Science.gov

Sample records for core galaxy clusters

  1. Mass Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. T.; McNamara, B. R.; Pulido, F.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Russell, H. R.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Edge, A. C.; Main, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    Many processes within galaxy clusters, such as those believed to govern the onset of thermally unstable cooling and active galactic nucleus feedback, are dependent upon local dynamical timescales. However, accurate mapping of the mass distribution within individual clusters is challenging, particularly toward cluster centers where the total mass budget has substantial radially dependent contributions from the stellar (M *), gas (M gas), and dark matter (M DM) components. In this paper we use a small sample of galaxy clusters with deep Chandra observations and good ancillary tracers of their gravitating mass at both large and small radii to develop a method for determining mass profiles that span a wide radial range and extend down into the central galaxy. We also consider potential observational pitfalls in understanding cooling in hot cluster atmospheres, and find tentative evidence for a relationship between the radial extent of cooling X-ray gas and nebular Hα emission in cool-core clusters. At large radii the entropy profiles of our clusters agree with the baseline power law of K ∝ r 1.1 expected from gravity alone. At smaller radii our entropy profiles become shallower but continue with a power law of the form K ∝ r 0.67 down to our resolution limit. Among this small sample of cool-core clusters we therefore find no support for the existence of a central flat “entropy floor.”

  2. TURBULENCE IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES: A KEY TO CLUSTER BIMODALITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, Ian J.; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-04-01

    We study the effects of externally imposed turbulence on the thermal properties of galaxy cluster cores, using three-dimensional numerical simulations including magnetic fields, anisotropic thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. The imposed 'stirring' crudely approximates the effects of galactic wakes, waves generated by galaxies moving through the intracluster medium, and/or turbulence produced by a central active galactic nucleus. The simulated clusters exhibit a strong bimodality. Modest levels of turbulence, {approx}100 km s{sup -1} {approx} 10% of the sound speed, suppress the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), resulting in an isotropically tangled magnetic field and a quasi-stable, high entropy, thermal equilibrium with no cooling catastrophe. Thermal conduction dominates the heating of the cluster core, but turbulent mixing is critical because it suppresses the HBI and (to a lesser extent) the thermal instability. Lower levels of turbulent mixing ({approx}<100 km s{sup -1}) are insufficient to suppress the HBI, rapidly leading to a thermal runaway and a cool-core cluster. Remarkably, then, small fluctuations in the level of turbulence in galaxy cluster cores can initiate transitions between cool-core (low entropy) and non-cool-core (high entropy) states.

  3. A BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY WITH AN EXTREMELY LARGE FLAT CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Koekemoer, Anton; Bradley, Larry; Lauer, Tod R.; Donahue, Megan; Graves, Genevieve; Moustakas, John; Ford, Holland C.; Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor; Grillo, Claudio; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Ascaso, Begona

    2012-09-10

    Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy cluster A2261, obtained as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble, show that the brightest galaxy in the cluster, A2261-BCG, has the largest core yet detected in any galaxy. The cusp radius of A2261-BCG is 3.2 kpc, twice as big as the next largest core known, and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign bigger than those typically seen in the most luminous brightest cluster galaxies. The morphology of the core in A2261-BCG is also unusual, having a completely flat interior surface brightness profile, rather than the typical shallow cusp rising into the center. This implies that the galaxy has a core with constant or even centrally decreasing stellar density. Interpretation of the core as an end product of the 'scouring' action of a binary supermassive black hole implies a total black hole mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} from the extrapolation of most relationships between core structure and black hole mass. The core falls 1{sigma} above the cusp radius versus galaxy luminosity relation. Its large size in real terms, and the extremely large black hole mass required to generate it, raises the possibility that the core has been enlarged by additional processes, such as the ejection of the black holes that originally generated the core. The flat central stellar density profile is consistent with this hypothesis. The core is also displaced by 0.7 kpc from the center of the surrounding envelope, consistent with a local dynamical perturbation of the core.

  4. Strong magnetization measured in the cool cores of galaxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Ido; Keshet, Uri

    2014-08-15

    Tangential discontinuities, seen as x-ray edges known as cold fronts (CFs), are ubiquitous in cool-core galaxy clusters. We analyze all 17 deprojected CF thermal profiles found in the literature, including three new CFs we tentatively identify (in clusters A2204 and 2A0335). We discover small but significant thermal pressure drops below all nonmerger CFs, and argue that they arise from strong magnetic fields below and parallel to the discontinuity, carrying 10%-20% of the pressure. Such magnetization can stabilize the CFs, and explain the CF-radio minihalo connection.

  5. Magnetorotational instability in cool cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, L.; Ettori, S.; Bianconi, M.

    2015-10-01

    > Clusters of galaxies are embedded in halos of optically thin, gravitationally stratified, weakly magnetized plasma at the system's virial temperature. Owing to radiative cooling and anisotropic heat conduction, such intracluster medium (ICM) is subject to local instabilities, which are combinations of the thermal, magnetothermal and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. If the ICM rotates significantly, its stability properties are substantially modified and, in particular, also the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can play an important role. We study simple models of rotating cool-core clusters and we demonstrate that the MRI can be the dominant instability over significant portions of the clusters, with possible implications for the dynamics and evolution of the cool cores. Our results give further motivation for measuring the rotation of the ICM with future X-ray missions such as ASTRO-H and ATHENA.

  6. Metal abundances in the cool cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grandi, S.; Molendi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We use XMM-Newton data to carry out a detailed study of the Si, Fe and Ni abundances in the cool cores of a representative sample of 26 local clusters. We performed a careful evaluation of the systematic uncertainties related to the instruments, the plasma codes and the spectral modeling, finding that the major source of uncertainty is the plasma codes. Our Si, Fe, Ni, Si/Fe and Ni/Fe distributions feature only moderate spreads (from 20% to 30%) around their mean values strongly suggesting similar enrichment processes at work in all our cluster cores. Our sample-averaged Si/Fe ratio is comparable to those measured in samples of groups and high luminosity ellipticals, implying that the enrichment process in ellipticals, dominant galaxies in groups and BCGs in clusters is quite similar. Although our Si/Fe and Ni/Fe abundance ratios are fairly well constrained, the large uncertainties in the supernova yields prevent us from making a firm assessment of the relative contribution of type Ia and core-collapsed supernovae to the enrichment process. All that can be said with some certainty is that both contribute to the enrichment of cluster cores. Tables and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. The redistribution of matter in the cores of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin F. P.; White, Simon D. M.

    2015-08-01

    We present cosmological N-body resimulations of the assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in rich clusters. At z = 2, we populate dark matter subhaloes with self-gravitating stellar systems whose abundance and structure match observed high-redshift galaxies. By z = 0, mergers have built much larger galaxies at cluster centre. Their dark matter density profiles are shallower than in corresponding dark-matter-only simulations, but their total mass density profiles (stars + dark matter) are quite similar. Differences are found only at radii where the effects of central black holes may be significant. Dark matter density slopes shallower than γ = 1.0 occur for r/r200 < 0.015, close to the half-light radii of the BCGs. Our experiments support earlier suggestions that NFW-like profiles are an attractor for the hierarchical growth of structure in collisionless systems - total mass density profiles asymptote to the solution found in dark-matter-only simulations over the radial range where mergers produce significant mixing between stars and dark matter. Simulated dark matter fractions are substantially higher in BCGs than in field ellipticals, reaching 80 per cent within the half-light radius. We also estimate that supermassive black hole mergers should create BCG cores as large as rc ˜ 3 kpc. The good agreement of all these properties with recent observational studies of BCG structure suggests that dissipational processes have not played a dominant role in the assembly of the observed systems.

  8. Feedback Regulated Star Formation in Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant Russell

    2011-07-01

    The classical "cooling flow" model historically associated with "cool core" clusters of galaxies fails in the absence of an external, non-gravitational heating mechanism needed to offset catastrophic radiative losses of the X-ray bright intracluster medium (ICM). Numerous proposed solutions exist, including feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN), which may elegantly calibrate fundamental relationships such as the coupled co-evolution of black holes and the stellar component of their host galaxies. AGN feedback cannot completely offset cooling at all times, however, as the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in cool core clusters harbor extensive warm (˜104 K) and cold (10 < T < 104 K) gas reservoirs whose physical properties are regulated by ongoing star formation and an unknown, non-stellar heating mechanism. We present a doctoral thesis broadly related to these issues, particularly as they pertain to cooling flows, the triggering of AGN activity, and the associated energetic feedback that may play a critical role in heating the ambient environment on tens to hundreds of kiloparsec scales. We begin with a summary of the relevant background material, and in Chapter 2 we present a multiwavelength study of effervescent AGN heating in the cool core cluster Abell 2597. Previously unpublished Chandra X-ray data show the central regions of the hot intracluster medium (ICM) to be highly anisotropic on the scale of the BCG, permeated by a network of kpc-scale X-ray cavities, the largest of which is cospatial in projection with extended 330 MHz radio emission. We present spectral maps of projected, modeled gas properties fit to the X-ray data. The X-ray temperature map reveals two discrete, "hard-edged'' structures, including a ˜15 kpc "cold filament'' and an arc of hot gas which in projection borders the inner edge of the large X-ray cavity. We interpret the latter in the context of the effervescent AGN heating model, in which cavity enthalpy is thermalized as the

  9. Chandra Observation of Abell 1142: A Cool-core Cluster Lacking a Central Brightest Cluster Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Buote, David A.; Gastaldello, Fabio; van Weeren, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s-1. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous LX-TX scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  10. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van; Buote, David A.; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  11. Featured Image: A Galaxy Plunges Into a Cluster Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The galaxy that takes up most of the frame in this stunning image (click for the full view!) is NGC 1427A. This is a dwarf irregular galaxy (unlike the fortuitously-located background spiral galaxy in the lower right corner of the image), and its currently in the process of plunging into the center of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Marcelo Mora (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) and collaborators have analyzed observations of this galaxy made by both the Very Large Telescope in Chile and the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys, which produced the image shown here as a color composite in three channels. The team worked to characterize the clusters of star formation within NGC 1427A identifiable in the image as bright knots within the galaxy and determine how the interactions of this galaxy with its cluster environment affect the star formation within it. For more information and the original image, see the paper below.Citation:Marcelo D. Mora et al 2015 AJ 150 93. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/93

  12. SPIRAL FLOWS IN COOL-CORE GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Keshet, Uri

    2012-07-10

    We argue that bulk spiral flows are ubiquitous in the cool cores (CCs) of clusters and groups of galaxies. Such flows are gauged by spiral features in the thermal and chemical properties of the intracluster medium, by the multiphase properties of CCs, and by X-ray edges known as cold fronts. We analytically show that observations of piecewise-spiral fronts impose strong constraints on the CC, implying the presence of a cold, fast flow, which propagates below a hot, slow inflow, separated by a slowly rotating, trailing, quasi-spiral, tangential discontinuity surface. This leads to the nearly logarithmic spiral pattern, two-phase plasma, {rho} {approx} r{sup -1} density (or T {approx} r{sup 0.4} temperature) radial profile, and {approx}100 kpc size, characteristic of CCs. By advecting heat and mixing the gas, such flows can eliminate the cooling problem, provided that a feedback mechanism regulates the flow. In particular, we present a quasi-steady-state model for an accretion-quenched, composite flow, in which the fast phase is an outflow, regulated by active galactic nucleus bubbles, reproducing the observed low star formation rates and explaining some features of bubbles such as their R{sub b} {proportional_to}r size. The simplest two-component model reproduces several key properties of CCs, so we propose that all such cores harbor a spiral flow. Our results can be tested directly in the next few years, for example by ASTRO-H.

  13. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  14. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  15. A massive, cooling-flow-induced starburst in the core of a luminous cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Foley, R J; Ruel, J; Sullivan, P; Veilleux, S; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bazin, G; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Egami, E; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Miller, E D; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Rawle, T D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rex, M; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Simcoe, R; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2012-08-16

    In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.

  16. Discovery of a Galaxy Cluster with a Violently Starbursting Core at z = 2.506

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Elbaz, David; Daddi, Emanuele; Finoguenov, Alexis; Liu, Daizhong; Schreiber, Corentin; Martín, Sergio; Strazzullo, Veronica; Valentino, Francesco; van der Burg, Remco; Zanella, Anita; Ciesla, Laure; Gobat, Raphael; Le Brun, Amandine; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Shu, Xinwen; Tan, Qinghua; Cappelluti, Nico; Li, Yanxia

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable concentration of massive galaxies with extended X-ray emission at z spec = 2.506, which contains 11 massive (M * ≳ 1011 M ⊙) galaxies in the central 80 kpc region (11.6σ overdensity). We have spectroscopically confirmed 17 member galaxies with 11 from CO and the remaining ones from Hα. The X-ray luminosity, stellar mass content, and velocity dispersion all point to a collapsed, cluster-sized dark matter halo with mass M 200c = 1013.9±0.2 M ⊙, making it the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date. Unlike other clusters discovered so far, this structure is dominated by star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the core with only 2 out of the 11 massive galaxies classified as quiescent. The star formation rate (SFR) in the 80 kpc core reaches ˜3400 M ⊙ yr-1 with a gas depletion time of ˜200 Myr, suggesting that we caught this cluster in rapid build-up of a dense core. The high SFR is driven by both a high abundance of SFGs and a higher starburst fraction (˜25%, compared to 3%-5% in the field). The presence of both a collapsed, cluster-sized halo and a predominant population of massive SFGs suggests that this structure could represent an important transition phase between protoclusters and mature clusters. It provides evidence that the main phase of massive galaxy passivization will take place after galaxies accrete onto the cluster, providing new insights into massive cluster formation at early epochs. The large integrated stellar mass at such high redshift challenges our understanding of massive cluster formation.

  17. Highly-luminous Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies: Mechanically-driven or Radiatively-driven AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Fabian, Andy

    2011-12-01

    Cool core clusters of galaxies require strong feedback from their central AGN to offset cooling. We present a study of strong cool core, highly-luminous (most with Lx >= 1045 erg s-1), clusters of galaxies in which the mean central AGN jet power must be very high yet no central point X-ray source is detected. Using the unique spatial resolution of Chandra, a sample of 13 clusters is analysed, including A1835, A2204, and one of the most massive cool core clusters, RXCJ1504.1-0248. All of the central galaxies host a radio source, indicating an active nucleus, and no obvious X-ray point source. For all clusters in the sample, the nucleus has an X-ray bolometric luminosity below 2 per cent of that of the entire cluster. We investigate how these clusters can have such strong X-ray luminosities, short radiative cooling-times of the inner intracluster gas requiring strong energy feedback to counterbalance that cooling, and yet have such radiatively-inefficient cores with, on average, Lkin/Lnuc exceeding 200. Explanations of this puzzle carry significant implications for the origin and operation of jets, as well as on establishing the importance of kinetic feedback for the evolution of galaxies and their surrounding medium.

  18. Cool Core Bias in Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Henry W.; McDonald, Michael; Benson, Bradford; ...

    2015-03-18

    Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) surveys find massive clusters of galaxies by measuring the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background off of intra-cluster gas. The cluster selection function from such surveys is expected to be nearly independent of redshift and cluster astrophysics. In this work, we estimate the effect on the observed SZ signal of centrally-peaked gas density profiles (cool cores) and radio emission from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) by creating mock observations of a sample of clusters that span the observed range of classical cooling rates and radio luminosities. For each cluster, we make simulated SZ observations by the Southmore » Pole Telescope and characterize the cluster selection function, but note that our results are broadly applicable to other SZ surveys. We find that the inclusion of a cool core can cause a change in the measured SPT significance of a cluster between 0.01%–10% at z > 0.3, increasing with cuspiness of the cool core and angular size on the sky of the cluster (i.e., decreasing redshift, increasing mass). We provide quantitative estimates of the bias in the SZ signal as a function of a gas density cuspiness parameter, redshift, mass, and the 1.4 GHz radio luminosity of the central AGN. Based on this work, we estimate that, for the Phoenix cluster (one of the strongest cool cores known), the presence of a cool core is biasing the SZ significance high by ~6%. The ubiquity of radio galaxies at the centers of cool core clusters will offset the cool core bias to varying degrees« less

  19. Cool Core Bias in Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry W.; McDonald, Michael; Benson, Bradford; Miller, Eric

    2015-03-18

    Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) surveys find massive clusters of galaxies by measuring the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background off of intra-cluster gas. The cluster selection function from such surveys is expected to be nearly independent of redshift and cluster astrophysics. In this work, we estimate the effect on the observed SZ signal of centrally-peaked gas density profiles (cool cores) and radio emission from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) by creating mock observations of a sample of clusters that span the observed range of classical cooling rates and radio luminosities. For each cluster, we make simulated SZ observations by the South Pole Telescope and characterize the cluster selection function, but note that our results are broadly applicable to other SZ surveys. We find that the inclusion of a cool core can cause a change in the measured SPT significance of a cluster between 0.01%–10% at z > 0.3, increasing with cuspiness of the cool core and angular size on the sky of the cluster (i.e., decreasing redshift, increasing mass). We provide quantitative estimates of the bias in the SZ signal as a function of a gas density cuspiness parameter, redshift, mass, and the 1.4 GHz radio luminosity of the central AGN. Based on this work, we estimate that, for the Phoenix cluster (one of the strongest cool cores known), the presence of a cool core is biasing the SZ significance high by ~6%. The ubiquity of radio galaxies at the centers of cool core clusters will offset the cool core bias to varying degrees

  20. Investigating the Cores of Early-Type Galaxies Using the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, L.; Côté, P.; Jordán, A.; Peng, E.; Blakeslee, J.; Chen, C.; Infante, L.; Mei, S.; Tonry, J.; West, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the processes that shape and influence the centers of galaxies is crucial to understanding galaxies as a whole. In particular, data suggests nuclear star clusters are three times more common than previously thought and there is evidence to suggest that they may be the low-mass analogues to the supermassive black holes found in more luminous galaxies. My research focuses on the cores of early-type galaxies and how they relate, influence, and respond to processes occurring in the rest of the galaxy. I will present new results from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys that shed light on these questions. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSERC though the Discovery and Postgraduate Scholarship programs, as well as from the University of Victoria through their fellowship program.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN COOL CLUSTER CORES AND HERSCHEL-DETECTED STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Fiedler, A.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Portouw, J.; Walth, G.; Edge, A. C.; Smith, G. P.; Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Zemcov, M.

