytoskeleton, including actin and actomyosin, have been implicated in mechanosensation in MSCs. This review will focus on discussing the precise role of TRPM7 and the cytoskeleton in mechanosensation in MSCs. PMID:27651019

  6. Adult stem cell and mesenchymal progenitor theories of aging

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Ma, Yuran; Uezumi, Akiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical science and technology allow people live longer lives, which results in age-related problems. Humans cannot avoid the various aged-related alterations of aging; in other words, humans cannot remain young at molecular and cellular levels. In 1956, Harman proposed the “free radical theory of aging” to explain the molecular mechanisms of aging. Telomere length, and accumulation of DNA or mitochondrial damage are also considered to be mechanisms of aging. On the other hand, stem cells are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis by replacing parenchymal cells; therefore, the stem cell theory of aging is also used to explain the progress of aging. Importantly, the stem cell theory of aging is likely related to other theories. In addition, recent studies have started to reveal the essential roles of tissue-resident mesenchymal progenitors/stem cells/stromal cells in maintaining tissue homeostasis, and some evidence of their fundamental roles in the progression of aging has been presented. In this review, we discuss how stem cell and other theories connect to explain the progress of aging. In addition, we consider the mesenchymal progenitor theory of aging to describing the process of aging. PMID:25364718

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell applications to tendon healing

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tendons are often subject to age related degenerative changes that coincide with a diminished regenerative capacity. Torn tendons often heal by forming scar tissue that is structurally weaker than healthy native tendon tissue, predisposing to mechanical failure. There is increasing interest in providing biological stimuli to increase the tendon reparative response. Stem cells in particular are an exciting and promising prospect as they have the potential to provide appropriate cellular signals to encourage neotendon formation during repair rather than scar tissue. Currently, a number of issues need to be investigated further before it can be determined whether stem cells are an effective and safe therapeutic option for encouraging tendon repair. This review explores the in-vitro and invivo evidence assessing the effect of stem cells on tendon healing, as well as the potential clinical applications. PMID:23738300

  8. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Third-generation human mesenchymal stem cells were irradiated with different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields, including 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Hz, with a field intensity of 1.1 mT, for 30 minutes per day for 21 days. Changes in human mesenchymal stem cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression were also determined to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.Different effects were observed on human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast induction following exposure to different pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies. Levels of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation increased when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 5 hz to 50 hz, but the effect was weaker when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 50 Hz to 150 hz. The most significant effect on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed at of 50 hz.The results of the current study show that pulsed electromagnetic field frequency is an important factor with regard to the induction of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, a pulsed electromagnetic field frequency of 50 Hz was the most effective at inducing human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-06-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research. PMID:27482235

  10. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guihong; Yu, Fengbo; Lei, Ting; Gao, Haijun; Li, Peiwen; Sun, Yuxue; Huang, Haiyan; Mu, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research. PMID:27482235

  11. Generation and characterization of human cardiac resident and non-resident mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Baskar; Subbannagounder, Sellamuthu; Palanivel, Sekar; Ramanathanpullai, Chithra; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Yakub, Azhari; SadanandaRao, Manjunath; Seenichamy, Arivudainambi; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Tan, Jun Jie; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Despite the surgical and other insertional interventions, the complete recuperation of myocardial disorders is still elusive due to the insufficiency of functioning myocardiocytes. Thus, the use of stem cells to regenerate the affected region of heart becomes a prime important. In line with this human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have gained considerable interest due to their potential use for mesodermal cell based replacement therapy and tissue engineering. Since MSCs are harvested from various organs and anatomical locations of same organism, thus the cardiac regenerative potential of human cardiac-derived MSCs (hC-MSCs) and human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly derived MSC (hUC-MSCs) were tested concurrently. At in vitro culture, both hUC-MSCs and hC-MSCs assumed spindle shape morphology with expression of typical MSC markers namely CD105, CD73, CD90 and CD44. Although, hUC-MSCs and hC-MSCs are identical in term of morphology and immunophenotype, yet hUC-MSCs harbored a higher cell growth as compared to the hC-MSCs. The inherent cardiac regenerative potential of both cells were further investigated with mRNA expression of ion channels. The RT-PCR results demonstrated that both MSCs were expressing a notable level of delayed rectifier-like K(+) current (I KDR ) ion channel, yet the relative expression level was considerably varied between hUC-MSCs and hC-MSCs that Kv1.1(39 ± 0.6 vs 31 ± 0.8), Kv2.1 (6 ± 0.2 vs 21 ± 0.12), Kv1.5 (7.4 ± 0.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.06) and Kv7.3 (27 ± 0.8 vs 13.8 ± 0.6). Similarly, the Ca2(+)-activated K(+) current (I KCa ) channel encoding gene, transient outward K(+) current (I to ) and TTX-sensitive transient inward sodium current (I Na.TTX ) encoding gene (Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and hNE-Na) expressions were detected in both groups as well. Despite the morphological and phenotypical similarity, the present study also confirms the existence of multiple functional ion channel currents IKDR, IKCa, Ito

  12. Establishment of immortalized human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zan; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Toda, Ayaka; Higuchi, Osamu; Nogami, Makiko; Yoneda, Noriko; Zhou, Kaixuan; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Touru; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic mesenchymal cells (HAM cells) are known to contain somatic stem cells possessing the characteristics of pluripotency. However, little is known about the biology of these somatic cells because isolated HAM cells from amniotic membrane have a limited lifespan. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the lifespan of HAM cells by infecting retrovirus encoding human papillomavirus type16E6 and E7 (HPV16E6E7), bmi-1, and/or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes and investigated their characteristics as stem cells. We confirmed the immortalization of the four lines of cultured HAM cells for about 1 year. Immortalized human amnion mesenchymal cells (iHAM cells) have continued to proliferate over 200 population doublings (PDs). iHAM cells were positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD44 and negative for CD34, CD14, CD45, and HLA-DR. They expressed stem cell markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog, Klf4, SSEA4, c-myc, vimentin, and nestin. They showed adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation abilities after induction. These results suggested that immortalized cell lines with characteristics of stem cells can be established. iHAM cells with an extended lifespan can be used to produce good experimental models both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Isolation of functionally distinct mesenchymal stem cell subsets using antibodies against CD56, CD271, and mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Battula, Venkata Lokesh; Treml, Sabrina; Bareiss, Petra M.; Gieseke, Friederike; Roelofs, Helene; de Zwart, Peter; Müller, Ingo; Schewe, Bernhard; Skutella, Thomas; Fibbe, Willem E.; Kanz, Lothar; Bühring, Hans-Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Background Conventionally, mesenchymal stem cells are functionally isolated from primary tissue based on their capacity to adhere to a plastic surface. This isolation procedure is hampered by the unpredictable influence of co-cultured hematopoietic and/or other unrelated cells and/or by the elimination of a late adhering mesenchymal stem cells subset during removal of undesired cells. To circumvent these limitations, several antibodies have been developed to facilitate the prospective isolation of mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, we described a panel of monoclonal antibodies with superior selectivity for mesenchymal stem cells, including the monoclonal antibodies W8B2 against human mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1) and 39D5 against a CD56 epitope, which is not expressed on natural killer cells. Design and Methods Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors were analyzed and isolated by flow cytometry using a large panel of antibodies against surface antigens including CD271, MSCA-1, and CD56. The growth of mesenchymal stem cells was monitored by colony formation unit fibroblast (CFU-F) assays. The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into defined lineages was induced by culture in appropriate media and verified by immunostaining. Results Multicolor cell sorting and CFU-F assays showed that mesenchymal stem cells were ~90-fold enriched in the MSCA-1+CD56− fraction and ~180-fold in the MSCA-1+CD56+ fraction. Phenotype analysis revealed that the expression of CD10, CD26, CD106, and CD146 was restricted to the MSCA-1+CD56− mesenchymal stem cells subset and CD166 to MSCA-1+CD56± mesenchymal stem cells. Further differentiation of these subsets showed that chondrocytes and pancreatic-like islets were predominantly derived from MSCA-1+CD56± cells whereas adipocytes emerged exclusively from MSCA-1+CD56− cells. The culture of single sorted MSCA-1+CD56+ cells resulted in the appearance of phenotypically heterogeneous clones with

  15. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this possibility, we established bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from GATA2 conditional knockout mice. Differentiation of GATA2-deficient bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes induced accelerated oil-drop formation. Further, GATA2 loss- and gain-of-function analyses based on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells confirmed that decreased and increased GATA2 expression accelerated and suppressed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to adipocytes, respectively. Microarray analysis of GATA2 knockdowned human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells revealed that 90 and 189 genes were upregulated or downregulated by a factor of 2, respectively. Moreover, gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, and the number of G1/G0 cells increased after GATA2 knockdown. Concomitantly, cell proliferation was decreased by GATA2 knockdown. When GATA2 knockdowned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as well as adipocytes were cocultured with CD34-positive cells, hematopoietic stem cell frequency and colony formation decreased. We confirmed the existence of pathological signals that decrease and increase hematopoietic cell and adipocyte numbers, respectively, characteristic of aplastic anemia, and that suppress GATA2 expression in hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

  16. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  17. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  18. Recent Advances in Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Michel, John; Penna, Matthew; Kochen, Juan; Cheung, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Modern day tissue engineering and cellular therapies have gravitated toward using stem cells with scaffolds as a dynamic modality to aid in differentiation and tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most studied stem cells used in combination with scaffolds. These cells differentiate along the osteogenic lineage when seeded on hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds and can be used as a therapeutic option to regenerate various tissues. In recent years, the combination of hydroxyapatite and natural or synthetic polymers has been studied extensively. Due to the interest in these scaffolds, this review will cover the wide range of hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds used with MSCs for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Further, in order to maintain a progressive scope of the field this review article will only focus on literature utilizing adult human derived MSCs (hMSCs) published in the last three years. PMID:26106425

  19. Mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering for chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seogjin; Na, Kun

    2011-01-01

    In tissue engineering fields, recent interest has been focused on stem cell therapy to replace or repair damaged or worn-out tissues due to congenital abnormalities, disease, or injury. In particular, the repair of articular cartilage degeneration by stem cell-based tissue engineering could be of enormous therapeutic and economic benefit for an aging population. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can induce chondrogenic differentiation would provide an appropriate cell source to repair damaged cartilage tissues; however, we must first understand the optimal environmental conditions for chondrogenic differentiation. In this review, we will focus on identifying the best combination of MSCs and functional extracellular matrices that provides the most successful chondrogenesis.

  20. [The hopes of the mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine].

    PubMed

    Bourin, P; Gadelorge, M

    2007-05-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells are a cell population of bone marrow, which have the capacity to differentiate towards all the cells from the locomotor apparatus. They also have immunomodulatory properties and can contribute to tissue repair, thanks to the secretion of many growth factors. Such cells are also found in the cord blood. In the same way, very close stem cells exist in great quantity in fat tissue. These cells are very good candidates in regenerative medicine. Besides, several clinical trials were carried out in order to highlight their effectiveness mainly in osseous repair and also during hematopoietic stem cells graft or cardiac repair after infarction. However, these trials will be able to develop fully only with the condition that culture techniques meeting the conditions of good manufacturing practice are set-up. This presentation gives a progress report on the whole of these subjects.

  1. Recent Advances in Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Containing Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Michel, John; Penna, Matthew; Kochen, Juan; Cheung, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Modern day tissue engineering and cellular therapies have gravitated toward using stem cells with scaffolds as a dynamic modality to aid in differentiation and tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most studied stem cells used in combination with scaffolds. These cells differentiate along the osteogenic lineage when seeded on hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds and can be used as a therapeutic option to regenerate various tissues. In recent years, the combination of hydroxyapatite and natural or synthetic polymers has been studied extensively. Due to the interest in these scaffolds, this review will cover the wide range of hydroxyapatite containing scaffolds used with MSCs for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Further, in order to maintain a progressive scope of the field this review article will only focus on literature utilizing adult human derived MSCs (hMSCs) published in the last three years.

  2. Strategies to improve homing of mesenchymal stem cells for greater efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Stem/progenitor cell-based therapeutic approach in clinical practice has been an elusive dream in medical sciences, and improvement of stem cell homing is one of major challenges in cell therapy programs. Stem/progenitor cells have a homing response to injured tissues/organs, mediated by interactions of chemokine receptors expressed on the cells and chemokines secreted by the injured tissue. For improvement of directed homing of the cells, many techniques have been developed either to engineer stem/progenitor cells with higher amount of chemokine receptors (stem cell-based strategies) or to modulate the target tissues to release higher level of the corresponding chemokines (target tissue-based strategies). This review discusses both of these strategies involved in the improvement of stem cell homing focusing on mesenchymal stem cells as most frequent studied model in cellular therapies.

  3. Immunoregulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Montesinos, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages and that can be isolated from various tissues and easily cultivated in vitro. Currently, MSCs are of considerable interest because of the biological characteristics that confer high potential applicability in the clinical treatment of many diseases. Specifically, because of their high immunoregulatory capacity, MSCs are used as tools in cellular therapies for clinical protocols involving immune system alterations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the capacity of MSCs for the immunoregulation of immunocompetent cells and emphasize the effects of MSCs on T cells, principal effectors of the immune response, and the immunosuppressive effects mediated by the secretion of soluble factors and membrane molecules. We also describe the mechanisms of MSC immunoregulatory modulation and the participation of MSCs as immune response regulators in several autoimmune diseases, and we emphasize the clinical application in graft versus host disease (GVHD). PMID:25961059

  4. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: physiology and pathological implications.

    PubMed

    Pombero, Ana; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as progenitor cells that give rise to a number of unique, differentiated mesenchymal cell types. This concept has progressively evolved towards an all-encompassing concept including multipotent perivascular cells of almost any tissue. In central nervous system, pericytes are involved in blood-brain barrier, and angiogenesis and vascular tone regulation. They form the neurovascular unit (NVU) together with endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This functional structure provides an optimal microenvironment for neural proliferation in the adult brain. Neurovascular niche include both diffusible signals and direct contact with endothelial and pericytes, which are a source of diffusible neurotrophic signals that affect neural precursors. Therefore, MSCs/pericyte properties such as differentiation capability, as well as immunoregulatory and paracrine effects make them a potential resource in regenerative medicine. PMID:27273235

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Feeder Cells for Pancreatic Islet Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Sordi, Valeria; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic islet transplantation serves as a source of insulin-secreting beta-cells for the maintenance of normal glucose levels and treatment of diabetes. However, limited availability of islets, high rates of islet graft failure, and the need for life-long non-specific immunosuppressive therapy are major obstacles to the widespread application of this therapeutic approach. To overcome these problems, pancreatic islet transplantation was recently suggested as a potential target of the "therapeutic plasticity" of adult stem cells. In fact, new results suggest that stem/precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in particular, co-transplanted with islets can promote tissue engraftment and beta-cell survival via bystander mechanisms, mainly exerted by creating a milieu of cytoprotective and immunomodulatory molecules. This evidence consistently challenges the limited view that stem/precursor cells work exclusively through beta-cell replacement in diabetes therapy. It proposes that stem cells also act as "feeder" cells for islets, and supporter of graft protection, tissue revascularization, and immune acceptance. This article reviews the experience of using stem cell co-transplantation as strategy to improve islet transplantation. It highlights that comprehension of the mechanisms involved will help to identify new molecular targets and promote development of new pharmacological strategies to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:21060972

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells for pancreatic islet transplants.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Valeria; Piemonti, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic islet transplantation serves as a source of insulin-secreting beta-cells for the maintenance of normal glucose levels and treatment of diabetes. However, limited availability of islets, high rates of islet graft failure, and the need for life-long non-specific immunosuppressive therapy are major obstacles to the widespread application of this therapeutic approach. To overcome these problems, pancreatic islet transplantation was recently suggested as a potential target of the "therapeutic plasticity" of adult stem cells. In fact, new results suggest that stem/precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells in particular, co-transplanted with islets can promote tissue engraftment and beta-cell survival via bystander mechanisms, mainly exerted by creating a milieu of cytoprotective and immunomodulatory molecules. This evidence consistently challenges the limited view that stem/precursor cells work exclusively through beta-cell replacement in diabetes therapy. It proposes that stem cells also act as "feeder" cells for islets, and supporter of graft protection, tissue revascularization, and immune acceptance. This article reviews the experience of using stem cell co-transplantation as strategy to improve islet transplantation. It highlights that comprehension of the mechanisms involved will help to identify new molecular targets and promote development of new pharmacological strategies to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:21060972

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells and neuroregeneration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Bohn, Martha C

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive and extensive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and their terminals in the striatum, which results in debilitating movement disorders. This devastating disease affects over 1 million individuals in the United States and is increasing in incidence worldwide. Currently available pharmacological and surgical therapies ameliorate clinical symptoms in the early stages of disease, but they cannot stop or reverse degeneration of DA neurons. Stem cell therapies have come to the forefront of the PD research field as promising regenerative therapies. The majority of preclinical stem cell studies in experimental models of PD are focused on the idea that stem cell-derived DA neurons could be developed for replacement of diseased neurons. Alternatively, our studies and the studies from other groups suggest that stem cells also have the potential to protect and stimulate regeneration of compromised DA neurons. This review is focused on strategies based on the therapeutic potential for PD of the neurotrophic and neuroregenerative properties of a subclass of stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

  8. Characterization of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in suspension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are a heterogeneous population of postnatal precursor cells with the capacity of adhering to culture dishes generating colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-F). Here we identify a new subset of BMMSCs that fail to adhere to plastic culture dishes and remain in culture suspension (S-BMMSCs). Methods To catch S-BMMSCs, we used BMMSCs-produced extracellular cell matrix (ECM)-coated dishes. Isolated S-BMMSCs were analyzed by in vitro stem cell analysis approaches, including flow cytometry, inductive multiple differentiation, western blot and in vivo implantation to assess the bone regeneration ability of S-BMMSCs. Furthermore, we performed systemic S-BMMSCs transplantation to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like MRL/lpr mice. Results S-BMMSCs are capable of adhering to ECM-coated dishes and showing mesenchymal stem cell characteristics with distinction from hematopoietic cells as evidenced by co-expression of CD73 or Oct-4 with CD34, forming a single colony cluster on ECM, and failure to differentiate into hematopoietic cell lineage. Moreover, we found that culture-expanded S-BMMSCs exhibited significantly increased immunomodulatory capacities in vitro and an efficacious treatment for SLE-like MRL/lpr mice by rebalancing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) through high NO production. Conclusions These data suggest that it is feasible to improve immunotherapy by identifying a new subset BMMSCs. PMID:23083975

  9. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy. PMID:24590129

  10. Genomic expression of mesenchymal stem cells to altered nanoscale topographies.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Andar, Abhay; Nag, Abhijit; Affrossman, Stanley; Tare, Rahul; McFarlane, Sara; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2008-09-01

    The understanding of cellular response to the shape of their environment would be of benefit in the development of artificial extracellular environments for potential use in the production of biomimetic surfaces. Specifically, the understanding of how cues from the extracellular environment can be used to understand stem cell differentiation would be of special interest in regenerative medicine. In this paper, the genetic profile of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on two osteogenic nanoscale topographies (pitted surface versus raised islands) are compared with cells treated with dexamethasone, a corticosteroid routinely used to stimulate bone formation in culture from mesenchymal stem cells, using 19k gene microarrays as well as 101 gene arrays specific for osteoblast and endothelial biology. The current studies show that by altering the shape of the matrix a cell response (genomic profile) similar to that achieved with chemical stimulation can be elicited. Here, we show that bone formation can be achieved with efficiency similar to that of dexamethasone with the added benefit that endothelial cell development is not inhibited. We further show that the mechanism of action of the topographies and dexamethasone differs. This could have an implication for tissue engineering in which a simultaneous, targeted, development of a tissue, such as bone, without the suppression of angiogenesis to supply nutrients to the new tissue is required. The results further demonstrate that perhaps the shape of the extracellular matrix is critical to tissue development. PMID:18270147

  11. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-02-28

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  12. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-12-15

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

  13. Neurogenic Bladder Repair Using Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Pradeep V; Subramanian, Swetha; Danke, Amit; Kumar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion, the activity of which is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a malfunctioning urinary bladder due to neurologic dysfunction or insult emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. This report describes a case of neurogenic bladder following laminectomy procedure and long-standing diabetes mellitus with neuropathy treated with autologous cellular therapy. The differentiation potential and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells on bladder function have been highlighted. PMID:27656308

  14. Neurogenic Bladder Repair Using Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion, the activity of which is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a malfunctioning urinary bladder due to neurologic dysfunction or insult emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. This report describes a case of neurogenic bladder following laminectomy procedure and long-standing diabetes mellitus with neuropathy treated with autologous cellular therapy. The differentiation potential and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells on bladder function have been highlighted.

  15. Neurogenic Bladder Repair Using Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The normal function of the urinary bladder is to store and expel urine in a coordinated, controlled fashion, the activity of which is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a malfunctioning urinary bladder due to neurologic dysfunction or insult emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. This report describes a case of neurogenic bladder following laminectomy procedure and long-standing diabetes mellitus with neuropathy treated with autologous cellular therapy. The differentiation potential and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells on bladder function have been highlighted. PMID:27656308

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes for Functional Liver Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Bruno; Stock, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells represent an alternate cell source to substitute for primary hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation because of their multiple differentiation potential and nearly unlimited availability. They may differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and maintain specific hepatocyte functions also after transplantation into the regenerating livers of mice or rats both under injury and non-injury conditions. Depending on the underlying liver disease their mode of action is either to replace the diseased liver tissue or to support liver regeneration through their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic as well as their pro-proliferative action. PMID:22737154

  18. [Mesenchymal stem cells: weapons or dangers for cancer treatment?].

    PubMed

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have attracted recent attention for their cell therapy potential, based in particular on their immunosuppressive properties, which have served as the basis for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, MSC have been used in cell therapy strategies to deliver therapeutical genes. Cell therapy approaches taking advantages of MSC have been proposed, as MSC display a potential tropsim for tumors. However, all these strategies raise a series of questions about the safety of MSC, as MSC could enhance tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes recent findngs about MSC in carcinogenesis.

  19. Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis by Interleukin-8- and Interleukin-6-Dependent Induction of CD44(+)/CD24(-) Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengxia; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Fang; Chi, Ying; Han, Zhibo; Feng, Xiaoming; Li, Xue; Han, Zhongchao

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging evidence links mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with cancer metastasis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) promoted MCF-7 cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. To explore the mechanisms, the characteristics of MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs were assessed. The expression and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6 were induced in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs. However, neutralization of IL-8 or IL-6 secreted by UC-MSCs could attenuate the enhanced expression of IL-8 and IL-6 in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs, which subsequently alleviated the enhanced migration. Similar to UC-MSCs, exogenous human recombinant IL-8 or IL-6 also promoted IL-8 and IL-6 expression and MCF-7 cell migration. In addition to enhanced IL-8 and IL-6 expression, MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs displayed enhanced mammosphere-forming ability and increased percentage of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells. However, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was not observed in MCF-7 cells cocultured with UC-MSCs. Taken together, these results suggested that IL-8 and IL-6 secreted by UC-MSCs activated the autocrine IL-8 and IL-6 signaling in MCF-7 cells and induced CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells, which subsequently promoted MCF-7 cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

  20. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Volponi, A A; Gentleman, E; Fatscher, R; Pang, Y W Y; Gentleman, M M; Sharpe, P T

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications.

  1. Composition of Mineral Produced by Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volponi, A.A.; Gentleman, E.; Fatscher, R.; Pang, Y.W.Y.; Gentleman, M.M.; Sharpe, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different dental tissues have been described to have osteogenic/odontogenic-like differentiation capacity, but little attention has been paid to the biochemical composition of the material that each produces. Here, we used Raman spectroscopy to analyze the mineralized materials produced in vitro by different dental cell populations, and we compared them with the biochemical composition of native dental tissues. We show that different dental stem cell populations produce materials that differ in their mineral and matrix composition and that these differ from those of native dental tissues. In vitro, BCMP (bone chip mass population), SCAP (stem cells from apical papilla), and SHED (stem cells from human-exfoliated deciduous teeth) cells produce a more highly mineralized matrix when compared with that produced by PDL (periodontal ligament), DPA (dental pulp adult), and GF (gingival fibroblast) cells. Principal component analyses of Raman spectra further demonstrated that the crystallinity and carbonate substitution environments in the material produced by each cell type varied, with DPA cells, for example, producing a more carbonate-substituted mineral and with SCAP, SHED, and GF cells creating a less crystalline material when compared with other dental stem cells and native tissues. These variations in mineral composition reveal intrinsic differences in the various cell populations, which may in turn affect their specific clinical applications. PMID:26253190

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to bleomycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Rühle, Alexander; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Ho, Anthony D.; Debus, Jürgen; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage induced by bleomycin-based anticancer treatments, but the influence of bleomycin on the stem cells themselves remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human bone marrow-derived MSCs are relatively sensitive to bleomycin exposure compared to adult fibroblasts. MSCs revealed increased levels of apoptosis after bleomycin treatment, while cellular morphology, stem cell surface marker expression and the ability for adhesion and migration remained unchanged. Bleomycin treatment also resulted in a reduced adipogenic differentiation potential of these stem cells. MSCs were found to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks induced by bleomycin, mostly through non-homologous end joining repair. Low mRNA and protein expression levels of the inactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase were detected in MSCs that may contribute to the observed bleomycin-sensitive phenotype of these cells. The sensitivity of MSCs against bleomycin needs to be taken into consideration for ongoing and future treatment protocols investigating these stem cells as a potential treatment option for bleomycin-induced pulmonary damage in the clinic. PMID:27215195

  3. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells and chronic renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Sales, Elizabeth B; Boim, Mirian A

    2016-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis is the main cause of renovascular hypertension and results in ischemic nephropathy characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, microvascular loss, and fibrosis with consequent functional failure. Considering the limited number of strategies that effectively control renovascular hypertension and restore renal function, we propose that cell therapy may be a promising option based on the regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of stem cells. This review addresses the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension known as 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C). Significant benefits of MSC treatment have been observed on blood pressure and renal structure of the stenotic kidney. The mechanisms involved are discussed.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells and immunomodulation: current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Gao, F; Chiu, S M; Motan, D A L; Zhang, Z; Chen, L; Ji, H-L; Tse, H-F; Fu, Q-L; Lian, Q

    2016-01-01

    The unique immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them an invaluable cell type for the repair of tissue/ organ damage caused by chronic inflammation or autoimmune disorders. Although they hold great promise in the treatment of immune disorders such as graft versus host disease (GvHD) and allergic disorders, there remain many challenges to overcome before their widespread clinical application. An understanding of the biological properties of MSCs will clarify the mechanisms of MSC-based transplantation for immunomodulation. In this review, we summarize the preclinical and clinical studies of MSCs from different adult tissues, discuss the current hurdles to their use and propose the future development of pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs as an approach to immunomodulation therapy. PMID:26794657

  6. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells improves type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Lisha; Li, Furong; Gao, Feng; Yang, Yali; Liu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Pingping; Li, Yulin

    2016-05-01

    Bone-marrow-derived stem cells can regenerate pancreatic tissue in a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) form the main part of bone marrow. We show that the intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs elevates serum insulin and C-peptide, while decreasing blood glucose. MSCs engrafted into the damaged rat pancreas become distributed into the blood vessels, acini, ducts, and islets. Renascent islets, islet-like clusters, and a small number of MSCs expressing insulin protein have been observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Intrapancreatic transplantation of MSCs triggers a series of molecular and cellular events, including differentiation towards the pancreas directly and the provision of a niche to start endogenous pancreatic regeneration, which ameliorates hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused by streptozotocin. These data establish the many roles of MSCs in the restoration of the function of an injured organ. PMID:26650464

  7. Human dental mesenchymal stem cells and neural regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2013-09-01

    Nerve tissue presents inherent difficulties for its effective regeneration. Stem cell transplantation is considered an auspicious treatment for neuronal injuries. Recently, human dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their accessibility and multipotency. Since their origin is within the neural crest, they can be differentiated into neural crest-derived cells including neuron and glia cells both in vitro and in vivo. DMSCs are also able to secrete a wide variety of neurotrophins and chemokines, which promote neuronal cells to survival and differentiation. Experimental evidence has shown that human DMSCs engraftment recovered neuronal tissue damage in animal models of central nervous system injuries. Human DMSCs can be a new hope for treatment of nervous system diseases and deficits such as spinal cord injury, stroke and Parkinson's disease.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells are resistant to carbon ion radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Liang, Yingying; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Bostel, Tilman; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Ho, Anthony D.; Debus, Jürgen; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in regeneration of tissues damaged by ionizing radiation. However, radiation can damage MSCs themselves. Here we show that cellular morphology, adhesion and migration abilities were not measurably altered by photon or carbon ion irradiation. The potential for differentiation was unaffected by either form of radiation, and established MSC surface markers were found to be stably expressed irrespective of radiation treatment. MSCs were able to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks induced by both high-dose photon and carbon ion radiation. We have shown for the first time that MSCs are relatively resistant to therapeutic carbon ion radiotherapy. Additionally, this form of radiation did not markedly alter the defining stem cell properties or the expression of established surface markers in MSCs. PMID:25504442

  9. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Denu, Ryan A; Hematti, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  10. Fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells: adipocytes or osteoblasts?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Q; Shou, P; Zheng, C; Jiang, M; Cao, G; Yang, Q; Cao, J; Xie, N; Velletri, T; Zhang, X; Xu, C; Zhang, L; Yang, H; Hou, J; Wang, Y; Shi, Y

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a non-hematopoietic stem cell population first discovered in bone marrow, are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into mature cells of several mesenchymal tissues, such as fat and bone. As common progenitor cells of adipocytes and osteoblasts, MSCs are delicately balanced for their differentiation commitment. Numerous in vitro investigations have demonstrated that fat-induction factors inhibit osteogenesis, and, conversely, bone-induction factors hinder adipogenesis. In fact, a variety of external cues contribute to the delicate balance of adipo-osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, including chemical, physical, and biological factors. These factors trigger different signaling pathways and activate various transcription factors that guide MSCs to commit to either lineage. The dysregulation of the adipo-osteogenic balance has been linked to several pathophysiologic processes, such as aging, obesity, osteopenia, osteopetrosis, and osteoporosis. Thus, the regulation of MSC differentiation has increasingly attracted great attention in recent years. Here, we review external factors and their signaling processes dictating the reciprocal regulation between adipocytes and osteoblasts during MSC differentiation and the ultimate control of the adipo-osteogenic balance. PMID:26868907

  11. Concise review: role of mesenchymal stem cells in wound repair.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Scott; Lopez, Erasmo A; Yoo, Dana; Danilkovitch-Miagkova, Alla; Leroux, Michelle A

    2012-02-01

    Wound healing requires a coordinated interplay among cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix proteins. Central to this process is the endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), which coordinates the repair response by recruiting other host cells and secreting growth factors and matrix proteins. MSCs are self-renewing multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into various lineages of mesenchymal origin such as bone, cartilage, tendon, and fat. In addition to multilineage differentiation capacity, MSCs regulate immune response and inflammation and possess powerful tissue protective and reparative mechanisms, making these cells attractive for treatment of different diseases. The beneficial effect of exogenous MSCs on wound healing was observed in a variety of animal models and in reported clinical cases. Specifically, they have been successfully used to treat chronic wounds and stimulate stalled healing processes. Recent studies revealed that human placental membranes are a rich source of MSCs for tissue regeneration and repair. This review provides a concise summary of current knowledge of biological properties of MSCs and describes the use of MSCs for wound healing. In particular, the scope of this review focuses on the role MSCs have in each phase of the wound-healing process. In addition, characterization of MSCs containing skin substitutes is described, demonstrating the presence of key growth factors and cytokines uniquely suited to aid in wound repair.

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Imran; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are cells specialized cell, capable of renewing themselves through cell division and can differentiate into multi-lineage cells. These cells are categorized as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which can be isolated from human and animal sources. Human MSCs (hMSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineage such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes). MSCs express cell surface markers like cluster of differentiation (CD)29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and lack the expression of CD14, CD34, CD45 and HLA (human leucocyte antigen)-DR. hMSCs for the first time were reported in the bone marrow and till now they have been isolated from various tissues, including adipose tissue, amniotic fluid, endometrium, dental tissues, umbilical cord and Wharton's jelly which harbours potential MSCs. hMSCs have been cultured long-term in specific media without any severe abnormalities. Furthermore, MSCs have immunomodulatory features, secrete cytokines and immune-receptors which regulate the microenvironment in the host tissue. Multilineage potential, immunomodulation and secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules makes MSCs an effective tool in the treatment of chronic diseases. In the present review, we have highlighted recent research findings in the area of hMSCs sources, expression of cell surface markers, long-term in vitro culturing, in vitro differentiation potential, immunomodulatory features, its homing capacity, banking and cryopreservation, its application in the treatment of chronic diseases and its use in clinical trials. PMID:25797907

  13. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ya-jing; Liu, Jian-min; Wei, Shu-ming; Zhang, Yun-hao; Qu, Zhen-hua; Chen, Shu-bo

    2015-01-01

    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats. PMID:26487860

  14. Transplantation of Simian Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Baboons with Experimentally Induced Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Agrba, V Z; Porkhanov, V A; Karal-Ogly, D D; Leontyuk, A V; Kovalenko, A L; Sholin, I Yu; Gvozdik, T E; Ignatova, I E; Agumava, A A; Chuguev, Yu P; Gvaramiya, I A; Lapin, B A

    2016-02-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the bone marrow of primates by their characteristics met the requirements of stem cells. It was shown that transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (2 million cells per 1 kg body weight) immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery between the middle and upper thirds led to neovascularization and capillarization of the ischemic myocardium. PMID:26906203

  15. Injectable bone tissue engineering using expanded mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoichi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Ito, Kenji; Umemura, Eri; Hara, Kenji; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Abe, Akihiro; Baba, Shunsuke; Furuichi, Yasushi; Izumi, Yuichi; Klein, Ophir D; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-03-01

    Patients suffering from bone defects are often treated with autologous bone transplants, but this therapy can cause many complications. New approaches are therefore needed to improve treatment for bone defects, and stem cell therapy presents an exciting alternative approach. Although extensive evidence from basic studies using stem cells has been reported, few clinical applications using stem cells for bone tissue engineering have been developed. We investigated whether injectable tissue-engineered bone (TEB) composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet-rich plasma was able to regenerate functional bone in alveolar deficiencies. We performed these studies in animals and subsequently carried out large-scale clinical studies in patients with long-term follow-up; these showed good bone formation using minimally invasive MSC transplantation. All patients exhibited significantly improved bone volume with no side effects. Newly formed bone areas at 3 months were significantly increased over the preoperation baseline (p < .001) and reached levels equivalent to that of native bone. No significant bone resorption occurred during long-term follow-up. Injectable TEB restored masticatory function in patients. This novel clinical approach represents an effective therapeutic utilization of bone tissue engineering.

  16. Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Therapy of Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karantalis, Vasileios; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial clinical advances over the past 65 years, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in America. The past 15 years has witnessed major basic and translational interest in the use of stem and/or precursor cells as a therapeutic agent for chronically injured organs. Among the cell types under investigation, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely studied and in early stage clinical studies show promise for repair and regeneration of cardiac tissues. The ability of MSCs to differentiate into mesoderm and non-mesoderm derived tissues, their immunomodulatory effects, their availability and their key role in maintaining and replenishing endogenous stem cell niches have rendered them one of the most heavily investigated and clinically tested type of stem cell. Accumulating data from preclinical and early phase clinical trials document their safety when delivered as either autologous or allogeneic forms in a range of cardiovascular diseases, but also importantly define parameters of clinical efficacy that justify further investigation in larger clinical trials. Here, we review the biology of MSCs, their interaction with endogenous molecular and cellular pathways, and their modulation of immune responses. Additionally, we discuss factors that enhance their proliferative and regenerative ability and factors that may hinder their effectiveness in the clinical setting. PMID:25858066

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Hilary J.; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Ulijn, Rein V.; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The materials pipeline for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications is under continuous development. Specifically, there is great interest in the use of designed materials in the stem cell arena as materials can be used to manipulate the cells providing control of behavior. This is important as the ability to “engineer” complexity and subsequent in vitro growth of tissues and organs is a key objective for tissue engineers. This review will describe the nature of the materials strategies, both static and dynamic, and their influence specifically on mesenchymal stem cell fate. PMID:27242999

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress CaN/NFAT expression in the pulmonary arteries of rats with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JUNFENG; HAN, ZHIBO; HAN, ZHONGCHAO; HE, ZHIXU

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and hyperproliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is considered the primary pathological feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The present study determined that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) suppress the expression of calcineurin (CaN) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in the pulmonary arteries of rats, and this may exert a therapeutic effect on PH. The potential therapeutic effects of MSCs on PH were assessed via the transplantation of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs, which were cultured in serum-free medium, into a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH rat model. Subsequently, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lung tissue and plasma, and of CaN and NFATc2 in pulmonary arteries were assessed. In the rat model of MCT-induced PH, investigated in the present study, TNF-α expression levels were detected in the lung tissue, and the levels of TNF-α in the plasma were increased. Furthermore, in addition to hemodynamic changes and the evident medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary muscular arterioles, CaN and NFATc2 expression levels were significantly upregulated in the pulmonary arteries. In the present study, the transplantation of MSCs, cultured in serum-free medium, decreased the levels of TNF-α in the lung tissue and plasma of rats, and downregulated CaN and NFATc2 expression in the pulmonary arteries. Furthermore, hemodynamic abnormalities and medial hypertrophy of the pulmonary muscular arterioles were notably improved. Therefore, the results of the present study may suggest that the administration of MSCs in PH may suppress the production of TNF-α, and downregulate the expression of CaN and NFATc2 in pulmonary arteries, which may provide an effective treatment for PH by suppressing the pathological proliferation of PASMCs. PMID:26640533

  19. Enhanced cell survival and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor promote cardioprotection in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Ding, Yue; Xu, Yan; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fengxiang

    2016-05-15

    Poor cell survival post transplantation compromises the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important cytokine for angiogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MSCs overexpressing HGF in a mouse model of MI. The apoptosis of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and HGF-UC-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was detected. The conditioned medium (CdM) of UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs under a hypoxic condition was harvested and its protective effect on neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) exposed to a hypoxic challenge was examined. UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs were transplanted into the peri-infarct region in mice following MI and heart function assessed 4 weeks post transplantation. The apoptosis of HGF-UC-MSCs under hypoxic conditions was markedly decreased compared with that of UC-MSCs. NCMs treated with HGF-UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM) exhibited less cell apoptosis in response to hypoxic challenge than those treated with UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (UC-MSCs-hy-CdM). HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM released the inhibited p-Akt and lowered the enhanced ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 induced by hypoxia in the NCMs. HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM expressed higher levels of HGF, EGF, bFGF and VEGF than UC-MSCs-hy-CdM. Transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs or UC-MSCs greatly improved heart function in the mouse model of MI. Compared with UC-MSCs, transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs was associated with less cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced angiogenesis and increased proliferation of cardiomyocytes. This study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27025401

  20. Advances of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and dental tissue in craniofacial tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maobin; Zhang, Hongming; Gangolli, Riddhi

    2014-05-01

    Bone and dental tissues in craniofacial region work as an important aesthetic and functional unit. Reconstruction of craniofacial tissue defects is highly expected to ensure patients to maintain good quality of life. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed in the last two decades, and been advanced with the stem cell technology. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells are one of the most extensively studied post-natal stem cell population, and are widely utilized in cell-based therapy. Dental tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells are a relatively new stem cell population that isolated from various dental tissues. These cells can undergo multilineage differentiation including osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation, thus provide an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the important issues in mesenchymal stem cell biology including the origin and functions of mesenchymal stem cells, compare the properties of these two types of mesenchymal cells, update recent basic research and clinic applications in this field, and address important future challenges.

