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Sample records for cordyceps militaris enhances

  1. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Ko, Wing-Hung

    2008-04-17

    The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (CS) (Clavicipitaceae) improves pulmonary function and is used to treat respiratory disease. Here, we compare the efficacy and mechanisms of action of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Clavicipitaceae) in Calu-3 human airway epithelial monolayer model. The extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, as well as their isolated compounds, cordycepin and adenosine, stimulated ion transport in a dose-dependent manner in Calu-3 monolayers. In subsequent experiments, transport inhibitor bumetanide and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide were added after Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts to determine their effects on Cl- and HCO3- movement. The results suggested that Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts may affect the anion movement from the basolateral to apical compartments in the airway epithelia. Basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and apical cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel are involved in the process. The results provide the first evidence for the pharmacological mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris on respiratory tract.

  2. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris link and analysis on its main active components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lei, C; Ai, Xun R; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium on the main active components of Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies, selenium-enriched cultivation of C. militaris and the main active components of the fruit bodies were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, and organic selenium of fruit bodies were sodium selenite concentration dependent; contents of adenosine and cordycep polysaccharides were significantly enhanced by adding sodium selenite in the substrates, but not proportional to sodium selenite concentrations. In the cultivation of wheat substrate added with 18.0 ppm sodium selenite, SOD activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, cordycep polysaccharides, and total amino acids were enhanced by 121/145%, 124/74%, 325/520%, 130/284%, 121/145%, and 157/554%, respectively, compared to NS (non-selenium-cultivated) fruit bodies and wild Cordyceps sinensis; organic selenium contents of fruit bodies reached 6.49 mg/100 g. So selenium-enriched cultivation may be a potential way to produce more valuable medicinal food as a substitute for wild C. sinensis.

  3. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  4. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps militaris , known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris . The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry.

  5. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris, known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris. The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry. PMID:28435352

  6. A novel protein from edible fungi Cordyceps militaris that induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ke-Chun; Sheu, Fuu

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a dietary therapeutic fungus that is an important model species in Cordyceps research. In this study, we purified a novel protein from the fruit bodies of C. militaris and designated it as Cordyceps militaris protein (CMP). CMP has a molecular mass of 18.0 kDa and is not glycosylated. Interestingly, CMP inhibited cell viability in murine primary cells and other cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Using trypan blue staining and a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, we showed that CMP caused cell death in the murine hepatoma cell line BNL 1MEA.7R.1. Furthermore, the frequency of BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cells at the sub-G1 stage was increased by CMP. Apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V and propidium iodide analysis, indicated that CMP could mediate BNL 1MEA.7R.1 apoptosis, but not necrosis. After coincubation with CMP, a decrease in mitochondria potential was detected using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. These results suggest that CMP is a harmful protein that induces apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent pathway. Stability experiments demonstrated that heat treatment and alkalization degraded CMP and further destroyed its cell-death-inducing ability, implying that cooking is necessary for food containing C. militaris. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Jing, Tianjiao; Meng, Qingfan; Liu, Chungang; Hu, Shuang; Ma, Yihang; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Yingkun; Teng, Lirong

    2014-01-01

    Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment. PMID:24738047

  8. Biotechnological production and applications of Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a potential harborer of biometabolites for herbal drugs. For a long time, C. militaris has gained considerable significance in several clinical and biotechnological applications. Much knowledge has been gathered with regard to the C. militaris's importance in the genetic resources, nutritional and environmental requirements, mating behavior and biochemical pharmacological properties. The complete genome of C. militaris has recently been sequenced. This fungus has been the subject of many reviews, but few have focused on its biotechnological production of bioactive constituents. This mini-review focuses on the recent advances in the biotechnological production of bioactive compositions of C. militaris and the latest advances on novel applications from this laboratory and many others.

  9. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise.

  10. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  11. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  12. Cordyceps militaris extract attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaixin; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinshan; Jia, Jing; Ding, Jie; Luo, Rongzhen; Liu, Zhangqin

    2012-12-01

    Memory impairment is one of main clinical symptoms of brain senescence. To address the effects of Cordyceps militaris Link extract (CE) on memory impairment, a D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging mouse model was employed. Mice injected with D-Gal showed a significant learning and memory impairment that was rescued by CE treatment. The mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the protein level and activity of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, including malondialdehyde (MDA), monoamine oxidase (MAO), total super-oxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), which played critical roles in the development of brain senescence. The results showed that CE treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the oxidative activity of MAO and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant activities of T-SOD and T-AOC in the cerebral cortices. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-px in serum were significantly upregulated after CE treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.

  13. Targeted Gene Deletion in Cordyceps militaris Using the Split-Marker Approach.

    PubMed

    Lou, HaiWei; Ye, ZhiWei; Yun, Fan; Lin, JunFang; Guo, LiQiong; Chen, BaiXiong; Mu, ZhiXian

    2018-05-01

    The macrofungus Cordyceps militaris contains many kinds of bioactive ingredients that are regulated by functional genes, but the functions of many genes in C. militaris are still unknown. In this study, to improve the frequency of homologous integration, a genetic transformation system based on a split-marker approach was developed for the first time in C. militaris to knock out a gene encoding a terpenoid synthase (Tns). The linear and split-marker deletion cassettes were constructed and introduced into C. militaris protoplasts by PEG-mediated transformation. The transformation of split-marker fragments resulted in a higher efficiency of targeted gene disruption than the transformation of linear deletion cassettes did. The color phenotype of the Tns gene deletion mutants was different from that of wild-type C. militaris. Moreover, a PEG-mediated protoplast transformation system was established, and stable genetic transformants were obtained. This method of targeted gene deletion represents an important tool for investigating the role of C. militaris genes.

  14. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  15. Metabolomic comparison between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yuetao; Guo, Qingfeng; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Wancun

    2018-05-11

    A systematic study on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O. sinensis, indicating metabolome difference among wild O. sinensis, R-CM and T-CM. The metabolome differences between R-CM and T-CM indicated that C. militaris could accommodate to culture medium by differential metabolic regulation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was further performed to cluster the differential metabolites and samples based on their metabolic similarity. The higher content of amino acids (pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine and arginine), unsaturated fatty acid (linolenic acid and linoleic acid), peptides, mannitol, adenosine and succinoadenosine in O. sinensis make it as an excellent choice as a traditional Chinese medicine for invigoration or nutritional supplementation. Similar compositions with O. sinensis and easy cultivation make artificially cultured C. militaris a possible alternative to O. sinensis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.

  17. Genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris useful for comparative analysis of entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Raethong, Nachon; Mujchariyakul, Warasinee; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Leong, Hon Wai; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-08-30

    The first genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris (iWV1170) was constructed representing its whole metabolisms, which consisted of 894 metabolites and 1,267 metabolic reactions across five compartments, including the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, peroxisome and extracellular space. The iWV1170 could be exploited to explain its phenotypes of growth ability, cordycepin and other metabolites production on various substrates. A high number of genes encoding extracellular enzymes for degradation of complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were existed in C. militaris genome. By comparative genome-scale analysis, the adenine metabolic pathway towards putative cordycepin biosynthesis was reconstructed, indicating their evolutionary relationships across eleven species of entomopathogenic fungi. The overall metabolic routes involved in the putative cordycepin biosynthesis were also identified in C. militaris, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism (glycine, l-glutamine and l-aspartate) and nucleotide metabolism (adenosine and adenine). Interestingly, a lack of the sequence coding for ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor was observed in C. militaris that might contribute to its over-production of cordycepin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is the one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, widely used in East Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered to be the principal active component in C. militaris and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of polysaccharide from C. militaris (PCM) on physical fatigue induced in animals through a forced swimming test. The mice were divided into 4 groups receiving 28 days' treatment with drinking water (exercise control) or low-, medium-, and high-dose PCM (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 28 days, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test; the exhaustive swimming time was measured and fatigue-related biochemical parameters, including serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathi- one peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen, were analyzed. The results showed that PCM could significantly prolong the exhaustive swimming time of mice; decrease concentrations of serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde; and increase liver and muscle glycogen contents and the concentrations of serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione per- oxidase, and catalase. The data suggest that PCM has an antifatigue effect, and it might become a new functional food or medicine for fatigue resistance.

  19. Mycelia extracts of fungal strains isolated from Cordyceps sinensis differently enhance the function of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Bo; Feng, Kun; Hu, De-Jun; Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-07-30

    Cordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, its usage has been limited due to the high price and short supply. Isolate of fungi strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis to achieve a large-scale production by fermentation is an alternative choice. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of mycelia extracts of different fungal stains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophage functions in vitro. Macrophages' proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokines secretion, iNOS, NF-κB p65 activation and translocation were investigated by the MTT assay, flow cytometry assay, Griess reagent method, ELISA, western blot and immunostaining assay, respectively. The results showed that the effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia of different fungal strains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages greatly variant. Among 17 Cordyceps aqueous extracts, only five extracts (UM01, QH11, BNQM, GNCC and DCXC) could significantly increase cell proliferation and NO production of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Moreover, the five extracts, especially UM01 and QH11, significantly enhanced phagocytosis and promoted cytokines release of macrophages. Polysaccharides in cultured UM01 mycelia were found to be the main immune stimulating compounds. The variation of biological effects of fermented mycelia of different fungal strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis may be derived from their chemical diversity, especially polysaccharides, which need further study in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  2. Optimization of extraction of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) link using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Thi, Dinh Huynh Mong; Pham, Dinh Chuong

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link possess various pharmaceutical activities. In this study, polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris were extracted with different solvents. Of those solvents tested, distilled water was identified as the most efficient solvent for the extraction, resulting in a significant increase in polysaccharides yield. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions and establish a reliable mathematical model for prediction. A maximum polysaccharides yield of 11.07% was reached at a ratio of water to raw material of 23.2:1 mL/g, an extraction time of 76 min, and a temperature of 93.6°C. This study indicates that the obtained optimal extraction conditions are an efficient method for extraction of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris.

  3. Melanogenesis effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth on the melanin formation of B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Park, Mi-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Tae; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-10-13

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth (CMB) on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells was evaluated by measurement of the melanin concentration after 3 days of incubation. The B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with various concentrations of CMB 10-100 μg/mL and arbutin of 200 μM. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of CMB were also measured. Phenolic content of CMB was 3.28 mg/g. The DPPH radical scavenging and ferric ion donating activities were 79.64% and 0.16, respectively. The melanin concentration and cell viability of melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 91% of the control, respectively. The CMB treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect of melanin production by 29%, 50%, and 56% at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentration treatment, respectively, while over 90% of cells were viable. The CMB treatment at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentrations in cultivation decreased extracellular melanin release induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment by 19%, 38%, and 48%, respectively. The CMB showed inhibitory activity against intracellular tyrosinase extracted from melanoma cells, while it had no inhibition on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The cellular glutathione contents were enhanced by CMB treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that CMB suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation and it might be candidate anti-melanogenic agent.

  4. [Separation, purification and primary reverse cholesterol transport study of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shou-Dong; Cui, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhong; Wang, Ren-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Xue; Ma, Teng

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed to separate, purify and determine the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris, and study its effect on reverse cholesterol transport in vivo by isotope tracing assay. Polysaccharides were separate and purify by ion exchange column Q-sepharose Fast Flow and size exclusion column Sephacryl S200HR; the molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coming with pre-column derivation, respectively. Finally, three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were obtained, their total carbohydrate contents were 87%, 89%, 95%, respectively; their protein contents were 6.5%, 1.3%, 2.8%, respectively; their molecular weights were 772.1, 20.9, 13.2 kDa, respectively; CMBW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 7.25: 0.17: 1.29: 0.23: 6.30: 11.08: 0.79; CMBW2 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 2.40: 0.16: 2.92: 0.24; CMYW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, glucuronic acid and glucose with a molar ratio of 0.59: 0.57: 0.45: 25.61. Polysaccharide at 50 mg x kg(-1) could significantly improve the transport of 3H- cholesterol to blood and excretion from feces. All of the three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were heteropolysaccharide; and they could improve reverse cholesterol transport in vivo, the underlying mechanisms are being studied.

  5. Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qunying; Long, Liangkun; Wu, Liangliang; Zhang, Fenglun; Wu, Shuling; Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), cereal grains are usually utilized as cultivation substrates. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low-cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control. CS and CCP were suitable for fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 and 20 g per bottle respectively. Fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine, up to 9.45 and 5.86 mg g -1 respectively. The content of d-mannitol in fruit bodies obtained on CS was 120 mg g -1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g -1 . Fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g -1 , which was the closest to that of the control group (34.5 mg g -1 ). CS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit bodies and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach to decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Characterization of Newly Bred Cordyceps militaris Strains for Higher Production of Cordycepin through HPLC and URP-PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kang, Naru; Park, Inmyoung; Park, Jungwook; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Namgyu; Lee, Jae-Yun; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-07-28

    Cordyceps militaris , a member of Ascomycota, a mushroom referred to as caterpillar Dongchung-ha-cho, is commercially valuable because of its high content of bioactive substances, including cordycepin, and its potential for artificial cultivation. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is highly associated with the pharmacological effects of C. militaris . C. militaris is heterothallic in that two mating-type loci, idiomorph MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 , exist discretely in two different spores. In this study, nine C. militaris strains were mated with each other to prepare newly bred strains that produced a larger amount of cordycepin than the parent strains. Nine strains of C. militaris were identified by comparing the internal transcribed spacer sequence, and a total of 12 single spores were isolated from the nine strains of C. militaris . After the MAT idiomorph was confirmed by PCR, 36 mating combinations were performed with six single spores with MAT1-1 and the others with MAT1-2 . Eight mating combinations were successfully mated, producing stroma with perithecia. Cordycepin content analysis of all strains by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the KASP4-bred strain produced the maximum cordycepin among all strains, regardless of the medium and stroma parts. Finally, universal rice primer-PCR was performed to demonstrate that the bred strains were genetically different from the parental strains and new C. militaris strains. These results may be related to the recombination of genes during mating. The newly produced strains can be used to meet the industrial demand for cordycepin. In addition, breeding through mating suggests the possibility of producing numerous cordycepin-producing C. militaris strains.

  7. Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2012-11-01

    During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture.

  8. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  9. Effects of Cordyceps militaris on the growth of rumen microorganisms and in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Hanigan, M D; Lee, S J; Lee, S M; Kim, D H; Hyun, J H; Yeo, J M; Lee, S S

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L) of dried Cordyceps militaris mushroom on in vitro anaerobic ruminal microbe fermentation and methane production using soluble starch as a substrate. Ruminal fluids were collected from Korean native cattle, mixed with phosphate buffer (1:2), and incubated anaerobically at 38 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. The addition of C. militaris significantly increased total volatile fatty acid and total gas production. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased and that of propionate was increased, with a corresponding decrease in the acetate:propionate ratio. As the concentration of C. militaris increased from 0.10 to 0.30 g/L, methane and hydrogen production decreased. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 14.1, 22.0, 24.9, 39.7, and 40.9% for the 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L treatments, respectively. Ammonia-N concentration and numbers of live protozoa decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of C. militaris. The pH of the medium significantly decreased at the highest level of C. militaris compared with the control. In conclusion, C. militaris stimulated mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation and inhibited methane production in vitro. Therefore, C. militaris could be developed as a novel compound for antimethanogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-06-08

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  11. Heat and light stresses affect metabolite production in the fruit body of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Zhang; Fen, Wang; Kuanbo, Liu; Qing, Liu; Ying, Yang; Caihong, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage. The optimal growth temperature of C. militaris was 20 °C. It was found that a heat stress of 25 °C for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin and carotenoid production without affecting the biological efficiency. Light stress at 6000 lx for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin production but decreased the carotenoid content. Both heat and light stresses promoted N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine production. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that there were simultaneous increases in the expression of genes encoding a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase (CCM_04437) and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (CCM_04438) that are involved in the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, which was consistent with the accumulation of cordycepin during heat stress for 5-20 days. A positive weak correlation between the cordycepin and adenosine contents was observed with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.338 (P < 0.05). The results presented herein provide a new strategy for the production of a superior quality fruit body of C. militaris and contribute to further elucidation of the effects of abiotic stress on metabolite accumulation in fungi.

  12. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  13. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  14. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

    2014-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application.

  16. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  17. Evaluation of anti-fatigue property of the extruded product of cereal grains mixed with Cordyceps militaris on mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Fangmei; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a biological phenomenon that involves a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness that could potentially cause some severe chronic diseases. Recently, diet therapy has provided a new alternative to alleviate physical fatigue. In our previous study, addition of Cordyceps militaris ( C. militaris ) into an extruded product was shown to provide high nutrition and unique flavors; however, little is known whether this product has some scientific evidence regarding anti-fatigue property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of extruded products of cereal grains (EC) and EC mixed with C. militaris (ECC). The mice were divided into seven groups: one group received distilled water (Control group, n  = 20), and the other groups received different dosages of EC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) or of ECC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) solution in water. All of the mice were administered with distilled water, EC or ECC continuously for 30 days by gavage and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with assessments of fatigue-related indicators. The mode of fighting fatigue was investigated by determining changes in exercise endurance and biochemical markers, including exhaustive swimming time, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood lactic acid (BLA), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and hepatic and muscle glycogen levels. EC and ECC prolonged the swimming endurance time of mice compared to the control. The content of BLA at high dose of ECC group (20 g/kg) was significantly lower than that in the negative control group. CK, BUN and MDA levels were significantly reduced by treatment with EC and ECC compared to the negative control, while the low and middle dose of EC had no significant effect on MDA levels. Additionally, only

  18. Molecular Markers to Detect the Formation of Heterokaryon and Homokaryon from Asexual Spores of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Cai, Tao; Wei, Jing; Feng, Aiping; Lin, Nan; Bao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is widely cultivated on artificial media in China; however, the cultures often are afflicted with the degeneration of nonfruiting strains. To understand the mechanism of degeneration of C. militaris, from the heterokaryotic strain into the homokaryotic strain, we examined the mating-type genes present in individual asexual spores. Further, we determined the distribution ratio of the different mating-type genes among a sample of asexual spores and the growth rate of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic strains of C. militaris. The distribution ratio of 3 groups of asexual spores from C. militaris heterokaryotic strains was determined as 1:1:1 by statistical analysis, whereas that of the two types of nuclei among asexual spores was 1:1. Nearly two-thirds of the asexual spore isolates were homokaryon, which showed a growth speed similar to the heterokaryon. However, the homokaryon (bearing mating-type MAT-HMG) grew significantly faster at times compared with the heterokaryon. Therefore, the purity of the spawn was difficult to establish. C. militaris heterokaryotic strains can transform into a homokaryotic strain following continued subculture.

  19. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production.

  20. A brief chronicle of the genus cordyceps fr., the oldest valid genus in cordycipitaceae (hypocreales, ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-06-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases.

  1. Isolation of adenosine, iso-sinensetin and dimethylguanosine with antioxidant and HIV-1 protease inhibiting activities from fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wong, J H; Fu, M; Ng, T B; Liu, Z K; Wang, C R; Li, N; Qiao, W T; Wen, T Y; Liu, F

    2011-01-15

    According to previous studies, a close relationship between oxidative stress and AIDS suggests that antioxidants might play an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Cordyceps militaris was selected from nine edible mushrooms by assay of inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis. Macroporous adsorption resin and HPLC were used to purify three micromolecular compounds named L3a, L3b and L3c. L3a was identified to be adenosine with the molecular formula C(10)H(13)N(5)O(4); L3b was 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone with the molecular formula C(20)H(20)O(7), and L3c was dimethylguanosine with the molecular formula C(12)H(17)N(5)O(5). The compound 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone was first isolated from C. militaris. The assay of inhibition of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) was based on the fact that the expression of this enzyme can inhibit the growth of E. coli. This is a new screening system for HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Both L3a and L3b showed high inhibition to HIV-1 PR. These compounds could be new anti-HIV-1 PR drugs. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal conditions for cordycepin production in surface liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris treated with porcine liver extracts for suppression of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2018-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most crucial bioactive compounds produced by Cordyceps militaris and has exhibited antitumor activity in various cancers. However, industrial production of large amounts of cordycepin is difficult. The porcine liver is abundant in proteins, vitamins, and adenosine, and these ingredients may increase cordycepin production and bioconversion during C. militaris fermentation. We observed that porcine liver extracts increased cordycepin production. In addition, air supply (2 h/d) significantly increased the cordycepin level in surface liquid-cultured C. militaris after 14 days. Moreover, blue light light-emitting diode irradiation (16 h/d) increased cordycepin production. These findings indicated that these conditions are suitable for increasing cordycepin production. We used these conditions to obtain water extract from the mycelia of surface liquid-cultured C. militaris (WECM) and evaluated the anti-oral cancer activity of this extract in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that WECM inhibited the cell viability of SCC-4 oral cancer cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial fission) were observed in SCC-4 cells treated with WECM for 12 hours. Furthermore, WECM reduced tumor formation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis through the downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, and c-fos expression. The results indicated that porcine liver extracts irradiated with blue light light-emitting diode and supplied with air can be used as a suitable medium for the growth of mycelia and production of cordycepin, which can be used in the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Construction of a Cordyceps sinensis exopolysaccharide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles and enhancement of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yidong; Huang, Qilin; Zheng, Zhaomin; Guan, Han; Liu, Shiyu

    2017-06-01

    A Cordyceps sinensis exopolysaccharide (EPS)-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were successfully constructed through the reduction of SeO 3 2- . The EPS-SeNPs were characterized in terms of formation, morphology, size, Se distribution and phase by UV-vis, FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Results revealed that the SeNPs conjugated to EPS were amorphous and could be well dispersed at a size range of 80-125nm. The interactions between the OH groups of EPS and SeNPs substituted for intermolecular interaction in native EPS to form new CO⋯Se bonds, resulting in good dispersion of SeNPs in the EPS matrix. Besides, the EPS-SeNPs at different Se/P ratios exhibited significant scavenging ability on superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) and ABTS radical cation (ABTS + ) when compared to pure EPS, indicating that the conjugated SeNPs reinforced antioxidant effect of EPS. This work not only provides a simple and efficient way to construct well-dispersed SeNPs in aqueous system, and demonstrates the vital role of the EPS as a biopolymer template for dispersion, stabilization and size control of SeNPs, but also finds the EPS-SeNPs can potentially serve as a good antioxidant towards O 2 - and ABTS + . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cordycepin-enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris inhibits ADP-induced [Ca(2+)] i mobilization and fibrinogen binding via phosphorylation of IP 3R and VASP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lim, Deok Hwi; Nam, Gi Suk; Shin, Jung-Hae; Kim, Yun-Yi; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris on ADP (20 µM)-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 18.5 μg/mL. CE-WIB801C decreased TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) in ADP-activated platelets, which suggests that the inhibition of TXA2 production by CE-WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. CE-WIB801C inhibited ATP release and [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and increased cAMP level and IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation in ADP-activated platelets. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased CE-WIB801C-inhibited [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-increased IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation. CE-WIB801C elevated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser(157)), an A-kinase substrate, but inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3. These results suggest that CE-WIB801C-elevated cAMP involved in IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation to inhibit [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and, VASP (Ser(157)) phosphorylation to inhibit αIIb/β3 activation. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C may have a preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  5. Effects of Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate and Lactobacillus plantarum on mucosal, serum immunology and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Chitmanat, Chanagun; Tayyamath, Khambou

    2017-11-01

    An 8-weeks feeding trial was performed to investigate the possible effects of supplementation of Nile tilapia diet with Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate (SMS) single or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on immune parameters and growth performance. For this aim, Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed with four experimental diets namely: Diet 1 (0 - control), Diet 2 (10 g kg -1 SMS), Diet 3 (10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum), and Diet 4 (10 g kg -1 SMS + 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum). At the end of feeding trial, skin mucus parameters, serum immune parameters, and growth performance were measured. The results indicated that supplementations SMS + L. plantarum or/and resulted in a significant increase in skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities compared with the control group after 8 weeks of feeding trial (P < 0.05). The highest values of these parameters were recorded for fish fed both SMS + L. plantarum supplementations. Nonetheless, no significant difference was recorded between other supplemented groups (P < 0.05). For serum immunology, the results showed that serum lysozyme activity, alternative complement, phagocytosis, serum peroxidase, and respiratory burst activities were significantly higher in supplemented groups compared to the control (P < 0.05). The highest values were recorded in fish fed both SMS and L. plantarum with respect to the individual application. No significant differences were observed between fish fed SMS and L. plantarum (P < 0.05). Results on growth performance indicated that fish fed supplemented diets showed a statistically significant increase in the specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), final weight (FW) compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The highest SGR and WG values were observed in fish fed both dietary SMS and L. plantarum. However, no significant differences in these parameters were observed in fish fed SMS or L. plantarum alone (P > 0.05). The FCR was significantly

  6. Rapid authentication of Cordyceps by lateral flow dipstick.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk-Lau; Wong, Ka-Lok; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps (Dongchongxiacao), a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, is composed of the fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Family: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on a caterpillar of ghost-moth species (Family: Hepialidae). Owing to its multiple potential functions, Cordyceps are in great demand and represent significant economic value. Adulterants or substitutes named Cordyceps or Chongcao from related fungi have been reported. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) system was developed to distinguish genuine herb O. sinensis from its common adulterant Cordyceps gunnii and Cordyceps militaris. Specific primers (EF-CS-F1-Biotin, EF-CG-F1-Biotin and EF-CM-F1- Biotin) were designed to differentiate the three Cordyceps species. Internal control (EF-F1-b-DIG and EF-R1-FITC) was included to minimize the false signal due to PCR inhibitors or DNA degradation. LFD was then successfully employed for speedy and accurate detection of the respective PCR products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds.

    PubMed

    Chiriví, Juan; Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra; Restrepo, Silvia; Sanjuan, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  8. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  9. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.; Sung, Jae-Mo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Shrestha, Bhushan; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Cordyceps, comprising over 400 species, was historically classified in the Clavicipitaceae, based on cylindrical asci, thickened ascus apices and filiform ascospores, which often disarticulate into part-spores. Cordyceps was characterized by the production of well-developed often stipitate stromata and an ecology as a pathogen of arthropods and Elaphomyces with infrageneric classifications emphasizing arrangement of perithecia, ascospore morphology and host affiliation. To refine the classification of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae, the phylogenetic relationships of 162 taxa were estimated based on analyses consisting of five to seven loci, including the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunits (nrSSU and nrLSU), the elongation factor 1α (tef1), the largest and the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (rpb1 and rpb2), β-tubulin (tub), and mitochondrial ATP6 (atp6). Our results strongly support the existence of three clavicipitaceous clades and reject the monophyly of both Cordyceps and Clavicipitaceae. Most diagnostic characters used in current classifications of Cordyceps (e.g., arrangement of perithecia, ascospore fragmentation, etc.) were not supported as being phylogenetically informative; the characters that were most consistent with the phylogeny were texture, pigmentation and morphology of stromata. Therefore, we revise the taxonomy of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae to be consistent with the multi-gene phylogeny. The family Cordycipitaceae is validated based on the type of Cordyceps, C. militaris, and includes most Cordyceps species that possess brightly coloured, fleshy stromata. The new family Ophiocordycipitaceae is proposed based on Ophiocordyceps Petch, which we emend. The majority of species in this family produce darkly pigmented, tough to pliant stromata that often possess aperithecial apices. The new genus Elaphocordyceps is proposed for a subclade of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, which includes all species of Cordyceps that parasitize

  10. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  11. Characterization and discrimination of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Ju, Yao-Jun; Feng, Kun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-03-15

    Polysaccharides from seven species of natural and cultured Cordyceps were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partially acidic/enzymatic (α-amylase, β-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed with polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively, to obtain the comprehensive profiles of hydrolysates of the polysaccharides and their characters. The results showed that 1,4-α-D-glucosidic, 1,4-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosidic linkages were existed in natural and cultured Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps militaris, natural Cordyceps gracilis and Cordyceps ciecadae. The similarity of polysaccharides from cultured C. militaris to natural C. sinensis was relatively high, which might contribute to the rational use of C. militaris. Moreover, different species of natural and cultured Cordyceps can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in natural and cultured Cordyceps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  13. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  14. Effects of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. fermentation on the nutritional, physicochemical, functional properties and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of red bean (Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu; Sun, Mingmei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Chen, Yulian; Miao, Junqing; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    The effects of solid-state fermentation with Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. on the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of red bean ( Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour were determined. Fermentation increased the amount of small peptides but significantly decreased large peptides. Fermentation also increased proteins and essential amino acids (by 9.31 and 13.89%, respectively) and improved the in vitro protein digestibility (6.54%) of red beans. Moreover, fermentation increased the water holding capacity (from 2.36 to 2.59 mL/g), fat absorption capacity (from 84.65 to 114.55%), emulsion activity (from 10.96 to 52.77%), emulsion stability (from 5.43 to 53.82%), and foaming stability (from 11.95 to 20.68%). Fermented red bean flour achieved a lower least gelation concentration of 14% than that of the control (18%). In contrast to the non-fermented red bean, the fermented red bean showed ACE inhibitory activity, with IC 50 value of 0.63 mg protein/mL. Overall, fermentation improved the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as the biological activity of red bean flour. Thus, fermented red bean flour may serve as a novel nutritional and functional ingredient for applications in food design.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.G.; Ren, Z.X.

    2017-01-01

    PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment. PMID:28793052

  16. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Ren, Z X

    2017-08-07

    PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment.