    2012-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) analysis of 68 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at 0.08 < z < 1.0. Deriving total infrared luminosities directly from Spitzer and Herschel photometry spanning the peak of the dust component (24-500 {mu}m), we calculate the obscured star formation rate (SFR). 22{sup +6.2}{sub -5.3}% of the BCGs are detected in the far-infrared, with SFR = 1-150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The infrared luminosity is highly correlated with cluster X-ray gas cooling times for cool-core clusters (gas cooling time <1 Gyr), strongly suggesting that the star formation in these BCGs is influenced by the cluster-scale cooling process. The occurrence of the molecular gas tracing H{alpha} emission is also correlated with obscured star formation. For all but the most luminous BCGs (L{sub TIR} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), only a small ({approx}<0.4 mag) reddening correction is required for SFR(H{alpha}) to agree with SFR{sub FIR}. The relatively low H{alpha} extinction (dust obscuration), compared to values reported for the general star-forming population, lends further weight to an alternate (external) origin for the cold gas. Finally, we use a stacking analysis of non-cool-core clusters to show that the majority of the fuel for star formation in the FIR-bright BCGs is unlikely to originate from normal stellar mass loss.

  2. Comparing Cool Cores in the Planck SZ Selected Samples of Clusters of Galaxies with Cool Cores in X-ray Selected Cluster Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christine; Santos, Felipe A.; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Arnaud, Monique; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Churazov, Eugene; Ferrari, Chiara; Borgani, Stefano; Chandra-Planck Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The Planck mission provided a representative sample of clusters of galaxies over the entire sky. With completed Chandra observations of 165 Planck ESZ and cosmology sample clusters at z<0.35, we can now characterize each cluster in terms of its X-ray luminosity, gas temperature, gas mass, total mass, gas entropy, gas central cooling time, presence of active AGN, gas cavities, radio emission, and cluster morphology. In this presentation we compare the percentages of cool core and non-cool core clusters in the Planck-selected clusters with the percentages in X-ray selected cluster samples. We find a significantly smaller percentage of cool core clusters in the Planck sample than in X-ray selected cluster samples. We will discuss the primary reasons for this smaller percentage of cool-core clusters in the Planck-selected cluster sample than in X-ray-selected samples.

  3. Linear structures in the core of the Coma cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J S; Fabian, A C; Churazov, E; Schekochihin, A A; Simionescu, A; Walker, S A; Werner, N

    2013-09-20

    The hot x-ray-emitting plasma in galaxy clusters is predicted to have turbulent motion, which can contribute around 10% of the cluster's central energy density. We report deep Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the Coma cluster core, showing the presence of quasi-linear high-density arms spanning 150 kiloparsecs, consisting of low-entropy material that was probably stripped from merging subclusters. Two appear to be connected with a subgroup of galaxies at a 650-kiloparsec radius that is merging into the cluster, implying coherence over several hundred million years. Such a long lifetime implies that strong isotropic turbulence and conduction are suppressed in the core, despite the unrelaxed state of the cluster. Magnetic fields are presumably responsible. The structures seen in Coma present insight into the past billion years of subcluster merger activity.

  4. COOLING TIME, FREEFALL TIME, AND PRECIPITATION IN THE CORES OF ACCEPT GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-20

    Star formation in the universe's largest galaxies—the ones at the centers of galaxy clusters—depends critically on the thermodynamic state of their hot gaseous atmospheres. Central galaxies with low-entropy, high-density atmospheres frequently contain multiphase star-forming gas, while those with high-entropy, low-density atmospheres never do. The dividing line between these two populations in central entropy, and therefore central cooling time, is amazingly sharp. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the dichotomy. One points out that thermal conduction can prevent radiative cooling of cluster cores above the dividing line. The other holds that cores below the dividing line are subject to thermal instability that fuels the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) through a cold-feedback mechanism. Here we explore those hypotheses with an analysis of the Hα properties of ACCEPT galaxy clusters. We find that the two hypotheses are likely to be complementary. Our results support a picture in which cold clouds inevitably precipitate out of cluster cores in which cooling outcompetes thermal conduction and rain down on the central black hole, causing AGN feedback that stabilizes the cluster core. In particular, the observed distribution of the cooling-time to freefall-time ratio is nearly identical to that seen in simulations of this cold-feedback process, implying that cold-phase accretion, and not Bondi-like accretion of hot-phase gas, is responsible for the AGN feedback that regulates star formation in large galaxies.

  5. Shocks and Cool Cores: An ALMA View of Massive Galaxy Cluster Formation at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaustuv

    2017-07-01

    These slides present some recent results on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect imaging of galaxy cluster substructures. The advantage of SZ imaging at high redshifts or in the low density cluster outskirts is already well-known. Now with ALMA a combination of superior angular resolution and high sensitivity is available. One example is the first ALMA measurement of a merger shock at z=0.9 in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster. Here comparison between SZ, X-ray and radio data enabled us to put constraints on the shock Mach number and magnetic field strength for a high-z radio relic. Second example is the ALMA SZ imaging of the core region of z=1.4 galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.2-2557. Here ALMA data provide an accurate measurement of the thermal pressure near the cluster center, and from a joint SZ/X-ray analysis we find clear evidence for a reduced core temperature. This result indicate that a cool core establishes itself early enough in the cluster formation history while the gas accumulation is still continuing. The above two ALMA measurements are among several other recent SZ results that shed light on the formation process of massive clusters at high redshifts.

  6. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-03-15

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.65, and our spectroscopy reveals 69 unique background sources with redshifts as high as z = 5.200. We also identify redshifts for 262 cluster member galaxies and measure the velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for 18 clusters where we have redshifts for N {>=} 10 cluster member galaxies. We account for the expected biases in dynamical masses of strong-lensing-selected clusters as predicted by results from numerical simulations and discuss possible sources of bias in our observations. The median dynamical mass of the 18 clusters with N {>=} 10 spectroscopic cluster members is M {sub Vir} = 7.84 x 10{sup 14} M {sub sun} h {sup -1} {sub 0.7}, which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  7. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Venturi, T.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Athreya, R. M.; Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4 x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass has previously (> or approx.=0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  8. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  9. SLOSHING GAS IN THE CORE OF THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXY CLUSTER RXJ1347.5-1145

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitch, Maxim E-mail: cjf@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: jzuhone@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-06-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms that the core gas is undergoing 'sloshing' resulting from a prior, large-scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M = 4.8 {+-} 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} has previously ({approx}>0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  10. Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J. Miller

    2012-03-01

    There are many examples of clustering in astronomy. Stars in our own galaxy are often seen as being gravitationally bound into tight globular or open clusters. The Solar System's Trojan asteroids cluster at the gravitational Langrangian in front of Jupiter’s orbit. On the largest of scales, we find gravitationally bound clusters of galaxies, the Virgo cluster (in the constellation of Virgo at a distance of ˜50 million light years) being a prime nearby example. The Virgo cluster subtends an angle of nearly 8◦ on the sky and is known to contain over a thousand member galaxies. Galaxy clusters play an important role in our understanding of theUniverse. Clusters exist at peaks in the three-dimensional large-scale matter density field. Their sky (2D) locations are easy to detect in astronomical imaging data and their mean galaxy redshifts (redshift is related to the third spatial dimension: distance) are often better (spectroscopically) and cheaper (photometrically) when compared with the entire galaxy population in large sky surveys. Photometric redshift (z) [Photometric techniques use the broad band filter magnitudes of a galaxy to estimate the redshift. Spectroscopic techniques use the galaxy spectra and emission/absorption line features to measure the redshift] determinations of galaxies within clusters are accurate to better than delta_z = 0.05 [7] and when studied as a cluster population, the central galaxies form a line in color-magnitude space (called the the E/S0 ridgeline and visible in Figure 16.3) that contains galaxies with similar stellar populations [15]. The shape of this E/S0 ridgeline enables astronomers to measure the cluster redshift to within delta_z = 0.01 [23]. The most accurate cluster redshift determinations come from spectroscopy of the member galaxies, where only a fraction of the members need to be spectroscopically observed [25,42] to get an accurate redshift to the whole system. If light traces mass in the Universe, then the locations

  11. Quasars in rich galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of AGN activity in rich clusters of galaxies is found to be approximately 5 times more rapid than that in poor clusters. This rapid evolution may be driven by evolution in the dynamics of galaxy cluster cores. Results from our spectroscopic studies of galaxies associated with quasars are consistent with this scenario, in that bright AGN are preferentially found in regions of lower velocity dispersion. Alternately, the evolution may be driven by formation of a dense intra-cluster medium (ICM). Galaxies close to quasars in rich cluster cores are much bluer (presumably gas rich) than galaxies in the cores of other rich clusters, in support of this model.

  12. CLASH: accurate photometric redshifts with 14 HST bands in massive galaxy cluster cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Ascaso, B.; Coe, D.; Postman, M.; Jouvel, S.; Host, O.; Lahav, O.; Seitz, S.; Medezinski, E.; Rosati, P.; Schoenell, W.; Koekemoer, A.; Jimenez-Teja, Y.; Broadhurst, T.; Melchior, P.; Balestra, I.; Bartelmann, M.; Bouwens, R.; Bradley, L.; Czakon, N.; Donahue, M.; Ford, H.; Graur, O.; Graves, G.; Grillo, C.; Infante, L.; Jha, S. W.; Kelson, D.; Lazkoz, R.; Lemze, D.; Maoz, D.; Mercurio, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.; Moustakas, L.; Nonino, M.; Orgaz, S.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S.; Sayers, J.; Umetsu, K.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts for galaxies observed by the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). CLASH observed 25 massive galaxy cluster cores with the Hubble Space Telescope in 16 filters spanning 0.2-1.7 μm. Photometry in such crowded fields is challenging. Compared to our previously released catalogues, we make several improvements to the photometry, including smaller apertures, intracluster light subtraction, point spread function matching and empirically measured uncertainties. We further improve the Bayesian photometric redshift estimates by adding a redder elliptical template and by inflating the photometric uncertainties of the brightest galaxies. The resulting photometric redshift accuracies are dz/(1+z) ∼ 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0 per cent for galaxies with I-band F814W AB magnitudes < 18, 20 and 23, respectively. These results are consistent with our expectations. They improve on our previously reported accuracies by a factor of 4 at the bright end and a factor of 2 at the faint end. Our new catalogue includes 1257 spectroscopic redshifts, including 382 confirmed cluster members. We also provide stellar mass estimates. Finally, we include lensing magnification estimates of background galaxies based on our public lens models. Our new catalogue of all 25 CLASH clusters is available via Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. The analysis techniques developed here will be useful in other surveys of crowded fields, including the Frontier Fields and surveys carried out with Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey and James Webb Space Telescope.

  13. The dynamics and internal mass distribution of rich galaxy cluster cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Chervin Fabien Pierre; White, Simon

    2015-08-01

    It has often been argued that the findings of shallow dark matter density profiles in galaxy clusters may be a source of tension between observations and benign expectations in LCDM. In this talk I will present cosmological N-body resimulations of the assembly of the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) in rich clusters within LCDM. At z=2, I populate dark matter subhalos with self-gravitating stellar systems whose abundance and structure match observed high-redshift galaxies. I then follow their evolution in the build of the final clusters. By z=0, the dark matter density profiles are shallower than in corresponding dark-matter-only simulations, but their total mass density profiles (stars + dark matter) are quite similar. Differences are found only at radii where the effects of central black holes may be significant. Dark matter density slopes shallower than gamma=1.0 occur for r/r200<0.015, close to the half-light radii of the BCGs. I will illustrate how this solution occurs and how this ties in strongly with the accretion history of the central BCG through mergers. Based on the accretion history in the simulations I will also argue that supermassive black hole mergers could create BCG cores as large as rc~3kpc.Finally I will introduce some new re-simulations which are being currently used to study the evolution of the tidal truncation radii of cluster galaxies and making predictions on the kinematics of BCGs to large radii.

  14. The entropy core in galaxy clusters: numerical and physical effects in cosmological grid simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazza, F.

    2011-01-01

    A flat distribution of low gas entropy in the core region of galaxy clusters is a feature commonly found in Eulerian cosmological simulations, at variance with most standard simulations of smoothed particle hydrodynamics fashion. From the literature, it is still unclear whether this difference is entirely due to numerical artefacts (e.g. spurious transfer from gravitational energy to thermal energy), physical mechanisms (e.g. enhanced mixing in Eulerian codes) or a mixture of both. This issue is related to many still open lines of research in the characterization of the dynamical evolution of the baryons in galaxy clusters: the origin of the cool-core/non-cool-core bi-modality, the diffusion of metals within galaxy clusters, the interplay between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the intra-cluster medium, etc. In this work, we aim at constraining to what extent the entropy core is affected by numerical effects, and which are the physical reasons for its production in cosmological runs. To this end, we run a set of 30 high-resolution re-simulations of a ˜3 × 1014 M⊙ h-1 cluster of galaxies with a quiet dynamical history, using modified versions of the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO and investigating many possible (physical and numerical) details involved in the production of entropy in simulated galaxy clusters. We report that the occurrence of a flat entropy core in the innermost region of a massive cluster is mainly due to hydrodynamical processes resolved by the numerical code (e.g. shocks and mixing motions) and that additional spurious effects of numerical origin (e.g. artificial heating due to softening effects) affect the size and level of the entropy core only in a minor way. Using Lagrangian tracers we show that the entropy profile of non-radiative simulations is produced by a mechanism of `sorting in entropy' which takes place with regularity during the cluster evolution. The evolution of tracers illustrates that the flat entropy core

  15. On the nature of local instabilities in rotating galactic coronae and cool cores of galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing question is whether radiative cooling can lead to local condensation of cold gas in the hot atmospheres of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We address this problem by studying the nature of local instabilities in rotating, stratified, weakly magnetized, optically thin plasmas in the presence of radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. For both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric linear perturbations, we provide general equations which can be applied locally to specific systems to establish whether they are unstable and, in case of instability, to determine the kind of evolution (monotonically growing or overstable) and the growth rates of the unstable modes. We present results for models of rotating plasmas representative of Milky-Way-like galaxy coronae and cool-cores of galaxy clusters. We show that the unstable modes arise from a combination of thermal, magnetothermal, magnetorotational, and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. Local condensation of cold clouds tends to be hampered in cluster cool cores, while it is possible under certain conditions in rotating galactic coronae. If the magnetic field is sufficiently weak, then the magnetorotational instability is dominant even in these pressure-supported systems.

  16. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V.; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Balcells, Marc; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Peng, Eric W. E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low

  17. Removing Cool Cores and Central Metallicity Peaks in Galaxy Clusters with Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy ~1061-1062 erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  18. REMOVING COOL CORES AND CENTRAL METALLICITY PEAKS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH POWERFUL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-10

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy {approx}10{sup 61}-10{sup 62} erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  19. Spiral-like structure in the core of nearby galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Lagana, Tatiana F.; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Lima Neto, Gastao B.

    2010-07-15

    Not surprisingly, with the very high angular resolution of the Chandra telescope, results revealed fairly complex structures in cluster cores to be more common than expected. In particular, understanding the nature of spiral-like features at the center of some clusters is the major motivation of this work. We present results from Chandra deep observations of 15 nearby galaxy clusters (0.01core of 7 clusters: A85, A426, A496, Hydra A, Centaurus, A1644 and Ophiuchus. Comparing our results to numerical simulations, our investigation lends support to the fact that these patterns are due to nonzero impact parameter mergers.

  20. Dynamics and Magnetization in Galaxy Cluster Cores Traced by X-ray Cold Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Uri; Markevitch, Maxim; Birnboim, Yuval; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-08-01

    Cold fronts (CFs)—density and temperature plasma discontinuities—are ubiquitous in cool cores of galaxy clusters, where they appear as X-ray brightness edges in the intracluster medium, nearly concentric with the cluster center. We analyze the thermodynamic profiles deprojected across core CFs found in the literature. While the pressure appears continuous across these CFs, we find that all of them require significant centripetal acceleration beneath the front. This is naturally explained by a tangential, nearly sonic bulk flow just below the CF, and a tangential shear flow involving a fair fraction of the plasma beneath the front. Such shear should generate near-equipartition magnetic fields on scales lsim50pc from the front and could magnetize the entire core. Such fields would explain the apparent stability of cool core CFs and the recently reported CF-radio minihalo association.

  1. DYNAMICS AND MAGNETIZATION IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES TRACED BY X-RAY COLD FRONTS

    SciTech Connect

    Keshet, Uri; Markevitch, Maxim; Birnboim, Yuval; Loeb, Abraham

    2010-08-10

    Cold fronts (CFs)-density and temperature plasma discontinuities-are ubiquitous in cool cores of galaxy clusters, where they appear as X-ray brightness edges in the intracluster medium, nearly concentric with the cluster center. We analyze the thermodynamic profiles deprojected across core CFs found in the literature. While the pressure appears continuous across these CFs, we find that all of them require significant centripetal acceleration beneath the front. This is naturally explained by a tangential, nearly sonic bulk flow just below the CF, and a tangential shear flow involving a fair fraction of the plasma beneath the front. Such shear should generate near-equipartition magnetic fields on scales {approx}<50pc from the front and could magnetize the entire core. Such fields would explain the apparent stability of cool core CFs and the recently reported CF-radio minihalo association.

  2. A population of faint low surface brightness galaxies in the Perseus cluster core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Carolin; Lisker, Thorsten; Ambachew Tilahun, Liyualem; Grebel, Eva K.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Penny, Samantha; Janz, Joachim; Gallagher, John S.; Kotulla, Ralf; McCormac, James

    2017-09-01

    We present the detection of 89 low surface brightness (LSB), and thus low stellar density galaxy candidates in the Perseus cluster core, of the kind named 'ultra-diffuse galaxies', with mean effective V-band surface brightnesses 24.8-27.1 mag arcsec-2, total V-band magnitudes -11.8 to -15.5 mag, and half-light radii 0.7-4.1 kpc. The candidates have been identified in a deep mosaic covering 0.3 deg2, based on wide-field imaging data obtained with the William Herschel Telescope. We find that the LSB galaxy population is depleted in the cluster centre and only very few LSB candidates have half-light radii larger than 3 kpc. This appears consistent with an estimate of their tidal radius, which does not reach beyond the stellar extent even if we assume a high dark matter content (M/L = 100). In fact, three of our candidates seem to be associated with tidal streams, which points to their current disruption. Given that published data on faint LSB candidates in the Coma cluster - with its comparable central density to Perseus - show the same dearth of large objects in the core region, we conclude that these cannot survive the strong tides in the centres of massive clusters.

  3. THE DENSITY PROFILES OF MASSIVE, RELAXED GALAXY CLUSTERS. II. SEPARATING LUMINOUS AND DARK MATTER IN CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso; Sand, David J.