  1. Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Vocal Fold Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Summer; Kim, Jaehyup; Quinchia Johnson, Beatriz H.; Bradley, Bridget; Breunig, Melissa; Hematti, Peiman; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) originally isolated from bone marrow, are fibroblast-looking cells that are now assumed to be present in the stromal component of many tissues. MSCs are characterized by a certain set of criteria including their growth culture characteristics, a combination of cell surface markers, and the ability to differentiate along multiple mesenchymal tissue lineages. We hypothesized that human vocal fold fibroblasts (hVFF) isolated from the lamina propria meet the criteria established to define MSCs and are functionally similar to MSCs derived from BM and adipose tissue. Study Design In vitro study Methods HVFF were previously derived from human vocal fold tissues. MSCs were derived from adipose tissue (AT), and BM of healthy donors, based on their attachment to culture dishes and their morphology, and expanded in culture. Cells were analyzed for standard cell surface markers identified on BM-derived MSCs as well as the ability to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage, i.e. fat, bone and cartilage. We investigated the immunophenotype of these cells before and after interferon-γ (INF- γ) stimulation. Results HVFF displayed cell surface markers and multipotent differentiation capacity characteristic of MSCs. Furthermore, these cells exhibited similar patterns of expression of HLA and co-stimulatory molecules, after stimulation with INF- γ compared to MSCs derived from BM and AT. Conclusions Based on our findings hVFF derived from lamina propria have the same cell surface markers, immunophenotypic characteristics, and differentiation potential as BM- and AT-derived MSCs. We propose VF fibroblasts are MSCs resident in the vocal fold lamina propria. PMID:20131365

  2. Paracrine effects of haematopoietic cells on human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuanhu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell function decline during ageing can involve both cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Bone and blood formation are intertwined in bone marrow, therefore haematopoietic cells and bone cells could be extrinsic factors for each other. In this study, we assessed the paracrine effects of extrinsic factors from haematopoietic cells on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our data showed that haematopoietic cells stimulate proliferation, osteoblast differentiation and inhibit senescence of MSCs; TNF-α, PDGF-β, Wnt1, 4, 6, 7a and 10a, sFRP-3 and sFRP-5 are dominantly expressed in haematopoietic cells; the age-related increase of TNF-α in haematopoietic cells may perform as a negative factor in the interactions of haematopoietic cells on MSCs via TNF-α receptors and then activating NF-κB signaling or Wnt/β-catenin signaling to induce senescence and reduce osteoblast differentiation in MSCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that there are paracrine interactions of haematopoietic cells on human MSCs; immunosenescence may be one of the extrinsic mechanisms by which skeletal stem cell function decline during human skeletal ageing. PMID:26030407

  3. Systemic impact molds mesenchymal stromal/stem cell aging.

    PubMed

    Reitinger, Stephan; Schimke, Magdalena; Klepsch, Sebastian; de Sneeuw, Snezana; Yani, Stella Lukas; Gaßner, Robert; Ertl, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Aging is associated with an accruing emergence of non-functional tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) bring forth progenitors with multi-lineage differentiation potential, yet, they also exhibit anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective properties. Due to aging, altered tissue microenvironments constrict controlled stem cell proliferation and progenitor differentiation, thus diminishing the fitness of MSC. Therefore, deepening our understanding of metabolic, molecular and environmental factors impacting on MSC during human aging as well as providing new vistas on their role in promoting healthy aging and preventing age-associated disease is pivot. It is anticipated that integrative quantification of systemic parameters dominantly impacting on MSC will also enable effective personalized prognosis and provision of effective early medical interventions. Working along this line, it can be envisaged that standards in medical therapies can be individually adjusted by accounting not solely for the patient's chronological age or other physical parameters rather than specific physiological parameters which are believed to functionally shape stem cell niches within the bone marrow. PMID:25910539

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential application in intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bojiang; Williams, Lisa; Diwan, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is one of the leading public health problems in developed countries. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major pathological process implicated in low back pain, which is characterized by cellular apoptosis and senescence with reduced synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). Currently, there is no clinical therapy targeting the reversal of disc degeneration. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology have provided an exciting approach to disc regeneration that focuses on the delivery of viable cells to the degenerative disc. Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with self-renewal capacities and are able to differentiate into diverse specialized cell types, including chondrocyte lineages. The potential of stem cell therapy in disc degeneration is to repopulate the disc with viable cells capable of producing the ECM and restoring damaged tissue. The present literature review summarizes recent advances in basic research and clinical trials of MSCs to provide an outline of the key roles of MSCs therapies in disc repair. The review also discusses the controversies, challenges and therapeutic concepts for the future. PMID:26835326

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Mahato, Ram I

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes has increasingly become a worldwide health problem, causing huge burden on healthcare system and economy. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because of an early onset age, is affecting 5-10% of total diabetic population. Insulin injection, the predominant treatment for T1D, is effective to ameliorate the hyperglycemia but incompetent to relieve the autoimmunity and to regenerate lost islets. Islet transplantation, an experimental treatment for T1D, also suffers from limited supply of human islets and poor immunosuppression. The recent progress in regenerative medicine, especially stem cell therapy, has suggested several novel and potential cures for T1D. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based cell therapy is among one of them. MSCs are a type of adult stem cells residing in bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and many other tissues. MSCs, with self-renewal potential and transdifferentiation capability, can be expanded in vitro and directed to various cell lineages with relatively less efforts. MSCs have well-characterized hypoimmunogenicity and immunomodulatory effect. All these features make MSCs attractive for treating T1D. Here, we review the properties of MSCs and some of the recent progress using MSCs as a new therapeutic in the treatment of T1D. We also discuss the strength and limitations of using MSC therapy in human trials.

  6. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D.; Lee, Chang H.; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C.; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4–5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop significantly enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed by pivotal signals towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. PMID:24345734

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Devang M.; Shah, Jainy; Srivastava, Anand S.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation into both mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. The intrinsic properties of these cells make them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. MSCs are of keen interest because they can be isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow or adipose tissues and can be easily expanded in vitro. Moreover, their ability to modulate immune responses makes them an even more attractive candidate for regenerative medicine as allogeneic transplant of these cells is feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. MSCs secrete various immunomodulatory molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured tissues or organ to limit the damage and to increase self-regulated tissue regeneration. Autologous/allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream augment the titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury and can accelerate the tissue repair process. MSCs are currently being tested for their potential use in cell and gene therapy for a number of human debilitating diseases and genetic disorders. This paper summarizes the current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases. PMID:23577036

  8. Osteogenic and adipogenic potential of porcine adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jie; Yang, Gong-she

    2007-02-01

    Human, rat, and mouse studies have demonstrated the existence of a population of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) that can undergo multilineage differentiation in vitro. Understanding the clinical potential of AMSCs may require their use in preclinical large-animal models such as pigs. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish a protocol for the isolation of porcine AMSCs from adipose tissue and to examine their ex vivo differentiation potential to adipocytes and osteoblast. The porcine AMSCs from passage 4 were selected for differentiation analysis. The adipocytes were identified morphologically by staining with Oil Red O, and the adipogenic marker genes were examined by RT-PCR technique. Osteogenic lineage was documented by deposition of calcium stained with Alzarin Red S, visualization of alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of marker gene. Our result indicates that porcine AMSCs have been successfully isolated and induced differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. This study suggested that porcine AMSCs are also a valuable model system for the study on the mesenchymal lineages for basic research and tissue engineering. PMID:17570023

  9. Osteogenic and adipogenic potential of porcine adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jie; Yang, Gong-she

    2007-02-01

    Human, rat, and mouse studies have demonstrated the existence of a population of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) that can undergo multilineage differentiation in vitro. Understanding the clinical potential of AMSCs may require their use in preclinical large-animal models such as pigs. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish a protocol for the isolation of porcine AMSCs from adipose tissue and to examine their ex vivo differentiation potential to adipocytes and osteoblast. The porcine AMSCs from passage 4 were selected for differentiation analysis. The adipocytes were identified morphologically by staining with Oil Red O, and the adipogenic marker genes were examined by RT-PCR technique. Osteogenic lineage was documented by deposition of calcium stained with Alzarin Red S, visualization of alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of marker gene. Our result indicates that porcine AMSCs have been successfully isolated and induced differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. This study suggested that porcine AMSCs are also a valuable model system for the study on the mesenchymal lineages for basic research and tissue engineering.

  10. Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arnold I

    2007-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or marrow aspirates and because they are culture-dish adherent, they can be expanded in culture while maintaining their multipotency. The MSCs have been used in preclinical models for tissue engineering of bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat, and other connective tissues. These tissue-engineered materials show considerable promise for use in rebuilding damaged or diseased mesenchymal tissues. Unanticipated is the realization that the MSCs secrete a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. These molecules are immunosuppressive, especially for T-cells and, thus, allogeneic MSCs can be considered for therapeutic use. In this context, the secreted bioactive molecules provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured adult tissues to limit the area of damage and to mount a self-regulated regenerative response. This regenerative microenvironment is referred to as trophic activity and, therefore, MSCs appear to be valuable mediators for tissue repair and regeneration. The natural titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury can be augmented by allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream. Indeed, human clinical trials are now under way to use allogeneic MSCs for treatment of myocardial infarcts, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's Disease, cartilage and meniscus repair, stroke, and spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the biological basis for the in vivo functioning of MSCs through development and aging. PMID:17620285

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells protect from hypoxia-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Bernard, Olivier; Marchant, Dominique; Dard, Nicolas; Vanneaux, Valérie; Larghero, Jérôme; Gille, Thomas; Clerici, Christine; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Boncoeur, Emilie; Planès, Carole

    2016-03-01

    Administration of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) reduces lung inflammation, fibrosis, and mortality in animal models of lung injury, by a mechanism not completely understood. We investigated whether hMSC would prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hypoxia in primary rat alveolar epithelial cell (AEC). In AEC cultured on semipermeable filters, prolonged hypoxic exposure (1.5% O2 for up to 12 days) induced phenotypic changes consistent with EMT, i.e., a change in cell morphology, a decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rte) and in the expression of epithelial markers [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin, AQP-5, TTF-1], together with an increase in mesenchymal markers [vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)]. Expression of transcription factors driving EMT such as SNAIL1, ZEB1, and TWIST1 increased after 2, 24, and 48 h of hypoxia, respectively. Hypoxia also induced TGF-β1 mRNA expression and the secretion of active TGF-β1 in apical medium, and the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), two inducers of EMT. Coculture of AEC with hMSC partially prevented the decrease in Rte and in ZO-1, E-cadherin, and TTF-1 expression, and the increase in vimentin expression induced by hypoxia. It also abolished the increase in TGF-β1 expression and in TGF-β1-induced genes ZEB1, TWIST1, and CTGF. Finally, incubation with human recombinant KGF at a concentration similar to what was measured in hMSC-conditioned media restored the expression of TTF-1 and prevented the increase in TWIST1, TGF-β1, and CTGF in hypoxic AEC. Our results indicate that hMSC prevent hypoxia-induced alveolar EMT through the paracrine modulation of EMT signaling pathways and suggest that this effect is partly mediated by KGF.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms and role in bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yunhao; Guan, Junjie; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Stimulating bone growth and regeneration, especially in patients with delayed union or non-union of bone, is a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Treatments employed for bone regeneration are based on the use of cells, biomaterials and factors. Among these therapies, cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a number of advantages as MSCs: (1) are multipotent cells that can migrate to sites of injury; (2) are capable of suppressing the local immune response; and (3) are available in large quantities from the patients themselves. MSC therapies have been used for stimulating bone regeneration in animal models and in patients. Methods of application range from direct MSC injection, seeding MSCs on synthetic scaffolds, the use of gene-modified MSCs, and hetero-MSCs application. However, only a small number of these cell-based strategies are in clinical use, and none of these treatments has become the gold standard treatment for delayed or non-union of bone. PMID:25335795

  13. The Modulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Wessam E.; Abu-Shahba, Nourhan; Mahmoud, Marwa; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on bone formation has been extensively demonstrated through several in vitro and in vivo studies. However, few studies addressed the effect of MSCs on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Under physiological conditions, MSCs support osteoclastogenesis through producing the main osteoclastogenic cytokines, RANKL and M-CSF. However, during inflammation, MSCs suppress osteoclast formation and activity, partly via secretion of the key anti-osteoclastogenic factor, osteoprotegerin (OPG). In vitro, co-culture of MSCs with osteoclasts in the presence of high concentrations of osteoclast-inducing factors might reflect the in vivo inflammatory pathology and prompt MSCs to exert an osteoclastogenic suppressive effect. MSCs thus seem to have a dual effect, by stimulating or inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, depending on the inflammatory milieu. This effect of MSCs on osteoclast formation seems to mirror the effect of MSCs on other immune cells, and may be exploited for the therapeutic potential of MSCs in bone loss associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26823668

  14. Flexible polymeric ultrathin film for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, Virginia; Taccola, Silvia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Ciofani, Gianni; Menciassi, Arianna; Perut, Francesca; Salerno, Manuela; Dario, Paolo; Baldini, Nicola

    2011-07-01

    Ultrathin films (also called nanofilms) are two-dimensional (2-D) polymeric structures with potential application in biology, biotechnology, cosmetics and tissue engineering. Since they can be handled in liquid form with micropipettes or tweezers they have been proposed as flexible systems for cell adhesion and proliferation. In particular, with the aim of designing a novel patch for bone or tendon repair and healing, in this work the biocompatibility, adhesion and proliferation activity of Saos-2, MRC-5 and human and rat mesenchymal stem cells on poly(lactic acid) nanofilms were evaluated. The nanofilms did not impair the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Moreover, nanofilm adhesion to rabbit joints was evident under ex vivo conditions. PMID:21421086

  15. Cardiac cell therapy: boosting mesenchymal stem cells effects.

    PubMed

    Samper, E; Diez-Juan, A; Montero, J A; Sepúlveda, P

    2013-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a major problem of world public health and available treatments have limited efficacy. Cardiac cell therapy is a new therapeutic strategy focused on regeneration and repair of the injured cardiac muscle. Among different cell types used, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been widely tested in preclinical studies and several clinical trials have evaluated their clinical efficacy in myocardial infarction. However, the beneficial effects of MSC in humans are limited due to poor engraftment and survival of these cells, therefore ways to overcome these obstacles should improve efficacy. Different strategies have been used, such as genetically modifying MSC, or preconditioning the cells with factors that potentiate their survival and therapeutic mechanisms. In this review we compile the most relevant approaches used to improve MSC therapeutic capacity and to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in MSC mediated cardiac repair.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target

    PubMed Central

    Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as “actors” in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent “targets” during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  17. [Immunomodulatory properties of stem mesenchymal cells in autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Berná, Isabel; Santiago-Díaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2015-01-20

    Autoimmune diseases are a cluster of disorders characterized by a failure of the immune tolerance and a hyperactivation of the immune system that leads to a chronic inflammation state and the damage of several organs. The medications currently used to treat these diseases usually consist of immunosuppressive drugs that have significant systemic toxic effects and are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory properties, a feature that make them candidates to be used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we reviewed the role of this therapy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis, as well as the potential risks associated with its use. PMID:24636281

  18. [Immunomodulatory properties of stem mesenchymal cells in autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Berná, Isabel; Santiago-Díaz, Carlos; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2015-01-20

    Autoimmune diseases are a cluster of disorders characterized by a failure of the immune tolerance and a hyperactivation of the immune system that leads to a chronic inflammation state and the damage of several organs. The medications currently used to treat these diseases usually consist of immunosuppressive drugs that have significant systemic toxic effects and are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells have immunomodulatory properties, a feature that make them candidates to be used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we reviewed the role of this therapy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis, as well as the potential risks associated with its use.

  19. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice; Washko, Daniel; Takagawa, Junya; Ye, Jianqin; Grossman, William; Su Hua

    2008-11-14

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16{sup INK}, p21 and p19{sup ARF}. VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs or VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell: a new horizon in cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M; Jaafari, M R; Mirzaei, H R; Mirzaei, H

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main problems in public health worldwide. Despite rapid advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the efficacy of current treatment strategies is still limited. There are promising new results in animal models whereby mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as vehicles for targeted therapies. The use of MSCs as therapeutic biological vehicles in cell therapy has several advantages, including immune-silence, tumor tropism, easy and rapid isolation, ex vivo expansion, multilineage differentiation and the capacity to deliver a number of therapeutic agents. Some studies have shown that the microenvironment of the tumor provides a preferential niche for homing and survival of MSCs. Here, we have highlighted various applications of MSCs in cancer gene therapy. PMID:27650780

  1. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells: cytokines and factors.

    PubMed

    Soleymaninejadian, Ehsan; Pramanik, Krishna; Samadian, Esmaeil

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of self renewal and differentiation into several cell types such as chondrocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, myocyte, hepatocyte, and neuron-like cells. MSC can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, placenta, periosteum, trabecular bone, synovium, skeletal muscle, and deciduous teeth. Immunomodulatory of MSCs is one of the important issues nowadays, because this aspect can be clinically applied for graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we tried to discuss in detail about cytokines and factors such as members of the transforming growth factor superfamily (transforming growth factor-β), hepatic growth factors (HGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-10, indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), nitric oxide (NO), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) that are involved in immunomodulatory of MSCs.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Polytrauma: Actor and Target.

    PubMed

    Huber-Lang, Markus; Wiegner, Rebecca; Lampl, Lorenz; Brenner, Rolf E

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are considered indispensable in regeneration processes after tissue trauma. MSCs are recruited to damaged areas via several chemoattractant pathways where they function as "actors" in the healing process by the secretion of manifold pro- and anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, pro- and anticoagulatory, and trophic/angiogenic factors, but also by proliferation and differentiation into the required cells. On the other hand, MSCs represent "targets" during the pathophysiological conditions after severe trauma, when excessively generated inflammatory mediators, complement activation factors, and damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns challenge MSCs and alter their functionality. This in turn leads to complement opsonization, lysis, clearance by macrophages, and reduced migratory and regenerative abilities which culminate in impaired tissue repair. We summarize relevant cellular and signaling mechanisms and provide an up-to-date overview about promising future therapeutic MSC strategies in the context of severe tissue trauma. PMID:27340408

  3. Good manufacturing practices production of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Tarte, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs has led to production processes that need to be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). In cellular therapy, safety remains one of the main concerns and refers to donor validation, choice of starting material, processes, and the controls used, not only at the batch release level but also during the development of processes. The culture processes should be reproducible, robust, and efficient. Moreover, they should be adapted to closed systems that are easy to use. Implementing controls during the manufacturing of clinical-grade MSCs is essential. The controls should ensure microbiological safety but also avoid potential side effects linked to genomic instability driving transformation and senescence or decrease of cell functions (immunoregulation, differentiation potential). In this rapidly evolving field, a new approach to controls is needed.

  4. The Therapeutic Promise of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Liver Restoration.

    PubMed

    Christ, Bruno; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation aims to provide a functional substitution of liver tissue lost due to trauma or toxins. Chronic liver diseases are associated with inflammation, deterioration of tissue homeostasis, and deprivation of metabolic capacity. Recent advances in liver biology have focused on the pro-regenerative features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We argue that MSCs represent an attractive therapeutic option to treat liver disease. Indeed, their pleiotropic actions include the modulation of immune reactions, the stimulation of cell proliferation, and the attenuation of cell death responses. These characteristics are highly warranted add-ons to their capacity for hepatocyte differentiation. Undoubtedly, the elucidation of the regenerative mechanisms of MSCs in different liver diseases will promote their versatile and disease-specific therapeutic use.

  5. Prenatal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to treat osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jerry K. Y.; Götherström, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) can be a severe disorder that can be diagnosed before birth. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has the potential to improve the bone structure, growth, and fracture healing. In this review, we give an introduction to OI and MSC, and the basis for pre- and postnatal transplantation in OI. We also summarize the two patients with OI who have received pre- and postnatal transplantation of MSC. The findings suggest that prenatal transplantation of allogeneic MSC in OI is safe. The cell therapy is of likely clinical benefit with improved linear growth, mobility, and reduced fracture incidence. Unfortunately, the effect is transient. For this reason, postnatal booster infusions using same-donor MSC have been performed with clinical benefit, and without any adverse events. So far there is limited experience in this specific field and proper studies are required to accurately conclude on clinical benefits of MSC transplantation to treat OI. PMID:25346689

  6. Regeneration of the vocal fold using autologous mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Omori, Koichi; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Magrufov, Akhmar; Hiratsuka, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Shigeru; Ito, Juichi; Shimizu, Yasuhiko

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to regenerate the injured vocal fold by means of selective cultured autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Eight adult beagle dogs were used for this experiment. Selective incubation of MSCs from bone marrow was done. These MSCs were submitted to 3-dimensional incubation in 1% hydrochloric acid atelocollagen. Three-dimensional incubated MSCs were injected into the left vocal fold, and atelocollagen only was injected into the right vocal fold of the same dog as a control. Four days after injection, the posterior parts of the vocal folds were incised. The regeneration of the vocal fold was estimated by morphological and histologic evaluations. Our results showed that 3-dimensional incubated MSCs were useful in the regeneration of the injured vocal fold. This study shows that damaged tissues such as an injured vocal fold would be able to be regenerated by tissue engineering. PMID:14653358

  7. Proangiogenic Features of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hongyan; Han, Zhibo; Han, Zhong Chao; Li, Zongjin

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown their therapeutic potency for treatment of cardiovascular diseases owing to their low immunogenicity, ease of isolation and expansion, and multipotency. As multipotent progenitors, MSCs have revealed their ability to differentiate into various cell types and could promote endogenous angiogenesis via microenvironmental modulation. Studies on cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that transplanted MSCs could engraft at the injured sites and differentiate into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells as well. Accordingly, several clinical trials using MSCs have been performed and revealed that MSCs may improve relevant clinical parameters in patients with vascular diseases. To fully comprehend the characteristics of MSCs, understanding their intrinsic property and associated modulations in tuning their behaviors as well as functions is indispensable for future clinical translation of MSC therapy. This review will focus on recent progresses on endothelial differentiation and potential clinical application of MSCs, with emphasis on therapeutic angiogenesis for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26880933

  8. Polyethyleneimine-coating enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xinglei; Zhou, Na; Wan, Li; Su, Xiaodong; Sun, Zhao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells with multi-lineage potential, which makes them attractive targets for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential for basic research in developmental biology and for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors (CARs), but not into MSCs, which lack CAR expression. To overcome this problem, an Adv coated with cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) was developed. In this study, we demonstrated that PEI coating with an optimal ratio can enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without cytotoxicity. We also investigated the physicochemical properties and internalization mechanisms of the PEI-coated Adv. These results could help to evaluate the potentiality of the PEI-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction into MSCs. PMID:24727452

  9. Comparative characterization of hair follicle dermal stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hoogduijn, Martin J; Gorjup, Erwin; Genever, Paul G

    2006-02-01

    We compared the growth and differentiation characteristics of hair follicle-derived dermal stem cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Follicular dermal cells were isolated from whisker hairs of Wistar rats and bone marrow MSCs were isolated from femora of the same animals. The adherent hair follicle dermal cells showed a fibroblastic morphology in serum-containing culture medium, were CD44(+), CD73(+), CD90(+), and CD34(), and had a population doubling time of 27 h. MSCs isolated from the bone marrow showed a similar morphology and population doubling time and expressed the same cell-surface markers. Following exposure to appropriate induction stimuli, both cell populations had the capacity to differentiate into various mesenchymal lineages, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and myocytes and expressed neuroprogenitor cell markers. The rate and extent of differentiation were remarkably similar for both hair follicleand bone marrow-derived cells, whereas interfollicular dermal cells failed to differentiate. We identified telomerase activity in follicle dermal stem cells and marrow MSCs and demonstrated that they were capable of clonal expansion. In ex vivo analyses, we identified the presence of putative dermal stem cells in the dermal sheath and dermal papillae of the hair follicle. Consequently, the hair follicle may represent a suitable, accessible source for MSCs.

  10. Antiproliferative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Epithelial Cells on Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Svirshchevskaya, E V; Poltavtseva, R A; Beletskii, I P; Selezneva, I I; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the interactions between peripheral blood lymphocytes from heterologous donors with mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the tooth pulp and trophoblast. In mixed cultures, proliferation of both lymphocytes and mesenchymal stem cells was suppressed. Similar suppressive effects were observed in lymphocyte cultures mixed with epithelial cells (hepatocytes HeG2 and renal epithelial cells HEK293). This suppression can be determined by impairment of normal adhesion contacts between cells of different origin. PMID:27590756

  11. Culturing of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N V; Bonartsev, A P; Zharkova, I I; Makhina, T K; Myshkina, V L; Kharitonova, E P; Voinova, V V; Bonartseva, G A; Shaitan, K V; Belyavskii, A V

    2015-08-01

    We studied the possibility of long-term culturing of mouse mesenchymal stem cells on a porous scaffold made of biocompatible polymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. The cells remained viable for at least 2 months and passed more than 65 population doublings in culture. Culturing on the scaffold did not change surface phenotype of cells. 3D poly-3-hydroxybutyrate scaffolds are appropriate substrate for long-term culturing of mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2016-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs) were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology. PMID:26779263

  14. Immunomodulation of activated hepatic stellate cells by mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parekkadan, Biju; Poll, Daan van; Megeed, Zaki; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tilles, Arno W.; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2007-11-16

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to prevent the development of liver fibrosis in a number of pre-clinical studies. Marked changes in liver histopathology and serological markers of liver function have been observed without a clear understanding of the therapeutic mechanism by which stem cells act. We sought to determine if MSCs could modulate the activity of resident liver cells, specifically hepatic stellate cells (SCs) by paracrine mechanisms using indirect cocultures. Indirect coculture of MSCs and activated SCs led to a significant decrease in collagen deposition and proliferation, while inducing apoptosis of activated SCs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of SC activity by MSCs were examined. IL-6 secretion from activated SCs induced IL-10 secretion from MSCs, suggesting a dynamic response of MSCs to the SCs in the microenvironment. Blockade of MSC-derived IL-10 and TNF-{alpha} abolished the inhibitory effects of MSCs on SC proliferation and collagen synthesis. In addition, release of HGF by MSCs was responsible for the marked induction of apoptosis in SCs as determined by antibody-neutralization studies. These findings demonstrate that MSCs can modulate the function of activated SCs via paracrine mechanisms provide a plausible explanation for the protective role of MSCs in liver inflammation and fibrosis, which may also be relevant to other models of tissue fibrosis.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wyles, Cody C; Houdek, Matthew T; Behfar, Atta; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for osteoarthritis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wyles, Cody C; Houdek, Matthew T; Behfar, Atta; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful chronic condition with a significant impact on quality of life. The societal burden imposed by OA is increasing in parallel with the aging population; however, no therapies have demonstrated efficacy in preventing the progression of this degenerative joint disease. Current mainstays of therapy include activity modification, conservative pain management strategies, weight loss, and if necessary, replacement of the affected joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent endogenous population of progenitors capable of differentiation to musculoskeletal tissues. MSCs have a well-documented immunomodulatory role, managing the inflammatory response primarily through paracrine signaling. Given these properties, MSCs have been proposed as a potential regenerative cell therapy source for patients with OA. Research efforts are focused on determining the ideal source for derivation, as MSCs are native to several tissues. Furthermore, optimizing the mode of delivery remains a challenge both for appropriate localization of MSCs and for directed guidance toward stemming the local inflammatory process and initiating a regenerative response. Scaffolds and matrices with growth factor adjuvants may prove critical in this effort. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of MSC-based therapeutics for OA and discuss potential barriers that must be overcome for successful implementation of cell-based therapy as a routine treatment strategy in orthopedics. PMID:26357483

  17. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder.

  18. The sensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F.; Lin, C.-T.; Chen, W.-C.; Yang, C.-T.; Chen, C.-C.; Liao, S.-K.; Liu, J.M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lee, K.-D. . E-mail: kdlee@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow transplantation patients originate from the host. This clinical observation suggests that MSCs in their niches could be resistant to irradiation. However, the biologic responses of bone marrow MSCs to irradiation have rarely been described in the literature. Methods and Materials: In this study, human bone marrow-derived, clonally expanded MSCs were used to investigate their sensitivity to irradiation in vitro, and the cellular mechanisms that may facilitate resistance to irradiation. The human lung cancer cell line A549 and the breast cancer cell line HCC1937 were used as controls for radiosensitivity; the former line has been shown to be radioresistant and the latter radiosensitive. We then examined their in vitro biologic changes and sensitivities to radiation therapy. Results: Our results suggest that MSCs are characterized as resistant to irradiation. Several cellular mechanisms were demonstrated that may facilitate resistance to irradiation: ATM protein phosphorylation, activation of cell-cycle checkpoints, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and the antioxidant capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species. Conclusions: As demonstrated, MSCs possess a better antioxidant reactive oxygen species-scavenging capacity and active double-strand break repair to facilitate their radioresistance. These findings provide a better understanding of radiation-induced biologic responses in MSCs and may lead to the development of better strategies for stem cell treatment and cancer therapy.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Cellular Vectors for Pediatric Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Donald G.; Isakova, Iryna A.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders characterized by a deficiency in lysosomal function. Although these disorders differ in their etiology and phenotype those that affect the nervous system generally manifest as a profound deterioration in neurologic function with age. Over the past several decades implementation of various treatment regimens including bone marrow and cord blood cell transplantation, enzyme replacement, and substrate reduction therapy have proved effective for managing some clinical manifestations of these diseases but their ability to ameliorate neurologic complications remains unclear. Consequently, there exists a need to develop alternative therapies that more effectively target the central nervous system. Recently, direct intracranial transplantation of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells has been explored as a means to reconstitute metabolic deficiencies in the CNS. In this chapter we discuss the merits of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for this purpose. Originally identified as progenitors of connective tissue cell lineages, recent findings have revealed several novel aspects of MSC biology that make them attractive as therapeutic agents in the CNS. We relate these advances in MSC biology to their utility as cellular vectors for treating neurologic sequelae associated with pediatric neurologic disorders. PMID:24858930

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Martínez, Edgar; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro

    2016-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs) were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology. PMID:26779263

  1. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  2. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  3. BCOR regulates mesenchymal stem cell function by epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Lee, Janice S; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Guoping; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Cun-Yu

    2009-08-01

    The BCL-6 co-repressor (BCOR) represses gene transcription by interacting with BCL-6 (Refs 1, 2). BCOR mutation is responsible for oculo-facio-cardio-dental (OFCD) syndrome, which is characterized by canine teeth with extremely long roots, congenital cataracts, craniofacial defects and congenital heart disease. Here we show that BCOR mutation increased the osteo-dentinogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from a patient with OFCD, providing a molecular explanation for abnormal root growth. AP-2alpha was identified as a repressive target of BCOR, and BCOR mutation resulted in abnormal activation of AP-2alpha. Gain- and loss-of-function assays suggest that AP-2alpha is a key factor that mediates the increased osteo-dentinogenic capacity of MSCs. Moreover, we found that BCOR maintained tissue homeostasis and gene silencing through epigenetic mechanisms. BCOR mutation increased histone H3K4 and H3K36 methylation in MSCs, thereby reactivating transcription of silenced target genes. By studying a rare human genetic disease, we have unravelled an epigenetic mechanism for control of human adult stem cell function. PMID:19578371

  4. Bile acids induce hepatic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sawitza, Iris; Kordes, Claus; Götze, Silke; Herebian, Diran; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages and their therapeutic potential has become obvious. In the liver, MSC are represented by stellate cells which have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes after stimulation with growth factors. Since bile acids can promote liver regeneration, their influence on liver-resident and bone marrow-derived MSC was investigated. Physiological concentrations of bile acids such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid were able to initiate hepatic differentiation of MSC via the farnesoid X receptor and transmembrane G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 as investigated with knockout mice. Notch, hedgehog, transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenic protein family and non-canonical Wnt signalling were also essential for bile acid-mediated differentiation, whereas β-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling was able to attenuate this process. Our findings reveal bile acid-mediated signalling as an alternative way to induce hepatic differentiaion of stem cells and highlight bile acids as important signalling molecules during liver regeneration. PMID:26304833

  5. Mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Fibbe, Willem E

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that can be isolated from various human tissues and culture-expanded ex vivo for clinical use. Due to their immunoregulatory properties and their ability to secrete growth factors, MSCs play a key role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and in the modulation of immune responses against allo- and autoantigens. In light of these properties, MSCs have been employed in clinical trials in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to facilitate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and to prevent graft failure, as well as to treat steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The available clinical evidence derived from these studies indicates that MSC administration is safe. Moreover, promising preliminary results in terms of efficacy have been reported in some clinical trials, especially in the treatment of acute GvHD. In this review we critically discuss recent advances in MSC therapy by reporting on the most relevant studies in the field of HSCT.

  6. Clinical Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Laryngotracheal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Summer; Thibeault, Susan L.; Hematti, Peiman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract / Summary During the past several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult tissue have rapidly moved from in vitro and animal studies into clinical trials as a therapeutic modality for a diverse group of clinical applications, including head and neck reconstruction. For many diseases, cell therapy could affect the underlying pathophysiologic processes through multiple pathways providing an advantage over current treatment modalities. There is an emerging body of evidence that MSCs have unique immunomodulatory properties in addition to the ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages which make them even more attractive for regenerative medicine. A variety of pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that MSCs may have a useful role in tissue repair as well as engineering strategies in head and neck reconstructive surgery. Clinically, this has ranged from injection laryngoplasty to the implantation of a tracheal construct seeded with MSC-derived chondrocytes. Recent advances in stem cell immunobiology can offer insight to the multiple mechanisms through which MSCs could affect underlying pathophysiologic processes ranging from vocal fold scarring to composite tissue defects. Thorough evaluation of the current literature is necessary in understanding how MSCs could potentially revolutionize our approach to head and neck defects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the advances in MSC-based therapies in head and neck surgery, specifically laryngotracheal reconstruction. The clinical role of tissue-derived MSCs, though not well understood, holds promise for many therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and reconstruction. PMID:19951250

  7. Shear stress induces osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yourek, Gregory; McCormick, Susan M; Mao, Jeremy J; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether fluid flow-induced shear stress affects the differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into osteogenic cells. Materials & methods hMSCs cultured with or without osteogenic differentiation medium were exposed to fluid flow-induced shear stress and analyzed for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of osteogenic genes. Results Immediately following shear stress, alkaline phosphatase activity in osteogenic medium was significantly increased. At days 4 and 8 of culture the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin was significantly higher in hMSCs subjected to shear stress than those cultured in static conditions. However, hMSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium were less responsive in gene expression of alkaline phosphatase and bone morphogenetic protein-2. Conclusion These data demonstrate that shear stress stimulates hMSCs towards an osteoblastic phenotype in the absence of chemical induction, suggesting that certain mechanical stresses may serve as an alternative to chemical stimulation of stem cell differentiation. PMID:20868327

  8. Suitability of human mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy depends on the expansion medium

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, Anja; Groth, Ariane; Schlesinger, Sabine; Bruns, Helge; Schemmer, Peter; Buechler, Markus W.; Herr, Ingrid

    2009-02-01

    Great hope is set in the use of mesenchymal stem cells for gene therapy and regenerative medicine. Since the frequency of this subpopulation of stem cells in bone marrow is low, mesenchymal stem cells are expanded ex vivo and manipulated prior to experimental or clinical use. Different methods for isolation and expansion are available, but the particular effect on the stem cell character is unclear. While the isolation of mesenchymal stem cells by density centrifugation followed by selection of the plastic adherent fraction is frequently used, the composition of expansion media differs. Thus, in the present study we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from five healthy young volunteers in three widely used expansion media and performed a detailed analysis of the effect on morphology, proliferation, clonogenicity, passaging, differentiation and senescence. By this way we clearly show that the type of expansion medium used determines the stem cell character and time of senescence which is critical for future gene therapeutic and regenerative approaches using mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Body Management: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control the Internal Regenerator

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary It has been assumed that adult tissues cannot regenerate themselves. With the current understanding that every adult tissue has its own intrinsic progenitor or stem cell, it is now clear that almost all tissues have regenerative potential partially related to their innate turnover dynamics. Moreover, it appears that a separate class of local cells originating as perivascular cells appears to provide regulatory oversight for localized tissue regeneration. The management of this regeneration oversight has a profound influence on the use of specific cells for cell therapies as a health care delivery tool set. The multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), now renamed the medicinal signaling cell, predominantly arises from pericytes released from broken and inflamed blood vessels and appears to function as both an immunomodulatory and a regeneration mediator. MSCs are being tested for their management capabilities to produce therapeutic outcomes in more than 480 clinical trials for a wide range of clinical conditions. Local MSCs function by managing the body’s primary repair and regeneration activities. Supplemental MSCs can be provided from either endogenous or exogenous sources of either allogeneic or autologous origin. This MSC-based therapy has the potential to change how health care is delivered. These medicinal cells are capable of sensing their surroundings. Also, by using its complex signaling circuitry, these cells organize site-specific regenerative responses as if these therapeutic cells were well-programmed modern computers. Given these facts, it appears that we are entering a new age of cellular medicine. Significance This report is a perspective from an active scientist and an active entrepreneur and commercial leader. It is neither a comprehensive review nor a narrowly focused treatise. The broad themes and the analogy to the working component of a computer and that of a cell are meant to draw several important scientific principles and health

  10. The potential of mesenchymal stem cells in the management of radiation enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, P-Y; Qu, Y-Q; Wang, J; Dong, L-H

    2015-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is effective in managing abdominal and pelvic malignant tumors, radiation enteropathy is still unavoidable. This disease severely affects the quality of life of cancer patients due to some refractory lesions, such as intestinal ischemia, mucositis, ulcer, necrosis or even perforation. Current drugs or prevailing therapies are committed to alleviating the symptoms induced by above lesions. But the efficacies achieved by these interventions are still not satisfactory, because the milieus for tissue regeneration are not distinctly improved. In recent years, regenerative therapy for radiation enteropathy by using mesenchymal stem cells is of public interests. Relevant results of preclinical and clinical studies suggest that this regenerative therapy will become an attractive tool in managing radiation enteropathy, because mesenchymal stem cells exhibit their pro-regenerative potentials for healing the injuries in both epithelium and endothelium, minimizing inflammation and protecting irradiated intestine against fibrogenesis through activating intrinsic repair actions. In spite of these encouraging results, whether mesenchymal stem cells promote tumor growth is still an issue of debate. On this basis, we will discuss the advances in anticancer therapy by using mesenchymal stem cells in this review after analyzing the pathogenesis of radiation enteropathy, introducing the advances in managing radiation enteropathy using regenerative therapy and exploring the putative actions by which mesenchymal stem cells repair intestinal injuries. At last, insights gained from the potential risks of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for radiation enteropathy patients may provide clinicians with an improved awareness in carrying out their studies. PMID:26247725

  11. The hematopoietic growth factor "erythropoietin" enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, M I; Kassem, L A; Yassin, N A; El Din, M A Gamal; Zekri, M; Attia, M

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by cognitive dysfunction and by deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The study investigated the therapeutic effect of combined mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin on Alzheimer's disease. Five groups of mice were used: control group, Alzheimer's disease was induced in four groups by a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.8 mg kg(-1) lipopolysaccharide and divided as follows: Alzheimer's disease group, mesenchymal stem cells treated group by injecting mesenchymal stem cells into the tail vein (2 x 10(6) cells), erythropoietin treated group (40 microg kg(-1) b.wt.) injected intraperitoneally 3 times/week for 5 weeks and mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin treated group. Locomotor activity and memory were tested using open field and Y-maze. Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical studies, morphometric measurements were examined in brain sections of all groups. Choline transferase activity, brain derived neurotrophic factor expression and mitochondrial swellings were assessed in cerebral specimens. Lipopolysaccharide decreased locomotor activity, memory, choline transferase activity and brain derived neurotrophic factor. It increased mitochondrial swelling, apoptotic index and amyloid deposition. Combined mesenchymal stem cells and erythropoietin markedly improved all these parameters. This study proved the effective role of mesenchymal stem cells in relieving Alzheimer's disease symptoms and manifestations; it highlighted the important role of erythropoietin in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. The Endometrium as a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine1

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Levent; Hufnagel, Demetra; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have opened new frontiers in medicine with the possibility of regenerating lost or damaged cells. Embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have been used to derive mature cell types for tissue regeneration and repair. However, the endometrium has emerged as an attractive, novel source of adult stem cells that are easily accessed and demonstrate remarkable differentiation capacity. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of endometrial stem cells and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. PMID:25904012

  13. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments. PMID:27026484

  14. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments.