  17. Improvement of Learning and Memory Induced by Cordyceps Polypeptide Treatment and the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Our previous research revealed that Cordyceps militaris can improve the learning and memory, and although the main active ingredient should be its polypeptide complexes, the underlying mechanism of its activity remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which Cordyceps militaris improves learning and memory in a mouse model. Mice were given scopolamine hydrobromide intraperitoneally to establish a mouse model of learning and memory impairment. The effects of Cordyceps polypeptide in this model were tested using the Morris water maze test; serum superoxide dismutase activity; serum malondialdehyde levels; activities of acetyl cholinesterase, Na+-k+-ATPase, and nitric oxide synthase; and gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate contents in brain tissue. Moreover, differentially expressed genes and the related cellular signaling pathways were screened using an mRNA expression profile chip. The results showed that the genes Pik3r5, Il-1β, and Slc18a2 were involved in the effects of Cordyceps polypeptide on the nervous system of these mice. Our findings suggest that Cordyceps polypeptide may improve learning and memory in the scopolamine-induced mouse model of learning and memory impairment by scavenging oxygen free radicals, preventing oxidative damage, and protecting the nervous system. PMID:29736181

  18. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming

    2015-10-12

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95

  19. Enhancing Resilience in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Crabtree-Nelson, Sonya; DeYoung, Lcdr Peter

    2017-02-01

    A systematic, evidence-based training program to support active duty military personnel through building unit-level resiliency in preparation for anticipated individual times of crisis is needed. Mental health nurses and social workers in the military possess critical training and expertise in identifying and supporting individual and community resilience factors. Their knowledge of the protective aspects of resilience can and should be used to educate all active duty military personnel, ensure military leaders are knowledgeable in how best to support their units, and provide research on the effectiveness of pre-combat resilience training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(2), 44-48.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  2. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  3. Whistleblower Protection: DOD Needs to Enhance Oversight of Military Whistleblower Reprisal Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION DOD Needs to Enhance Oversight of Military Whistleblower Reprisal Investigations Report...00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Whistleblower Protection: DOD Needs to Enhance Oversight of Military Whistleblower Reprisal...Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-15-477, a report to congressional requesters May 2015 WHISTLEBLOWER PROTECTION DOD

  4. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    unneeded to support U.S. forces in the CENTCOM area of responsibility and in future contingencies worldwide. View GAO-16-406. For more information...DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency ...Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations Why GAO Did This Study For about 15 years, DOD

  5. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  6. Teaching Mental Skills for Self-Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Soldiers, and 915 Army Civilians (Sheftick & Holzer, 2007). Self - Esteem Rosenberg (1965) provided a broad and frequently cited description of self ...Teaching Mental Skills for Self - Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting Jon Hammermeister, Michael A. Pickering and LTC Carl J. Ohlson...The need exists for educational methods which can positively influence self - esteem , especially in demanding military healthcare settings. Warrior

  7. Evaluation of carbohydrates in natural and cultured Cordyceps by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jia; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-06-11

    Free and polymeric carbohydrates in Cordyceps, a valued edible mushroom and well-known traditional Chinese medicine, were determined using stepwise pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) extraction and GC-MS. Based on the optimized PLE conditions, acid hydrolysis and derivatization, ten monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, mannitol, fructose and sorbose in 13 samples of natural and cultured Cordyceps were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared with myo-inositol hexaacetate as internal standard. The results showed that natural C. sinensis contained more than 7.99% free mannitol and a small amount of glucose, while its polysaccharides were usually composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:16.61-3.82:1.60-1.28. However, mannitol in cultured C. sinensis and cultured C. militaris were less than 5.83%, and free glucose was only detected in a few samples, while their polysaccharides were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with molar ratios of 1.00:3.01-1.09:3.30-1.05 and 1.00:2.86-1.28:1.07-0.78, respectively. Natural and cultured Cordyceps could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on its free carbohydrate contents.

  8. Military Personnel: Enhanced Collaboration and Process Improvements Needed for Determining Military Treatment Facility Medical Personnel Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Department of Defense (DOD) are in great demand due to projected nationwide medical personnel shortages over the next decade and are essential to...for the first year, in order to assist the services in addressing near- term personnel shortages . It also provides a consistent staffing standard...dentists, medical service corps, and veterinarians , to name a few, at the work center level across Army fixed military treatment facilities. The model uses

  9. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  10. Enhanced casualty care from a Global Military Orthopaedic Teleconsultation Program.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian R; Laughlin, Matthew D; Belmont, Philip J; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Pallis, Mark P

    2014-11-01

    Since its advent, telemedicine has facilitated access to subspecialty medical care for the treatment of patients in remote and austere settings. The United States military introduced a formal orthopaedic teleconsultation system in 2007, but few reports have explored its scope of practice and efficacy, particularly in a deployed environment during a time of conflict. All teleconsultations placed to the orthopaedic service between April 2009 and December 2012 were obtained and retrospectively reviewed. Case files were abstracted and anatomical location of injury, type of injury, origin of consult (country or Navy Afloat), branch of service, and treatment recommendations, were recorded for descriptive analysis. The final result of the consult was also determined, with service members transported from the combat theatre or deployment location defined as medically evacuated. Instances where teleconsultations averted a medical evacuation were also documented as a separate outcome. Over a 32-month period, 597 orthopaedic teleconsultations were placed, with the majority derived from Army (46%) and Navy (32%) personnel deployed in Afghanistan, Iraq, or with Navy Afloat. Approximately 51% of consults involved the upper extremity, including 197 hand injuries, followed by lower extremity (37%) and spine (7.8%) complaints. Fractures comprised over half of all injuries, with the hand and foot most commonly affected. The average response time for teleconsultations was 7.54h. A total of 56 service members required immediate evacuation for further orthopaedic management, while at least 26 medical evacuations were prevented due to the teleconsultation system. The teleconsultation system promotes early access to orthopaedic subspecialty care in a resource-limited, deployed military setting. The telemedicine network also appears to mitigate unnecessary aeromedical evacuations, reducing healthcare costs, lost duty time, and treatment delays. These findings have important meaning for

  11. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  12. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  13. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Differentiation and quality estimation of Cordyceps with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Song, Ping; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Feng, Shu; Tao, Jia-Xun

    2009-11-01

    Heretofore, a scientific and systemic method for differentiation and quality estimation of a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, 'Cordyceps', has not been established in modern market. In this paper, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to propose a method for analysis of Cordyceps. It has presented that IR spectra of real Cordyceps of different origins and counterfeits have their own macroscopic fingerprints, with discriminated shapes, positions and intensities. Their secondary derivative spectra can amplify the differences and confirm the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands 1400-1700 cm -1 to be investigated in 2D-IR. Many characteristic fingerprints are discovered in 2D-IR spectra in the range of 1400-1700 cm -1 and hetero 2D spectra of 670-780 cm -1 × 1400-1700 cm -1. The different fingerprints display different chemical constitutes. Through the three steps, different Cordyceps and their counterfeits can be discriminated effectively and their qualities distinctly display. Successful analysis of eight Cordyceps capsule products has proved the practicability of the method, which can also be applied to the quality estimation of other Chinese traditional medicines.

  15. STRONG MILITARY FAMILIES INTERVENTION ENHANCES PARENTING REFLECTIVITY AND REPRESENTATIONS IN FAMILIES WITH YOUNG CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Julian, M M; Muzik, M; Kees, M; Valenstein, M; Rosenblum, K L

    2018-01-01

    Military families face many challenges due to deployment and parental separation, and this can be especially difficult for families with young children. The Strong Military Families (SMF) intervention is for military families with young children, and consists of two versions: the Multifamily Group, and a Home-based psychoeducational written materials program. The Multifamily Group was designed to enhance positive parenting through both educational components and in vivo feedback and support during separations and reunions between parents and children (n = 78 parents). In the present study, we examine parenting reflectivity and mental representations in mothers versus fathers in military families, service members versus civilian spouses/parenting partners, and before versus after participation in the SMF Multifamily Group and Home-based interventions. Parenting reflectivity and mental representations were coded from the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI; C.H. Zeanah & D. Benoit, 1995). Results suggest that neither parenting reflectivity nor WMCI typology differs between mothers and fathers in military families, or between service members and civilian parenting partners. Furthermore, there was substantial stability in parenting reflectivity and WMCI typology from baseline to posttest, but participation in the Multifamily Group, relative to Home-based, was associated with improvements in both parenting reflectivity and WMCI ratings from baseline to postintervention. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Application of microscopy in authentication of valuable Chinese medicine I--Cordyceps sinensis, its counterfeits, and related products.

    PubMed

    Au, Dawn; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Dajian; Mok, Daniel K W; Chan, Albert S C; Xu, Hongxi

    2012-01-01

    Light and polarized microscope was applied to authenticate 32 Cordyceps and 6 artificial counterfeits and 8 fermented Cordyceps as well as 7 Cordyceps capsules available in Hong Kong markets. Results showed that transverse sections of stroma and powder of larvae can be used to differentiate C. sinensis from its counterfeits. The fermented Cordyceps are in powder form. Among the eight fermented Cordyceps collected, half of them were pure; three were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; one was a mixture of unknown plant tissues and soya beans. For the seven Cordyceps capsules, the powders of five samples were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; the powders of other two were a mixture of C. sinensis stroma powder and fermented Cordyceps. The study indicated that the microscopy is an unambiguous method that requests fewer sample for the authentication of valuable Chinese medicine-C. sinensis and its related products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  18. [Comparison and review on specifications of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yong-Wen

    2018-02-01

    There are five kinds of fermented Cordyceps crude drug and their preparations that have been approved as medicine on the market. Since the initial strains of the crude drug were all isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis, they have similar names, chemical components and even clinical applications. However, because of the different strain species and fermentation processes, there was significant difference in quality. As a result, they should be clearly distinguished in clinical use. Most of the products were researched and developed during the 1980s and 1990s, so there was difference in quality standards for different products, and their quality control levels of some products were not perfect. At present, some of the products are approved as Chinese medicine, others are approved as chemical drugs, with a confusion in products name, management and clinical application. In this paper, the approval numbers, quality standards and clinical applications, and current problems of these products were summarized and compared; some suggestions were put forward, such as standardizing the product name, unifying the management of approval number category, and increasing the specific quality control attributes, in order to provide reference for standard implementation, quality control and drug regulation for fermented Cordyceps crude drugs and their preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Large group intervention for military reintegration: peer support & Yellow Ribbon enhancements.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Cherie; Everly, George S

    2010-01-01

    University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in partnership with the New Jersey Department of Military & Veterans Affairs established a program entitled the "New Jersey Veterans Helpline," modeled after the "Cop 2 Cop Helpline," in 2005 to assist veterans and their families within the state. The events of September 11, 2001, demanded an unprecedented response to address the behavioral health care needs of first responders in New Jersey and highlighted the similarities amongst the military population in their response. Although the New Jersey Veterans Helpline program was initiated as a peer based helpline, the need for support in pre- and post-deployment quickly emerged. This paper describes the application of the Cop 2 Cop interventions with the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) entitled "Acute Stress Management Reentry Program." This program was adapted and combined with Yellow Ribbon Guideline enhancements to create a "60 Day Resiliency & Reintegration Program" led by the New Jersey Veterans program to over 2,400 soldiers returning from war.

  20. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-15

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30cms -1 . The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Soo-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites. PMID:23956667

  2. Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures. PMID:23956619

  3. Enhanced Multi-Service Markets: An Evolution in Military Health System Governance.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Ronald P; Russell, Rebecca; Toland, P Paul

    2018-02-06

    The evolution of governance models for the Military Health System's (MHS) large hospitals, called medical treatment facilities (MTFs), has culminated with the effort to implement Enhanced Multi-Service Markets (eMSM). The term eMSM refers to two separate concepts. First, MSM refers to those geographic areas, that is, markets, which have the following characteristics: they have MTFs that are operated by two or more Department of Defense (DoD) Services, that is, Army, Navy, or Air Force; there is a large beneficiary population; there is a substantial amount of direct care (i.e., beneficiaries are treated at MTFs instead of TRICARE's purchased care from civilian providers); and there is a substantial readiness and training platform. Second, the term "enhanced" refers to an increase in management authority over clinical and business operations, readiness, and MTF workload. A retrospective review was conducted to study the evolution of military and civilian health care delivery models for the purpose of understanding how governance models have changed since the 1980s to design and manage MTFs with overlapping catchments areas. Primary and secondary data sources were analyzed through a comprehensive literature review. Since the 1980s, the MHS governance models have evolved from testing various managed care models to a regionally focused TRICARE model and culminating with an overlapping catchment area model entitled eMSMs. The eMSM model partially fulfills the original vision because the eMSM leaders have limited budgetary and resource allocation authority. The various models sought to improve governance of overlapping catchment areas with the intent to enhance medical readiness, community health, and individual health care while reducing costs. However, the success of the current model, that is, eMSMs, cannot be fully assessed because the eMSM model was not fully implemented as originally envisioned. Instead, the current eMSM model partially implements the eMSM model. As

  4. [Investigation of metabolic action of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan-Lei; Yan, Dan; Li, Bao-Cai; Wu, Yan-Shu; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, and microcalorimetric method was carried out to evaluate its biological activity. The study will provide the basis for the quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Experimental result will show the effect of natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, with index of P(1max) and effective rate (E) by microcalorimetry, the data of experiment were studied by cluster analysis. The results showed that Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia not only can promote growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli but also can regulate the balance of intestinal microecology efficiently. When the concentrations of samples > 6.0 mg mL(-1), natural Cordyceps sinensis can promote the growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli efficiently (P < 0.05) compared with the control group, and have better dose-effect relationship with concentration (r > 0.9), its cultured mycelia does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05) and have not dose-effect relationship with concentration (r < 0.6); when the concentration of samples < 6.0 mg mL(-1), all samples does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05). Natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia can be distinguished by cluster analysis. Microcalorimetry has a good prospect on the quality evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Winds of War: Enhancing Civilian and Military Partnerships to Assure Readiness: White Paper.

    PubMed

    Schwab, C William

    2015-08-01

    This White Paper summarizes the state of readiness of combat surgeons and provides action recommendations that address the problems of how to train, sustain, and retain them for future armed conflicts. As the basis for the 2014 Scudder Oration, I explored how to secure an improved partnership between military and civilian surgery, which would optimize learning platforms and embed military trauma personnel at America's academic medical universities for trauma combat casualty care (TCCC). To craft and validate these recommendations, I conducted an integrative and iterative process of literature reviews, interviews of military and civilian leaders, and a survey of military-affiliated surgeons. The recommended action points advance the training of combat surgeons and their trauma teams by creating an expanded network of TCCC training sites and sourcing the cadre of combat-seasoned surgeons currently populating our civilian and military teaching hospitals and universities. The recommendation for the establishment of a TCCC readiness center or command within the Medical Health System of the Department of Defense includes a military and civilian advisory board, with the reformation of a think tank of content experts to address high-level solutions for military medicine, readiness, and TCCC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategies for Enhancing Military Physical Readiness in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Acute MSIs and chronic musculoskeletal conditions arising from injuries are consistently the leading cause of hospitalizations and outpatient...female gender, low aerobic fitness, low levels of physical activity prior to military entrance, cigarette smoking prior to military entrance, past ankle ...wear semi-rigid ankle braces for high risk activities, 5) consume nutrients to restore energy balance within 1 hour following high-intensity activity

  7. Simulation of Adaptive Seat Energy Absorber for Military Rotorcraft Crash Safety Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    design guidelines and detailed requirements were developed for military crew seats as defined in MIL-S-85510(AS) (12) and for civil rotorcraft seats in...rotorcraft vertical crash pulse as stipulated in military design standards was used to evaluate the performance of MREA seat energy absorber with a...Desjardins, S. P.; Zimmerman, R. E.; Bolukbasi, A. O.; Merritt, N. A. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide Vol. IV – Aircraft Seats , Restraints, Litters

  8. Improved production of jiangxienone in submerged fermentation of Cordyceps jiangxiensis under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Xi; Han, Li-Liang; Wang, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jun-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    2018-06-14

    Jiangxienone produced by Cordyceps jiangxiensis exhibits significant cytotoxicity and good selectivity against various human cancer cells, especially gastric cancer cells. In this work, the effect of nitrogen deficiency on the accumulation of jiangxienone and the transcription levels of jiangxienone biosynthesis genes was studied in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis. Results showed that accumulation of jiangxienone was improved under nitrogen deficiency condition. A maximal jiangxienone content of 3.2 µg/g cell dry weight was reached at 5 mM glutamine, and it was about 8.9-fold higher than that obtained at 60 mM glutamine (control). The transcription levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes hmgr and sqs and the nitrogen regulatory gene areA were upregulated by 7-, 14-, and 28-fold, respectively, in culture with 5 mM glutamine compared to the control. It was hypothesized that the jiangxienone biosynthesis may involve the mevalonate pathway in C. jiangxiensis. Taken together, our study indicated that nitrogen deficiency is an efficient strategy for enhancing jiangxienone accumulation in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis, which is useful for further understanding the regulation of jiangxienone biosynthesis.

  9. Determination of essential and toxic elements in Cordyceps kyushuensis Kawam by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Zhao, Yanxin; Liu, Fengjun; Ling, Jianya; Lin, Jianqiang; Zhang, Changkai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 20 elements (essential, non-essential and toxic): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), gallium (Ga), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), barium (Ba), tin (Sn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in natural and cultured Cordyceps kyushuensis have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cultured stroma, natural stroma and natural worm were digested by microwave-assisted method before analysis. The proposed ICP-MS method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM) GBW10015 (spinach). The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the element concentrations in the three kinds of samples were significantly different (p<0.05). Except for Mg, Zn, Cu, the values of other elemental contents were the highest in the stroma of natural C. kyushuensis. In comparison with the worm, the concentrations of determined elements in wild stroma were higher. The remarkable difference of elemental contents between cultured and natural stroma may be caused by distinct growing environment. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-MS elemental analysis and enhanced the value of C. kyushuensis as a candidate for nourishing food based on its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  11. Regulation of the exopolysaccharide from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cell sarcoma (DCS) cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; He, Zhenyue; Wang, Chenhao; Yuan, Fengjiao; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Weiyun

    2013-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been regarded as a precious tonic food and herbal medicine in China for thousands of years. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis was found to have antitumor immunomodulatory activity. Mature dendritic cells play a role in initiating antitumor immunity, so we try to investigate the effects of EPS on the murine dendritic cell line DCS. Flow cytometry was used to assay the expression levels of cell surface molecules including major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and their ability to take up antigens. The ability of DCS cells to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. IL-12 and TNF-α levels were detected using ELISA. Western blotting was performed to estimate the levels of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and p105. EPS increased the expressions of MHC-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and up-regulated their ability to take up antigens. EPS also enhanced their ability to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells. IL-12 and TNF-α secreted from DCS cells were up-regulated after EPS treatment. Furthermore, EPS significantly caused the decline of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, significantly increased levels of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus and decreased levels of NF-κB p105 in the cytoplasm. EPS may induce DCS cells to exhibit mature characteristics, and the mechanism involved is probably related to the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway and promotion of the NF-κB signal pathway.

  12. Teaching Mental Skills for Self-Esteem Enhancement in a Military Healthcare Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammermeister, Jon; Pickering, Michael A.; Ohlson, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    The need exists for educational methods which can positively influence self-esteem, especially in demanding military healthcare settings. Warrior Transition Units (WTU's) are tasked with the challenging mission of caring for seriously injured or ill U.S. Army Soldiers. This paper explored the hypothesis that an educationally-based Mental Skills…

  13. Connections, Partnerships, Opportunities, and Programs to Enhance Success for Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Deborah; Northrup, Pamela; Wiley, Lusharon

    2009-01-01

    Active-duty personnel, reservists, veterans, and their spouses or dependents represent 30% of the 10,000 students at the University of West Florida (UWF). With base realignment activities, a rise in the number of troops returning from deployments, and an increase in military-affiliated students on campus, the needs of veterans and their families…

  14. Cordyceps sinensis extracts attenuate aortic transplant arteriosclerosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mei; Gong, Shuwen; Yang, Yu; Chen, Bicheng; Cai, Yong; Zheng, Shaoling; Yang, Yirong; Xia, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a hallmark of chronic rejection and is still the major limiting factor affecting the success of long-term organ transplants. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, and adequate therapy is not yet available. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Cordyceps sinensis extracts in reducing the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Lewis rat aortic allografts were transplanted into Brown-Norway recipient rats. Recipients received 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of Cordyceps sinensis extracts (or control saline) daily via intragastric injection for 60 d. Grafts were harvested 60 d post-transplantation and intimal thickness determined microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and abdominal aorta protein profiles determined by Western blot analysis. Cellular localization was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry and the serum analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. sinensis administration resulted in a significant reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal thickness 8.27 ± 1.95 μm [0.5 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg] versus 11.42 ± 2.67 μm [control]) and in the proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, localized expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in transplant aortas was characterized by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses demonstrating that C. sinensis treatment significantly reduced TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels compared with levels observed in controls (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced in C. sinensis-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.05). C. sinensis treatment effectively reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Copyright

  15. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis in rats by Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    PubMed

    Qi, W; Yan, Y-B; Lei, W; Wu, Z-X; Zhang, Y; Liu, D; Shi, L; Cao, P-C; Liu, N

    2012-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been known as a traditional medicine in China, and C. sinensis plus strontium could prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The present study shows that daily oral administration of C. sinensis at higher doses in adult hind limb suspension rats can prevent disuse-induced bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Cordyceps sinensis induces estradiol production and prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This study was to examine whether C. sinensis can prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, and five groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). One HLS group received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) orally, and to the three other HLS groups to each group, a different amount of C. sinensis (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 8 weeks before and after HLS. The remaining HLS group was set as a control without treatment. Each group consisted of 10 males and females. The body weights, biochemical parameters in serum and urine, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical testing, and bone microarchitecture were examined. Treatments with higher C. sinensis dosage (300 and 500 mg/kg/day) or alendronate had a positive effect on body weights, mechanical strength, BMD, and BMC compared to the other HLS groups. C. sinensis decreased markers of bone turnover dose dependently and increased the osteocalcin levels in HLS rats. The result of micro-CT analysis from the L4 vertebra showed that C. sinensis (500 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabeculae number, and thickness as well as improved the trabeculae separation and structure model index in HLS rats. The present study demonstrates that administration of C. sinensis at higher doses over an 8-week period can prevent the disuse osteoporosis in rats. It implies that C. sinensis might be an alternative therapy for prevention

  16. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  17. Development and Application of Advanced Ophthalmic Imaging Technology to Enhance Military Ocular Health Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    active military personnel and veterans, are affected by three major blinding diseases of the retina and optic nerve: diabetic retinopathy , age-related...disease is detected early. New advanced detection methods are available, but are only interpretable by very experienced specialists. The goal of this...consist of several steps [1-3]: feature detection ; transform model estimation; optimization function design; and optimization strategies. We do not

  18. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  19. Enhanced risk of illness during the 1918 influenza pandemic after previous influenza-like illnesses in three military populations.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Burroughs, S A; Sohn, J D; Waters, N C; Smith, V F; Waller, M; Brundage, J F

    2016-07-01

    The reasons for the unprecedented mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic remain poorly understood. We examined morbidity records from three military cohorts from years prior to and during the 1918 pandemic period to assess the effects of previous respiratory illnesses on experiences during the pandemic. Clinical registers and morbidity lists were examined to identify all medical encounters for acute respiratory illnesses in students at two U.S. military officer training academies and Australian soldiers deployed in Europe. Influenza-like illness prior to the major pandemic wave of 1918 predisposed Australian soldiers [relative risk (RR) 1·37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·18-1·60, P < 0·0001] and US officer trainees at West Point (RR 3·10, 95% CI 2·13-4·52, P < 0·0001) and Annapolis (RR 2·03, 95% CI 1·65-2·50, P < 0·0001) to increased risks of medically treated illnesses in late 1918. The findings suggest that susceptibility to and/or clinical expressions of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus depended on previous experiences with respiratory infectious agents. The findings are consistent with observations during the 2009 pandemic in Canada and may reflect antibody-dependent enhancement of influenza infection.

  20. Efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis as an adjunctive treatment in kidney transplant patients: A systematic-review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Bee Yean; Aziz, Zoriah

    2017-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (cordyceps) is a fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine as adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in patients with kidney transplant. This review evaluates current evidence on the efficacy and safety of natural and fermented cordyceps preparations in patients with kidney transplant. English and Chinese electronic databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched up to December 2015 for relevant randomized controlled trials. Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. The primary outcome measures were incidence of acute graft rejection in the first year post-transplantation, one-year graft survival rate (defined as the percentage of patients with functioning grafts) and patient survival rate (or all-cause mortality). Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. These studies were considered to be at moderate risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods. Four studies that compared cordyceps-based therapy with azathioprine-based therapy gave comparable acute rejection rates, and graft and patient survival. The cordyceps-treated group however showed better kidney function and lower incidences of hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and liver injury. Cordyceps used with different combinations of immunosuppressant therapy showed significant reduction in proteinuria after 6-12 months. Compared to the group receiving cyclosporine A monotherapy, treatment with a combination of cordyceps and cyclosporine A showed less treatment-induced nephrotoxicity. Adverse events were either not monitored or poorly documented in most trials. Current evidence shows that cordyceps as an adjuvant to routine immunosuppressant therapy may benefit kidney transplant patient, however, better quality evidence is still required. Copyright © 2016

  1. Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food Applications: Request for Enhanced Nano and Micro Particle Fabrication and Characterization Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-25

    2013 21-Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food Applications: Request for...reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food Applications...Total Number: ...... Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress Equipment was purchased. Technology Transfer 1 Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food

  2. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these.

  3. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts.

  4. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  5. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou

    2010-10-19

    Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  6. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-15

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  7. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Wei; Lin, Zhi Xiu; Tung, Yuk Stewart; Kwan, Tze Hoi; Mok, Chun Keung; Leung, Connie; Chan, Lai Sum

    2014-12-18

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps, Dong Chong Xia Cao), a herbal medicine also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps sinensis for the treatment of people with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 14 April 2014 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched CINAHL, AMED, Current Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE, and Chinese databases including CBM, CMCC, TCMLARS, Chinese Dissertation Database, CMAC and Index to Chinese Periodical Literature. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing Cordyceps or its products with placebo, no treatment, or conventional treatment were considered for inclusion in the review. Two authors independently assessed data quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 22 studies that involved 1746 participants. Among people with CKD who were not receiving dialysis, Cordyceps preparations were found to significantly decrease serum creatinine (14 studies, 987 participants): MD -60.76 μmol/L, 95% CI -85.82 to -35.71); increase creatinine clearance (6 studies, 362 participants): MD 9.22 mL/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 15.34) and reduce 24 hour proteinuria (4 studies, 211 participants: MD -0.15 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.05). However, suboptimal reporting and flawed methodological approaches meant that risk of bias was assessed as high in four studies and unclear in 18 studies, and hence, these results need to be interpreted with caution. We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine

  8. A balance and proprioception intervention programme to enhance combat performance in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Funk, Shany; Jacob, T; Ben-Dov, D; Yanovich, E; Tirosh, O; Steinberg, N

    2018-02-01

    Optimal functioning of the lower extremities under repeated movements on unstable surfaces is essential for military effectiveness. Intervention training to promote proprioceptive ability should be considered in order to limit the risk for musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a proprioceptive intervention programme on static and dynamic postural balance among Israel Defense Forces combat soldiers. Twenty-seven male soldiers, aged 18-20 years, from a physical fitness instructor's course, were randomly divided into two groups matched by age and army unit. The intervention group (INT) underwent 4 weeks of proprioceptive exercises for 10 min daily; the control group underwent 4 weeks of upper body stretching exercises for 10 min daily. All participants were tested pre and postintervention for both static and dynamic postural balance. Significant interaction (condition*pre-post-test*group) was found for static postural balance, indicating that for the INT group, in condition 3 (on an unstable surface-BOSU), the post-test result was significantly better compared with the pretest result (p<0.05). Following intervention, the INT group showed significant correlations between static postural stability in condition 2 (eyes closed) and the dynamic postural stability (length of time walked on the beam following fatigue) ( r ranged from 0.647 to 0.822; p<0.05). The proprioceptive intervention programme for combat soldiers improved static postural balance on unstable surfaces, and improved the correlation between static postural balance in the eyes closed condition and dynamic postural balance following fatigue. Further longitudinal studies are needed to verify the relationship between proprioception programmes, additional weight bearing and the reduction of subsequent injuries in combat soldiers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  9. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  10. Multimedia Campaign Enhances Orthopaedic Patient Perceptions of Health Care Quality: A Prospective Analysis of Effect at a Military Treatment Facility.

    PubMed

    Sheean, Andrew J; Foster, James N; Aden, James K; Tubb, Creighton C; Johnson, Anthony E; Stinner, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    multimedia campaign resulted in significant improvements among indices of orthopaedic patient satisfaction. We believe this model could be used at other military or nonmilitary treatment facilities as a means to engender patients' familiarity with their surgeon and prompt an appreciation for his/her expertise and enhance overall patient perceptions of department-wide health care quality. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. [Studies on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Cordyceps sinensis and its counterfeits].