    2013-03-01

    We present stellar and dark matter (DM) density profiles for a sample of seven massive, relaxed galaxy clusters derived from strong and weak gravitational lensing and resolved stellar kinematic observations within the centrally located brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). In Paper I of the series, we demonstrated that the total density profile derived from these data, which span three decades in radius, is consistent with numerical DM-only simulations at radii {approx}> 5-10 kpc, despite the significant contribution of stellar material in the core. Here, we decompose the inner mass profiles of these clusters into stellar and dark components. Parameterizing the DM density profile as a power law {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r {sup -{beta}} on small scales, we find a mean slope ({beta}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.10(random){sup +0.14} {sub -0.13}(systematic). Alternatively, cored Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles with (log r {sub core}/kpc) = 1.14 {+-} 0.13{sup +0.14} {sub -0.22} provide an equally good description. These density profiles are significantly shallower than canonical NFW models at radii {approx}< 30 kpc, comparable to the effective radii of the BCGs. The inner DM profile is correlated with the distribution of stars in the BCG, suggesting a connection between the inner halo and the assembly of stars in the central galaxy. The stellar mass-to-light ratio inferred from lensing and stellar dynamics is consistent with that inferred using stellar population synthesis models if a Salpeter initial mass function is adopted. We compare these results to theories describing the interaction between baryons and DM in cluster cores, including adiabatic contraction models and the possible effects of galaxy mergers and active galactic nucleus feedback, and evaluate possible signatures of alternative DM candidates.

  4. The galaxy cluster RXC J1504-0248: a remarkable cool core near us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecília Soja, Ana; Sodre, Laerte; Serra Cypriano, Eduardo; Lima Neto, Gastao B.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most intriguing questions for our understanding of galaxy clusters evolution is the identification of the mechanisms that regulate the temperature of the intergalactic medium in the cluster central region. Conventional cooling models predict a cooling flow of the intracluster gas much higher than observed, suggesting that some mechanisms heats the gas and inhibits the predicted cooling rates. Among the mechanisms proposed for heating the gas, stand out star formation and nuclear activity. The galaxy cluster RXC J1504-0248, located at z = 0.215, is a remarkable example of cool core cluster relatively close to us; its BCG has an extraordinary external filamentary gas structure, comparable to that observed in NGC 1275, in the Perseus cluster. We have studied this object with optical images and spectra obtained with the Gemini South Telescope. We have estimated the cluster mass through weak and strong gravitational lensing techniques, using a NFW-type profile and the analysis of two gravitational arc, respectively. We have obtained 1.5(5) x 10¹⁵ h-1M⊙ within a 3 h-1 Mpc radius (from WL) and 3.74 (3) x 10¹³ M⊙ inside a 62.9 h-1 kpc radius (from SL). These results are consistent with previous estimations obtaneid by Borhringer et al., of 1.7(3) x 10¹⁵ h-1 M⊙ within 3 h-1 Mpc, based in X-ray analysis; the agreement between the WL and X-ray masses estimates is an indication that the cluster is approximately in dynamical equilibrium. Thus, the processes affecting its central region must rely primarily on internal processes to the cluster and, in particular, associated with its dominant galaxy. The analysis of the BCG emission lines with a BPT diagram indicates that, while the nuclear emission is consitent with a LINER, the emission lines from the filamentary region around the BCG comes from star formation.

  5. SEARCHING FOR COOLING SIGNATURES IN STRONG LENSING GALAXY CLUSTERS: EVIDENCE AGAINST BARYONS SHAPING THE MATTER DISTRIBUTION IN CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, Peter K.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; McDonald, Michael; Dahle, Hakon; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Mushotzky, Richard

    2013-07-20

    The process by which the mass density profile of certain galaxy clusters becomes centrally concentrated enough to produce high strong lensing (SL) cross-sections is not well understood. It has been suggested that the baryonic condensation of the intracluster medium (ICM) due to cooling may drag dark matter to the cores and thus steepen the profile. In this work, we search for evidence of ongoing ICM cooling in the first large, well-defined sample of SL selected galaxy clusters in the range 0.1 < z < 0.6. Based on known correlations between the ICM cooling rate and both optical emission line luminosity and star formation, we measure, for a sample of 89 SL clusters, the fraction of clusters that have [O II]{lambda}{lambda}3727 emission in their brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find that the fraction of line-emitting BCGs is constant as a function of redshift for z > 0.2 and shows no statistically significant deviation from the total cluster population. Specific star formation rates, as traced by the strength of the 4000 A break, D{sub 4000}, are also consistent with the general cluster population. Finally, we use optical imaging of the SL clusters to measure the angular separation, R{sub arc}, between the arc and the center of mass of each lensing cluster in our sample and test for evidence of changing [O II] emission and D{sub 4000} as a function of R{sub arc}, a proxy observable for SL cross-sections. D{sub 4000} is constant with all values of R{sub arc}, and the [O II] emission fractions show no dependence on R{sub arc} for R{sub arc} > 10'' and only very marginal evidence of increased weak [O II] emission for systems with R{sub arc} < 10''. These results argue against the ability of baryonic cooling associated with cool core activity in the cores of galaxy clusters to strongly modify the underlying dark matter potential, leading to an increase in SL cross-sections.

  6. Radio emission at the centre of the galaxy cluster Abell 3560: evidence for core sloshing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, T.; Rossetti, M.; Bardelli, S.; Giacintucci, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Kantharia, N. G.

    2013-10-01

    Context. We study the interplay between the radio emission associated with the dominant galaxy in clusters and the properties of the surrounding intracluster medium on the basis of its X-ray emission. Aims: Previous radio observations of the galaxy cluster A 3560, located in the Shapley Concentration core, revealed complex radio emission associated with the brightest cluster member. To understand the origin of this radio emission we performed a detailed multiwavelength study with high-quality proprietary data in the radio and X-ray bands and by means of optical data available in the literature. Methods: We observed the cluster with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, the Very Large Array, and the Australia Telescope Compact array at 240 and 610 MHz, 1.28, 1.4, 2.3, 4.8, and 8.4 GHz, and performed a detailed morphological and spectral study of the radio emission associated with the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). Furthermore, we observed the cluster with the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories to derive the properties of the intracluster gas. Finally, we made use of literature data to obtain the bidimensional distribution of the galaxies in the cluster. Results: The radio emission, associated with the north-eastern nucleus of the dumb-bell BCG, is the result of two components: an active radio galaxy, with jets and lobes, plus aged diffuse emission, which is not refurbished with new electrons at present. Our Chandra data show that the radio active nucleus of the BCG has extended X-ray emission, which we classify as a low-luminosity corona. A residual image of the XMM-Newton brightness distribution shows a spiral-like feature, which we interpret as the signature of gas sloshing. A sub-group is clearly visible in the surface brightness residual map, and this is also supported by the XMM-Newton temperature analysis. The optical bidimensional analysis shows substructure in A 3560. A galaxy clump was detected at the location of the X-ray sub-group, and another group is

  7. THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A85: THE LARGEST CORE KNOWN SO FAR

    SciTech Connect

    López-Cruz, O.; Añorve, C.; Ibarra-Medel, H. J.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We have found that the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A85, Holm 15A, displays the largest core known so far. Its cusp radius, r {sub γ} = 4.57 ± 0.06 kpc (4.''26 ± 0.''06), is more than 18 times larger than the mean for BCGs and ≳ 1 kpc larger than A2261-BCG, hitherto the largest-cored BCG. Holm 15A hosts the luminous amorphous radio source 0039-095B and has the optical signature of a LINER. Scaling laws indicate that this core could host a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass M {sub •} ∼ (10{sup 9}-10{sup 11}) M {sub ☉}. We suggest that cores this large represent a relatively short phase in the evolution of BCGs, whereas the masses of their associated SBMH might be set by initial conditions.

  8. Sloshing of the Magnetized Cool Gas in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Lee, D.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations of many clusters of galaxies reveal the presence of edges in surface brightness and temperature, known as "cold fronts". In relaxed clusters with cool cores, these edges have been interpreted as evidence for the "sloshing" of the core gas in the cluster's gravitational potential. The smoothness of these edges has been interpreted as evidence for the stabilizing effect of magnetic fields "draped" around the front surfaces. To check this hypothesis, we perform high-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetized gas sloshing in galaxy clusters initiated by encounters with subclusters. We go beyond previous works on the simulation of cold fronts in a magnetized intracluster medium by simulating their formation in realistic, idealized mergers with high resolution ((Delta)x approx. 2 kpc). Our simulations sample a parameter space of plausible initial magnetic field strengths and field configurations. In the simulations, we observe strong velocity shears associated with the cold fronts amplifying the magnetic field along the cold front surfaces, increasing the magnetic field strength in these layers by up to an order of magnitude, and boosting the magnetic pressure up to near-equipartition with thermal pressure in some cases. In these layers, the magnetic field becomes strong enough to stabilize the cold fronts against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, resulting in sharp, smooth fronts as those seen in observations of real clusters. These magnetic fields also result in strong suppression of mixing of high and low-entropy gas in the cluster, seen in our simulations of mergers in the absence of a magnetic field. As a result, the heating of the core due to sloshing is very modest and is unable to stave off a cooling catastrophe.

  9. SLOSHING OF THE MAGNETIZED COOL GAS IN THE CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.

    2011-12-10

    X-ray observations of many clusters of galaxies reveal the presence of edges in surface brightness and temperature, known as 'cold fronts'. In relaxed clusters with cool cores, these edges have been interpreted as evidence for the 'sloshing' of the core gas in the cluster's gravitational potential. The smoothness of these edges has been interpreted as evidence for the stabilizing effect of magnetic fields 'draped' around the front surfaces. To check this hypothesis, we perform high-resolution magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetized gas sloshing in galaxy clusters initiated by encounters with subclusters. We go beyond previous works on the simulation of cold fronts in a magnetized intracluster medium by simulating their formation in realistic, idealized mergers with high resolution ({Delta}x {approx} 2 kpc). Our simulations sample a parameter space of plausible initial magnetic field strengths and field configurations. In the simulations, we observe strong velocity shears associated with the cold fronts amplifying the magnetic field along the cold front surfaces, increasing the magnetic field strength in these layers by up to an order of magnitude, and boosting the magnetic pressure up to near-equipartition with thermal pressure in some cases. In these layers, the magnetic field becomes strong enough to stabilize the cold fronts against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, resulting in sharp, smooth fronts as those seen in observations of real clusters. These magnetic fields also result in strong suppression of mixing of high- and low-entropy gases in the cluster, seen in our simulations of mergers in the absence of a magnetic field. As a result, the heating of the core due to sloshing is very modest and is unable to stave off a cooling catastrophe.

  10. INTERPLAY AMONG COOLING, AGN FEEDBACK, AND ANISOTROPIC CONDUCTION IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Karen Yang, H.-Y.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2016-02-20

    Feedback from the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is one of the most promising heating mechanisms to circumvent the cooling-flow problem in galaxy clusters. However, the role of thermal conduction remains unclear. Previous studies have shown that anisotropic thermal conduction in cluster cool cores (CCs) could drive the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities (HBIs) that reorient the field lines in the azimuthal directions and isolate the cores from conductive heating from the outskirts. However, how the AGN interacts with the HBI is still unknown. To understand these interwined processes, we perform the first 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of isolated CC clusters that include anisotropic conduction, radiative cooling, and AGN feedback. We find the following: (1) For realistic magnetic field strengths in clusters, magnetic tension can suppress a significant portion of HBI-unstable modes, and thus the HBI is either completely inhibited or significantly impaired, depending on the unknown magnetic field coherence length. (2) Turbulence driven by AGN jets can effectively randomize magnetic field lines and sustain conductivity at ∼1/3 of the Spitzer value; however, the AGN-driven turbulence is not volume filling. (3) Conductive heating within the cores could contribute to ∼10% of the radiative losses in Perseus-like clusters and up to ∼50% for clusters twice the mass of Perseus. (4) Thermal conduction has various impacts on the AGN activity and intracluster medium properties for the hottest clusters, which may be searched by future observations to constrain the level of conductivity in clusters. The distribution of cold gas and the implications are also discussed.

  11. A statistically selected Chandra sample of 20 galaxy clusters - II. Gas properties and cool core/non-cool core bimodality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Alastair J. R.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Ponman, Trevor J.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic and chemical structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) across a statistical sample of 20 galaxy clusters analysed with the Chandra X-ray satellite. In particular, we focus on the scaling properties of the gas density, metallicity and entropy and the comparison between clusters with and without cool cores (CCs). We find marked differences between the two categories except for the gas metallicity, which declines strongly with radius for all clusters (Z ~ r-0.31), outside ~0.02r500. The scaling of gas entropy is non-self-similar and we find clear evidence of bimodality in the distribution of logarithmic slopes of the entropy profiles. With only one exception, the steeper sloped entropy profiles are found in CC clusters whereas the flatter slope population are all non-CC clusters. We explore the role of thermal conduction in stabilizing the ICM and conclude that this mechanism alone is sufficient to balance cooling in non-CC clusters. However, CC clusters appear to form a distinct population in which heating from feedback is required in addition to conduction. Under the assumption that non-CC clusters are thermally stabilized by conduction alone, we find the distribution of Spitzer conduction suppression factors, fc, to be lognormal, with a log (base 10) mean of -1.50 +/- 0.03 (i.e. fc = 0.032) and log standard deviation 0.39 +/- 0.02.

  12. Mpc-scale diffuse radio emission in two massive cool-core clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Martin W.; Basu, Kaustuv; Intema, Huib; Pacaud, Florian; Bonafede, Annalisa; Babul, Arif; Bertoldi, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Radio haloes are diffuse synchrotron sources on scales of ∼1 Mpc that are found in merging clusters of galaxies, and are believed to be powered by electrons re-accelerated by merger-driven turbulence. We present measurements of extended radio emission on similarly large scales in two clusters of galaxies hosting cool cores: Abell 2390 and Abell 2261. The analysis is based on interferometric imaging with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We present detailed radio images of the targets, subtract the compact emission components and measure the spectral indices for the diffuse components. The radio emission in A2390 extends beyond a known sloshing-like brightness discontinuity, and has a very steep in-band spectral slope at 1.5 GHz that is similar to some known ultrasteep spectrum radio haloes. The diffuse signal in A2261 is more extended than in A2390 but has lower luminosity. X-ray morphological indicators, derived from XMM-Newton X-ray data, place these clusters in the category of relaxed or regular systems, although some asymmetric features that can indicate past minor mergers are seen in the X-ray brightness images. If these two Mpc-scale radio sources are categorized as giant radio haloes, they question the common assumption of radio haloes occurring exclusively in clusters undergoing violent merging activity, in addition to commonly used criteria for distinguishing between radio haloes and minihaloes.

  13. TURBULENCE AND RADIO MINI-HALOS IN THE SLOSHING CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.

    2013-01-10

    A number of relaxed, cool-core galaxy clusters exhibit diffuse, steep-spectrum radio sources in their central regions, known as radio mini-halos. It has been proposed that the relativistic electrons responsible for the emission have been reaccelerated by turbulence generated by the sloshing of the cool core gas. We present a high-resolution MHD simulation of gas sloshing in a galaxy cluster coupled with subgrid simulations of relativistic electron acceleration to test this hypothesis. Our simulation shows that the sloshing motions generate turbulence on the order of {delta}v {approx} 50-200 km s{sup -1} on spatial scales of {approx}50-100 kpc and below in the cool core region within the envelope of the sloshing cold fronts, whereas outside the cold fronts, there is negligible turbulence. This turbulence is potentially strong enough to reaccelerate relativistic electron seeds (with initial {gamma} {approx} 100-500) to {gamma} {approx} 10{sup 4} via damping of magnetosonic waves and non-resonant compression. The seed electrons could remain in the cluster from, e.g., past active galactic nucleus activity. In combination with the magnetic field amplification in the core, these electrons then produce diffuse radio synchrotron emission that is coincident with the region bounded by the sloshing cold fronts, as indeed observed in X-rays and the radio. The result holds for different initial spatial distributions of pre-existing relativistic electrons. The power and the steep spectral index ({alpha} Almost-Equal-To 1-2) of the resulting radio emission are consistent with observations of mini-halos, though the theoretical uncertainties of the acceleration mechanisms are high. We also produce simulated maps of inverse-Compton hard X-ray emission from the same population of relativistic electrons.

  14. Chandra Observation of the Core of the Galaxy Cluster AWM 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furusho, T.; Yanasaki, N. Y.; Ohashi, T.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra observation of the core region of the nearby X-ray bright galaxy cluster AWM 7. There are blob-like substructures, which are seen in the energy band 2-10 keV, within 10 kpc (20") of the cD galaxy NGC 1129, and the brightest sub-peak has a spatial extent more than 4 kpc. We also notice that the central soft X-ray peak is offset from the optical center by 1.3 kpc. These structures have no correlated features in optical, infrared, or radio band. Energy spectrum of the hard sub-peak indicates a temperature higher than 3 keV with a metallicity less than 0.3 solar, or a power-law spectrum with photon index approximately 1.2. A hardness ratio map and a narrow Fe-K band image jointly indicate two Fe-rich blobs symmetrically located around the cD galaxy, with the direction perpendicular to the sub-peak direction. In larger scales (r less than 60 kpc), the temperature gradually drops from 4 keV to 2 keV toward the cluster center and the metal abundance rises steeply to a peak of 1.5 solar at r approximately equal to 7 kpc. These results indicate that a dynamical process is going on in the central region of AWM 7, which probably creates heated gas blobs and drives metal injection.

  15. New Detections of Radio Minihalos in Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim; Venturi, Tiziana; Clarke, Tracy E.; Cassano, Rossella; Mazzotta, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Cool cores of some galaxy clusters exhibit faint radio minihalos. Their origin is unclear, and their study has been limited by their small number. We undertook a systematic search for minihalos in a large sample of X-ray luminous clusters with high-quality radio data. In this article, we report four new minihalos (A 478, ZwCl 3146,RXJ 1532.9+3021, and A 2204) and five candidates found in the reanalyzed archival Very Large Array observations.The radio luminosities of our minihalos and candidates are in the range of 102325 W Hz1 at 1.4 GHz, which is consistent with these types of radio sources. Their sizes (40160 kpc in radius) are somewhat smaller than those of previously known minihalos. We combine our new detections with previously known minihalos, obtaining a total sample of 21 objects, and briefly compare the cluster radio properties to the average X-ray temperature and the total masses estimated from Planck.We find that nearly all clusters hosting minihalos are hot and massive. Beyond that, there is no clear correlation between the minihalo radio power and cluster temperature or mass (in contrast with the giant radio halos found in cluster mergers, whose radio luminosity correlates with the cluster mass). Chandra X-ray images indicate gas sloshing in the cool cores of most of our clusters, with minihalos contained within the sloshing regions in many of them. This supports the hypothesis that radio-emitting electrons are reaccelerated by sloshing. Advection of relativistic electrons by the sloshing gas may also play a role in the formation of the less extended minihalos.