  15. Clinical Trials With Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Update.

    PubMed

    Squillaro, Tiziana; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    In the last year, the promising features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including their regenerative properties and ability to differentiate into diverse cell lineages, have generated great interest among researchers whose work has offered intriguing perspectives on cell-based therapies for various diseases. Currently the most commonly used adult stem cells in regenerative medicine, MSCs, can be isolated from several tissues, exhibit a strong capacity for replication in vitro, and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. However, heterogeneous procedures for isolating and cultivating MSCs among laboratories have prompted the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) to issue criteria for identifying unique populations of these cells. Consequently, the isolation of MSCs according to ISCT criteria has produced heterogeneous, nonclonal cultures of stromal cells containing stem cells with different multipotent properties, committed progenitors, and differentiated cells. Though the nature and functions of MSCs remain unclear, nonclonal stromal cultures obtained from bone marrow and other tissues currently serve as sources of putative MSCs for therapeutic purposes, and several findings underscore their effectiveness in treating different diseases. To date, 493 MSC-based clinical trials, either complete or ongoing, appear in the database of the US National Institutes of Health. In the present article, we provide a comprehensive review of MSC-based clinical trials conducted worldwide that scrutinizes biological properties of MSCs, elucidates recent clinical findings and clinical trial phases of investigation, highlights therapeutic effects of MSCs, and identifies principal criticisms of the use of these cells. In particular, we analyze clinical trials using MSCs for representative diseases, including hematological disease, graft-versus-host disease, organ transplantation, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and diseases in the liver, kidney

  16. Epigenetic modulators promote mesenchymal stem cell phenotype switches.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R

    2015-07-01

    Discoveries in recent years have suggested that some tissue specific adult stem cells in mammals might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. This phenomenon has been referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. Despite controversy, the current consensus holds that transdifferentiation does occur in mammals, but only within a limited range. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the switches in phenotype and development of the methods that will promote such type of conversions can open up endless possibilities for regenerative medicine. Epigenetic control contributes to various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and DNA and histone covalent modifications play a key role in these processes. Recently, we have been able to convert human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into neural-like cells by exposing cells to epigenetic modifiers and neural inducing factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and plasticity of these transdifferentiated cells. To this end, neurally induced MSCs (NI-hMSCs) were exposed to adipocyte inducing factors. Grown for 24-48 h in fat induction media NI-hMSCs reversed their morphology into fibroblast-like cells and regained their proliferative properties. After 3 weeks approximately 6% of hMSCs differentiated into multilocular or plurivacuolar adipocyte cells that demonstrated by Oil Red O staining. Re-exposure of these cultures or the purified adipocytes to neural induction medium induced the cells to re-differentiate into neuronal-like cells. These data suggest that cell plasticity can be manipulated by the combination of small molecule modulators of chromatin modifying enzymes and specific cell signaling pathways.

  17. Epigenetic modulators promote mesenchymal stem cell phenotype switches.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R

    2015-07-01

    Discoveries in recent years have suggested that some tissue specific adult stem cells in mammals might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. This phenomenon has been referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. Despite controversy, the current consensus holds that transdifferentiation does occur in mammals, but only within a limited range. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the switches in phenotype and development of the methods that will promote such type of conversions can open up endless possibilities for regenerative medicine. Epigenetic control contributes to various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and DNA and histone covalent modifications play a key role in these processes. Recently, we have been able to convert human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into neural-like cells by exposing cells to epigenetic modifiers and neural inducing factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and plasticity of these transdifferentiated cells. To this end, neurally induced MSCs (NI-hMSCs) were exposed to adipocyte inducing factors. Grown for 24-48 h in fat induction media NI-hMSCs reversed their morphology into fibroblast-like cells and regained their proliferative properties. After 3 weeks approximately 6% of hMSCs differentiated into multilocular or plurivacuolar adipocyte cells that demonstrated by Oil Red O staining. Re-exposure of these cultures or the purified adipocytes to neural induction medium induced the cells to re-differentiate into neuronal-like cells. These data suggest that cell plasticity can be manipulated by the combination of small molecule modulators of chromatin modifying enzymes and specific cell signaling pathways. PMID:25936755

  18. Stem cell transplantation and mesenchymal cells to treat autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Alan; van Laar, Jacob M

    2016-06-01

    Since the start of the international stem cell transplantation project in 1997, over 2000 patients have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), mostly autologous, as treatment for a severe autoimmune disease, the majority being multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease. There was an overall 85% 5-year survival and 43% progression-free survival. Around 30% of patients in all disease subgroups had a complete response, often durable despite full immune reconstitution. In many cases, e.g. systemic sclerosis, morphological improvement such as reduction of skin collagen and normalization of microvasculature was documented, beyond any predicted known effects of intense immunosuppression alone. It is hoped that the results of the three running large prospective randomized controlled trials will allow modification of the protocols to reduce the high transplant-related mortality which relates to regimen intensity, age of patient, and comorbidity. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), often incorrectly called stem cells, have been the intense focus of in vitro studies and animal models of rheumatic and other diseases over more than a decade. Despite multiple plausible mechanisms of action and a plethora of positive in vivo animal studies, few randomised controlled clinical trials have demonstrated meaningful clinical benefit in any condition so far. This could be due to confusion in cell product terminology, complexity of clinical study design and execution or agreement on meaningful outcome measures. Within the rheumatic diseases, SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have received most attention. Uncontrolled multiple trial data from over 300 SLE patients have been published from one centre suggesting a positive outcome; one single centre comparative study in 172 RA was positive. In addition, small numbers of patients with Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, primary Sjögren's disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis and type II diabetes

  19. Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: A promising cell-free therapeutic strategy in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Motavaf, M; Pakravan, K; Babashah, S; Malekvandfard, F; Masoumi, M; Sadeghizadeh, M

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have emerged as promising therapeutic candidates in regenerative medicine. The mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cells regenerative properties were initially attributed to their engraftment in injured tissues and their subsequent transdifferentiation to repair and replace damaged cells. However, studies in animal models and patients indicated that the low number of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells localize to the target tissue and transdifferentiate to appropriate cell lineage. Instead the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells has been found - at least in part - to be mediated via their paracrine actions. Recently, a secreted group of vesicles, called "exosome" has been identified as major mediator of mesenchymal stem cells therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on administration of exosomes released by mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine and suggest how they could help to improve tissue regeneration following injury. PMID:27453276

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells enhance the systemic effects of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Araújo Farias, Virgínea; O'Valle, Francisco; Lerma, Borja Alonso; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; López-Peñalver, Jesús J; Nieto, Ana; Santos, Ana; Fernández, Beatriz Irene; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Ruiz-Ruiz, María Carmen; Guirado, Damián; Schmidt, Thomas; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2015-10-13

    The outcome of radiotherapy treatment might be further improved by a better understanding of individual variations in tumor radiosensitivity and normal tissue reactions, including the bystander effect. For many tumors, however, a definitive cure cannot be achieved, despite the availablity of more and more effective cancer treatments. Therefore, any improvement in the efficacy of radiotherapy will undoubtedly benefit a significant number of patients. Many experimental studies measure a bystander component of tumor cell death after radiotherapy, which highlights the importance of confirming these observations in a preclinical situation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for use in the treatment of cancers as they are able to both preferentially home onto tumors and become incorporated into their stroma. This process increases after radiation therapy. In our study we show that in vitro MSCs, when activated with a low dose of radiation, are a source of anti-tumor cytokines that decrease the proliferative activity of tumor cells, producing a potent cytotoxic synergistic effect on tumor cells. In vivo administration of unirradiated mesenchymal cells together with radiation leads to an increased efficacy of radiotherapy, thus leading to an enhancement of short and long range bystander effects on primary-irradiated tumors and distant-non-irradiated tumors. Our experiments indicate an increased cell loss rate and the decrease in the tumor cell proliferation activity as the major mechanisms underlying the delayed tumor growth and are a strong indicator of the synergistic effect between RT and MSC when they are applied together for tumor treatment in this model. PMID:26378036

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells enhance the systemic effects of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Farias, Virgínea; O'Valle, Francisco; Lerma, Borja Alonso; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; López-Peñalver, Jesús J.; Nieto, Ana; Santos, Ana; Fernández, Beatriz Irene; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Ruiz-Ruiz, María Carmen; Guirado, Damián; Schmidt, Thomas; Oliver, Francisco Javier; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of radiotherapy treatment might be further improved by a better understanding of individual variations in tumor radiosensitivity and normal tissue reactions, including the bystander effect. For many tumors, however, a definitive cure cannot be achieved, despite the availablity of more and more effective cancer treatments. Therefore, any improvement in the efficacy of radiotherapy will undoubtedly benefit a significant number of patients. Many experimental studies measure a bystander component of tumor cell death after radiotherapy, which highlights the importance of confirming these observations in a preclinical situation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for use in the treatment of cancers as they are able to both preferentially home onto tumors and become incorporated into their stroma. This process increases after radiation therapy. In our study we show that in vitro MSCs, when activated with a low dose of radiation, are a source of anti-tumor cytokines that decrease the proliferative activity of tumor cells, producing a potent cytotoxic synergistic effect on tumor cells. In vivo administration of unirradiated mesenchymal cells together with radiation leads to an increased efficacy of radiotherapy, thus leading to an enhancement of short and long range bystander effects on primary-irradiated tumors and distant-non-irradiated tumors. Our experiments indicate an increased cell loss rate and the decrease in the tumor cell proliferation activity as the major mechanisms underlying the delayed tumor growth and are a strong indicator of the synergistic effect between RT and MSC when they are applied together for tumor treatment in this model. PMID:26378036

  2. Therapeutic Effects of CUR-Activated Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine-Induced Parkinson's Disease Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Jinfeng, Li; Yunliang, Wang; Xinshan, Liu; Yutong, Wang; Shanshan, Wang; Peng, Xue; Xiaopeng, Yang; Zhixiu, Xu; Qingshan, Lu; Honglei, Yin; Xia, Cao; Hongwei, Wang; Bingzhen, Cao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSC) activated by curcumin (CUR) on PC12 cells induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), a cell model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The supernatant of hUC-MSC and hUC-MSC activated by 5 µmol/L CUR (hUC-MSC-CUR) were collected in accordance with the same concentration. The cell proliferation and differentiation potential to dopaminergic neuronal cells and antioxidation were observed in PC12 cells after being treated with the above two supernatants and 5 µmol/L CUR. The results showed that the hUC-MSC-CUR could more obviously promote the proliferation and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) and significantly decreased the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in PC12 cells. Furtherly, cytokines detection gave a clue that the expression of IL-6, IL-10, and NGF was significantly higher in the group treated with the hUC-MSC-CUR compared to those of other two groups. Therefore, the hUC-MSC-CUR may be a potential strategy to promote the proliferation and differentiation of PD cell model, therefore providing new insights into a novel therapeutic approach in PD. PMID:27340670

  3. [Influence of penicillin and streptomycin on gene expression of extracellular secretion from human umbilical cord tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ping; Shi, Qing; Xing, Xiao; Wang, Da-Kun; Zhuang, Yong; Li, Dong

    2011-02-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the influence of penicillin and streptomycin on proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular secretion (ECS) produced from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC were isolated from umbilical cord tissue, then the immunotyping, multipotent differentiation and proliferation of these cells were assayed by cytometry, cytochemistry and MTT respectively. The expressions of ECS and apoptosis-related genes (bcl-2, bax) were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the phenotype of these cells matched with the characteristics of MSC. Penicillin and streptomycin of low concentrations promoted MSC proliferation, with the most effective concentration of 100 U/ml. Expressions of ECS cultured in addition of penicillin and streptomycin were down-regulated. Furthermore, apoptosis-related factor (bcl-2/bax) expression levels in low concentrations penicillin and streptomycin groups were higher than that in the control group. It is concluded that low concentrations penicillin and streptomycin can promote the proliferation and reduce the apoptotic rate, but high dose can inhibit the ECS component expression of MSC.

  4. Isolation and purification of rabbit mesenchymal stem cells using an optimized protocol.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunbo; Shen, Maorong; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaofeng; Luo, Daoming; Cai, Jinhong; Yang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were first isolated and grown in vitro by Friedenstein over 40 yr ago; however, their isolation remains challenging as they lack unique markers for identification and are present in very small quantities in mesenchymal tissues and bone marrow. Using whole marrow samples, common methods for mesenchymal stem cell isolation are the adhesion method and density gradient fractionation. The whole marrow sample adhesion method still results in the nonspecific isolation of mononuclear cells, and activation and/or potential loss of target cells. Density gradient fractionation methods are complicated, and may result in contamination with toxic substances that affect cell viability. In the present study, we developed an optimized protocol for the isolation and purification of mesenchymal stem cells based on the principles of hypotonic lysis and natural sedimentation.

  5. Transcriptional Dynamics of Immortalized Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Transformation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masao; Higashino, Atsunori; Takeuchi, Kikuko; Hori, Yutaro; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Makino, Hatsune; Monobe, Yoko; Kishida, Marina; Adachi, Jun; Takeuchi, Jun; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kameoka, Yosuke; Akagi, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression along with neoplastic transformation in human cells provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying transformation. To further address these questions, we performed whole transcriptome analysis to the human mesenchymal stem cell line, UE6E7T-3, which was immortalized with hTERT and human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 genes, in association with progress of transformation in these cells. At early stages of culture, UE6E7T-3 cells preferentially lost one copy of chromosome 13, as previously described; in addition, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis-activating genes were overexpressed. After the loss of chromosome 13, additional aneuploidy and genetic alterations that drove progressive transformation, were observed. At this stage, the cell line expressed oncogenes as well as genes related to anti-apoptotic functions, cell-cycle progression, and chromosome instability (CIN); these pro-tumorigenic changes were concomitant with a decrease in tumor suppressor gene expression. At later stages after prolong culture, the cells exhibited chromosome translocations, acquired anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice, (sarcoma) and exhibited increased expression of genes encoding growth factor and DNA repair genes, and decreased expression of adhesion genes. In particular, glypican-5 (GPC5), which encodes a cell-surface proteoglycan that might be a biomarker for sarcoma, was expressed at high levels in association with transformation. Patched (Ptc1), the cell surface receptor for hedgehog (Hh) signaling, was also significantly overexpressed and co-localized with GPC5. Knockdown of GPC5 expression decreased cell proliferation, suggesting that it plays a key role in growth in U3-DT cells (transformants derived from UE6E7T-3 cells) through the Hh signaling pathway. Thus, the UE6E7T-3 cell culture model is a useful tool for assessing the functional contribution of

  6. Transcriptional Dynamics of Immortalized Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Yutaro; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Makino, Hatsune; Monobe, Yoko; Kishida, Marina; Adachi, Jun; Takeuchi, Jun; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kameoka, Yosuke; Akagi, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression along with neoplastic transformation in human cells provides valuable information about the molecular mechanisms underlying transformation. To further address these questions, we performed whole transcriptome analysis to the human mesenchymal stem cell line, UE6E7T-3, which was immortalized with hTERT and human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7 genes, in association with progress of transformation in these cells. At early stages of culture, UE6E7T-3 cells preferentially lost one copy of chromosome 13, as previously described; in addition, tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis-activating genes were overexpressed. After the loss of chromosome 13, additional aneuploidy and genetic alterations that drove progressive transformation, were observed. At this stage, the cell line expressed oncogenes as well as genes related to anti-apoptotic functions, cell-cycle progression, and chromosome instability (CIN); these pro-tumorigenic changes were concomitant with a decrease in tumor suppressor gene expression. At later stages after prolong culture, the cells exhibited chromosome translocations, acquired anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice, (sarcoma) and exhibited increased expression of genes encoding growth factor and DNA repair genes, and decreased expression of adhesion genes. In particular, glypican-5 (GPC5), which encodes a cell-surface proteoglycan that might be a biomarker for sarcoma, was expressed at high levels in association with transformation. Patched (Ptc1), the cell surface receptor for hedgehog (Hh) signaling, was also significantly overexpressed and co-localized with GPC5. Knockdown of GPC5 expression decreased cell proliferation, suggesting that it plays a key role in growth in U3-DT cells (transformants derived from UE6E7T-3 cells) through the Hh signaling pathway. Thus, the UE6E7T-3 cell culture model is a useful tool for assessing the functional contribution of

  7. Oxygen Tension Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Functions

    PubMed Central

    Deschepper, Mickael; Moya, Adrien; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured the attention and research endeavors of the scientific world because of their differentiation potential. However, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that the beneficial effects of MSCs are predominantly due to the multitude of bioactive mediators secreted by these cells. Because the paracrine potential of MSCs is closely related to their microenvironment, the present study investigated and characterized select aspects of the human MSC (hMSC) secretome and assessed its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity as a function of oxygen tension, specifically near anoxia (0.1% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2), conditions that reflect the environment to which MSCs are exposed during MSC-based therapies in vivo. In contrast to supernatant conditioned media (CM) obtained from hMSCs cultured at either 5% or 21% of O2, CM from hMSCs cultured under near anoxia exhibited significantly (p < .05) enhanced chemotactic and proangiogenic properties and a significant (p < .05) decrease in the inflammatory mediator content. An analysis of the hMSC secretome revealed a specific profile under near anoxia: hMSCs increase their paracrine expression of the angiogenic mediators vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, interleukin-8, RANTES, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 but significantly decrease expression of several inflammatory/immunomodulatory mediators. These findings provide new evidence that elucidates aspects of great importance for the use of MSCs in regenerative medicine and could contribute to improving the efficacy of such therapies. Significance The present study investigated and characterized select aspects of the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) secretome and assessed its in vitro and in vivo biological bioactivity as a function of oxygen tension, specifically near anoxia (0.1% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2), conditions that reflect the environment to which MSCs are exposed during MSC-based therapies in vivo. The present study

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  9. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Lakhkar, Nilay J; M Day, Richard; Kim, Hae-Won; Ludka, Katarzyna; Mordan, Nicola J; Salih, Vehid; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5) that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26668711

  10. Osteogenic Potency of Nacre on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Green, David W.; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Nacre seashell is a natural osteoinductive biomaterial with strong effects on osteoprogenitors, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts during bone tissue formation and morphogenesis. Although nacre has shown, in one study, to induce bridging of new bone across large non-union bone defects in 8 individual human patients, there have been no succeeding human surgical studies to confirm this outstanding potency. But the molecular mechanisms associated with nacre osteoinduction and the influence on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC’s), skeletal stem cells or bone marrow stromal cells remain elusive. In this study we highlight the phenotypic and biochemical effects of Pinctada maxima nacre chips and the global nacre soluble protein matrix (SPM) on primary human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. In static co-culture with nacre chips, the hBMSCs secreted Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at levels that exceeded bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) treatment. Concentrated preparation of SPM applied to Stro-1 selected hBMSC’s led to rapid ALP secretions, at concentrations exceeding the untreated controls even in osteogenic conditions. Within 21 days the same population of Stro-1 selected hBMSCs proliferated and secreted collagens I–IV, indicating the premature onset of an osteoblast phenotype. The same SPM was found to promote unselected hBMSC differentiation with osteocalcin detected at 7 days, and proliferation increased at 7 days in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, nacre particles and nacre SPM induced the early stages of human bone cell differentiation, indicating that they may be promising soluble factors with osteoinductive capacity in primary human bone cell progenitors such as, hBMSC’s. PMID:25666352

  11. Cartilage Repair With Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Shinya; Mera, Hisashi; Itokazu, Maki; Hashimoto, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of various procedures, including bone marrow stimulation, mosaicplasty, and autologous chondrocyte implantation, have been explored to treat articular cartilage defects. However, all of them have some demerits. We focused on autologous culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), which can proliferate without losing their capacity for differentiation. First, we transplanted BMSC into the defective articular cartilage of rabbit and succeeded in regenerating osteochondral tissue. We then applied this transplantation in humans. Our previous reports showed that treatment with BMSC relieves the clinical symptoms of chondral defects in the knee and elbow joint. We investigated the efficacy of BMSC for osteoarthritic knee treated with high tibial osteotomy, by comparing 12 BMSC-transplanted patients with 12 cell-free patients. At 16-month follow-up, although the difference in clinical improvement between both groups was not significant, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group. At the over 10-year follow-up, Hospital for Special Surgery knee scores improved to 76 and 73 in the BMSC-transplanted and cell-free groups, respectively, which were better than preoperative scores. Additionally, neither tumors nor infections were observed in all patients, and in the clinical study, we have never observed hypertrophy of repaired tissue, thereby guaranteeing the clinical safety of this therapy. Although we have never observed calcification above the tidemark in rabbit model and human histologically, the repair cartilage was not completely hyaline cartilage. To elucidate the optimum conditions for cell therapy, other stem cells, culture conditions, growth factors, and gene transfection methods should be explored. PMID:26069698

  12. Epigenetic Dysregulation in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging and Spontaneous Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengyue; Zhao, Robert C. H.; Guo, Ling; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Yaojiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for the treatment of difficult diseases. As MSCs represent a rare cell population, ex vivo expansion of MSCs is indispensable to obtain sufficient amounts of cells for therapies and tissue engineering. However, spontaneous differentiation and aging of MSCs occur during expansion and the molecular mechanisms involved have been poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Human MSCs in early and late passages were examined for their expression of genes involved in osteogenesis to determine their spontaneous differentiation towards osteoblasts in vitro, and of genes involved in self-renewal and proliferation for multipotent differentiation potential. In parallel, promoter DNA methylation and hostone H3 acetylation levels were determined. We found that MSCs underwent aging and spontaneous osteogenic differentiation upon regular culture expansion, with progressive downregulation of TERT and upregulation of osteogenic genes such as Runx2 and ALP. Meanwhile, the expression of genes associated with stem cell self-renewal such as Oct4 and Sox2 declined markedly. Notably, the altered expression of these genes were closely associated with epigenetic dysregulation of histone H3 acetylation in K9 and K14, but not with methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of most of these genes. bFGF promoted MSC proliferation and suppressed its spontaneous osteogenic differentiation, with corresponding changes in histone H3 acetylation in TERT, Oct4, Sox2, Runx2 and ALP genes. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that histone H3 acetylation, which can be modulated by extrinsic signals, plays a key role in regulating MSC aging and differentiation. PMID:21694780

  13. Three-dimensional graphene foams promote osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Spencer W.; Prasai, Dhiraj; Rath, Rutwik; Balikov, Daniel A.; Bae, Hojae; Bolotin, Kirill I.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2013-05-01

    Graphene is a novel material whose application in biomedical sciences has only begun to be realized. In the present study, we have employed three-dimensional graphene foams as culture substrates for human mesenchymal stem cells and provide evidence that these materials can maintain stem cell viability and promote osteogenic differentiation.

  14. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) term amniotic-membrane-derived cells exhibited mesenchymal stem cells characteristics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaushalya; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Jarnail; Gahlawat, S K; Kumar, Dharmendra; Selokar, Naresh Lalaji; Yadav, S P; Gulati, B R; Yadav, P S

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggested that placentae amniotic membrane is a valuable source of stem cells in human as well as in livestock species. Advantages of amnion over other sources of stem cells included abundant availability, ethically non-objectionable and non-invasive source. The aim of the present study was the isolation, culture and characterization of amniotic-membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells from term placentae collected postpartum in buffalo. We have observed that both presumptive epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were cultured and maintained from term amnion. These cells were shown the positive expression of pluripotency markers (OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, TERT), mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44, CD105) and negative for haematopoietic marker (CD34) genes at different passages. In addition, these cells were also positive for alkaline phosphatase staining. Stem-ness potential of any stem cells is determined by their potential to differentiate into specific lineages of cell type. In the present study, we have successfully differentiated the amniotic-membrane-derived cells into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages of cells in vitro. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that amniotic-membrane-derived cells expressed pluripotent and mesenchymal stem cells markers and have propensity to differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineage cell type upon directed differentiation in vitro.

  15. Perivascular Stem Cells: A Prospectively Purified Mesenchymal Stem Cell Population for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    James, Aaron W.; Zara, Janette N.; Zhang, Xinli; Askarinam, Asal; Goyal, Raghav; Chiang, Michael; Yuan, Wei; Chang, Le; Corselli, Mirko; Shen, Jia; Pang, Shen; Stoker, David; Wu, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering: it is largely dispensable and readily accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which leads to unreliable bone formation. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from adipose tissue and compared their bone-forming capacity with that of traditionally derived SVF. PSCs are a population (sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting) of pericytes (CD146+CD34−CD45−) and adventitial cells (CD146−CD34+CD45−), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we found that PSCs underwent osteogenic differentiation in vitro and formed bone after intramuscular implantation without the need for predifferentiation. We next sought to optimize PSCs for in vivo bone formation, adopting a demineralized bone matrix for osteoinduction and tricalcium phosphate particle formulation for protein release. Patient-matched, purified PSCs formed significantly more bone in comparison with traditionally derived SVF by all parameters. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 increased in vivo bone formation but with a massive adipogenic response. In contrast, recombinant Nel-like molecule 1 (NELL-1; a novel osteoinductive growth factor) selectively enhanced bone formation. These studies suggest that adipose-derived human PSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, PSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. Finally, NELL-1 is a candidate growth factor able to induce human PSC osteogenesis. PMID:23197855

  16. Expansion of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Microcarrier Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ang-Chen; Ma, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are considered as a primary candidate in cell therapy owing to their self-renewability, high differentiation capabilities, and secretions of trophic factors. In clinical application, a large quantity of therapeutically competent hMSCs is required that cannot be produced in conventional petri dish culture. Bioreactors are scalable and have the capacity to meet the production demand. Microcarrier suspension culture in stirred-tank bioreactors is the most widely used method to expand anchorage dependent cells in a large scale. Stirred-tank bioreactors have the potential to scale up and microcarriers provide the high surface-volume ratio. As a result, a spinner flask bioreactor with microcarriers has been commonly used in large scale expansion of adherent cells. This chapter describes a detailed culture protocol for hMSC expansion in a 125 mL spinner flask using microcarriers, Cytodex I, and a procedure for cell seeding, expansion, metabolic sampling, and quantification and visualization using microculture tetrazolium (MTT) reagent. PMID:27032950

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Nanette; Annett, Geralyn; Wirthlin, Louisa; Olson, Scott; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders. They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders. There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection. Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons. Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed. PMID:21082892

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation protects against rat pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guohua; Liu, Hongmei; Gu, Naibing; Zhang, Huilan; Xu, Yongjian; Zhang, Zhenxiang

    2008-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by loss of alveolar structure. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into alveolar epithelial cells. However, the effect of MSCs transplantation on pulmonary emphysema is unknown. To address this question, cultured bone marrow MSCs from male donor rats were infused into female recipients treated with irradiation and instillation of papain. We found that the emphysematous changes in rats received MSCs transplantation were ameliorated when compared with the rats without MSCs transplantation. Y chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical staining for SP-C, confirmed that MSCs engrafted in recipient lungs and differentiated into type II alveolar epithelial cells. Additionally, MSCs transplantation reduced the extent of irradiation and papain-induced alveolar cell apoptosis, likely due to the up-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax gene. We conclude that MSCs transplantation protects against the irradiation and papain-induced pulmonary emphysema. The mechanisms of protection may involve the engraftment of MSCs in the lungs, differentiation of MSCs into type II alveolar epithelial cells and suppression of alveolar cell apoptosis.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Subpopulations: Application for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Morales, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Research on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) continues to progress rapidly. Nevertheless, the field faces several challenges, such as inherent cell heterogeneity and the absence of unique MSCs markers. Due to MSCs' ability to differentiate into multiple tissues, these cells represent a promising tool for new cell-based therapies. However, for tissue engineering applications, it is critical to start with a well-defined cell population. Additionally, evidence that MSCs subpopulations may also feature distinct characteristics and regeneration potential has arisen. In this report, we present an overview of the identification of MSCs based on the expression of several surface markers and their current tissue sources. We review the use of MSCs subpopulations in recent years and the main methodologies that have addressed their isolation, and we emphasize the most-used surface markers for selection, isolation, and characterization. Next, we discuss the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation from MSCs subpopulations. We conclude that MSCs subpopulation selection is not a minor concern because each subpopulation has particular potential for promoting the differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The accurate selection of the subpopulation advances possibilities suitable for preclinical and clinical studies and determines the safest and most efficacious regeneration process. PMID:27725838

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew B; Moncivais, Kathryn; Caplan, Arnold I

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are partially defined by their ability to differentiate into tissues including bone, cartilage and adipose in vitro, but it is their trophic, paracrine and immunomodulatory functions that may have the greatest therapeutic impact in vivo. Unlike pharmaceutical treatments that deliver a single agent at a specific dose, MSCs are site regulated and secrete bioactive factors and signals at variable concentrations in response to local microenvironmental cues. Significant progress has been made in understanding the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms and feedback associated with MSC response. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capacity of MSC may be paramount in the restoration of localized or systemic conditions for normal healing and tissue regeneration. Allogeneic MSC treatments, categorized as a drug by regulatory agencies, have been widely pursued, but new studies demonstrate the efficacy of autologous MSC therapies, even for individuals affected by a disease state. Safety and regulatory concerns surrounding allogeneic cell preparations make autologous and minimally manipulated cell therapies an attractive option for many regenerative, anti-inflammatory and autoimmune applications. PMID:24232253

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorated Glucolipotoxicity in HUVECs through TSG-6

    PubMed Central

    An, Xingxing; Li, Lan; Chen, Younan; Luo, Ai; Ni, Zuyao; Liu, Jingping; Yuan, Yujia; Shi, Meimei; Chen, Bo; Long, Dan; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Glucolipotoxicity is one of the critical causal factors of diabetic complications. Whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have effects on glucolipotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mechanisms involved are unclear. Thirty mM glucose plus 100 μM palmitic acid was used to induce glucolipotoxicity in HUVECs. MSCs and HUVECs were co-cultured at the ratio of 1:5 via Transwell system. The mRNA expressions of inflammatory factors were detected by RT-qPCR. The productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated protein 6 (TSG-6) was knockdown in MSCs by RNA interference. High glucose and palmitic acid remarkably impaired cell viability and tube formation capacity, as well as increased the mRNA expression of inflammatory factors, ROS levels, and cell apoptosis in HUVECs. MSC co-cultivation ameliorated these detrimental effects in HUVECs, but no effect on ROS production. Moreover, TSG-6 was dramatically up-regulated by high glucose and fatty acid stimulation in both MSCs and HUVECs. TSG-6 knockdown partially abolished the protection mediated by MSCs. MSCs had protective effects on high glucose and palmitic acid induced glucolipotoxicity in HUVECs, and TSG-6 secreted by MSCs was likely to play an important role in this process. PMID:27043548

  2. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sean D; Kol, Amir; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89%) were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection. PMID:27648075

  3. Engineering mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Sun; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Leong, Kam W

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to a variety of therapeutic scenarios by harnessing their multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties with tropisms toward inflamed, hypoxic, and cancerous sites. Although MSC-based therapies have been shown to be safe and effective to a certain degree, the efficacy remains low in most cases when MSC are applied alone. To enhance their therapeutic efficacy, researchers have equipped MSC with targeted delivery functions using genetic engineering, therapeutic agent incorporation, and cell surface modification. MSC can be genetically modified virally or non-virally to overexpress therapeutic proteins that complement their innate properties. MSC can also be primed with non-peptidic drugs or magnetic nanoparticles for enhanced efficacy and externally regulated targeting, respectively. Furthermore, MSC can be functionalized with targeting moieties to augment their homing toward therapeutic sites using enzymatic modification, chemical conjugation, or non-covalent interactions. These engineering techniques are still works in progress, requiring optimization to improve the therapeutic efficacy and targeting effectiveness while minimizing any loss of MSC function. In this review, we will highlight the advanced techniques of engineering MSC, describe their promise and the challenges of translation into clinical settings, and suggest future perspectives on realizing their full potential for MSC-based therapy.

  4. Expression of blood group genes by mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Richard; Schnaidt, Martina; Klaffschenkel, Roland A.; Siegel, Georg; Schüle, Michael; Rädlein, Maria Anna; Hermanutz-Klein, Ursula; Ayturan, Miriam; Buadze, Marine; Gassner, Christoph; Danielyan, Lusine; Kluba, Torsten; Northoff, Hinnak; Flegel, Willy A.

    2011-01-01

    Incompatible blood group antigens are highly immunogenic and can cause graft rejections. Focusing on distinct carbohydrate- and protein-based membrane structures, defined by blood group antigens, we investigated human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured in human serum. The presence of H (CD173), ABO, RhD, RhCE, RhAG, Kell, urea transporter type B (SLC14A1, previously known as JK), and Duffy antigen receptor of chemokines (DARC) was evaluated at the levels of genome, transcriptome and antigen. Fucosyltransferase-1 (FUT1), RHCE, KEL, SLC14A1 (JK) and DARC mRNA were transcribed in MSCs. FUT1 mRNA transcription was lost during differentiation. The mRNA transcription of SLC14A1 (JK) decreased during chondrogenic differentiation, while that of DARC increased during adipogenic differentiation. All MSCs synthesized SLC14A1 (JK) but no DARC protein. However, none of the protein antigens tested occurred on the surface, indicating a lack of associated protein function in the membrane. As A and B antigens are neither expressed nor adsorbed, concerns of ABO compatibility with human serum supplements during culture are alleviated. The H antigen expression by GD2dim+ MSCs identified two distinct MSC subpopulations and enabled their isolation. We hypothesize that GD2dim+H+ MSCs retain a better “stemness”. Because immunogenic blood group antigens are lacking, they cannot affect MSC engraftment in vivo, which is promising for clinical applications. PMID:21418181

  5. Reversing bone loss by directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Guan, Min; Jia, Junjing; Dai, Weiwei; Lay, Yu-An E; Amugongo, Sarah; Liu, Ruiwu; Olivos, David; Saunders, Mary; Lam, Kit S; Nolta, Jan; Olvera, Diana; Ritchie, Robert O; Lane, Nancy E

    2013-09-01

    Bone regeneration by systemic transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is problematic due to the inability to control the MSCs' commitment, growth, and differentiation into functional osteoblasts on the bone surface. Our research group has developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by conjugating a synthetic peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) that has high affinity for activated α4β1 integrin on the MSC surface, with a bisphosphonates (alendronate) that has high affinity for bone (LLP2A-Ale), to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that mobilization of LLP2A-Ale to hydroxyapatite accelerated MSC migration that was associated with an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt kinase and osteoblastogenesis. LLP2A-Ale increased the homing of the transplanted MSCs to bone as well as the osteoblast surface, significantly increased the rate of bone formation and restored both trabecular and cortical bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency or advanced age in mice. These results support LLP2A-Ale as a novel therapeutic option to direct the transplanted MSCs to bone for the treatment of established bone loss related to hormone deficiency and aging.

  6. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  7. Engineering Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Sun; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to a variety of therapeutic scenarios by harnessing their multipotent, regenerative, and immunosuppressive properties with tropisms toward inflamed, hypoxic, and cancerous sites. Although MSC-based therapies have been shown to be safe and effective to a certain degree, the efficacy remains low in most cases when MSC are applied alone. To enhance their therapeutic efficacy, researchers have equipped MSC with targeted delivery functions using genetic engineering, therapeutic agent incorporation, and cell surface modification. MSC can be genetically modified virally or non-virally to overexpress therapeutic proteins that complement their innate properties. MSC can also be primed with non-peptidic drugs or magnetic nanoparticles for enhanced efficacy and externally regulated targeting, respectively. Furthermore, MSC can be functionalized with targeting moieties to augment their homing toward therapeutic sites using enzymatic modification, chemical conjugation, or non-covalent interactions. These engineering techniques are still works in progress, requiring optimization to improve the therapeutic efficacy and targeting effectiveness while minimizing any loss of MSC function. In this review, we will highlight the advanced techniques of engineering MSC, describe their promise and the challenges of translation into clinical settings, and suggest future perspectives on realizing their full potential for MSC-based therapy. PMID:25770356

  8. The Effect of Hypoxia on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Dehdilani, Nima; Abbasi, Parvaneh; Molaeipour, Zahra; Saleh, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Although physiological and pathological role of hypoxia have been appreciated in mammalians for decades however the cellular biology of hypoxia more clarified in the past 20 years. Discovery of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, in the 1990s opened a new window to investigate the mechanisms behind hypoxia. In different cellular contexts HIF-1 activation show variable results by impacting various aspects of cell biology such as cell cycle, apoptosis, differentiation and etc. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are unique cells which take important role in tissue regeneration. They are characterized by self-renewal capacity, multilineage potential, and immunosuppressive property. Like so many kind of cells, hypoxia induces different responses in MSCs by HIF- 1 activation. The activation of this molecule changes the growth, multiplication, differentiation and gene expression profile of MSCs in their niche by a complex of signals. This article briefly discusses the most important effects of hypoxia in growth kinetics, signalling pathways, cytokine secretion profile and expression of chemokine receptors in different conditions. PMID:26236651

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics - an update.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Hamid; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Zikria; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Islam, Muhammad; Danish, Zeeshan; Khan, Asif Manzoor

    2016-04-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise to treat not only several congenital and acquired bone degenerative diseases but also to repair and regenerate morbid bone tissues. Utilizing MSCs, several lines of evidences advocate promising clinical outcomes in skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue repair/regeneration. In this context, both, autologous and allogeneic cell transfer options have been utilized. Studies suggest that MSCs are transplanted either alone by mixing with autogenous plasma/serum or by loading onto repair/induction supportive resorb-able scaffolds. Thus, this review is aimed at highlighting a wide range of pertinent clinical therapeutic options of MSCs in the treatment of skeletal diseases and skeletal tissue regeneration. Additionally, in skeletal disease and regenerative sections, only the early and more recent preclinical evidences are discussed followed by all the pertinent clinical studies. Moreover, germane post transplant therapeutic mechanisms afforded by MSCs have also been conversed. Nonetheless, assertive use of MSCs in the clinic for skeletal disorders and repair is far from a mature therapeutic option, therefore, posed challenges and future directions are also discussed. Importantly, for uniformity at all instances, term MSCs is used throughout the review.

  10. Model microgravity enhances endothelium differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Nan, Yayun; Wang, Huan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Nanding; Xie, Juan; Ma, Jing; Wang, Zongren

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiation into multilineage cell types under certain induction conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that physical environments and mechanical force can influence MSC fate, indicating that these factors may be favorable inducers for clinical treatment. Our previous study found that MSCs are spread with a spindle shape when cultured in normal gravity (NG), and under modeled microgravity (MMG) for 72 h, they become unspread and round and their cytoskeleton fibers are reorganized. These morphological changes affected the function of MSCs through the activity of RhoA. We examined the responses of MSCs under MMG stimulation, followed with VEGF differentiation. We found that MSCs under MMG for 72 h were differentiated into endothelial-like cells by detecting the expression of endothelial-specific molecules (Flk-1 and vWF), which were also able to form a capillary network. Their endothelial differentiation potential was improved under MMG compared with that under NG. We believe that this method is a novel choice of MMG stimulation for neovascularization. This phenomenon may increase the potential of MSC differentiation, which might be a new strategy for the treatment of various vascular diseases and improve vascularization in tissue engineering.

  11. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brandl, Anita; Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  12. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89%) were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection. PMID:27648075

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Disease: Risks and Rewards.

    PubMed

    Munir, Hafsa; McGettrick, Helen M

    2015-09-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) possess a range of immunomodulatory properties which they exert through soluble mediators and through direct cell-cell contact. Due to these immune regulatory properties, the safety and clinical efficacy of MSC treatment has been tested in a number of autoimmune disorders. In this review we analyze the current data from early phase trials into Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. In general, no adverse side effects were observed in patients treated with MSC; however, their clinical efficacy is difficult to interpret. Systemic or site-specific administration of MSC has been reported to exert potent immunomodulatory effects in 7 of the 11 trials discussed. Nonetheless, the mechanism(s) by which MSC exert their regulatory effects in vivo remain largely unknown. We discuss potential limitations or safety concerns associated with MSC therapy, including the heterogeneity of MSC and their potential contribution to disease pathogenesis, which need to be considered when designing future clinical trials, along with the need to standardize trial design. Although we are bridging the translational gap between scientific observations on MSC function and clinical applications for therapy, our understanding of basic MSC biology is still limited. Despite these issues, large, double-blinded, multicenter clinical trials are already underway. Further research into the endogenous function of MSC is required to elucidate the mechanism by which therapeutic MSC are acting.

  14. Secretome from mesenchymal stem cells induces angiogenesis via Cyr61.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Rosendo; Li, Na; Sarojini, Harshini; An, Jin; Lee, Menq-Jer; Wang, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    It is well known that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in wound healing and regeneration responses. In this study, we globally profiled the proteome of MSCs to investigate critical factor(s) that may promote wound healing. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61) was found to be abundantly present in MSCs. The presence of Cyr61 was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, we showed that Cyr61 is present in the culture medium (secretome) of MSCs. The secretome of MSCs stimulates angiogenic response in vitro, and neovascularization in vivo. Depletion of Cyr61 completely abrogates the angiogenic-inducing capability of the MSC secretome. Importantly, addition of recombinant Cyr61 polypeptides restores the angiogenic activity of Cyr61-depleted secretome. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Cyr61 polypeptide in MSC secretome contributes to the angiogenesis-promoting activity, a key event needed for regeneration and repair of injured tissues. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 563-571, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are abnormal in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Corre, J; Mahtouk, K; Attal, M; Gadelorge, M; Huynh, A; Fleury-Cappellesso, S; Danho, C; Laharrague, P; Klein, B; Rème, T; Bourin, P

    2007-05-01

    Recent literature suggested that cells of the microenvironment of tumors could be abnormal as well. To address this hypothesis in multiple myeloma (MM), we studied bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), the only long-lived cells of the bone marrow microenvironment, by gene expression profiling and phenotypic and functional studies in three groups of individuals: patients with MM, patients with monoclonal gamopathy of undefined significance (MGUS) and healthy age-matched subjects. Gene expression profile independently classified the BMMSCs of these individuals in a normal and in an MM group. MGUS BMMSCs were interspersed between these two groups. Among the 145 distinct genes differentially expressed in MM and normal BMMSCs, 46% may account for a tumor-microenvironment cross-talk. Known soluble factors implicated in MM pathophysiologic features (i.e. IL (interleukin)-6, DKK1) were revealed and new ones were found which are involved in angiogenesis, osteogenic differentiation or tumor growth. In particular, GDF15 was found to induce dose-dependent growth of MOLP-6, a stromal cell-dependent myeloma cell line. Functionally, MM BMMSCs induced an overgrowth of MOLP-6, and their capacity to differentiate into an osteoblastic lineage was impaired. Thus, MM BMMSCs are abnormal and could create a very efficient niche to support the survival and proliferation of the myeloma cells.