    PubMed

    Chan, Siutsau; Liu, Baoling; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Lam, Markin; Law, Kwokwai; Chen, Hubiao

    2011-05-01

    To provide a rapid, simple, accurate and reproducible identification method from which Cordyceps sinensis can be distinguished from other species. To observe the larva and stroma of Cordyceps family with macroscopic identification method, and with powder microscopic identification method. For macroscopic, only stroma of C. sinensis is mostly non-inflated, and un-obtuse at the tip, the caterpillar annulations of C. sinensis and the C. gracilis is distinct, about 20-30, and feet of above two are 8 pairs, 4 of 8 pairs are relatively distinct. The above appearance shows its unique characteristic. For microscopic identification, only C. sinensis exists microtrichia, the tip is pointed. The arranging order of stubby setae is irregular, the tip is blunt while the basal is gradually broader; the top of some setae bends slightly like a hook.

  12. [Maturation of Cordyceps sinensis associates with alterations of fungal expressions of multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in stroma of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Jian-qing; Lu, Ji-hong; Zhao, Jia-gang; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2012-06-18

    To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma. MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes. MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased. Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and

  13. [Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan; Qiu, Yi; Wan, De-Guang; Lu, Xian-Ming; Guo, Jin-Lin

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent.

  14. Cardiovascular protection and antioxidant activity of the extracts from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis act partially via adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Miao; Yao, Hong-Yi; Guan, Yan; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Lin-Hui; Jia, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ru-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Mycelia of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the most common substitutes for natural CS and was approved for arrhythmia in China. However, the role of CS in ameliorating injury during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is still unclear. We examined effects of extracts from CS on I/R and investigated the possible mechanisms. Post-ischemic coronary perfusion pressure, ventricular function, and coronary flow were measured using the Langendorff mouse heart model. Oxidative stress of cardiac homogenates was performed using an ELISA. Our results indicate that CS affords cardioprotection possibly through enhanced adenosine receptor activation. Cardioprotection was demonstrated by reduced post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction and improved recovery of pressure development and coronary flow. Treatment with CS largely abrogates oxidative stress and damage in glucose- or pyruvate-perfused hearts. Importantly, observed reductions in oxidative stress [glutathione disulfide (GSSG)]/[GSSG + glutathione] and [malondialdehyde (MDA)]/[superoxide dismutase + MDA] ratios as well as the resultant damage upon CS treatment correlate with functional markers of post-ischemic myocardial outcome. These effects of CS were partially blocked by 8-ρ-sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate a suppressive role of CS in ischemic contracture. Meanwhile, the results also suggest pre-ischemic adenosine receptor activation may be involved in reducing contracture in hearts pretreated with CS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Combinatorial usage of fungal polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum ameliorate drug-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Songtao; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Sunan; Li, Chang; Zhang, Zhihong; Xie, Mingyong; Nie, Shaoping

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response. Relatively, through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PSG increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content depleted by CTX, as well as prevented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins (Bad, Bax and Bcl-2). In addition, protective effect of CFP was associated with enhanced modulations on cellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and pro-inflammatory factors via PPARα upregulation and TLR9 downregulation. Taking together, the combinatorial approach based on CSP and PSG presented a practical option for the management of drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine invertebrates by surface runoff at a decommissioned military fuel depot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Roster, N.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) and shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sp.) at a recently closed military fuel depot in central San Francisco Bay, California. In April 1996, during a period of above average precipitation, specimens were collected at the depot, near the depot, and at sites 10 and 20 km south of the depot. Four weeks after the rains ended, blue mussels were again collected at the depot, and at two additional sites in the central Bay region. In April, total PAHs in mussels from the depot were significantly higher only than that in mussels collected 20 km from the depot; however, seven specific, substituted PAHs were higher at the depot than at all other sites. In June, only two of the 38 PAHs common in mussels in April were detected at the depot; these concentrations were comparable to ambient concentrations in mussels at the Bay. It seemed that bioavailability of PAHs at the depot was enhanced by rainfall, probably due to the mobilization of PAHs via groundwater into the Bay. Concentrations in mussels from chronically contaminated sites were about five times higher than mussels collected from the depot. Low PAH concentrations were detected in shore crabs near the depot, and the highest levels were not associated with the depot. Observed PAH concentrations are discussed in relation to upper trophic organisms.

  17. Altered proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with

  18. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  19. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis, the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis, and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products. PMID:29850373

  20. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Yao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis , the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis , and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products.

  1. Cordyceps sinensis increases hypoxia tolerance by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein via Nrf2 activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrinalini; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Koganti, Praveen; Chauhan, Amitabh; Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NF κ B (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor- α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor- β . Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NF κ B and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NF κ B levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.

  2. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia. PMID:24063008

  3. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  4. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    PubMed

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chen, Ying-Hui; Pan, Bo-Syong; Chang, Ming-Min; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Vanadium-Enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianyou; Li, ChangYu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    This article studies a contemporary treatment approach toward both diabetes and depression management by vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS). Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were used in the study. After the rats were administered with VECS, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was seen (P < .05) and the levels of serum insulin increased significantly (P < .05). At the same time, the study revealed a significant decrease in immobility with a corresponding increase in the swimming and climbing behavior in hyperglycemic rats following VECS treatment. The results described herein demonstrate that VECS is a contemporary treatment approach that advocates an aggressive stance toward both diabetes and depression management. PMID:21799679

  7. [Amplicon density-weighted algorithms for analyzing dissimilarity and dynamic alterations of RAPD polymorphisms of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-sang; Gao, Ling; Li, Yu-ling; Ma, Shao-li; Wu, Zi-mei; Tan, Ning-zhi; Wu, Jian-yong; Ni, Lu-qun; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2014-08-18

    To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs). Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs). Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris. The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD

  8. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines.

  9. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Results: Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Conclusion: Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24632844

  10. Psychological health of military children: Longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W.; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2014-01-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include: 1) Understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level, and 2) Determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with de-identified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children ages 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included Service Member and Civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist – Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families, and suggest areas for future research. PMID:23929043

  11. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  12. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  13. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence.

  14. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    This panel discussion, moderated by Dr. Deuster, illustrates the thinking of selected military leaders on the approach that must be taken to ensure the relationship between nutrition and performance. Insights and challenges these leaders face are provided, with consideration of the complex issues relating to sufficient scientific evidence, timing for Department of Defense policy, and the unique needs of service members. The discussion resulted in several recommendations. First, more nutritionists in uniform should be placed in/on the battlefield on every base and camp in Afghanistan and Iraq. Second, nutritionists/dietitians need to be working in the preventive arena, using the health promotion model and marketing to help shift behavior. Third, contract dietitians should be hired to work primarily in tertiary care. Dietitians must forward-deploy to implement preventive medicine and human performance optimization as it relates to nutrition and dietary supplementation. Unfortunately, almost all military dietitians are constrained within the medical model and we think of them just as "hospital providers." Finally, line units need to decide that dietitians are a requisite part of their force structure. Putting many dieticians in line units will allow our active duty members to believe diet and nutrition are important for performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Hardeep S; Sandhu, Sardul S; Sharma, A K

    2014-02-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sp. has been known to have numerous pharmacological and therapeutic implications, especially, in terms of human health making it a suitable candidate for ethno-pharmacological use. Main constituent of the extract derived from this fungus comprises a novel bio-metabolite called as Cordycepin (3'deoxyadenosine) which has a very potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current review discusses about the broad spectrum potential of Cordycepin including biological and pharmacological actions in immunological, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular systems as well as an anti-cancer agent. The article also reviews the current efforts to delineate the mechanism of action of Cordycepin in various bio-molecular processes. The study will certainly draw the attention of scientific community to improve the bioactivity and production of Cordycepin for its commercial use in pharmacological and medical fields.

  18. The mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and strontium in prevention of osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Pu-jie; Guo, Wen-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) and strontium ranelate on ovariectomized osteopenic rats was studied in this paper. After the rats were treated orally with C. sinensis, strontium, and C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate (CSS) respectively, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine, C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level were examined. The beneficial effects of CSS on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level, and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSS also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. This study demonstrates the value of C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.

  19. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium ameliorate exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (Clavicipitaceae) is a famous medicinal fungus (mushroom) in Chinese herbal medicine. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis (CSP) have been identified as active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological actions of CSP have received a great deal of attention, research in this area continues. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of CSP on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. The mice were divided into four groups: control (C), low-dose CSP treated (LC), intermediate-dose CSP treated (IC) and high-dose CSP treated (HC). The treated groups received CSP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received drinking water for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo exhaustive swimming exercise, and some biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured using detection kits according to the manufacturers' instructions. Compared with the C group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); SOD activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); GPx activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); CAT activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the HC groups (p < 0.05); MDA and 8-OHdG levels in serum, liver and muscle were significantly lower in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained herein indicate that CSP could ameliorate exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  20. [Study on effect of cordyceps sinensis on early-stage silicotic pulmonary fibrosis in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Hongfu; Ying, Yanhong

    2014-07-01

    To establish a rabbit model of silicotic pulmonary fibrosis and to investigate the effect of cordyceps sinensis in this model. Thirty healthy male white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, silicosis model group, and intervention group. The rabbits in silicosis model group and intervention group received endotracheal perfusion of silicon dioxide suspension (120 mg/kg), and the control group was treated with the same volume of saline. All the rabbits were sacrificed 30 days later. The lung coefficient was calculated by comparing the lung weight and body weight; the right lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured by alkaline hydrolysis. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β₁) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7) in rabbit lung sections were determined by real-time PCR. No abnormalities were observed by HE staining in the lung tissues of control group, while fibrosis and silicotic nodules were discovered in the silicosis model group and intervention group. The lung coefficient and the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue were significantly higher in the silicosis model group than in the control group and intervention group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the silicosis model group and intervention group had significantly increased TGF-β₁ mRNA levels but significantly reduced Smad7 mRNA levels (P < 0.02). Compared with the silicosis model group, the intervention group had a significantly reduced TGF-β₁ mRNA level but a significantly increased Smad7 mRNA level (P < 0.05). Cordyceps sinensis is able to reduce the expression of TGF-β₁ mRNA and increase the expression of Smad7 mRNA in lung tissues of rabbits with silicotic pulmonary fibrosis, and thus postpone the progression of fibrosis.

  1. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p < 0.05). The Cordyceps daily cotreatment alleviated the testicular damage by EMP exposure, increased spermatozoa formation, and reduced apoptotic spermatogenic cells. These observations warrant further preclinical and clinical studies as an innovative approach for potential protection against electromagnetic radiation in the current age of networked society and digital citizenship.

  2. Military Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  3. A comb-like branched β-D-glucan produced by a Cordyceps sinensis fungus and its protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Jiang, Chenbo; Huang, Qilin; Sun, Fengyuan

    2016-05-20

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was fractionated from fermentation media of a Cordyceps sinensis fungus (Cs-HK1) by ethanol precipitation at 2/5 volume ratio of ethanol/media. Its structural characteristics were elucidated by FT-IR, GC, GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR combined with periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis, and methylation analysis. Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity of EPS was evaluated by the model of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. The results from monosaccharide composition and partial acid hydrolysis indicated that EPS almost consisted of glucose excluding a trace amount of mannose. GC-MS and NMR analysis further confirmed EPS had a linear backbone of (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl residues with a single (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl side-branching unit for every three β-D-glucopyranosyl residues, showing a comb-like β-D-glucan with short and intensive branches, which was responsible for high viscosity. Moreover, EPS could significantly enhance immune organs and stimulate the release of major cytokines TNF-α and INF-γ, suggesting that EPS exhibited protective effect in immunocompromised mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. Methods: A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or saline was administered orally after the induction of sepsis. Alterations of intestinal barrier were evaluated and compared in terms of epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation index (PI), intercellular tight junction (TJ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: C. sinensis significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and promoted mucosal cells proliferation indicated by enhanced PI and PCNA expression in the intestinal mucosa compared to control group. The TJs between epithelial cells which were disrupted in septic rats were also restored by treatment of C. sinensis. In survival studies, C. sinensis was demonstrated to confer a protection against the lethal effect of sepsis. Conclusion: These results suggest that C. sinensis has gut barrier-protection effect in endotoxin-induced sepsis by promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells, as well as restoring the TJs of intestinal mucosa. C. sinensis may have the potential to be a useful adjunct therapy for sepsis. PMID:26221273

  5. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Jian-An; Li, Guan-Wei; Yuan, Yu-Jie; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis), a traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits various pharmacological activities such as reparative, antioxidant, and apoptosis inhibitory effects. Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays a vital role in the progression of sepsis. We aimed to explore the effect of C. sinensis on the gut barrier and evaluate its efficacy in sepsis. A murine model of gut barrier dysfunction was created by intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin. C. sinensis or saline was administered orally after the induction of sepsis. Alterations of intestinal barrier were evaluated and compared in terms of epithelial cell apoptosis, proliferation index (PI), intercellular tight junction (TJ) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). C. sinensis significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and promoted mucosal cells proliferation indicated by enhanced PI and PCNA expression in the intestinal mucosa compared to control group. The TJs between epithelial cells which were disrupted in septic rats were also restored by treatment of C. sinensis. In survival studies, C. sinensis was demonstrated to confer a protection against the lethal effect of sepsis. These results suggest that C. sinensis has gut barrier-protection effect in endotoxin-induced sepsis by promoting the proliferation and inhibiting the apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells, as well as restoring the TJs of intestinal mucosa. C. sinensis may have the potential to be a useful adjunct therapy for sepsis.

  6. Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in natural Cordyceps by HILIC-ESI/TOF/MS and HILIC-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Bin; Yang, Hong-Jun; Huang, Luqi

    2013-08-15

    A method combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was developed for the characterization and determination of natural Cordyceps. Separation was achieved on a Waters Xbridge Amide column with gradient elution. Identification of 15 target nucleosides and nucleobases was based on retention time, UV spectra and mass measurements of the protonated molecules ([M+H]⁺) and main fragment ions (ESI-TOF/MS). Eight non-target compounds were tentatively identified by ESI-TOF/MS. The 15 target compounds were quantified by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS using time-programmed selective ion monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring in positive-ion mode under optimized mass conditions. This technique showed good linearity, repeatability and recovery. This approach was also successfully implemented in the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in 12 batches of natural Cordyceps samples that were collected from different regions in China. The developed HILIC-ESI-MS method exhibited clear advantages in identifying and determining highly polar bioactive components in Cordyceps, as well as their quality control.

  7. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. MilitaryKidsConnect: Web-based prevention services for military children.

    PubMed

    Blasko, Kelly A

    2015-08-01

    Military children often present with psychological health concerns related to their experience of deployments, reintegration, and frequent moves common in military life. MilitaryKidsConnect is a Department of Defense (DoD) Web site designed to enhance the coping of military children in the context of their military life experience. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of the Web site as a resource that provides psychoeducation, coping strategies, and peer support to military children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingxia; Tang, Rong; Zhou, Qiaoling; Liu, Kanghan; Xiao, Zhou; Pouranan, Veeraragoo

    2013-05-01

    To examine the expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy before and after the treatment of Cordyceps sinensis, and to explore the mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis against hypoxia. The diabetes model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, then the rats whose 24 h urine protein level was above 30 mg/d were thought to have suffered diabetic nephropathy. Thirty rats were randomly divided into a diabetic nephropathy group (DN group, n=15) and a Cordyceps sinensis group (CS group, n=15), and another 15 normal rats served as a normal control group (NC group, n=15). The CS group were intragastrically administered Cordyceps sinensis extract liquid [5.0 g/(kg.d)], the other groups were intragastrically administered drinking water of equal volume. Five rats in each group were killed after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The 24 h urine protein excretion, urine β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and serum creatinine were measured; the renal pathological changes were evaluated by HE and Masson staining; the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were dectected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal control group, the renal tubular vacuolar degeneration was obvious, and the glomerular mesangial matrix increased in the DN group. The 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine also increased significantly (all P<0.05); the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the renal tissue gradually increased with time, and the expression of HIF-1α was correlated with that of VEGF in the 2 groups (r=0.850, r=0.887, both P<0.05) . Compared with the DN group, the pathological changes were relieved, the 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine level were decreased, and the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF decreased in the CS group (all P<0.05), but

  10. Military Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE C) OD MILITARY RESPONSIBILITY by Captain Yedidiah Ya’ari, ISN D T IC 3 Nay 1988 SELECTED E A paper submitted to the ADM Colbert...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. CCESSION NO. 1. TITLE (kxhl* Secur4 y S saflcation Military Responsibility 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) CAPT Yedidiah Ya’Ar ISN 13a TYPE...GROUP Military Responsibility 19. ABSTRACT (Continw on reverse if 1Nceury and identi by block winbed An attempt to expose the inner basis of the

  11. Military medical advances resulting from the conflict in Korea, Part I: Systems advances that enhanced patient survival.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2012-04-01

    The Korean War started several years after the World War II had ended and no recognition of the threat or preparation was made for this possibility. The military and its medical service had been downsized after World War II and had to quickly ramp up to meet the surprise attack. The war provided the laboratory for trials and experimentation with the new technological developments of the era. The Korean conflict led to numerous advances in medical systems and patient care. The Mobile Army Surgical Hospital came of age, and was instrumental in saving many lives. Helicopters saw their first regular use as flying ambulances to take the injured to definitive care in a timely fashion. The national blood banking program was rapidly geared up and new techniques such as plastic bags for collection and delivery resulted. Body armor was developed that would allow mobility while offering protection and was widely used for the first time. Each of these systems improvements saved the lives of soldiers in combat and were soon to be used in the civilian sector to save and improve lives around the world.

  12. The role of military medicine in military civic action.

    PubMed

    Luz, G A; De Pauw, J W; Gaydos, J C; Hooper, R R; Legters, L J

    1993-06-01

    We are moving into an era when U.S. military forces will be called upon frequently to perform military civic action (MCA) projects. Such projects, have been used successfully and unsuccessfully, primarily in the areas of medicine and engineering, to enhance the standing of military forces with indigenous populations. However, the available criteria for planning and assessing MCA projects are not widely known. These related and overlapping criteria are supported by facts, interpretative data, anecdotes, and common sense, but none can be considered absolute. Selected criteria are defined, reviewed, and illustrated with examples of past successes and failures.

  13. Obesity and the US Military Family

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  14. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    the parents assigned to the control group during the pretest and posttest are depicted on the left (white bar), and the mean performance of the...technology-enhanced test group and parents in the waitlist-control group . Efficacy Outcomes a. We now have pretest and posttest data for the...other two parents in the control group , there was a minor, unsatisfactory improvement from the pretest (9% and 18%, respectively) to posttest (43

  15. Using FT-NIR spectroscopy technique to determine arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis mycelium.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Xu, Ning; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectral technique for determining arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) mycelium. Three different models were carried out to predict the arginine content. Wavenumber selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the most important wavenumbers and reduce the high dimensionality of the raw spectral data. Only a few wavenumbers were selected by CARS and CARS-SPA as the optimal wavenumbers, respectively. Among the prediction models, CARS-least squares-support vector machine (CARS-LS-SVM) model performed best with the highest values of the coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp(2)=0.8370) and residual predictive deviation (RPD=2.4741), the lowest value of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP=0.0841). Moreover, the number of the input variables was forty-five, which only accounts for 2.04% of that of the full wavenumbers. The results showed that FT-NIR spectral technique has the potential to be an objective and non-destructive method to detect arginine content in fermented C. sinensis mycelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.

  17. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis phytoestrogen on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Wang, Zhen-lin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue

    2014-12-13

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant chemicals belonging to the "phytoestrogen" class. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of isoflavones obtained from Cordyceps sinensis (CSIF) on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. After the rats were treated orally with CSIF, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol and interferonγ (IFN-γ) level were examined. At the same time, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus and the mass of uterus, thymus and body were also examined. The beneficial effects of CSIF on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSIF also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary CSIF can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. The significant estrogenic activity of CSIF demonstrated that CSIF has significant estrogenic effects in OVX rats.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis inhibits airway remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Liu, Tian; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Cao, Liuzao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yahui; Chi, Jingyu; Zou, Minfang; Li, Shuo; Xu, Jiawei; Dong, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensis on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated. C. sinensis treatment significantly ameliorated airway wall thickening, involving collagen deposition, airway wall fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in model rats with COPD. Additionally, C. sinensis administration in rats with COPD reduced inflammatory cell accumulation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I in the COPD group were also markedly decreased by C. sinensis treatment. Furthermore, compared with untreated rats with COPD, C. sinensis reduced the expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2, p-Smad3, TGF-β1 and its receptors, with the concomitant increased expression of Smad7 in the lungs of rats with COPD. These results indicated that treatment with C. sinensis may be a useful approach for COPD therapy. PMID:29456676

  19. Cordyceps sinensis inhibits airway remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Liu, Tian; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Cao, Liuzao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yahui; Chi, Jingyu; Zou, Minfang; Li, Shuo; Xu, Jiawei; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated. C. sinensis treatment significantly ameliorated airway wall thickening, involving collagen deposition, airway wall fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in model rats with COPD. Additionally, C. sinensis administration in rats with COPD reduced inflammatory cell accumulation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I in the COPD group were also markedly decreased by C. sinensis treatment. Furthermore, compared with untreated rats with COPD, C. sinensis reduced the expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2, p-Smad3, TGF-β1 and its receptors, with the concomitant increased expression of Smad7 in the lungs of rats with COPD. These results indicated that treatment with C. sinensis may be a useful approach for COPD therapy.

  20. Therapeutic effect of captopril, pentoxifylline, and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed F; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Abdel Ghaney, Rasha H; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Wistar male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level.

  1. GC-MS Profiling of Volatile Components in Different Fermentation Products of Cordyceps Sinensis Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Li, Yahui; Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuerong; Jiang, Zhihong; Hu, Ping

    2017-10-24

    The fermentation products of Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) mycelia are sustainable substitutes for natural C. sinensis . However, the volatile compositions of the commercial products are still unclear. In this paper, we have developed a simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the profiling of volatile components in five fermentation products. A total of 64, 39, 56, 52, and 44 components were identified in the essential oils of Jinshuibao capsule (JSBC), Bailing capsule (BLC), Zhiling capsule (ZLC), Ningxinbao capsule (NXBC), and Xinganbao capsule (XGBC), respectively. 5,6-Dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (massoia lactone) was first discovered as the dominant component in JSBC volatiles. Fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were also found to be major volatile compositions of the fermentation products. The multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a clear discrimination among the different commercial products as well as the counterfeits. This study may provide further chemical evidences for the quality evaluation of the fermentation products of C. sinensis mycelia.

  2. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-α, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFRβ is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effectiveness of cultured Cordyceps sinensis combined with glucocorticosteroid on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Huijuan; Li, Shiyue; Lin, Yunen; Liu, Rong; Gu, Yingying; Liao, Dongjiang

    2011-08-01

    To study the treatment effects of cultured Cordyceps sinensis combined with glucocorticosteroid on experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats induced by bleomycin. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control group, model group, cultured C. sinensis groups, prednisone group, cultured C. sinensis combined with prednisone group. On experimental day 0, the rats were respectively intratracheally instilled with bleomycin, and rats in the control group and model group with the same volume of normal saline. One day after the injection, cultured C. sinensis and glucocorticosteroid was respectively given to rats daily by gastric gavage, while the same volume of normal saline was given to those in the control group and model group. On 28th d, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Histological changes of the lungs were evaluated by HE stain, Masson's trichrome stain. Collagen content of the lung tissue was assessed by hydroxyprolin concentration. Lung expression of CTGF protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The level of TGF-beta1 protein was measured by ELISA. Compared to model group, pulmonary fibrosis were alleviated in cultured C. sinensis and prednisone group, and CTGF expression, Hydroxyproline concentrations and protein TGF-beta1 were decreased. The combination effect of C. sinensis and prednisone group is augmented compared with using C. sinensis or prednisone group alone. The cultured C. sinensis and prednisone alleviates pulmonary fibrosis, and the combination use of both drugs has synergia effects in anti-fibrous degeneration.

  4. A comparative proteomic characterization and nutritional assessment of naturally- and artificially-cultivated Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ping; Alolga, Raphael N; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yin, Xiaojian

    2018-06-15

    Cordyceps sinensis has gained increasing attention due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Herein, we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to explore the proteome differences between naturally- and artificially-cultivated C. sinensis. A total of 22,829 peptides with confidence ≥95%, corresponding to 2541 protein groups were identified from the caterpillar bodies/stromata of 12 naturally- and artificially-cultivated samples of C. sinensis. Among them, 165 proteins showed significant differences between the samples of natural and artificial cultivation. These proteins were mainly involved in energy production/conversion, amino acid transport/metabolism, and transcription regulation. The proteomic results were confirmed by the identification of 4 significantly changed metabolites, thus, lysine, threonine, serine, and arginine via untargeted metabolomics. The change tendencies of these metabolites were partly in accordance with changes in abundance of the proteins, which was upstream of their synthetic pathways. In addition, the nutritional value in terms of the levels of nucleosides, nucleotides, and adenosine between the artificially- and naturally-cultivated samples was virtually same. These proteomic data will be useful for understanding the medicinal value of C. sinensis and serve as reference for its artificial cultivation. C. sinensis is a precious and valued medicinal product, the current basic proteome dataset would provide useful information to understand its development/infection processes as well as help to artificially cultivate it. This work would also provide basic proteome profile for further study of C. sinensis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic potential of Cordyceps sinensis metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jang, Ka-Hee; Im, Seon-Young; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Farooq, Muhammad; Farhoudi, Rozbeh; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the antioxidant activities, biochemical properties and biological activities of one of the entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps sinensis. Analysis of fungal metabolites indicated that the most abundant free sugar was glucose; the highest component of organic acids was citric acid from 10-day culture medium and the glutamate was the predominant amino acid observed from 3-day culture medium. Maximum total polyphenols and flavonoids were detected in the 15-day culture medium. For cytotoxicity test, three cancer cell lines, HepG2 (liver), MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (lung) were used. The IC50 values of the highest toxicity of HepG2 cell lines were observed from 10-day cultured medium, whereas the highest toxicity of MCF-7 and A549 was observed on 5-day cultured medium. This is the first study reporting on the strong antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of C. sinensis. Culture medium of C. sinensis may thus be used as an effective antioxidant and anticancer treatment of natural origin.

  6. Chain conformation and immunomodulatory activity of a hyperbranched polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Guan, Jia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-09-22

    A polysaccharide, named as cordysinan, extracted from natural Cordyceps sinensis, was identified as a hyperbranched heteropolysaccharide from the results of FT-IR, GC-MS, and carbohydrate analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis, as well as the degree of branching of cordysinan was 43.3%. The solution properties of cordysinan were investigated by using size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and triple detector array, respectively. The molecular weights, the radius of gyration and the intrinsic viscosity of cordysinan were determined as 22.45±0.26 kDa and 22.37 kDa, 15.4±2.4 nm and 1.41 mL/g, respectively. By applying the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν and α) values of g1/2=kMwv and [η]=kMwα were calculated as 0.28 and 0.42, respectively, which firstly revealed that cordysinan existed as a globular shape in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the results showed that cordysinan could obviously stimulate macrophages functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main nucleosides of cultivated and wild Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zan, Ke; Huang, Li-Li; Guo, Li-Nong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia

    2017-10-01

    This study is to establish the HPLC specific chromatogram and determine four main nucleosides of wild and cultivated Cordyceps sinensis. Uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine were selected as reference substance. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of water(A)-acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL•min⁻¹ (0-5 min,0% B;5-15 min,0%-10% B, 15-30 min,10%-20% B, 30-33 min, 20%-50% B, 33-35 min, 50%-0% B, 35-40 min, 0% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC specific chromatogram of wild and cultivated C. sinensis was established and four main nucleosides were simultaneously determined by the above method. Specific chromatograms and contents of four main nucleosides showed no significant differences between cultivated and wild C. sinensis. These results can provide scientific evidences for further development and utilization of cultivated C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19948751

  10. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  11. Metabolic Profiles and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cordyceps bassiana Fruiting Bodies According to Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana. PMID:24058459

  12. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis.

  13. Coming home from prison: Adapting military resilience training to enhance successful community reintegration for justice-involved Iraq-Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Shoba; Rosenthal, Joel; Smee, Daniel E; Wilson, Keith; McGuire, Jim

    2018-05-01

    We propose a veteran-centric justice model of resilience training developed by the military for assisting service members coming home from war and modify it to assist Iraq/Afghanistan veterans coming home from prison. Incarceration has been identified as a stress aftereffect of the prolonged Iraq and Afghanistan combat deployments. Notably, the rate of Iraq and Afghanistan-era incarcerated veterans increased from 4% to 13% between 2004 and 2012 for all incarcerated veterans. Successful reentry to the community from prison incarceration is difficult, with rearrest and reincarceration a frequent occurrence. Moreover, combat stress conditions may weaken the justice-involved Iraq/Afghanistan's veteran's ability to face challenges posed by the return home from prison. As in the war zone, the return home from prison may be idealized with unrealistic expectations and/or goals, thus setting up the returning veteran for disappointment, anger, deepening of alienation and disconnection from larger civilian society, and the risk of return to maladaptive mechanisms for coping. Resilience training can be provided in psychoeducational venues prior to prison release and with follow-up postrelease. Resilience building offers promise as an intervention to enhance the justice-involved veteran's successful community reentry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

    2013-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR)-I, TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression.