  16. Entropy Profiles in the Cores of Cooling Flow Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Horner, Donald J.; Cavagnolo, Kenneth W.; Voit, G. Mark

    2006-06-01

    The X-ray properties of a relaxed cluster of galaxies are determined primarily by its gravitational potential well and the entropy distribution of its intracluster gas. That entropy distribution reflects both the accretion history of the cluster and the feedback processes that limit the condensation of intracluster gas. Here we present Chandra observations of the core entropy profiles of nine classic ``cooling flow'' clusters that appear relatively relaxed (at least outside the central 10-20 kpc) and contain intracluster gas with a cooling time less than a Hubble time. We show that those entropy profiles are remarkably similar, despite the fact that the clusters range over a factor of 3 in temperature. They typically have an entropy level of ~130 keV cm2 at 100 kpc that declines to a plateau ~10 keV cm2 at <~10 kpc. Between these radii, the entropy profiles are ~rα with α~1.0-1.3. The nonzero central entropy levels in these clusters correspond to a cooling time ~108 yr, suggesting that episodic heating on this timescale maintains the central entropy profile in a quasi-steady state. We show in an appendix that although disturbances and bubbles are visible in the central regions of these clusters, these phenomena do not strongly bias our entropy estimates.

  17. From the core to the outskirts: structure analysis of three massive galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foëx, G.; Chon, G.; Böhringer, H.

    2017-05-01

    Aims: The hierarchical model of structure formation is a key prediction of the Λ cold dark matter model, which can be tested by studying the large-scale environment and the substructure content of massive galaxy clusters. We present here a detailed analysis of the clusters RXC J0225.9-4154, RXC J0528.9-3927, and RXC J2308.3-0211, as part of a sample of massive X-ray luminous clusters located at intermediate redshifts. Methods: We used a multiwavelength analysis, combining WFI photometric observations, VIMOS spectroscopy, and the X-ray surface brightness maps. We investigated the optical morphology of the clusters, we looked for significant counterparts in the residual X-ray emission, and we ran several statistical tests to assess their dynamical state. We correlated the results to define various substructure features, to study their properties, and to quantify their influence on simple dynamical mass estimators. Results: RXC J0225.9-4154 has a bi-modal core, and two massive galaxy groups are located in its immediate surroundings; they are aligned in an elongated structure that is also detected in X-rays at the 1σ level. RXC J0528.9-3927 is located in a poor environment; an X-ray centroid shift and the presence of two central BCGs provide mild evidence for a recent and active dynamical history. RXC J2308.3-0211 has complex central dynamics, and it is found at the core of a superstes-cluster. Conclusions: The complexity of the cluster's central dynamics reflects the richness of its large-scale environment: RXC J0225 and RXC J2308 present a mass fraction in substructures larger than the typical 5-15%, whereas the isolated cluster RXC J0528 does not have any major substructures within its virial radius. The largest substructures are found in the cluster outskirts. The optical morphology of the clusters correlates with the orientation of their BCG, and with the position of the main axes of accretion. Based on observations from the Very Large Telescope at Paranal

  18. Radial metal abundance profiles in the intra-cluster medium of cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Kaastra, J. S.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Gu, L.; Kosec, P.; Mao, J.; Pinto, C.; Reiprich, T. H.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.

    2017-07-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) permeating galaxy clusters and groups is not pristine, as it has been continuously enriched by metals synthesised in Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae since the major epoch of star formation (z ≃ 2-3). The cluster/group enrichment history and mechanisms responsible for releasing and mixing the metals can be probed via the radial distribution of SNIa and SNcc products within the ICM. In this paper, we use deep XMM-Newton/EPIC observations from a sample of 44 nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and ellipticals (CHEERS) to constrain the average radial O, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni abundance profiles. The radial distributions of all these elements, averaged over a large sample for the first time, represent the best constrained profiles available currently. Specific attention is devoted to a proper modelling of the EPIC spectral components, and to other systematic uncertainties that may affect our results. We find an overall decrease of the Fe abundance with radius out to 0.9 r500 and 0.6 r500 for clusters and groups, respectively, in good agreement with predictions from the most recent hydrodynamical simulations. The average radial profiles of all the other elements (X) are also centrally peaked and, when rescaled to their average central X/Fe ratios, follow well the Fe profile out to at least 0.5 r500. As predicted by recent simulations, we find that the relative contribution of SNIa (SNcc) to the total ICM enrichment is consistent with being uniform at all radii, both for clusters and groups using two sets of SNIa and SNcc yield models that reproduce the X/Fe abundance pattern in the core well. In addition to implying that the central metal peak is balanced between SNIa and SNcc, our results suggest that the enriching SNIa and SNcc products must share the same origin and that the delay between the bulk of the SNIa and SNcc explosions must be shorter than the timescale necessary to diffuse out the metals

  19. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AND ENTROPY INJECTION IN GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Anya; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Nath, Biman B. E-mail: subha@tifr.res.in

    2013-10-20

    We make the first estimate of non-gravitational energy profiles in galaxy cluster cores (and beyond) based on observational data. Comparing the observed entropy profiles within r{sub 500}, from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey to simulated base entropy profiles without feedback from both adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) non-radiative simulations, we estimate the amount of additional non-gravitational energy, E{sub ICM}, contained in the intracluster medium (ICM), as well as the total energy feedback, E{sub Feedback}, from active galactic nuclei (AGNs; the central AGNs in most cases) into the clusters. The total feedback energy scales with the mean spectroscopic temperature as E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.52±0.08} and E{sub Feedback}∝T{sub sp}{sup 2.17±0.11} for the SPH and AMR baseline profiles. The mean non-gravitational energy per particle within r{sub 500} remaining in the ICM after energy lost during cooling is ε{sub ICM} = 2.8 ± 0.8 keV for the SPH theoretical relation and ε{sub ICM} = 1.7 ± 0.9 keV for the AMR theoretical relation. We use the NRAO/VLA Sky Survey source catalog to determine the radio luminosity, L{sub R} , at 1.4 GHz of the central source(s) of our sample. For T{sub sp} > 3 keV, the E{sub Feedback} correlates with L{sub R} , although with different normalization for cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. We show that AGNs could provide a significant portion of the feedback.

  20. Embedded Spiral Patterns in the Cool Core of the Massive Cluster of Galaxies Abell 1835

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Shutaro; Kitayama, Tetsu; Dotani, Tadayasu

    2017-03-01

    We present the properties of an intracluster medium (ICM) in the cool core of the massive cluster of galaxies, Abell 1835, obtained with the data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find distinctive spiral patterns with a radius of 70 kpc (or 18″) as a whole in the residual image of the X-ray surface brightness after the two-dimensional ellipse model of surface brightness is subtracted. The size is smaller by a factor of 2–4 than that of other clusters that are known to have a similar pattern. The spiral patterns consist of two arms. One of them appears as positive, and the other appears as negative excesses in the residual image. Their X-ray spectra show that the ICM temperatures in the positive- and negative-excess regions are {5.09}-0.13+0.12 keV and {6.52}-0.15+0.18 keV, respectively. In contrast, no significant difference is found in the abundance or pressure, the latter of which suggests that the ICM in the two regions of the spiral patterns is near or is in pressure equilibrium. The spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the central region (r< 40\\prime\\prime ), divided into 92 sub-regions indicates that Abell 1835 is a typical cool core cluster. We also find that the spiral patterns extend from the cool core out to the hotter surrounding ICM. The residual image reveals some lumpy substructures in the cool core. The line of sight component of the disturbance velocity that is responsible for the substructures is estimated to be lower than 600 km s‑1. Abell 1835 may now be experiencing an off-axis minor merger.

  1. ON THE TRANSITION FROM NUCLEAR-CLUSTER- TO BLACK-HOLE-DOMINATED GALAXY CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji; Graham, Alister W.

    2010-05-10

    Giant elliptical galaxies, believed to be built from the merger of lesser galaxies, are known to house a massive black hole (MBH) at their center rather than a compact star cluster. If low- and intermediate-mass galaxies do indeed partake in the hierarchical merger scenario, then one needs to explain why their dense nuclear star clusters are not preserved in merger events. A valuable clue may be the recent revelation that nuclear star clusters and MBHs frequently co-exist in intermediate-mass bulges and elliptical galaxies. In an effort to understand the physical mechanism responsible for the disappearance of nuclear star clusters, we have numerically investigated the evolution of merging star clusters with seed BHs. Using BHs that are 1%-5% of their host nuclear cluster mass, we reveal how their binary coalescence during a merger dynamically heats the newly wed star cluster, expanding it, significantly lowering its central stellar density, and thus making it susceptible to tidal destruction during galaxy merging. Moreover, this mechanism provides a pathway to explain the observed reduction in the nucleus-to-galaxy stellar mass ratio as one proceeds from dwarf to giant elliptical galaxies.

  2. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  3. The Role of Cerenkov Radiation in the Pressure Balance of Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieu, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Despite the substantial progress made recently in understanding the role of AGN feedback and associated non-thermal effects, the precise mechanism that prevents the core of some clusters of galaxies from collapsing catastrophically by radiative cooling remains unidentified. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the evolution of a cluster's cooling core, in terms of its density, temperature, and magnetic field strength, inevitably enables the plasma electrons there to quickly become Cerenkov loss dominated, with emission at the radio frequency of ≲350 Hz, and with a rate considerably exceeding free–free continuum and line emission. However, the same does not apply to the plasmas at the cluster's outskirts, which lacks such radiation. Owing to its low frequency, the radiation cannot escape, but because over the relevant scale size of a Cerenkov wavelength the energy of an electron in the gas cannot follow the Boltzmann distribution to the requisite precision to ensure reabsorption always occurs faster than stimulated emission, the emitting gas cools before it reheats. This leaves behind the radiation itself, trapped by the overlying reflective plasma, yet providing enough pressure to maintain quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium. The mass condensation then happens by Rayleigh–Taylor instability, at a rate determined by the outermost radius where Cerenkov radiation can occur. In this way, it is possible to estimate the rate at ≈2 M ⊙ year‑1, consistent with observational inference. Thus, the process appears to provide a natural solution to the longstanding problem of “cooling flow” in clusters; at least it offers another line of defense against cooling and collapse should gas heating by AGN feedback be inadequate in some clusters.

  4. Molecular accretion in the core of the galaxy cluster 2A 0335+096

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Edge, A. C.; McGregor, P. J.; McNamara, B. R.

    2011-09-01

    We present adaptive optics-assisted K-band integral field spectroscopy of the central cluster galaxy in 2A 0335+096 (z= 0.0349). The H2 v=1-0 S(1) emission is concentrated in two peaks within 600 pc of the nucleus and fainter but kinematically active emission extends towards the nucleus. The H2 is in a rotating structure which aligns with, and appears to have been accreted from, a stream of Hα emission extending over 14 kpc towards a companion galaxy. The projected rotation axis aligns with the 5 GHz radio lobes. This H2 traces the known 1.2 × 109 M⊙ CO-emitting reservoir; limits on the Brγ emission confirm that the H2 emission is not excited by star formation, which occurs at a rate of less than 1 M⊙ yr-1 in this gas. If its accretion on to the black hole can be regulated whilst star formation remains suppressed, the reservoir could last for at least 1 Gyr; the simultaneous accretion of just ˜5 per cent of the gas could drive a series of active galactic nucleus (AGN) outbursts which offset X-ray cooling in the cluster core for the full ˜1 Gyr. Alternatively, if the regulation is ineffective and the bulk of the H2 accretes within a few orbital periods (25-100 Myr), the resulting 1062 erg outburst would be among the most powerful cluster AGN outbursts known. In either case, these observations further support cold feedback scenarios for AGN heating.

  5. Constraining the galaxy mass content in the core of A383 using velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Zitrin, A.; Geller, M. J.; Grillo, C.; Mercurio, A.; Greisel, N.; Halkola, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Biviano, A.; Coe, D.; Fabricant, D. G.; Hwang, H. S.; Koekemoer, A.

    2015-02-01

    We use velocity dispersion measurements of 21 individual cluster members in the core of Abell 383, obtained with Multiple Mirror Telescope Hectospec, to separate the galaxy and the smooth dark halo (DH) lensing contributions. While lensing usually constrains the overall, projected mass density, the innovative use of velocity dispersion measurements as a proxy for masses of individual cluster members breaks inherent degeneracies and allows us to (a) refine the constraints on single galaxy masses and on the galaxy mass-to-light scaling relation and, as a result, (b) refine the constraints on the DM-only map, a high-end goal of lens modelling. The knowledge of cluster member velocity dispersions improves the fit by 17 per cent in terms of the image reproduction χ2, or 20 per cent in terms of the rms. The constraints on the mass parameters improve by ˜10 per cent for the DH, while for the galaxy component, they are refined correspondingly by ˜50 per cent, including the galaxy halo truncation radius. For an L* galaxy with M^{*}B=-20.96, for example, we obtain best-fitting truncation radius r_tr^{*}=20.5^{+9.6}_{-6.7} kpc and velocity dispersion σ* = 324 ± 17 km s-1. Moreover, by performing the surface brightness reconstruction of the southern giant arc, we improve the constraints on rtr of two nearby cluster members, which have measured velocity dispersions, by more than ˜30 per cent. We estimate the stripped mass for these two galaxies, getting results that are consistent with numerical simulations. In the future, we plan to apply this analysis to other galaxy clusters for which velocity dispersions of member galaxies are available.

  6. The formation of entropy cores in non-radiative galaxy cluster simulations: smoothed particle hydrodynamics versus adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, C.; Read, J. I.; Hobbs, A.

    2014-06-01

    We simulate cosmological galaxy cluster formation using three different approaches to solving the equations of non-radiative hydrodynamics - classic smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), novel SPH with a higher order dissipation switch (SPHS), and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. Comparing spherically averaged entropy profiles, we find that SPHS and AMR approaches result in a well-defined entropy core that converges rapidly with increasing mass and force resolution. In contrast, the central entropy profile in the SPH approach is sensitive to the cluster's assembly history and shows poor numerical convergence. We trace this disagreement to the known artificial surface tension in SPH that appears at phase boundaries. Varying systematically numerical dissipation in SPHS, we study the contributions of numerical and physical dissipation to the entropy core and argue that numerical dissipation is required to ensure single-valued fluid quantities in converging flows. However, provided it occurs only at the resolution limit and does not propagate errors to larger scales, its effect is benign - there is no requirement to build `sub-grid' models of unresolved turbulence for galaxy cluster simulations. We conclude that entropy cores in non-radiative galaxy cluster simulations are physical, resulting from entropy generation in shocked gas during cluster assembly.

  7. Lack of nuclear clusters in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: implications for massive black holes formation and the cusp/core problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    One of the leading scenarios for the formation of nuclear star clusters in galaxies is related to the orbital decay of globular clusters (GCs) and their subsequent merging, though alternative theories are currently debated. The availability of high-quality data for structural and orbital parameters of GCs allows us to test different nuclear star cluster formation scenarios. The Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy is the heaviest satellite of the Milky Way and it is the only known dSph hosting five GCs, whereas there are no clear signatures for the presence of a central massive black hole. For this reason, it represents a suited place to study the orbital decay process in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we model the future evolution of the Fornax GCs simulating them and the host galaxy by means of direct N-body simulations. Our simulations also take into account the gravitational field generated by the Milky Way. We found that if the Fornax galaxy is embedded in a standard cold dark matter halo, the nuclear cluster formation would be significantly hampered by the high central galactic mass density. In this context, we discuss the possibility that infalling GCs drive the flattening of the galactic density profile, giving a possible alternative explanation to the so-called cusp/core problem. Moreover, we briefly discuss the link between GC infall process and the absence of massive black holes in the centre of dSphs.

  8. Understanding the In-Situ Star Formation in a z=1.7 Cluster Core Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy

    2014-10-01

    We have discovered a rare beast of a central galaxy within a z=1.7 rich galaxy cluster (estimated ~4x10^14 Msun), forming stars at a prodigious rate of 1200 Msun/yr. This system is infrared bright and its SED and the detection of PAHs at the cluster redshift, implies the IR luminosity is dominated by star formation. Such an extreme system has to date, only been confirmed in the z=0.6 Phoenix cluster (McDonald et al. 2012, 2013, 2014), whereas this object is observed at a much earlier and more active epoch of galaxy and cluster evolution. Here we propose deep HST imaging with WFC3 F160W/F105W to investigate the morphology of the BCG galaxy and its nearest neighbours. Our main goal is to understand the physical processes fuelling the intense starburst, be it a major merger or infalling gas from a cooling flow. We will also characterize the morphological properties (with color information) of the central BCG. These data will be the first of their kind at this redshift and will relate overall formation and evolution of the central galaxy massive parent halo at a cosmological epoch where these processes may begin to dominate.

  9. Rhapsody-G simulations I: the cool cores, hot gas and stellar content of massive galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Martizzi, Davide; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August E.; Teyssier, Romain; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the RHAPSODY-G suite of cosmological hydrodynamic AMR zoom simulations of ten massive galaxy clusters at the Mvir ˜ 1015 M⊙ scale. These simulations include cooling and sub-resolution models for star formation and stellar and supermassive black hole feedback. The sample is selected to capture the whole gamut of assembly histories that produce clusters of similar final mass. We present an overview of the successes and shortcomings of such simulations in reproducing both the stellar properties of galaxies as well as properties of the hot plasma in clusters. In our simulations, a long-lived cool-core/non-cool core dichotomy arises naturally, and the emergence of non-cool cores is related to low angular momentum major mergers. Nevertheless, the cool-core clusters exhibit a low central entropy compared to observations, which cannot be alleviated by thermal AGN feedback. For cluster scaling relations we find that the simulations match well the M500 - Y500 scaling of Planck SZ clusters but deviate somewhat from the observed X-ray luminosity and temperature scaling relations in the sense of being slightly too bright and too cool at fixed mass, respectively. Stars are produced at an efficiency consistent with abundance matching constraints and central galaxies have star formation rates consistent with recent observations. While our simulations thus match various key properties remarkably well, we conclude that the shortcomings strongly suggest an important role for non-thermal processes (through feedback or otherwise) or thermal conduction in shaping the intra-cluster medium.

  10. Hiding in plain sight - recovering clusters of galaxies with the strongest AGN in their cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. S.; Edge, A. C.; Ebeling, H.; Burgett, W. S.; Draper, P. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-03-01

    A key challenge in understanding the feedback mechanism of active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) is the inherent rarity of catching an AGN during its strong outburst phase. This is exacerbated by the ambiguity of differentiating between AGN and clusters in X-ray observations. If there is evidence for an AGN then the X-ray emission is commonly assumed to be dominated by the AGN emission, introducing a selection effect against the detection of AGN in BCGs. In order to recover these 'missing' clusters, we systematically investigate the colour-magnitude relation around some ∼3500 ROSAT All-Sky Survey selected AGN, looking for signs of a cluster red sequence. Amongst our 22 candidate systems, we independently rediscover several confirmed systems, where a strong AGN resides in a central galaxy. We compare the X-ray luminosity to red sequence richness distribution of our AGN candidate systems with that of a similarly selected comparison sample of ∼1000 confirmed clusters and identify seven 'best' candidates (all of which are BL Lac objects), where the X-ray flux is likely to be a comparable mix between cluster and AGN emission. We confirm that the colours of the red sequence are consistent with the redshift of the AGN, that the colours of the AGN host galaxy are consistent with AGN, and, by comparing their luminosities with those from our comparison clusters, confirm that the AGN hosts are consistent with BCGs.