  16. [Mesenchymal stem cells - The challenge of a good therapeutic product].

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (or stromal cells) have been initially characterized in bone marrow, but since, they have been identified in almost every tissue. Their multiple properties, namely differentiative capacity, production of cytokines and trophic molecules, and their immunosuppressive potential undoubtedly offer many therapeutic advantages, both for regenerative medecine or to relieve immune or inflammatory diseases. This is illustrated by the high number (> 100) of ongoing clinical trials with these cells. However, a prerequsite for their safe use in clinics is to guarantee that their production meet the good manufacturing practices, and that the final product is validated by adequate controls. It is thus quite a challenge to move from procedures defined for a research use to large scale production that fits with the national and international rules in terms of standardisation and controls. This underlines the importance of developping interacting networks between research teams, physicians and the industrial R&D departments. This fruitful collaboration will ensure the definition of appropriate and safe procedures for a successful therapeutic application.

  17. Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function.

    PubMed

    Spees, Jeffrey L; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Gregory, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell-cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics. PMID:27581859

  18. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Challenges and Unfulfilled Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Somoza, Rodrigo A.; Welter, Jean F.; Correa, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage repair and regeneration provides a substantial challenge in Regenerative Medicine because of the high degree of morphological and mechanical complexity intrinsic to hyaline cartilage due, in part, to its extracellular matrix. Cartilage remains one of the most difficult tissues to heal; even state-of-the-art regenerative medicine technology cannot yet provide authentic cartilage resurfacing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were once believed to be the panacea for cartilage repair and regeneration, but despite years of research, they have not fulfilled these expectations. It has been observed that MSCs have an intrinsic differentiation program reminiscent of endochondral bone formation, which they follow after exposure to specific reagents as a part of current differentiation protocols. Efforts have been made to avoid the resulting hypertrophic fate of MSCs; however, so far, none of these has recreated a fully functional articular hyaline cartilage without chondrocytes exhibiting a hypertrophic phenotype. We reviewed the current literature in an attempt to understand why MSCs have failed to regenerate articular cartilage. The challenges that must be overcome before MSC-based tissue engineering can become a front-line technology for successful articular cartilage regeneration are highlighted. PMID:24749845

  19. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nalluri, Sandeep M; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2015-09-01

    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell-matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration.

  20. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology and Migration on Microtextured Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Brittany L.; Riley, Thomas R.; Platt, Christina J.; Brown, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    The implant used in spinal fusion procedures is an essential component to achieving successful arthrodesis. At the cellular level, the implant impacts healing and fusion through a series of steps: first, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) need to adhere and proliferate to cover the implant; second, the MSCs must differentiate into osteoblasts; third, the osteoid matrix produced by the osteoblasts needs to generate new bone tissue, thoroughly integrating the implant with the vertebrate above and below. Previous research has demonstrated that microtextured titanium is advantageous over smooth titanium and PEEK implants for both promoting osteogenic differentiation and integrating with host bone tissue; however, no investigation to date has examined the early morphology and migration of MSCs on these surfaces. This study details cell spreading and morphology changes over 24 h, rate and directionality of migration 6–18 h post-seeding, differentiation markers at 10 days, and the long-term morphology of MSCs at 7 days, on microtextured, acid-etched titanium (endoskeleton), smooth titanium, and smooth PEEK surfaces. The results demonstrate that in all metrics, the two titanium surfaces outperformed the PEEK surface. Furthermore, the rough acid-etched titanium surface presented the most favorable overall results, demonstrating the random migration needed to efficiently cover a surface in addition to morphologies consistent with osteoblasts and preosteoblasts. PMID:27243001

  1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation restores damaged ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shao-Fang; Hu, Hong-Bo; Xu, Hong-Yan; Fu, Xia-Fei; Peng, Dong-Xian; Su, Wei-Yan; He, Yuan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian injury because of chemotherapy can decrease the levels of sexual hormones and potentia generandi of patients, thereby greatly reducing quality of life. The goal of this study was to investigate which transplantation method for human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) can recover ovarian function that has been damaged by chemotherapy. A rat model of ovarian injury was established using an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Membrane-labelled HUMSCs were subsequently injected directly into ovary tissue or tail vein. The distribution of fluorescently labelled HUMSCs, estrous cycle, sexual hormone levels, and potentia generandi of treated and control rats were then examined. HUMSCs injected into the ovary only distributed to the ovary and uterus, while HUMSCs injected via tail vein were detected in the ovary, uterus, kidney, liver and lung. The estrous cycle, levels of sex hormones and potentia generandi of the treated rats were also recovered to a certain degree. Moreover, in some transplanted rats, fertility was restored and their offspring developed normally. While ovary injection could recover ovarian function faster, both methods produced similar results in the later stages of observation. Therefore, our results suggest that transplantation of HUMSCs by tail vein injection represents a minimally invasive and effective treatment method for ovarian injury. PMID:25922900

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell printing and process regulated cell properties.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica; Rin Son, Ae; Hamid, Qudus; Wang, Chengyang; Lui, Yigong; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This topical review with original analysis and empirical results compares cell sensitivity to physical stress during printing. The objective is to frame a reproducible causation between printing environment and printed cell morphology, viability and phenotype stability. Content includes: (1) a topical review classifies the overlap between physical stress vectors during printing and mesenchymal stem cell sensitivities. (2) Original flow analysis frames the feasible range of stress duration and intensity during manufacturing. (3) Preliminary empirical results define cell properties as a function of minimum, mean and maximum stress conditions. The review and analytical characterization serve as an essential precursor to interpret surprising empirical results. Results identify key cell properties are stress-dependent and controllable based on printing process parameter selection. Printing's minimum stress condition preserves cell viability. The maximum stress increases heterogeneity of cell response, induces inelastic ultra-structural distortion of the cell membrane and chromatin, and increases necrotic subpopulations post-printing. The review, analysis and preliminary results support the feasibility of modulating cell properties during fabrication by prescriptively tuning the stress environment. The process control over cell morphology, health and the rate of differentiation is both a direct result of strain during printing and an in-direct result of increased distress signaling from necrotic sub-populations. PMID:26696405

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells and cancer: friends or enemies?

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Sun; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate and engraft into tumor sites and exert stimulatory effects on cancer cell growth, invasion and even metastasis through direct and/or indirect interaction with tumor cells. However, these pro-tumorigenic effects of MSCs are still being discovered and may even involve opposing effects. MSCs can be friends or enemies of cancer cells: they may stimulate tumor development by regulating immune surveillance, growth, and angiogenesis. On the other hand, they may inhibit tumor growth by inhibiting survival signaling such as Wnt and Akt pathway. MSCs have also been proposed as an attractive candidate for the delivery of anti-tumor agents, owing to their ability to home into tumor sites and to secrete cytokines. Detailed information about the mutual interactions between tumor cells and MSCs will undoubtedly lead to safer and more effective clinical therapy for tumors. In this article, we summarize a number of findings to provide current information on the potential roles of MSCs in tumor development; we then discuss the therapeutic potential of engineered MSCs to reveal any meaningful clinical applications.

  4. Clopidogrel Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation Following Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, L S; Steffens, J P; Alsadun, S; Albiero, M L; Rossa, C; Pignolo, R J; Spolidorio, L C; Graves, D T

    2015-12-01

    Bone formation is dependent on the differentiation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition to serving as progenitors, MSCs reduce inflammation and produce factors that stimulate tissue formation. Upon injury, MSCs migrate to the periodontium, where they contribute to regeneration. We examined the effect of clopidogrel and aspirin on MSCs following induction of periodontitis in rats by placement of ligatures. We showed that after the removal of ligatures, which induces resolution of periodontal inflammation, clopidogrel had a significant effect on reducing the inflammatory infiltrate. It also increased the number of osteoblasts and MSCs. Mechanistically, the latter was linked to increased proliferation of MSCs in vivo and in vitro. When given prior to inducing periodontitis, clopidogrel had little effect on MSC or osteoblasts numbers. Applying aspirin before or after induction of periodontitis did not have a significant effect on the parameters measured. These results suggest that clopidogrel may have a positive effect on MSCs in conditions where a reparative process has been initiated.

  5. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs) were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89%) were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell mechanobiology and emerging experimental platforms

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Luke; Sun, Yu; Simmons, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental control over progenitor cell lineage specification can be achieved by modulating properties of the cell's microenvironment. These include physical properties of the cell adhesion substrate, such as rigidity, topography and deformation owing to dynamic mechanical forces. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) generate contractile forces to sense and remodel their extracellular microenvironments and thereby obtain information that directs broad aspects of MSC function, including lineage specification. Various physical factors are important regulators of MSC function, but improved understanding of MSC mechanobiology requires novel experimental platforms. Engineers are bridging this gap by developing tools to control mechanical factors with improved precision and throughput, thereby enabling biological investigation of mechanics-driven MSC function. In this review, we introduce MSC mechanobiology and review emerging cell culture platforms that enable new insights into mechanobiological control of MSCs. Our main goals are to provide engineers and microtechnology developers with an up-to-date description of MSC mechanobiology that is relevant to the design of experimental platforms and to introduce biologists to these emerging platforms. PMID:23635493

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell isolation and characterization from human spinal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Asari, Toru; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Sunao; Kudo, Hitoshi; Mizukami, Hiroki; Ono, Atsushi; Numasawa, Takuya; Kumagai, Gentaro; Motomura, Shigeru; Yagihashi, Soroku; Toh, Satoshi

    2012-01-27

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a fibroblast-like morphology, multilineage potential, long-term viability and capacity for self-renewal. While several articles describe isolating MSCs from various human tissues, there are no reports of isolating MSCs from human spinal ligaments, and their localization in situ. If MSCs are found in human spinal ligaments, they could be used to investigate hypertrophy or ossification of spinal ligaments. To isolate and characterize MSCs from human spinal ligaments, spinal ligaments were harvested aseptically from eight patients during surgery for lumbar spinal canal stenosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. After collagenase digestion, nucleated cells were seeded at an appropriate density to avoid colony-to-colony contact. Cells were cultured in osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic media to evaluate their multilineage differentiation potential. Immunophenotypic analysis of cell surface markers was performed by flow cytometry. Spinal ligaments were processed for immunostaining using MSC-related antibodies. Cells from human spinal ligaments could be extensively expanded with limited senescence. They were able to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic cells. Flow cytometry revealed that their phenotypic characteristics met the minimum criteria of MSCs. Immunohistochemistry revealed the localization of CD90-positive cells in the collagenous matrix of the ligament, and in adjacent small blood vessels. We isolated and expanded MSCs from human spinal ligaments and demonstrated localization of MSCs in spinal ligaments. These cells may play an indispensable role in elucidating the pathogenesis of numerous spinal diseases.

  8. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Translational Medicine: Emerging Issues

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guangwen; Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Fengping; Li, Wenzhao; Ren, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yanyun

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as a promising therapeutic approach of cell-based therapy for a wide range of autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. In preclinical and clinical studies, MSCs have been shown to be highly efficient in treating graft-versus-host disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, myocardial infarction, liver cirrhosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other disorders. The underlying therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs include their homing efficiency to the tissue injury sites, their differentiation potential, their capability to produce a large amount of trophic factors, and their immunomodulatory effect. Because tissue damage sites are complicated milieus with distinct types of inflammatory cells and factors, available data have demonstrated that the properties of MSCs could be fundamentally influenced by the inflammatory elements. Thus, an understanding of the interaction between MSCs and the inflammatory microenvironment will provide critical information in revealing the precise in vivo mechanisms of MSC-mediated therapeutic effects and designing more practical protocols for clinical use of these cells. PMID:23197640

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in defined protein beads.

    PubMed

    Lund, Amanda W; Bush, Jeff A; Plopper, George E; Stegemann, Jan P

    2008-10-01

    There is a need to develop improved methods for directing and maintaining the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) for regenerative medicine. Here, we present a method for embedding cells in defined protein microenvironments for the directed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Composite matrices of collagen I and agarose were produced by emulsification and simultaneous polymerization in the presence of hMSC to produce 30-150 mum diameter hydrogel "beads." The proliferation, morphology, osteogenic gene expression, and calcium deposition of hMSC in bead environments were compared to other two- and three-dimensional culture environments over 14-21 days in culture. Cells embedded within 40% collagen beads exhibited equivalent proliferation rates to those in gel disks, but showed upregulation of bone sialoprotein and increased calcium deposition over 2D controls. Osteocalcin gene expression was not changed in 3D beads and disks, while collagen type I gene expression was downregulated relative to cells in 2D culture. The hydrogel bead format allows controlled cell differentiation and is a cell delivery vehicle that may also enhance vascular invasion and host incorporation. Our results indicate that the application of such beads can be used to promote the osteogenic phenotype in hMSC, which is an important step toward using them in bone repair applications.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Nanette; Annett, Geralyn; Wirthlin, Louisa; Olson, Scott; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A

    2010-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells/marrow stromal cells (MSCs) present a promising tool for cell therapy, and are currently being tested in US FDA-approved clinical trials for myocardial infarction, stroke, meniscus injury, limb ischemia, graft-versus-host disease and autoimmune disorders. They have been extensively tested and proven effective in preclinical studies for these and many other disorders. There is currently a great deal of interest in the use of MSCs to treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular for those that are fatal and difficult to treat, such as Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Proposed regenerative approaches to neurological diseases using MSCs include cell therapies in which cells are delivered via intracerebral or intrathecal injection. Upon transplantation into the brain, MSCs promote endogenous neuronal growth, decrease apoptosis, reduce levels of free radicals, encourage synaptic connection from damaged neurons and regulate inflammation, primarily through paracrine actions. MSCs transplanted into the brain have been demonstrated to promote functional recovery by producing trophic factors that induce survival and regeneration of host neurons. Therapies will capitalize on the innate trophic support from MSCs or on augmented growth factor support, such as delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived neurotrophic factor into the brain to support injured neurons, using genetically engineered MSCs as the delivery vehicles. Clinical trials for MSC injection into the CNS to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke are currently ongoing. The current data in support of applying MSC-based cellular therapies to the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders are discussed.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanna, Tanmay; Sachan, Vatsal

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) have long been viewed as a potent tool for regenerative cell therapy. MSCs are easily accessible from both healthy donor and patient tissue and expandable in vitro on a therapeutic scale without posing significant ethical or procedural problems. MSC based therapies have proven to be effective in preclinical studies for graft versus host disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary fibrosis, autoimmune disorders and many other conditions and are currently undergoing clinical trials at a number of centers all over the world. MSCs are also being extensively researched as a therapeutic tool against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MSCs have been discussed with regard to two aspects in the context of neurodegenerative diseases: their ability to transdifferentiate into neural cells under specific conditions and their neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects. When transplanted into the brain, MSCs produce neurotrophic and growth factors that protect and induce regeneration of damaged tissue. Additionally, MSCs have also been explored as gene delivery vehicles, for example being genetically engineered to over express glial-derived or brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the brain. Clinical trials involving MSCs are currently underway for MS, ALS, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and stroke. In the present review, we explore the potential that MSCs hold with regard to the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases and the current scenario with reference to the same.

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Drive Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Ludovic; Erpicum, Charlotte; Detry, Benoit; Blacher, Silvia; Lenoir, Bénédicte; Carnet, Oriane; Péqueux, Christel; Cataldo, Didier; Lecomte, Julie; Paupert, Jenny; Noel, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    It is now well accepted that multipotent Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSC) contribute to cancer progression through several mechanisms including angiogenesis. However, their involvement during the lymphangiogenic process is poorly described. Using BM-MSC isolated from mice of two different backgrounds, we demonstrate a paracrine lymphangiogenic action of BM-MSC both in vivo and in vitro. Co-injection of BM-MSC and tumor cells in mice increased the in vivo tumor growth and intratumoral lymphatic vessel density. In addition, BM-MSC or their conditioned medium stimulated the recruitment of lymphatic vessels in vivo in an ear sponge assay, and ex vivo in the lymphatic ring assay (LRA). In vitro, MSC conditioned medium also increased the proliferation rate and the migration of both primary lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) and an immortalized lymphatic endothelial cell line. Mechanistically, these pro-lymphangiogenic effects relied on the secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-A by BM-MSC that activates VEGF Receptor (VEGFR)-2 pathway on LEC. Indeed, the trapping of VEGF-A in MSC conditioned medium by soluble VEGF Receptors (sVEGFR)-1, -2 or the inhibition of VEGFR-2 activity by a specific inhibitor (ZM 323881) both decreased LEC proliferation, migration and the phosphorylation of their main downstream target ERK1/2. This study provides direct unprecedented evidence for a paracrine lymphangiogenic action of BM-MSC via the production of VEGF-A which acts on LEC VEGFR-2. PMID:25222747

  13. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications. PMID:26727165

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Hou, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease, but its implementation is limited by organ shortage and immune rejection. Side effects of current immunosuppressive drugs, such as nephrotoxicity, opportunistic infection, and tumorigenic potential, influence long-term graft outcomes. In recent years, continued research and subsequent discoveries concerning the properties and potential utilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have aroused considerable interest and expectations. Biological characteristics of MSCs, including multi-lineage differentiation, homing potential, paracrine effect and immunomodulation, have opened new horizons for applications in kidney transplantation. However, many studies have shown that the biological activity of MSCs depends on internal inflammatory conditions, and the safety and efficacy of the clinical application of MSCs remain controversial. This review summarizes the findings of a large number of studies and aims to provide an objective viewpoint based on a comprehensive analysis of the presently established benefits and obstacles of implementing MSC-based therapy in kidney transplantation, and to promote its clinical translation. PMID:26852923

  15. Directed Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Qizhou; Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Gao, Fei; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), possess great potential to generate a wide range of cell types including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, bone, cartilage, and lipid cells. This protocol describes in detail how to perform highly efficient, lineage-specific differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with an MSCs fate. The approach uses a clinically compliant protocol with chemically defined media, feeder-free conditions, and a CD105 positive and CD24 negative selection to achieve a single cell-based MSCs derivation from differentiating human pluripotent cells in approximately 20 days. Cells generated with this protocol express typical MSCs surface markers and undergo adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis similar to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Nonetheless, compared with adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs display a higher proliferative capacity, up to 120 passages, without obvious loss of self-renewal potential and constitutively express MSCs surface antigens. MSCs generated with this protocol have numerous applications, including expansion to large scale cell numbers for tissue engineering and the development of cellular therapeutics. This approach has been used to rescue limb ischemia, allergic disorders, and cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and to model mesenchymal and vascular disorders of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). PMID:27236679

  16. Mesenchymal and induced pluripotent stem cells: general insights and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zomer, Helena D; Vidane, Atanásio S; Gonçalves, Natalia N; Ambrósio, Carlos E

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have awakened a great deal of interest in regenerative medicine due to their plasticity, and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. They are high-yield and can be acquired through noninvasive methods from adult tissues. Moreover, they are nontumorigenic and are the most widely studied. On the other hand, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be derived directly from adult cells through gene reprogramming. The new iPS technology avoids the embryo destruction or manipulation to generate pluripotent cells, therefore, are exempt from ethical implication surrounding embryonic stem cell use. The pre-differentiation of iPS cells ensures the safety of future approaches. Both mesenchymal stem cells and iPS cells can be used for autologous cell transplantations without the risk of immune rejection and represent a great opportunity for future alternative therapies. In this review we discussed the therapeutic perspectives using mesenchymal and iPS cells. PMID:26451119

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  18. Adipose Stem Cells as Alternatives for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Oral Ulcer Healing

    PubMed Central

    Aziz Aly, Lobna Abdel; Menoufy, Hala El-; Ragae, Alyaa; Rashed, Laila Ahmed; Sabry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Methods and Results Oral ulcers were induced by topical application of formocresol in the oral cavity of dogs. Transplantation of undifferentiated GFP-labeled Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell (BMSCs), Adipose Derived Stem Cell (ADSCs) or vehicle (saline) was injected around the ulcer in each group. The healing process of the ulcer was monitored clinically and histopathologically. Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected in MSCs by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of VEGF and collagen genes was detected in biopsies from all ulcers. Results: MSCs expressed mRNA for VEGF MSCs transplantation significantly accelerated oral ulcer healing compared with controls. There was increased expression of both collagen and VEGF genes in MSCs-treated ulcers compared to controls. Conclusions MSCs transplantation may help to accelerate oral ulcer healing, possibly through the induction of angiogenesis by VEGF together with increased intracellular matrix formation as detected by increased collagen gene expression. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials as an alternative for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in oral ulcer healing. PMID:24298363

  19. Concise review: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells: progress toward safe clinical products.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yunjoon; Bauer, Gerhard; Nolta, Jan A

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cell therapies have provided success for more than 50 years, through reconstitution of the hematopoietic system using bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and mobilized peripheral blood transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapy is a fast-growing field that has proven safe and effective in the treatment of various degenerative diseases and tissue injuries. Since the first derivation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), there has been impressive progress toward developing safe clinical applications from PSCs. Recent successes in transgene-free iPSC reprogramming have brought attention to the potential of clinical applications of these pluripotent cells, but key hurdles must be overcome, which are discussed in this review. Looking to the future, it could be advantageous to derive MSC from iPSC or human ESC in cases where genetic engineering is needed, since in the PSCs, clones with "safe harbor" vector integration could be selected, expanded, and differentiated. Here, we describe the status of the progress of the use of MSC and PSCs in clinical trials and analyze the challenges that should be overcome before iPSC-derived MSC therapy can be used widely in the clinic.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics and Vehicles for Gene and Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Porada, Christopher D.; Almeida-Porada, Graça

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suited both for cellular therapies/regenerative medicine, and as vehicles for gene and drug delivery. These include: 1) relative ease of isolation; 2) the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of seemingly functional cell types of both mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal origin; 3) the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity; 4) they are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they produce immunosuppression upon transplantation; 5) their pronounced anti-inflammatory properties; and 6) their ability to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following in vivo administration. In this review, we summarize the latest research in the use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine, as immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory agents, and as vehicles for transferring both therapeutic genes in genetic disease and genes designed to destroy malignant cells. PMID:20828588

  1. Regenerative Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Contribution of Muse Cells, a Novel Pluripotent Stem Cell Type that Resides in Mesenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Shigemoto, Taeko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-11-08

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easily accessible and safe for regenerative medicine. MSCs exert trophic, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, and tissue regeneration effects in a variety of tissues and organs, but their entity remains an enigma. Because MSCs are generally harvested from mesenchymal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, or umbilical cord as adherent cells, MSCs comprise crude cell populations and are heterogeneous. The specific cells responsible for each effect have not been clarified. The most interesting property of MSCs is that, despite being adult stem cells that belong to the mesenchymal tissue lineage, they are able to differentiate into a broad spectrum of cells beyond the boundary of mesodermal lineage cells into ectodermal or endodermal lineages, and repair tissues. The broad spectrum of differentiation ability and tissue-repairing effects of MSCs might be mediated in part by the presence of a novel pluripotent stem cell type recently found in adult human mesenchymal tissues, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells. Here we review recently updated studies of the regenerative effects of MSCs and discuss their potential in regenerative medicine.

  2. Advances and Developments in the Use of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells – A Few Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Lucinda; Thanabalasundaram, Gopiga; Tailor, Hiteshkumar D; Khan, Wasim S

    2011-01-01

    One less visited area in musculoskeletal stem cell research is the effects of donor age on quality of stem cells. The prevalence of degenerative orthopaedic conditions is large, and the older population is likely to receive great benefit from stem cell therapies. There are many known growth factors involved in controlling and influencing stem cell growth which are also related to cell senescence. Of which, expressions are found to be altered in mesenchymal stem cells from older donors. Considerations must also be taken of these mechanisms which also have a role in cell cycle and tumour suppression. PMID:21892368

  3. Microscale versus nanoscale scaffold architecture for mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Shobana; Chaudhry, Hans; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2011-03-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds, produced by the electrospinning technique, have gained widespread attention in tissue engineering due to their morphological similarities to the native extracellular matrix. For cartilage repair, studies have examined their feasibility; however these studies have been limited, excluding the influence of other scaffold design features. This study evaluated the effect of scaffold design, specifically examining a range of nano to micron-sized fibers and resulting pore size and mechanical properties, on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the adult bone marrow during chondrogenesis. MSC differentiation was examined on these scaffolds with an emphasis on temporal gene expression of chondrogenic markers and the pluripotent gene, Sox2, which has yet to be explored for MSCs during chondrogenesis and in combination with tissue engineering scaffolds. Chondrogenic markers of aggrecan, chondroadherin, sox9, and collagen type II were highest for cells on micron-sized fibers (5 and 9 μm) with pore sizes of 27 and 29 μm, respectively, in comparison to cells on nano-sized fibers (300 nm and 600 to 1400 nm) having pore sizes of 2 and 3 μm, respectively. Undifferentiated MSCs expressed high levels of the Sox2 gene but displayed negligible levels on all scaffolds with or without the presence of inductive factors, suggesting that the physical features of the scaffold play an important role in differentiation. Micron-sized fibers with large pore structures and mechanical properties comparable to the cartilage ECM enhanced chondrogenesis, demonstrating architectural features as well as mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous scaffolds enhance differentiation.

  4. Angiogenic and Immunomodulatory Properties of Endothelial and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Torbjorn O.; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Bolstad, Anne Isine

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the effect of implanted cells on the local environment is important when selecting the appropriate cell type for tissue regeneration. Our aim was to compare the local tissue response to implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC). MSC and EC were cultured in poly(l-lactide-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one) scaffolds for 1 week in a bioreactor system, after which they were implanted subcutaneously in NOD/SCID mice. After 3 weeks, scaffolds were retrieved, and the mRNA expression of selected genes involved in hypoxia and inflammation was examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with immunofluorescent staining for corresponding proteins. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway was examined by superarray hybridization. The expression of 53 angiogenesis-related proteins was investigated by a proteome profiler angiogenesis antibody array kit. Vascularization was quantified using immunohistochemistry for CD31. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factors and biomarkers for angiogenesis was more strongly upregulated in response to implanted EC than to MSC, suggesting a higher sensitivity to low oxygen tension among EC. Hypoxic signaling was increased after implantation of EC compared with MSC, leading to a prolonged acute inflammatory phase that promoted ingrowth of vascular cells and establishment of the circulation. Inflammatory cytokines were also differently expressed at the gene and protein levels in the two experimental groups, resulting in altered recruitment of acute and chronic inflammatory cells. The end result of these differences was increased vessel formation within the constructs in the EC group. PMID:26650611

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance wound healing through differentiation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaojiong; Chen, Liwen; Scott, Paul G; Tredget, Edward E

    2007-10-01

    Although chronic wounds are common, treatment for these disabling conditions remains limited and largely ineffective. In this study, we examined the benefit of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in wound healing. Using an excisional wound splinting model, we showed that injection around the wound and application to the wound bed of green fluorescence protein (GFP)(+) allogeneic BM-MSCs significantly enhanced wound healing in normal and diabetic mice compared with that of allogeneic neonatal dermal fibroblasts or vehicle control medium. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cells derived from the wound for GFP-expressing BM-MSCs indicated engraftments of 27% at 7 days, 7.6% at 14 days, and 2.5% at 28 days of total BM-MSCs administered. BM-MSC-treated wounds exhibited significantly accelerated wound closure, with increased re-epithelialization, cellularity, and angiogenesis. Notably, BM-MSCs, but not CD34(+) bone marrow cells in the wound, expressed the keratinocyte-specific protein keratin and formed glandular structures, suggesting a direct contribution of BM-MSCs to cutaneous regeneration. Moreover, BM-MSC-conditioned medium promoted endothelial cell tube formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in BM-MSCs and significantly greater amounts of the proteins in BM-MSC-treated wounds. Thus, our data suggest that BM-MSCs promote wound healing through differentiation and release of proangiogenic factors. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17615264

  6. Generating Rho-0 Cells Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Gallardo, M. Esther; Dalmao-Fernández, Andrea; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Garesse, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. Methodology Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells were used as reference control. For generation of Rho-0 hMSCs, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with each tested reagent. Total DNA was isolated and mtDNA content was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phenotypic characterization and gene expression assays were performed to determine whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs maintain the same stem properties as untreated 3a6 hMSCs. To evaluate whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs had a phenotype similar to that of 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptotic levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were measured by flow cytometry and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated using a SeaHorse XFp Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The differentiation capacity of 3a6 and 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs was evaluated using real-time PCR, comparing the relative expression of genes involved in osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. Results The results showed the capacity of the 3a6 cell line to deplete its mtDNA and to survive in culture with uridine. Of all tested drugs, Stavudine (dt4) was the most effective in producing 3a6-Rho cells. The data indicate that hMSC Rho-0 cells continue to express the characteristic MSC cell surface receptor pattern. Phenotypic characterization showed that 3a6 Rho-0 cells resembled 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, indicating that hMSC Rho-0 cells are Rho-0 cells. While the adipogenic capability was higher in 3a6 Rho-0 cells than in 3a6 cells, the osteogenic and chondrogenic

  7. Derivation and Chondrogenic Commitment of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Drissi, Hicham; Gibson, Jason D; Guzzo, Rosa M; Xu, Ren-He

    2015-01-01

    The induction of human embryonic stem cells to a mesenchymal-like progenitor population constitutes a developmentally relevant approach for efficient directed differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to the chondrogenic lineage. The initial enrichment of a hemangioblast intermediate has been shown to yield a replenishable population of highly purified progenitor cells that exhibit the typical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) surface markers as well as the capacity for multilineage differentiation to bone, fat, and cartilage. Herein, we provide detailed methodologies for the derivation and characterization of potent mesenchymal-like progenitors from hES cells and describe in vitro assays for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-mediated differentiation to the chondrogenic lineage.

  8. Characterization of neural stemness status through the neurogenesis process for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Maeda H; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Al-Juboory, Ahmad Adnan; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro isolation, identification, differentiation, and neurogenesis characterization of the sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated to produce two types of cells in culture: neural cells and neural stem cells (NSCs). These types of stem cells were used as successful sources for the further treatment of central nervous system defects and injuries. The mouse bone marrow MSCs were used as the source of the stem cells in this study. β-Mercaptoethanol (BME) was used as the main inducer of the neurogenesis pathway to induce neural cells and to identify NSCs. Three types of neural markers were used: nestin as the immaturation stage marker, neurofilament light chain as the early neural marker, and microtubule-associated protein 2 as the maturation marker through different time intervals in the neurogenesis process starting from the MSCs, (as undifferentiated cells), NSCs, production stages, and toward neuron cells (as differentiated cells). The results of different exposure times to BME of the neural markers analysis done by immunocytochemistry and real time-polymerase chain reaction helped us to identify the exact timing for the neural stemness state. The results showed that the best exposure time that may be used for the production of NSCs was 6 hours. The best maintenance media for NSCs were also identified. Furthermore, we optimized exposure to BME with different times and concentrations, which could be an interesting way to modulate specific neuronal differentiation and obtain autologous neuronal phenotypes. This study was able to characterize NSCs in culture under differentiation for neurogenesis in the pathway of the neural differentiation process by studying the expressed neural genes and the ability to maintain these NSCs in culture for further differentiation in thousands of functional neurons for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries and defects. PMID:27143939

  9. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells and its application in human disease therapy.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Gomez, José A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed.

  10. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming.

  11. Decellularized ECM Effects on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Stemness and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pattabhi, Sudhakara rao; Martinez, Jessica S.; Keller, Thomas C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Microenvironment extracellular matrices (ECMs) influence cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The ECMs of different microenvironments have distinctive compositions and architectures. This investigation addresses effects ECMs deposited by a variety of cell types and decellularized with a cold-EDTA protocol have on multipotent human mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (hMSC) behavior and differentiation. The cold-EDTA protocol removes intact cells from ECM, with minimal ECM damage and contamination. The decellularized ECMs deposited by cultured hMSCs, osteogenic hMSCs, and two smooth muscle cell (SMC) lines were tested for distinctive effects on the behavior and differentiation of early passage (‘naïve’) hMSC plated and cultured on the decellularized ECMs. Uninduced hMSC decellularized ECM enhanced naïve hMSC proliferation and cell motility while maintaining stemness. Decellularized ECM deposited by osteogenic hMSCs early in the differentiation process stimulated naïve hMSCs osteogenesis and substrate biomineralization in the absence of added dexamethasone, but this osteogenic induction potential was lower in ECMs decellularized later in the osteogenic hMSC differentiation process. Decellularized ECMs deposited by two smooth muscle cell lines induced naïve hMSCs to become smooth muscle cell-like with distinctive phenotypic characteristics of contractile and synthetic smooth muscle cells. This investigation demonstrates a useful approach for obtaining functional cell-deposited ECM and highlights the importance of ECM specificity in influencing stem cell behavior. PMID:25578478

  12. Towards Personalized Regenerative Cell Therapy: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with the capacity of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, and can be isolated from several adult tissues. However, isolating MSCs from adult tissues for cell therapy is hampered by the invasive procedure, the rarity of the cells and their attenuated proliferation capacity when cultivated and expanded in vitro. Human MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) have now evolved as a promising alternative cell source for MSCs and regenerative medicine. Several groups, including ours, have reported successful derivation of functional iPSC-MSCs and applied these cells in MSC-based therapeutic testing. Still, the current experience and understanding of iPSC-MSCs with respect to production methods, safety and efficacy are primitive. In this review, we highlight the methodological progress in iPSC-MSC research, describing the importance of choosing the right sources of iPSCs, iPSC reprogramming methods, iPSC culture systems, embryoid body intermediates, pathway inhibitors, basal medium, serum, growth factors and culture surface coating. We also highlight some progress in the application of iPSC-MSCs in direct cell therapy, tissue engineering and gene therapy.

  13. Stem cells for hepatic regeneration: the role of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Banas, Agnieszka; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Iwaguro, Hideki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2010-06-01

    Severe hepatic dysfunctions including hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma are life-threatening conditions for which effective medical treatments are needed. With the only effective treatment to date being orthotropic liver transplantation, alternative approaches are needed because of the limited number of donors and the possibility of immune-rejection. One alternative is regenerative medicine, which holds promise for the development of a cell-based therapy enabling hepatic regeneration through transplantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) or hepatocyte-like cells generated from AT-MSCs. When compared with embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, the use of AT-MSCs as regenerative cells would be advantageous in regard to ethical and safety issues since AT-MSCs are somatic cells and have the potential to be used without in vitro culture. These autologous cells are immuno-compatible and exhibit controlled differentiation and multi-functional abilities and do not undergo post-transplantation rejection or unwanted differentiation such as formation of teratomas. AT-MSC-based therapies may provide a novel approach for hepatic regeneration and hepatocyte differentiation and thereby support hepatic function in diseased individuals.

  14. The potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Nayoun; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a therapeutic approach to regenerative medicine, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and many more due to their potential to differentiate into various tissues, to repair damaged tissues and organs, and also for their immunomodulatory properties. Findings in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated immune regulatory function of MSCs and have facilitated their application in clinical trials, such as those of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory diseases. There has been an increasing interest in the role of MSCs in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), including hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and their therapeutic potential has been reported in numerous clinical trials. Although the safety of clinical application of MSCs is established, further modifications to improve their efficacy are required. In this review, we summarize advances in the potential use of MSCs in HSCT. In addition, we discuss their use in clinical trials of the treatment of GVHD following HSCT, the immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs, and their regenerative and therapeutic potential in the field of HSCT. PMID:23306700

  15. Enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell angiogenic capacity and stemness by a biomimetic hydrogel scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Rustad, Kristine C.; Wong, Victor W.; Sorkin, Michael; Glotzbach, Jason P.; Major, Melanie R.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the capacity of a biomimetic pullulan–collagen hydrogel to create a functional biomaterial-based stem cell niche for the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into wounds. Murine bone marrow-derived MSCs were seeded into hydrogels and compared to MSCs grown in standard culture conditions. Hydrogels induced MSC secretion of angiogenic cytokines and expression of transcription factors associated with maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) when compared to MSCs grown in standard conditions. An excisonal wound healing model was used to compare the ability of MSC-hydrogel constructs versus MSC injection alone to accelerate wound healing. Injection of MSCs did not significantly improve time to wound closure. In contrast, wounds treated with MSC-seeded hydrogels showed significantly accelerated healing and a return of skin appendages. Bioluminescence imaging and FACS analysis of luciferase+/GFP+ MSCs indicated that stem cells delivered within the hydrogel remained viable longer and demonstrated enhanced engraftment efficiency than those delivered via injection. Engrafted MSCs were found to differentiate into fibroblasts, pericytes and endothelial cells but did not contribute to the epidermis. Wounds treated with MSC-seeded hydrogels demonstrated significantly enhanced angiogenesis, which was associated with increased levels of VEGF and other angiogenic cytokines within the wounds. Our data suggest that biomimetic hydrogels provide a functional niche capable of augmenting MSC regenerative potential and enhancing wound healing. PMID:21963148

  16. Differentiation of hepatocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Lv, Shuang; He, Xia; Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Meiyu; Li, Meiying; Chi, Guangfan; Li, Yulin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the limitations of organ donors and immune rejection in severe liver diseases, stem cell-based therapy presents a promising application for tissue repair and regeneration. As a novel cell source, mesenchymal stem cells separated from human hair follicles (HF-MSCs) are convenient to obtain and have no age limit. To date, the differentiation of HF-MSCs into hepatocytes has not been reported. In this study, we explored whether HF-MSCs and HF-MSC-derived-induced pluripotent stem cells (HF-iPS) could differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. Flow cytometry, Oil Red O stain and Alizarin Red stain were used to identify the characteristics of HF-MSCs. The expression of liver-specific gene was detected by immunofluorescence and Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Periodic Acid-Schiff stain, Indocyanine Green stain and Low-Density Lipoprotein stain were performed to evaluate the functions of induced hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). HF-MSCs were unable to differentiate into HLCs using previously reported procedures for MSCs from other tissues. However, HF-iPS efficiently induced the generation of HLCs that expressed hepatocyte markers and drug metabolism-related genes. HF-iPS can be used as novel and alternative cellular tools for inducing hepatocytes in vitro, simultaneously benefiting from utilizing HF-MSCs as a noninvasive and convenient cell source for reprogramming. PMID:27053247

  17. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y. Alex

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  18. Mesenchymal traits are selected along with stem features in breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres

    PubMed Central

    Borgna, Silvia; Armellin, Michela; di Gennaro, Alessandra; Maestro, Roberta; Santarosa, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that invasive properties of breast cancers rely on gain of mesenchymal and stem features, which has suggested that the dual targeting of these phenotypes may represent an appealing therapeutic strategy. It is known that the fraction of stem cells can be enriched by culturing breast cancer cells as mammospheres (MS), but whether these pro-stem conditions favor also the expansion of cells provided of mesenchymal features is still undefined. In the attempt to shed light on this issue, we compared the phenotypes of a panel of 10 breast cancer cell lines representative of distinct subtypes (luminal, HER2-positive, basal-like and claudin-low), grown in adherent conditions and as mammospheres. Under MS-proficient conditions, the increment in the fraction of stem-like cells was associated to upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin and downregulation of the epithelial markers expressed by luminal cells (E-cadherin, KRT18, KRT19, ESR1). Luminal cells tended also to upregulate the myoepithelial marker CD10. Taken together, our data indicate that MS-proficient conditions do favor mesenchymal/myoepithelial features, and indicate that the use of mammospheres as an in vitro tumor model may efficiently allow the exploitation of therapeutic approaches aimed at targeting aggressive tumors that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23095640

  19. Plasticity between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Unlinks EMT from Metastasis-Enhancing Stem Cell Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, Evelyne; Seinstra, Daniëlle; de Wit, Elzo; Kester, Lennart; van der Velden, Daphne; Maynard, Carrie; Schäfer, Ronny; van Diest, Paul; Voest, Emile; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Vrisekoop, Nienke; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Forced overexpression and/or downregulation of proteins regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to alter metastasis by changing migration and stem cell capacity of tumor cells. However, these manipulations artificially keep cells in fixed states, while in vivo cells may adapt transient and reversible states. Here, we have tested the existence and role of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in metastasis of mammary tumors without artificially modifying EMT regulators. In these tumors, we found by intravital microscopy that the motile tumor cells have undergone EMT, while their epithelial counterparts were not migratory. Moreover, we found that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity renders any EMT-induced stemness differences, as reported previously, irrelevant for metastatic outgrowth, because mesenchymal cells that arrive at secondary sites convert to the epithelial state within one or two divisions, thereby obtaining the same stem cell potential as their arrived epithelial counterparts. We conclude that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity supports migration but additionally eliminates stemness-enhanced metastatic outgrowth differences. PMID:26947068

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes adult neurogenesis in the brains of Alzheimer's disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yufang; Ma, Tuo; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Zhang, Xiufang; Gong, Yandao

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the hippocampi of APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the number of newly generated (BrdU+) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus was significantly higher in Alzheimer's disease mice after adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and there was also a significant increase in the number of BrdU+/DCX+ neuroblasts in these animals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhanced neurogenic activity in the subventricular zone as well. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation reduced oxidative stress and alleviated cognitive impairment in the mice. Based on these findings, we propose that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous neurogenesis in both the subgranular and subventricular zones in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice, thereby facilitating functional recovery. PMID:25206892

  1. A new fibrin sealant as a three-dimensional scaffold candidate for mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The optimization of an organic scaffold for specific types of applications and cells is vital to successful tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effects of a new fibrin sealant derived from snake venom as a scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells, to demonstrate the ability of cells to affect and detect the biological microenvironment. Methods The characterization of CD34, CD44 and CD90 expression on mesenchymal stem cells was performed by flow cytometry. In vitro growth and cell viability were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Differentiation into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was induced. Results The fibrin sealant did not affect cell adhesion, proliferation or differentiation and allowed the adherence and growth of mesenchymal stem cells on its surface. Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide staining demonstrated the viability of mesenchymal stem cells in contact with the fibrin sealant and the ability of the biomaterial to maintain cell survival. Conclusions The new fibrin sealant is a three-dimensional scaffolding candidate that is capable of maintaining cell survival without interfering with differentiation, and might also be useful in drug delivery. Fibrin sealant has a low production cost, does not transmit infectious diseases from human blood and has properties of a suitable scaffold for stem cells because it permits the preparation of differentiated scaffolds that are suitable for every need. PMID:24916098

  2. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma: stem cell transplantation methods that enhance stemness.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Tajima, Satoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2015-11-05

    Because of their ease of isolation and relative abundance, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are a particularly attractive autologous cell source for various therapeutic purposes. ASCs retain a high proliferation capacity in vitro and have the ability to undergo extensive differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, ASCs secrete a wide range of growth factors that can stimulate tissue regeneration. Therefore, the clinical use of ASCs is feasible. However, the potential of ASCs differs depending on the donor's medical condition, including diseases such as diabetes. Recent studies demonstrated that ASCs from diabetic donors exhibit reduced proliferative potential and a smaller proportion of stem cell marker-positive cells. Therefore, to ensure the success of regenerative medicine, tissue engineering methods must be improved by the incorporation of factors that increase the proliferation and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells when autologous cells are used. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which contains high levels of diverse growth factors that can stimulate stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation in the context of tissue regeneration, has recently been identified as a biological material that could be applied to tissue regeneration. Thus, co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP represents a promising novel approach for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. In this review, we describe the potential benefits of adding PRP to ASCs and preclinical and clinical studies of this approach in various medical fields. We also discuss the mechanisms of PRP action and future cell-based therapies using co-transplantation of ASCs and PRP.