  15. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    The water supply may be disrupted or poluted . ( 4) Hospital facilities and medical supplies may be extremely scarce. Dead may be found unburied and...insurance unit may supervise all insurance companies, or an income tax unit may audit internal revenue offices. (2) Other military government units carry

  16. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article…

  17. Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janet L. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Forging Partnerships into the Twenty-First Century" (Brown); "Uncle Sam Wants You to Go to School!" (Perez); "Maintaining Educational Access" (Kelly); "College on Military Bases" (Anderson); "Air Force Members Set High Goals for Continuing Education" (Hoban); "Post-Secondary…

  18. Production and in vivo antioxidant activity of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia by Cordyceps sinensis SU-01.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Hao, Long; Ma, Hua; Tian, Chengye; Li, Tong; Sun, Xinyi; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

    2014-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a traditionally edible and medicinal fungus in China, cannot be artificially solid-cultured. Zinc (Zn), germanium (Ge), and selenium (Se) are the essential trace elements for human body. In this work, C. sinensis SU-01 was cultivated in liquid medium simultaneously containing Zn, Ge, and Se. The bioactive ingredients and in vivo antioxidant activities of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia (ZGSM) of C. sinensis SU-01 were investigated. Under the determined conditions, the Zn, Ge, and Se contents of ZGSM were 2543.16 ± 158.92, 1873.85 ± 81.82, and 1260.16 ± 107.12 μg/g, respectively. The optimal concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Se had a positive effect on biosynthesis of protein, polysaccharide, cordycepic acid, and amino acids. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice blood were 3.72 ± 0.15 and 28.74 ± 2.53 % higher than that of control, respectively, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was 41.01 ± 3.66 % lower than that of control.

  19. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work.

  20. Cordyceps sinensis extract suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-an; Yang, Jun; Huang, Ji; Cui, Xiang-jun; Chen, Shi-xiong; Den, Hong-yan; Xiang, Guang-ming

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herb Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) extract on hypoxia-induced proliferation and the underlying mechanisms involved. This prospective study was carried out at the Central Laboratory of Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang, China from March 2008 to April 2010. The C. sinensis was extracted from the Chinese herb C. sinensis using aqueous alcohol extraction techniques. Forty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycles were analyzed using FACSort flow cytometric analysis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-jun, and c-fos in rat PASMCs was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found an increased proliferation of PASMCs and increased expression of transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos in PASMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions. The C. sinensis extract significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, C. sinensis extract also significantly inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-jun, and c-fos in these PASMCs. Our results indicated that C. sinensis extract inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat PASMCs, probably by suppressing the expression of PCNA, c-fos, c-jun, and decreasing the percentage of cells in synthesis phase, second gap phase, and mitotic phase in cell cycle (S+G2/M) phase. Our results therefore, provided novel evidence that C. sinensis extract may be used as a therapeutic reagent in the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  2. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antagonistic interaction between cordyceps sinensis and exercise on protection in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Herb supplements are widely used by Asian athletes; however, there are no studies evaluated the co-effects of exercise and herb supplements on hepatic failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure was used to examine whether there are synergistic or antagonistic effects of exercise and Cordyceps sinensis (CS). Mice were randomly divided into eight groups: control, swimming exercise for four weeks, D-GalN/LPS challenge, swimming exercise plus D-GalN/LPS, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreated for four weeks plus D-GalN/LPS, and swimming exercise combined with 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment plus D-GalN/LPS. Either exercise or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment alone significantly decreased D-GalN/LPS-induced TNF-α, AST, NO, apoptotic-related proteins, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Exercise or 40 mg/kg CS alone increased the IL-10 and D-GalN/LPS-suppressed Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level. However, no protective or worse effect was observed in the mice treated with exercise preconditioning combined 40 mg/kg CS compared to those receive exercise alone or CS alone. TNF-α, AST, NO level, caspase-3 activity, and hepatocytes apoptosis were not significantly different in the exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS compared to mice challenged with D-GalN/LPS. The IL-10 level was significantly decreased after D-GalN/LPS stimulation in the mice received exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS, indicating the combination strongly reduced the anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, preconditioning exercise or CS pretreatment alone can protect mice from septic liver damage, but in contrast, the combination of exercise and CS does not produce any benefit. The antagonistic interactions between exercise and CS imply taking CS is not recommended for people who undertake regular exercise.

  4. The Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells from Streptozotocin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Cao, Diyong; Liu, Hua; Liu, Xinghai; Mai, Wenli; Lan, Haitao; Huo, Wen; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Our previous work found that Cordyceps sinensis (CS) improves the activity and secretory function of pancreatic islet beta cells. The objective was to observe a further possible role of CS in the protection of insulin-secreting cells. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was developed with streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-energy fat diet (HFD). CS was administered in the successful model of rats with type 2 diabetes. After 4 weeks, the biochemistry index of blood samples was measured, and pathologic observation was performed by immunohistochemistry. In the rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a HFD and STZ, the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were elevated, and the insulin sensitivity index was decreased. Pathologic examination found an increased number of apoptotic cells, an elevated protein expression of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and an increased c-Jun level by means of JNK phosphorylation, responsive to the endoplasmic reticulum stress of islet beta cells. With treatment by CS for 4 weeks, the elevated levels of both fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin in the rats with type 2 diabetes were significantly lower, and the decreased insulin sensitivity index was reversed. Compared to the control rats with type 2 diabetes, CS application significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and decreased protein expression of both CHOP and c-Jun. The herbal compound CS could protect pancreatic beta cells from the pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HFD-STZ. This suggests an alternative approach to treating type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on renal function of patients with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Xiangwei; Zhang, Yuanning; Ye, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (Bailing capsule, fermented agent of C. sinensis) on renal function of patients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). A total of 231 CAN patients who underwent transplantation between 2005 and 2008 and experienced chronic graft dysfunction were randomly divided into 2 groups. Patients in group A (n = 122) were treated with immunosuppressive agents and C. sinensis (2.0 g/day, 3 times a day), while patients in group B (n = 109) were treated with traditional immunosuppressive drugs. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance rate (C(Cr)) and urinary protein in 24 h (24-hour Upro) of all patients were measured before and after treatment. Urinary concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG) were detected at the same time. After 6-month treatment with C. sinensis, SCr and C(Cr) in group A were significantly improved (p < 0.05), while there was no significant improvement observed for group B. There was no significant change in BUN in groups A and B (p > 0.05). 24-hour Upro, RBP and β(2)-MG were lower in group A after treatment with C. sinensis (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and urinary TGF-β(1) in group A was significantly lower than the values before C. sinensis treatment (p < 0.05), but showed no change in patients of group B. In group A, renal function had improved in 72 cases, stabilized in 38 cases, and worsened in 12 cases. In group B, renal function had improved in 14 cases, stabilized in 50 cases, and worsened in 45 cases (p < 0.05). C. sinensis therapy is advantageous in improving renal function of CAN patients by retarding CAN progression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. HPLC-ICP-MS speciation analysis and risk assessment of arsenic in Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tian-Tian; Li, Yao-Lei; Jin, Hong-Yu; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ya-Dan; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis , one of the most valued traditional herbal medicines in China, contains high amount of arsenic. Considering the adverse health effects of arsenic, this is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze arsenic speciation in C. sinensis , and to measure the associated human health risks. We used microwave extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine and analyze the arsenic content in C. sinensis , and measured the associated human health risks according to the hazard index (HI), lifetime cancer risk (CR), and target hazard quotient (THQ). The main arsenic speciation in C. sinensis were not the four organic arsenic compounds, including dimethyl arsenic, monomethyl arsenic, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, but comprised inorganic arsenic and other unknown risk arsenic compounds. HI scores indicated that the risk of C. sinensis was acceptable. CR results suggested that the cancer risk was greater than the acceptable lifetime risk of 10 -5 , even at low exposure levels. THQ results indicated that at the exposure level < 2.0 months/year, the arsenic was not likely to harm human health during a lifetime; however, if the exposure rate was > 3.0 months/year, the systemic effects of the arsenic in C. sinensis was of great concern. The arsenic in C. sinensis might not be free of risks. The suggested C. sinensis consumption rate of 2.0 months/year provided important insights into the ways by which to minimize potential health risks. Our study not only played the role of "cast a brick to attract jade" by which to analyze arsenic speciation in C. sinensis but also offered a promising strategy of risk assessment for harmful residues in traditional herbal medicines.

  7. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  8. Relationship Education for Military Couples: Recommendations for Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Bakhurst, Melissa G; Loew, Benjamin; McGuire, Annabel C L; Halford, W Kim; Markman, Howard J

    2017-06-01

    Military couples have a number of distinctive strengths and challenges that are likely to influence their relationship adjustment. Military couples' strengths include stable employment, financial security, and subsidized health and counseling services. At the same time, military couples often experience long periods of separation and associated difficulties with emotional disconnect, trauma symptoms, and reintegrating the family. This paper describes best practice recommendations for working with military couples, including: addressing the distinctive challenges of the military lifestyle, ensuring program delivery is seen as relevant by military couples, and providing relationship education in formats that enhance the accessibility of programs. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. Military Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    whenever necessary, there is round-the-clock air patrolling by heavy barbers , carrying nu- clear bombs, along the northern coasts of Greenland, Canada...aa well as highly developed machine building industries. In them Is con- centrated 75 percent o* all coal, SO percent of the oil , about 70 percent...the import of many types of alloy metals and code oil from the de- 120 Military Strategy veloping countries in the Near East, Far East, Africa, and

  10. Military Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    United States Army War College Department of Command, Leadership, and Management Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA Military Preparednessa Dr...The question seems a simple one at the national level, but in defense management practice it is actually two questions rolled into one, and the...documents, readiness management processes and systems assess those capabilities and aid in remedial action to correct deficiencies. The second question is

  11. Reinventing Military Retirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    private sector retirement plan principles to the military retirement system. The increasing cost and generosity of military retirement coupled with political pressures to reduce federal spending have focused attention on reforming the military retirement system. Previous studies of the military retirement system are addressed and critiqued. Private retirement options are reviewed and a 401(k) plan is proposed to replace the current military retirement system. The new retirement system would eventually reduce federal outlays for military retirement by 66 percent while

  12. Sino-American Military Relations: Determinants of Policy and Corresponding Military Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    military medicine, administration, and a host of non -combat related areas10 Similar priorities and methods can be seen in official documents such as the...with the national foreign policy, the PLA conducts military cooperation that is non -aligned, non -confrontational and not directed against any third...benefit. It takes part in bilateral or multilateral joint military exercises in non -traditional security fields so as to enhance the joint

  13. Dental epidemiology of military operations.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C; King, J E

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we review studies that have been conducted on the epidemiology of oral, dental, and maxillofacial conditions during military deployments. The limitations of our current knowledge base are discussed, as is a proposed research effort to enhance the responsiveness of dental support in theaters of operation.

  14. Military helicopter cockpit modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Andrew S.

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes some of the initiatives being progressed by Smiths Aerospace to enhance the operational effectiveness of military helicopters, with particular emphasis on the GWHL Lynx and EH Industries EH101 programs. The areas discussed include engine instrumentation, flight instrumentation and the mission system displays. Various Crew Stations are described which provide a suite of AMLCD displays which: -Integrate information from the aircraft engine, electrical power and hydraulic systems onto 5ATI displays -Integrate primary flight, navigation and mission system sensor information onto large area (61/4' square or 6' by 8') displays -Provide standby attitude and air data information in the event of major system failure on 3ATI displays.

  15. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm). Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS) were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes) (P<0.01) after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01). At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total antioxidant capacity in heart tissue was not

  16. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model

  17. [Proapoptotic effect of angiotensin II on renal tubular epithelial cells and protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Tu, Shan; Zhou, Qiaoling; Tang, Rong; Tang, Tianfeng; Hu, Sai; Ao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on the apoptosis of cultured NRK-52E induced by angiotension II (AngII). NRK-52E cells were incubated with C. sinensis (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L) and 10(-8) mol/ L AngII for 24, 48, 72 h. The optimal concentration of C. sinensis was selected. Either NRK-52E cells were incubated with different doses of AngII (0, 10(-12), 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) mol/L) for 24 h, or with 10(-8) mol/L AngII for 24, 48, and 72 h, to observe the effect of AngII on the apoptosis of NRK- 52E cells. The optimal concentration and time of AngII were selected. In another experiment cells were divided into 5 groups: a control, AngII (10(-8) mol/L), AngII (10(-8) mol/L)+ C. sinensis (40 mg/ L), Ang II (10(-8) mol/L)+ fosinopril (10(-5) mmol/L), and Ang II (10(-8) mol/L)+ fosinopril (10(-5) mol/ L)+C. sinensis (40 mg/L). MTT assay was used to test the changes in the proliferation of NRK-52E cultured with different concentration of C. sinensis for 24, 48, 72 h. The Annecxin V-FITC and PI stainings were applied to detect the apoptosis rate induced by AngII by flow cytometer (FCM) and to determine the eddects of C. sinensis. The activity of caspase-3 was assayed by spectrophotometry. Certain concentrations of C. sinensis (10-40 mg/L) promoted the proliferation of NRK- 52E cells inhibited by AngII(P<0.05). AngII induced the apoptosis of NRK-52E in a dose and timedependent manner, accompanied with increased activity of caspase-3 (P<0.05). C. sinensis partially suppressed the apoptosis of NRK-52E induced by AngII, and declined the activity of caspase-3 (P<0.05). No significant difference was shown as between the fosinopril group and the fosinopril+C. sinensis group (P>0.05). C. sinensis can suppress the apoptosis of NRK-52E by AngII, and the protective effect of C. sinensis may be inhibiting the activation of caspase-3 during the AngII-induced apoptosis of NRK-52E.

  18. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Methods Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. Results The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm). Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS) were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes) (P<0.01) after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01). At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total antioxidant capacity

  19. Treatment with Cordyceps sinensis enriches Treg population in peripheral lymph nodes and delays type I diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fen; Zhu, Qing-Hua; He, Yu-Gong

    2013-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a widely used Chinese traditional herb with a long history. In China C. sinensis is usually applied in the treatment of respiratory diseases, however, the efficacy of C. sinensis still lacks experimental evidence. Type I diabetes is a multi-factor related autoimmune disease caused by cellular-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in the islets in human. We tested C. sinensis for its ability to work as an immune modulator in NOD mice, an animal model which mimicks the progression of type I diabetes in humans and found that treatment with C. sinensis extract could slow down disease development in NOD mice. Further research also suggested that treatment with C. sinensis extract increased the frequency of Treg cells and IFN-gama producing Th1 cells in peripheral lymph nodes. However, C. sinensis has no effect on the natural Treg cell differentiation in thymus.

  20. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000.

  1. Novel endophytic lineages of Tolypocladium provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of Cordyceps-like fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a group of unknown endophytic fungal isolates from the living sapwood of wild and planted Hevea (rubber tree) populations. Three novel lineages of Tolypocladium are described based on molecular and morphological data. Findings from this study open a window for novel hypotheses regarding the ecology and role of endophytes within plant communities as well as trait evolution and potential forces driving diversification of Cordyceps-like fungi. This study stresses the importance of integrating asexual and sexual fungal states for a more complete understanding of the natural history of this diverse group. In addition, it highlights the study of fungi in the sapwood of tropical trees as habitat for the discovery of novel fungal lineages and substrate associations. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Volunteerism Among Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Project on Volunteerism Among Military Families . Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Nonprofit Management Concentration in the Department of...Marywood UNIVERSITY MF| Research Report 98-1 Volunteerism Among Military Families Sherry J. Fontaine Mark A. Brennan C. Estelle Campenni...Kipling C. Lavo July 1998 MILITARY FAMILY INSTITUTE MARYWOOD UNIVERSITY, SCRANTON, PA Itfi r>o Military Family Institute MARYWOOD UNIVERSITY a

  3. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. SUMMARY The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines PMID:28250651

  4. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used : SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis : CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  5. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  6. Simultaneous determination of nucleosides and their bases in Cordyceps sinensis and its substitutes by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Li, Na; Wang, Min; Wang, Yue; Du, Lin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2013-07-01

    Nine nucleosides and nucleobases, including uracil, adenine, thymine, uridine, adenosine, thymidine, cytidine, guanosine, and cordycepin in natural Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps mycelia, and Cordyceps fruiting bodies were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and determined by HPLC. The experimental conditions for the MSPD extraction were optimized. Florisil was used as dispersant, petroleum ether as washing solvent, and methanol as elution solvent. The Florisil-to-sample ratio was selected to be 4:1 and no additional clean-up sorbent was needed. The calibration curves had good linear relationships (r > 0.9997). The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 12~79 and 41~265 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precision were lower than 8.3%. The recoveries were between 61.5 and 93.2%. The present method consumed less sample compared with ultrasonic extraction and heating reflux extraction (HRE). The extraction yields obtained by using the present method are much higher than those obtained by UE and comparable to those obtained by HRE. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The response of an expert panel to Nutritional armor for the warfighter: can omega-3 fatty acids enhance stress resilience, wellness, and military performance?

    PubMed

    Coulter, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Recommendations of an Expert Panel on 5 central questions addressed during the workshop. The Panel reviewed available scientific literature, workshop presentations, and comments from workshop guests. The Panel unanimously agreed that a military Daily Recommended Intake for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) should be established within the context of lowering current intakes of omega-6 FAs. The Panelists also felt that there was sufficient evidence to support increasing omega-3 intake to receive cardiovascular, immunological, and surgical benefits. In addition, research indicates that preloading with omega-3 FAs before combat exposure may be beneficial. Evidence for reduction of depressive symptoms and suicide prevention was felt to be strong. Insufficient data were available to evaluate post-traumatic stress disorder and impulsive aggression. Benefits for traumatic brain injury were promising. Adverse side effects were deemed negligible. The Panel concluded that based on studies analyzing omega-3 and omega-6 FA balance, it would be unethical to not attempt elevating the omega-3 status among U.S. military personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. A brief introduction to the military workplace culture.

    PubMed

    Redmond, S A; Wilcox, S L; Campbell, S; Kim, A; Finney, K; Barr, K; Hassan, A M

    2015-01-01

    Military culture and workplace are areas of interest for researchers across disciplines. However, few publications on military culture exist. The purpose of this article is to introduce general concepts regarding the structure and culture of the United States Military and discuss how this creates challenges for reintegrating into the civilian world. Topics that will be covered in this article include an overview of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), socialization to military culture, the unique features of the military as a workplace, the cultural experiences of military personnel reintegrating back into the community, and the challenges faced by military members and their spouses. The provided information on military culture will expand military cultural competency so that civilian employers can enhance their ability to create supportive workplaces for veterans and military spouses during times of transition and reintegration. The unique characteristics of the military culture should be understood by those who work with or plan to work with military populations.

  9. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  10. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Action Volunteer Mark Your Calendar Donate Twitter Facebook Instagram Donate Appreciating Military Families: Meet the Wilsons This ... 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better ...

  11. Extracts of Cordyceps sinensis inhibit breast cancer cell metastasis via down-regulation of metastasis-related cytokines expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Gu, Baohua; Xiao, Ying; Chen, Rongsheng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xiaomin; Cao, Li

    2018-03-25

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used as adjuvant treatments for cancer and it has been also demonstrated to be effective in cancer patients. The objective of the present study is to investigate the anti-metastasis effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) in breast cancer and the potential mechanisms. The cytotoxicity of WECS on 4T1 breast cancer cells was evaluated in vitro using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. The in vivo anti-metastatic activity of intraperitoneally administered WECS and its effect on animal survival were measured in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastasis effect of WECS, the expression of matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) in serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, a protein array was used to examine the cytokine expression profiles in lung homogenates. Treatment with WECS (0.10-0.40mg/ml) significantly inhibited 4T1 cell viability in vitro. In animal studies, 50mg/kg WECS significantly reduced the number of metastatic lung nodules and the weight of lung, without affecting body weight of mice. Furthermore, WECS increased the survival rate of 4T1 tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner, and at high dose, WECS (50mg/kg) significantly increased the life span of the mice compared to untreated control group. The expression level of MMP-9 in serum was decreased about 50% in 50mg/kg WECS treated group compared to control group. The results of protein array showed that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17), MMP-9, osteopontin (OPN), interleukin-33 (IL-33), CC chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12) and CC chemokine ligand 6 (CCL6) in the lungs of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was increased more than two fold compared with normal mice. Among them, the expression of CCL17, MMP-9, OPN, IL-33 was significantly reduced by treatment of 50mg/kg WECS. Our results demonstrated that WECS has potent anti

  12. Cordyceps sinensis Oral Liquid Inhibits Damage Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ruan, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jia-Chun; Chu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It has been demonstrated to have a variety of biological activities, and an extract of it has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia of the middle cerebral artery in rats. It could be explored as an agent for treatment of ischemic stroke, and the mechanisms need to be studied further. The study intended to investigate the protective effects of the Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) against damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells. DESIGN • The research team designed an in vitro study. The study occurred at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Shanghai, China. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to CSOL in doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL, creating 5 intervention groups. The OGD condition was induced by transfer of the cells from high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in a box gassed with air containing 5% CO2 to glucose-free DMEM in a box gassed with 94% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. Like the cells for the interventions groups, the cells for a model group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM and were transferred to the OGD, but they received no dose of COSL. Cells in a control group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM, were not transferred to the OGD condition, and did not receive any dose of COSL. Cell viability was assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was observed by western blot. After exposure to OGD, the cell viability of cells treated with 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL of CSOL increased in a dose-effect relationship. Compared with the cells in the model group, the treatment of CSOL at all the experimental concentrations significantly inhibited both the cell apoptosis

  13. Is Military Science Scientific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    application of military theory, as expressed through strategy, doctrine, and planning, was becoming more of a science and less of an art . This perspective...noting that “no empirical science , consequently also no theory of the art of war, can always cor- roborate its truths by historical proof.”26...84 Commentary / Is Military Science “Scientific”? JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Is Military Science “Scientific”? By Glenn Voelz T he term military

  14. Assassination: A Military View.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Assassination: A Military View Individual Essay S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTI4OR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMGER(e) COL Charles K. Eden S...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(hen Data Entered) USAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER ASSASSINATION: A MILITARY VILW An Individual Essay hceess ’. :’r by...Military View FORMAT: Individual Essay DATE: 23 March 1987 PAGES: 17 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified -Assassination is a topic with which most Americans

  15. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    The Soviet build-up is made possible by a national policy that has con - sistently made military materiel production its highest economic priority...classes of consumable supplies and war reserve equipment available in the USSR, as well as transport, repair and con - struction units. It includes a...the Soviet military establishment r and to the continuing growth and moderniza-tion of Soviet military power. The CPSU con .-..•_"" trols military

  16. Military tropical medicine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M S; Ellis, C J

    2009-03-01

    Tropical diseases remain a significant threat to deployed military personnel as demonstrated by recent outbreaks amongst troops in Sierra Leone, Iraq and Afghanistan. Five cases are presented from military deployments in tropical or sub-tropical areas, which illustrate important diseases and diagnostic principles for military physicians.

  17. Deployment of military mothers: supportive and nonsupportive military programs, processes, and policies.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Petra; Turner, Annette; Agazio, Janice; Throop, Meryia; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Hillier, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Military mothers and their children cope with unique issues when mothers are deployed. In this article, we present mothers' perspectives on how military resources affected them, their children, and their caregivers during deployment. Mothers described beneficial features of military programs such as family readiness groups and behavioral health care, processes such as unit support, and policies on length and timing of deployments. Aspects that were not supportive included inflexibility in family care plans, using personal leave time and funds for transporting children, denial of release to resolve caretaker issues, and limited time for reintegration. We offer recommendations for enhanced support to these families that the military could provide. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Nan; Yan, Bing-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Di; Qiu, Ye; Guo, Yun-Long; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-10-23

    Compound K (CK), a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO₄ without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C-50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1→Rd→F2→CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  19. Rheological behaviors of an exopolysaccharide from fermentation medium of a Cordyceps sinensis fungus (Cs-HK1).

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengyuan; Huang, Qilin; Wu, Jianyong

    2014-12-19

    The rheological behaviors of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Cordyceps sinensis fungus fermentation were investigated. The intrinsic viscosity of 1986 ± 55 mL/g indicated an extended and rigid chain for EPS. Shear-thinning behavior was observed and became apparent with increasing concentration. According to cross model, two critical transition concentrations (c(*) and c(**)) from dilute solution to semidilute and then to concentrated domain were 0.45 and 6.14 mg/mL. Flow activation energy was calculated by Arrhenius equation and decreased with increasing concentration, indicating a lower sensitivity to temperature. From dynamic frequency sweep, EPS system was classified to three regions including dilution solution (1.25mg/mL), entanglement network (3.75 and 5.00 mg/mL) and weak gel (≥ 7.50 mg/mL). Notably, the increase in η(*) at high frequencies was attributed to a large flow resistance depended on the rigid chain of EPS. Based on Winter-Chambon criterion, EPS formed gel at 2.6 mg/mL (cgel) and showed typical weak gel from temperature ramp and repetitive strain sweep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools. In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth–associated transcription factors. Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27531890

  1. [Climate change impacts on yield of Cordyceps sinensis and research on yield prediction model of C. sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Dong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Ma, Xing-Tian; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Le, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Mei-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a Chinese unique precious herbal material, its genuine producing areas covering Naqu, Changdu in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Yushu in Qinghai province and other regions. In recent 10 years, C. sinensis resources is decreasing as a result of the blindly and excessively perennial dug. How to rationally protect, develop and utilize of the valuable resources of C. sinensis has been referred to an important field of research on C. sinensis. The ecological environment and climate change trend of Qinghai Tibet plateau happens prior to other regions, which means that the distribution and evolution of C. sinensis are more obvious and intense than those of the other populations. Based on RS (remote sensing)/GIS(geographic information system) technology, this paper utilized the relationship between the snowline elevation, the average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours in harvest period (April and may) of C. sinensis and the actual production of C. sinensis to establish a weighted geometric mean model. The model's prediction accuracy can reach 82.16% at least in forecasting C. sinensis year yield in Naqu area in every early June. This study can provide basic datum and information for supporting the C. sinensis industry healthful, sustainable development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Fast Simultaneous Determination of 13 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shi-Yu; Han, Han; Wang, Bing; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Zhang, Tong; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-04

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the fast simultaneous determination of 13 nucleosides and nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) with 2-chloroadenosine as internal standard was developed and validated. Samples were ultrasonically extracted in an ice bath thrice, and the optimum analyte separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(TM) HSS C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution. All targeted analytes were separated in 5.5 min. Furthermore, all calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9970) within the test ranges, and the limits of quantitation and detection of the 13 analytes were less than 150 and 75 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precisions were <6.23%. Recoveries of the quantified analytes ranged within 85.3%-117.3%, with RSD < 6.18%. The developed UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine nucleosides and nucleobases in 11 batches of C. sinensis samples from different regions in China. The range for the total content in the analyzed samples was 1329-2057 µg/g.

  3. [Study on distribution of five heavy metal elements in different parts of Cordyceps sinensis by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Quan; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The contents of five heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Hg) in 17 batches of Cordyceps sinensis were determined by microwave digestion-ICP-MS, and their distribution in C. sinensis were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg in all batches were in accordance with the international standards of Chinese Medicine-Chinese Herbal Medicine Heavy Metal Limit, with their contents in the stroma higher than that in the caterpillar body, and the excess rate of As, which mainly concentrated in the caterpillar body part of C. sinensis, was 88.24%, as the content of As in the caterpillar body was 7 to 12 fold of that in the stroma. In this study, the distribution of five heavy metals in C. sinensis was clarified, and the existing problems of arsenic limit of heavy metal in C. sinensis were analyzed, and some suggestions were put forward. It is hoped that the reference standard can be provided for the limited standard of arsenic in C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  5. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated watermore » (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.« less

  6. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-09-13

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools.In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth-associated transcription factors.Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma.

  7. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-05

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band.

  10. Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Ji ARI Research Note 91-10 Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty N Taxonomy IFrederick A. Muckler, Sally Seven, and...11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Military intelligence Evaluation taxonomy MOS restructuring

  11. Refinement and Validation of a Military Emotional Intelligence Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    Neuroimaging 2006 Reviewer, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2006 Reviewer, Psychopharmacology 2006 Reviewer, Developmental Science 2006 Reviewer...Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) Contact: Wolf E. Mehling, MD Osher Center for Integrative Medicine...for enhancing military performance and sustaining psychological health during stressful military operations/activities/deployments Approach We have

  12. β-Alanine supplementation and military performance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Moran, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. β-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle growth, strength and power. However, there is limited research examining the efficacy of β-alanine in soldiers conducting operationally relevant tasks. The gains brought about by β-alanine use by selected competitive athletes appears to be relevant also for certain physiological demands common to military personnel during part of their training program. Medical and health personnel within the military are expected to extrapolate and implement relevant knowledge and doctrine from research performed on other population groups. The evidence supporting the use of β-alanine in competitive and recreational athletic populations suggests that similar benefits would also be observed among tactical athletes. However, recent studies in military personnel have provided direct evidence supporting the use of β-alanine supplementation for enhancing combat-specific performance. This appears to be most relevant for high-intensity activities lasting 60-300 s. Further, limited evidence has recently been presented suggesting that β-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive function and promote resiliency during highly stressful situations.