  11. rhapsody-g simulations - I. The cool cores, hot gas and stellar content of massive galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Oliver; Martizzi, Davide; Wu, Hao-Yi; Evrard, August E.; Teyssier, Romain; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-09-01

    We present the rhapsody-g suite of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom simulations of 10 massive galaxy clusters at the Mvir ∼ 1015 M⊙ scale. These simulations include cooling and subresolution models for star formation and stellar and supermassive black hole feedback. The sample is selected to capture the whole gamut of assembly histories that produce clusters of similar final mass. We present an overview of the successes and shortcomings of such simulations in reproducing both the stellar properties of galaxies as well as properties of the hot plasma in clusters. In our simulations, a long-lived cool-core/non-cool-core dichotomy arises naturally, and the emergence of non-cool cores is related to low angular momentum major mergers. Nevertheless, the cool-core clusters exhibit a low central entropy compared to observations, which cannot be alleviated by thermal active galactic nuclei feedback. For cluster scaling relations, we find that the simulations match well the M500-Y500 scaling of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters but deviate somewhat from the observed X-ray luminosity and temperature scaling relations in the sense of being slightly too bright and too cool at fixed mass, respectively. Stars are produced at an efficiency consistent with abundance-matching constraints and central galaxies have star formation rates consistent with recent observations. While our simulations thus match various key properties remarkably well, we conclude that the shortcomings strongly suggest an important role for non-thermal processes (through feedback or otherwise) or thermal conduction in shaping the intracluster medium.

  12. Rhapsody-G simulations I: the cool cores, hot gas and stellar content of massive galaxy clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Hahn, Oliver; Martizzi, Davide; Wu, Hao -Yi; ...

    2017-01-25

    We present the rhapsody-g suite of cosmological hydrodynamic zoom simulations of 10 massive galaxy clusters at the Mvir ~1015 M⊙ scale. These simulations include cooling and subresolution models for star formation and stellar and supermassive black hole feedback. The sample is selected to capture the whole gamut of assembly histories that produce clusters of similar final mass. We present an overview of the successes and shortcomings of such simulations in reproducing both the stellar properties of galaxies as well as properties of the hot plasma in clusters. In our simulations, a long-lived cool-core/non-cool-core dichotomy arises naturally, and the emergence ofmore » non-cool cores is related to low angular momentum major mergers. Nevertheless, the cool-core clusters exhibit a low central entropy compared to observations, which cannot be alleviated by thermal active galactic nuclei feedback. For cluster scaling relations, we find that the simulations match well the M500–Y500 scaling of Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich clusters but deviate somewhat from the observed X-ray luminosity and temperature scaling relations in the sense of being slightly too bright and too cool at fixed mass, respectively. Stars are produced at an efficiency consistent with abundance-matching constraints and central galaxies have star formation rates consistent with recent observations. In conclusion, while our simulations thus match various key properties remarkably well, we conclude that the shortcomings strongly suggest an important role for non-thermal processes (through feedback or otherwise) or thermal conduction in shaping the intracluster medium.« less

  13. An Extreme Starburst in the Core of a Rich Galaxy Cluster at z = 1.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Tracy; Noble, Allison; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Muzzin, Adam; Bonaventura, Nina; Cooper, Mike; Delahaye, Anna; Foltz, Ryan; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Yee, H. K. C.; Chapman, Scott; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Perlmutter, Saul; Tudorica, Alex

    2015-08-01

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of Ngal (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ˜3.8 ± 1.2 × 1014 M⊙, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with LIR = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 1012 L⊙. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ˜860 ± 130 M⊙ yr-1. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  14. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan; Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott; Cooper, Mike; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.; and others

    2015-08-20

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N{sub gal} (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L{sub IR} = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  15. Self-regulated cooling flows in elliptical galaxies and in cluster cores - Is exclusively low mass star formation really necessary?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Djorgovski, S.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Bruzual A., G.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent treatment of the heating by supernovae associated with star formation in a spherically symmetric cooling flow in a cluster core or elliptical galaxy is presented. An initial stellar mass function similar to that in the solar neighborhood is adopted. Inferred star-formation rates, within the cooling region - typically the inner 100 kpc around dominant galaxies at the centers of cooling flows in XD clusters - are reduced by about a factor of 2, relative to rates inferred when the heat input from star formation is ignored. Truncated initial mass functions (IMFs) are also considered, in which massive star formation is suppressed in accordance with previous treatments, and colors are predicted for star formation in cooling flows associated with central dominant elliptical galaxies and with isolated elliptical galaxies surrounded by gaseous coronae. The low inferred cooling-flow rates around isolated elliptical galaxies are found to be insensitive to the upper mass cutoff in the IMF, provided that the upper mass cutoff exceeds 2 M solar mass. Comparison with observed colors favors a cutoff in the IMF above 1 M solar mass in at least two well-studied cluster cooling flows, but a normal IMF cannot be excluded definitively. Models for NGC 1275 support a young (less than about 3 Gyr) cooling flow. As for the isolated elliptical galaxies, the spread in colors is consistent with a normal IMF. A definitive test of the IMF arising via star formation in cooling flows requires either UV spectral data or supernova searches in the cooling-flow-centered galaxies.

  16. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Hilker, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Richtler, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre, where the dynamical times are long and preserve the chemodynamical signatures of the accretion events. Aims: We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster, and out to three effective radii. We wish to characterize the processes that drove the build-up of the stellar light at all these radii. Methods: We obtained the spectra from several regions in NGC 3311 covering an area of ~3 arcmin2 in the wavelength range 4800 ≲ λ(Å) ≲ 5800, using the FORS2 spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in the MXU mode. We measured the equivalent widths of seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system, which were modelled by single stellar populations, to provide luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities, and alpha element abundances. Results: The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided in two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, Re = 8.4 kpc, similar to the distinction between the inner galaxy and the external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy (R ≤ Re) is old (age ~14 Gyr), has negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha element gradients. The external halo is also very old, but has a negative age gradient. The metal and element abundances of the external halo both have a large scatter, indicating that stars from a variety of satellites with different masses have been accreted. The region in the extended halo associated with the off-centred envelope at 0°< PA < 90° has higher metallicity with respect to the symmetric external halo. Conclusions: The different stellar populations in the inner galaxy and extended halo

  17. The X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XMMU J1007.4+1237 at z = 1.56. The dawn of starburst activity in cluster cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, R.; Nastasi, A.; Böhringer, H.; Šuhada, R.; Santos, J. S.; Rosati, P.; Pierini, D.; Mühlegger, M.; Quintana, H.; Schwope, A. D.; Lamer, G.; de Hoon, A.; Kohnert, J.; Pratt, G. W.; Mohr, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    Context. Observational galaxy cluster studies at z > 1.5 probe the formation of the first massive M > 1014 M⊙ dark matter halos, the early thermal history of the hot ICM, and the emergence of the red-sequence population of quenched early-type galaxies. Aims: We present first results for the newly discovered X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XMMU J1007.4+1237 at z = 1.555, detected and confirmed by the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) survey. Methods: We selected the system as a serendipitous weak extended X-ray source in XMM-Newton archival data and followed it up with two-band near-infrared imaging and deep optical spectroscopy. Results: We can establish XMMU J1007.4+1237 as a spectroscopically confirmed, massive,bona fide galaxy cluster with a bolometric X-ray luminosity of Lbol_X,500≃(2.1 ± 0.4)× 10^{44} erg/s, a red galaxy population centered on the X-ray emission, and a central radio-loud brightest cluster galaxy. However, we see evidence for the first time that the massive end of the galaxy population and the cluster red-sequence are not yet fully in place. In particular, we find ongoing starburst activity for the third ranked galaxy close to the center and another slightly fainter object. Conclusions: At a lookback time of 9.4 Gyr, the cluster galaxy population appears to be caught in an important evolutionary phase, prior to full star-formation quenching and mass assembly in the core region. X-ray selection techniques are an efficient means of identifying and probing the most distant clusters without any prior assumptions about their galaxy content. Based on observations under programme ID 081.A-0312 collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, and observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Figure 2 and Tables 1 and 2 are only

  18. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  19. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  20. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  1. The regulation of star formation in cool-core clusters: imprints on the stellar populations of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubser, S. I.; Babul, A.; Hoekstra, H.; Mahdavi, A.; Donahue, M.; Bildfell, C.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-02-01

    A fraction of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) show bright emission in the ultraviolet and the blue part of the optical spectrum, which has been interpreted as evidence of recent star formation. Most of these results are based on the analysis of broad-band photometric data. Here, we study the optical spectra of a sample of 19 BCGs hosted by X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at 0.15 Cluster Comparison Project sample. We identify plausible star formation histories of the galaxies by fitting simple stellar populations as well as composite populations, consisting of a young stellar component superimposed on an intermediate/old stellar component, to accurately constrain their star formation histories. We detect prominent young (˜200 Myr) stellar populations in four of the 19 galaxies. Of the four, the BCG in Abell 1835 shows remarkable A-type stellar features indicating a relatively large population of young stars, which is extremely unusual even amongst star-forming BCGs. We constrain the mass contribution of these young components to the total stellar mass to be typically between 1 and 3 per cent, but rising to 7 per cent in Abell 1835. We find that the four of the BCGs with strong evidence for recent star formation (and only these four galaxies) are found within a projected distance of 5 kpc of their host cluster's X-ray peak, and the diffuse, X-ray gas surrounding the BCGs exhibits a ratio of the radiative cooling-to-free-fall time (tc/tff) of ≤10. These are also some of the clusters with the lowest central entropy. Our results are consistent with the predictions of the precipitation-driven star formation and active galactic nucleus feedback model, in which the radiatively cooling diffuse gas is subject to local thermal instabilities once the instability parameter tc/tff falls below ˜10, leading to the condensation and precipitation of cold gas. The number of galaxies in our sample where the host cluster satisfies all the

  2. Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.; Richter, O. G.; Materne, J.

    1981-09-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is dominated by clustering. Most galaxies seem to be members of pairs, groups, clusters, and superclusters. To that degree we are able to recognize a hierarchical structure of the universe. Our local group of galaxies (LG) is centred on two large spiral galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and our own galaxy. Three sr:naller galaxies - like M 33 - and at least 23 dwarf galaxies (KraanKorteweg and Tammann, 1979, Astronomische Nachrichten, 300, 181) can be found in the evironment of these two large galaxies. Neighbouring groups have comparable sizes (about 1 Mpc in extent) and comparable numbers of bright members. Small dwarf galaxies cannot at present be observed at great distances.

  3. Brightest Cluster Galaxy Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisman, Luke; Haarsma, D. B.; Sebald, D. A.; ACCEPT Team

    2011-01-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) play an important role in several fields of astronomical research. The literature includes many different methods and criteria for identifying the BCG in the cluster, such as choosing the brightest galaxy, the galaxy nearest the X-ray peak, or the galaxy with the most extended profile. Here we examine a sample of 75 clusters from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), measuring masked magnitudes and profiles for BCG candidates in each cluster. We first identified galaxies by hand; in 15% of clusters at least one team member selected a different galaxy than the others.We also applied 6 other identification methods to the ACCEPT sample; in 30% of clusters at least one of these methods selected a different galaxy than the other methods. We then developed an algorithm that weighs brightness, profile, and proximity to the X-ray peak and centroid. This algorithm incorporates the advantages of by-hand identification (weighing multiple properties) and automated selection (repeatable and consistent). The BCG population chosen by the algorithm is more uniform in its properties than populations selected by other methods, particularly in the relation between absolute magnitude (a proxy for galaxy mass) and average gas temperature (a proxy for cluster mass). This work supported by a Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and a Sid Jansma Summer Research Fellowship.

  4. THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE FORMATION OF H{alpha} FILAMENTS AND COOL CORES IN GALAXY GROUPS AND CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu

    2011-04-10

    We present the results of a combined X-ray and H{alpha} study of 10 galaxy groups and 17 galaxy clusters using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter. We find no difference in the morphology or detection frequency of H{alpha} filaments in groups versus clusters over the mass range 10{sup 13} < M{sub 500} < 10{sup 15} M{sub sun}. The detection frequency of H{alpha} emission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the total mass of the system at the 52% confidence level. In contrast, we find that the presence of H{alpha} filaments is strongly correlated with both the global (89% confidence level) and core (84%) intracluster medium (ICM) entropy, as well as the X-ray cooling rate (72%). The H{alpha} filaments are therefore an excellent proxy for the cooling ICM. The H{alpha} filaments are more strongly correlated with the cooling properties of the ICM than with the radio properties of the brightest cluster galaxy; this further supports the scenario where these filaments are directly associated with a thermally unstable, rapidly cooling ICM, rather than radio bubbles. The ICM cooling efficiency, defined as the X-ray cooling rate per unit gas mass, is shown to correlate with the total system mass, indicating that groups are more efficient at cooling than clusters. This result implies that, in systems with cool cores, active galactic nucleus feedback scales with the total mass of the system, in agreement with earlier suggestions.

  5. SIMULATING ASTRO-H OBSERVATIONS OF SLOSHING GAS MOTIONS IN THE CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    ZuHone, J. A.; Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M. W.; Simionescu, A.

    2016-04-10

    Astro-H will be the first X-ray observatory to employ a high-resolution microcalorimeter, capable of measuring the shift and width of individual spectral lines to the precision necessary for estimating the velocity of the diffuse plasma in galaxy clusters. This new capability is expected to bring significant progress in understanding the dynamics, and therefore the physics, of the intracluster medium. However, because this plasma is optically thin, projection effects will be an important complicating factor in interpreting future Astro-H measurements. To study these effects in detail, we performed an analysis of the velocity field from simulations of a galaxy cluster experiencing gas sloshing and generated synthetic X-ray spectra, convolved with model Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) responses. We find that the sloshing motions produce velocity signatures that will be observable by Astro-H in nearby clusters: the shifting of the line centroid produced by the fast-moving cold gas underneath the front surface, and line broadening produced by the smooth variation of this motion along the line of sight. The line shapes arising from inviscid or strongly viscous simulations are very similar, indicating that placing constraints on the gas viscosity from these measurements will be difficult. Our spectroscopic analysis demonstrates that, for adequate exposures, Astro-H will be able to recover the first two moments of the velocity distribution of these motions accurately, and in some cases multiple velocity components may be discerned. The simulations also confirm the importance of accurate treatment of point-spread function scattering in the interpretation of Astro-H/SXS spectra of cluster plasmas.

  6. Simulating Astro-H Observations of Sloshing Gas Motions in the Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZuHone, J. A.; Miller, E. D.; Simionescu, A.; Bautz, M. W.

    2016-04-01

    Astro-H will be the first X-ray observatory to employ a high-resolution microcalorimeter, capable of measuring the shift and width of individual spectral lines to the precision necessary for estimating the velocity of the diffuse plasma in galaxy clusters. This new capability is expected to bring significant progress in understanding the dynamics, and therefore the physics, of the intracluster medium. However, because this plasma is optically thin, projection effects will be an important complicating factor in interpreting future Astro-H measurements. To study these effects in detail, we performed an analysis of the velocity field from simulations of a galaxy cluster experiencing gas sloshing and generated synthetic X-ray spectra, convolved with model Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) responses. We find that the sloshing motions produce velocity signatures that will be observable by Astro-H in nearby clusters: the shifting of the line centroid produced by the fast-moving cold gas underneath the front surface, and line broadening produced by the smooth variation of this motion along the line of sight. The line shapes arising from inviscid or strongly viscous simulations are very similar, indicating that placing constraints on the gas viscosity from these measurements will be difficult. Our spectroscopic analysis demonstrates that, for adequate exposures, Astro-H will be able to recover the first two moments of the velocity distribution of these motions accurately, and in some cases multiple velocity components may be discerned. The simulations also confirm the importance of accurate treatment of point-spread function scattering in the interpretation of Astro-H/SXS spectra of cluster plasmas.

  7. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A.; Janz, J.; Lisker, T.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Paudel, S.

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  8. Binary Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Peter Shun Sang

    1994-01-01

    CCD images of the binary-rich clusters of galaxies A373, A408, A667, A890, and A1250 taken at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope show that about half the binary galaxies' are actually star-galaxy or star-star pairs. These clusters are not binary-rich. N-body simulations are used to study the effect of static cluster potentials on binary and single galaxies. The softening procedure is discussed in detail. Since Plummer softening is not self-consistent, and since the force laws for various other density models are similar to each other, uniform-density softening is used. The choice of the theoretical galaxy model in terms of the potential at various locations. A fixed cluster potential cannot stabilize binary galaxies against merger, but can disrupt even quite tightly bound binaries. A moderately good predictor of whether a binary merges or disrupts is the mean torque over a quarter of the initial binary period. But the dynamics of the situation is quite complicated, and depends on an interplay between the motion of the binary through the cluster and the absorption of orbital energy by the galaxies. There is also a substantial amount of mass loss. Simulations of single galaxies in cluster show that this mass loss is due mainly to the cluster potential, and not to an interplay between the merging binary and the cluster. This mass loss is driven partially by virial equilibrium responding to the initial tidal truncation by the cluster. Besides verifying some general results of mass loss from satellite systems in the tidal field of larger bodies, it was found that the galaxy loses mass at an exponential rate.