  3. [Effects of catalase on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-Ping; Gao, Ying-Dai; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Shi, Ying-Xu; Xie, Yin-Liang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2010-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the growth and multiple differentiation potential of human umbilical cord tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transfected by a retroviral vector with catalase (CAT) gene. The UC-MSCs cultured in vitro were transfected by using pMSCV carrying GFP (pMSCV-GFP) and pMSCV carrying CAT (pMSCV-GFP-CAT) respectively, then the MSC-GFP cell line and MSC-GFP-CAT cell line were obtained by sorting of flow cytometry. The GFP expression was observed by a fluorescent microscopy at 48 hours after CAT gene transfection. The GFP+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry. The activity of CAT in GFP+ cells was detected by catalase assay kit. The proliferative capacity of transfected UC-MSCs was determined by cell counting kit-8. The differentiation ability of gene-transfected GFP+ cells into osteogenesis and adipogenesis was observed by von Kossa and oil red O staining. The results indicated that green fluorescence in UC-MSCs was observed at 48 hours after transfection, and the fluorescence gradually enhanced to a steady level on day 3. The percentage of MSCs-GFP was (25.54+/-8.65)%, while the percentage of MSCs-GFP-CAT was (35.4+/-18.57)%. The activity of catalase in UC-MSCs, MSCs-GFP, MSCs-GFP-CAT cells were 19.5, 20.3, 67.2 U, respectively. The transfected MSCs-GFP-CAT could be induced into osteoblasts and adipocytes. After 21 days, von Kossa staining showed induced osteoblasts. Many lipid droplets with high refractivity occurred in cytoplasm of the transfected UC-MSCs, and showed red fat granules in oil red O staining cells. There were no significant differences between transfected and non-transfected UC-MSCs cells (p>0.05). It is concluded that UC-MSCs are successfully transfected by retrovirus carrying GFP or CAT gene, the activity of catalase increased by 3.4-fold. The transfected UC-MSCs maintain proliferation potential and ability of differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorate Atherosclerotic Lesions via Restoring Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Yuan-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is beneficial in myocardial infarction and hind limb ischemia, but its ability to ameliorate atherosclerosis remains unknown. Here, the effects of MSCs on inhibiting endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis were investigated in human/mouse endothelial cells treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with oxLDL inactivated the Akt/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway, induced eNOS degradation, and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Coculture with human MSCs reversed the effects of oxLDL on endothelial cells and restored Akt/eNOS activity, eNOS level, and NO production. Reduction of endothelium-dependent relaxation and subsequent plaque formation were developed in apoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet. Systemic infusion with mouse MSCs ameliorated endothelial dysfunction and plaque formation in high-fat diet-fed apoE−/− mice. Interestingly, treatment with interleukin-8 (IL8)/macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) alone induced the similar effects of human/mouse MSCs on oxLDL-treated human/mouse endothelial cells. Neutralization antibodies (Abs) against IL8/MIP-2 also blocked the effects of human/mouse MSCs on oxLDL-treated human/mouse endothelial cells. Consistently, MIP-2 injection alone induced the similar effect of MSCs on the endothelial function in high-fat diet-fed apoE−/− mice. The improvement in endothelial dysfunction by mouse MSCs was also blocked when pretreating MSCs with anti-MIP-2 Abs. In conclusion, MSC transplantation improved endothelial function and plaque formation in high-fat diet-fed apoE−/− mice. Activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway in endothelium by IL8/MIP-2 is involved in the protective effect of MSCs. The study helps support the use and clarify the mechanism of MSCs for ameliorating atherosclerosis. PMID:25504897

  5. Human Wharton's jelly stem cells have unique transcriptome profiles compared to human embryonic stem cells and other mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Chak, Li-Ling; Biswas, Arijit; Tan, Jee-Hian; Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Bongso, Ariff

    2011-03-01

    The human umbilical cord that originates from the embryo is an extra-embryonic membrane and the Wharton's jelly within it is a rich source of stem cells (hWJSCs). It is not definitely known whether these cells behave as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) or both. They have the unique properties of high proliferation rates, wide multipotency, hypoimmunogenicity, do not induce teratomas and have anticancer properties. These advantages are important considerations for their use in cell based therapies and treatment of cancers. In a search for properties that confer these advantages we compared a detailed transcriptome profiling of hWJSCs using DNA microarrays with that of a panel of known hESCs, hMSCs and stromal cells. hWJSCs expressed low levels of the pluripotent embryonic stem cell markers including POUF1, NANOG, SOX2 and LIN28, thus explaining why they do not produce teratomas. Several cytokines were significantly upregulated in hWJSCs including IL12A which is associated with the induction of apoptosis, thus explaining their anticancer properties. When GO Biological Process analysis was compared between the various stem cell types, hWJSCs showed an increased expression of genes associated with the immune system, chemotaxis and cell death. The ability to modulate immune responses makes hWJSCs an important compatible stem cell source for transplantation therapy in allogeneic settings without immunorejection. The data in the present study which is the first detailed report on hWJSC transcriptomes provide a foundation for future functional studies where the exact mechanisms of these unique properties of hWJSCs can be confirmed.

  6. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young's modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs.

  7. Next Generation Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC)–Based Cartilage Repair Using Scaffold-Free Tissue Engineered Constructs Generated with Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Kazunori; Ando, Wataru; Moriguchi, Yu; Sugita, Norihiko; Yasui, Yukihiko; Koizumi, Kota; Fujie, Hiromichi; Hart, David A.; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Because of its limited healing capacity, treatments for articular cartilage injuries are still challenging. Since the first report by Brittberg, autologous chondrocyte implantation has been extensively studied. Recently, as an alternative for chondrocyte-based therapy, mesenchymal stem cell–based therapy has received considerable research attention because of the relative ease in handling for tissue harvest, and subsequent cell expansion and differentiation. This review summarizes latest development of stem cell therapies in cartilage repair with special attention to scaffold-free approaches. PMID:27340513

  8. The suture provides a niche for mesenchymal stem cells of craniofacial bones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Ho, Thach-Vu; Grimes, Weston; Urata, Mark; Chai, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue undergoes constant turnover supported by stem cells. Recent studies showed that perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the turnover of long bones. Craniofacial bones are flat bones derived from a different embryonic origin than the long bones. The identity and regulating niche for craniofacial bone MSCs remain unknown. Here, we identify Gli1+ cells within the suture mesenchyme as the major MSC population for craniofacial bones. They are not associated with vasculature, give rise to all craniofacial bones in the adult and are activated during injury repair. Gli1+ cells are typical MSCs in vitro. Ablation of Gli1+ cells leads to craniosynostosis and arrest of skull growth, indicating these cells are an indispensible stem cell population. Twist1+/− mice with craniosynostosis show reduced Gli1+ MSCs in sutures, suggesting that craniosynostosis may result from diminished suture stem cells. Our study indicates that craniofacial sutures provide a unique niche for MSCs for craniofacial bone homeostasis and repair. PMID:25799059

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate cardiac stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hatzistergos, Konstantions E.; Quevedo, Henry; Oskouei, Behzad N.; Hu, Qinghua; Feigenbaum, Gary S.; Margitich, Irene S.; Mazhari, Ramesh; Boyle, Andrew J.; Zambrano, Juan P.; Rodriguez, Jose E.; Dulce, Raul; Pattany, Pradip M.; Valdes, David; Revilla, Concepcion; Heldman, A.W.; McNiece, I.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The regenerative potential of the heart is insufficient to fully restore functioning myocardium after injury, motivating the quest for a cell-based replacement strategy. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the capacity for cardiac repair that appears to exceed their capacity for differentiation into cardiac myocytes. Objective Here we test the hypothesis that bone marrow derived MSCs stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) as part of their regenerative repertoire. Methods And Results Female Yorkshire pigs (n=31) underwent experimental myocardial Infarction (MI); and 3 days later received transendocardial injections of allogeneic male bone marrow-derived MSCs, MSC concentrated conditioned medium (CCM), or placebo (Plasmalyte). A no-injection control group was also studied. MSCs engrafted and differentiated into cardiomyocytes and vascular structures. In addition, endogenous c-kit+ CSCs increased 20-fold in MSC treated animals vs. controls (p<0.001), there was a 6-fold increase in GATA-4+ CSCs in MSC vs. control (p<0.001), and mitotic myocytes increased 4-fold. Porcine endomyocardial biopsies were harvested and plated as organotypic cultures in the presence or absence of MSC feeder layers. In vitro, MSCs stimulated c-kit+ CSCs proliferation into enriched populations of adult cardioblasts that expressed Nkx2-5 and troponin I. Conclusions MSCs stimulate host CSCs, a new mechanism of action underlying successful cell-based therapeutics. PMID:20671238

  10. Advances in mesenchymal stem cell-based strategies for cartilage repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Toh, Wei Seong; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Pei, Ming; Hui, James Hoi Po

    2014-10-01

    Significant research efforts have been undertaken in the last decade in the development of stem cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. Among the various stem cell sources, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) demonstrate great promise and clinical efficacy in cartilage regeneration. With a deeper understanding of stem cell biology, new therapeutics and new bioengineering approaches have emerged and showed potential for further developments. Of note, there has been a paradigm shift in applying MSCs for tissue regeneration from the use of stem cells for transplantation to the use of stem cell-derived matrix and secretome components as therapeutic tools and agents for cartilage regeneration. In this review, we will discuss the emerging role of MSCs in cartilage regeneration and the most recent advances in development of stem cell-based therapeutics for cartilage regeneration.

  11. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets accelerate liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Itaba, Noriko; Matsumi, Yoshiaki; Okinaka, Kaori; Ashla, An Afida; Kono, Yohei; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Morimoto, Minoru; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Kazuo; Okano, Teruo; Shiota, Goshi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cell therapy. Based on our hypothesis that suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signal enhances hepatic differentiation of human MSCs, we developed human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets by a small molecule compound. Screening of 10 small molecule compounds was performed by WST assay, TCF reporter assay, and albumin mRNA expression. Consequently, hexachlorophene suppressed TCF reporter activity in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hexachlorophene rapidly induced hepatic differentiation of human MSCs judging from expression of liver-specific genes and proteins, PAS staining, and urea production. The effect of orthotopic transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets against acute liver injury was examined in one-layered to three-layered cell sheets system. Transplantation of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered hepatic cell sheets enhanced liver regeneration and suppressed liver injury. The survival rates of the mice were significantly improved. High expression of complement C3 and its downstream signals including C5a, NF-κB, and IL-6/STAT-3 pathway was observed in hepatic cell sheets-grafted tissues. Expression of phosphorylated EGFR and thioredoxin is enhanced, resulting in reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest that orthotopic transplantation of hepatic cell sheets manufactured from MSCs accelerates liver regeneration through complement C3, EGFR and thioredoxin. PMID:26553591

  13. Recent advances in mesenchymal stem cell immunomodulation: the role of microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra; Del Fattore, Andrea; Luciano, Rosa; Muraca, Marta; Teti, Anna; Muraca, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are the most widely used cell phenotype for therapeutic applications, the main reasons being their well-established abilities to promote regeneration of injured tissues and to modulate immune responses. Efficacy was reported in the treatment of several animal models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and, in clinical settings, for the management of disorders such as GVHD, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The effects of mesenchymal stem cells are believed to be largely mediated by paracrine signals, and several secreted molecules have been identified as contributors to the net biological effect. Recently, it has been recognized that bioactive molecules can be shuttled from cell to cell packed in microvesicles, tiny portions of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane. Coding and noncoding RNAs are also carried in such microvesicles, transferring relevant biological activity to target cells. Several reports indicate that the regenerative effect of mesenchymal stem cells can be reproduced by microvesicles isolated from their culture medium. More recent evidence suggests that the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells are also at least partially mediated by secreted microvesicles. These findings allow better understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell interaction and may have interesting implications for the development of novel therapeutic tools in place of the parent cells.

  14. In vitro mesenchymal stem cell response to a CO2 laser modified polymeric material.

    PubMed

    Waugh, D G; Hussain, I; Lawrence, J; Smith, G C; Cosgrove, D; Toccaceli, C

    2016-10-01

    With an ageing world population it is becoming significantly apparent that there is a need to produce implants and platforms to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. This is needed to meet the socio-economic demands of many countries worldwide. This paper details one of the first ever studies in to the manipulation of stem cell growth on CO2 laser surface treated nylon 6,6 highlighting its potential as an inexpensive platform to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. Through CO2 laser surface treatment discrete changes to the surfaces were made. That is, the surface roughness of the nylon 6,6 was increased by up to 4.3μm, the contact angle was modulated by up to 5° and the surface oxygen content increased by up to 1atom %. Following mesenchymal stem cell growth on the laser treated samples, it was identified that CO2 laser surface treatment gave rise to an enhanced response with an increase in viable cell count of up to 60,000cells/ml when compared to the as-received sample. The effect of surface parameters modified by the CO2 laser surface treatment on the mesenchymal stem cell response is also discussed along with potential trends that could be identified to govern the mesenchymal stem cell response. PMID:27287173

  15. Stiffening of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Spheroid Microenvironments Induced by Incorporation of Gelatin Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baraniak, Priya R.; Cooke, Marissa T.; Saeed, Rabbia; Kinney, Melissa A.; Fridley, Krista M.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    Culturing multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells as 3D aggregates augments their differentiation potential and paracrine activity. One caveat of stem cell spheroids, though, can be the limited diffusional transport barriers posed by the inherent 3D structure of the multicellular aggregates. In order to circumvent such limitations, polymeric microparticles have been incorporated into stem cell aggregates as a means to locally control the biochemical and physical properties of the 3D microenvironment. However, the introduction of biomaterials to the 3D stem cell microenvironment could alter the mechanical forces sensed by cells within aggregates, which in turn could impact various cell behaviors and overall spheroid mechanics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of biomaterial incorporation within mesenchymal stem cell spheroids on aggregate structure and mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrate that although gelatin microparticle incorporation results in similar multi-cellular organization within human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids, the introduction of gelatin materials significantly impacts spheroid mechanical properties. The marked differences in spheroid mechanics induced by microparticle incorporation may hold major implications for in vitro directed differentiation strategies and offer a novel route to engineer the mechanical properties of tissue constructs ex vivo. PMID:22658155

  16. Sox10 Regulates Stem/Progenitor and Mesenchymal Cell States in Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Dravis, Christopher; Spike, Benjamin T; Harrell, J Chuck; Johns, Claire; Trejo, Christy L; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Perou, Charles M; Wahl, Geoffrey M

    2015-09-29

    To discover mechanisms that mediate plasticity in mammary cells, we characterized signaling networks that are present in the mammary stem cells responsible for fetal and adult mammary development. These analyses identified a signaling axis between FGF signaling and the transcription factor Sox10. Here, we show that Sox10 is specifically expressed in mammary cells exhibiting the highest levels of stem/progenitor activity. This includes fetal and adult mammary cells in vivo and mammary organoids in vitro. Sox10 is functionally relevant, as its deletion reduces stem/progenitor competence whereas its overexpression increases stem/progenitor activity. Intriguingly, we also show that Sox10 overexpression causes mammary cells to undergo a mesenchymal transition. Consistent with these findings, Sox10 is preferentially expressed in stem- and mesenchymal-like breast cancers. These results demonstrate a signaling mechanism through which stem and mesenchymal states are acquired in mammary cells and suggest therapeutic avenues in breast cancers for which targeted therapies are currently unavailable. PMID:26365194

  17. Semaphorin 3A Induces Mesenchymal-Stem-Like Properties in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hidefumi; Hasegawa, Daigaku; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, Peter Mark; Menicanin, Danijela; Fujii, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have recently been proposed as a novel option in periodontal regenerative therapy. However, one of the issues is the difficulty of stably generating PDLSCs because of the variation of stem cell potential between donors. Here, we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) can induce mesenchymal-stem-like properties in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Sema3A expression was specifically observed in the dental follicle during tooth development and in parts of mature PDL tissue in rodent tooth and periodontal tissue. Sema3A expression levels were found to be higher in multipotential human PDL cell clones compared with low-differentiation potential clones. Sema3A-overexpressing PDL cells exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate into both functional osteoblasts and adipocytes. Moreover, PDL cells treated with Sema3A only at the initiation of culture stimulated osteogenesis, while Sema3A treatment throughout the culture had no effect on osteogenic differentiation. Finally, Sema3A-overexpressing PDL cells upregulated the expression of embryonic stem cell markers (NANOG, OCT4, and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD166), and Sema3A promoted cell division activity of PDL cells. These results suggest that Sema3A may possess the function to convert PDL cells into mesenchymal-stem-like cells. PMID:24380401

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Vocal Fold Scarring: A Systematic Review of Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wingstrand, Vibe Lindeblad; Jensen, David H.; Bork, Kristian; Sebbesen, Lars; Balle, Jesper; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells exhibits potential for the development of novel interventions for many diseases and injuries. The use of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative therapy for vocal fold scarring exhibited promising results to reduce stiffness and enhance the biomechanical properties of injured vocal folds. This study evaluated the biomechanical effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of vocal fold scarring. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched. Methods Controlled studies that assessed the biomechanical effects of mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of vocal fold scarring were included. Primary outcomes were viscoelastic properties and mucosal wave amplitude. Results Seven preclinical animal studies (n = 152 single vocal folds) were eligible for inclusion. Evaluation of viscoelastic parameters revealed a decreased dynamic viscosity (η’) and elastic modulus (G’), i.e., decreased resistance and stiffness, in scarred vocal folds treated with mesenchymal stem cells compared to non-treated scarred vocal folds. Mucosal wave amplitude was increased in scarred vocal folds treated with mesenchymal stem cells vs. non-treated scarred vocal folds. Conclusion The results from these studies suggest an increased regenerative effect of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells for scarred vocal folds and are encouraging for further clinical studies. PMID:27631373

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate intestinal stem cells to repair radiation-induced intestinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Guo, Mengzheng; Han, Zhibo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Ping; Xu, Chang; Wang, Qin; Du, Liqing; Li, Qian; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Feiyue; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The loss of stem cells residing in the base of the intestinal crypt has a key role in radiation-induced intestinal injury. In particular, Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are indispensable for intestinal regeneration following exposure to radiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have previously been shown to improve intestinal epithelial repair in a mouse model of radiation injury, and, therefore, it was hypothesized that this protective effect is related to Lgr5+ ISCs. In this study, it was found that, following exposure to radiation, transplantation of MSCs improved the survival of the mice, ameliorated intestinal injury and increased the number of regenerating crypts. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in Lgr5+ ISCs and their daughter cells, including Ki67+ transient amplifying cells, Vil1+ enterocytes and lysozyme+ Paneth cells, in response to treatment with MSCs. Crypts isolated from mice treated with MSCs formed a higher number of and larger enteroids than those from the PBS group. MSC transplantation also reduced the number of apoptotic cells within the small intestine at 6 h post-radiation. Interestingly, Wnt3a and active β-catenin protein levels were increased in the small intestines of MSC-treated mice. In addition, intravenous delivery of recombinant mouse Wnt3a after radiation reduced damage in the small intestine and was radioprotective, although not to the same degree as MSC treatment. Our results show that MSCs support the growth of endogenous Lgr5+ ISCs, thus promoting repair of the small intestine following exposure to radiation. The molecular mechanism of action mediating this was found to be related to increased activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27685631

  20. Impact of Mesenchymal Stem Cell secreted PAI-1 on colon cancer cell migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.; Murphy, J. Mary; Barry, Frank P.; O’Brien, Timothy; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •MSCs were directly co-cultured with colorectal cancer (CRC) cells on 3D scaffolds. •MSCs influence CRC protein/gene expression, proliferation and migration. •We report a significant functional role of MSC-secreted PAI-1 in colon cancer. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem Cells are known to engraft and integrate into the architecture of colorectal tumours, with little known regarding their fate following engraftment. This study aimed to investigate mediators of Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) and colon cancer cell (CCC) interactions. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and colon cancer cells (HT29 and HCT-116) were cultured individually or in co-culture on 3-dimensional scaffolds. Conditioned media containing all secreted factors was harvested at day 1, 3 and 7. Chemokine secretion and expression were analyzed by Chemi-array, ELISA (Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) and RQ-PCR. Colon cancer cell migration and proliferation in response to recombinant PAI-1, MSCs and MSCs + antibody to PAI-1 was analyzed using Transwell inserts and an MTS proliferation assay respectively. Chemi-array revealed secretion of a wide range of factors by each cell population, including PAI-1and MIF. ELISA analysis revealed Mesenchymal Stem Cells to secrete the highest levels of PAI-1 (MSC mean 10.6 ng/mL, CCC mean 1.01 ng/mL), while colon cancer cells were the principal source of MIF. MSC-secreted PAI-1 stimulated significant migration of both CCC lines, with an antibody to the chemokine shown to block this effect (67–88% blocking,). A cell-line dependant effect on CCC proliferation was shown for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-secreted PAI-1 with HCT-116 cells showing decreased proliferation at all concentrations, and HT29 cells showing increased proliferation in the presence of higher PAI-1 levels. This is the first study to identify PAI-1 as an important mediator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell/colon cancer cell interactions and highlights the

  1. In-vitro differentiation study on isolated human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F

    2008-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent progenitors that could be found in human bone marrow. Mesenchymal stem cells are capable of renewing themselves without differentiation in long-term culture. These cells also have low immunogenicity and can suppress alloreactive T cell responses. In the current study, mesenchymal stem cells isolated and propagated previously from the bone marrow of a megaloblastic anaemia patient were tested for their capabilities to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts in vitro. The differentiated cells were determined by Oil Red O, Alcian Blue-PAS and Alizarin Red S staining, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine the expression of mRNA specific for adipogenesis, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. The results showed that the fibroblast-like cells were capable of differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts upon chemical induction. The adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts were stained positively to Oil Red O, Alcian Blue-PAS and Alizarin Red S respectively. The differentiated cells were also found to express mRNA specific for adipogenesis ('peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma2' and lipoprotein lipase), chondrogenesis (collagen type II) and osteogenesis (osteocalcin, osteopontin and alkaline phosphatase). In conclusion, this research has successfully isolated fibroblast-like cells from human bone marrow and these cells demonstrated morphological, cytochemical and immunochemical characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells. These cells maintain their proliferative properties and could be differentiated into the mesoderm lineage. The success of this study is vital because mesenchymal stem cells can be used in cellular therapy to regenerate or replace damaged tissues, or as a vehicle for therapeutic gene delivery in the future. PMID:19108406

  2. Growth factor and ultrasound-assisted bioreactor synergism for human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thakurta, Sanjukta Guha; Budhiraja, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound at 5.0 MHz was noted to be chondro-inductive, with improved SOX-9 gene and COL2A1 protein expression in constructs that allowed for cell-to-cell contact. To achieve tissue-engineered cartilage using macroporous scaffolds, it is hypothesized that a combination of ultrasound at 5.0 MHz and transforming growth factor-β3 induces human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to chondrocytes. Expression of miR-145 was used as a metric to qualitatively assess the efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cell conversion. Our results suggest that in group 1 (no transforming growth factor-β3, no ultrasound), as anticipated, human mesenchymal stem cells were not efficiently differentiated into chondrocytes, judging by the lack of decrease in the level of miR-145 expression. Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes in group 2 (transforming growth factor-β3, no ultrasound) and group 3 (transforming growth factor-β3, ultrasound) with group 3 having a 2-fold lower miR-145 when compared to group 2 at day 7, indicating a higher conversion to chondrocytes. Transforming growth factor-β3–induced chondrogenesis with and without ultrasound stimulation for 14 days in the ultrasound-assisted bioreactor was compared and followed by additional culture in the absence of growth factors. The combination of growth factor and ultrasound stimulation (group 3) resulted in enhanced COL2A1, SOX-9, and ACAN protein expression when compared to growth factor alone (group 2). No COL10A1 protein expression was noted. Enhanced cell proliferation and glycosaminoglycan deposition was noted with the combination of growth factor and ultrasound stimulation. These results suggest that ultrasound at 5.0 MHz could be used to induce chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25610590

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation (MiSOT) Fourth Meeting: lessons learned from first clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Franquesa, Marcella; Hoogduijn, Martin J; Reinders, Marlies E; Eggenhofer, Elke; Engela, Anja U; Mensah, Fane K; Torras, Joan; Pileggi, Antonello; van Kooten, Cees; Mahon, Bernard; Detry, Oliver; Popp, Felix C; Benseler, Volker; Casiraghi, Federica; Johnson, Christian; Ancans, Janis; Fillenberg, Barbara; delaRosa, Olga; Aran, Josep M; Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Roemeling-vanRhijn, Marieke; Pinxteren, Jef; Perico, Norberto; Gotti, Eliana; Christ, Bruno; Reading, James; Introna, Martino; Deans, Robert; Shagidulin, Murat; Farré, Ramon; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Sanchez-Fueyo, Albert; Obermajer, Natasha; Pulin, Andrey; Dor, Frank J M F; Portero-Sanchez, Isabel; Baan, Carla C; Rabelink, Ton J; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Betjes, Michiel G H; Dahlke, Marc H; Grinyó, Josep M

    2013-08-15

    The Fourth Expert Meeting of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Solid Organ Transplantation (MiSOT) Consortium took place in Barcelona on October 19 and 20, 2012. This meeting focused on the translation of preclinical data into early clinical settings. This position paper highlights the main topics explored on the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic agent in solid organ transplantation and emphasizes the issues (proper timing, concomitant immunossupression, source and immunogenicity of mesenchymal stem cells, and oncogenicity) that have been addressed and will be followed up by the MiSOT Consortium in future studies.

  4. Regenerative potential of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells harvested from high caries patient's teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Ramesh; Gopal, Sushruth; Masood, Huda; Vivek, Purushottam; Deb, Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp are known to contains stem cells or dentinogenic progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. Dental pulp Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential or multilineage differentiations. This potential for tissue regeneration has become the current basis for dental pulp stem cell banking. Here, we have attempted to develop a protocol for harvesting stem cells from patients with High Caries tooth, which are most often electively discarded. We have characterized the stem cells with mesenchymal stem cell markers and have compared their potential to grow in culture, doubling times, and differentiate into different lineages, with normal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We observed that the MSCs from dental pulp grew faster, with lower doubling time, and had equal efficiency in differentiating to various lineages, when subjected to standard directed differentiation protocols. This paper establishes that discarded High Carries Tooth can be a good source for regenerative medicine and also could be a potential source for MSCs and dental pulp MSC banking.

  5. Breast Cancer Stem Cells Transition between Epithelial and Mesenchymal States Reflective of their Normal Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suling; Cong, Yang; Wang, Dong; Sun, Yu; Deng, Lu; Liu, Yajing; Martin-Trevino, Rachel; Shang, Li; McDermott, Sean P.; Landis, Melissa D.; Hong, Suhyung; Adams, April; D’Angelo, Rosemarie; Ginestier, Christophe; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Clouthier, Shawn G.; Birnbaum, Daniel; Wong, Stephen T.; Zhan, Ming; Chang, Jenny C.; Wicha, Max S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) mediate metastasis, are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and contribute to relapse. Although several BCSC markers have been described, it is unclear whether these markers identify the same or independent BCSCs. Here, we show that BCSCs exist in distinct mesenchymal-like (epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT]) and epithelial-like (mesenchymal-epithelial transition [MET]) states. Mesenchymal-like BCSCs characterized as CD24−CD44+ are primarily quiescent and localized at the tumor invasive front, whereas epithelial-like BCSCs express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are proliferative, and are located more centrally. The gene-expression profiles of mesenchymal-like and epithelial-like BCSCs are remarkably similar across different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and resemble those of distinct basal and luminal stem cells found in the normal breast. We propose that the plasticity of BCSCs that allows them to transition between EMT- and MET-like states endows these cells with the capacity for tissue invasion, dissemination, and growth at metastatic sites. PMID:24511467

  6. Molecular signaling of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Gaoliang; Wang, Zhe; Fang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2010-08-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that allows polarized, well-differentiated epithelial cells to convert to unpolarized, motile mesenchymal cells. EMT is critical for appropriate embryogenesis and plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies revealed that there is a direct link between the EMT program and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties. EMT is sufficient to induce a population with stem cell characteristics from well-differentiated epithelial cells and cancer cells. In this review, we briefly introduce the biology of EMT inducers and transcription factors in tumorigenesis and then focus on the role of these key players of the EMT in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells.

  7. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells display neurovascular tropism and aid in the recovery of injured peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Li, YongNan; Guo, Longzhe; Ahn, Hyun Sook; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2014-06-01

    Recently, we reported that human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMMs) possess great angiogenic potential. In this study, we determined whether local injection of AMMs ameliorates peripheral neuropathy. AMMs were transplanted into injured sciatic nerves. AMM injection promoted significant recovery of motor nerve conduction velocity and voltage amplitude compared to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. AMM implantation also augmented blood perfusion and increased intraneural vascularity. Whole-mount fluorescent imaging analysis demonstrated that AMMs exhibited higher engraftment and endothelial incorporation abilities in the sciatic nerve. In addition, the higher expression of pro-angiogenic factors was detected in AMMs injected into the peripheral nerve. Therefore, these data provide novel therapeutic and mechanistic insights into stem cell biology, and AMM transplantation may represent an alternative therapeutic option for treating peripheral neuropathy.

  8. Ectodermal Differentiation of Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; Aljitawi, Omar S

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the human umbilical cord are perinatal stem cells that have self-renewal ability, extended proliferation potential, immunosuppressive properties, and are accordingly excellent candidates for tissue engineering. These MSCs are unique, easily accessible, and a noncontroversial cell source of regeneration in medicine. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) are multipotent and capable of multilineage differentiation into cells like adipocytes, bone, cartilage, and skeletal muscle upon exposure to appropriate conditions. The ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers found in the very early embryo that differentiates into the epidermis, nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves, brain), and exocrine glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, and lacrimal glands). Accumulating evidence shows that MSCs obtained from WJ have an ectodermal differentiation potential. The current review examines this differentiation potential of WJMSC into the hair follicle, skin, neurons, and sweat glands along with discussing the potential utilization of such differentiation in regenerative medicine.

  9. Senescence in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Functional Changes and Implications in Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turinetto, Valentina; Vitale, Emanuela; Giachino, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is extensively interested in developing cell therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with applications to several aging-associated diseases. For successful therapies, a substantial number of cells are needed, requiring extensive ex vivo cell expansion. However, MSC proliferation is limited and it is quite likely that long-term culture evokes continuous changes in MSCs. Therefore, a substantial proportion of cells may undergo senescence. In the present review, we will first present the phenotypic characterization of senescent human MSCs (hMSCs) and their possible consequent functional alterations. The accumulation of oxidative stress and dysregulation of key differentiation regulatory factors determine decreased differentiation potential of senescent hMSCs. Senescent hMSCs also show a marked impairment in their migratory and homing ability. Finally, many factors present in the secretome of senescent hMSCs are able to exacerbate the inflammatory response at a systemic level, decreasing the immune modulation activity of hMSCs and promoting either proliferation or migration of cancer cells. Considering the deleterious effects that these changes could evoke, it would appear of primary importance to monitor the occurrence of senescent phenotype in clinically expanded hMSCs and to evaluate possible ways to prevent in vitro MSC senescence. An updated critical presentation of the possible strategies for in vitro senescence monitoring and prevention constitutes the second part of this review. Understanding the mechanisms that drive toward hMSC growth arrest and evaluating how to counteract these for preserving a functional stem cell pool is of fundamental importance for the development of efficient cell-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:27447618

  10. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha as a Marker of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Development and Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Ramin M.; Xaymardan, Munira

    2015-01-01

    Three decades on, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been intensively researched on the bench top and used clinically. However, ambiguity still exists in regard to their anatomical locations, identities, functions, and extent of their differentiative abilities. One of the major impediments in the quest of the MSC research has been lack of appropriate in vivo markers. In recent years, this obstacle has been resolved to some degree as PDGFRα emerges as an important mesenchymal stem cell marker. Accumulating lines of evidence are showing that the PDGFRα+ cells reside in the perivascular locations of many adult interstitium and fulfil the classic concepts of MSCs in vitro and in vivo. PDGFRα has long been recognised for its roles in the mesoderm formation and connective tissue development during the embryogenesis. Current review describes the lines of evidence regarding the role of PDGFRα in morphogenesis and differentiation and its implications for MSC biology. PMID:26257789

  11. Secretome of Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a Multiple Potential Stem Cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lite; Jiang, Miao; Duan, Da; Wang, Zijun; Qi, Linyu; Teng, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Ping; He, Xijing; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet. Here, proteins secreted by OM-MSCs cultured in serum-free conditions were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. As a result, a total of 274 secreted proteins were identified. These molecules are known to be important in neurotrophy, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and inflammation which were highly correlated with the repair of central nervous system. The proteomic profiling of the OM-MSCs secretome might provide new insights into their nature in the neural recovery. However, proteomic analysis for clinical biomarkers of OM-MSCs needs to be further studied. PMID:26949398

  12. Secretome of Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a Multiple Potential Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lite; Duan, Da; Wang, Zijun; Qi, Linyu; Teng, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Ping; He, Xijing; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet. Here, proteins secreted by OM-MSCs cultured in serum-free conditions were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. As a result, a total of 274 secreted proteins were identified. These molecules are known to be important in neurotrophy, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and inflammation which were highly correlated with the repair of central nervous system. The proteomic profiling of the OM-MSCs secretome might provide new insights into their nature in the neural recovery. However, proteomic analysis for clinical biomarkers of OM-MSCs needs to be further studied. PMID:26949398

  13. Effect of F68 on cryopreservation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human tooth germ.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Yılmaz, Aysu; Rizvanov, Albert; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2013-12-01

    The use of stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine and in the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, and cancer has been shown to be promising. Among all stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were reported to have anti-apoptotic, immunomodulatory, and angiogenic effects which are attributed to the restorative capacity of these cells. Human tooth germ stem cells (HTGSCs) having mesenchymal stem cell characteristics have been proven to exert high proliferation and differentiation capacity. Unlike bone-marrow-derived MSCs, HTGSCs can be easily isolated, expanded, and cryopreserved, which makes them an alternative stem cell source. Regardless of their sources, the stem cells are exposed to physical and chemical stresses during cryopreservation, hindering their therapeutic capacity. Amelioration of the side effects of cryopreservation on MSCs seems to be a priority in order to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of these cells. In this study, we tested the effect of Pluronic 188 (F68) on HTGSCs during long-term cryopreservation and repeated freezing and defrosting cycles. Our data revealed that F68 has a protective role on survival and differentiation of HTGSCs in long-term cryopreservation.

  14. Epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord lining membrane.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ivor J; Phan, Toan Thang

    2014-01-01

    Intense scientific research over the past two decades has yielded much knowledge about embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea. However, the billions of dollars spent in this research have not overcome the fundamental difficulties intrinsic to these stem cell strains related to ethics (embryonic stem cells), as well as to technical issues such as accessibility, ease of cell selection and cultivation, and expansion/mass production, while maintaining consistency of cell stemness (all of the stem cell strains already mentioned). Overcoming these technical hurdles has made stem cell technology expensive and any potential translational products unaffordable for most patients. Commercialization efforts have been rendered unfeasible by this high cost. Advanced biomedical research is on the rise in Asia, and new innovations have started to overcome these challenges. The Nobel Prize-winning Japanese development of iPSCs has effectively introduced a possible replacement for embryonic stem cells. For non-embryonic stem cells, cord lining stem cells (CLSCs) have overcome the preexisting difficulties inherent to mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea, offering a realistic, practical, and affordable alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. This novel CLSC technology was developed in Singapore in 2004 and has 22 international patents granted to date, including those from the US and UK. CLSCs are derived from the umbilical cord outer lining membrane (usually regarded as medical waste) and is therefore free from ethical dilemmas related to its collection. The large quantity of umbilical cord lining membrane that can be collected translates to billions of stem cells that can be grown in primary stem cell culture and therefore very rapid and inexpensive cell cultivation and expansion for clinical translational therapies. Both

  15. Epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord lining membrane.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ivor J; Phan, Toan Thang

    2014-01-01

    Intense scientific research over the past two decades has yielded much knowledge about embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea. However, the billions of dollars spent in this research have not overcome the fundamental difficulties intrinsic to these stem cell strains related to ethics (embryonic stem cells), as well as to technical issues such as accessibility, ease of cell selection and cultivation, and expansion/mass production, while maintaining consistency of cell stemness (all of the stem cell strains already mentioned). Overcoming these technical hurdles has made stem cell technology expensive and any potential translational products unaffordable for most patients. Commercialization efforts have been rendered unfeasible by this high cost. Advanced biomedical research is on the rise in Asia, and new innovations have started to overcome these challenges. The Nobel Prize-winning Japanese development of iPSCs has effectively introduced a possible replacement for embryonic stem cells. For non-embryonic stem cells, cord lining stem cells (CLSCs) have overcome the preexisting difficulties inherent to mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow as well as epithelial stem cells from the skin and cornea, offering a realistic, practical, and affordable alternative for tissue repair and regeneration. This novel CLSC technology was developed in Singapore in 2004 and has 22 international patents granted to date, including those from the US and UK. CLSCs are derived from the umbilical cord outer lining membrane (usually regarded as medical waste) and is therefore free from ethical dilemmas related to its collection. The large quantity of umbilical cord lining membrane that can be collected translates to billions of stem cells that can be grown in primary stem cell culture and therefore very rapid and inexpensive cell cultivation and expansion for clinical translational therapies. Both

  16. Isolation and characterization of equine amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Soo; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kang, Jun-gu; Chae, Joon-Seok; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multi-lineage cells such as adipocytes, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts. Amniotic membrane from whole placenta is a good source of stem cells in humans. This membrane can potentially be used for wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Moreover, it can be easily obtained after delivery and is usually discarded as classified waste. In the present study, we successfully isolated and characterized equine amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eAM-MSCs) that were cultured and maintained in low glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The proliferation of eAM-MSCs was measured based on the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL). Immunophenotyping of eAM-MSCs by flow cytometry showed that the major population was of mesenchymal origin. To confirm differentiation potential, a multi-lineage differentiation assay was conducted. We found that under appropriate conditions, eAM-MSCs are capable of multi-lineage differentiation. Our results indicated that eAM-MSCs may be a good source of stem cells, making them potentially useful for veterinary regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy.