  13. About Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 21K ...

  14. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    RD-fi49 439 MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS (U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE i/i 7" BARRACKS PA J D MEDLIN V MAY 84UNCLASSIFIED F/6 5/9 NL E=hhhhIhh SENSEhhhhh...appropriate military service or government agency. MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS BY COLONEL JACK D. MEDLIN MEDICAL SERVICE cl- " JAN25 C r- Y4 . S17 MY...PERIOD COVERED Military Retirement Benefits S 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER() Colonel Jack D. Medlin

  15. Coordinating an interdisciplinary disease management conference on a military installation: collaboration between military and civilian communities, lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fleming, Glenda; Knapp, Casey A

    2009-08-01

    The needs of individuals with chronic diseases or disabilities are similar whether within military or civilian communities. With finite resources and the continuing global war on terrorism, military treatment facilities (MTFs) may find collaborative, multidisciplinary, continuing education efforts with community agencies invaluable. Collaborative efforts that bring military and civilian communities together can result in innovative programs that offer cost-effective high-quality information to enhance the knowledge and skill level of military families, providers, and other professionals who provide services and care for military eligible beneficiaries. This article addresses the development and implementation of two major multidisciplinary disease management conferences at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (NMCP), Virginia. It provides an overview of lessons learned in the areas of preplanning, team building, program development, implementation, and evaluation. Despite challenges, tremendous benefits may be reaped from efforts to include diverse target populations from military and civilian communities.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Culture Conditions for Production of Biomass, Adenosine, and Cordycepin from Cordyceps sinensis CS1197: Optimization by Desirability Function Method

    PubMed Central

    Ghatnur, Shashidhar M.; Parvatam, Giridhar; Balaraman, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is a traditional Chinese medicine contains potent active metabolites such as nucleosides and polysaccharides. The submerged cultivation technique is studied for the large scale production of CS for biomass and metabolites production. Objective: To optimize culture conditions for large-scale production of CS1197 biomass and metabolites production. Materials and Methods: The CS1197 strain of CS was isolated from dead larvae of natural CS and the authenticity was assured by the presence of two major markers adenosine and cordycepin by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize process parameters culturing temperature, pH, and inoculum volume for the biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin. The experimental results were regressed to a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis for the prediction of biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin production. Multiple responses were optimized based on desirability function method. Results: The desirability function suggested the process conditions temperature 28°C, pH 7 and inoculum volume 10% for optimal production of nutraceuticals in the biomass. The water extracts from dried CS1197 mycelia showed good inhibition for 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid-free radicals. Conclusion: The result suggests that response surface methodology-desirability function coupled approach can successfully optimize the culture conditions for CS1197. SUMMARY Authentication of CS1197 strain by the presence of adenosine and cordycepin and culturing period was determined to be for 14 daysContent of nucleosides in natural CS was found higher than in cultured CS1197 myceliumBox-Behnken design to optimize critical cultural conditions: temperature, pH and inoculum volumeWater extract showed better antioxidant activity proving credible source of natural antioxidants

  18. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yingxin; Liu, Yuxiang; Ruan, Minghua; Feng, Xu; Wang, Jiachun; Chu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process.

  19. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, YINGXIN; LIU, YUXIANG; RUAN, MINGHUA; FENG, XU; WANG, JIACHUN; CHU, ZHIYONG; ZHANG, ZESHENG

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process. PMID:26239097

  20. Inaugural editorial: Military Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Military medicine is one of the most innovative part of human civilization. Along with the rapid development of medicine and advances in military techniques, military medicine has become the focus and intersection of new knowledge and new technologies. Innovation and development within military medicine are always ongoing, with a long and challenging path ahead. The establishment of "Military Medical Research" is expected to be a bounden responsibility in the frontline of Chinese military medicine.

  1. OLED study for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, F.; Chiquard, A.; Faure, S.; Landais, L.; Patry, P.

    2005-07-01

    The presentation deals with some applications of OLED displays in military optronic systems, which are scheduled by SAGEM DS (Defence and Security). SAGEM DS, one of the largest group in the defence and security market, is currently investigating OLED Technologies for military programs. This technology is close from being chosen for optronic equipment such as future infantry night vision goggles, rifle-sight, or, more generally, vision enhancement systems. Most of those applications requires micro-display with an active matrix size below 1". Some others, such as, for instance, ruggedized flat displays do have a need for higher active matrix size (1,5" to 15"). SAGEM DS takes advantages of this flat, high luminance and emissive technology in highly integrated systems. In any case, many requirements have to be fulfilled: ultra-low power consumption, wide viewing angle, good pixel to pixel uniformity, and satisfactory behaviour in extreme environmental conditions.... Accurate measurements have been achieved at SAGEM DS on some micro display OLEDs and will be detailed: luminance (over 2000 cd/m2 achieved), area uniformity and pixel to pixel uniformity, robustness at low and high temperature (-40°C to +60°C), lifetime. These results, which refer to military requirements, provide a valuable feedback representative of the state of the art OLED performances.

  2. Advising Transfer Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

  3. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military Families Resource Center . For additional information see: Center ... like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for America’s Kids . Your support will help us continue to ...

  4. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  5. Developing a military nurse scientist program of research: A military women's health exemplar.

    PubMed

    Trego, Lori Lyn

    Developing a feasible, fundable, and sustainable program of research (POR) is an essential career goal in research. Nurse scientists can lay the foundation for a salient POR as early as during their doctoral studies. The ensuing years of postdoctoral experiences are informative as they expand their research skills and knowledge around their research area of interest. Following graduation from a doctoral research program, novice military nurse scientists (MNS) are placed in positions that are conducive to fostering a POR. Military organizational support and the rich experiences of peers and mentors facilitate early career development of MNS. The purpose of this article is to present a conceptual framework for research career development of the novice MNS. Using an exemplar POR in military women's health, the concepts are operationalized to illustrate how the military environment enhances the development of a successful POR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  7. Effects of low speed wind on the recognition/identification and pass-through communication tasks of auditory situation awareness afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices and tactical communication and protective systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of controlled low-speed wind-noise on the auditory situation awareness performance afforded by military hearing protection/enhancement devices (HPED) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). Recognition/identification and pass-through communications tasks were separately conducted under three wind conditions (0, 5, and 10 mph). Subjects wore two in-ear-type TCAPS, one earmuff-type TCAPS, a Combat Arms Earplug in its 'open' or pass-through setting, and an EB-15LE electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: 'unity' and 'max'. Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten subjects were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz in both ears. Performance on the interaction of communication task-by-device was significantly different only in 0 mph wind speed. The between-device performance differences varied with azimuthal speaker locations. It is evident from this study that stable (non-gusting) wind speeds up to 10 mph did not significantly degrade recognition/identification task performance and pass-through communication performance of the group of HPEDs and TCAPS tested. However, the various devices performed differently as the test sound signal speaker location was varied and it appears that physical as well as electronic features may have contributed to this directional result.

  8. Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    currying domestic favor and in times of low security threat, politicians often will promise cuts in military budgets while simultaneously “pursuing...lighter force was based on the lessons from the invasion of Afghanistan. In that conflict, precision guided weapons and unmanned aerial drones

  9. Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    currying domestic favor and in times of low security threat, politicians often will promise cuts in military budgets while simultaneously “pursuing...lighter force was based on the lessons from the invasion of Afghanistan. In that conflict, precision guided weapons and unmanned aerial drones

  10. Inhibitory mechanisms of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, in platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liao, Jiun-Cheng; Lin, Mei-Jiun; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    CME-1 is a polysaccharide purified from the mycelia of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, its molecular weight was determined to be 27.6 kDa by using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The initiation of arterial thromboses is relevant to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and is believed to involve platelet activation. Our recent study exhibited that CME-1 has potent antiplatelet activity via the activation of adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP ex vivo and in vivo. The aggregometry, and immunoblotting were used in this study. In this study, the mechanisms of CME-1 in platelet activation is further investigated and found that CME-1 inhibited platelet aggregation as well as the ATP-release reaction, relative intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2 and protein kinase C (PKC) stimulated by collagen. CME-1 has no effects on inhibiting either convulxin, an agonist of glycoprotein VI, or aggretin, an agonist of integrin α2β1 stimulated platelet aggregation. Moreover, this compound markedly diminished thrombin and arachidonic acid (AA) induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and Akt. Treatment with SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly diminished the CME-1-mediated increasing of cyclic AMP level and reversed prostaglandin E1- or CME-1-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by thrombin or AA. Furthermore, phosphodiesterase activity of human platelets was not altered by CME-1. The crucial finding of this study is that the antiplatelet activity of CME-1 may initially inhibit the PLCγ2-PKC-p47 cascade, and inhibit PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPK phosphorylation through adenylate cyclase/ cyclic AMP activation, then inhibit intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and, ultimately, inhibit platelet activation. The novel role of CME-1 in

  11. Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

  12. Enhanced case management can be delivered for patients with EVD in Africa: Experience from a UK military Ebola treatment centre in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Dickson, S J; Clay, K A; Adam, M; Ardley, C; Bailey, M S; Burns, D S; Cox, A T; Craig, D G; Espina, M; Ewington, I; Fitchett, G; Grindrod, J; Hinsley, D E; Horne, S; Hutley, E; Johnston, A M; Kao, R L C; Lamb, L E; Lewis, S; Marion, D; Moore, A J; Nicholson-Roberts, T C; Phillips, A; Praught, J; Rees, P S; Schoonbaert, I; Trinick, T; Wilson, D R; Simpson, A J; Wang, D; O'Shea, M K; Fletcher, T E

    2018-04-01

    Limited data exist describing supportive care management, laboratory abnormalities and outcomes in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. We report data which constitute the first description of the provision of enhanced EVD case management protocols in a West African setting. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected by retrospective review of clinical and laboratory records of patients with confirmed EVD admitted between 5 November 2014 and 30 June 2015. A total of 44 EVD patients were admitted (median age 37 years (range 17-63), 32/44 healthcare workers), and excluding those evacuated, the case fatality rate was 49% (95% CI 33%-65%). No pregnant women were admitted. At admission 9/44 had stage 1 disease (fever and constitutional symptoms only), 12/44 had stage 2 disease (presence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting) and 23/44 had stage 3 disease (presence of diarrhoea and/or vomiting with organ failure), with case fatality rates of 11% (95% CI 1%-58%), 27% (95% CI 6%-61%), and 70% (95% CI 47%-87%) respectively (p = 0.009). Haemorrhage occurred in 17/41 (41%) patients. The majority (21/40) of patients had hypokalaemia with hyperkalaemia occurring in 12/40 patients. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 20/40 patients, with 14/20 (70%, 95% CI 46%-88%) dying, compared to 5/20 (25%, 95% CI 9%-49%) dying who did not have AKI (p = 0.01). Ebola virus (EBOV) PCR cycle threshold value at baseline was mean 20.3 (SD 4.3) in fatal cases and 24.8 (SD 5.5) in survivors (p = 0.007). Mean national early warning score (NEWS) at admission was 5.5 (SD 4.4) in fatal cases and 3.0 (SD 1.9) in survivors (p = 0.02). Central venous catheters were placed in 37/41 patients and intravenous fluid administered to 40/41 patients (median duration of 5 days). Faecal management systems were inserted in 21/41 patients, urinary catheters placed in 27/41 and blood component therapy administered to 20/41 patients. EVD is commonly associated life

  13. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  14. Determination of myriocin in natural and cultured Cordyceps cicadae using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiawen; Xu, Hongjuan; Mo, Zhihong; Zhu, Huali; Mao, Xianbing

    2009-07-01

    A simple and sensitive reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method, based on the precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate, was developed for the determination of myriocin. The derivatization reaction was performed in organic solvents of pyridine and tetrahydrofuran at 40 degrees C. Several factors influencing the derivative yield were investigated and optimized. The formed derivative was stable for more than 24 h at room temperature. The detection wavelength was 262 nm. The system offered the following analytical parameters: the limit of detection was 0.045 microg ml(-1), the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9963 and the linear range response was from 2.0 to 500.0 microg ml(-1). The precision of the method was <2.0%. As a preliminary application, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of myriocin in natural and cultured Cordyceps cicadae.

  15. Acupuncture in Military Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 16 Acupuncture in Military Medicine Alexandra M. York, Kevin G. Berry, Rick C. Welton, Joan A. G. Walter, Richard C. Niemtzow and Wayne B...DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture in Military Medicine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Air Force Acupuncture Center,Joint Base Andrews, , , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  16. Acupuncture in Military Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 16 Acupuncture in Military Medicine Alexandra M. York, Kevin G. Berry, Rick C. Welton, Joan A. G. Walter, Richard C. Niemtzow and Wayne B...DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture in Military Medicine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Air Force Acupuncture Center,Joint Base Andrews,MD,20762 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  17. Privatized Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  18. Military Personnel Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-09

    or mentally disabled, and because of sich disability shall be hospitalized continually and shall not be employed gainfully . Family members similarly...and is not employed gainfully because of such disability. 40. Temporary Duty (TDY). Duty at one or more locations, other than the permanent station...Military Service concerned that the service member is surplus to the Military Department’s requirements. To better employ those service members with

  19. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  20. Improving Military Educational Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-16

    military to take advantage of their educational benefits . o Adding recruiters or increasing bonuses are less costly ways to increase the number of...as members left to take advantage of their benefits --poorer retention would cancel out five percentage points of that gain. The overall cost of our...IMPROVING MILITARY EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS Statement of Robert F. Hale Assistant Director for National Security and International Affairs

  1. Evaluating Military Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    exclude tax advantages and noncash benefits . 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Cash...Military and Civilian Pay 12 Cash Compensation 12 Noncash and Deferred Benefits 13 General Limitations of Military–Civilian Comparisons 17 Linking...Office (CBO) estimates, regular military com- pensation adjusted for inflation—basic pay, allowances for food and housing, and the tax advantage

  2. The Professional Military Ethic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships...persuasive to an audience that lacks formal training in moral philosophy. Thus it has to be justifiable in concepts that are comprehensible and

  3. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Cooperation in Africa to Counter Wildlife Trafficking……………………7 6.6 Bioethics Commission Calls for Enhanced Federal Oversight of Synthetic Biology…...7...Statute Include Amendments on the Crime of Aggression and Expansion of Criminalizing the Use of Certain Weapons in Non-international Conflicts in...engineered) utilizing them. Military Implications: Relevant military personnel should investigate to determine if this biological solution for iron

  4. Understanding Optimal Military Decision Making: Year 2 Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    measures. ARMY RELEVANCY AND MILITARY APPLICATION AREAS Objectively defining, measuring, and developing a means to assess military optimal decision making...has the potential to enhance training and refine procedures supporting more efficient learning and task accomplishment. Through the application of...26.79 (12.39) 7.94 (62.38) N/A = Not applicable ; as it is not possible to calculate this particular variable. Table 2. Descriptive statistics of

  5. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-hui; Pan, Ming-ming; Ni, Hai-feng; Chen, Jun-feng; Xu, Mn; Gong, Yu-xiang; Chen, Ping-sheng; Liu, Bi-cheng

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, and to primarily explore its possible mechanisms. Totally 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the treatment group by random digit table, 10 in each group. A chronic kidney disease (CKD) rat model was prepared by one step 5/6 nephrectomy. Rats in the treatment group were intragastrically administered with CS powder solution at the daily dose of 2 g/kg, once per day. Equal volume of double distilled water was intragastrically administered to rats in the sham-operation group and the model group. All medication lasted for 12 weeks. The general condition of rats, their body weight, blood pressure, 24 h proteinuria, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr) , and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were assessed before surgery, at week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 10 after surgery. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed under light microscope. Morphological changes of mitochondria in renal tubular epithelial cells were observed under transmission electron microscope. Activities of antioxidant enzymes including reduced glutathione (GSH), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in fresh renal tissue homogenate were detected. Mitochondria of renal tissues were extracted to detect levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS). And expressions of cytochrome-C (Cyto-C) and prohibitin in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the renal cortex were also measured by Western blot. (1) Compared with the sham-operation group, body weight was significantly decreased at week 2 (P <0. 01), but blood pressure increased at week 4 (P <0. 05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, body weight was significantly increased at week 12 (P <0. 01), but blood pressure decreased at week 8 (P < 0. 01) in the

  6. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study on Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan-Shan; Xiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Pen-Ju; He, Yang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yang-Yang; Rong, A; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guang-Zhi

    2017-10-05

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5). All the mice were observed for clinical assessment. Over the 30 days of CS treatment, flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of helper T-cell (Th) subsets, Th1 and Th17, and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. Meanwhile, pathological changes in brain were determined using both hematoxylin-eosin and luxol fast blue staining. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Over the 15 and 30 days of CS treatment, the clinical assessment for EAE demonstrated that both high-CS group (2.51 ± 0.31 and 2.26 ± 0.39 scores, respectively) and low-CS group (2.99 ± 0.40 and 2.69 ± 0.46, respectively) had lower disease severity scores than those of control group (3.57 ± 0.53 and 3.29 ± 0.53, all P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, after 15 and 30 days, the high-CS group (19.18 ± 1.34 g and 20.41 ± 1.56 g, respectively) and low-CS group (18.07 ± 1.18 g and 19.48 ± 1.69 g, respectively) had a lower body weight, as compared with control group (16.85 ± 1.15 g and 18.22 ± 1.63 g, all P < 0.01, respectively). At 30 days post-CS treatment, there was a lower Th1 frequency in the lymph nodes (2.85 ± 1.54% and 2.77 ± 1.07% vs. 5.35 ± 1.34%, respectively; P < 0.05) and spleens (3.96 ± 1.09% and 3.09 ± 0.84% vs. 5.07 ± 1.50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and less inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain of CS-treated mice than that of control group. Our preliminary

  7. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study on Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shan-Shan; Xiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Pen-Ju; He, Yang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yang-Yang; Rong, A; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guang-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Background: As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35–55 to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5). All the mice were observed for clinical assessment. Over the 30 days of CS treatment, flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of helper T-cell (Th) subsets, Th1 and Th17, and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. Meanwhile, pathological changes in brain were determined using both hematoxylin-eosin and luxol fast blue staining. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Over the 15 and 30 days of CS treatment, the clinical assessment for EAE demonstrated that both high-CS group (2.51 ± 0.31 and 2.26 ± 0.39 scores, respectively) and low-CS group (2.99 ± 0.40 and 2.69 ± 0.46, respectively) had lower disease severity scores than those of control group (3.57 ± 0.53 and 3.29 ± 0.53, all P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, after 15 and 30 days, the high-CS group (19.18 ± 1.34 g and 20.41 ± 1.56 g, respectively) and low-CS group (18.07 ± 1.18 g and 19.48 ± 1.69 g, respectively) had a lower body weight, as compared with control group (16.85 ± 1.15 g and 18.22 ± 1.63 g, all P < 0.01, respectively). At 30 days post-CS treatment, there was a lower Th1 frequency in the lymph nodes (2.85 ± 1.54% and 2.77 ± 1.07% vs. 5.35 ± 1.34%, respectively; P < 0.05) and spleens (3.96 ± 1.09% and 3.09 ± 0.84% vs. 5.07 ± 1.50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and less inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain of CS-treated mice than that of

  8. Military Interoperable Digital Hospital Testbed (MIDHT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    note build and system setup. There was significant progress in identifying workflows and processes. A sample note for a patient visit can be seen...between EMR systems did not exist when surveys were completed in early 2009. There is a significant opportunity to enhance patient care of military...interpret the provider’s handwriting . Many EHRs have included decision support into their functionality to help alert physicians to medication conflicts

  9. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    perceptual and behavioral dimensions of the human terrain of any military or military-supported mission. Its principal missions are curriculum design...CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF MILITARY TRAINING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff... Dimensions of Military Training 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Acasandrei Nicolae, Romania

  10. Autonomy in military aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, D. W.

    Military users are becoming increasingly dependent on satellites for vital services related to communication, surveillance information, navigation, and meteorological data. The current military spacecraft, however, need the services of a ground support network which is vulnerable in connection with a variety of threats. It has, therefore, been proposed to decrease the dependence of the satellites on the ground segment by improving satellite autonomy, and the Satellite Autonomy Program at the recently created Air Force Space Technology Center is developing the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS) for a near term generic autonomy solution. Attention is given to the implementation of autonomy and technological requirements for ensuring autonomy.

  11. Brain Performance Enhancement for Military Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it...does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/ A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  12. Survivability Enhancements for Military Communications Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Communications Agency, Jan 1984. Townley , Ralph K., David W. Brown, Martin 0. Bernet, and Bernard L. Pankowski. "Selected Issues in DCS Integration...K. Townley , David W. Brown, Martin 0. Bernet, and Bernard L. Pankowski, "Selected Issues in DCS Technical Integration," Technical paper prepared by...34 Technical Note 11-82. Defense Communications Agency, Jan 1984. Townley , Ralph K., David W. Brown, Martin 0. Bernet, and Bernard L. Pankowski. "Selected

  13. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9478 TITLE: COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION ...COVERED (From - To) 01 Jun 99 – 31 Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the

  14. Bibliography of Military and Non-Military Personnel Turnover Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    AD-A122 895 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MILITARY AND NON -MILIARY PERSONNEL / TURNOVER LITERATURE(U) AI F ORC E HUMAN RE SOURCE S LAB1 UN S O BROOKS AFB TX G A...MILITARY AND NON -MILrTARY Interim PERSONNEL TURNOVER LITERATURE I July 190- 31 January 1982 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) . CONThACT OR...automated se e osf the lumt, the report is a cosmjuhmmlve b lfe of 259 military and 251 non -military studies of tur. The military turnover literature is

  15. Stress, Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding and preventing military suicide.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Jennings, Keith W; Jobes, David A; Bradley, John C

    2012-01-01

    The continual rise in the U.S. military's suicide rate since 2004 is one of the most vexing issues currently facing military leaders, mental health professionals, and suicide experts. Despite considerable efforts to address this problem, however, suicide rates have not decreased. The authors consider possible reasons for this frustrating reality, and question common assumptions and approaches to military suicide prevention. They further argue that suicide prevention efforts that more explicitly embrace the military culture and implement evidence-based strategies across the full spectrum of prevention and treatment could improve success. Several recommendations for augmenting current efforts to prevent military suicide are proposed.

  17. Resilience among Military Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  18. On Military Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sciences and philosophies are based on dubious premises or are in fact pseudosciences. Modern military theory was heavily influenced by empiricism and...determinism. Empiricism is described as a logical process based on pursuing knowledge through observation and experiments. One can make sensible

  19. Military Vision Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    accomplishments emanating from this research . • 3 novel computer-based tasks have been developed that measure visual distortions • These tests are based...10-1-0392 TITLE: Military Vision Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Darlene Dartt...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Schepens Eye Research

  20. Slowing Military Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    existential fear of one’s superpower rival. Nor was the Cold War the only arms race in history: naval rivalry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries...Military Review, July-August 2006; Norman Solomon, “The Bogus Blurring of Terrorism and Insurgency in Iraq,” The Humanist , Vol. 66, No. 2, March-April

  1. Military Deception Reconsidered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    operations through media channels to receive real benefits . If information advantage is properly formulated, carried out, and secured, it is a...timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage , consisting of surprise, information advantage ... Advantage , Surprise, Operational Advantage , Military Tactics, Deception Campaigns 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified

  2. Training for the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFann, Howard H.

    Descriptions of major categories of training, and methodology, techniques, status, and trends are presented in this discussion of military training. After noting the five categories of training--recruit, officer acquisition, specialized skill, flight, and professional development education--emphasis is placed on a discussion of recruit, or basic…

  3. USSR Report, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-19

    Inspirer and Organizer of State Terrorism ...3 Snegov, V. - Japan’s Military Preparedness ................ ......... 9 Sykhotskiy, V. - Physical...intercept, DF and analysis of radar signals and fleet and satellite comunications . The aircraft is further equipped to process the data and transmit them to

  4. Military-Veteran Students' Perceptions of College Transition and Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamphile, Murielle F.

    2013-01-01

    Military veterans preparing for new careers in the civilian world are pursuing higher educational degrees to fulfill career goals. The real-life experiences of veterans in the military are beneficial tools that can effectively enhance student veterans' academic performance and success. As veterans' enrollment continues to rise, veteran's academic…

  5. Information Technologies in the System of Military Engineer Training of Cadets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khizhnaya, Anna V.; Kutepov, Maksim M.; Gladkova, Marina N.; Gladkov, Alexey V.; Dvornikova, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of enhancement of the information component in the military engineer training is determined by the result of a comparative analysis of global and national engineering education standards. The purpose is to substantiate the effectiveness and relevance of applying information technology in the system of military engineer training of…

  6. Military Social Work as an Exemplar in Teaching Social Work Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, James G.; Carlson, Joan; Evans, Pinkie

    2015-01-01

    This article is for social work educators unfamiliar with military social work and receptive to a number of exemplars to enhance teaching strategies within their courses. Because examples of military social work are directly tied to the Council on Social Work Education competencies, this article offers a number of suggested teaching strategies…

  7. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    In S . C. Horswill (Chr.), Identifying and treating predispositional variables in the development of PTSD. Symposium submitted for the Annual meeting...of a Targeted Computerized Intervention for Anxiety Sensitivity Cognitive Concerns for use with at-risk Military Populations. Individual oral...Zvolensky, M.J. (2012). Daily marijuana use and suicidality: The unique impact of social anxiety . Addictive Behaviors, 37, 387-392. 8. Capron, D

  8. Military display performance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  9. Restructuring Military Medical Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    providers, perhaps under an approach such as the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) program , discussed later in this chapter. Effects on DoD’s...CARE July 1995 Military Family Association, would give beneficiaries access to care through the Federal Employees Health Benefits program as well as...enrollment levels and BOX 6. THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) program is the source of health

  10. Rethinking Military Personnel Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    review of references describing this effect, see Stephanie L. Wolfgeher, Inflation of USAF Officer Performance Reports: Analyzing the Organizational...Dennis P. Chapman, "It’s Time for a New Round of OER Reform," Military Review 86, no. 5 (September-October 2006), 100. 23 LTC Briggs is an Operations...Research Analyst who has an interesting, and award- winning, model for predicting promotion rates in the aggregate. David Briggs , "Modeling Army

  11. Rebalancing the Military Profession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-17

    Immanuel Kant ‟s Enlightenment concept of Bildung, which is a well-balanced relationship between character and intellect that is matured in the...of individual officers than the traditional ethics .”3 The authors contend this primacy of careerism over selfless service began during World War II...states the military officer, by virtue of being a professional with an oath of office and a code of ethics , is granted the moral autonomy to openly

  12. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Superstar ballplayers have batting averages in the high three hundreds, sometimes even cracking the four hundred range. To be able to bat four hundred...Germany took, as long as it contributed to an ordered society that held the military in high esteem. When the Kapp Putsch occurred, most of the German...on context, here meaning the enemy and the terrain. For the Germans tactical solutions also would vary based on the officer in command. As long as

  13. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    land-based KIROV, the USSR’s first nucler - powered surface warship, symbolizes the increasing strength of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Increasing...53 VI QUEST FOR TECHNOLOGICAL SUPERIORITY ............ 7 VII SOVIET GLOBAL POWER PROJECTION...................83 VIII THE CHALLENGE...military power at a pace that shows no signs of slackening in the future. All elements of the Soviet Armed Forces -the Strategic Rocket Forces, the

  14. Military Psychology: An Overview,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    intelligence tests that were widely used in World War I and also served as the models for most group intelligence tests developed after the war for military and...in such areas as supervision, job satisfaction, organizational climate , and work-group effectiveness. For more information write: LMDC/AN, Maxwell Air...primate. Animal models and methods from the disciplines of behavioral toxicology, behavioral pharmacology, physiological psychology, and neurophysiology

  15. Movies and the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    by the hundreds. The most popular subjects were his tor ical dramas, comedies , simplistic versions of the classics, and sentimental domestic and...Germans and the making of a world "safe for democracy." All the war films, even the slapstick comedies , presented a simple view of the conflict-the...an exciting and romantic background for a love story or a musical. The value of military preparedness was implied strongly in these films which

  16. USSR Report, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    example, in Kishinev, a coordinating council on military-patriotic work was set up; one of the party’s raykom secretaries heads it. Future plans for... headed by Senior Lieutenant M. Mironov and Lieutenant A. Klimov. The battalion’s communists set the tone in the competition. , Each of them has...adjustment mechanism 23. Track idler wheel 24. Running wheel 25. Firing ports 26. Smoke grenade launchers 27. Day/night sight head 28. Rear door 29

  17. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  18. Inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad signal pathway is involved in the effect of Cordyceps sinensis against renal fibrosis in 5/6 nephrectomy rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Ni, Hai-Feng; Chen, Jun-Feng; Xu, Min; Phillips, Aled Owain; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on renal fibrosis and its possible mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation (SHAM) group, 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) untreated group, and 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy treated with C. sinensis (2.0 g/kg d) (CS) group. Rats were studied 12 weeks after the surgery, and the CS group presented with significantly lower proteinuria, and better renal function compared with the SNx group (p<0.05). Pathological study showed that the glomerulosclerosis tubulointerstitial injury score was significantly reduced in the CS group compared with the SNx group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Smad2 and Smad3 and the protein expression of TGF-β1, TβRI, TβRII and p-Smad2/3 were attenuated by the C. sinensis treatment. In constrast, the mRNA and protein expression of Smad7 was upregulated. Furthermore, the expression of α-SMA and FSP1 was also significantly attenuated, accompanied by the increasing expression of E-cadherin, suggesting the inhibition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). C. sinensis exerted its antifibrotic effect on the SNx rats through the inhibition of the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis. PMID:25938484

  20. Morphological Observations and Fatty Acid Composition of Indoor-Cultivated Cordyceps sinensis at a High-Altitude Laboratory on Sejila Mountain, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lian-Xian; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a caterpillar entomopathogenic fungus-host larva complex, is a rare medicinal herb found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding high-altitude areas. The alternation of generations in the life cycle, whatever the fungus or its host insect, requires special growth conditions. However, it is difficult to simulate the growth conditions of C. sinensis, which hinders its artificial cultivation. In this work, the life cycle from the host larva to C. sinensis was observed in an indoor-cultivation laboratory at 4,200 m a.s.l. on Sejila Mountain, Tibet. Comparative examinations between indoor-cultivated and wild C. sinensis demonstrated that the indoor-cultivated C. sinensis preferred to germinate multiple long, slim stromata at diverse positions on dead larvae, including but not limited to their heads. Their fatty acid composition shows a significant difference in the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In indoor-cultivated C. sinensis, PUFAs constituted 24.59% and 49.43%, respectively, of neutral and polar lipids; meanwhile, in wild C. sinensis, PUFAs represented 34.34% and 61.25% of neutral and polar lipids, respectively. These observations and fatty acid data suggest that environmental factors, particularly temperature, soil pressure and light intensity, strongly affect the growth of C. sinensis. Our new findings may provide important information for improving techniques for the large-scale artificial cultivation of C. sinensis.