  9. The Cores of Elliptical Galaxies in Coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, John

    1995-07-01

    The cores of galaxies are astrophysically unique. They canhost high energy nuclei, star formation and perhaps even blackholes. HST observations have established that the cores ofellipticals are related to their global properties, and so canbe used as diagnostics of the physical processes occurring atthe time of formation. HST images of galaxy cores havedistinguished two different types of core luminosity profiles:`soft' and `hard' types. It is suggested that luminous, slowlyrotating galaxies have `soft' cores and the less luminousdisky galaxies have `hard' cores. This can be interpreted interms of a formation scenario based on a merger hierarchy inwhich the low luminosity systems experience highly dissipativemergers, but as the luminous systems are assembled the mergersbecome increasingly stellar. In this picture, the type of corea galaxy generates is intimately related to its evolutionaryhistory, i.e. the degree of interaction/merging experiencedand the availability of cold gas. In turn, this should notonly depend on luminosity but also on the galaxy's localenvironment. Here we propose to test the gaseous/stellarmerger picture by imaging a set of Coma cluster ellipticalsfrom a wide range of cluster radii. In the gas poorenvironment of the cluster core there may be insufficent coldgas for the low luminosity galaxies to form `hard' cores.Similarly, at the cluster turnround radius even luminousgalaxies may have experienced a dissipative core formation andpossess

  10. Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  11. Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  12. Galaxy Evolution in Rich Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzkopf, U.; Hill, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We present the first results of a study of the morphological and spectral evolution of galaxies within the dense cores of distant clusters at redshifts between z=0.4 and 1. The morphology, colors, concentration index, and asymmetry parameters of these cluster members are compared by using a combination of deep HST NICMOS and WFPC2 imaging, covering the rest-frame U and J bands. We also discuss the influence of dust obscuration on the derived measurements. Of particular interest is the morphology of galaxies at near-infrared wavelengths in rich clusters which show an excess of blue galaxies (Butcher-Oelmer effect), namely Abell 851 (z=0.4) and CL 1603+43 (z=0.92). We focus our study on optical/near-infrared measurements of galaxy asymmetry and central concentration, derived from a large number (>400) of objects detected within the core of Abell 851. The sensitivity and reliability of these parameters for galaxy classification and physical diagnostic purposes are tested. In conjunction with the use of recent source extraction software we are able to establish a fast, robust, and highly automated procedure of mapping the structural parameters of large galaxy samples. This work is supported by NASA, under contract NAS5-26555.

  13. Multiple Core Galaxies: Implications for M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. F.; Miller, R. H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It is generally perceived that two cores cannot survive very long within the nuclear regions of a galaxy. The recent HST discovery of a double nucleus in M31 brings this question into prominence. Physical conditions in the nuclear regions of a typical galaxy help a second core survive so it can orbit for a long time, possibly for thousands of orbits. Given the nearly uniform mass density in a core, tidal forces within a core radius are compressive in all directions and help the core survive the buffeting it takes as it orbits near the center of the galaxy. We use numerical experiments to illustrate these physical principles. Modifications to the experimental method allow the full power of the experiments to be concentrated on the nuclear regions. Spatial resolution of about 0.2 parsec comfortably resolves detail within the 1.4 parsec core radius of the second, but brighter, core (P1) in M31. The same physical principles apply in other astronomical situations, such as dumbbell galaxies, galaxies orbiting near the center of a galaxy cluster, and subclustering in galaxy clusters. The experiments also illustrate that galaxy encounters and merging are quite sensitive to external tidal forces, such as those produced by the gravitational potential in a group or cluster of galaxies.

  14. Bimodal morphologies of massive galaxies at the core of a protocluster at z = 3.09 and the strong size growth of a brightest cluster galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, M.; Yamada, T.; Ichikawa, T.; Kajisawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Tanaka, I.; Umehata, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present the near-infrared high-resolution imaging of an extremely dense group of galaxies at the core of the protocluster at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field by using the adaptive optics AO188 and the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on board the Subaru Telescope. The wide morphological variety of them suggests their ongoing dramatic evolutions. One of the two quiescent galaxies (QGs), the most massive one in the group, is a compact elliptical with an effective radius re = 1.37 ± 0.75 kpc. It supports the two-phase formation scenario of giant ellipticals today that a massive compact elliptical is formed at once and evolves in size and stellar mass by a series of mergers. Since this object is a plausible progenitor of a brightest cluster galaxy of one of the most massive clusters today, it requires strong size ( ≳ 10) and stellar mass (∼ four times by z = 0) growths. Another QG hosts an active galactic nucleus and is fitted with a model composed from a nuclear component and Sérsic model. It shows a spatially extended [O III] λ5007 emission line compared to the continuum emission, plausible evidence of outflows. Massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the group are two to three times larger than the field SFGs at similar redshift. Although we obtained the K-band image deeper than the previous one, we found no new candidate members. This implies a physical deficiency of low-mass galaxies with stellar mass M⋆ ≲ 4 × 1010 M⊙ and/or poor detection completeness of them owing to their diffuse morphologies.

  15. HIGH-REDSHIFT COOL-CORE GALAXY CLUSTERS DETECTED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Semler, D. R.; Suhada, R.; Bazin, G.; Bocquet, S.; Desai, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We report the first investigation of cool-core properties of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We use 13 galaxy clusters uniformly selected from 178 deg{sup 2} observed with the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and followed up by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. They form an approximately mass-limited sample (>3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} h {sup -1}{sub 70}) spanning redshifts 0.3 < z < 1.1. Using previously published X-ray-selected cluster samples, we compare two proxies of cool-core strength: surface brightness concentration (c{sub SB}) and cuspiness ({alpha}). We find that c{sub SB} is better constrained. We measure c{sub SB} for the SPT sample and find several new z > 0.5 cool-core clusters, including two strong cool cores. This rules out the hypothesis that there are no z > 0.5 clusters that qualify as strong cool cores at the 5.4{sigma} level. The fraction of strong cool-core clusters in the SPT sample in this redshift regime is between 7% and 56% (95% confidence). Although the SPT selection function is significantly different from the X-ray samples, the high-z c{sub SB} distribution for the SPT sample is statistically consistent with that of X-ray-selected samples at both low and high redshifts. The cool-core strength is inversely correlated with the offset between the brightest cluster galaxy and the X-ray centroid, providing evidence that the dynamical state affects the cool-core strength of the cluster. Larger SZ-selected samples will be crucial in understanding the evolution of cluster cool cores over cosmic time.

  16. Mapping the particle acceleration in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638

    SciTech Connect

    Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; ZuHone, J. A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new deep, high-resolution radio images of the diffuse minihalo in the cool core of the galaxy cluster RX J1720.1+2638. The images have been obtained with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 317, 617, and 1280 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 1.5, 4.9, and 8.4 GHz, with angular resolutions ranging from 1'' to 10''. This represents the best radio spectral and imaging data set for any minihalo. Most of the radio flux of the minihalo arises from a bright central component with a maximum radius of ∼80 kpc. A fainter tail of emission extends out from the central component to form a spiral-shaped structure with a length of ∼230 kpc, seen at frequencies 1.5 GHz and below. We find indication of a possible steepening of the total radio spectrum of the minihalo at high frequencies. Furthermore, a spectral index image shows that the spectrum of the diffuse emission steepens with increasing distance along the tail. A striking spatial correlation is observed between the minihalo emission and two cold fronts visible in the Chandra X-ray image of this cool core. These cold fronts confine the minihalo, as also seen in numerical simulations of minihalo formation by sloshing-induced turbulence. All these observations favor the hypothesis that the radio-emitting electrons in cluster cool cores are produced by turbulent re-acceleration.

  17. Coma cluster of galaxies

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-02

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34 x 34 on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies over 1000 members, most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 right and NGC 4889 left.

  18. Clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhlinin, A. A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Markevich, M. L.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Churazov, E. M.

    2014-04-01

    Galaxy clusters are formed via nonlinear growth of primordial density fluctuations and are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the present Universe. Their number density at different epochs and their properties depend strongly on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, making clusters a powerful tool for observational cosmology. Observations of the hot gas filling the gravitational potential well of a cluster allows studying gasdynamic and plasma effects and the effect of supermassive black holes on the heating and cooling of gas on cluster scales. The work of Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich has had a profound impact on virtually all cosmological and astrophysical studies of galaxy clusters, introducing concepts such as the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum, the Zeldovich approximation, baryon acoustic peaks, and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Here, we review the most basic properties of clusters and their role in modern astrophysics and cosmology.

  19. The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. A young clustered starburst revealed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC 4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods: Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results: The nuclear structure of NGC 4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (<49 mas i.e. <8 pc) features spread within a region of 250 mas, i.e. 41 pc. We derive an inverted spectral index α ≥ 0.7 (Sν ∝ να) for the compact radio emission. Conclusions: Brightness temperatures >104.8 K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC 4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.

  20. The structure of early-type galaxies from the ACS Virgo and Fornax cluster surveys: cores, nuclei and supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    The core structure of early-type galaxies is revisited in light of recent results from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys. These surveys are comprised of HST/ACS g, z band images for a representative sample of 143 early-type galaxies, spanning a factor 720 in B-band luminosity. The data indicates a clear transition in the core structure going from the brightest to the faintest galaxies. In contrast to previous claims, however, this transition is found to be a continuous function of galaxy magnitude. We characterize the core structure in terms of deviations of the observed surface brightness profile measured within ~ 2% of the galaxy effective radius relative to the inner extrapolation of the Sérsic law that best fits the profiles on larger scales. Virtually all galaxies fainter than MB ~ -20 mag contain distinct stellar nuclei, and are described by surface brightness profiles that lie above the Sérsic extrapolation, while the reverse is true for brighter galaxies. The latter are also known to host supermassive black holes. A relation between SBHs and stellar nuclei is suggested by the fact that both types of “central massive objects” contain the same fraction, 0.2% of the total mass of the host galaxy.

  1. Dust in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpova, O. L.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2017-02-01

    The conditions for the destruction of dust in hot gas in galaxy clusters are investigated. It is argued that extinction measurements can be subject to selection effects, hindering their use in obtaining trustworthy estimates of dust masses in clusters. It is shown, in particular, that the ratio of the dust mass to the extinction M d / S d increases as dust grains are disrupted, due to the rapid destruction of small grains. Over long times, this ratio can asymptotically reach values a factor of three higher than the mean value in the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. This lowers dust-mass estimates based on measurements of extinction in galaxy clusters. The characteristic lifetime of dust in hot cluster gas is determined by its possible thermal isolation by the denser medium of gas fragments within which the dust is ejected from galaxies, and can reach 100-300 million years, depending on the kinematics and morphology of the fragments. As a result, the mass fraction of dust in hot cluster gas can reach 1-3% of the Galactic value. Over its lifetime, dust can also be manifest through its far-infrared emission. The emission characteristics of the dust change as it is disrupted, and the ratio of the fluxes at 350 and 850 μm can increase appreciably. This can potentially serve as an indicator of the state of the dust and ambient gas.

  2. Survival of Massive Star-forming Galaxies in Cluster Cores Drives Gas-phase Metallicity Gradients: The Effects of Ram Pressure Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anshu; Yuan, Tiantian; Martizzi, Davide; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Kewley, Lisa J.

    2017-06-01

    Recent observations of galaxies in a cluster at z = 0.35 show that their integrated gas-phase metallicities increase with decreasing cluster-centric distance. To test whether ram pressure stripping (RPS) is the underlying cause, we use a semianalytic model to quantify the “observational bias” that RPS introduces into the aperture-based metallicity measurements. We take integral field spectroscopy of local galaxies, remove gas from their outer galactic disks via RPS, and then conduct mock slit observations of cluster galaxies at z = 0.35. Our RPS model predicts a typical cluster-scale metallicity gradient of -0.03 dex/Mpc. By removing gas from the outer galactic disks, RPS introduces a mean metallicity enhancement of +0.02 dex at a fixed stellar mass. This gas removal and subsequent quenching of star formation preferentially removes low-mass cluster galaxies from the observed star-forming population. As only the more massive star-forming galaxies survive to reach the cluster core, RPS produces a cluster-scale stellar mass gradient of -0.05{log}({M}* /{M}⊙ )/Mpc. This mass segregation drives the predicted cluster-scale metallicity gradient of -0.03 dex/Mpc. However, the effects of RPS alone cannot explain the higher metallicities measured in cluster galaxies at z = 0.35. We hypothesize that additional mechanisms including steep internal metallicity gradients and self-enrichment due to gas strangulation are needed to reproduce our observations at z = 0.35.

  3. Nonthermal Emission from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Emma

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally-bound objects in the universe. The bulk of the mass in a cluster is dark matter, while the dominant baryonic component is a thermal, X-ray emitting plasma. Radio observations of diffuse synchrotron emission indicate that galaxy clusters host a population of cosmic rays; however, the nature of this nonthermal component is not well-understood. In this dissertation, I investigate three sources of nonthermal emission in galaxy clusters. The first is star formation in galaxies, which is correlated to gamma-ray emission. I derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission for nearby clusters by considering the emission from star formation in cluster galaxies. These lower limits sit about an order of magnitude below current upper limits on gamma rays in clusters and will be an important contributor to gamma-ray emission as upper limits improve over time. Dark matter annihilation, which produces relativistic particles that can result in a broad spectrum of emission in cluster environments, is another source of nonthermal emission. I use nondetections and marginal detections of diffuse radio emission in clusters to constrain dark matter annihilation. I derive limits on the annihilation cross section that are competitive with limits from the nondetection of gamma rays in clusters and show that the best objects for study in the radio are different than those in gamma rays, indicating that dark matter searches in the radio can be complementary to searches in other energy bands. I also investigate the cosmic ray population in the merging cluster A2319, which hosts a previously detected radio halo. I present new observations which reveal a two-component radio halo: a 2 Mpc region that extends far past the observable X-ray emission, and an 800 kpc "core" that is bounded by the X-ray cold front. I speculate on the origins of this structure, and show that a hadronic origin for this radio halo is disfavored. Finally, I discuss current

  4. Galaxy cluster's rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.

    2017-03-01

    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  5. A Very Compact Dense Galaxy Overdensity with δ ≃ 130 Identified at z ˜ 8: Implications for Early Protocluster and Cluster Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Harikane, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    We report the first identification of a compact dense galaxy overdensity at z˜ 8 called A2744z8OD. A2744z8OD consists of eight Y-dropout galaxies behind Abell 2744 that were originally pinpointed by Hubble Frontier Fields studies. However, so far, no studies have derived the basic physical quantities of structure formation or made comparisons with theoretical models. We obtain a homogeneous sample of dropout galaxies at z˜ 8 from eight field data of Hubble legacy images that are as deep as the A2744z8OD data. Using the sample, we find that a galaxy surface overdensity value of A2744z8OD is very high δ ≃ 130, where δ is defined by an overdensity in a small circle of 6″ (≃ 30 physical kiloparsecs) radius. Because there is no such large δ value reported for high-z overdensities to date, A2744z8OD is a system that is clearly different from those found in previous high-z overdensity studies. In the galaxy+structure formation models of Henriques et al., there exists a very similar overdensity, Modelz8OD, that is made of eight model dropout galaxies at z˜ 8 in a 6″ radius circle. Modelz8OD is a progenitor of a today’s {10}14{M}⊙ cluster, and more than half of the seven Modelz8OD galaxies are merged into the brightest cluster galaxy of the cluster. If Modelz8OD is a counterpart to A2744z8OD, the models suggest that A2744z8OD would be part of a cluster core forming from a {10}14{M}⊙ cluster that began star formation at z\\gt 12.

  6. Understanding Galaxy Cluster MKW10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tim; Henry, Swain; Coble, Kimberly A.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), we are studying the galaxy cluster MKW 10 (RA = 175.454, Dec = 10.306, z ~ 0.02), a poor cluster with a compact core in which tidal interactions have occurred. This cluster has been observed in HI and Hα. We used SDSS and NED to search for optical counterparts. By comparing data at multiple wavelengths, we hope to understand the structure, environment, and star formation history of this cluster. Following the techniques of others involved in the groups project and using the program TOPCAT to manipulate the data, we explored both the spatial and velocity distributions to determine cluster membership. We have determined that this cluster consists of 11 galaxies, mostly spiral in shape. Chicago State University is new the UAT and we began our work after taking part in the winter workshop at Arecibo.This work was supported by: Undergraduate ALFALFA Team NSF Grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  7. THE STRUCTURE OF 2MASS GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog to refine a matched filter method of finding galaxy clusters that takes into account each galaxy's position, magnitude, and redshift if available. The matched filter postulates a radial density profile, luminosity function, and line-of-sight velocity distribution for cluster galaxies. We use this method to search for clusters in the galaxy catalog, which is complete to an extinction-corrected K-band magnitude of 13.25 and has spectroscopic redshifts for roughly 40% of the galaxies, including nearly all brighter than K = 11.25. We then use a stacking analysis to determine the average luminosity function, radial distribution, and velocity distribution of cluster galaxies in several richness classes, and use the results to update the parameters of the matched filter before repeating the cluster search. We also investigate the correlations between a cluster's richness and its velocity dispersion and core radius using these relations to refine priors that are applied during the cluster search process. After the second cluster search iteration, we repeat the stacking analysis. We find a cluster galaxy luminosity function that fits a Schechter form, with parameters M{sub K*} - 5log h = -23.64 {+-} 0.04 and {alpha} = -1.07 {+-} 0.03. We can achieve a slightly better fit to our luminosity function by adding a Gaussian component on the bright end to represent the brightest cluster galaxy population. The radial number density profile of galaxies closely matches a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile at intermediate radii, with deviations at small radii due to well-known cluster centering issues and outside the virial radius due to correlated structure. The velocity distributions are Gaussian in shape, with velocity dispersions that correlate strongly with richness.

  8. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  9. Galaxy Cluster Abell 1689

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Image release August 19, 2010 An international team of astronomers using gravitational lensing observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has taken an important step forward in the quest to solve the riddle of dark energy, a phenomenon which mysteriously appears to power the Universe's accelerating expansion. Their results appear in the 20 August 2010 issue of the journal Science. This image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 1689, with the mass distribution of the dark matter in the gravitational lens overlaid (in purple). The mass in this lens is made up partly of normal (baryonic) matter and partly of dark matter. Distorted galaxies are clearly visible around the edges of the gravitational lens. The appearance of these distorted galaxies depends on the distribution of matter in the lens and on the relative geometry of the lens and the distant galaxies, as well as on the effect of dark energy on the geometry of the Universe. Credit: NASA, ESA, E. Jullo (JPL/LAM), P. Natarajan (Yale) and J-P. Kneib (LAM). To view a video of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4909967467 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook To read more go to: www.spacetelescope.org/news/heic1014/?utm_source=feedburn...

  10. Record-breaking ancient galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    A tale of two record-breaking clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 768 kb Credits: for RDCS1252: NASA, ESA, J.Blakeslee (Johns Hopkins Univ.), M.Postman (Space Telescope Science Inst.) and P.Rosati, Chris Lidman & Ricardo Demarco (European Southern Observ.) for TNJ1338: NASA, ESA, G.Miley (Leiden Observ.) and R.Overzier (Leiden Obs) A tale of two record-breaking clusters Looking back in time to when the universe was in its formative youth, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captured these revealing images of two galaxy clusters. The image at left, which is made with an additional infrared exposure taken with the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, shows mature galaxies in a massive cluster that existed when the cosmos was 5000 million years old. The cluster, called RDCS1252.9-2927, is as massive as ‘300 trillion’ suns and is the most massive known cluster for its epoch. The image reveals the core of the cluster and is part of a much larger mosaic of the entire cluster. Dominating the core are a pair of large, reddish elliptical galaxies [near centre of image]. Their red colour indicates an older population of stars. Most of the stars are at least 1000 million years old. The two galaxies appear to be interacting and may eventually merge to form a larger galaxy that is comparable to the brightest galaxies seen in present-day clusters. The red galaxies surrounding the central pair are also cluster members. The cluster probably contains many thousands of galaxies, but only about 50 can be seen in this image. The full mosaic (heic0313d) reveals several hundred cluster members. Many of the other galaxies in the image, including several of the blue galaxies, are foreground or background galaxies. The colour-composite image was assembled from two observations (through i and z filters) taken between May and June 2002 by the ACS Wide Field Camera, and one image with the ISAAC instrument on the VLT taken in 2002

  11. OPTICAL LINE EMISSION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 0.6: EVIDENCE FOR A LACK OF STRONG COOL CORES 3.5 Gyr AGO?