  17. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Irioda, Ana Carolina; Cassilha, Rafael; Zocche, Larissa; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Cunha, Ricardo Correa; Ferreira, Priscila Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Mogharbel, Bassam Felipe; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Souza, Daiany; Beltrame, Mirian Perlingeiro; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d), colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d), cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy. PMID:26981129

  18. SWI/SNF‐Mediated Lineage Determination in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Confers Resistance to Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Xu, Fuhua; Flowers, Stephen; Williams, Edek A.J.; Fritton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Redirecting the adipogenic potential of bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells to other lineages, particularly osteoblasts, is a key goal in regenerative medicine. Controlling lineage selection through chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF, which act coordinately to establish new patterns of gene expression, would be a desirable intervention point, but the requirement for the complex in essentially every lineage pathway has generally precluded selectivity. However, a novel approach now appears possible by targeting the subset of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, mammalian brahma (BRM). BRM is not required for development, which has hindered understanding of its contributions, but knockdown genetics here, designed to explore the hypothesis that BRM‐SWI/SNF has different regulatory roles in different mesenchymal stem cell lineages, shows that depleting BRM from mesenchymal stem cells has a dramatic effect on the balance of lineage selection between osteoblasts and adipocytes. BRM depletion enhances the proportion of cells expressing markers of osteoblast precursors at the expense of cells able to differentiate along the adipocyte lineage. This effect is evident in primary bone marrow stromal cells as well as in established cell culture models. The altered precursor balance has major physiological significance, which becomes apparent as protection against age‐related osteoporosis and as reduced bone marrow adiposity in adult BRM‐null mice. Stem Cells 2015;33:3028–3038 PMID:26059320

  19. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cryopreservation and Thawing Decrease α4-Integrin Expression.

    PubMed

    Irioda, Ana Carolina; Cassilha, Rafael; Zocche, Larissa; Francisco, Julio Cesar; Cunha, Ricardo Correa; Ferreira, Priscila Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Mogharbel, Bassam Felipe; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Souza, Daiany; Beltrame, Mirian Perlingeiro; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The effects of cryopreservation on adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not clearly documented, as there is a growing body of evidence about the importance of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative therapies. The aim of this study was to analyze human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells phenotypic expression (CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD49d), colony forming unit ability, viability, and differentiation potential before and after cryopreservation. Materials and Methods. 12 samples of the adipose tissue were collected from a healthy donor using the liposuction technique. The cell isolation was performed by enzymatic digestion and then the cells were cultured up to passage 2. Before and after cryopreservation the immunophenotype, cellular viability analysis by flow cytometer, colony forming units ability, differentiation potential into adipocytes and osteoblasts as demonstrated by Oil Red O and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Results. The immunophenotypic markers expression was largely preserved, and their multipotency was maintained. However, after cryopreservation, the cells decreased α4-integrin expression (CD49d), cell viability, and number of colony forming units. Conclusions. These findings suggest that ADMSC transplanted after cryopreservation might compromise the retention of transplanted cells in the host tissue. Therefore, further studies are warranted to standardize protocols related to cryopreservation to attain full benefits of stem cell therapy. PMID:26981129

  20. Detonation nanodiamond complexes with cancer stem cells inhibitors or paracrine products of mesenchymal stem cells as new potential medications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoplyannikov, A. G.; Alekseenskiy, A. E.; Zlotin, S. G.; Smirnov, B. B.; Kalsina, S. Sh.; Lepehina, L. A.; Semenkova, I. V.; Agaeva, E. V.; Baboyan, S. B.; Rjumshina, E. A.; Nosachenko, V. V.; Konoplyannikov, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Combined use of complexes of the most active chemotherapeutic drugs and detonation nanodiamonds (DND) is a new trend in cancer therapy, which is probably related to selective chemotherapeutic drug delivery by DND to the zone of so-called cancer stem cells (CSC). Stable DND complexes of 4-5 nm size with salinomycin—a strong CSC inhibitor—have been obtained (as a suspension). It has been demonstrated that a complex administration considerably increases the drug antitumor effect on the transplantable tumor of LLC mice. A similar effect has been observed in CSC models in vivo, obtained by exposure of stem cells of normal mice tissues to a carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. It has also been found out, that administration of DND complexes with the conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) cultures to mice results in a considerable stimulation of stem cell pools in normal mice tissues, which can be used in regenerative medicine.

  1. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a new host cell in latent leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N

    2011-09-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs have been isolated, cultured, characterized, and infected with different species of Leishmania parasites (L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. infantum). Infectivity was examined by Giemsa staining, microculture, and polymerase chain reaction methods. As a result, infectivity of ADMSCs by Leishmania parasites has been determined for the first time in this study. According to our findings, it is very important that donors are screened for Leishmania parasites before stem cell transplantations in regions where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:21896818

  2. [BMAL1 gene regulates the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, Li; Xiao-long, Guo; Bin, Guo

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infective disease characterized as the destruction of the supporting tissues of the teeth. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which are ideal adult stem cells for the regeneration of supporting tissues, may play important roles in restoring the structure and function of the periodontium and in promoting the treatment of periodontal disease. As a consequence, the characteristics, especially osteogenic differentiation mechanism, of these stem cells have been extensively investigated. The regulation of the physiological behavior of these stem cells is associated with BMAL1 gene. This gene is a potential treatment target for periodontal disease, although the specific mechanism remains inconclusive. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of BMAL1 gene and its ability to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. PMID:27526460

  3. Stem cells of the suture mesenchyme in craniofacial bone development, repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Takamitsu; Jeong, Jaeim; Sheu, Tzong-Jen; Hsu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The suture mesenchyme serves as a growth centre for calvarial morphogenesis and has been postulated to act as the niche for skeletal stem cells. Aberrant gene regulation causes suture dysmorphogenesis resulting in craniosynostosis, one of the most common craniofacial deformities. Owing to various limitations, especially the lack of suture stem cell isolation, reconstruction of large craniofacial bone defects remains highly challenging. Here we provide the first evidence for an Axin2-expressing stem cell population with long-term self-renewing, clonal expanding and differentiating abilities during calvarial development and homeostastic maintenance. These cells, which reside in the suture midline, contribute directly to injury repair and skeletal regeneration in a cell autonomous fashion. Our findings demonstrate their true identity as skeletal stem cells with innate capacities to replace the damaged skeleton in cell-based therapy, and permit further elucidation of the stem cell-mediated craniofacial skeletogenesis, leading to revealing the complex nature of congenital disease and regenerative medicine. PMID:26830436

  4. Differentiation of iPSC to Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells and Their Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Kim; Menicanin, Danijela; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a unique population of adult stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into numerous cell types as well as the ability to modulate the immune system. As such, MSC represent a promising stem cell population for use in the clinical treatment of a range of disorders involving tissue regeneration as well as the immune system. The lack of accessibility to MSC is currently limiting the use of MSC in mainstream clinical treatment strategies. It is therefore imperative for the future success of stem cell-based treatment approaches that are more reliable, and accessible sources of MSC are identified. The present chapter describes a method for generating MSC-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), with equivalent growth and functional properties to parental MSC populations.

  5. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600-1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2), an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(6) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm(2) for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  6. Scintigraphic tracking of mesenchymal stem cells after portal, systemic intravenous and splenic administration in healthy beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Spriet, Mathieu; Hunt, Geraldine B; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed to treat liver disease in the dog. The objective of this study was to compare portal, systemic intravenous and splenic injections for administration of mesenchymal stem cells to target the liver in healthy beagle dogs. Four healthy beagle dogs were included in the study. Each dog received mesenchymal stem cells via all three delivery methods in randomized order, 1 week apart. Ten million fat-derived allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells labeled with Technetium-99m (99mTc)-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime(HMPAO) were used for each injection. Right lateral, left lateral, ventral, and dorsal scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator immediately after injection and 1, 6, and 24 h later. Mesenchymal stem cells distribution was assessed subjectively using all four views. Pulmonary, hepatic, and splenic uptake was quantified from the right lateral view, at each time point. Portal injection resulted in diffuse homogeneous high uptake through the liver, whereas the systemic intravenous injection led to mesenchymal stem cell trapping in the lungs. After splenic injection, mild splenic retention and high homogeneous diffuse hepatic uptake were observed. Systemic injection of mesenchymal stem cells may not be a desirable technique for liver therapy due to pulmonary trapping. Splenic injection represents a good alternative to portal injection. Scintigraphic tracking with 99mTc-HMPAO is a valuable technique for assessing mesenchymal stem cells distribution and quantification shortly after administration. Data obtained at 24 h should be interpreted cautiously due to suboptimal labeling persistence. PMID:25582730

  7. The Use of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rushkevich, Yu N; Kosmacheva, S M; Zabrodets, G V; Ignatenko, S I; Goncharova, N V; Severin, I N; Likhachev, S A; Potapnev, M P

    2015-08-01

    We studied a new method of treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells were injected intravenously (intact cells) or via lumbar puncture (cells committed to neuronal differentiation). Evaluation of the results of cell therapy after 12-month follow-up revealed slowing down of the disease progression in 10 patients in comparison with the control group consisting of 15 patients. The cell therapy was safe for the patients.

  8. 660 nm red light-enhanced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for hypoxic-ischemic brain damage treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchao; Hou, Wensheng; Wu, Xiaoying; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Haiyan; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. However, the in vivo transplantation effects are poor and their survival, colonization and differentiation efficiencies are relatively low. Red or near-infrared light from 600–1,000 nm promotes cellular migration and prevents apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the combination of red light with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation would be effective for the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. In this study, the migration and colonization of cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on primary neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation were detected using Transwell assay. The results showed that, after a 40-hour irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2, an increasing number of green fluorescence-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migrated towards hypoxic-ischemic damaged primary neurons. Meanwhile, neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, followed by irradiation under red light-emitting diodes at 660 nm and 60 mW/cm2 for 7 successive days. Shuttle box test results showed that, after phototherapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, the active avoidance response rate of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rats was significantly increased, which was higher than that after bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation alone. Experimental findings indicate that 660 nm red light emitting diode irradiation promotes the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, thereby enhancing the contribution of cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. PMID:25206807

  9. Mesenchymal to amoeboid transition is associated with stem-like features of melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cellular plasticity confers cancer cells the ability to adapt to microenvironmental changes, a fundamental requirement for tumour progression and metastasis. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transcriptional programme associated with increased cell motility and stemness. Besides EMT, the mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT) has been described during tumour progression but to date, little is known about its transcriptional control and involvement in stemness. The aim of this manuscript is to investigate (i) the transcriptional profile associated with the MAT programme and (ii) to study whether MAT acquisition in melanoma cancer cells correlates with clonogenic potential to promote tumour growth. Results By using a multidisciplinary approach, we identified four different treatments able to induce MAT in melanoma cells: EphA2 overexpression, Rac1 functional inhibition using its RacN17 dominant negative mutant, stimulation with Ilomastat or treatment with the RhoA activator Calpeptin. First, gene expression profiling identified the transcriptional pathways associated with MAT, independently of the stimulus that induces the MAT programme. Notably, gene sets associated with the repression of mesenchymal traits, decrease in the secretion of extracellular matrix components as well as increase of cellular stemness positively correlate with MAT. Second, the link between MAT and stemness has been investigated in vitro by analysing stemness markers and clonogenic potential of melanoma cells undergoing MAT. Finally, the link between MAT inducing treatments and tumour initiating capability has been validated in vivo. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that MAT programme in melanoma is characterised by increased stemness and clonogenic features of cancer cells, thus sustaining tumour progression. Furthermore, these data suggest that stemness is not an exclusive feature of cells undergoing EMT, but more generally is associated with

  10. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 10(6); intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions.

  11. Heterologous mesenchymal stem cells successfully treat femoral pseudarthrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating pseudarthrosis in rats by using bone marrow cell suspensions or cultures of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells Methods Thirty-eight specific pathogen-free (SPF) animals were randomly assigned to four groups: Group 1, Control, without surgical intervention; Group 2 (Placebo), experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated only with saline solution; Group 3, experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated with heterologous bone marrow cells suspension; Group 4, experimental model of femoral pseudarthrosis treated with cultures of heterologous mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow. When pseudarthrosis was confirmed by simple radiological studies, digital radiography and histopathology after a 120-day postoperative period, Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated as above. At 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment, all animals were evaluated by simple radiological studies, and at the end of the experiment, the animals were assessed by computed axial tomography and anatomopathological and histomorphometric examinations. Results Injected cells were detected in the areas affected by pseudarthrosis using scintigraphy within the first 24 hours after their administration. After 60 days, the animals of Group 3 showed callus formation while the animals of Group 4 presented periosteal reaction and had some consolidated areas. In contrast, Group 2 showed a predominance of fibro-osteoid tissue. After 90 days, bone consolidation and remodeling was observed in all animals from Group 3 whereas animals from Group 4 exhibited partial consolidation and those ones from Group 2 persisted with pseudarthrosis. Conclusion The treatment with heterologous bone marrow cells suspension proved to be effective in the treatment of pseudarthrosis whereas cultures of heterologous bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells did not show the same potential to aid bone healing. PMID:22429995

  12. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Giordano, Carmen; Rodilossi, Serena; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Tunesi, Marta; Cigada, Alberto; Ambrosio, Luigi; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs), to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed. PMID:24459423

  13. Isolation and morphological characterization of ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yunyun; Tao, Li; Zhao, Siriguleng; Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Dongjun; Liu, Pengxia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell populations for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of utmost importance to MSC research is identification of MSC sources that are easily obtainable and stable. Several studies have shown that MSCs can be isolated from amniotic fluid. The sheep is one of the main types of farm animal, and it has many biophysical and biochemical similarities to humans. Here, we obtained MSCs from ovine amniotic fluid and determined the expansion capacity, surface and intracellular marker expression, karyotype, and multilineage differentiation ability of these ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (oAF-MSCs). Moreover, expression levels of differentiation markers were measured using reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Our phenotypic analysis shows that the isolated oAF-MSCs are indeed MSCs. PMID:26616638

  14. Cultivation and Differentiation Change Nuclear Localization of Chromosome Centromeres in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Voldgorn, Yana I.; Adilgereeva, Elmira P.; Nekrasov, Evgeny D.; Lavrov, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome arrangement in the interphase nucleus is not accidental. Strong evidences support that nuclear localization is an important mechanism of epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The purpose of this research was to identify differences in the localization of centromeres of chromosomes 6, 12, 18 and X in human mesenchymal stem cells depending on differentiation and cultivating time. We analyzed centromere positions in more than 4000 nuclei in 19 mesenchymal stem cell cultures before and after prolonged cultivation and after differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic directions. We found a centromere reposition of HSAX at late passages and after differentiation in osteogenic direction as well as of HSA12 and HSA18 after adipogenic differentiation. The observed changes of the nuclear structure are new nuclear characteristics of the studied cells which may reflect regulatory changes of gene expression during the studied processes. PMID:25775427

  15. The role of mesenchymal stem cells in anti-cancer drug resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Houthuijzen, J M; Daenen, L G M; Roodhart, J M L; Voest, E E

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the tumour microenvironment has a very important role in tumour progression and drug resistance. Many different cell types within the tumour stroma have an effect on tumour progression either in a positive or in a negative way. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a distinct population of cells that have been linked with tumour growth. Mesenchymal stem cells can home to tumours where they modulate the immune system and facilitate tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Recent studies have shown that MSCs also have an important role in the resistance to various anti-cancer drugs. This mini-review provides an overview of the functional properties of MSCs in tumour progression and drug resistance. PMID:22596239

  16. Reconstruction of the adenosine system by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Huicong; Hu, Qi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yinhe; Xu, Feng; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Suiqiang

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the CA3 area of the hippocampus of chronic epilepsy rats kindled by lithium chloride-pilocarpine. Immunofluorescence and western blotting revealed an increase in adenosine A1 receptor expression and a decrease in adenosine A2a receptor expression in the brain tissues of epileptic rats 3 months after transplantation. Moreover, the imbalance in the A1 adenosine receptor/A2a adenosine receptor ratio was improved. Electroencephalograms showed that frequency and amplitude of spikes in the hippocampus and frontal lobe were reduced. These results suggested that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can reconstruct the normal function of the adenosine system in the brain and greatly improve epileptiform discharges. PMID:25806064

  17. Osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in apatite nanorod-aligned ceramics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Sun, Zhihui; Li, Yanyan; Hong, Youliang

    2014-12-24

    It is significant to process the clinically used biomaterials into a scaffold with specific nanotopographies, which can act as physical cues to regulate the osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was considered as the processed objective and a facile, hydrothermal method was developed to grow the vertically oriented HAP nanorods in porous HAP ceramics. Experiments demonstrated that the formation of the HAP nanorods in porous ceramics was decided by a novel epitaxial growth mechanism and length of nanorods could be well-controlled by the growth time. Cell experiments demonstrated that such novel stereotopographical cues could regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage, thereby displaying that the porous ceramics with the HAP nanorods-aligned stereotopographies have a good prospect for applications in regenerative medicine of hard tissues.

  18. Hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells: a promising synergistic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders therapy.

    PubMed

    Albani, Diego; Gloria, Antonio; Giordano, Carmen; Rodilossi, Serena; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Tunesi, Marta; Cigada, Alberto; Ambrosio, Luigi; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS) neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs), to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed.

  19. Strategies in regenerative medicine for intervertebral disc repair using mesenchymal stem cells and bioscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Melrose, James

    2016-10-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major weight bearing structure that undergoes degenerative changes with aging limiting its ability to dissipate axial spinal loading in an efficient manner resulting in the generation of low back pain. Low back pain is a number one global musculoskeletal disorder with massive socioeconomic impact. The WHO has nominated development of mesenchymal stem cells and bioscaffolds to promote IVD repair as primary research objectives. There is a clear imperative for the development of strategies to effectively treat IVD defects. Early preclinical studies with mesenchymal stem cells in canine and ovine models have yielded impressive results in IVD repair. Combinatorial therapeutic approaches encompassing biomaterial and cell-based therapies promise significant breakthroughs in IVD repair in the near future. PMID:27586197

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Common Traits in Immune Regulation.

    PubMed

    Vladimirovna, Irina Lyadova; Sosunova, Ekaterina; Nikolaev, Alexander; Nenasheva, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    To protect host against immune-mediated damage, immune responses are tightly regulated. The regulation of immune responses is mediated by various populations of mature immune cells, such as T regulatory cells and B regulatory cells, but also by immature cells of different origins. In this review, we discuss regulatory properties and mechanisms whereby two distinct populations of immature cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells mediate immune regulation, focusing on their similarities, discrepancies, and potential clinical applications. PMID:27529074

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Common Traits in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    To protect host against immune-mediated damage, immune responses are tightly regulated. The regulation of immune responses is mediated by various populations of mature immune cells, such as T regulatory cells and B regulatory cells, but also by immature cells of different origins. In this review, we discuss regulatory properties and mechanisms whereby two distinct populations of immature cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells mediate immune regulation, focusing on their similarities, discrepancies, and potential clinical applications. PMID:27529074

  2. Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Matrix-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Germ-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Latifpour, Mostafa; Shakiba, Yadollah; Amidi, Fardin; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Sobhani, Aligholi

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be collected from different sources. Under specific conditions, MSCs can be differentiated to tissue specific cells in vitro. Human Umbilical Cord mesenchymal Stem Cells (hUCMSCs) can easily be harvested and cultured in in vitro conditions. Production of germ cells from mesenchymal stem cells is a very interesting and promising area in the field of reproductive medicine. In the present study, the possible trans-differentiation of hUCMSCs into Primordial like Germ Cell (PGC) was performed in vitro under specific condition. Methods Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and expanded in DMEM medium containing 10% FBS. The cultured cells were studied for differentiation ability to adipocytes and osteocytes. Furthermore, MSCs related markers were identified by flow cytometry method. For PGC differentiation, hUCMS cells were cultured in differentiation medium containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and it was followed by retinoic acid (RA). Real time PCR and immunocytochemistry analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of PGC specific genes and proteins, respectively. Results Our results showed that hUCMSCs cultured in the presence of BMP4 and RA are able to transdifferentiate in to PGC like cells in vitro. Real time PCR and immunocytochemistry results showed that differentiated cells expressed PGC specific markers after 14 days of culture. Conclusion Based on these results, it was concluded that hUCMSC may be considered as a promising alternative cell source in reproductive medicine. More studies including laboratory and also animal models are needed to evaluate the functionality of differentiated PGCs before introducing them to clinical applications. PMID:25414784

  3. [THE AGING OF MICROVASCULAR NETWORK FORMED IN CORTEX FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL TRANSPLANTATION OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, I B; Anisimov, S V; Puzanov, M V; Sergeev, I V; Dvoretskiĭ, D P

    2015-01-01

    Using a TV device to study microcirculation in brain we found that intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to 12-months old rats led to a significant increase (circa 1,5-fold times) of microvascular density in pia tissue and to increased constriction reactions of pia arterioles in response to noradrenalin application on a brain surface. Both microvascular density and pia arterioles reactivity was completely preserved in aging until 22-24 months. PMID:26390610

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blueher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  5. A Comparative Study of the Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells for Ocular Surface Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Trosan, Peter; Cejka, Cestmir; Javorkova, Eliska; Zajicova, Alena; Hermankova, Barbora; Chudickova, Milada; Cejkova, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy has become an attractive and promising approach for the treatment of severe injuries or thus-far incurable diseases. However, the use of stem cells is often limited by a shortage of available tissue-specific stem cells; therefore, other sources of stem cells are being investigated and tested. In this respect, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have proven to be a promising stem cell type. In the present study, we prepared MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) or adipose tissue (Ad-MSCs) as well as limbal epithelial stem cells (LSCs), and their growth, differentiation, and secretory properties were compared. The cells were grown on nanofiber scaffolds and transferred onto the alkali-injured eye in a rabbit model, and their therapeutic potential was characterized. We found that BM-MSCs and tissue-specific LSCs had similar therapeutic effects. Clinical characterization of the healing process, as well as the evaluation of corneal thickness, re-epithelialization, neovascularization, and the suppression of a local inflammatory reaction, were comparable in the BM-MSC- and LSC-treated eyes, but results were significantly better than in injured, untreated eyes or in eyes treated with a nanofiber scaffold alone or with a nanofiber scaffold seeded with Ad-MSCs. Taken together, the results show that BM-MSCs’ therapeutic effect on healing of injured corneal surface is comparable to that of tissue-specific LSCs. We suggest that BM-MSCs can be used for ocular surface regeneration in cases when autologous LSCs are absent or difficult to obtain. Significance Damage of ocular surface represents one of the most common causes of impaired vision or even blindness. Cell therapy, based on transplantation of stem cells, is an optimal treatment. However, if limbal stem cells (LSCs) are not available, other sources of stem cells are tested. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a convenient type of cell for stem cell therapy. The therapeutic potential of LSCs and MSCs was

  6. Sepsis induces long-term metabolic and mitochondrial muscle stem cell dysfunction amenable by mesenchymal stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocheteau, P.; Chatre, L.; Briand, D.; Mebarki, M.; Jouvion, G.; Bardon, J.; Crochemore, C.; Serrani, P.; Lecci, P. P.; Latil, M.; Matot, B.; Carlier, P. G.; Latronico, N.; Huchet, C.; Lafoux, A.; Sharshar, T.; Ricchetti, M.; Chrétien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, is the major cause of critical illness resulting in admission to intensive care units. Sepsis is caused by severe infection and is associated with mortality in 60% of cases. Morbidity due to sepsis is complicated by neuromyopathy, and patients face long-term disability due to muscle weakness, energetic dysfunction, proteolysis and muscle wasting. These processes are triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines and metabolic imbalances and are aggravated by malnutrition and drugs. Skeletal muscle regeneration depends on stem (satellite) cells. Herein we show that mitochondrial and metabolic alterations underlie the sepsis-induced long-term impairment of satellite cells and lead to inefficient muscle regeneration. Engrafting mesenchymal stem cells improves the septic status by decreasing cytokine levels, restoring mitochondrial and metabolic function in satellite cells, and improving muscle strength. These findings indicate that sepsis affects quiescent muscle stem cells and that mesenchymal stem cells might act as a preventive therapeutic approach for sepsis-related morbidity. PMID:26666572

  7. Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Shu; Karperien, Marcel; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been discovered for more than a decade. Due to the large numbers of cells that can be harvested with relatively little donor morbidity, they are considered to be an attractive alternative to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, isolation and differentiation of ASCs draw great attention in the research of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Cartilage defects cause big therapeutic problems because of their low self-repair capacity. Application of ASCs in cartilage regeneration gives hope to treat cartilage defects with autologous stem cells. In recent years, a lot of studies have been performed to test the possibility of using ASCs to re-construct damaged cartilage tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the most up-to-date articles utilizing ASCs for cartilage regeneration in basic and translational research. Our topic covers differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, increased cartilage formation by co-culture of ASCs with chondrocytes and enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs by gene manipulation.

  8. Derivation of stromal (skeletal and mesenchymal) stem-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-11-20

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  9. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Chani, Baldeep; Puri, Veena; Chander Sobti, Ranbir; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity. PMID:27397998

  10. Growth factor-defined culture medium for human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Sumiyo; Kimura, Naohiro; Hirata, Mitsuhi; Tateyama, Daiki; Hayashida, Midori; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kohara, Arihiro; Nikawa, Hiroki; Okamoto, Tetsuji; Furue, Miho K

    2011-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are potential cellular sources of therapeutic stem cells as they have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into a wide array of mesenchymal cell types such as osteoblasts, chondroblasts and adipocytes. hMSCs have been used clinically to treat patients with graft vs. host disease, osteogenesis imperfect, or alveolar cleft, suggesting that transplantation of hMSCs is comparatively safe as a stem cell-based therapy. However, conventional culture medium for hMSCs contains fetal bovine serum (FBS). In the present study, we developed a growth factor-defined, serum-free medium for culturing hMSCs. Under these conditions, TGF-beta1 promoted proliferation of hMSCs. The expanded hMSC population expressed the human pluripotency markers SSEA-3, -4, NANOG, OCT3/4 and SOX2. Furthermore, double positive cells for SSEA-3 and a mesenchymal cell marker, CD105, were detected in the population. The potential to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes was confirmed. This work provides a useful tool to understand the basic biological properties of hMSCs in culture. PMID:21305471

  11. MMP-mediated mesenchymal morphogenesis of pluripotent stem cell aggregates stimulated by gelatin methacrylate microparticle incorporation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh H; Wang, Yun; White, Douglas E; Platt, Manu O; McDevitt, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to facilitate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) and promote cell specification during embryonic development. In this study, we hypothesized that introducing degradable ECM-based biomaterials to pluripotent stem cell (PSC) aggregates would modulate endogenous proteolytic activity and consequently enhance the differentiation and morphogenesis within 3D PSC aggregates. Gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles (MPs) of low (∼20%) or high (∼90%) cross-linking densities were incorporated into mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates, and the effects on MMP activity and cell differentiation were examined with or without MMP inhibition. ESC aggregates containing GMA MPs expressed significantly higher levels of total MMP and MMP-2 than aggregates without MPs. GMA MP incorporation increased expression of EMT markers and enhanced mesenchymal morphogenesis of PSC aggregates. MMP inhibition completely abrogated these effects, and GMA MP-induced MMP activation within ESC aggregates was partially reduced by pSMAD 1/5/8 inhibition. These results suggest that GMA particles activate MMPs by protease-substrate interactions to promote EMT and mesenchymal morphogenesis of ESC aggregates in an MMP-dependent manner. We speculate that controlling protease activity via the introduction of ECM-based materials may offer a novel route to engineer the ECM microenvironment to modulate stem cell differentiation.

  12. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells restore biochemical markers of acute liver injury in experimental model.

    PubMed

    Gruttadauria, S; Grosso, G; Pagano, D; Biondi, A; Echeverri, G J; Seria, E; Pietrosi, G; Liotta, R; Basile, F; Gridelli, B

    2013-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were investigated as prompters of liver regeneration in an experimental model of acute hepatic injury. A model was created in Wistar rats through intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells collected from the long bones of 10 Wistar rats were intravenously infused 24 hours after induction of acute liver failure in 16 rats, group A. In group B, the control group, 16 rats received a peritoneal injection of CCl4, and an intravenous infusion of normal saline solution. All rats were sacrificed at 2, 3, 4, and 7 days post-CCl4 injection to examined biochemical markers and pathological appearances. The platelet counts were higher in group A versus group B on post-CCl4 infusion days 2 (P = .02) and 3 (P = .001), as were the transaminase trends in glutamic oxaloacetic (P = .002), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminases (P < .0001). Pathological examination showed a greater grade of hepatocellular necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration in group B (P = .02). In conclusion, infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell resulted in a less aggressive picture of hepatic damage.

  13. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products

    PubMed Central

    Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Ivanova, Galya; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells' secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest. PMID:26880998

  14. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  15. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products.

    PubMed

    Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Ivanova, Galya; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells' secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest.

  16. Protective actions of administered mesenchymal stem cells in acute kidney injury: relevance to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Westenfelder, Christof; Togel, Florian E

    2011-09-01

    Current therapies for acute kidney injury remain primarily supportive and have failed to reduce morbidity, mortality (>50%), and associated costs. This prompted our studies in which rats with bilateral ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury were treated with bone marrow-derived, culture-expanded allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells. Their administration into the suprarenal aorta after reflow significantly protected renal function and hastened repair, mediated by complex antiapoptotic, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immune modulating actions that were not elicited by isogeneic fibroblasts. Infused mesenchymal stem cells, recruited to renal sites of injury, did not significantly differentiate into target cells but rather disappeared from kidneys and other organs within 72 h. Furthermore, at 3 months, compared with vehicle-treated controls, renal function was well preserved and interstitial fibrosis was absent. These preclinical data served as the scientific basis for a recently completed Phase I Clinical Trial (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; # NCT00733876), in which patients at high risk for cardiac surgery-associated AKI were treated with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells. Until now, MSC therapy in the study subjects has been safe, and none of the patients has developed postoperative AKI or subsequent loss of renal function, suggesting that this novel form of therapy may have promise in this group of high-risk patients, which will be further investigated in a Phase II Trial.

  17. Influence of age on rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells potential

    PubMed Central

    Fafián-Labora, J.; Fernández-Pernas, P.; Fuentes, I.; De Toro, J.; Oreiro, N.; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S.; Mateos, J.; Arufe, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells promising role in cell-based therapies and tissue engineering appears to be limited due to a decline of their regenerative potential with increasing donor age. Six age groups from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Wistar rats were studied (newborn, infant, young, pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult). Quantitative proteomic assay was performance by iTRAQ using an 8-plex iTRAQ labeling and the proteins differentially expressed were grouped in pluripotency, proliferative and metabolism processes. Proliferation makers, CD117 and Ki67 were measure by flow cytometry assay. Real time polymerase chain reaction analysis of pluripotency markers Rex1, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were done. Biological differentiation was realized using specific mediums for 14 days to induce osteogenesis, adipogenesis or chondrogenesis and immunostain analysis of differentiated cell resulting were done. Enzimoimmunoassay analysis of several enzymes as L-lactate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase were also done to validate iTRAQ data. Taking together these results indicate for the first time that mesenchymal stem cells have significant differences in their proliferative, pluripotency and metabolism profiles and those differences are age depending. PMID:26581954

  18. Neuromuscular Regeneration: Perspective on the Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Secretion Products.

    PubMed

    Caseiro, Ana Rita; Pereira, Tiago; Ivanova, Galya; Luís, Ana Lúcia; Maurício, Ana Colette

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are posing as a promising character in the most recent therapeutic strategies and, since their discovery, extensive knowledge on their features and functions has been gained. In recent years, innovative sources have been disclosed in alternative to the bone marrow, conveying their associated ethical concerns and ease of harvest, such as the umbilical cord tissue and the dental pulp. These are also amenable of cryopreservation and thawing for desired purposes, in benefit of the donor itself or other patients in pressing need. These sources present promising possibilities in becoming useful cell sources for therapeutic applications in the forthcoming years. Effective and potential applications of these cellular-based strategies for the regeneration of peripheral nerve are overviewed, documenting recent advances and identified issues for this research area in the near future. Finally, besides the differentiation capacities attributed to mesenchymal stem cells, advances in the recognition of their effective mode of action in the regenerative theatre have led to a new area of interest: the mesenchymal stem cells' secretome. The paracrine modulatory pathway appears to be a major mechanism by which these are beneficial to nerve regeneration and comprehension on the specific growth factors, cytokine, and extracellular molecules secretion profiles is therefore of great interest. PMID:26880998

  19. Neuroprotection and immunomodulation by xenografted human mesenchymal stem cells following spinal cord ventral root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thiago B; Duarte, Adriana S S; Longhini, Ana Leda F; Pradella, Fernando; Farias, Alessandro S; Luzo, Angela C M; Oliveira, Alexandre L R; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of xenotransplantation of Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) in animals after ventral root avulsion. AT-MSC has similar characteristics to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), such as immunomodulatory properties and expression of neurotrophic factors. In this study, Lewis rats were submitted to surgery for unilateral avulsion of the lumbar ventral roots and received 5 × 10(5) AT-MSCs via the lateral funiculus. Two weeks after cell administration, the animals were sacrificed and the moto neurons, T lymphocytes and cell defense nervous system were analyzed. An increased neuronal survival and partial preservation of synaptophysin-positive nerve terminals, related to GDNF and BDNF expression of AT-MSCs, and reduction of pro-inflammatory reaction were observed. In conclusion, AT-MSCs prevent second phase neuronal injury, since they suppressed lymphocyte, astroglia and microglia effects, which finally contributed to rat motor-neuron survival and synaptic stability of the lesioned motor-neuron. Moreover, the survival of the injected AT- MSCs lasted for at least 14 days. These results indicate that neuronal survival after lesion, followed by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration, might occur through cytokine release and immunomodulation, thus suggesting that AT-MSCs are promising cells for the therapy of neuronal lesions.

  20. Chondroitinase ABC plus bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for repair of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Guoyu

    2013-04-15

    As chondroitinase ABC can improve the hostile microenvironment and cell transplantation is proven to be effective after spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that their combination would be a more effective treatment option. At 5 days after T8 spinal cord crush injury, rats were injected with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension or chondroitinase ABC 1 mm from the edge of spinal cord damage zone. Chondroitinase ABC was first injected, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell suspension was injected on the next day in the combination group. At 14 days, the mean Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan score of the rats in the combination group was higher than other groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the necrotic area was significantly reduced in the combination group compared with other groups. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan double staining showed that the damage zone of astrocytic scars was significantly reduced without the cavity in the combination group. Glial fibrillary acidic protein/growth associated protein-43 double immunostaining revealed that positive fibers traversed the damage zone in the combination group. These results suggest that the combination of chondroitinase ABC and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury.

  1. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Alessandro R.; Amstalden, Eliane M. I.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.; Martins, Virginia C. A.; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Miranda, João B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  2. SWI/SNF-Mediated Lineage Determination in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Confers Resistance to Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Xu, Fuhua; Flowers, Stephen; Williams, Edek A J; Fritton, J Christopher; Moran, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Redirecting the adipogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to other lineages, particularly osteoblasts, is a key goal in regenerative medicine. Controlling lineage selection through chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF, which act coordinately to establish new patterns of gene expression, would be a desirable intervention point, but the requirement for the complex in essentially every lineage pathway has generally precluded selectivity. However, a novel approach now appears possible by targeting the subset of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, mammalian brahma (BRM). BRM is not required for development, which has hindered understanding of its contributions, but knockdown genetics here, designed to explore the hypothesis that BRM-SWI/SNF has different regulatory roles in different mesenchymal stem cell lineages, shows that depleting BRM from mesenchymal stem cells has a dramatic effect on the balance of lineage selection between osteoblasts and adipocytes. BRM depletion enhances the proportion of cells expressing markers of osteoblast precursors at the expense of cells able to differentiate along the adipocyte lineage. This effect is evident in primary bone marrow stromal cells as well as in established cell culture models. The altered precursor balance has major physiological significance, which becomes apparent as protection against age-related osteoporosis and as reduced bone marrow adiposity in adult BRM-null mice.

  3. Treatment of spinal cord injury: a review of engineering using neural and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Martin M; Harmon, Olivia A; Adeeb, Nimer; Deep, Aman; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    Over time, various treatment modalities for spinal cord injury have been trialed, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods. Among these, replacement of the injured neural and paraneural tissues via cellular transplantation of neural and mesenchymal stem cells has been the most attractive. Extensive experimental studies have been done to identify the safety and effectiveness of this transplantation in animal and human models. Herein, we review the literature for studies conducted, with a focus on the human-related studies, recruitment, isolation, and transplantation, of these multipotent stem cells, and associated outcomes.

  4. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangpeng; Chen, Xiongwen; Wang, Wei Eric; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question. PMID:26681958

  5. Update on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy in lupus and scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Cras, Audrey; Farge, Dominique; Carmoi, Thierry; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Wang, Dan Dan; Sun, Lingyun

    2015-11-03

    Current systemic therapies are rarely curative for patients with severe life-threatening forms of autoimmune diseases (ADs). During the past 15 years, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated to cure some patients with severe AD refractory to all other available therapies. As a consequence, ADs such as lupus and scleroderma have become an emerging indication for cell therapy. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from bone marrow and other sites, display specific immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties and appear as ideal tools to treat such diseases. The present update aims at summarizing recent knowledge acquired in the field of MSC-based therapies for lupus and scleroderma.

  6. Sheep, wolf, or werewolf: cancer stem cells and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Mani, Sendurai A

    2013-11-28

    Multiple cancers contain subpopulations that exhibit characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the ability to self-renew and seed heterogeneous tumors. Recent evidence suggests two potentially overlapping models for these phenotypes: one where stem cells arise from multipotent progenitor cells, and another where they are created via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Unraveling this issue is critical, as it underlies phenomena such as metastasis and therapeutic resistance. Therefore, there is intense interest in understanding these two types of CSSs, how they differ from differentiated cancer cells, the mechanisms that drive their phenotypes, and how that knowledge can be incorporated into therapeutics.