  1. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide CPS-2 protects human mesangial cells from PDGF-BB-induced proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-β1/Smad pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Huan; Jiang, Huixing; Luo, Chen; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2014-02-15

    CPS-2, a Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide, has been demonstrated to have significant therapeutic activity against chronic renal failure. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we found that CPS-2 could inhibit PDGF-BB-induced human mesangial cells (HMCs) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CPS-2 notably suppressed the expression of α-SMA, PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRβ), TGF-β1, and Smad 3 in PDGF-BB-treated HMCs. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-stimulated ERK activation was significantly inhibited by CPS-2, and this inhibitory effect was synergistically potentiated by U0126. CPS-2 could prevent the PDGFRβ promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB, and return expression of PDGFRβ, TGF-β1, and TGFβRI to normal levels while cells were under PDGFRβ and ERK silencing conditions and transfected with DN-ERK. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CPS-2 reduces PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-β1/Smad pathways, and it may have bi-directional regulatory effects on the PDGF/ERK cellular signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Triage in military settings.

    PubMed

    Falzone, E; Pasquier, P; Hoffmann, C; Barbier, O; Boutonnet, M; Salvadori, A; Jarrassier, A; Renner, J; Malgras, B; Mérat, S

    2017-02-01

    Triage, a medical term derived from the French word "trier", is the practical process of sorting casualties to rationally allocate limited resources. In combat settings with limited medical resources and long transportation times, triage is challenging since the objectives are to avoid overcrowding medical treatment facilities while saving a maximum of soldiers and to get as many of them back into action as possible. The new face of modern warfare, asymmetric and non-conventional, has led to the integrative evolution of triage into the theatre of operations. This article defines different triage scores and algorithms currently implemented in military settings. The discrepancies associated with these military triage systems are highlighted. The assessment of combat casualty severity requires several scores and each nation adopts different systems for triage on the battlefield with the same aim of quickly identifying those combat casualties requiring lifesaving and damage control resuscitation procedures. Other areas of interest for triage in military settings are discussed, including predicting the need for massive transfusion, haemodynamic parameters and ultrasound exploration. Copyright © 2016 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Civilian-military coordination].

    PubMed

    de Montravel, G

    2002-01-01

    Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.

  4. The use of creatine supplements in the military.

    PubMed

    Havenetidis, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    Creatine is considered an effective nutritional ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance. In spite of the publication of several reviews in the last decade on the topic of exercise performance/sports and creatine there is a need for an update related to the military given the lack of information in this area. The aim of this study was to critically assess original research addressing the use of creatine supplements in the military. A search of the electronic databases PubMed and SPORTDiscus, for the following key words: military personnel, trainees, recruit, soldier, physical fitness, physical conditioning, creatine supplementation, creatine ingestion, nutritional supplements to identify surveys and randomised clinical trials from journal articles and technical reports investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on military populations. Thirty-three out of 90 articles examined the use of creatine as a dietary supplement in military personnel. Twenty-one studies were finally selected on the basis of stated inclusion criteria for military surveys and randomised clinical trials. Most of the surveys (15/17) in the military indicate a high popularity of creatine (average 27%) among supplement users. In contrast, in most of the exercise protocols used (6/9) during randomised clinical trials creatine has produced a non-significant performance-enhancing effect. Creatine is one of the most widely used supplemental compounds in the military. It is not considered a doping infraction or related to any adverse health effects but its long-term usage needs further investigation. Experimental research suggests that creatine supplementation does not enhance physical performance in the military. However, limitations in creatine dosage, military fitness testing and sample group selection might have underestimated the ergogenic properties of creatine. Recent studies also indicate positive effects on various aspects of total force fitness such as cognitive

  5. Caring sexual assault patients in the military: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Cynthia T

    2008-01-01

    Recently instituted sexual assault prevention and response policies and programs within the Department of Defense (DoD) have paved the way for significant improvements in the medical care of sexual assault patients in the military services. Military personnel who suffer assault are now able to choose a method of reporting that either immediately triggers an investigation or allows the incident to remain confidential. This process allows for the development of an enhanced trust in the system and allows military personnel to receive medical and forensic care on the level of their choice. Military medical professionals are continually striving to provide the highest standard of care for military personnel, DoD employees, and beneficiaries. The new policies and programs are continually taking shape; however, there are barriers to education and understanding of the sexual assault prevention and response processes that require increased coordination between military and civilian personnel and their medical services in order to provide optimum care for all patients involved.

  6. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military.

  7. Illegitimate Children and Military Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    THIS SHEUT AND RETURN TO DTIC-FDAC OTIC mඎA DONoaatr PROCI MSSn V ilr ~ LOAN DOCUMENT ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN AND MILITARY BENEFITS A Thesis...0 ELIGIBILITY OF ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN FOR MILITARY BENEFITS by Captain David B. Howlett ABSTRACT: This thesis examines the constitutionality of...military benefit statutes and regulations as they relate to illegitimate children. The thesis describes the United States Supreme Court’s analysis of

  8. Nutrition research in the military.

    PubMed

    Hill, Neil E; Fallowfield, J L; Delves, S K; Wilson, D R

    2014-06-01

    Military research performed in an operational environment involves mission-specific considerations. The Institute of Naval Medicine was tasked in 2008 by the Surgeon General to investigate the nutritional status of deployed British military personnel, and how this might affect body composition, physical fitness and operational capability. This paper briefly describes the logistic and technical issues specific to military research that were encountered by the study team, how these issues were overcome and how this research has influenced military practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Protein supplementation in U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Protein supplements (PSs) are, after multivitamins, the most frequently consumed dietary supplement by U.S. military personnel. Warfighters believe that PSs will improve health, promote muscle strength, and enhance physical performance. The estimated prevalence of regular PS use by military personnel is nearly 20% or more in active-duty personnel, which is comparable to collegiate athletes and recreationally active adults, but higher than that for average U.S. civilians. Although the acute metabolic effects of PS ingestion are well described, little is known regarding the benefits of PS use by warfighters in response to the metabolic demands of military operations. When dietary protein intake approaches 1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), and energy intake matches energy expenditure, the use of PSs by most physically active military personnel may not be necessary. However, dismounted infantry often perform operations consisting of long periods of strenuous physical activity coupled with inadequate dietary energy and protein intake. In these situations, the use of PSs may have efficacy for preserving fat-free mass. This article reviews the available literature regarding the prevalence of PS use among military personnel. Furthermore, it highlights the unique metabolic stressors affecting U.S. military personnel and discusses potential conditions during which protein supplementation might be beneficial.

  10. [Echographic diagnosis of systolic murmur among 280 young French militaries. Implications for the expertise in military medicine].

    PubMed

    Vinsonneau, U; Vermeulen, L; Griffet, V; Delluc, A; Paleiron, N; Le Ven, F; Rohel, G; Jobic, Y; Piquemal, M; Mansourati, J; Paule, P

    2015-04-01

    Clinically discovering a systolic murmur is frequent among the young military population. When this murmur does not sound benign, a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is made to detect any cardiopathy, which could cause sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of systematic TTE in the assessment of any cardiac systolic murmur (CSM) among militaries. We ran a retrospective monocentric study in the "Clermont-Tonnerre" military hospital in Brest. We included all patients sent for TEE, aged 15 to 30 years old, from the 1st January 2010 until the 31st July 2013. Two hundred and eighty TTES assessing CSM were performed. We found 28/280 (10%) echocardiographic abnormalities: 13 were bicuspid aortic valves (4.6%), 6 were ventricular septal defects (2.15%), 3 were atrial septal defects (1.07%), 4 were mild mitral regurgitations (1.43%), one mild pulmonary stenosis (0.35%) and one aortic stenosis (0.35%). No hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was found. Concerning military expertise, 11 (3.92%) patients among these 28 with abnormal TEE were considered unfit for work or "fit for work with limitations". Assessing a cardiac systolic murmur with TEE lead to the diagnosis of a cardiomyopathy in 10% of the case. This study enhances the importance of systematic TEE when a CSM is detected in the young military, in order to determine if those soldiers can still fulfill their military duty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Depot Maintenance: Issues and Options for Reporting on Military Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-15

    for assessing the balance of public and private sector depot maintenance workload? (3) What issues might Congress wish to consider to enhance reporting...on military depots capabilities or funding allocations of the public sector versus private sector ? This briefing is intended to satisfy the mandate that GAO review 50/50 reporting requirements.

  12. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sara A.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Malone, Ruth E.; Haddock, Christopher K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. Methods: To gain insight into policy leaders’ ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Results: Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Conclusions: Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Implications: Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. PMID:27146639

  13. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  15. Military Perspectives on Cyberpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    PDAs) (such as the BlackBerry ), and global satellite and cable networks (including radio and TV), the impact of cyberspace on military operations has...phones, BlackBerries , telecoms, satellite and cable-based networks, radio, and TV. While it has developed the concepts of network-centric warfare to...domain may still be “outside the Maginot Line,” or may provide a tunnel to get under the line. Assuming that the line will be breached and the

  16. Sound Military Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-01-01

    basis of professional judgment (see page i),--and its essentials are the proper foundation for any system of Eelf- improvement in the exercise of mental...ftmdamentals of the military profession, i.e., the profession of arms. emphasis, naturally, is on the exercise of mental effort in the solution of itary...ESTIMATE OF THE SIT ATION which, t e p-’fesince 1916ofarsTe e s nr, iWas"•I’ revisedx-I" editions. The new material that was added in 1936 was intended

  17. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Above the Pripyat 17, 19 Yangazov, V. The Golden Fleece of the Hero 12 SONGS Far from Port. Music by M. Kochetova, words by A. Matyushkin-Gerke...13 Great Party. Music by B. Terentyev, Words by M. Karamushko 4 No Going on a March Without a Song. Music by L. Lyadova, words by V. Sokolov 20...Lenin Hills. Music by M. Protasov, words by V. Goncharov 7 38 Military Conductors. Music by B. Figotin, words.by F. Laube.. ...v... 12 Roads. Music

  18. The Effectiveness of Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    against the heart of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Italy’s uneven naval buildup, stressing submarines and unemployed battleships, posed a particular...military, not to speak of a society which has yet to recover from its psychic wounds. How to arrange our American military institutions so that they

  19. Military Implications of Global Warming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-20

    U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United

  20. The Death of Military Justice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness

  1. Economic Conditions of Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, James; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors found that the economic circumstances of military families are good, certainly much improved compared with even a decade ago. The military context is nonetheless challenging, with long hours, dangerous work, frequent transfers, and stressful absences during deployment. Service members receive relatively high pay and…

  2. Teaching in Overseas Military Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Fred

    1980-01-01

    Reveals strengths and weaknesses encountered by a psychology teacher involved in the overseas graduate counseling program for Ball State University. Problems included lack of proper teaching and counseling facilities, long teaching hours, and civilian teachers' ignorance of military protocol. Advantages included helping military personnel obtain a…

  3. Soviet Naval Military and Air Power in the Third World,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-31

    enhanced by the impressive Kirov class nucler - powered , guided missile cruiser. This ship is the largest naval vessel built byanynation since World ’W...RD-Rli5e 290 SOVIET NAVAL MILITARY AND AIR POWER IN THE THIRD WORLD i/I (U) KENT STATE UNIV OH LYMAN L LEMNITZER CENTER FOR NATO STUDIES L J ANDOLINO...ii . MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAh{ThAL BUPIAU OF STANDAR[)S 4 -.1 21 -.!r z r o SOVIET NAVAL MILITARY AND AIR 0’) POWER IN THE THIRD WORLD o by

  4. 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis of metabolites in the kidneys provides new insight into pathophysiological mechanisms: applications for treatment with Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fang; Liu, Xia; Zhou, Qiao; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Guo, Shanmai; Wang, Weiming; Lin, Donghai; Chen, Nan

    2012-02-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is continuously growing worldwide. Treatment with traditional Chinese medicine might slow the progression of CKD. In this study, we evaluated the renal protective effects of the Chinese herb Cordyceps sinensis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. Male Sprague-Dawley mice (weighing 150-200 g) were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. The rats were divided into three groups: (i) untreated nephrectomized group (OP group, n = 16), (ii) oral administration of C. sinensis-treated (4 mg/kg/day) nephrectomized group (CS group, n = 16) and (iii) sham-operated group (SO group, n = 16). The rats were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, and the kidneys, serum and urine were collected for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. Multivariate statistical techniques and statistical metabolic correlation comparison analysis were performed to identify metabolic changes in aqueous kidney extracts between these groups. Significant differences between these groups were discovered in the metabolic profiles of the biofluids and kidney extracts. Pathways including the citrate cycle, branched-chain amino acid metabolism and the metabolites that regulate permeate pressure were disturbed in the OP group compared to the SO group; in addition, these pathways were reversed by C. sinensis treatment. Biochemistry and electron microscopic images verified that C. sinensis has curative effects on chronic renal failure. These results were confirmed by metabonomics results. Our study demonstrates that C. sinensis has potential curative effects on CKD, and our metabonomics results provided new insight into the mechanism of treatment of this traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Anti-cancer effects of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide, purified from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis against B16-F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Chou, Duen-Suey; Huang, Yung-Kai; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play important roles in the invasion and migration of cancer cells. In melanoma, several signaling pathways are constitutively activated. Among these, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) signaling pathways are activated through multiple signal transduction molecules and appear to play major roles in melanoma progression. Therefore, the inhibition of MAPK signaling might be a crucial role for the treatment of melanoma cancer. We examined the anticancer effect of CME-1, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide fraction, isolated from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia on B16-F10 melanoma cells. B16-F10 cells were exposed to different concentrations of CME-1 (250, 500 and 800 μg/ml) for 24 h in 5% CO² incubator at 37°C. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of MMP-1, p-p38 MAPK, p-ERK1/2, and IkB-α in B16-F10 cells. Cell migration test was performed by wound healing migration assay. CME-1 suppresses cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis revealed that CME-1 led to the reduction on the expression levels of MMP-1 and down regulated the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). CME-1 restored the IkB-degradation in B16F10 cells. These results indicate that CME-1 inhibited MMP-1 expressions in B16F10 melanoma cells through either NF-kB or ERK/p38 MAPK down regulation thereby inhibiting B16F10 cell migration. Therefore, we proposed that CME-1 might be developed as a therapeutic potential candidate for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  6. The Military and the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…

  7. Satellite Power System (SPS) military implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The military implications of the reference satellite power system (SPS) were examined is well as important military related study tasks. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness, and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered.

  8. Changing Families in a Changing Military System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Edna J., Ed.

    Recently, the military system has begun to feel the impact of the military family. Whenever sudden dramatic changes or transitions occur, crises may result either for the individual or for the institution. At present both the military system and the military family are in a period of rapid transition. Perhaps one of the most important changes that…

  9. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military service...

  10. Gender Dysphoria in the Military.

    PubMed

    Ford, Shannon; Schnitzlein, Carla

    2017-11-07

    With the announcement that members of the military who identify as transgender are allowed to serve openly, the need for Department of Defense behavioral health providers to be comfortable in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of this population becomes quickly evident. This population has been seeking care in the community and standards have been developed to help guide decision-making, but a comparable document does not exist for the military population. Previously published papers were written in anticipation of the policy allowing for open service. The civilian sector has treatment guidelines and evidence supporting the same for reference. There is no similar document for the military population, likely due to the recent change and ongoing development. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent Department of Defense policy and walks the reader through key considerations when providing care to a transgender member of the military as it relates to those who are currently serving in the military through the use of a case example. The military transgender population faces some unique challenges due to the need to balance readiness and deployability with medically necessary health care. Also complicating patient care is that policy development is ongoing-as of this publication, the decision has not yet been made regarding how people who identify as transgender will access into the military nor is there final approval regarding coverage for surgical procedures. Unique circumstances of this population are brought up to generate more discussion and encourage further evaluation and refinement of the process.

  11. Interprofessional Healthcare Teams in the Military: A Scoping Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bader, Karlen S; Meyer, Holly S; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Hamwey, Meghan K

    2018-05-08

    Research into healthcare delivered via interprofessional healthcare teams (IHTs) has uncovered that IHT can improve patient satisfaction, enhance collaborative behaviors, reduce clinical error rates, and streamline management of care delivery. Importantly, these achievements are attained by IHTs that have been trained via interprofessional education (IPE). Research indicates that interprofessional healthcare team training must be contextualized to suit the demands of each care context. However, research into the unique demands required of military IHTs has yet to be explored. For any form of IPE to be successfully implemented in the military, we need a clear understanding of how interprofessional healthcare team competencies must be tailored to suit military care contexts. Specifically, we must know: (1) What evidence is currently available regarding IHTs in the military?; and (2) What gaps in the evidence need to be addressed for IPE to be customized to meet the needs of military healthcare delivery? We conducted a scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify the breadth of knowledge currently available regarding MIHTs. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ERIC, DTIC.mil, and NYAM Gray Literature databases was conducted without date restrictions. The search terms were: (interprofessional* OR interprofessional*) AND (military OR Army OR Navy OR Navy OR Marines OR "Air Force" OR "Public Health Service") AND (health OR medicine). Of the 675 articles identified via the initial search, only 21 articles met inclusion criteria (i.e., involved military personnel, teams were medically focused, comprised at least two professional disciplines, and at least two people). The manuscripts included: seven original research studies, six commentaries, five reviews, one letter, one annual report, and one innovation report. Analyses identified three themes (i.e., effective communication, supportive team environments, members) related to successful MIHT collaborations

  12. Physiological and psychological fatigue in extreme conditions: the military example.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Sharon R; McAuliffe, Caitlin L; Durussel, David; Pasquina, Paul F

    2010-05-01

    The extreme conditions causing fatigue in military service members in combat and combat training deserve special consideration. The collective effects of severe exertion, limited caloric intake, and sleep deprivation, combined with the inherent stressors of combat, lead to both physiological and psychological fatigue that may significantly impair performance. Studies of combat training have revealed a myriad of endocrine, cognitive, and neurological changes that occur as a result of exposure to extreme conditions. Further contributory effects of multiple military deployments, post-traumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury may also influence both the susceptibility to and expression of fatigue states. Further research is needed to explore these effects to enhance military readiness and performance as well as prevent injuries. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Military laser weapons: current controversies.

    PubMed

    Seet, B; Wong, T Y

    2001-09-01

    Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation.

  14. HIV in military.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    The House of Representatives approved a defense authorization bill that requires the Pentagon to discharge service members who test positive for HIV antibodies. This is the second measure of its kind. Last year, Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-CA) pushed through Congress a similar measure that was repealed after encountering public opposition. President Clinton said he will veto the defense bill in its current form. The bill provides $13 billion in spending beyond the amount the Pentagon requested, resurrects plans for the Star Wars missile defense system, and rescinds Clinton's don't ask, don't tell policy toward gay men and lesbians in the military. Rep. Peter Torkildsen (R-MA) is confident that the HIV provision can be stricken when the bill goes to a House-Senate conference committee in a few weeks.

  15. The supply of pharmaceuticals in humanitarian assistance missions: implications for military operations.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.

  16. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Megan M; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness.

  17. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Megan M.; Jetly, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness. PMID:25206947

  18. [Diphtheria in the military forces: lessons and current status of prophylaxis, prospects of epidemiological control process].

    PubMed

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological situation of diphtheria in the world and in Russia and experience of mass vaccination of military personnel and civil population with diphtheria toxoid for the last 50 years. Early diagnosis of diphtheria in military personnel has a prognostic value. Authors described the peculiarities of epidemiological process of diphtheria in military personnel in 80-90 years of 20th century and organizational aspects of mass vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. Authors analyzed current problems of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria in military personnel and civil population and possible developments. According to long-term prognosis authors mentioned the increase of morbidity and came to conclusion that it is necessary enhance the epidemiological surveillance. Authors presented prospect ways of improvement of vaccination and rational approaches to immunization of military personnel under positive long-term epidemiological situation.

  19. Armed to farm: Veteran labeled marketing, education and research strategies to soldier success for military veteran farmers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farming opportunities for veterans are a natural fit and capitalize on skills that made them successful in the military. The project is specifically designed to develop comprehensive training and technical assistance programs and enhance market profitability for military veteran farmers. The project...

  20. Military Engineers and Chemical Warfare Troops (Inzhenernye Voiska Khimicheskie Voiska),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.

  1. Obesity Prevention in the Military.

    PubMed

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  2. Internetworking in the military environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B. H.; Bates, A. S.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing requirement for data communications in the military environment and the heterogeneous nature of the network technologies and protocols involved are highlighted. The design of a military internet architecture, influenced by the military requirements, especially that of survivability, is discussed. Comparison with the civilian PTT approach to internetworking shows that while there are economic advantages to using civilian international standards where possible, these standards do not satisfy the military requirements. In particular the strategies for routing in a heavily damaged network environment and addressing hosts that migrate from one network to another must form an integral part of the overall architectural design. This results in gateways whose routing tables have a finer degree of detail of the internet topology than is usually required but which do not contain connection oriented information. Finally, practical experience gained on the ARPA catenet system is described.

  3. Military fathers' perspectives on involvement.

    PubMed

    Willerton, Elaine; Schwarz, Rona L; Wadsworth, Shelley M Macdermid; Oglesby, Mary Schultheis

    2011-08-01

    Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age. Data were gathered via focus groups conducted with 71 fathers at 14 U.S. military installations. Descriptions of involvement were rich and varied. Involvement with children was a major concern for fathers, despite or perhaps because of the challenges of military careers. We discuss factors that help explain variations in involvement and offer insights about the conceptualization of father involvement for occupations requiring prolonged absences from home.

  4. Chile Informed Question Paper - Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    superior military strength and regional economic integration. Internally, Chile also faces little threat; however, militants from the Mapuche ...considered a significant threat.11 The most significant internal security concern is the ongoing campaign by Mapuche indigenous community militants to

  5. [Political and organizational-legal frameworks for cooperation between countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of military medicine].

    PubMed

    Kholikov, I V; Dmitrakovich, D V

    2014-12-01

    A framework for cooperation in the field of military medicine in the Asia-Pacific region is considered. Expert Working Group on Military Medicine in cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian dialogue partners (including Russia) was formed to discuss the most important issues in the field of military medicine, to share practical experience of military physicians, standardization and unification of medical equipment, medicines, levels and standards of medical services and other issues in order to enhance cooperation of military medical services of the participating countries. From 2014 to 2016, the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Thailand are co-chairs of the expert group.

  6. Coordinating Military Response to Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-22

    of two noted natural disasters . Section four analyzes the two options of the affected area National Guard forces and the tailored regional located...recommendations and conclusions. Title Coordinating Military Response to Disasters Thesis Military response to natural disasters is a critical aspect...National Guard forces in response to natural disasters and man-made emergencies such as riots or terrorist attacks.13 The third role is federal

  7. Measuring Underemployment Among Military Spouses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    military wives in their distribu- tion of age, citizenship, race, education , parental status, potential expe- rience, region of residence, and whether or...that the “look-alike” civilians are similar to the military wives in age, citi- zenship, race, education , parental status, experience, recent moving...available from www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. Jump down to document THE ARTS CHILD POLICY CIVIL JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY

  8. Genomic medicine in the military

    PubMed Central

    De Castro, Mauricio; Biesecker, Leslie G; Turner, Clesson; Brenner, Ruth; Witkop, Catherine; Mehlman, Maxwell; Bradburne, Chris; Green, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative was an important step towards establishing the use of genomic information as part of the wider practice of medicine. The US military has been exploring the role that genomic information will have in health care for service members (SMs) and its integration into the continuum of military medicine. An important part of the process is establishing robust protections to protect SMs from genetic discrimination in the era of exome/genome sequencing. PMID:29263806

  9. Enhancing the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Satisfy the Needs of the Uncertain Global Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    and 2004 National Military Strategy (NMS) continue to germinate . Discussions surrounding the spread of effective democracies and alternate...additional civil-military operation capabilities such as enhanced engineering, additional medical and dental support, and transportation tailored for

  10. U.S. Army Corrosion Office's storage and quality requirements for military MEMS program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, J. L., III; Skelton, D. R.

    2007-04-01

    As the Army transforms into a more lethal, lighter and agile force, the technologies that support these systems must decrease in size while increasing in intelligence. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are one such technology that the Army and DOD will rely on heavily to accomplish these objectives. Conditions for utilization of MEMS by the military are unique. Operational and storage environments for the military are significantly different than those found in the commercial sector. Issues unique to the military include; high G-forces during gun launch, extreme temperature and humidity ranges, extended periods of inactivity (20 years plus) and interaction with explosives and propellants. The military operational environments in which MEMS will be stored or required to function are extreme and far surpass any commercial operating conditions. Security and encryption are a must for all MEMS communication, tracking, or data reporting devices employed by the military. Current and future military applications of MEMS devices include safety and arming devices, fuzing devices, various guidance systems, sensors/detectors, inertial measurement units, tracking devices, radio frequency devices, wireless Radio Frequency Identifications (RFIDs) and network systems, GPS's, radar systems, mobile base systems and information technology. MEMS embedded into these weapons systems will provide the military with new levels of speed, awareness, lethality, and information dissemination. The system capabilities enhanced by MEMS will translate directly into tactical and strategic military advantages.

  11. Cultured Mycelium Cordyceps sinensis allevi¬ates CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice by activating hepatic natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Shen, Li; Tao, Yan-yan; Liu, Cheng-hai

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) effectively protects against liver fibrosis in mice. Here, we investigated whether the anti-fibrotic action of CMCS was related to its regulation of the activity of hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in CCl4-treated mice. C57BL/6 mice were injected with 10% CCl4 (2 mL/kg, ip) 3 times per week for 4 weeks, and received CMCS (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) during this period. In another part of experiments, the mice were also injected with an NK cell-deleting antibody ASGM-1 (20 μg, ip) 5 times in the first 3 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, serum liver function, and liver inflammation, hydroxyproline content and collagen deposition were assessed. The numbers of hepatic NK cells and expression of NKG2D (activation receptor of NK cells) on isolated liver lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Desmin expression and cell apoptosis in liver tissues were studied using desmin staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. The levels of α-SMA, TGF-β, RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε in liver tissues were determined by RT-qPCR. In CCl4-treated mice, CMCS administration significantly improved liver function, attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis, and increased the numbers of hepatic NK cells and expression level of NKG2D on hepatic NK cells. Furthermore, CMCS administration significantly decreased desmin expression in liver tissues, and increased TUNEL staining adjacent to hepatic stellate cells. Injection with NK cell-deleting ASGM-1 not only diminished the numbers of hepatic NK cells, but also greatly accelerated liver inflammation and fibrosis in CCl4-treated mice. In CCl4-treated mice with NK cell depletion, CMCS administration decelerated the rate of liver fibrosis development, and mildly upregulated the numbers of hepatic NK cells but without changing NKG2D expression. CMCS alleviates CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis via promoting activation of hepatic NK cells. CMCS partially reverses ASGM

  12. [Effect of fermented cordyceps powder and prednisone on the Notch2/Hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-fa; Liang, Qun-qing; Cheng, Xin; Long, Yun; Wu, Jin-yu

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of both fermented Cordyceps powder (CS) and prednisone on the Notch2/hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAAN). Totally 50 SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., the normal group, the model group, the CS group, the prednisone group, and the CS plus prednisone group, 10 in each group. The AAAN rat model was induced by intragastric administration of pure aristolochic acid A at the daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days. Rats in the CS group were administered with CS at the daily dose of 5.0 g/kg by gastrogavage, while those in the prednisone group were administered with prednisone at the daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg. Rats in the CS plus prednisone group were treated by CS and prednisone. All treatment lasted for 3 successive weeks. Kidney functions [urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr)] were detected. The pathological changes of kidneys were observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The apoptosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL. The protein expressions of Notch2 and Hes-1 in the renal tissue were detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Results of HE staining showed the structure in the nephridial tissue was regular in rats of the normal group. The renal tubular necrosis occurred in the rats of the model group. The pathological changes of kidneys were obviously improved in the CS group, the prednisone group, and the CS plus prednisone group. Compared with the normal group, levels of BUN and SCr, semi-quantitative score of the tubular interstitial tissue, ratio of apoptotic cells, and expressions of Notch2 and Hes-1 proteins significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the aforesaid indices significantly decreased in the 3 treatment groups (P < 0.01). All indices decreased most obviously in the CS plus prednisone group (P < 0.05, P < 0. 01). Notch2/hes-1 signaling activation might be

  13. Total Force Fitness in units part 1: military demand-resource model.

    PubMed

    Bates, Mark J; Fallesen, Jon J; Huey, Wesley S; Packard, Gary A; Ryan, Diane M; Burke, C Shawn; Smith, David G; Watola, Daniel J; Pinder, Evette D; Yosick, Todd M; Estrada, Armando X; Crepeau, Loring; Bowles, Stephen V

    2013-11-01

    The military unit is a critical center of gravity in the military's efforts to enhance resilience and the health of the force. The purpose of this article is to augment the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) guidance with a framework of TFF in units. The framework is based on a Military Demand-Resource model that highlights the dynamic interactions across demands, resources, and outcomes. A joint team of subject-matter experts identified key variables representing unit fitness demands, resources, and outcomes. The resulting framework informs and supports leaders, support agencies, and enterprise efforts to strengthen TFF in units by (1) identifying TFF unit variables aligned with current evidence and operational practices, (2) standardizing communication about TFF in units across the Department of Defense enterprise in a variety of military organizational contexts, (3) improving current resources including evidence-based actions for leaders, (4) identifying and addressing of gaps, and (5) directing future research for enhancing TFF in units. These goals are intended to inform and enhance Service efforts to develop Service-specific TFF models, as well as provide the conceptual foundation for a follow-on article about TFF metrics for units. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1, an Analogue of KTH-13 Isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, Inhibits the NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Woo Seok; Ratan, Zubair Ahmed; Kim, Gihyeon; Lee, Yunmi; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species has been a good source of compounds with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported a novel compound (4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, KTH-13) with anticancer activity isolated from Cordyceps bassiana and created several derivatives to increase its pharmacological activity. In this study, we tested one of the KTH-013 derivatives, 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)aniline 1 (KTH-13-AD1), with regard to anti-inflammatory activity under macrophage-mediated inflammatory conditions. KTH-13-AD1 clearly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) treated macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 cells). Similarly, this compound also reduced mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as analyzed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Interestingly, KTH-13-AD1 strongly diminished NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and nuclear translocation of NF-κB family proteins. In accordance, KTH-13-AD1 suppressed the upstream signaling pathway of NF-κB activation, including IκBα, IKKα/β, AKT, p85/PI3K, and Src in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The autophosphorylation of Src and NF-κB observed during the overexpression of Src was also suppressed by KTH-13-AD1. These results strongly suggest that KTH-13-AD1 has strong anti-inflammatory features mediated by suppression of the Src/NF-κB regulatory loop. PMID:26819495

  15. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  16. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a...