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael

    2011-12-15

    In recent years the number of known galaxy clusters beyond z {approx}> 0.2 has increased drastically with the release of multiple catalogs containing >30,000 optically detected galaxy clusters over the range 0 < z < 0.6. Combining these catalogs with the availability of optical spectroscopy of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows for the evolution of optical emission-line nebulae in cluster cores to be quantified. For the first time, the continuous evolution of optical line emission in BCGs over the range 0 < z < 0.6 is determined. A minimum in the fraction of BCGs with optical line emission is found at z {approx} 0.3, suggesting that complex, filamentary emission in systems such as Perseus A is a recent phenomenon. Evidence for an upturn in the number of strongly emitting systems is reported beyond z > 0.3, hinting at an earlier epoch of strong cooling. We compare the evolution of emission-line nebulae to the X-ray-derived cool core (CC) fraction from the literature over the same redshift range and find overall agreement, with the exception that an upturn in the strong CC fraction is not observed at z > 0.3. The overall agreement between the evolution of CCs and optical line emission at low redshift suggests that emission-line surveys of galaxy clusters may provide an efficient method of indirectly probing the evolution of CCs and thus provide insights into the balance of heating and cooling processes at early cosmic times.

  12. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A. E-mail: hartwick@uvic.ca

    2014-07-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q {sub 0} ≡ ρ/σ{sup 3}. The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q {sub 0} also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q {sub 0}, in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –3} km{sup –3} s{sup 3}, which is also where the relation between Q {sub 0} and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  13. The Rotation of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovmassian, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher than the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b > 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy, which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60%, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35% . The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not experience mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, as a result of which the rotation was prevented.

  14. A 30 kpc Chain of "Beads on a String" Star Formation between Two Merging Early Type Galaxies in the Core of a Strong-lensing Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Baum, Stefi A.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Cooke, Kevin C.; Dahle, Håkon; Davis, Timothy A.; Florian, Michael; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren; Soto, Emmaris; Wuyts, Eva

    2014-08-01

    New Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and optical imaging of the strong-lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414 (z = 0.335) reveals two centrally dominant elliptical galaxies participating in an ongoing major merger. The interaction is at least somewhat rich in cool gas, as the merger is associated with a complex network of 19 massive superclusters of young stars (or small tidal dwarf galaxies) separated by ~1 kpc in projection from one another, combining to an estimated total star formation rate of ~5 M ⊙ yr-1. The resolved young stellar superclusters are threaded by narrow Hα, [O II], and blue excess filaments arranged in a network spanning ~27 kpc across the two merging galaxies. This morphology is strongly reminiscent of the well-known "beads on a string" mode of star formation observed on kiloparsec scales in the arms of spiral galaxies, resonance rings, and in tidal tails between interacting galaxies. Nevertheless, the arrangement of this star formation relative to the nuclei of the two galaxies is difficult to interpret in a dynamical sense, as no known "beads on a string" systems associated with kiloparsec-scale tidal interactions exhibit such lopsided morphology relative to the merger participants. In this Letter, we present the images and follow-up spectroscopy and discuss possible physical interpretations for the unique arrangement of the young stellar clusters. While we suggest that this morphology is likely to be dynamically short-lived, a more quantitative understanding awaits necessary multiwavelength follow-up, including optical integral field spectroscopy, ALMA submillimeter interferometry, and Chandra X-ray imaging.

  15. A non cool-core 4.6-keV cluster around the bright nearby radio galaxy PKS B1416-493

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present new X-ray (Chandra) and radio (ATCA) observations of the z = 0.09 radio galaxy PKS B1416-493, a member of the southern equivalent of the 3CRR sample. We find the source to be embedded in a previously unrecognized bright kT = 4.6-keV non cool-core cluster. The discovery of new clusters of such high temperature and luminosity within z = 0.1 is rare. The radio source was chosen for observation based on its intermediate FR I/II morphology. We identify a cavity coincident with the northeast lobe, and excess counts associated with the southwest lobe that we interpret as inverse-Compton X-ray emission. The jet power, at 5.3 × 1044 erg s-1, when weighted by radio source density, supports suggestions that radio sources of intermediate morphology and radio power may dominate radio-galaxy heating in the local Universe.

  16. Massive star clusters in galaxies.

    PubMed

    Harris, William E

    2010-02-28

    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  17. Characterizing galaxy clusters with gravitational potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Erwin Tin-Hay

    2010-11-01

    We propose a simple estimator for the gravitational potential of cluster-size halos using the temperature and density profiles of the intracluster gas based on the assumptions of hydro-static equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Using high resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters, we show that the scaling relation between this estimator and the gravitational potential has a small intrinsic scatter of ˜ 10%, and it is insensitive to baryon physics outside the cluster core. The slope and the normalization of the scaling relation vary weakly with redshift, and they are relatively independent of the choice of radial range used and the dynamical states of the clusters. The results presented here provide a way for using the cluster potential function as an alternative to the cluster mass function in constraining cosmology using galaxy clusters.

  18. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-03-20

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L {sub Hα} = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}, making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s{sup –1}), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M{sub H{sub 2}} = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, which implies that

  19. The State of the Warm and Cold Gas in the Extreme Starburst at the Core of the Phoenix Galaxy Cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Wilner, David J.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Hogan, Michael T.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Bautz, Marshall W.

    2014-03-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (~800 M ⊙ yr-1) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×1043 erg s-1, making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM gsim 500 km s-1), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M_{H_2} = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 1010 M ⊙, which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ~30 Myr if it is not

  20. GALAXY COLLISIONS IN DISTANT CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The group of galaxies -- or 'galaxy cluster' -- catalogued as MS1054-03 is 8 billion light-years away, one of the most distant known so far. Although hundreds of galaxies appear in the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, a European-led team of astronomers has studied in detail 81 galaxies that certainly belong to the cluster, 13 of which are remnants of recent collisions or pairs of colliding galaxies. This is by far the largest number of colliding galaxies ever found in a cluster. The picture is actually a 'mosaic' of images, so that astronomers can have a much wider view of the distant cluster. This is why the colliding galaxies, mostly located in clumps in the outskirts of the cluster, had not been discovered so far. In the image, streams of stars can be seen being pulled out of the galaxies, a consequence of the huge tidal forces in action. The red color of most of the merger remnants means that the stars are old and not much star formation has 'recently' taken place. The observations with the Hubble were made in May 1998. The 10-meter Keck telescope in Hawaii was used to confirm that the colliding galaxies were part of the cluster. Photo Credits: Pieter van Dokkum, Marijn Franx (University of Groningen/Leiden), ESA and NASA

  1. Astrophysics of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettori, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Most of the baryons gravitationally bound to the cluster's halo is in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band. X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population provide a unique opportunity to address such fundamental open questions as: How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? We will present the ongoing activities to define the strategy on how an X-ray observatory with large collecting area and an unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution, such as Athena, can address these questions.

  2. Counterrotating cores in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcella, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-elliptical galaxy was studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the pin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported.

  3. Galaxies in Clusters : Gas Stripping and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Chris; Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario

    1994-05-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intercluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using a high quality hydrocode run at high resolutions. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events that are separated by about ten million years. In addition we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial "pumping" mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  4. Counterrotating Cores in Elliptical Galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, Marc Comas

    The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-luminosity elliptical galaxy has been studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in elliptical galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the spin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an elliptical-elliptical merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported. Rotation curves indicate that NGC 3656 contains a core spinning in a direction perpendicular to the rotation in the main body of the galaxy. Velocity reversals at intermediate radii are also observed. These features

  5. Giant Star Clusters Near Galactic Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A video sequence of still images goes deep into the Milky Way galaxy to the Arches Cluster. Hubble, penetrating through dust and clouds, peers into the core where two giant clusters shine more brightly than any other clusters in the galaxy. Footage shows the following still images: (1) wide view of Sagittarius constellation; (2) the Palomar Observatory's 2 micron all-sky survey; and (3) an image of the Arches Cluster taken with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS instrument. Dr. Don Figer of the Space Telescope Science Institute discusses the significance of the observations and relates his first reaction to the images.

  6. Luminosity Functions Of Xxl Clusters Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Marina; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; XXL Consortium

    2017-06-01

    The galaxy luminosity function (LF) is a powerful statistical tool to investigate galaxy evolution. In particular the study of cluster galaxies LFs gives information about environmental effects and how galaxies populate their parent dark matter halos. In this poster we present our work on the galaxy LF of X-ray detected galaxy clusters from the XXL survey. The sample consists of 173 galaxy groups/clusters spanning a wide range in both mass (M500 from 1013 to 1015 solar masses ) and redshit (0.03 < z < 1.22). The main goal is to investigate the effect of evolution and cluster masses on the luminosity distribution of cluster galaxies.

  7. Merging Galaxy Cluster A2255 in Mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2011-01-01

    infall region through near the core which can be explained well by ram-pressure stripping as previous simulation results suggest. We conclude that the cluster merging and the group/galaxy infall suppress star formation and transform galaxies from star-forming galaxies into quiescent galaxies, most likely due to ram-pressure stripping.

  8. MERGING GALAXY CLUSTER A2255 IN MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Seo, Hyunjong; Hwang, Ho Seong; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2011-01-20

    , quiescent galaxies from the infall region through near the core which can be explained well by ram-pressure stripping as previous simulation results suggest. We conclude that the cluster merging and the group/galaxy infall suppress star formation and transform galaxies from star-forming galaxies into quiescent galaxies, most likely due to ram-pressure stripping.

  9. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  10. The KMOS Galaxy Clusters Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Roger L.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Cappellari, M.; Chan, J.; Houghton, R.; Mendel, T.; Saglia, R.; Sharples, R.; Stott, J.; Smith, R.; Wilman, D.

    2015-04-01

    KMOS is a cryogenic infrared spectrograph fed by twentyfour deployable integral field units that patrol a 7.2 arcminute diameter field of view at the Nasmyth focus of the ESO VLT. It is well suited to the study of galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 2 where the well understood features in the restframe V-band are shifted into the KMOS spectral bands. Coupled with HST imagining, KMOS offers a window on the critical epoch for galaxy evolution, 7-10 Gyrs ago, when the key properties of cluster galaxies were established. We aim to investigate the size, mass, morphology and star formation history of galaxies in the clusters. Here we describe the instrument, discuss the status of the observations and report some preliminary results.

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 < Mg < -8 mag range, and we measure their apparent axis ratios, q, through Sérsic fits to their two-dimensional light distribution, which is well described by a constant ellipticity parameter. The resulting distribution of apparent axis ratios is then fit by families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with

  12. Galaxy clusters as hydrodynamics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roediger, Elke; Sheardown, Alexander; Fish, Thomas; ZuHone, John; Hunt, Matthew; Su, Yuanyuan; Kraft, Ralph P.; Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William R.; Churazov, Eugene; Randall, Scott W.; Jones, Christine; Machacek, Marie E.

    2017-08-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters shows a wealth of hydrodynamical features that trace the growth of clusters via the infall of galaxies or smaller subclusters. Such hydrodynamical features include the wakes of the infalling objects as well as the interfaces between the host cluster’s ICM and the atmosphere of the infalling object. Furthermore, the cluster dynamics can be traced by merger shocks, bow shocks, and sloshing motions of the ICM.The characteristics of these dynamical features, e.g., the direction, length, brightness, and temperature of the galaxies' or subclusters' gas tails varies significantly between different objects. This could be due to either dynamical conditions or ICM transport coefficients such as viscosity and thermal conductivity. For example, the cool long gas tails of of some infalling galaxies and groups have been attributed to a substantial ICM viscosity suppressing mixing of the stripped galaxy or group gas with the hotter ambient ICM.Using hydrodynamical simulations of minor mergers we show, however, that these features can be explained naturally by the dynamical conditions of each particular galaxy or group infall. Specifically, we identify observable features to distinguish the first and second infall of a galaxy or group into its host cluster as well as characteristics during apocentre passage. Comparing our simulations with observations, we can explain several puzzling observations such as the long and cold tail of M86 in Virgo and the very long and tangentially oriented tail of the group LEDA 87445 in Hydra A.Using our simulations, we also assess the validity of the stagnation pressure method that is widely used to determine an infalling galaxy's velocity. We show that near pericentre passage the method gives reasonable results, but near apocentre it is not easily applicable.

  13. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Youngsoo; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Amara, Adam; Becker, Matt; Bridle, Sarah; Clampitt, Joseph; Crocce, Martin; Honscheid, Klaus; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Sanchez, Carles; Wechsler, Risa

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  14. Galaxies in clusters: Gas stripping and accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw; Livio, Mario; O'Dea, Christopher P.

    1994-12-01

    We study the process of a galaxy moving through the intracluster gas in a cluster of galaxies, using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations at high resolution. We find that ram pressure stripping occurs in the form of individual events which are separated by a few times 107 yr. In addition, we find that the galaxy accretes gas from the downstream side into the core. This accretion process exhibits a radial 'pumping' mode, similar to the one found previously in simulations of wind accretion onto compact objects. The flow is found to exhibit a complex shock structure around the core. Some implications of our results for the understanding of a few recent observations are discussed.

  15. Galaxy Cluster IDCS J1426

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-07

    Astronomers have made the most detailed study yet of an extremely massive young galaxy cluster using three of NASA's Great Observatories. This multi-wavelength image shows this galaxy cluster, called IDCS J1426.5+3508 (IDCS 1426 for short), in X-rays recorded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in blue, visible light observed by the Hubble Space Telescope in green, and infrared light detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope in red. This rare galaxy cluster, which is located 10 billion light-years from Earth, is almost as massive as 500 trillion suns. This object has important implications for understanding how such megastructures formed and evolved early in the universe. The light astronomers observed from IDCS 1426 began its journey to Earth when the universe was less than a third of its current age. It is the most massive galaxy cluster detected at such an early time. First discovered by the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2012, IDCS 1426 was then observed using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Keck Observatory to determine its distance. Observations from the Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy indicated it was extremely massive. New data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory confirm the galaxy cluster's mass and show that about 90 percent of this mass is in the form of dark matter -- the mysterious substance that has so far been detected only through its gravitational pull on normal matter composed of atoms. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20063

  16. Stormy weather in galaxy clusters

    PubMed

    Burns

    1998-04-17

    Recent x-ray, optical, and radio observations coupled with particle and gas dynamics numerical simulations reveal an unexpectedly complex environment within clusters of galaxies, driven by ongoing accretion of matter from large-scale supercluster filaments. Mergers between clusters and continuous infall of dark matter and baryons from the cluster periphery produce long-lived "stormy weather" within the gaseous cluster atmosphere-shocks, turbulence, and winds of more than 1000 kilometers per second. This weather may be responsible for shaping a rich variety of extended radio sources, which in turn act as "barometers" and "anemometers" of cluster weather.

  17. DISTANT CLUSTER OF GALAXIES [left

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the deepest images to date of the universe, taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), reveals thousands of faint galaxies at the detection limit of present day telescopes. Peering across a large volume of the observable cosmos, Hubble resolves thousands of galaxies from five to twelve billion light-years away. The light from these remote objects has taken billions of years to cross the expanding universe, making these distant galaxies fossil evidence' of events that happened when the universe was one-third its present age. A fraction of the galaxies in this image belong to a cluster located nine billion light-years away. Though the field of view (at the cluster's distance) is only two million light-years across, it contains a multitude of fragmentary objects. (By comparison, the two million light-years between our Milky Way galaxy and its nearest large companion galaxy, in the constellation Andromeda, is essentially empty space!) Very few of the cluster's members are recognizable as normal spiral galaxies (like our Milky Way), although some elongated members might be edge-on disks. Among this zoo of odd galaxies are ``tadpole-like'' objects, disturbed and apparently merging systems dubbed 'train-wrecks,' and a multitude of faint, tiny shards and fragments, dwarf galaxies or possibly an unknown population of objects. However, the cluster also contains red galaxies that resemble mature examples of today's elliptical galaxies. Their red color comes from older stars that must have formed shortly after the Big Bang. The image is the full field view of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera-2. The picture was taken in intervals between May 11 and June 15, 1994 and required an 18-hour long exposure, over 32 orbits of HST, to reveal objects down to 29th magnitude. [bottom right] A close up view of the peculiar radio galaxy 3C324 used to locate the cluster. The galaxy is nine billion light-years away as measured by its spectral redshift (z=1.2), and located in the

  18. Galaxy clusters: Radio relics from fossil electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    The detection of a tailed radio galaxy in a galaxy cluster conjoined to a region of diffuse radio emission confirms that radio galaxies provide the energetic electrons needed to explain the origin of this enigmatic emission.

  19. Percolation technique for galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We study percolation in mass and galaxy distributions obtained in 3D simulations of the CDM, C + HDM, and the power law (n = -1) models in the Omega = 1 universe. Percolation statistics is used here as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a mass or galaxy distribution is of a filamentary or cellular type. The very fast code used calculates the statistics of clusters along with the direct detection of percolation. We found that the two parameters mu(infinity), characterizing the size of the largest cluster, and mu-squared, characterizing the weighted mean size of all clusters excluding the largest one, are extremely useful for evaluating the percolation threshold. An advantage of using these parameters is their low sensitivity to boundary effects. We show that both the CDM and the C + HDM models are extremely filamentary both in mass and galaxy distribution. The percolation thresholds for the mass distributions are determined.

  20. K-band Properties of Galaxy Clusters and Groups: Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Intracluster Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.

    2004-12-01

    agreement with the value derived from cosmic microwave background observations. The inclusion of ICL reduces the discrepancy between the observed cluster cold baryon fraction and that found in hydrodynamical simulations. Based on the observed iron abundance in the intracluster medium, we find that the ICL predicted by our model, together with the observed galaxy light, match the iron mass-to-light ratio expected from simple stellar population models, provided that the Salpeter initial mass function is adopted. The ICL also makes it easier to produce the ``iron excess'' found in the central regions of cool-core clusters.