  7. Human Amnion-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Dysfunction via ERK1/2 MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuli; Ma, Junchi; Du, Yifei; Miao, Jing; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that bone is especially sensitive to oxidative stress, causing bone loss in the elderly. Previous studies indicated that human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs), obtained from human amniotic membranes, exerted osteoprotective effects in vivo. However, the potential of HAMSCs as seed cells against oxidative stress-mediated dysfunction is unknown. In this study, we systemically investigated their antioxidative and osteogenic effects in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs signi cantly promoted the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of H2O2-induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs), and down-regulated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Further, our results suggest that activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for both HAMSCs-mediated osteogenic and protective effects against oxidative stress-induced dysfunction in HBMSCs. U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of extracellular ERK1/2 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the antioxidative and osteogenic effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, by modulating HBMSCs, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating oxidative stress- mediated bone deficiency. PMID:26743906

  8. Development of tyrosinase-based reporter genes for preclinical photoacoustic imaging of mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, Julia; Ruschke, Karen; Dortay, Hakan; Schreiber, Isabelle; Sass, Andrea; Qazi, Taimoor; Pumberger, Matthias; Laufer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The capability to image stem cells in vivo in small animal models over extended periods of time is important to furthering our understanding of the processes involved in tissue regeneration. Photoacoustic imaging is suited to this application as it can provide high resolution (tens of microns) absorption-based images of superficial tissues (cm depths). However, stem cells are rare, highly migratory, and can divide into more specialised cells. Genetic labelling strategies are therefore advantageous for their visualisation. In this study, methods for the transfection and viral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells with reporter genes for the co-expression of tyrosinase and a fluorescent protein (mCherry). Initial photoacoustic imaging experiments of tyrosinase expressing cells in small animal models of tissue regeneration were also conducted. Lentiviral transduction methods were shown to result in stable expression of tyrosinase and mCherry in mesenchymal stem cells. The results suggest that photoacoustic imaging using reporter genes is suitable for the study of stem cell driven tissue regeneration in small animals.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell tracking in the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Charles; Goldschlager, Tony; Oehme, David; Ghosh, Peter; Jenkin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a common clinical problem, which leads to significant social, economic and public health costs. Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is accepted as a common cause of low back pain. Initially, this is characterized by a loss of proteoglycans from the nucleus pulposus resulting in loss of tissue hydration and hydrostatic pressure. Conservative management, including analgesia and physiotherapy often fails and surgical treatment, such as spinal fusion, is required. Stem cells offer an exciting possible regenerative approach to IVD disease. Preclinical research has demonstrated promising biochemical, histological and radiological results in restoring degenerate IVDs. Cell tracking provides an opportunity to develop an in-depth understanding of stem cell survival, differentiation and migration, enabling optimization of stem cell treatment. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging modality with high spatial resolution, ideally suited for stem cell tracking. Furthermore, novel MRI sequences have the potential to quantitatively assess IVD disease, providing an improved method to review response to biological treatment. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been extensively researched for the purpose of cell tracking. These particles are biocompatible, non-toxic and act as excellent MRI contrast agents. This review will explore recent advances and issues in stem cell tracking and molecular imaging in relation to the IVD. PMID:25621106

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical properties related to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2016-05-01

    Diverse intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical factors have a strong influence on the regulation of stem cell fate. In this work, we examined recent literature on the effects of mechanical environments on stem cells, especially on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We provide a brief review of intrinsic mechanical properties of single MSC and examined the correlation between the intrinsic mechanical property of MSC and the differentiation ability. The effects of extrinsic mechanical factors relevant to the differentiation of MSCs were considered separately. The effect of nanostructure and elasticity of the matrix on the differentiation of MSCs were summarized. Finally, we consider how the extrinsic mechanical properties transfer to MSCs and then how the effects on the intrinsic mechanical properties affect stem cell differentiation.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells use extracellular vesicles to outsource mitophagy and shuttle microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Phinney, Donald G.; Di Giuseppe, Michelangelo; Njah, Joel; Sala, Ernest; Shiva, Sruti; St Croix, Claudette M.; Stolz, Donna B.; Watkins, Simon C.; Di, Y. Peter; Leikauf, George D.; Kolls, Jay; Riches, David W. H.; Deiuliis, Giuseppe; Kaminski, Naftali; Boregowda, Siddaraju V.; McKenna, David H.; Ortiz, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and macrophages are fundamental components of the stem cell niche and function coordinately to regulate haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and mobilization. Recent studies indicate that mitophagy and healthy mitochondrial function are critical to the survival of stem cells, but how these processes are regulated in MSCs is unknown. Here we show that MSCs manage intracellular oxidative stress by targeting depolarized mitochondria to the plasma membrane via arrestin domain-containing protein 1-mediated microvesicles. The vesicles are then engulfed and re-utilized via a process involving fusion by macrophages, resulting in enhanced bioenergetics. Furthermore, we show that MSCs simultaneously shed micro RNA-containing exosomes that inhibit macrophage activation by suppressing Toll-like receptor signalling, thereby de-sensitizing macrophages to the ingested mitochondria. Collectively, these studies mechanistically link mitophagy and MSC survival with macrophage function, thereby providing a physiologically relevant context for the innate immunomodulatory activity of MSCs. PMID:26442449

  12. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    PubMed Central

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the “reprogramming” of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  13. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis-Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the "reprogramming" of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  14. Murine amniotic fluid stem cells contribute mesenchymal but not epithelial components to reconstituted mammary ducts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Amniotic fluid harbors cells indicative of all three germ layers, and pluripotent fetal amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSs) are considered potentially valuable for applications in cellular therapy and tissue engineering. We investigated whether it is possible to direct the cell fate of AFSs in vivo by transplantation experiments into a particular microenvironment, the mammary fat pad. This microenvironment provides the prerequisites to study stem cell function and the communication between mesenchymal and epithelial cells. On clearance of the endogenous epithelium, the ductal tree can be reconstituted by the transfer of exogenously provided mammary stem cells. Analogously, exogenously provided stem cells from other tissues can be investigated for their potential to contribute to mammary gland regeneration. Methods We derived pluripotent murine AFSs, measured the expression of stem cell markers, and confirmed their in vitro differentiation potential. AFSs were transplanted into cleared and non cleared fat pads of immunocompromised mice to evaluate their ability to assume particular cell fates under the instructive conditions of the fat-pad microenvironment and the hormonal stimulation during pregnancy. Results Transplantation of AFSs into cleared fat pads alone or in the presence of exogenous mammary epithelial cells caused their differentiation into stroma and adipocytes and replaced endogenous mesenchymal components surrounding the ducts in co-transplantation experiments. Similarly, transplantation of AFSs into fat pads that had not been previously cleared led to AFS-derived stromal cells surrounding the elongating endogenous ducts. AFSs expressed the marker protein α-SMA, but did not integrate into the myoepithelial cell layer of the ducts in virgin mice. With pregnancy, a small number of AFS-derived cells were present in acinar structures. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the microenvironmental cues of the mammary fat pad cause AFSs to

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from dental bud: Role of integrins and cadherins.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Adriana; Brunetti, Giacomina; Posa, Francesca; Ballini, Andrea; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Colaianni, Graziana; Colucci, Silvia; Rossi, Enzo; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta A; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Grano, Maria; Mori, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have reported the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue repair and regeneration. New sources of stem cells in adult organisms are continuously emerging; dental tissues have been identified as a source of postnatal MSCs. Dental bud is the immature precursor of the tooth, is easy to access and we show in this study that it can yield a high number of cells with ≥95% expression of mesenchymal stemness makers and osteogenic capacity. Thus, these cells can be defined as Dental Bud Stem Cells (DBSCs) representing a promising source for bone regeneration of stomatognathic as well as other systems. Cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells are critical for tissue morphogenesis and architecture; such interactions are mediated by integrins and cadherins respectively. We characterized DBSCs for the expression of these adhesion receptors and examined their pattern during osteogenic differentiation. Our data indicate that N-cadherin and cadherin-11 were expressed in undifferentiated DBSCs and their expression underwent changes during the osteogenic process (decreasing and increasing respectively), while expression of E-cadherin and P-cadherin was very low in DBSCs and did not change during the differentiation steps. Such expression pattern reflected the mesenchymal origin of DBSCs and confirmed their osteoblast-like features. On the other hand, osteogenic stimulation induced the upregulation of single subunits, αV, β3, α5, and the formation of integrin receptors α5β1 and αVβ3. DBSCs differentiation toward osteoblastic lineage was enhanced when cells were grown on fibronectin (FN), vitronectin (VTN), and osteopontin (OPN), ECM glycoproteins which contain an integrin-binding sequence, the RGD motif. In addition we established that integrin αVβ3 plays a crucial role during the commitment of MSCs to osteoblast lineage, whereas integrin α5β1 seems to be dispensable. These data suggest that

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells-based therapy as a potential treatment in neurodegenerative disorders: is the escape from senescence an answer?

    PubMed

    Castorina, Alessandro; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Marzagalli, Rubina; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Aging is the most prominent risk factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. In the United States, over 35 million of elderly people suffer from age-related diseases. Aging impairs the self-repair ability of neuronal cells, which undergo progressive deterioration. Once initiated, this process hampers the already limited regenerative power of the central nervous system, making the search for new therapeutic strategies particularly difficult in elderly affected patients. So far, mesenchymal stem cells have proven to be a viable option to ameliorate certain aspects of neurodegeneration, as they possess high proliferative rate and differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. However, accumulating data have demonstrated that during long-term culture, mesenchymal stem cells undergo spontaneous transformation. Transformed mesenchymal stem cells show typical features of senescence, including the progressive shortening of telomers, which results in cell loss and, as a consequence, hampered regenerative potential. These evidences, in line with those observed in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from old donors, suggest that senescence may represent a limit to mesenchymal stem cells exploitation in therapy, prompting scholars to either find alternative sources of pluripotent cells or to arrest the age-related transformation. In the present review, we summarize findings from recent literature, and critically discuss some of the major hurdles encountered in the search of appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as benefits arising from their use in neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we provide some insights that may aid in the development of strategies to arrest or, at least, delay the aging of mesenchymal stem cells to improve their therapeutic potential.

  17. Efficient differentiation of human iPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells to chondroprogenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Rosa M; Gibson, Jason; Xu, Ren-He; Lee, Francis Y; Drissi, Hicham

    2013-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) hold tremendous potential for personalized cell-based repair strategies to treat musculoskeletal disorders. To establish human iPSCs as a potential source of viable chondroprogenitors for articular cartilage repair, we assessed the in vitro chondrogenic potential of the pluripotent population versus an iPSC-derived mesenchymal-like progenitor population. We found the direct plating of undifferentiated iPSCs into high-density micromass cultures in the presence of BMP-2 promoted chondrogenic differentiation, however these conditions resulted in a mixed population of cells resembling the phenotype of articular cartilage, transient cartilage, and fibrocartilage. The progenitor cells derived from human iPSCs exhibited immunophenotypic features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and developed along multiple mesenchymal lineages, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro. The data indicate the derivation of a mesenchymal stem cell population from human iPSCs is necessary to limit culture heterogeneity as well as chondrocyte maturation in the differentiated progeny. Moreover, as compared to pellet culture differentiation, BMP-2 treatment of iPSC-derived MSC-like (iPSC-MSC) micromass cultures resulted in a phenotype more typical of articular chondrocytes, characterized by the enrichment of cartilage-specific type II collagen (Col2a1), decreased expression of type I collagen (Col1a1) as well as lack of chondrocyte hypertrophy. These studies represent a first step toward identifying the most suitable iPSC progeny for developing cell-based approaches to repair joint cartilage damage. PMID:22961870

  18. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Vein Conduit on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Foroutan, Kamal; Khodarahmi, Ali; Alavi, Hootan; Pedram, Sepehr; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamad Reza; Bordbar, Sima

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral nerve repair with sufficient functional recovery is an important issue in reconstructive surgery. Stem cells have attracted extensive research interest in recent years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the vein conduit technique, with and without the addition of mesenchymal stem cells in gap-less nerve injury repair in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 36 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three groups: In the first group, nerve repair was performed with simple neurorrhaphy (control group), in the second group, nerve repair was done with vein conduit over site (vein conduit group) and in the third group, bone marrow stem cells were instilled into the vein conduit (stem cell group) after nerve repair with vein conduit over site. Six weeks after the intervention, the sciatic function index, electrophysiological study and histological examination were performed. Results: All animals tolerated the surgical procedures and survived well. The sciatic function index and latency were significantly improved in the vein conduit (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) and stem cell group (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) compared with the control group. No significant difference was observed in sciatic function and latency between the vein conduit and stem-cell groups. Moreover, histological analysis showed no significant difference in regenerative density between these two groups. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the meticulous microsurgical nerve repair, which was performed using the vein tubulization induced significantly better sciatic nerve regeneration. However, the addition of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to vein conduit failed to promote any significant changes in regeneration outcome. PMID:25825699

  19. Comparative studies of different cryopreservation methods for mesenchymal stem cells derived from human fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Plamen; Hristova, Elena; Konakchieva, Rossitza; Michova, Antoaneta; Dimitrov, Josif

    2010-03-29

    Fetal stem cells possess some intriguing characteristics, which delineate them as promising cellular therapeutics. They are less immunogenic, at lower stage of differentiation and have higher potential for repopulation and migration. Furthermore, the fetal stem cells secrete a set of cytokines and growth factors, which stimulate the regeneration of the recipient tissue. The present study indicated that the adhesive fraction of human fetal liver cells possessed the morphological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, as well as potential to differentiate into adipocyte and osteoblast lineages. The immunophenotypic analysis showed that the cells expressed CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD105 (typical for mesenchymal stem cells) and lacked the haematopoietic lineage markers CD34 and CD45. Addressing the issue of the low-temperature storage of the human fetal liver cells, four different methods for cryopreservation were assessed: conventional slow freezing, program freezing and two vitrification protocols. The obtained results demonstrated that the cells were cryotolerant and maintained their properties and differentiation potential after thawing. Program freezing showed to be the most efficient method for cryopreservation of the investigated cells.

  20. Gold nanorod delivery of LSD1 siRNA induces human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Huang, Qianying; Jin, Yiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, theranostic nanoparticles with microsize and multifunctional ability have emerged as a new platform in biomedical field, such as cancer therapy, optical imaging and gene therapy. Gene therapy has been recently shown as a promising tool for tissue engineering as safe and effective nanotechnology-based delivery methods are developed. Controlling adhesion and differentiation of stem cells is critical for tissue regeneration. In this study, we have developed poly-sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS) and poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) coated AuNR-based nanocarriers, which are capable of delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against LSD1 to induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. To further study the mechanism, we tested the stemness and differentiation genes and found that they have been changed with LSD1 down-regulation. In addition, with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), LSD1 siRNA delivery by AuNRs could promote the differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cells (human MSCs) into a hepatocyte lineage in vitro. Our results suggest for the first time use of AuNRs as nanocarriers of delivery LSD1 siRNA to induce the differentiation of human MSCs into a hepatocyte lineage, and envision the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue remodeling (such as liver and bone) in vivo, eventually translating to clinical applications.

  1. Adipocyte differentiation induced using nonspecific siRNA controls in cultured human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunhe; Mirmalek-Sani, Sayed-Hadi; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Junlong; Oreffo, Richard O.C.

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is gene silencing induced by double-stranded RNA of 21–23 nucleotides in length, termed small interfering RNA, or siRNA. RNAi-based techniques have been widely applied to elucidate gene function, identify drug targets, and used in trials as a promising adjunct to silence disease-causing genes. However, emerging evidence suggests unexpected changes in expression of untargeted genes as a consequence of an off-target effect by RNAi in mammalian cells. To date, our understanding of such effects on stem cells is limited. We transfected human fetal femur-derived mesenchymal stem cells using commercially available nonspecific siRNA controls and examined adipocyte differentiation in the cells using morphology, histochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR to examine the expression of key genes for adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation. We report here the induction of adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells using nonspecific siRNAs raising concerns as to the specificity of RNAi in stem cells and, critically, a need to understand and delineate the rules governing the specificity of RNAi. PMID:17556710

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion but not plasticity is affected by high substrate stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kal Van Tam, Janice; Uto, Koichiro; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Forte, Giancarlo; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    The acknowledged ability of synthetic materials to induce cell-specific responses regardless of biological supplies provides tissue engineers with the opportunity to find the appropriate materials and conditions to prepare tissue-targeted scaffolds. Stem and mature cells have been shown to acquire distinct morphologies in vitro and to modify their phenotype when grown on synthetic materials with tunable mechanical properties. The stiffness of the substrate used for cell culture is likely to provide cells with mechanical cues mimicking given physiological or pathological conditions, thus affecting the biological properties of cells. The sensitivity of cells to substrate composition and mechanical properties resides in multiprotein complexes called focal adhesions, whose dynamic modification leads to cytoskeleton remodeling and changes in gene expression. In this study, the remodeling of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells in response to substrate stiffness was followed in the first phases of cell-matrix interaction, using poly-ɛ-caprolactone planar films with similar chemical composition and different elasticity. As compared to mature dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells showed a specific response to substrate stiffness, in terms of adhesion, as a result of differential focal adhesion assembly, while their multipotency as a bulk was not significantly affected by matrix compliance. Given the sensitivity of stem cells to matrix mechanics, the mechanobiology of such cells requires further investigations before preparing tissue-specific scaffolds.

  3. VEGF-expressing human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, an improved therapy strategy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xiong, N; Zhang, Z; Huang, J; Chen, C; Zhang, Z; Jia, M; Xiong, J; Liu, X; Wang, F; Cao, X; Liang, Z; Sun, S; Lin, Z; Wang, T

    2011-04-01

    The umbilical cord provides a rich source of primitive mesenchymal stem cells (human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs)), which have the potential for transplantation-based treatments of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Our pervious study indicated that adenovirus-associated virus-mediated intrastriatal delivery of human vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF 165) conferred molecular protection to the dopaminergic system. As both VEGF and HUMSCs displayed limited neuroprotection, in this study we investigated whether HUMSCs combined with VEGF expression could offer enhanced neuroprotection. HUMSCs were modified by adenovirus-mediated VEGF gene transfer, and subsequently transplanted into rotenone-lesioned striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats. As a result, HUMSCs differentiated into dopaminergic neuron-like cells on the basis of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) (neuronal marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocyte marker), nestin (neural stem cell marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (dopaminergic marker) expression. Further, VEGF expression significantly enhanced the dopaminergic differentiation of HUMSCs in vivo. HUMSC transplantation ameliorated apomorphine-evoked rotations and reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the lesioned substantia nigra (SNc), which was enhanced significantly by VEGF expression in HUMSCs. These findings present the suitability of HUMSC as a vector for gene therapy and suggest that stem cell engineering with VEGF may improve the transplantation strategy for the treatment of PD.

  4. Gold nanorod delivery of LSD1 siRNA induces human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Huang, Qianying; Jin, Yiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, theranostic nanoparticles with microsize and multifunctional ability have emerged as a new platform in biomedical field, such as cancer therapy, optical imaging and gene therapy. Gene therapy has been recently shown as a promising tool for tissue engineering as safe and effective nanotechnology-based delivery methods are developed. Controlling adhesion and differentiation of stem cells is critical for tissue regeneration. In this study, we have developed poly-sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS) and poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH) coated AuNR-based nanocarriers, which are capable of delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) against LSD1 to induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. To further study the mechanism, we tested the stemness and differentiation genes and found that they have been changed with LSD1 down-regulation. In addition, with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), LSD1 siRNA delivery by AuNRs could promote the differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cells (human MSCs) into a hepatocyte lineage in vitro. Our results suggest for the first time use of AuNRs as nanocarriers of delivery LSD1 siRNA to induce the differentiation of human MSCs into a hepatocyte lineage, and envision the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue remodeling (such as liver and bone) in vivo, eventually translating to clinical applications. PMID:26046277

  5. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during digestive tract development and epithelial stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Ludovic; Marchal, Stéphane; Faure, Sandrine; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract develops from a simple and uniform tube into a complex organ with specific differentiation patterns along the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of asymmetry. It is derived from all three germ layers and their cross-talk is important for the regulated development of fetal and adult gastrointestinal structures and organs. Signals from the adjacent mesoderm are essential for the morphogenesis of the overlying epithelium. These mesenchymal-epithelial interactions govern the development and regionalization of the different gastrointestinal epithelia and involve most of the key morphogens and signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog, BMPs, Notch, WNT, HOX, SOX and FOXF cascades. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying mesenchyme differentiation into smooth muscle cells influence the regionalization of the gastrointestinal epithelium through interactions with the enteric nervous system. In the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are essential for the maintenance of the epithelial regionalization and digestive epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of these interactions is also associated with bowel dysfunction potentially leading to epithelial tumor development. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions observed during digestive epithelium development and differentiation and also during epithelial stem cell regeneration. PMID:26126787

  6. Osteogenic differentiation strategies for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kroeze, Robert Jan; Knippenberg, Marlene; Helder, Marco N

    2011-01-01

    Adipose stem cell preparations, either obtained as a freshly isolated so-called stromal vascular fraction (SVF) or as cells cultured to homogeneity and then referred to as adipose stem cells (ASCs), have found widespread use in a broad variety of studies on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, including bone repair.For newcomers within the field, but also for established research laboratories having up to 10 years of expertise in this research area, it may be convenient to strive for, and use consensus protocols (1) for studying the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASC preparations in vitro, and (2) for osteogenic induction regimes for in vivo implementation. To assist in achieving this goal, this chapter describes various step-by-step osteogenic differentiation protocols for adipose-derived stem cell populations (SVF as well as ASCs) currently applied within our laboratory, with particular emphasis on protocols aimed at intra-operative use. The protocols describe the use of inducing compounds, including the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3, and polyamines, as well as methods and parameters for evaluating the level of differentiation achieved.We would appreciate receiving feedback on the protocols described; this will facilitate the development of consensus protocols, which in turn will allow better comparison of data sets generated by different research groups. This continuing standardization, which might be reported on at international meetings like those of IFATS ( http://www.IFATS.org ), might be of benefit for the whole ASC research community.

  7. Encapsulated dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an injectable and biodegradable scaffold for applications in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Chen, Chider; Akiyama, Kentaro; Xu, Xingtian; Chee, Winston W L; Schricker, Scott R; Shi, Songtao

    2013-11-01

    Bone grafts are currently the major family of treatment options in modern reconstructive dentistry. As an alternative, stem cell-scaffold constructs seem to hold promise for bone tissue engineering. However, the feasibility of encapsulating dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells in scaffold biomaterials such as alginate hydrogel remains to be tested. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to: (1) develop an injectable scaffold based on oxidized alginate microbeads encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs); and (2) investigate the cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells in the microbeads both in vitro and in vivo. Microbeads with diameters of 1 ± 0.1 mm were fabricated with 2 × 10(6) stem cells/mL of alginate. Microbeads containing PDLSCs, GMSCs, and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells as a positive control were implanted subcutaneously and ectopic bone formation was analyzed by micro CT and histological analysis at 8-weeks postimplantation. The encapsulated stem cells remained viable after 4 weeks of culturing in osteo-differentiating induction medium. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirmed that apatitic mineral was deposited by the stem cells. In vivo, ectopic mineralization was observed inside and around the implanted microbeads containing the immobilized stem cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that immobilization of PDLSCs and GMSCs in alginate microbeads provides a promising strategy for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23983201

  8. Solid lipid nanoparticles regulate functional assortment of mouse mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chabra, S; Ranjan, M; Bhandari, R; Kaur, T; Aggrawal, M; Puri, V; Mahajan, N; Kaur, I P; Puri, S; Sobti, R C

    2011-01-01

    A rapid decline in self-renewability, viability and function, of isolated stem cells are major hurdles in developing cell based therapies. There has been an increasing interest towards identifying a support material for maintaining stem cell features of the isolated cells. Pioneering observations of the present paper, demonstrate functionally diverse potential of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) in deciding the fate & behavior of mouse mesenchymal stem cell. The evidences are provided to show the dual nature of the SLNs for being a scaffold for the stem cell attachment, to retain stemness, and as reagent for inducing stem cell differentiation. Scanning electron microscopic examinations together with expression analysis were used to conform to such observations. Results of the study thus suggest that Solid lipid nanoparticles can be used as a good support material when functionalized to achieve adhesive properties and as a molecular paradigm for studying the adipocytic differentiation. We envisage a new role of SLNs towards regulating stem cell character by orchestrating the structural alignment during preparation of Solid lipid nanoparticles.

  9. Effect of fatty acids on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell energy metabolism and survival.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, Natasha; Huqi, Alda; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Mori, Jun; Paulin, Roxane; Haromy, Alois; Onay-Besikci, Arzu; Ionescu, Lavinia; Thébaud, Bernard; Michelakis, Evangelos; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Successful stem cell therapy requires the optimal proliferation, engraftment, and differentiation of stem cells into the desired cell lineage of tissues. However, stem cell therapy clinical trials to date have had limited success, suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. This includes a better understanding of stem cell energy metabolism because of the importance of energy metabolism in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. We report here the first direct evidence that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) energy metabolism is highly glycolytic with low rates of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. The contribution of glycolysis to ATP production is greater than 97% in undifferentiated BMMSCs, while glucose and fatty acid oxidation combined only contribute 3% of ATP production. We also assessed the effect of physiological levels of fatty acids on human BMMSC survival and energy metabolism. We found that the saturated fatty acid palmitate induces BMMSC apoptosis and decreases proliferation, an effect prevented by the unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Interestingly, chronic exposure of human BMMSCs to physiological levels of palmitate (for 24 hr) reduces palmitate oxidation rates. This decrease in palmitate oxidation is prevented by chronic exposure of the BMMSCs to oleate. These results suggest that reducing saturated fatty acid oxidation can decrease human BMMSC proliferation and cause cell death. These results also suggest that saturated fatty acids may be involved in the long-term impairment of BMMSC survival in vivo.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells as a source of Schwann cells: their anticipated use in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wakao, Shohei; Matsuse, Dai; Dezawa, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells form myelin, sustain axons and provide the microenvironment for nerve fibers, thereby playing a key role in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Schwann cells also provide support for the damaged PNS by producing factors that strongly promote axonal regrowth and contribute to remyelination, which is crucial for the recovery of neural function. These advantages are not confined to the PNS and also apply to the central nervous system. Many diseases, including peripheral nerve injury, neuropathy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, are targets for Schwann cell therapy. The collection of Schwann cells, however, causes new damage to other peripheral nerve segments. Furthermore, the doubling time of Schwann cells is not very fast, and thus adequate amounts of Schwann cells for clinical use cannot be collected within a reasonable amount of time. Mesenchymal stem cells, which are highly proliferative, are easily accessible from various types of mesenchymal tissues, such as the bone marrow, umbilical cord and fat tissue. Because these cells have the ability to cross oligolineage boundaries between mesodermal to ectodermal lineages, they are capable of differentiating into Schwann cells with step-by-step cytokine stimulation. In this review, we summarize the properties of mesenchymal stem cell-derived Schwann cells, which are comparable to authentic Schwann cells, and discuss future perspectives.

  11. Hexavalent chromium induces expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Lin; Chow, Kuan-Chih; Kuo, Ting-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Cr(VI) causes severe kidney damage. The patient's renal function could gradually recover by spontaneous kidney regeneration. The molecular effect of Cr(VI) on recovery of kidney cells, however, has not been clearly elucidated. Here we show that Cr(VI) induces expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers, cell markers, such as paxillin, vimentin, α-SMA, nanog, and CD133 of HK-2 cells. Moreover, Cr(VI) activates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). By revealing that levels of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase were promptly reduced following Cr(VI) challenge, our data suggested that DDH could be involved in a Cr(VI)-related oxidation to generate massive reactive oxygen species and H2 O2 , and to create intracellular hypoxia, which then increased levels of SUMO-1 activating enzyme subunit 2, and sumoylation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2, to mediate the subsequent molecular and cellular responses, e.g., expression of mesenchymal and stem cell markers. Pretreatment with vitamin C reduced Cr(VI)-related cellular effects. However, no evident effect was observed when vitamin C was added following Cr(VI) challenge. PMID:25620490

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell interactions with 3D ECM modules fabricated via multiphoton excited photochemistry.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Tran, Quyen A; Fong, Jimmy J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Ogle, Brenda M; Campagnola, Paul J

    2012-09-10

    To understand complex micro/nanoscale ECM stem cell interactions, reproducible in vitro models are needed that can strictly recapitulate the relative content and spatial arrangement of native tissue. Additionally, whole ECM proteins are required to most accurately reflect native binding dynamics. To address this need, we use multiphoton excited photochemistry to create 3D whole protein constructs or "modules" to study how the ECM governs stem cell migration. The constructs were created from mixtures of BSA/laminin (LN) and BSA alone, whose comparison afforded studying how the migration dynamics are governed from the combination of morphological and ECM cues. We found that mesenchymal stem cells interacted for significantly longer durations with the BSA/LN constructs than pure BSA, pointing to the importance of binding cues of the LN. Critical to this work was the development of an automated system with feedback based on fluorescence imaging to provide quality control when synthesizing multiple identical constructs.

  13. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation.

  14. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into gonad and adrenal steroidogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. Steroid hormone treatment is also employed in aging people for sex hormone deficiency. These patients undergo such therapies, which have associated risks, for their entire life. Stem cells represent an innovative tool for tissue regeneration and the possibility of solving these problems. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to differentiate into steroidogenic cells both in vivo and in vitro. In particular, they can effectively be differentiated into steroidogenic cells by expressing nuclear receptor 5A subfamily proteins (steroidogenic factor-1 and liver receptor homolog-1) with the aid of cAMP. This approach will provide a source of cells for future regenerative medicine for the treatment of diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It can also represent a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of steroidogenesis and its related diseases. PMID:24772247

  15. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA. PMID:27470612

  16. Reconstruction of limbal stem cell deficient corneal surface with induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Rohaina, Che Man; Then, Kong Yong; Ng, Angela Min Hwei; Wan Abdul Halim, Wan Haslina; Zahidin, Aida Zairani Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah B H

    2014-03-01

    The cornea can be damaged by a variety of clinical disorders or chemical, mechanical, and thermal injuries. The objectives of this study were to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to corneal lineage, to form a tissue engineered corneal substitute (TEC) using BMSCs, and to treat corneal surface defects in a limbal stem cell deficiency model. BMSCs were induced to corneal lineage using limbal medium for 10 days. Induced BMSCs demonstrated upregulation of corneal stem cell markers; β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, and p63, increased protein expression of CK3 and p63 significantly compared with the uninduced ones. For TEC formation, passage 1 BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on amniotic membrane in a transwell co-culture system and were grown in limbal medium. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were induced by alkaline injury, and the TEC was implanted for 8 weeks. Serial slit lamp evaluation revealed remarkable improvement in corneal regeneration in terms of corneal clarity and reduced vascularization. Histologic and optical coherence tomography analyses demonstrated comparable corneal thickness and achieved stratified epithelium with a compact stromal layer resembling that of normal cornea. CK3 and p63 were expressed in the newly regenerated cornea. In conclusion, BMSCs can be induced into corneal epithelial lineage, and these cells are viable for the formation of TEC, to be used for the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the limbal stem cell deficient model.

  17. Vanillin attenuates negative effects of ultraviolet A on the stemness of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; Park, See-Hyoung; Kim, Mi Ok; Lim, Inhwan; Kang, Mingyeong; Oh, Sae Woong; Jung, Kwangseon; Jo, Dong Gyu; Cho, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jongsung

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation induces various changes in cell biology. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vanillin on UVA irradiation-induced damages in the stemness properties of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). UVA-antagonizing mechanisms of vanillin were also examined. The results revealed that vanillin attenuated UVA-induced reduction of the proliferative potential and stemness of hAMSCs evidenced by increased proliferative activity in BrdU incorporation assay and upregulation of stemness-related genes (OCT4, NANOG and SOX2) in response to vanillin treatment. UVA-induced reduction in mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly recovered by vanillin. In addition, the antagonizing effect of vanillin on UVA was found to be mediated by reduced production of PGE2 through inhibiting JNK and p38 MAPK. Taken together, these findings showed that vanillin could improve the reduced stemness of hAMSCs induced by UVA. The effect of vanillin is mediated by upregulating HIF-1α via inhibiting PGE2-cAMP signaling. Therefore, vanillin might be used as an antagonizing agent to mitigate the effects of UVA.

  18. Immunomodulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Puissant, Bénédicte; Barreau, Corinne; Bourin, Philippe; Clavel, Cyril; Corre, Jill; Bousquet, Christine; Taureau, Christine; Cousin, Béatrice; Abbal, Michel; Laharrague, Patrick; Penicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Blancher, Antoine

    2005-04-01

    Like mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADAS cells) can differentiate into several lineages and present therapeutical potential for repairing damaged tissues. The use of allogenic stem cells can enlarge their therapeutical interest, provided that the grafted cells could be tolerated. We investigate here, for the first time, the immunosuppressive properties of ADAS cells compared with the well-characterized immunosuppressive properties of BM-MSCs. ADAS cells did not provoke in vitro alloreactivity of incompatible lymphocytes and, moreover, suppressed mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. The impairment of inhibition when ADAS cells and BM-MSCs were separated from lymphocytes by a permeable membrane suggests that cell contact is required for a full inhibitory effect. Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by both stem cells but, similar to interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), the levels of which were undetectable in supernatants of MLR inhibited by ADAS cells or BM-MSCs, it did not seem implicated in the stem cell suppressive effect. These findings support that ADAS cells share immunosuppressive properties with BM-MSCs. Therefore, ADAS cell-based reconstructive therapy could employ allogenic cells and because of their immunosuppressive properties, ADAS cells could be an alternative source to BM-MSCs to treat allogenic conflicts.

  19. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells migrate to healthy and damaged salivary glands following stem cell infusion.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Silke; Huss, Ralf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Vogel, Breda; Brandau, Sven; Lang, Stephan; Rotter, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Xerostomia is a severe side effect of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. To date, no satisfactory treatment option has been established. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as a potential treatment modality, we aimed to evaluate stem cell distribution following intravenous and intraglandular injections using a surgical model of salivary gland damage and to analyse the effects of MSC injections on the recruitment of immune cells. The submandibular gland ducts of rats were surgically ligated. Syngeneic adult MSCs were isolated, immortalised by simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and characterized by flow cytometry. MSCs were injected intravenously and intraglandularly. After 1, 3 and 7 days, the organs of interest were analysed for stem cell recruitment. Inflammation was analysed by immunohistochemical staining. We were able to demonstrate that, after intravenous injection, MSCs were recruited to normal and damaged submandibular glands on days 1, 3 and 7. Unexpectedly, stem cells were recruited to ligated and non-ligated glands in a comparable manner. After intraglandular injection of MSCs into ligated glands, the presence of MSCs, leucocytes and macrophages was enhanced, compared to intravenous injection of stem cells. Our data suggest that injected MSCs were retained within the inflamed glands, could become activated and subsequently recruited leucocytes to the sites of tissue damage. PMID:24810808

  20. A mesenchymal glioma stem cell profile is related to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Balbous, A; Cortes, U; Guilloteau, K; Villalva, C; Flamant, S; Gaillard, A; Milin, S; Wager, M; Sorel, N; Guilhot, J; Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Turhan, A; Chomel, J-C; Karayan-Tapon, L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between the expression of stem cell-associated genes and relapses in glioblastoma (GBM), suggesting a key role for tumor stem cells in this process. Although there is increasing interest in this field, glioma stem cells (GSCs) are still poorly characterized, their 'stemness' state and factors maintaining these properties remain largely unknown. We performed an expression profiling analysis of pluripotency in gliomaspheres derived from 11 patients. Comparative analysis between GSCs and H1 and H9 human embryonic stem cells as well as H9-derived neural stem cells indicates major variations in gene expression of pluripotency factors Nanog and OCT4, but a stable pattern for SOX2 suggesting its important function in maintaining pluripotency in GSCs. Our results also showed that all GSC lines have the capacity to commit to neural differentiation and express mesenchymal or endothelial differentiation markers. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two groups of GSCs reflecting their heterogeneity and identified COL1A1 and IFITM1 as the most discriminating genes. Similar patterns have been observed in tumors from which gliomaspheres have been established. To determine whether this heterogeneity could be clinically relevant, the expression of both genes was further analyzed in an independent cohort of 30 patients with GBM and revealed strong correlation with overall survival. In vitro silencing of COL1A1 and IFTM1 confirmed the effect of these mesenchymal-associated genes on cell invasion and gliomasphere initiation. Our results indicate that COL1A1 and IFITM1 genes could be considered for use in stratifying patients with GBM into subgroups for risk of recurrence at diagnosis, as well as for prognostic and therapeutic evolution. PMID:24637491

  1. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Liru; Wang, Dejun; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Yan; Liang, Tian; Zhang, Guangmei

    2015-01-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from amniotic fluid (AF) have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I), but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II). RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  2. Cell growth characteristics, differentiation frequency, and immunophenotype of adult ear mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Staszkiewicz, Jaroslaw; Frazier, Trivia P; Rowan, Brian G; Bunnell, Bruce A; Chiu, Ernest S; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Ear mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) represent a readily accessible population of stem-like cells that are adherent, clonogenic, and have the ability to self-renew. Previously, we have demonstrated that they can be induced to differentiate into adipocyte, osteocyte, chondrocyte, and myocyte lineages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the growth kinetics of the cells and to determine their ability to form colonies of fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. In addition, the immunophenotypes of freshly isolated and culture-expanded cells were evaluated. From 1 g of tissue, we were able to isolate an average of 7.8 x 10(6) cells exhibiting a cell cycle length of approximately 2-3 days. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays indicated high proliferation potential, and confirmed previously observed multipotentiality of the cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) showed that EMSCs were negative for hematopoietic markers (CD4, CD45), proving that they did not derive from circulating hematopoietic cells. The FACS analyses also showed high expression of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) with only a minor population of cells expressing CD117, thus identifying Sca-1 as the more robust stem cell biomarker. Additionally, flow cytometry data revealed that the expression patterns of hematopoietic, stromal, and stem cell markers were maintained in the passaged EMSCs, consistent with the persistence of an undifferentiated state. This study indicates that EMSCs provide an alternative model for in vitro analyses of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further studies will be necessary to determine their utility for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. PMID:19400629

  3. Potential mechanisms underlying ectodermal differentiation of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; Berry, Abigale M; Hopkins, Richard A; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Aljitawi, Omar S

    2016-09-16

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) are being increasingly recognized for their ectodermal differentiation potential. Previously, we demonstrated that when WJMSC were seeded onto an acellular matrix material derived from Wharton's jelly and cultured in osteogenic induction media, generated CK19 positive cells and hair-like structures indicative of ectodermal differentiation of WJMSCs. In this manuscript, we examine the underlying mechanism behind this observation using a variety of microscopy and molecular biology techniques such as western blotting and qPCR. We demonstrate that these hair-like structures are associated with live cells that are positive for epithelial and mesenchymal markers such as cytokeratin-19 and α-smooth muscle actin, respectively. We also show that up-regulation of β-catenin and noggin, along with the expression of TGF-β and SMAD and inhibition of BMP4 could be the mechanism behind this ectodermal differentiation and hair-like structure formation.

  4. Potential mechanisms underlying ectodermal differentiation of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; Berry, Abigale M; Hopkins, Richard A; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Aljitawi, Omar S

    2016-09-16

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) are being increasingly recognized for their ectodermal differentiation potential. Previously, we demonstrated that when WJMSC were seeded onto an acellular matrix material derived from Wharton's jelly and cultured in osteogenic induction media, generated CK19 positive cells and hair-like structures indicative of ectodermal differentiation of WJMSCs. In this manuscript, we examine the underlying mechanism behind this observation using a variety of microscopy and molecular biology techniques such as western blotting and qPCR. We demonstrate that these hair-like structures are associated with live cells that are positive for epithelial and mesenchymal markers such as cytokeratin-19 and α-smooth muscle actin, respectively. We also show that up-regulation of β-catenin and noggin, along with the expression of TGF-β and SMAD and inhibition of BMP4 could be the mechanism behind this ectodermal differentiation and hair-like structure formation. PMID:27501759

  5. A genetic platform to model sarcomagenesis from primary adult mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guarnerio, Jlenia; Riccardi, Luisa; Taulli, Riccardo; Maeda, Takahiro; Wang, Guocan; Hobbs, Robin M.; Song, Min Sup; Sportoletti, Paolo; Bernardi, Rosa; Bronson, Roderick T.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory factors governing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) physiology and their tumorigenic potential are still largely unknown, which substantially delays the identification of effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of aggressive and lethal form of MSC-derived mesenchymal tumors, such as undifferentiated sarcomas. Here we have developed a novel platform to screen and quickly identify genes and pathways responsible for adult MSCs transformation, modeled undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo, and, ultimately, tested the efficacy of targeting the identified oncopathways. Importantly, by taking advantage of this new platform, we demonstrate the key role of an aberrant LRF-DLK1-SOX9 pathway in the pathogenesis of undifferentiated sarcoma with important therapeutic implications. PMID:25614485

  6. ESET histone methyltransferase regulates osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells during postnatal bone development

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Kevin A.; Teteak, Colin J.; Gao, Jidi; Li, Ning; Hacquebord, Jacques; Ghatan, Andrew; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Song, Guangchun; Chansky, Howard A.; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of histone methyltransferase ESET (also known as SETDB1) on bone metabolism, we analyzed osteoblasts and osteoclasts in ESET knockout animals, and performed osteogenesis assays using ESET-null mesenchymal stem cells. We found that ESET deletion severely impairs osteoblast differentiation but has no effect on osteoclastogenesis, that co-transfection of ESET represses Runx2-mediated luciferase reporter while siRNA knockdown of ESET activates the luciferase reporter in mesenchymal cells, and that ESET is required for postnatal expression of Indian hedgehog protein in the growth plate. As the bone phenotype in ESET-null mice is 100% penetrant, these results support ESET as a critical regulator of osteoblast differentiation during bone development. PMID:24188826

  7. Polysaccharides immobilized in polypyrrole matrices are able to induce osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Judith Serra; Sabbieti, Maria Giovanna; Agas, Dimitrios; Marchetti, Luigi; Panero, Stefania

    2014-12-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to differentiate and contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues. The present study illustrates that the proper immobilization of heparin (Hep) and hyaluronic acid (HA) into a polypyrrole (PPy) matrix by electropolymerization results in an optimal interface for MSC differentiation towards osteoblast lineage. The obtained thin films showed good thermal stability, hydrophilicity and slow controlled polysaccharide release. The in vitro tests showed the main role of the interface chemical composition. Indeed, PPyHep and PPyHA thin films were able to induce osteogenic differentiation as determined by levels of specific early osteogenic markers (Runx2 and osterix) even in the absence of differentiating medium. Increased levels of ALP and Alizarin red staining, both indicating mineralization processes, confirmed the presence of mature osteoblasts.