  17. In-School Military Recruiting: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Tom; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The authors feel that military recruiting should not be permitted in schools. Counselors should help students who consider enlisting look at the positive and negative aspects of military life as well as legal contractual obligations. (Author/HLM)

  18. Smooth School Transitions: Tips for Military Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... family separation, and transition. Additional Information from HealthyChildren.org: Deployment and Children Military Families: Child Care Support ... CNN.com) Coming Together Around Military Families (zerotothree.org) FOCUS (Families OverComing Under Stress™) FOX News Talks ...

  19. A Framework for NGO-Military Collaboration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    from scholarly literature and inductively from case studies and practitioner interviews , I theorize that the efficacy of NGO-military collaboration...studies and practitioner interviews , I theorize that the efficacy of NGO-military collaboration varies with the type of NGO (INGO or LNGO) and the...scholarly literature on NGO-military interactions, and inductively from illustrative case studies from both civilian and military sources and interviews

  20. Translations on USSR Military Affairs No. 1324.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-13

    affairs, organi- zation, and equipment. 17. Key Words and Document Analysis . 17a. Descriptors USSR Military Organizations Military Facilities...military history as a means for influencing society more and more . On the basis of an analysis of American historical studies, statements by of- ficials...Center of Military History and the Directorate of Naval History each offer two scholarships of $4,000 each to competitors for the preparation of

  1. Windchill index and military applications.

    PubMed

    Santee, William R

    2002-07-01

    A new Windchill Apparent Temperature (WCT) has been introduced to replace the Windchill Index (WCI) and Windchill Equivalent Temperature (WCET) used to quantify cold exposure. From the time of its introduction the WCI has been criticized on scientific grounds. Despite a history of criticism, the WCI and the derived WCET have been adopted by military and civilian organizations to characterize the hazards presented by exposure to cold environments. However, the military has specific needs that differ from those of the civilian population. Thus, additional weather products and devices, including thermoregulatory models, environmental monitors, and personal physiological status monitors, are available to supplement the revised WCT.

  2. Economic Returns to Military Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Married Women." Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 14, No. 4, Fall 1979, pp. 563-78. Joseph, Toni, "Rude Awakening: Many Veterans Find Military Jobs No Road...leave the service. Proponents of this view often point to what might be termed "low-tech" jobs in the Army, especially in the combat arms, where...consistent with the existing job matching hypothesis models. Negative images of t.e military resulting from the Vietnam War and the recruiting scandals in the

  3. Limits of Military Power for National Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melman, Seymour

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the post World War II nuclear-military arms race and claims that it is possible to define significant limits of military power for national security. Topics discussed include public opinion regarding the arms race, constraints on military power, conventional forces, checkmating conventional strategy, and the seriousness of nuclear false…

  4. Russian Military Reform: Problems and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-25

    RUSSIAN MILITARY REFORM : PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL ZURAB AGLADZE Georgian Army...USAWC STRATEGIC REASERCH PROJECT RUSSIAN MILITARY REFORM : PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES by Lieutenant Colonel...noncommissioned officers still continue to be unsolved. Despite some successes, Russian military reform still faces many challenges that will

  5. Defense.gov - Off Duty Military Life

    Science.gov Websites

    Department of Defense Submit Search Nov. 22, 2013 Off Duty Military Life Off Duty Military Life The Defense personal enrichment. While reducing stress and improving quality of life across the DOD community, these Cuts Committed to preserving quality-of-life offerings despite ever-tighter budgets, military morale

  6. Iron Status of Deployed Military Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-04

    iron status should consider race and ethnicity, military specialty, duty requirements affecting physical activity, and dietary intake. If altitude...in the deployed setting; many military personnel face potentially limited dietary options and increased physical activity while deployed. Because ID...JP, Cable SJ, et al: Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of iron supplementation in female soldiers during military training: effects

  7. Support for Military Families and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshmand, Lisa Tsoi; Hoshmand, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    This is a call for community psychologists to engage in research, consultation, and program development and evaluation in supporting military families and communities. Barriers to such involvement are identified and discussed. It is argued that the needs of military families and communities cannot be ignored when military and civilian communities…

  8. Suicide and the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that U.S. military policies emphasize humanitarian approach to issue of suicide, yet military law may view suicidal behavior as deviant and may prosecute suicide attempters. Cites convictions of soldiers for attempted and assisted suicides. Reviews recent court decisions and suggests revisions in military law. (Author/NB)

  9. Military Enlistment Propensity: New Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legree, Peter J.; Pifer, Mark

    Since the advent of the all volunteer force, the U.S. military has supported research to monitor, understand, and influence the propensity of American youth to enlist in the military. Interest in understanding determinants of military enlistment has increased since 1992 due to the shrinking size of the available youth cohort, competing demands for…

  10. Effectiveness and Efficiencies of Private Military Corporations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    generalize. While some private military corporations provide direct combat services , others provide ancillary services —such as laundry and food...collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...for traditional military forces. The PMC consists of a for profit firm that provides military services that range from combat operations to training

  11. The Returns to Military and Civilian Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrblom, Eva M.

    This report examines the economic effects of formal military vocational training and on-the-job training acquired while working in a military specialty. The hypothesis advanced is that investments in different types of military training have a significant effect on productivity and thus on wages if individuals are employed in civilian occupations…

  12. The Barracks Subculture of Military School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakov, R. Iu.

    2011-01-01

    The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.

  13. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.21 Military personnel. If a report made... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U...

  14. 5 CFR 842.306 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842.306... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as...' Retirement System Act of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was performed...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.17 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air Force...

  16. 32 CFR 724.215 - Military representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military representation. 724.215 Section 724.215 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.215 Military representation. Military...

  17. 78 FR 43796 - Indebtedness of Military Personnel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army 32 CFR Part 513 Indebtedness of Military Personnel... regulations concerning indebtedness of military personnel. The regulations are being removed because they are... policy and guidance codified at 32 CFR Part 112, ``Indebtedness of Military Personnel,'' and DoD...

  18. Military Installations and Local News: Effects on Military News Coverage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-08

    upper-class comunities within the same geographical area stressed problem solving. This may be an indication of a newspaper’s response to its perceived...apply to the conflict. Thus, military action against a government may be labeled as "insurgency," "guerilla action," or " terrorism ," each generating

  19. Factors associated with vaginal douching in military women.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nancy K; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2006-10-01

    Objectives of this secondary analysis were to describe the prevalence of vaginal douching among 1,432 women on active duty in the military and to examine demographic and behavioral factors associated with douching. More than one-half (54.5%) of the respondents reported douching at least once in their lifetimes; 63.5% of those douched during the previous year, and 45.8% of those douched in > or = 6 of the past 12 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that being African American, using tampons, having sexual intercourse, having more than one sexual partner in a month, using spermicides, and being in the enlisted and noncommissioned officer ranks were associated with more frequent douching (20.1% of the variance in douching behavior was explained). Despite access to regular gynecological examinations and related health counseling, a significant number of military women continue to douche. These women may benefit from specific intensive information on normal vaginal self-cleansing mechanisms and the health hazards of douching. Military efforts to diminish this self-care behavior and to enhance providers' knowledge about the scope of the problem may improve women's health and military readiness by decreasing the incidence of negative consequences of douching.

  20. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    PubMed

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The expanding role of military entomologists in stability and counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon L; Rankin, Steven E

    2011-01-01

    Military entomologists function as part of medical civil-military operations and are an essential combat multiplier direction supporting COIN operations. They not only directly support US and coalition military forces by performing their traditional wartime mission of protecting personnel from vector-borne and rodent-borne diseases but also enhance the legitimacy of medical services by the host nation government such as controlling diseases promulgated by food, water, vectors, and rodents. These unique COIN missions demand a new skill set required of military entomologists that are not learned from existing training courses and programs. New training opportunities must be afforded military entomologists to familiarize them with how to interact with and synergize the efforts of host nation assets, other governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and international military partners. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations is an essential component of working in the COIN environment and can present unfamiliar tasks for entomologists. This training should start with initial entry training and be a continual process throughout a military entomologist's career. Current COIN operations require greater tactical and operational flexibility and diverse entomological expertise. The skills required for today's full spectrum medical operations are different from those of the past. Counterinsurgency medical operations demand greater agility, rapid task-switching, and the ability to adequately address unfamiliar situations and challenges.

  2. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    original mutation was developed "could produce an effective prevention or cure. Each of these developments, as well as other efforts by the USSR to enhance...threat. We do not have to iook far to see evidence of that threat: to subjugated Eastern Europe , including Foland and the crushed Solidarity movement...strategic imbalance in ICBMs and con- .. • firm the Soviet advantage in the number of !,,•4 shorter range nuclear missiles, particularly in Europe . The

  3. Cognitive Science and Military Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halff, Henry M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four new military training systems offer the opportunity for the application of cognitive science. They are the following: (1) a family of memorization games; (2) a simulator with a graphic, schematic student interface; (3) a system for solving problems of relative motion; and (4) a method of building cognitive skills for air-intercept control.…

  4. Military Personnel Procurement Resources Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-28

    directed at enlistment in the Military Service. Include cost of advertising agency contract spent on marketing research (to include cost of advertising...programs. Include cost of advertising agency contract spent on marketing research (to include cost of advertising agency subcontractors). 7. Printed...Include cost of advertising agency contract spent on marketing research (to include cost of advertising agency sub- contractors). 7. Printed

  5. Military Influence in Russian Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse

  6. VOTE: Military and Overseas Voters

    Science.gov Websites

    Absentee Voting Week WASHINGTON, Sept. 27, 2010 - The Department of Defense announced Absentee Voting Week Photos Week In Photos Videos DIMOC DOD/Military Seals DoD Flickr Secretary of Defense Flickr Deputy

  7. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MILITARY TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALLIS, D.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS PART OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE ON OPERATIONAL AND PERSONNEL RESEARCH IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS, HELD IN BRUSSELS IN 1965. A MODEL ILLUSTRATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED MILITARY INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK AND CONTROL OF LEARNING. THE TRAINING COURSE INCLUDES--(1) A CLEAR…

  8. Military Education: Models from Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Unlike Westerners today, the Greeks and Romans put military training at the heart of their educational system. Examining the ancients' preoccupation with the inculcation of soldierly skills and disciplines, Professor Strauss asks whether we can find profit in their example. (Contains 7 footnotes.)

  9. Private Military Companies: An Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    enforcement units realistic and adaptable training.133 Reactions to incidents like the Columbine shooting , 9/11, and Hurricane Katrina propelled...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited PRIVATE MILITARY...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  10. Military History, 1776-1782.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, G. Stephen

    An overview is given of the military action which took place in Georgia during the American Revolution, specifically the years 1776-1782. The pamphlet, one in a series about the American Revolution in Georgia, can be used for junior or senior high school students as supplementary reading or as a brief unit. A teacher's guide is included. Georgia…

  11. Supporting Students from Military Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric; Carter, Courtney D.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 800,000 parents of school-age children have been deployed by the U.S. military. Many have deployed more than once and for extended periods, often longer than a year. As a result, increasing numbers of students experience significant distress on a daily basis and are at increased risk for behavioral problems, decreased…

  12. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the expression of HIF-1α and NGAL in rats with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Yu, Honglei; Zhou, Qiaoling; Huang, Renfa; Yuan, Mingxia; Ao, Xiang; Yang, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    To observe the level of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and NGAL in rat kidney after renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), before and after the treatment with Cordyceps Sinensis (C. sinensis), and to explore the mechanism of C. sinensis against I/R injury. A total of 45 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a renal I/R model group, and a C. sinensis group (15 in each group).The rats in the sham group and the renal I/R model group were intragastrically administered saline (2 mL/d), and rats in the treatment group were intragastricabby administered of C. sinensis [5.0 g/(kg.d)]. The rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively after the reperfusion and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) level was measured, renal function in rats was detected, and the pathological changes were observed with HE staining. We determined the urinary NGAL levels in the rats by ELISA, the expression of HIF-1α mRNA by RT-PCR, and the expressions of HIF-1α and NGAL proteins by confocal immunofluorescence. Compared with the sham group, the levels of BUN, SCr, levels of NAG and NGAL in urine were increased in the I/R group and the C. sinensis group, reached a peak at 24 h after the reperfusion and slowly declined at 48 and 72 h. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial areas in the sham group did not show any pathological change. Induced pathological changes included tubular cell necrosis, focal areas of proximal tubular dilation, distal tubular casts, effacement and loss of proximal tubule brush border, etc. Compared with the sham group, the expression of HIF-1α and NGAL in the kidney tissues of the I/R group and the C. sinensis group increased. C. sinensis can lower the level of NAG and NGAL in the urine and the expression of NGAL protein in the kidney tissues. It up-regulated the expression of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in the kidney tissues whilst attenuated

  13. Military veterans and Social Security.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  14. Military Applicability of Interval Training for Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Gibala, Martin J; Gagnon, Patrick J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2015-11-01

    Militaries from around the globe have predominantly used endurance training as their primary mode of aerobic physical conditioning, with historical emphasis placed on the long distance run. In contrast to this traditional exercise approach to training, interval training is characterized by brief, intermittent bouts of intense exercise, separated by periods of lower intensity exercise or rest for recovery. Although hardly a novel concept, research over the past decade has shed new light on the potency of interval training to elicit physiological adaptations in a time-efficient manner. This work has largely focused on the benefits of low-volume interval training, which involves a relatively small total amount of exercise, as compared with the traditional high-volume approach to training historically favored by militaries. Studies that have directly compared interval and moderate-intensity continuous training have shown similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism, despite large differences in total exercise and training time commitment. Interval training can also be applied in a calisthenics manner to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, and this approach could easily be incorporated into a military conditioning environment. Although interval training can elicit physiological changes in men and women, the potential for sex-specific adaptations in the adaptive response to interval training warrants further investigation. Additional work is needed to clarify adaptations occurring over the longer term; however, interval training deserves consideration from a military applicability standpoint as a time-efficient training strategy to enhance soldier health and performance. There is value for military leaders in identifying strategies that reduce the time required for exercise, but nonetheless provide an effective training stimulus.

  15. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    enhance the validity of their answers. The development of this new approach to measuring sexual assault and sex-based MEO violations was completed...include the buttocks, inner thigh, breast, groin, anus, vagina, penis and testicles. Top-Line Results from the RAND Military Workplace Study 41 12

  16. Applying Culture to Military Operations: A Review of Foreign Militaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-04

    with foreign cultures.29 This gap was addressed by the Australian Defence Force’s 39th Personnel Support Battalion ( PSB ) when they began offering...Force Preparation Training to military service members as well as government civilians in advance of deployment.30 In 2010, the 39th PSB determined...to ensure that the training “will continually evolve.” 31 In August of 2011, the 39th PSB began offering a two-part training package. The

  17. Military Gay Ban Revisited: Is our Military Ready for Change?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as...support from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank

  18. [Loyalty to professional and military duty].

    PubMed

    Chizh, I M

    1995-01-01

    The author of this article--Chief of the Russian Armed Forces Medical Service--analyses the trends of optimization of medical support of the Army and Navy, taking into account the experience of combat casualty care during Chechen crisis. In order to enhance the efficiency of medical support during combat activities all the personnel is supplied with first-aid kits. Each company is reinforced with a medical assistant or army physician; battalion medical posts--with physicians, medical assistants, aidmen, mobile dressing room and ambulances; regiment medical posts--with two surgeons, an anaesthesiologist, an instrument nurse and nurse-anaesthetist. The primary medical care is provided at the battalion medical post; qualified (secondary) surgical care--at regiment medical posts, and specialized (tertiary) medical care--at special medical detachments (SMD) and military hospitals. The wounded are evacuated from the zone of combat actions by APC or MICV, and then by helicopters. The further evacuation of wounded is realized by transport or medical aircraft, including "Skalpel" flight surgery plane. The experience of army physicians has proved the necessity of multilateral development of Mobile Forces Medical Service and the formation of aeromobile hospitals. An airborne infantry battalion must have a medical company in its organic structure, and respectively a separate medical battalion must have an aeromobile medical company. The SMD which are assigned to act in the emergency situations of peaceful time also can be effective in providing medical care (including specialized care) during local military conflicts. Thinking over the further development of medical support in the Armed Forces the author assigns a number of tasks throughout all the chain of medical command, including medical establishments, medical examination boards, the Corps of Senior medical specialists (in surgery, internal medicine, pathologicoanatomy, sanitary supervision, etc). A special attention is

  19. Military pain management in 21st century war.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Griffith, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Morphine and other opioid drugs have played a major role in austere environment pain management since the Civil War, particularly in the military. While the pre-eminence and success of such medications is without question, their use is accompanied by significant side effects that are undesirable in the most advanced medical settings, and are potentially devastating in the field environment. Recently, there have been significant improvements in pain care for America's wounded service members, along with a shift in how many care providers view pain management. An increasing number of healthcare providers are seeing pain not merely as a symptom, but as a disease process. In addition to dramatically improving care for wounded service members, the evolution in the military's approach to pain is enhancing care for civilians.

  20. Molded Communication Earplugs in Military Aviation.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Taija M M; Leino, Tuomo K

    2015-09-01

    Radio communication remains important for the delivery of safety-critical information in military aviation. Pilots are exposed to high noise levels. Noise attenuation provided by certain helmets is not sufficient, and resulting noise exposure can deteriorate operational effectiveness and flight safety. A need for hearing protection that enables efficient communication is obvious, especially for fighter and helicopter pilots. One possible solution for this issue is molded communication earplugs (m-CEP). Data about the advantages and disadvantages of m-CEPs are limited. To determine the usage rates, advantages, disadvantages and pilot opinions about m-CEPs, an anonymous survey study including 31 questions was conducted in fighter, fighter trainer, helicopter, and transport aircraft units of the Finnish Defense Forces. Of the pilots who responded, 136 (93%) had used or tried m-CEPs and 90 (62%) were currently using them. There are many benefits to m-CEPs: they seem to enhance experienced speech intelligibility, since 85% of the pilots who had experience about them reported improved speech intelligibility under difficult hearing conditions, and 93% would recommend them to other pilots. It seems m-CEPs provide equal benefits to pilots with and without current hearing problems. They were also considered better than previously used hearing protectors. Still, problems were common: 82% of the pilots reported m-CEP related drawbacks, of which technical problems and discomfort issues were the most prevalent. Most military pilots hold a positive opinion on m-CEPs and are willing to recommend their use. Technical problems and discomfort issues are, however, relatively common.

  1. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  2. [Psychopathological and psychosocial aspects of military crimes].

    PubMed

    Woś, Jarosław; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2013-03-01

    Crimes in the military, as well as criminal behaviors in the civilian community are determined by multiple factors. However, in case of military crimes committed by soldiers on active duty, an important part of forensic psychiatric opinion, is to assess whether occurring mental disorder resulted in inability to perform military duties. was to investigate the psychopathological and psychosocial determinants of criminal behavior in soldiers who committed military crime. The study included 122 soldiers who committed military crime. Material for this study consisted of forensic psychiatric opinions formed on the order of military prosecutor and the military judicial authorities. The results indicate that military crimes are determined by multiple factors. In most cases, the criminal behavior was associated with personality disorder (70%), alcohol problems (43%) and psychoactive substance use (30%). Psychosocial factors analysis revealed more frequent behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence (51%), history of parental alcohol problem (31%) and previous criminal record (29%). Forensic psychiatric examinations revealed that military crimes are more frequent in soldiers on compulsory military service, and in those with personality disorder or/and alcohol problems.

  3. Arbiters of Social Unrest: Military Responses to the Arab Spring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    of the Tunisian, Egyptian , Libyan, and Syrian militaries; and conclusions and suggestions for further research. This case study approach will...respective militaries behaved differently toward widespread protests. The Tunisian military refused to intervene in political affairs, while the Egyptian ...Libyan military and political leaders to the popular protests as well as the contentious deliberations among Egyptian military elites on whether or not

  4. A Guide to the Study and Use of Military History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, John E., Jr.; Coakley, Robert W.

    This study guide on military history is intended for use with the young officer just entering upon a military career. There are four major sections to the guide. Part one discusses the scope and value of military history, presents a perspective on military history, and examines essentials of a study program. The study of military history has both…

  5. 20 CFR 212.5 - Verification of military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of military service. 212.5... MILITARY SERVICE § 212.5 Verification of military service. Military service may be verified by the... armed forces that shows the beginning and ending dates of the individual's active military service; or a...

  6. Thank You for Your Service: Military Initiatives on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kristin Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Military students and their dependents arrive on college campuses with a diverse array of academic goals and support needs. A military friendly college understands that military students are transitioning from the professional military environment to the workforce, and academic work is part of that transition. A military friendly college is not…

  7. Family Resilience in the Military

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  8. Military vaccines in today's environment.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohn, Connie S; Smith, Leonard A; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2012-08-01

    The US military has a long and highly distinguished record of developing effective vaccines against pathogens that threaten the armed forces. Many of these vaccines have also been of significant benefit to civilian populations around the world. The current requirements for force protection include vaccines against endemic disease threats as well as against biological warfare or bioterrorism agents, to include novel or genetically engineered threats. The cost of vaccine development and the modern regulatory requirements for licensing vaccines have strained the ability of the program to maintain this broad mission. Without innovative vaccine technologies, streamlined regulatory strategies, and coordinating efforts for use in civilian populations where appropriate, the military vaccine development program is in jeopardy.

  9. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    PubMed

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  10. Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo were predominant in the French and British colonial forces prior to independence. This initial ethnic bias had a major impact ...the job, undermining the impartiality of this oversight function and negatively impacting operational capacity. It is very rare in Africa for the...forest reserves and parks from illegal poaching and lumbering.66 Senegal, too, has involved its military in some public works projects through a

  11. Military Construction: Process and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-14

    the Army’s Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (ACSIM), the service’s senior officer responsible for setting installations-related...with the governor as its commander in chief and the Adjutant General (TAG) as its senior military officer .11 Each National Guard is a joint organization...encompasses several steps:  determination of need by the local installation commander and engineering office ,  vetting and prioritization of

  12. Civil Military Operations In Ecuador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    3455 This process of "re-democratization" meant more than the establishment of simple " electoral democracies඀. The return to democracy meant, for...representation, uncertain electoral outcomes, control of the state by political elected officials, and military subordination to the authority of elected...Abadalá Bucarám won the presidential elections with 54% of the electoral vote. Michael L. Conniff describes the elite reaction to his election

  13. Basic Military Justice Handbook. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    copies. Note: The accused will be escorted to the local medical facility for a preconfinement physical. This is a function of your master-at-arms...5004 of ref (a). a. Retrieved dependent ID cards. b. If not surrendered, notify local medical facilities and military activities. c. A terminate DD 1172...dental records, and secure physical immediately before trial (or notify medical people of need). B. POST-TRIAL MATTERS 1. Assure confinement order is

  14. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-17

    author and the Contract Law Department, U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s School, Charlottesville, Virginia) 𔃺 Memorandum, Harvey J. Nathan, Deputy...Improvement of Military Housing; Applicability of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (5 March 1997) (copy on file with the author and the Contract Law Department...Attachment 1, page 1-2 (copy on file with the author and the Contract Law Department, U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s School, Charlottesville

  15. Military Review: Training the Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    attack birds move in, it realizes the reserve must finish the fight. TF Sa- is over.., the senior controller calls "change of ber is alerted to recycle ...concentrate on field S1 must then take the casualties and recycle exerise performance alone, measwing it them as replacements. objectively against a...degenerate into a formal rehash of military history and the causes and consequences of common places and a plodding through trivia , tension between

  16. Countering Terrorism on Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-29

    military forces and police agencies since 1970 uncover fanc - tional task-areas which require examinatiin subsequent to development of theory (policy...with the CinC in his office. GEN Blanchard was aware of the ’AI visit and had reqiiested this meeting. He was extremely interested and knowledgeable in...the subject of te:’rorism. He had recettly directed the Provost Marshal to prepare a paper on the subject and a command regulation. GEN Blanchard re

  17. The Military Immunization Communication Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    the persistent contention that thimerosal, a preservative in some vaccines , causes autism in children. In July 2005, senior scientists from a variety... autism . Acting out of caution, however, these same groups agreed with FDA’s previous decision to discontinue the use of thimerosal in vaccines . The press...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Surgeon General’s Office,Military Vaccine (MILVAX) Agency

  18. Blogs and Military Information Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    organization of the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. The mission of the Joint Special Operations...tion in academic, interagency and US military communities. The JSOU portal is https://jsou.socom.mil. Joint Special Operations University Brigadier...long-term conflict where the use of the global communications tool, the inter- net, plays a prominent role. The authors examine blogging from a

  19. Military Observers 1815-1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-16

    MR&I DTIC TAB thiaunoed 1: lstltioati~tL---- - A-ValabilitY Cod’s jt speciael lot MILITARY OBSERVERS (ALPHABET ICAL ROSTER) 1632 Abbot, Henry L. 1854...Allen, Henry Tureman 1882, Infantry 24473 Allen, Micahel Beggs 1963,Field Artillery 15612 Allen, Robert Wallace 1946,Quartermaster Corps 13445...Charles Howard 1961, Infantry 21350 Armstrong, James Sutton Jr. 1957,Infantry’ 14231 Armstrong, Robert Hawkins 1944,Air Corps 12206 Arnold, Henry Harley

  20. Military Governance and War Termination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Military Studies ___________________________________ Director, Robert F. Baumann, Ph.D. Graduate Degree Programs Disclaimer: Opinions...77 J. Boone Barthlomees, “Theory of Victory,” Parameters XXVII, no. 2 (Summer 2008), 27. 78 Robert Mandel, “Reassessing Victory in Warfare." Armed...political goals, but not, for whatever reasons, reaching total political success.”80 A critical point presented by Dr. Robert Mandel is that victory is

  1. Military Construction: FY2017 Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-04

    combined the versions of the Transportation, Housing and Urban Development (T-HUD), Military Construction and Veterans Affairs (MILCON/VA), and Zika ...amended bill, and sent it to the House. The House substituted its own amendment in three divisions (Division A: MILCON/VA, Division B: Zika Response...Appropriations, and Division C: Zika Vector Control), removing the T-HUD portion for H.R. 2577, passed the bill, and requested a conference. The

  2. Energy requirements of military personnel.

    PubMed

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J; Delany, James P; Hoyt, Reed W

    2005-02-01

    Energy requirements of military personnel (Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines) have been measured in garrison and in field training under a variety of climatic conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ (3109-7131 kcal) per day. The overall mean was 19.3+/-2.7 MJ (mean+/-SD) (4610+/-650 kcal) per day measured over an average of 12.2 days (range 2.25-69 days). For the 77 female military personnel studied, mean total energy expenditures for individual experimental groups ranged from 9.8 to 23.4 MJ (2332-5597 kcal) per day, with an overall mean of 11.9+/-2.6 MJ (2850+/-620 kcal) per day, measured over an average of 8.8 days (range 2.25-14 days). Women, presumably due to their lower lean body mass, resting metabolic rate, and absolute work rates, had lower total energy expenditures. Combat training produced higher energy requirements than non-combat training or support activities. Compared to temperate conditions, total energy expenditures did not appear to be influenced by hot weather, but tended to be higher in the cold or high altitude conditions.

  3. Developing Military Health Care Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Sheila Nataraj; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Thie, Harry J.; Xia, Nailing; Sollinger, Jerry M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. Department of Defense has highlighted the importance of preparing health care leaders to succeed in joint, performance-based environments. The current wartime environment, rising health care costs, and an increased focus on joint operations have led to recommendations for Military Health System (MHS) transformation. Part of that transformation will involve improving the identification and development of potential MHS leaders. An examination of how candidates are identified for leadership positions, the training and education opportunities offered to them, and the competencies they are expected to achieve revealed both a range of approaches and several commonalities in the military, civilian, and government sectors. A conceptual framework guided a series of interviews with senior health care executives from a wide range of organizations and military health care leaders from the Army, Navy, and Air Force, as well as a case study of the leader development approaches used by the Veterans Health Administration. Several themes emerged in terms of how leaders are developed in each sector, including the importance of mentoring, career counseling, 360-degree feedback, self-development, and formal education and training programs. Lessons learned in the civilian and government sectors hold importance for transforming the way in which MHS identifies and develops health care officers with high leadership potential for senior executive positions. PMID:28083164

  4. Cultural evolution of military camouflage.

    PubMed

    Talas, Laszlo; Baddeley, Roland J; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-05

    While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions. Following the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, countries that became more Western-facing in political terms converged on NATO patterns in camouflage texture and colour. Following the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, the resulting states diverged in design, becoming more similar to neighbouring countries than the ancestral design. None of these insights would have been obtained using extant military approaches to camouflage design, which focus solely on concealment. Moreover, our computational techniques for quantifying pattern offer new tools for comparative biologists studying animal coloration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. REVOLUTION IN MILITARY SCIENCE, ITS IMPORTANCE AND CONSEQUENCES, MILITARY ART ON A NEW STAGE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The central problem of modern military art is defined as the development of new methods of conducting armed conflict. The changes involving the radical military technical re-equipping of Soviet Armed Forces, are described.

  6. Online Reporting of Military Sexual Trauma.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann W; Lee, Wendy J; Carretta, Carrie M

    2016-04-01

    Case finding and treatment of military sexual trauma (MST) remains a serious problem in military and veteran populations as well as in the civilian population. This report provides descriptive examples, with statistics, of persons serving in the military or while living/working on a military base when they experienced unwanted sex. Males, more than females, never disclosed MST before online survey, had more physical injuries as a result and reported chronic disturbing thoughts of the experience. Undisclosed and unreported intrafamilial childhood sexual experiences were cited before an MST by some respondents. Interprofessional collaboration is recommended between military nurse practitioners and behavioral health clinicians as well as innovative strategies using telecommunication and online counseling. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. New Generation of Military Members Provides Opportunity to Reform Military Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    only 9% for those in companies with less than a 100 workers. A 2008 survey found that 72% of employees cite retirement benefits as an important factor...New Generation of Military Members Provides Opportunity to Reform Military Benefits by Lieutenant Colonel Todd D...SUBTITLE New Generation of Military Members Provides Opportunity to Reform Military Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Utilization of Military Women. (A Report of Increased Utilization of Military Women, FY-1973-1977)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of the study was to examine the utilization of military women and to prepare contingency plans for increasing the use of women to offset...to the utilization of military women : History of women in the Armed Forces; potential supply of women for the Armed Forces; assignment policies...attrition rates; costs of military women versus men; and service plans for increasing use of military women .

  9. The Military Theater Distribution Network Design Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    The Military Theater Distribution Network Design Problem THESIS MARCH 2015 Robert R. Craig, MAJ, USA AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-137 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-137 THE MILITARY THEATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM THESIS Presented...B.S., M.S. MAJ, USA MARCH 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-137 THE MILITARY THEATER

  10. [Economic problems in military public health].

    PubMed

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  11. Dangers of Military Entanglement in Partisan Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    members’ absentee ballots by 10 days.1 The reason was obvious to most Americans. The Republican candidate expected a majority of the military members to...to be focused on the military absentee ballots. According to an Army Times poll, approximately 68 percent of all the military supported his campaign...no electronic communication, large voting by absentee balloting was not feasible. World War II brought a change to the situation. With a large number

  12. Translations on USSR Military Affairs, Number 1319

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-22

    basis of military economics. As is known, the modern scientific and technological revolution has strengthened even more the dependence of war and...investment spheres of an academy’s graduates must also be consider- ed The teaching of political and military economies would border on enlight - enment...dynamics of its military, economic, scientific and technological potential without mastering the changes in the industrial structure of physical

  13. Military Manpower Training Report for FY 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    intermediate, and senior. Ed..cation in the military school system is fundamental to trw development of military officers who are fully qualified to perforr...of training inputs and loads, the Services are able to adapt the training system to changing conditions. However, it should be clear that extended...each Service maintains a system of professional military education which is progressive in nature. This education is related more to the increasing

  14. Developing Exemplary Civilian-Military Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    military efforts? The implication is that community relations never The cycle never ends. Good civilian-military rela- reach a steady state; they are...the dimensions and dynamics of the civilian- qualify for in-state tuition rates at Virginia colleges ; and military relationship. What were some of...another 1,200 civilian local department chosen by the state of Mississippi to and contractor employees, and almost 8,000 students provide DARE training

  15. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    DOD Office of the Actuary , May 2011. 3 Department of Defense, Valuation of the Military Retirement System, September 30, 2010, Office of the Actuary ...January 2012, p. 13. 4 Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2010 DOD Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System, Office of the Actuary , May... Actuary , FY2012 DOD Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System, May 2013. Statistical documents available by fiscal year for FY2005-FY2011 at

  16. Risk, Military Ethics and Irregular Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    permissible; they are obligatory. Given the state’s moral obligation to protect its citizens, 6 military operations conducted in their defense are prima ... facie obligated , even when conducting those operations exposes combatants to harm. 7 Thus, in what I will refer to as the “traditional view,” by taking...of military necessity and not an obligation itself. By conflating preserving soldiers’ lives with military necessity the traditional view of

  17. Rhabdomyolysis After Crawling Military Training.

    PubMed

    Atias-Varon, Danit; Sherman, Haggai; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis followed by release of intracellular muscle contents into the circulation. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in response to nonfamiliar and/or excessive, prolonged, or repetitive exercises, with eccentric characteristics. In military populations, due to the type of intense, all out physical loads, ER is a significant threat, particularly when training under heat stress. However, many other etiologies exist, and clinical presentations vary greatly. This heterogeneity may result in difficulty in prevention, diagnosis, and return-to-duty decision. The purpose of this report is to point to a new potential risk factor to an extreme muscle breakdown and ER. In this article, we describe three cases of ER in army recruits after strenuous acts of crawling over hard surfaces during an intense military selection process. The soldiers' creatine phosphokinase levels were markedly raised (44,000, 123,500, and 176,599 IU/L), but none of them developed any significant medical complication. There are two major mechanisms leading to ER: the mechanical pathway which is associated with muscle tension, and the metabolic pathway which is associated with cellular energy depletion. During this military selection process, the intensity of the exercises, and cycles of work and rest are highly controlled, and so are the timings of meals and fluids consumption. Moreover, the soldiers were all at least moderately fit and had participated in strenuous exercise events before. According to years of experience with this military selection process, under similar conditions (exercise volumes and loads) we have experienced along the years minimal medical events. At the same time, and this was the unique part in these case, all patients suffered significantly from mechanical injuries caused by crawling on hard surface which were not a part of the planned selection program. Thus, we suggest that the significant muscle breakdown in the

  18. 75 FR 34988 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board 2010 Summer Study on Enhancing Adaptability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... 2010 Summer Study on Enhancing Adaptability of Our Military Forces AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Enhancing Adaptability of our Military Forces will meet in closed session from August 2-13, 2010, in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maj Michael Warner, USAF, Defense Science Board, 3140 Defense Pentagon, Room 3B888A...

  19. Training MSSW Students for Military Social Work Practice and Doctoral Students in Military Resilience Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuMars, Tyler; Bolton, Kristin; Maleku, Arati; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    The demand for social workers with military-related practice and research experience exceeds the current supply. To advance military social work education, we developed an interlevel master's of science in social work (MSSW) field practicum and doctoral research practicum that provides military social work field experiences and contributes to…

  20. Impact of Military Lifestyle on Military Spouses' Educational and Career Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane

    2018-01-01

    The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…

  1. Pastoral Care and Counseling with Military Families.

    PubMed

    Moon, Zachary

    2016-06-01

    The complex human experience of military service and the stress suffered by millions of military families each time a loved one deploys present unique challenges and opportunities in providing pastoral care and counseling. War and military service impact many facets of our society, as well as generational and interpersonal relationships. This article speaks to both academic and practitioner communities, and provides a vision for effective pastoral care and counseling with military families drawing on resources from family systems theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    framework including GWOT, counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and military support for stabilization and reconstruction efforts. With respect to the... microsurgery (rodents); and combat trauma training (goats and swine

  3. Military Space Control: An Intuitive Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    information dominance is the impetus for an increasing military dependence on space services. This reliance on space systems is compelling military decision makers to make key strategic choices about the future of space control. The purpose of this paper is to analyze major aspects of military space control strategy and determine if U.S. initiatives are on track to meet the needs of the warfighter. To analyze U.S. military space control strategy, this research takes an intuitive approach based on a methodology introduced by Newman, Logan, and Hegarty in their book,

  4. The military and the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R

    2010-01-01

    Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects youths' approach to adult responsibilities. The authors note that today's all-volunteer military is both career-oriented and family-oriented, and they show how the material and social support the military provides to young servicemen and women promotes responsible membership in family relationships and the wider community. As a result, they argue, the transition to adulthood, including economic independence from parents, is more stable and orderly for military personnel than for their civilian peers. At the same time, they stress that serving in the military in a time of war holds dangers for young adults. The authors examine four broad areas of military service, focusing in each on how men and women in uniform today make the transition to adulthood. They begin by looking at the social characteristics of those who serve, especially at differences in access to the military and its benefits by socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and sexual orientation. Military service also has important effects on family formation, including the timing of marriage and parenthood, family structure, and the influence of military culture on families. Family formation among servicemen and women, the authors observe, is earlier and more stable than among civilians of the same age. The authors then consider the educational and employment consequences of service. Finally, they scrutinize the dangers of military service during times of war and examine the physical and psychological effects of wartime military service. They also note the sexual trauma endured both by male and female military

  5. Satellite Power System (SPS) military applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozeroff, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential military role, both offensive and defensive, of a Satellite Power System (SPS) is examined. A number of potential military support possibilities are described. An SPS with military capabilities may have a strong negative impact on international relations if it is not internationalized. The SPS satellite would be vulnerable to military action of an enemy with good space capability, but would experience little or no threat from saboteurs or terrorists, except via the ground controls. The paper concludes with an outline of some of the key issues involved, and a number of recommendations for future study, including some areas for long term efforts.

  6. 75 FR 81244 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting... will take place: 1. Name of Committee: Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC). 2. Date... Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional concerns as...

  7. A review of advanced high performance, insensitive and thermally stable energetic materials emerging for military and space applications.

    PubMed

    Sikder, A K; Sikder, Nirmala

    2004-08-09

    Energetic materials used extensively both for civil and military applications. There are continuous research programmes worldwide to develop new materials with higher performance and enhanced insensitivity to thermal or shock insults than the existing ones in order to meet the requirements of future military and space applications. This review concentrates on recent advances in syntheses, potential formulations and space applications of potential compounds with respect to safety, performance and stability.

  8. A Review of Military Health Research Using a Social-Ecological Framework.

    PubMed

    Lubens, Pauline; Bruckner, Tim A

    2018-05-01

    We aim to contextualize the growing body of research on the sequelae of military service in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. We employ a social-ecological (SE) framework for the taxonomy of military health research and classify risk as arising from the individual, family, community, and the institutional levels. We intend for this review to inform enhanced health promotion efforts in military communities. Articles reviewed were extracted from Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus. Research focused on somatic and psychological sequelae of combat deployment published from 2001-the year the war in Afghanistan began-through the end of 2014. We excluded studies of non-US military personnel, other systematic reviews, meta-analyses, book chapters, and theoretical papers. We examined and summarized the aims, participants, methods, study design, SE framework tier, risk factors, and health outcomes. Studies were categorized according to SE tier, whether they focused on somatic, behavioral, or psychological outcomes, and by risk factor. Of the 352 peer-reviewed papers, 84% focused on war's sequelae on the index military personnel, and 75% focused on mental or behavioral health outcomes-mostly on post-traumatic stress disorder. We find comparatively little research focusing on the family, community, or institutional tiers. We know relatively little about how family and community respond to the return of personnel from combat deployment; how family resources affect the health of returning military personnel; and how a war's persistence presents challenges for federal, state, and local agencies to meet military health-care needs. Such work is especially salient as US troops return home from war-particularly in communities where there are substantial military populations.

  9. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Patricia A; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    It is legal tomarketmost naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting systemdoes not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, includingmilitary personnel, aremore likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of thesemay be problematic, Servicemembers are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken variousmeasures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE thatmight be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  10. Preparedness Evaluation of French Military Orthopedic Surgeons Before Deployment.

    PubMed

    Choufani, Camille; Barbier, Olivier; Mayet, Aurélie; Rigal, Sylvain; Mathieu, Laurent

    2018-06-13

    A deployed military orthopedic surgeon is a trauma surgeon working in austere conditions. The first aim of this study was to analyze the current activity of French military orthopedic surgeons in the field and to identify the differences of the combat zone with their daily practice. The second aim was to assess the adequacy of the preparedness they received before their deployment and to identify additional needs that could be addressed in future training. An evaluation survey was sent to all French military orthopedic surgeons deployed in theaters of operations between 2004 and 2014. An analogic visual scale of 10 was used to evaluate their surgical activity abroad and prior training. A total of 55 surgeons, with a median deployment number of 7, were included in this study after they answered the survey. Debridement and external fixation were the most common orthopedic procedures. The practice of general surgery was mostly concerned with vascular and abdominal injuries as part of damage control procedures. Median scores were ranked at seven for surgical preparedness, five for physical readiness, and three for mental preparedness. There was a significant inverse relationship between the number of missions performed and the evaluation of surgical preparedness. The higher they perceived their mental preparedness, the better they estimated their surgical preparedness. In the French Army, deployed orthopedic surgeons perform general surgical activity. Their initial training must be adapted to this constraint and enhanced by continuing medical education.

  11. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  12. Military Veterans Face Challenges in Accessing Educational Benefits at Florida Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Rivka; Hill, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Florida's community colleges are seeing an influx of students who face unique challenges. They are the men and women who served in the military after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and who are now attending college on the new Post-9/11 GI Bill, with its greatly enhanced educational benefits, and on the expanded, old Montgomery GI Bill, which…

  13. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  14. Troubleshooting Complex Equipment in the Military Services: Research and Prospects. Technical Report No. 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Towne, Douglas M.

    Psychological approaches to the troubleshooting of complex military equipments are designed to improve the selection, motivation, and training of technicians. Methods for enhancing the understanding of the physical relations in equipment, the hierarchical analysis and practice of sub-skills, and the general logic of searching behavior are aspects…

  15. Military Forces in Urban Antiterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    not constitule an official eodorýemtnt oi apprcvai of the use of’ s3ch commercial products. UNCLASSIFIED ýEUAITY CLAS .’A71ON; 01 - ~’PAGE J FIorm...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) ýIFLD GROUP SU1R- AU P urban wlrfare; MOUT, 15 6 ____ ,.rban terrorism LIC J terrorism (see...onclusions and address-ez their impl ic~ati ons for U.S. military forces in future urban aril itrror int operat2.on:?.k 20DiSTRiBUITION /AVAILABILTY OF j .,85

  16. Military Families: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    34 Armed Forces & Society 30, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 7-24. Sage 6 Darwin, Jaine. "When War Hits Home." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute 137, no. 2...of American Families on the Homefront . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 317pp. (DS79.76 .H25 2006) Hightower, Kathie. Help! I’m a Military Spouse—I...College. The Battlebook III: A Guide for Spouses in Leadership Roles; Spouses’ Project 2007. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 2007. 1 vol

  17. Military Review: A Changing Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the s. US Amy-US Air Force Coet for Low -wnseay Coniflict briof". 1Nhw Org arnd Nato" Seamu" An Ej reauve Summary of the Threat and a Ratiocombined...inrc 40 A"Light" Infantry Division With Patrft L D"More for the Fight Books & Fares Etia by Captain Allen L. TIffany US Army Reserve Anan Dt 56...surveys its military policy for the fu- question. Then, after laying out various factors ture.I Now operations Desert Shield and Desert influencing

  18. Symbology Sourcebook for Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    automated vs ,°- ,. -° -. "’ao CA:I- a- 0d 926. - 3 1 - 0~ u 4A ’I6 catalog of military symbols (TACSYM). The development of TACSYM induced a second...Airborne 124 DemolItion 37 ADP Central 61 Antiaircraft 125 Fence 36 Elec. Navig. Aid Antitank 126 Data Processing Unit 39 Microphones 83 Armour 127...130 Medical 43 Animal 87 FA 131 Hospital 44 Armoured 88 Construction 132 Medical Supply 18 SYMBOL CONCEPTS 133 Mines 134 Missile Supply 135 Multi-Class

  19. Military medical modeling and simulation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Moses, G; Magee, J H; Bauer, J J; Leitch, R

    2001-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century, military medicine struggles with critical issues. One of the most important issues is how to train medical personnel in peace for the realities of war. In April, 1998, The General Accounting Office (GAO) reported, "Military medical personnel have almost no chance during peacetime to practice battlefield trauma care skills. As a result, physicians both within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) believe that military medical personnel are not prepared to provide trauma care to the severely injured soldiers in wartime. With some of today's training methods disappearing, the challenge of providing both initial; and sustainment training for almost 100,000 military medical personnel is becoming insurmountable. The "training gap" is huge and impediments to training are mounting. For example, restrictions on animal use are increasing and the cost of conducting live mass casualty exercises is prohibitive. Many medical simulation visionaries believe that four categories of medical simulation are emerging to address these challenges. These categories include PC-based multimedia, digital mannequins, virtual workbenches, and total immersion virtual reality (TIVR). The use of simulation training can provide a risk = free realistic learning environment for the spectrum of medical skills training, from buddy-aid to trauma surgery procedures. This will, in turn, enhance limited hands on training opportunities and revolutionize the way we train in peace to deliver medicine in war. High-fidelity modeling will permit manufacturers to prototype new devices before manufacture. Also, engineers will be able to test a device for themselves in a variety of simulated anatomical representations, permitting them to "practice medicine".

  20. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  1. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  2. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    College Review 32:51-62, July-August 1979. Brown, Harold. Planning our military forces. Foreign Affails 45(2): 277- 290, 1967. Brugger, Robert J. Apocalypse ... now : American military planning in an age of diminishing possibilities. Virginia Quarterly Review 58:392-406, Summer 1982. Bruins, Berend D. Should

  3. Engaging Military Partners: Supporting Connections to Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harriett C.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Overseas Contingency Operation (OCO), families and communities have been impacted by multiple deployments. This is particularly challenging for families that are geographically isolated from military installations and resources typically available near these facilities. Operation Military Kids (OMK) is a national partnership…

  4. Conflict in Maritally Distressed Military Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A.; Morgan, Allison R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated whether 30 maritally distressed military couples differed from 30 distressed civilian couples using marital satisfaction questionnaires. Found same-sex differences across groups, and cross-sex differences within groups. Found military wives were more likely to be physically abused than were civilian wives, and more often requested…

  5. Compendium of Military Allied Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    A broad overview of the military allied health educational system and specific information on individual courses are presented. A listing of the military allied health educational programs accredited by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation and a job description for each of the 24 accredited occupational areas are included. A…

  6. Adult Attitudes Toward the Military: Poll Three

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    employees (65%), airport security personnel (55%) and lawyers (45%). Probing specifically into adults’ perceptions of full-time non-military...military civilians employed by the U.S. Department of Defense g. Leadership of federal government h. Airport security personnel i. Civilian federal...71%), leadership of federal government (66%), civilian federal government employees (65%), airport security personnel (55%), and lawyers (45

  7. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U...

  8. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U...

  9. 14 CFR 13.21 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military personnel. 13.21 Section 13.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... civilian employee of the Department of Defense who is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (10 U...

  10. Defense.gov - Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov Websites

    procedure used by all kennels to ensure excess military working dogs have a chance to go to deserving adoptive homes. Adoption Program Lets Working Dogs Become Pets WASHINGTON, Aug. 31, 2009 - Military working dogs have come a long way since the days of ancient Persia and Assyria, where they donned armor, spiked

  11. Sociological Research in a Military School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignat'ev, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    What is the content of a system of sociological support for the administration of a higher military educational institution, and what problems are involved? From October 2006 to February 2007, instructors in the department of the humanities and the social-economic disciplines at Eisk F. M. Komarov Higher Military Aviation School (EVVAU) carried…

  12. Military Expenditure and Socio-Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Nicole

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…

  13. Satellite power system (SPS) military implications

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.

    1978-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine military implications of the NASA Reference SPS and to identify important military related study tasks that could be completed during fiscal year 1979. Primary areas of investigation were the potential of the SPS as a weapon, for supporting U.S. military preparedness and for affecting international relations. In addition, the SPS's relative vulnerability to overt military action, terrorist attacks, and sabotage was considered. The SPS could act as an electronic warfare weapon and, with modification, as a marginally effective energy-beaming weapon. The system could support military preparedness by providing energy for a strong and stablemore » U.S. economy and by providing a powered platform for military systems, system segments, and operations. The SPS would be vulnerable to military action, terrorism and sabotage unless hardened against these attacks by design, security, and a self-defense system. Tasks identified for completion in fiscal year 1979 include (a) a detailed vulnerability study, (b) evaluation of an SPS self-defense system concept, (c) determination of the effect of SPS flexibility to deliver different sized electrical loads on the ability to gain SPS support from individual nations, and (d) investigation of the effect of SPS deployment schedule on obtaining needed agreements, providing security, and controlling risks of armed conflict. A fifth and long-term task would consist of a worldwide survey identifiying military implications of the SPS that result from the specific requirements of potential SPS power customers.« less

  14. Military Throwaways Why Acquirers Should Go Disposable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Defense AT&L: January–February 2016 34 Military Throwaways? Why Acquirers Should Go Disposable Maj. Patrick Dugan, USAF Maj. Jon D. McComb...outdated they no longer are manufactured. Unfortunately, the military regularly deals with DMS issues. Going disposable would alleviate DMS concerns

  15. 5 CFR 831.301 - Military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is not receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons other than (i) service-connected disability incurred in combat with an enemy of the United States, (ii) service-connected disability caused by an... receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons other than (i) service-connected disability incurred in...

  16. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    12 2. Direct Commercial Sales vs. Foreign Military Sales .....................15 3...the final bill to the customer, and the DSCA sends a closure certificate to DFAS. 2. Direct Commercial Sales vs. Foreign Military Sales Direct ...is defined as the “coproduction, licensed production, countertrade, subcontracting, and technology transfer—mandated by foreign governments as a

  17. Military Deployment and Elementary Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…

  18. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  19. The Demographics of Military Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clever, Molly; Segal, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of the all-volunteer force in the 1970s, marriage, parenthood, and family life have become commonplace in the U.S. military among enlisted personnel and officers alike, and military spouses and children now outnumber service members by a ratio of 1.4 to 1. Reviewing data from the government and from academic and nonacademic…

  20. Unlocking Insights about Military Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra, Anita; London, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    As this issue of the "Future of Children" makes clear, there is much yet to learn about military children and their families. A big part of the reason, write Anita Chandra and Andrew London, is the lack of sufficiently robust sources of data. Until more and better data are collected about military families, Chandra and London say, it…

  1. Teaching Vietnam: A Critical Military Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Harry G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    So that the same mistakes would never again be repeated, the Army War College prepared a clear and understandable analysis of America's strategic failure in Vietnam. One of the most positive aspects of the analysis was the rediscovery of the importance of traditional military history and classical military theory. (RM)

  2. 76 FR 68609 - Military Family Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... troops embody the courage and character that make America's military the finest in the world, their... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 214 November 4, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8743--Military Family Month, 2011 Proclamation 8744--National Adoption Month, 2011 Proclamation 8745--National Alzheimer's...

  3. Military Day Care: Problems and Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, George D.

    This paper presents some legal and social policy aspects of military child care facilities in the United States. Under the jurisdiction of Article I of the United States Constitution, the federal government has the right to determine the social welfare rights of people living on military installations; yet these people are not included in programs…

  4. Military Versus Civilian Murder-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J

    2015-07-03

    Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-07

    Meetings of students and veterans, militarized physical culture celebrations , department and school activities which develop a sense of patriotism, formal...they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military

  6. Soviet military doctrine and Western security policy

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    The late 1970s and early 1980s witnessed an unprecedented polarization of Western political and analytical opinion about the Soviet military and how policy should adapt to the emergence of parity between the superpowers. This study analyzes the roots of this polarization, and brings together for the first time a thorough survey of Western perceptions of Soviet military thought and doctrine, as well as of Soviet perceptions of Western military thought and doctrine. The work demonstrates how both East and West regularly makes judgements on the other's military profile on the basis of political preconceptions about the other's intentions. Western analysismore » of the Soviet military has not gone much beyond this unfortunate condition because most of the critical questions cannot be answered definitively with existing data and methodology. The study offers an assessment of how analysis of Soviet doctrine can be better factored into Western arms control and force posture planning.« less

  7. Roman Military Medicine and Croatian Archaeological Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cesarik, Marijan; Cesarik, Nikola; Duplančić, Darko; Štrmelj, David

    2016-09-01

    This article offers a general examination of the sources responsible for understanding Roman military medicine, starting with literal and epigraphical sources all the way to archaeological remains consisting of hospitals, the infrastructure of military garrisons and small medical tools. Given that not one of the literary sources does not directly mention the medical personnel within the various military units, epigraphical discoveries widely represent the main source of our knowledge on the subject. On the other hand, the archaeological exploration of military garrisons offers proof of the medical care of Roman soldiers. If at first it appears that Roman military medicine is perfectly obvious and clear, actually this is not the case as many questions remain to be answered and debated. In all this, Croatia has its own archaeological perspective, where notably, one site stands out, which could hold a key role according to the layout of buildings within the garrison including its hospital.

  8. Sustaining and Enhancing the US Militarys Technology Edge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    www.congress . gov /bill/114th-congress/house-bill/1735/text. 14. Michael J. Sullivan, Defense Acquisitions: Observations on Whether or Not the Service Chief...Washington, DC: Gov - ernment Accountability Office, May 2010), http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10522.pdf. 16. The first offset refers to the threat of massive...Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and previously as a general counsel at NASA and as an USAF judge advocate. He explained the history of

  9. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment. Kapalama Military Reservation Honolulu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    through 28 July 1989. Past site conditions and management practices were evaluated, based on readdy available records and the recollections of people...soil borings. These wells should be strategically placed to characterize the groundwater at areas of concern. These samples should be analyzed for TPHs...be strategically placed te characterize the groundwater at areas of concern. These sample should be analyzed for TPH and VOCs. Additional analyses may

  10. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Kapalama Military Reservation, Honolulu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    Environmentally Significant Operations - Transformers 3-4 5-1 Recommended Sampling Methods 5-6 vii 1073M2-4 LIST OF TABLES Tabf lN. Title ES-1 ESOs...Phase III. ES-I 1073M2-4 ESOs identified on the property include: Buildings 913/914 - Mortuary - chemicals used in the embalming process. The chemicals...The chemicals stored here are associated with the examination and embalming procedures performed at the mortuary and include arterial fluids

  11. A methodology to enhance electromagnetic compatibility in joint military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckellew, William R.

    The development and validation of an improved methodology to identify, characterize, and prioritize potential joint EMI (electromagnetic interference) interactions and identify and develop solutions to reduce the effects of the interference are discussed. The methodology identifies potential EMI problems using results from field operations, historical data bases, and analytical modeling. Operational expertise, engineering analysis, and testing are used to characterize and prioritize the potential EMI problems. Results can be used to resolve potential EMI during the development and acquisition of new systems and to develop engineering fixes and operational workarounds for systems already employed. The analytic modeling portion of the methodology is a predictive process that uses progressive refinement of the analysis and the operational electronic environment to eliminate noninterfering equipment pairs, defer further analysis on pairs lacking operational significance, and resolve the remaining EMI problems. Tests are conducted on equipment pairs to ensure that the analytical models provide a realistic description of the predicted interference.

  12. Facilitating successful reintegration: Attending to the needs of military families.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P; Larson, Jacqueline C; Armstrong, Laura Marie

    2017-01-01

    Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategies for supporting successful reintegration of MSVMs and veterans in the context of military families. Guided by the ecological framework, this article summarizes selected evidence regarding factors that influence reintegration and puts forth recommendations for research and practice to promote the wellness of military families. Informed by findings regarding the diverse challenges faced by these families and grounded in the ecological framework, the authors highlight the need to assess both proximal and distal factors related to families' reintegration experiences and the need to intervene at multiple levels and across multiple contexts. Of primary importance, the authors recommend strategies to enhance the capacity of families' natural settings and describe selected capacity- and resource- enhancement approaches for families, neighborhoods, schools, and communities that facilitate resilience and promote wellness. Other recommendations include focusing on the accessibility, integration, and coordination of services; considering the long-view and developing strategies for longer-term support; developing mechanisms for family support; and evaluating efforts to address needs of families and promote family resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  14. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  16. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.158 - Active military duty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Active military duty. 3550.158 Section 3550.158... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.158 Active military duty...-time active military duty after a loan is closed not exceed six percent. Active military duty does not...

  18. Interventions for Sustainable Weight Loss in Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    through connections made at the 2017 IPR meeting, we participated in discussions with LTC McKnight (Principle Advisor and Military Attach Environmental...Science Engineering Officer Military Operational Medicine Research Program) and Joyce Wessel Raezer (Executive Director, National Military Family... Association ). To combat the recruitment challenges being faced, the idea of including family members of Military Reservists was discussed, but was later

  19. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  20. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...