  8. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  9. Equine peripheral blood-derived progenitors in comparison to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Jens; Nesic, Dobrila; Romero, Jose Diaz; Brehm, Walter; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Grogan, Shawn Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Fibroblast-like cells isolated from peripheral blood of human, canine, guinea pig, and rat have been demonstrated to possess the capacity to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of isolating pluripotent precursor cells from equine peripheral blood and compare them with equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as a control for cell multipotency assessment. Venous blood (n = 33) and bone marrow (n = 5) were obtained from adult horses. Mononuclear cells were obtained by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and cultured in monolayer, and adherent fibroblast-like cells were tested for their differentiation potential. Chondrogenic differentiation was performed in serum-free medium in pellet cultures as a three-dimensional model, whereas osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were induced in monolayer culture. Evidence for differentiation was made via biochemical, histological, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction evaluations. Fibroblast-like cells were observed on day 10 in 12 out of 33 samples and were allowed to proliferate until confluence. Equine peripheral blood-derived cells had osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities comparable to cells derived from bone marrow. Both cell types showed a limited capacity to produce lipid droplets compared to human MSCs. This result may be due to the assay conditions, which are established for human MSCs from bone marrow and may not be optimal for equine progenitor cells. Bone marrow-derived equine and human MSCs could be induced to develop cartilage, whereas equine peripheral blood progenitors did not show any capacity to produce cartilage at the histological level. In conclusion, equine peripheral blood-derived fibroblast-like cells can differentiate into distinct mesenchymal lineages but have less multipotency than bone marrow-derived MSCs under the conditions used in this study.

  10. Condition medium of HepG-2 cells induces the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cancerous mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Miao, Yinglei; Chang, Yefei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs) after incubation with condition medium (CM) from liver cancer HepG-2 cells, and the biobehaviors (proliferation and migration) of these CA-MSCs were further evaluated. The supernatant of HepG-2 cells was collected and mixed with equal volume of low glucose DMEM. The resultant medium was used to treat hUCMSCs for 48 h. The expression of CA-MSCs related proteins and miR-221 was detected in cells. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was mixed with equal volume of high glucose DMEM, and the resultant medium was used treat HepG-2 cells for 48 h and the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were evaluated. Moreover, HepG-2 cells were co-cultured with hUCMSCs and then the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were assessed. After incubation with the supernatant from HepG-2 cells, hUCMSCs showed significantly elevated expression of vimentin, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and miR-221. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was able to significantly increase the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. Following co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells increased dramatically. These findings suggest that the supernatant of HepG-2 cells is able to induce the phenotype of CA-MSCs and the supernatant of CA-MSCs may promote the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. These findings provide experimental evidence for the cellular remodeling in tumor microenvironment and the safety of clinical use of hUCMSCs. PMID:27648133

  11. Condition medium of HepG-2 cells induces the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cancerous mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Miao, Yinglei; Chang, Yefei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs) after incubation with condition medium (CM) from liver cancer HepG-2 cells, and the biobehaviors (proliferation and migration) of these CA-MSCs were further evaluated. The supernatant of HepG-2 cells was collected and mixed with equal volume of low glucose DMEM. The resultant medium was used to treat hUCMSCs for 48 h. The expression of CA-MSCs related proteins and miR-221 was detected in cells. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was mixed with equal volume of high glucose DMEM, and the resultant medium was used treat HepG-2 cells for 48 h and the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were evaluated. Moreover, HepG-2 cells were co-cultured with hUCMSCs and then the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were assessed. After incubation with the supernatant from HepG-2 cells, hUCMSCs showed significantly elevated expression of vimentin, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and miR-221. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was able to significantly increase the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. Following co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells increased dramatically. These findings suggest that the supernatant of HepG-2 cells is able to induce the phenotype of CA-MSCs and the supernatant of CA-MSCs may promote the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. These findings provide experimental evidence for the cellular remodeling in tumor microenvironment and the safety of clinical use of hUCMSCs.

  12. Condition medium of HepG-2 cells induces the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into cancerous mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Miao, Yinglei; Chang, Yefei; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yubo; Zheng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) into cancer-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSCs) after incubation with condition medium (CM) from liver cancer HepG-2 cells, and the biobehaviors (proliferation and migration) of these CA-MSCs were further evaluated. The supernatant of HepG-2 cells was collected and mixed with equal volume of low glucose DMEM. The resultant medium was used to treat hUCMSCs for 48 h. The expression of CA-MSCs related proteins and miR-221 was detected in cells. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was mixed with equal volume of high glucose DMEM, and the resultant medium was used treat HepG-2 cells for 48 h and the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were evaluated. Moreover, HepG-2 cells were co-cultured with hUCMSCs and then the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells were assessed. After incubation with the supernatant from HepG-2 cells, hUCMSCs showed significantly elevated expression of vimentin, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and miR-221. The supernatant of induced hUCMSCs was able to significantly increase the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. Following co-culture, the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells increased dramatically. These findings suggest that the supernatant of HepG-2 cells is able to induce the phenotype of CA-MSCs and the supernatant of CA-MSCs may promote the proliferation and migration of HepG-2 cells. These findings provide experimental evidence for the cellular remodeling in tumor microenvironment and the safety of clinical use of hUCMSCs. PMID:27648133

  13. Chondrogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells and expression of Slug transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Brini, Anna T; Niada, Stefania; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Torreggiani, Elena; Arrigoni, Elena; Lisignoli, Gina; Piva, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    The scientific literature rarely reports experimental failures or inconsistent outcomes in the induction of cell differentiation; however, researchers commonly experience poor or unsuccessful responses to differentiating agents when culturing stem cells. One way of investigating the underlying reasons for such responses is to look at the basal expression levels of specific genes in multipotent stem cells before the induction of differentiation. In addition to shedding light on the complex properties of stem cells and the molecular modulation of differentiation pathways, this strategy can also lead to the development of important time- and money-saving tools that aid the efficient selection of cellular specimens--in this case, stem cells that are more prone to differentiate towards specific lineages and are therefore more suitable for cell-based therapeutic protocols in regenerative medicine. To address this latter aspect, this study focused on understanding the reasons why some human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) samples are less efficient at differentiating towards chondrogenesis. This study shows that analysis of the basal expression levels of Slug, a negative regulator of chondrogenesis in hMSC, provides a rapid and simple tool for distinguishing stem cell samples with the potential to form a cartilage-like matrix, and that are therefore suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. It is shown that high basal levels of Slug prevent the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs, even in the presence of transforming growth factor-β and elevated levels of Sox9.

  14. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jemma N; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; McNamara, Laura E; Burgess, Karl V; Yang, Jingli; Alakpa, Enateri V; Anderson, Hilary J; Hay, Jake; Turner, Lesley-Anne; Yarwood, Stephen J; Zelzer, Mischa; Oreffo, Richard O C; Ulijn, Rein V; Dalby, Matthew J

    2016-07-26

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells. PMID:27322014

  15. Identification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker STRO-1 in Oral Reactive Lesions by Immunofluorescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed-Mojtaba; Tahoori, Bita; Tavangar, Maryam-Sadat; Attar, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Stem cells are considered as new implement for tissue regeneration. Several niches in adult human body are colonized by multipotent stem cells but access to these potential reservoirs is often limited. Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is still unknown whether stem cells also exist in reactive lesions of oral cavity such as pyogenic granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma which are deliberated as inflammatory proliferation of different cell families. Purpose The aim of this study was to explore for clues to see whether pyogenic granuloma or peripheral ossifying fibroma contain dental mesenchymal stem cell (DMSC). Materials and Method Four pyogenic granuloma and four peripheral ossifying fibroma specimens were collected by excisional biopsy and preserved in PBS-EDTA at -86 °C. Then we cut them in 5µm diameter using Cryostat. Having been rinsed with PBS, the samples were stained with a primary mouse anti-human STRO-1 monoclonal IgM antibody. Afterward, a secondary goat anti-mouse IgM-FITC antibody was applied to detect STRO-1+ cells as probable stem cells by immunofluorescence technique. Results Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed presence of STRO-1+ cells in these lesions, particularly localized on perivascular zone. The negative control group was not glowing. Conclusion Based on these results, it was found that reactive lesions of pyogenic granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma have STRO-1 positive cells, which raises the possibility that these cells may be DMSCs. PMID:26535404

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Increased Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Expression Enhanced Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chih-Yuan; Hua, Jia; Coathup, Melanie; Kalia, Priya; Blunn, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of critical size bone defects pose a challenge in orthopedics. Stem cell therapy together with cytokines has the potential to improve bone repair as they cause the migration and homing of stem cells to the defect site. However, the engraftment, participation, and recruitment of other cells within the regenerating tissue are important. To enhance stem cell involvement, this study investigated overexpression of stem cells with stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) using an adenovirus. We hypothesized that these engineered cells would effectively increase the migration of native cells to the site of fracture, enhancing bone repair. Before implantation, we showed that SDF-1 secreted by transfected cells increased the migration of nontransfected cells. In a rat defect bone model, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing SDF-1 showed significantly (p=0.003) more new bone formation within the gap and less bone mineral loss at the area adjacent to the defect site during the early bone healing stage. In conclusion, SDF-1 was shown to play an important role in accelerating fracture repair and contributing to bone repair in rat models, by recruiting more host stem cells to the defect site and encouraging osteogenic differentiation and production of bone. PMID:25251779

  17. Cell contractility arising from topography and shear flow determines human mesenchymal stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Sonam, Surabhi; Sathe, Sharvari R.; Yim, Evelyn K.F.; Sheetz, Michael P.; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) influences intracellular tension and is known to regulate stem cell fate. However, little is known about the physiological conditions in the bone marrow, where external forces such as fluid shear stress, apart from the physical characteristics of the ECM, influence stem cell response. Here, we hypothesize that substrate topography and fluid shear stress alter the cellular contractile forces, influence the genetic expression of the stem cells and hence alter their lineage. When fluid shear stress was applied, human MSCs with higher contractility (seeded on 1 μm wells) underwent osteogenesis, whereas those with lower contractility (seeded on 2 μm gratings) remained multipotent. Compared to human MSCs seeded on gratings, those seeded on wells exhibited altered alignment and an increase in the area and number of focal adhesions. When actomyosin contractility was inhibited, human MSCs did not exhibit differentiation, regardless of the topographical feature they were being cultured on. We conclude that the stresses generated by the applied fluid flow impinge on cell contractility to drive the stem cell differentiation via the contractility of the stem cells. PMID:26879739

  18. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jemma N; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; McNamara, Laura E; Burgess, Karl V; Yang, Jingli; Alakpa, Enateri V; Anderson, Hilary J; Hay, Jake; Turner, Lesley-Anne; Yarwood, Stephen J; Zelzer, Mischa; Oreffo, Richard O C; Ulijn, Rein V; Dalby, Matthew J

    2016-07-26

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells.

  19. Neural and mesenchymal stem cells in animal models of Huntington's disease: past experiences and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kerkis, Irina; Haddad, Monica Santoro; Valverde, Cristiane Wenceslau; Glosman, Sabina

    2015-12-14

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes progressive nerve cell degeneration. It is triggered by a mutation in the HTT gene that strongly influences functional abilities and usually results in movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders. HD is incurable, although treatments are available to help manage symptoms and to delay the physical, mental and behavioral declines associated with the condition. Stem cells are the essential building blocks of life, and play a crucial role in the genesis and development of all higher organisms. Ablative surgical procedures and fetal tissue cell transplantation, which are still experimental, demonstrate low rates of recovery in HD patients. Due to neuronal cell death caused by accumulation of the mutated huntingtin (mHTT) protein, it is unlikely that such brain damage can be treated solely by drug-based therapies. Stem cell-based therapies are important in order to reconstruct damaged brain areas in HD patients. These therapies have a dual role: stem cell paracrine action, stimulating local cell survival, and brain tissue regeneration through the production of new neurons from the intrinsic and likely from donor stem cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on neural stem/progenitor cell and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, which has been carried out in several animal models of HD, discussing cell distribution, survival and differentiation after transplantation, as well as functional recovery and anatomic improvements associated with these approaches. We also discuss the usefulness of this information for future preclinical and clinical studies in HD.

  20. Dynamic Surfaces for the Study of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth through Adhesion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Out of their niche environment, adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), spontaneously differentiate. This makes both studying these important regenerative cells and growing large numbers of stem cells for clinical use challenging. Traditional cell culture techniques have fallen short of meeting this challenge, but materials science offers hope. In this study, we have used emerging rules of managing adhesion/cytoskeletal balance to prolong MSC cultures by fabricating controllable nanoscale cell interfaces using immobilized peptides that may be enzymatically activated to change their function. The surfaces can be altered (activated) at will to tip adhesion/cytoskeletal balance and initiate differentiation, hence better informing biological mechanisms of stem cell growth. Tools that are able to investigate the stem cell phenotype are important. While large phenotypical differences, such as the difference between an adipocyte and an osteoblast, are now better understood, the far more subtle differences between fibroblasts and MSCs are much harder to dissect. The development of technologies able to dynamically navigate small differences in adhesion are critical in the race to provide regenerative strategies using stem cells. PMID:27322014

  1. Automated adherent human cell culture (mesenchymal stem cells).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human cell culture processes developed at research laboratory scale need to be translated to large-scale production processes to achieve commercial application to a large market. To allow this transition of scale with consistent process performance and control of costs, it will be necessary to reduce manual processing and increase automation. There are a number of commercially available platforms that will reduce manual process intervention and improve process control for different culture formats. However, in many human cell-based applications, there is currently a need to remain close to the development format, usually adherent culture on cell culture plastic or matrix-coated wells or flasks due to deterioration of cell quality in other environments, such as suspension. This chapter presents an example method for adherent automated human stem cell culture using a specific automated flask handling platform, the CompacT SelecT.

  2. Mesenchymal stem-cell potential in cartilage repair: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, M; Lespessailles, E; Coursier, R; Daniellou, R; Best, T M; Toumi, H

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage and subsequent degeneration are a frequent occurrence in synovial joints. Treatment of these lesions is a challenge because this tissue is incapable of quality repair and/or regeneration to its native state. Non-operative treatments endeavour to control symptoms and include anti-inflammatory medications, viscosupplementation, bracing, orthotics and activity modification. Classical surgical techniques for articular cartilage lesions are frequently insufficient in restoring normal anatomy and function and in many cases, it has not been possible to achieve the desired results. Consequently, researchers and clinicians are focusing on alternative methods for cartilage preservation and repair. Recently, cell-based therapy has become a key focus of tissue engineering research to achieve functional replacement of articular cartilage. The present manuscript is a brief review of stem cells and their potential in the treatment of early OA (i.e. articular cartilage pathology) and recent progress in the field. PMID:25353372

  3. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G.; Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana; Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Piña-Barba, María C.; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  4. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells' osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Yao-Hsien; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that statins induce osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of statin-stimulated osteogenesis is unknown. Activation of RhoA signaling increases cytoskeletal tension, which plays a crucial role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We thus hypothesized that RhoA signaling is involved in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We found that although treatment with simvastatin shifts localization of RhoA protein from the membrane to the cytosol, the treatment still activates RhoA dose-dependently because it reduces the association with RhoGDIα. Simvastatin also increased the expression of osteogenic proteins, density of actin filament, the number of focal adhesions, and cellular tension. Furthermore, disrupting actin cytoskeleton or decreasing cell rigidity by using chemical agents reduced simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo study also confirms that density of actin filament is increased in simvastatin-induced ectopic bone formation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that maintaining intact actin cytoskeletons and enhancing cell rigidity are crucial in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis. The results suggested that simvastatin, which is an osteoinductive factor and acts by increasing actin filament organization and cell rigidity combined with osteoconductive biomaterials, may benefit stem-cell-based bone regeneration. PMID:26451103

  5. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells’ osteogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Yao-Hsien; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that statins induce osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of statin-stimulated osteogenesis is unknown. Activation of RhoA signaling increases cytoskeletal tension, which plays a crucial role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We thus hypothesized that RhoA signaling is involved in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We found that although treatment with simvastatin shifts localization of RhoA protein from the membrane to the cytosol, the treatment still activates RhoA dose-dependently because it reduces the association with RhoGDIα. Simvastatin also increased the expression of osteogenic proteins, density of actin filament, the number of focal adhesions, and cellular tension. Furthermore, disrupting actin cytoskeleton or decreasing cell rigidity by using chemical agents reduced simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo study also confirms that density of actin filament is increased in simvastatin-induced ectopic bone formation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that maintaining intact actin cytoskeletons and enhancing cell rigidity are crucial in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis. The results suggested that simvastatin, which is an osteoinductive factor and acts by increasing actin filament organization and cell rigidity combined with osteoconductive biomaterials, may benefit stem-cell-based bone regeneration. PMID:26451103

  6. Tailoring Material Properties of Cardiac Matrix Hydrogels to Induce Endothelial Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jeffords, Megan E.; Wu, Jinglei; Shah, Mickey; Hong, Yi; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac matrix hydrogel has shown great promise as an injectable biomaterial due to the possession of cardiac-specific extracellular matrix composition. A cardiac matrix hydrogel facilitating neovascularization will further improve its therapeutic outcomes in cardiac repair. In this study, we explored the feasibility of tailoring material properties of cardiac matrix hydrogels using a natural compound, genipin, to promote endothelial differentiation of stem cells. Our results demonstrated that the genipin crosslinking could increase the mechanical properties of the cardiac matrix hydrogel to a stiffness range promoting endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). It also decreased the swelling ratio and prolonged degradation without altering gelation time. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the genipin crosslinked cardiac matrix hydrogels showed great viability. After 1-day culture, hMSCs demonstrated down-regulation of early endothelial marker expression and up-regulation of mature endothelial marker expression. Especially for 1 mM genipin crosslinked cardiac matrix hydrogels, hMSCs showed particularly significant expression of mature endothelial cell marker vWF. These attractive results indicate the potential of using genipin crosslinked cardiac matrix hydrogels to promote rapid vascularization for cardiac infarction treatment through minimally invasive therapy. PMID:25946697

  7. Sertoli cells promote proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in co-culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenxi; Lu, Ming; Liu, Hengxing; Ren, Tongming; Miao, Yingying; Wang, Jingjing

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a major source for cell transplantation. The proliferative ability of BMSCs is an important determinant of the efficiency of transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are "nurse" cells for development of sperm cells. Our recent study showed that Sertoli cells promoted proliferation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in co-culture. Studies by other groups also showed that Sertoli cells promoted growth of endothelial cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of Sertoli cells on proliferation of BMSCs. Our results showed that Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced proliferation of BMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, co-culture with Sertoli cells also markedly increased mRNA and/or protein expressions of Mdm2, p-Akt and Cyclin D1, and decreased p53 expression in BMSCs (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). These findings indicate that Sertoli cells have the potential to enhance proliferation of BMSCs. PMID:27319049

  8. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells' osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Yao-Hsien; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that statins induce osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of statin-stimulated osteogenesis is unknown. Activation of RhoA signaling increases cytoskeletal tension, which plays a crucial role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We thus hypothesized that RhoA signaling is involved in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We found that although treatment with simvastatin shifts localization of RhoA protein from the membrane to the cytosol, the treatment still activates RhoA dose-dependently because it reduces the association with RhoGDIα. Simvastatin also increased the expression of osteogenic proteins, density of actin filament, the number of focal adhesions, and cellular tension. Furthermore, disrupting actin cytoskeleton or decreasing cell rigidity by using chemical agents reduced simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo study also confirms that density of actin filament is increased in simvastatin-induced ectopic bone formation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that maintaining intact actin cytoskeletons and enhancing cell rigidity are crucial in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis. The results suggested that simvastatin, which is an osteoinductive factor and acts by increasing actin filament organization and cell rigidity combined with osteoconductive biomaterials, may benefit stem-cell-based bone regeneration.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; George, Elizabeth; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: MSC were generated from human placenta tissue by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation. The placenta MSC (PLC-MSC) were characterized for expression of cell surface markers, embryonic stem cell (ECS) gene expression and their differentiation ability into adipocytes and osteocytes. The immunosuppressive properties of PLC-MSC on resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated allogenic T cells were assessed by means of cell proliferation via incorporation of tritium thymidine (3H-TdR). RESULTS: The generated PLC-MSC appeared as spindle-shaped cells, expressed common MSC surface markers and ESC transcriptional factors. They also differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages when induced. However, continuous cultivation up to passage 15 caused changes in morphological appearance and cellular senescence, although the stem cell nature of their protein expression was unchanged. In terms of their immunosuppressive properties, PLC-MSC were unable to stimulate resting T cell proliferation; they inhibited the PHA stimulated T cells in a dose dependent manner through cell to cell contact. In our study, MSC generated from human placenta exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers; MSC-like gene expression pattern and MSC-like differentiation potential were comparable to other sources of MSC. CONCLUSION: We suggest that placenta tissues can serve as an alternative source of MSC for future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22993662

  10. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells promotes mineralization within a biodegradable peptide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Castillo Diaz, Luis A; Elsawy, Mohamed; Saiani, Alberto; Gough, Julie E; Miller, Aline F

    2016-01-01

    An attractive strategy for the regeneration of tissues has been the use of extracellular matrix analogous biomaterials. Peptide-based fibrillar hydrogels have been shown to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix offering cells a niche to undertake their physiological functions. In this study, the capability of an ionic-complementary peptide FEFEFKFK (F, E, and K are phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and lysine, respectively) hydrogel to host human mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions and induce their osteogenic differentiation is demonstrated. Assays showed sustained cell viability and proliferation throughout the hydrogel over 12 days of culture and these human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteoblasts simply upon addition of osteogenic stimulation. Differentiated osteoblasts synthesized key bone proteins, including collagen-1 (Col-1), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, mineralization occurred within the hydrogel. The peptide hydrogel is a naturally biodegradable material as shown by oscillatory rheology and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, where both viscoelastic properties and the degradation of the hydrogel were monitored over time, respectively. These findings demonstrate that a biodegradable octapeptide hydrogel can host and induce the differentiation of stem cells and has the potential for the regeneration of hard tissues such as alveolar bone. PMID:27493714

  11. Characterization of Nestin, a Selective Marker for Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Zeng, Xin; Hu, Jing; Chen, Qianming

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages and contributing to tissue repair and regeneration. Characterization of the physiological function of MSCs has been largely hampered by lack of unique markers. Nestin, originally found in neuroepithelial stem cells, is an intermediate filament protein expressed in the early stages of development. Increasing studies have shown a particular association between Nestin and MSCs. Nestin could characterize a subset of bone marrow perivascular MSCs which contributed to bone development and closely contacted with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Nestin expressing (Nes+) MSCs also play a role in the progression of various diseases. However, Nes+ cells were reported to participate in angiogenesis as MSCs or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in several tissues and be a heterogeneous population comprising mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells in the developing bone marrow. In this review article, we will summarize the progress of the research on Nestin, particularly the function of Nes+ cells in bone marrow, and discuss the feasibility of using Nestin as a specific marker for MSCs. PMID:26236348

  12. Dynamic Imaging of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Trafficking to Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kraitchman, Dara L.; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Gilson, Wesley D.; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Kedziorek, Dorota; Walczak, Piotr; Paul Segars, W.; Chen, Hunter H.; Fritzges, Danielle; Izbudak, Izlem; Young, Randell G.; Marcelino, Michelle; Pittenger, Mark F.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Boston, Raymond C.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Bulte, Jeff W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent results from animal studies suggest that stem cells may be able to home to sites of myocardial injury to assist in tissue regeneration. However, the histological interpretation of postmortem tissue, on which many of these studies are based, has recently been widely debated. Methods and Results With the use of the high sensitivity of a combined single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT scanner, the in vivo trafficking of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) colabeled with a radiotracer and MR contrast agent to acute myocardial infarction was dynamically determined. Redistribution of the labeled MSCs after intravenous injection from initial localization in the lungs to nontarget organs such as the liver, kidney, and spleen was observed within 24 to 48 hours after injection. Focal and diffuse uptake of MSCs in the infarcted myocardium was already visible in SPECT/CT images in the first 24 hours after injection and persisted until 7 days after injection and was validated by tissue counts of radioactivity. In contrast, MRI was unable to demonstrate targeted cardiac localization of MSCs in part because of the lower sensitivity of MRI. Conclusions Noninvasive radionuclide imaging is well suited to dynamically track the biodistribution and trafficking of mesenchymal stem cells to both target and nontarget organs. PMID:16129797

  13. Glycosaminoglycans enhance osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Smitha; Mathew, Suja Ann; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Bhonde, Ramesh; Totey, Satish

    2014-02-01

    Extracellular matrix plays an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. The biomimetic approach of cell-based tissue engineering is based on mirroring this in vivo micro environment for developing a functional tissue engineered construct. In this study, we treated normal tissue culture plates with selected extracellular matrix components consisting of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin-4-sulphate, dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, heparin and hyaluronic acid. Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult human bone marrow were cultured on the glycosaminoglycan treated culture plates to evaluate their regulatory role in cell growth and osteoblast differentiation. Although no significant improvement on human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation was observed on the glycosaminoglycan-treated tissue culture plates, there was selective osteoblast differentiation, indicating its potential role in differentiation rather than proliferation. Osteoblast differentiation studies showed high osteogenic potential for all tested glycosaminoglycans except chondroitin-4-sulphate. Osteoblast differentiation-associated genes such as osterix, osteocalcin, integrin binding sialoprotein, osteonectin and collagen, type 1, alpha 1 showed significant upregulation. We identified osterix as the key transcription factor responsible for the enhanced bone matrix deposition observed on hyaluronic acid, heparin and chondroitin-6-sulphate. Hyaluronic acid provided the most favourable condition for osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix synthesis. Our results confirm and emphasise the significant role of extracellular matrix in regulating cell differentiation. To summarise, glycosaminoglycans of extracellular matrix played a significant role in regulating osteoblast differentiation and could be exploited in the biomimetic approach of fabricating or functionalizing scaffolds for stem cell based bone tissue engineering.

  14. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells promotes mineralization within a biodegradable peptide hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Diaz, Luis A; Elsawy, Mohamed; Saiani, Alberto; Gough, Julie E; Miller, Aline F

    2016-01-01

    An attractive strategy for the regeneration of tissues has been the use of extracellular matrix analogous biomaterials. Peptide-based fibrillar hydrogels have been shown to mimic the structure of extracellular matrix offering cells a niche to undertake their physiological functions. In this study, the capability of an ionic-complementary peptide FEFEFKFK (F, E, and K are phenylalanine, glutamic acid, and lysine, respectively) hydrogel to host human mesenchymal stem cells in three dimensions and induce their osteogenic differentiation is demonstrated. Assays showed sustained cell viability and proliferation throughout the hydrogel over 12 days of culture and these human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into osteoblasts simply upon addition of osteogenic stimulation. Differentiated osteoblasts synthesized key bone proteins, including collagen-1 (Col-1), osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, mineralization occurred within the hydrogel. The peptide hydrogel is a naturally biodegradable material as shown by oscillatory rheology and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, where both viscoelastic properties and the degradation of the hydrogel were monitored over time, respectively. These findings demonstrate that a biodegradable octapeptide hydrogel can host and induce the differentiation of stem cells and has the potential for the regeneration of hard tissues such as alveolar bone. PMID:27493714

  15. Potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Pathak, Shiva; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential differentiation ability of gingiva originated human mesenchymal stem cell in the presence of tacrolimus. Tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres were prepared using electrospraying technique. In vitro release study of tacrolimus-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4). Gingiva-derived stem cells were isolated and incubated with tacrolimus or tacrolimus-loaded microspheres. Release study of the microspheres revealed prolonged release profiles of tacrolimus without any significant initial burst release. The microsphere itself did not affect the morphology of the mesenchymal stem cells, and cell morphology was retained after incubation with microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL. Cultures grown in the presence of microspheres loaded with tacrolimus at 1 μg/mL showed the highest mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased with an increase in incubation time. The highest expression of pSmad1/5 was achieved in the group receiving tacrolimus 0.1 μg/mL every third day, and the highest expression of osteocalcin was achieved in the group receiving 1 μg/mL every third day. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microspheres loaded with tacrolimus promoted mineralization. Microspheres loaded with tacrolimus may be applied for increased osteoblastic differentiation. PMID:27721434

  16. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Unique Tissue Engineering Gem

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M.; Dörfer, Christof E.

    2016-01-01

    The human gingiva, characterized by its outstanding scarless wound healing properties, is a unique tissue and a pivotal component of the periodontal apparatus, investing and surrounding the teeth in their sockets in the alveolar bone. In the last years gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (G-MSCs), with promising regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, have been isolated and characterized from the gingival lamina propria. These cells, in contrast to other mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell sources, are abundant, readily accessible, and easily obtainable via minimally invasive cell isolation techniques. The present review summarizes the current scientific evidence on G-MSCs' isolation, their characterization, the investigated subpopulations, the generated induced pluripotent stem cells- (iPSC-) like G-MSCs, their regenerative properties, and current approaches for G-MSCs' delivery. The review further demonstrates their immunomodulatory properties, the transplantation preconditioning attempts via multiple biomolecules to enhance their attributes, and the experimental therapeutic applications conducted to treat multiple diseases in experimental animal models in vivo. G-MSCs show remarkable tissue reparative/regenerative potential, noteworthy immunomodulatory properties, and primary experimental therapeutic applications of G-MSCs are very promising, pointing at future biologically based therapeutic techniques, being potentially superior to conventional clinical treatment modalities. PMID:27313628

  17. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Unique Tissue Engineering Gem.

    PubMed

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof E

    2016-01-01

    The human gingiva, characterized by its outstanding scarless wound healing properties, is a unique tissue and a pivotal component of the periodontal apparatus, investing and surrounding the teeth in their sockets in the alveolar bone. In the last years gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (G-MSCs), with promising regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, have been isolated and characterized from the gingival lamina propria. These cells, in contrast to other mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell sources, are abundant, readily accessible, and easily obtainable via minimally invasive cell isolation techniques. The present review summarizes the current scientific evidence on G-MSCs' isolation, their characterization, the investigated subpopulations, the generated induced pluripotent stem cells- (iPSC-) like G-MSCs, their regenerative properties, and current approaches for G-MSCs' delivery. The review further demonstrates their immunomodulatory properties, the transplantation preconditioning attempts via multiple biomolecules to enhance their attributes, and the experimental therapeutic applications conducted to treat multiple diseases in experimental animal models in vivo. G-MSCs show remarkable tissue reparative/regenerative potential, noteworthy immunomodulatory properties, and primary experimental therapeutic applications of G-MSCs are very promising, pointing at future biologically based therapeutic techniques, being potentially superior to conventional clinical treatment modalities. PMID:27313628

  18. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Puente, Pilar de la

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  19. Standard operating procedure for the good manufacturing practice-compliant production of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roseti, Livia; Serra, Marta; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation (EC 1394/2007), Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded in culture for clinical use are considered as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. As a consequence, they must be produced in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice in order to ensure safety, reproducibility, and efficacy. Here, we report a Standard Operating Procedure describing the Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production of Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells suitable for autologous implantation in humans. This procedure can be considered as a template for the development of investigational medicinal Mesenchymal Stem Cells-based product protocols to be enclosed in the dossier required for a clinical trial approval. Possible clinical applications concern local uses in the regeneration of bone tissue in nonunion fractures or in orthopedic and maxillofacial diseases characterized by a bone loss.

  20. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells recruits trophic macrophages to induce pancreatic beta cell regeneration in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaocang; Han, Zhi-Bo; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Alleviation of hyperglycemia in chemical-induced diabetic mice has been reported after bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we transplanted genetically labeled primary mouse mesenchymal stem cells into the pancreas of the streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic isogeneic mice, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose due to a recovery in beta cell mass. Further analysis revealed that the increase in beta cell mass was predominantly attributable to beta cell replication. The grafted mesenchymal stem cells did not transdifferentiate into beta cells themselves but recruited and polarized macrophages in a Stromal cell-derived factor 1-dependent manner, which in turn promoted beta cell replication. Our finding thus suggests that transplantation of autogenic mesenchymal stem cells may increase functional beta cell mass by boosting beta cell replication in diabetes. PMID:24915493

  1. The effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-04-01

    Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s. Lithium improves homing of stem cells, the ability to form colonies and HSC self-renewal. Lithium also exerts a favorable influence on the proliferation and maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Studies on the effect of lithium on neurogenesis have indicated an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and enhanced mitotic activity of Schwann cells. This may be connected with the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of lithium, reflected in an improvement in synaptic plasticity promoting cell survival and inhibiting apoptosis. In clinical studies, lithium treatment increases cerebral gray matter, mainly in the frontal lobes, hippocampus and amygdala. Recent findings also suggest that lithium may reduce the risk of dementia and exert a beneficial effect in neurodegenerative diseases. The most important mediators and signaling pathways of lithium action are the glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. Recently, to study of bipolar disorder pathogenesis and the mechanism of lithium action, the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) obtained from bipolar patients have been used.

  2. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Use of mesenchymal stem cells in fracture repair in horses.

    PubMed

    Govoni, K E

    2015-03-01

    Equine bone fractures are often catastrophic, potentially fatal, and costly to repair. Traditional methods of healing fractures have limited success, long recovery periods, and a high rate of reinjury. Current research in the equine industry has demonstrated that stem cell therapy is a promising novel therapy to improve fracture healing and reduce the incidence of reinjury; however, reports of success in horses have been variable and limited. Stem cells can be derived from embryonic, fetal, and adult tissue. Based on the ease of collection, opportunity for autologous cells, and proven success in other models, adipose- or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are often used in equine therapies. Methods for isolation, proliferation, and differentiation of MSC are well established in rodent and human models but are not well characterized in horses. There is recent evidence that equine bone marrow MSC are able to proliferate in culture for several passages in the presence of autologous and fetal bovine serum, which is important for expansion of cells. Mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, the bone forming cells, and this complex process is regulated by a number of transcription factors including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix (Osx). However, it has not been well established if equine MSC are regulated in a similar manner. The data presented in this review support the view that equine bone marrow MSC are regulated by the same transcription factors that control the differentiation of rodent and human MSC into osteoblasts. Although stem cell therapy is promising in equine bone repair, additional research is needed to identify optimal methods for reintroduction and potential manipulations to improve their ability to form new bone.

  3. Differentiation of chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into beta-like pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyu; Gao, Yuhua; Li, Qian; Feng, Yuan; Yu, Yanze; Meng, Gentong; Zhang, Minghai; Guan, Weijun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of using in vitro differentiation to create functional beta-like islet cells from chicken umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Passaged UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into pancreatic beta-like islet cells. Differentiated cells were observed through dithizone staining, and Pdx1 and insulin expressed in differentiated cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Insulin and C-peptide production from differentiated cells were analyzed using ELISA and western blotting. Differentiated cells were found to not only express Pdx1, insulin, and C-peptide, but also to display a glucose-responsive secretion of these hormones. PMID:24303870

  4. Exploring the human mesenchymal stem cell tubule communication network through electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sabrina; Rossi, Roberta; Resta, Leonardo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-04-01

    Cells use several mechanisms to transfer information to other cells. In this study, we describe micro/nanotubular connections and exosome-like tubule fragments in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human arteries. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed characterization of sinusoidal microtubular projections (700 nm average size, 200 µm average length, with bulging mitochondria and actin microfilaments); short, uniform, variously shaped nanotubular projections (100 nm, bidirectional communication); and tubule fragments (50 nm). This is the first study demonstrating that MSCs from human arteries constitutively interact through an articulate and dynamic tubule network allowing long-range cell to cell communication.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiac Regenerative Therapy: Optimization of Cell Differentiation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Han; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhiwei; Yang, Junjie; Hu, Shijun; Shen, Zhenya

    2015-01-01

    With the high mortality rate, coronary heart disease (CHD) has currently become a major life-threatening disease. The main pathological change of myocardial infarction (MI) is the induction of myocardial necrosis in infarction area which finally causes heart failure. Conventional treatments cannot regenerate the functional cell efficiently. Recent researches suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multiple lineages, including cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo, and they have been used for the treatment of MI to repair the injured myocardium and improve cardiac function. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress on MSCs derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac regeneration after MI. PMID:26339251

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiac Regenerative Therapy: Optimization of Cell Differentiation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Han; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhiwei; Yang, Junjie; Hu, Shijun; Shen, Zhenya

    2015-01-01

    With the high mortality rate, coronary heart disease (CHD) has currently become a major life-threatening disease. The main pathological change of myocardial infarction (MI) is the induction of myocardial necrosis in infarction area which finally causes heart failure. Conventional treatments cannot regenerate the functional cell efficiently. Recent researches suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multiple lineages, including cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo, and they have been used for the treatment of MI to repair the injured myocardium and improve cardiac function. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress on MSCs derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac regeneration after MI.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cell-based tumor-targeted gene therapy in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Niess, Hanno; Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Bettina; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J; Bruns, Christiane J

    2012-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem (or stromal) cells (MSCs) are nonhematopoietic progenitor cells that can be obtained from bone marrow aspirates or adipose tissue, expanded and genetically modified in vitro, and then used for cancer therapeutic strategies in vivo. Here, we review available data regarding the application of MSC-based tumor-targeted therapy in gastrointestinal cancer, provide an overview of the general history of MSC-based gene therapy in cancer research, and discuss potential problems associated with the utility of MSC-based therapy such as biosafety, immunoprivilege, transfection methods, and distribution in the host.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Cardiovascular Disease: A Bench to Bedside Roadmap

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Manuel; Araña, Miriam; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prosper, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the incredible boost in stem cell research has kindled the expectations of both patients and physicians. Mesenchymal progenitors, owing to their availability, ease of manipulation, and therapeutic potential, have become one of the most attractive options for the treatment of a wide range of diseases, from cartilage defects to cardiac disorders. Moreover, their immunomodulatory capacity has opened up their allogenic use, consequently broadening the possibilities for their application. In this review, we will focus on their use in the therapy of myocardial infarction, looking at their characteristics, in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, as well as clinical trials. PMID:22315617

  9. An indirect electric field-induced control in directional migration of rat mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Seo, Cheong; Jeong, Je Hoon; Yoo, Yeong-Eun; Lee, Dae Hoon

    2014-12-01

    We present the efficacy of an indirect E-field on the directional migration of rat mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). To avoid current flow through culture media and cell, E-fields were generated without exposing electrodes directly to the cell media. MSC migration was observed during wound closure in presence of indirect E-field. MSC migration depended on the E-field strength and occurs predominantly in the anodal direction. Indirect E-field therapy proved as tentative tool for controlled cell movement and healing.

  10. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Induce Their Migration and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Lukomska, Barbara; Janowski, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are very attractive for regenerative medicine due to their relatively easy derivation and broad range of differentiation capabilities, either naturally or induced through cell engineering. However, efficient methods of delivery to diseased tissues and the long-term survival of grafted cells still need improvement. Here, we review genetic engineering approaches designed to enhance the migratory capacities of MSCs, as well as extend their survival after transplantation by the modulation of prosurvival approaches, including prevention of senescence and apoptosis. We highlight some of the latest examples that explore these pivotal points, which have great relevance in cell-based therapies. PMID:27242906

  11. New advances in the mesenchymal stem cells therapy against skin flaps necrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu-Gui; Tang, Xiu-Fa

    2014-09-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotential cells that reside within the bone marrow, can be induced to differentiate into various cells, such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, vascular endothelial progenitor cells, and other cell types. MSCs are being widely studied as potential cell therapy agents due to their angiogenic properties, which have been well established by in vitro and in vivo researches. Within this context, MSCs therapy appears to hold substantial promise, particularly in the treatment of conditions involving skin grafts, pedicle flaps, as well as free flaps described in literatures. The purpose of this review is to report the new advances and mechanisms underlying MSCs therapy against skin flaps necrosis.

  12. Human mesenchymal stem-cell behaviour on direct laser micropatterned electrospun scaffolds with hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqiong; Wong, Yee Shan; Wen, Feng; Ng, Kee Woei; Ng, Gary Ka Lai; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Tan, Lay Poh

    2013-03-01

    Direct laser machining and electrospinning are utilized to obtain a bi-layered hybrid scaffold with hierarchical topographical features to mimic extracellular matrix-like microenvironment of cells. Adult bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are cultured in vitro in these hybrid scaffolds, and cell orientation, proliferation, viability, and differentiation are evaluated. The results show that this novel hybrid scaffold not only supports cell growth like traditional scaffolds, but also elicits positive responses from the cells, like lineage commitment and alignment, which are essential features of future scaffolds. PMID:23233197

  13. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuping; Wang, Jiao; Ling, Shixin; Li, Zhuo; Li, Mingsheng; Li, Qiongyi; Ma, Zongren; Yu, Sijiu

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells following induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined specific neuronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuronal-specific proteins, including βIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differentiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve fibers that was composed of several parallel microfibers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sectioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, suc