  1. Cosmology and astrophysics with galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, Daisuke

    2014-11-20

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe, whose formation is driven by dark energy and dark matter. The majority of the baryonic mass in clusters resides in the hot X-ray emitting plasma, which also leaves imprints in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Recent X-ray and microwave observations have revealed detailed thermodynamic structure of the hot X-ray emitting plasma from their cores to the virial radii, making comparisons of baryonic component in simulations to observations a strong cosmological probe. However, the statistical power of these future surveys can only be exploited for cosmology if and only if we are able to measure the cluster mass with a very high precision. I will discuss recent progress and future challenges for the use of galaxy clusters as precise cosmological probes, with highlights on (1) the importance of understanding thermodynamics and plasma physics in the outskirts of galaxy clusters and (2) prospects for improving the power of cluster-based cosmological measurements using numerical simulations and multi-wavelength observations.

  2. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected

  3. HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH GALCONS

    SciTech Connect

    Arieli, Yinon; Rephaeli, Yoel; Norman, Michael L.

    2010-06-20

    We present our recently developed galcon approach to hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters-a subgrid model added to the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code-which is capable of tracking galaxies within the cluster potential and following the feedback of their main baryonic processes. Galcons are physically extended galactic constructs within which baryonic processes are modeled analytically. By identifying galaxy halos and initializing galcons at high redshift (z {approx} 3, well before most clusters virialize), we are able to follow the evolution of star formation (SF), galactic winds, and ram pressure stripping of interstellar media, along with their associated mass, metals, and energy feedback into intracluster (IC) gas, which are deposited through a well-resolved spherical interface layer. Our approach is fully described and all results from initial simulations with the enhanced Enzo-Galcon code are presented. With a galactic SF rate derived from the observed cosmic SF density, our galcon simulation better reproduces the observed properties of IC gas, including the density, temperature, metallicity, and entropy profiles. By following the impact of a large number of galaxies on IC gas we explicitly demonstrate the advantages of this approach in producing a lower stellar fraction, a larger gas core radius, an isothermal temperature profile in the central cluster region, and a flatter metallicity gradient than in a standard simulation.

  4. THE GALAXY POPULATION OF LOW-REDSHIFT ABELL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Lopez-Cruz, Omar E-mail: hyee@astro.utoronto.c

    2009-10-01

    We present a study of the luminosity and color properties of galaxies selected from a sample of 57 low-redshift Abell clusters. We utilize the non-parametric dwarf-to-giant ratio (DGR) and the blue galaxy fraction (f{sub b} ) to investigate the clustercentric radial-dependent changes in the cluster galaxy population. Composite cluster samples are combined by scaling the counting radius by r {sub 200} to minimize radius selection bias. The separation of galaxies into a red and blue population was achieved by selecting galaxies relative to the cluster color-magnitude relation. The DGR of the red and blue galaxies is found to be independent of cluster richness (B {sub gc}), although the DGR is larger for the blue population at all measured radii. A decrease in the DGR for the red and red+blue galaxies is detected in the cluster core region, while the blue galaxy DGR is nearly independent of radius. The f{sub b} is found not to correlate with B {sub gc}; however, a steady decline toward the inner-cluster region is observed for the giant galaxies. The dwarf galaxy f{sub b} is approximately constant with clustercentric radius except for the inner-cluster core region where f{sub b} decreases. The clustercentric radial dependence of the DGR and the galaxy blue fraction indicates that it is unlikely that a simple scenario based on either pure disruption or pure fading/reddening can describe the evolution of infalling dwarf galaxies; both outcomes are produced by the cluster environment.

  5. Cosmology with Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgani, Stefano

    I reviewed in my talk recent results on the cosmological constraints that can be obtained by following the evolution of the population of galaxy clusters. Using extended samples of X-ray selected clusters, I have shown how they can be used to trace this evolution out to redshift z ~ 1. This evolution can be compared to model predictions and, therefore, to constrain cosmological parameters, such as the density parameter Omega_m and the shape and amplitude of the power spectrum of density perturbations. I have emphasized that the robustness of such constraints is quite sensitive to the relation between cluster collapsed mass and X-ray luminosity and temperature. This demonstrates that our ability to place significant constraints on cosmology using clusters of galaxies relies on our capability to understand the physical processes, which determine the properties of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). In this context, I have discussed how numerical simulations of cluster formation in cosmological context can play an important role in uderstanding the ICM physics. I have presented results from a very large cosmological simulation, which also includes the hydrodynamical description of the cosmic baryons, the processes of star formation and feedback from the stellar populations. The results from this simulation represent a unique baseline to describe the processes of formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies.

  6. Galaxy Cluster Masses at Moderate Redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1998-01-01

    The masses of galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter, and a robust determination of their masses has the potential of indicating how much dark matter exists on large scales in the universe, and the cosmological parameter Omega. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide a direct measure of both the gas mass in the intra-cluster medium, and also the total gravitating mass of the cluster. We used new and archival ROSAT observations to measure these quantities for a sample of intermediate redshift clusters which have also been subject to intensive dynamical studies, in order to compare the mass estimates from different methods. We used data from 14 of the CNOC cluster sample at 0.18 less than z less than 0.55 for this study. A direct comparison of dynamical mass estimates from Carlberg, Yee & Ellingson (1997) yielded surprisingly good results. The X-ray/dynamical mass ratios have a mean of 0.96+/- 0.10, indicating that for this sample, both methods are probably yielding very robust mass estimates. Comparison with mass estimates from gravitational lensing studies from the literature showed a small systematic with weak lensing estimates, and large discrepancies with strong lensing estimates. This latter is not surprising, given that these measurement are made close to the central core, where optical and X-ray estimates are less certain, and where substructure and the effects of individual galaxies will be more pronounced. These results are presented in Lewis, Ellingson, Morris/Carlberg, 1998, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal. (Note that Lewis is Ellingson's Ph.D. thesis, who received direct support from this grant and is using this investigation as part of his thesis.) Three additional papers are in preparation. The first provides a comparison of the mass profiles as measured in X- rays and in galaxy dynamics. These profiles are difficult to determine for individual clusters, and are subject to asphericity and other individual quirks of each cluster

  7. A Multivariate Analysis of Galaxy Cluster Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, P. M.; Djorgovski, S.

    1993-05-01

    We have assembled from the literature a data base on on 394 clusters of galaxies, with up to 16 parameters per cluster. They include optical and x-ray luminosities, x-ray temperatures, galaxy velocity dispersions, central galaxy and particle densities, optical and x-ray core radii and ellipticities, etc. In addition, derived quantities, such as the mass-to-light ratios and x-ray gas masses are included. Doubtful measurements have been identified, and deleted from the data base. Our goal is to explore the correlations between these parameters, and interpret them in the framework of our understanding of evolution of clusters and large-scale structure, such as the Gott-Rees scaling hierarchy. Among the simple, monovariate correlations we found, the most significant include those between the optical and x-ray luminosities, x-ray temperatures, cluster velocity dispersions, and central galaxy densities, in various mutual combinations. While some of these correlations have been discussed previously in the literature, generally smaller samples of objects have been used. We will also present the results of a multivariate statistical analysis of the data, including a principal component analysis (PCA). Such an approach has not been used previously for studies of cluster properties, even though it is much more powerful and complete than the simple monovariate techniques which are commonly employed. The observed correlations may lead to powerful constraints for theoretical models of formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. P.M.O. was supported by a Caltech graduate fellowship. S.D. acknowledges a partial support from the NASA contract NAS5-31348 and the NSF PYI award AST-9157412.

  8. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  9. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  10. The Merging Galaxy Cluster A520—A Broken-up Cool Core, A Dark Subcluster, and an X-Ray Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian H. S.; Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, Simona

    2016-12-01

    We present results from a deep Chandra X-ray observation of a merging galaxy cluster A520. A high-resolution gas temperature map reveals a long trail of dense, cool clumps—apparently the fragments of a cool core that has been stripped from the infalling subcluster by ram pressure. The clumps should still be connected by the stretched magnetic field lines. The observed temperature variations imply that thermal conductivity is suppressed by a factor \\gt 100 across the presumed direction of the magnetic field (as found in other clusters), and is also suppressed along the field lines by a factor of several. Two massive clumps in the periphery of A520, visible in the weak-lensing mass map and the X-ray image, have apparently been completely stripped of gas during the merger, but then re-accreted the surrounding high-entropy gas upon exit from the cluster. The mass clump that hosted the stripped cool core is also reaccreting hotter gas. An X-ray hydrostatic mass estimate for the clump that has the simplest geometry agrees with the lensing mass. Its current gas mass to total mass ratio is very low, 1.5%-3%, which makes it a “dark subcluster.” We also found a curious low X-ray brightness channel (likely a low-density sheet in projection) going across the cluster along the direction of an apparent secondary merger. The channel may be caused by plasma depletion in a region of an amplified magnetic field (with plasma β ˜ 10{--}20). The shock in A520 will be studied in a separate paper.

  11. The Merging Galaxy Cluster A520 - A Broken-Up Cool Core, A Dark Subcluster, and an X-Ray Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Qian H.S.; Markevitch, Maxim; Giacintucci, Simona

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep Chandra X-ray observation of a merging galaxy cluster A520. A high-resolution gas temperature map reveals a long trail of dense, cool clumpsapparently the fragments of a cool core that has been stripped from the infalling subcluster by ram pressure. The clumps should still be connected by the stretched magnetic field lines. The observed temperature variations imply that thermal conductivity is suppressed by a factor greater than 100 across the presumed direction of the magnetic field (as found in other clusters), and is also suppressed along the field lines by a factor of several. Two massive clumps in the periphery of A520, visible in the weak-lensing mass map and the X-ray image, have apparently been completely stripped of gas during the merger, but then re-accreted the surrounding high-entropy gas upon exit from the cluster. The mass clump that hosted the stripped cool core is also re-accreting hotter gas. An X-ray hydrostatic mass estimate for the clump that has the simplest geometry agrees with the lensing mass. Its current gas mass to total mass ratio is very low, 1.5 percent to 3 percent, which makes it a "dark subcluster." We also found a curious low X-ray brightness channel (likely a low-density sheet in projection) going across the cluster along the direction of an apparent secondary merger. The channel may be caused by plasma depletion in a region of an amplified magnetic field (with plasma Beta approximately equal to 10-20). The shock in A520 will be studied in a separate paper.

  12. Algorithms for Finding Substructure in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delworth, Natalie; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of environment in determining the properties of galaxies, we present statistical approaches to identifying substructure in galaxy clusters and groups. A subgroup is composed of a set of galaxies within a galaxy cluster that share similar attributes. To create subgroups from galaxies in a cluster, we explored several different clustering algorithms: Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, Spectral Clustering, and K-Means Clustering. We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these algorithms by applying them both to data from the Antlia Cluster, as well as to output from simulated galaxy clusters. We also examined how subgroups and the properties of the galaxies in those subgroups changed over time through analysis of data from simulations that extend over a long time scale. We synthesize these results to provide a perspective on how these analyses contribute to our understanding of galactic evolution.

  13. WITNESSING THE FORMATION OF A BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN A NEARBY X-RAY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Mulchaey, John S.; Bai, Lei; Ponman, Trevor J.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Dariush, Ali

    2010-07-10

    The central dominant galaxies in galaxy clusters constitute the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe. Despite this, the formation of these brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and the impact of this on the surrounding cluster environment remain poorly understood. Here we present multiwavelength observations of the nearby poor X-ray cluster MZ 10451, in which both processes can be studied in unprecedented detail. Chandra observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cluster core, which harbors two optically bright early-type galaxies in the process of merging, show that the system has retained a cool core and a central metal excess. This suggests that any merger-induced ICM heating and mixing remain modest at this stage. Tidally stripped stars seen around either galaxy likely represent an emerging intracluster light component, and the central ICM abundance enhancement may have a prominent contribution from in situ enrichment provided by these stars. The smaller of the merging galaxies shows evidence for having retained a hot gas halo, along with tentative evidence for some obscured star formation, suggesting that not all BCG major mergers at low redshift are completely dissipationless. Both galaxies are slightly offset from the peak of the ICM emission, with all three lying on an axis that roughly coincides with the large-scale elongation of the ICM. Our data are consistent with a picture in which central BCGs are built up by mergers close to the cluster core, by galaxies infalling on radial orbits aligned with the cosmological filaments feeding the cluster.

  14. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    Davidsen et al. (1991) have argued that the failure to detect UV photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis. Sciama et al. (1993) argued that because of high central concentration the DM in that cluster must be baryonic. We study the DM profile in clusters of galaxies simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations (Melott 1984b; Anninos et al. 1991) and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations (Smoot et al. 1992). We find that with this amplitude normalization cluster neutrino DM densities are comparable to observed cluster DM values. We conclude that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be at least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidsen et al. can be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  15. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    Davidsen et al. (1991) have argued that the failure to detect UV photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis. Sciama et al. (1993) argued that because of high central concentration the DM in that cluster must be baryonic. We study the DM profile in clusters of galaxies simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations (Melott 1984b; Anninos et al. 1991) and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations (Smoot et al. 1992). We find that with this amplitude normalization cluster neutrino DM densities are comparable to observed cluster DM values. We conclude that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be at least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidsen et al. can be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  16. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-01-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe. PMID:11607400

  17. The Radio Properties of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. T.

    2014-09-01

    Energetic feedback from the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) is required to prevent catastrophic cooling of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in galaxy clusters. Evidence for this is seen through the inflation of cavities in the ICM by AGN-launched, radio-emitting jets, and understanding this process is an active area of research. Radio observations play an integral role in this, as they trace the active stages of the feedback cycle. Understanding the radio properties of BCGs is therefore paramount for understanding both galaxy clusters and AGN feedback processes globally. Within this thesis, the BCGs in a large (>700) sample of X-ray selected clusters are studied. We observe these BCGs with a wide variety of facilities, building a census of their radio properties across a range of frequencies, timescales and angular resolutions. Radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are built for over 200 BCGs, and then decomposed into two components; a core, attributable to ongoing nuclear activity, and a non-core, attributable to historical accretion. Both components are not only more common, but also significantly more powerful in cool-core (CC) clusters than non-cool core (NCC) clusters. However, it is the presence of an active core that shows BCGs in CC clusters are constantly `on' - explaining how they regulate their environments over gigayear timescales. We observe 35 currently active BCGs at high (15-353 GHz) radio frequencies, and monitor their variability. Self-absorbed, active components are found to be common at high frequency. Little variability is seen on < year timescales, although longer term variation of ~10% annually over few-decade timescales is observed. Evidence is presented for a hitherto unseen component in BCG spectra that may be attributable to a naked Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF). The milli-arcsecond scale radio properties of 59 sources are studied, with a large range of morphologies recovered although no

  18. Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2009-08-01

    We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M gtrsim 1014.5Msun, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, βcore and ηe. βcore is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and ηe(p) is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that βcore simeq ηp/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter Δln βcore simeq 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors simeq 500(ηe/ηp)(T/10 keV)-1/2 and simeq 150(ηe/ηp)(T/10 keV)-1/2 respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (gtrsim 1 TeV) γ-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and γ-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for ηp ~ ηe ~ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular, we identify the clusters which are the best candidates for detection in γ-rays. Finally, we show

  19. Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-08-01

    We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M ∼> 10{sup 14.5}M{sub ☉}, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, β{sub core} and η{sub e}. β{sub core} is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and η{sub e(p)} is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that β{sub core} ≅ η{sub p}/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter Δln β{sub core} ≅ 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors ≅ 500(η{sub e}/η{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup −1/2} and ≅ 150(η{sub e}/η{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup −1/2} respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (∼> 1 TeV) γ-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and γ-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for η{sub p} ∼ η{sub e} ∼ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular

  20. Hα star formation rates of z > 1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC shallow cluster survey

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope near-IR spectroscopy for 18 galaxy clusters at 1.0 Cluster Survey. We use Wide Field Camera 3 grism data to spectroscopically identify Hα emitters in both the cores of galaxy clusters as well as in field galaxies. We find a large cluster-to-cluster scatter in the star formation rates within a projected radius of 500 kpc, and many of our clusters (∼60%) have significant levels of star formation within a projected radius of 200 kpc. A stacking analysis reveals that dust reddening in these star-forming galaxies is positively correlated with stellar mass and may be higher in the field than the cluster at a fixed stellar mass. This may indicate a lower amount of gas in star-forming cluster galaxies than in the field population. Also, Hα equivalent widths of star-forming galaxies in the cluster environment are still suppressed below the level of the field. This suppression is most significant for lower mass galaxies (log M {sub *} < 10.0 M {sub ☉}). We therefore conclude that environmental effects are still important at 1.0 galaxies in galaxy clusters with log M {sub *} ≲ 10.0 M {sub ☉}.

  1. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Sandor

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard ΛCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant (Λ) and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM), structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging. Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang, hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics. The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions: the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulence are developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thus our review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clusters is to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses. New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopes will come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities, we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  2. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  3. Jet-driven feedback in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Sebastian; Morsony, Brian; Bruggen, Marcus; Ruszkowski, Mateusz

    A decade of Chandra imaging has provided us with overwhelming evidence for the large scale impact black holes have on the inner regions of galaxy clusters. While it is now mostly accepted that jets play a major role in heating cool core clusters, the details of just how the heating occurs and whether it is sufficient to halt cooling are still unclear. We will present results from a series of numerical investigations that aim to illuminate how jets interact with the intracluster medium, with the primary aim to connect observed properties of radio sources and X-ray cavities to the underlying dynamics of feedback. In particular, we will argue that the dynamical state of the cluster is critically important for the evolution of radio sources, and inferences about the power and duty cycle of jets made on the basis of models that neglect cluster weather are likely to be incorrect.

  4. Decaying neutrinos in galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Splinter, Randall J.; Persic, Massimo; Salucci, Paolo

    1993-01-01

    The DM profile in clusters of galaxies was studied and simulated using the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of density fluctuations, and an amplitude previously derived from numerical simulations and in agreement with microwave background fluctuations. Neutrino DM densities, with this amplitude normalization cluster, are comparable to observed cluster DM values. It was concluded that given this normalization, the cluster DM should be al least largely composed of neutrinos. The constraint of Davidson et al., who argued that the failure to detect uv photons from the dark matter (DM) in cluster A665 excludes the decaying neutrino hypothesis, could be somewhat weakened by the presence of baryonic DM; but it cannot be eliminated given our assumptions.

  5. High resolution imaging of galaxy cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, P.; Stiavelli, M.; King, I. R.; Deharveng, J. M.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Surface photometry data obtained with the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope in the cores of ten galaxies is presented. The major results are: (1) none of the galaxies show truly 'isothermal' cores, (2) galaxies with nuclear activity show very similar light profiles, (3) all objects show central mass densities above 10 exp 3 solar masses/cu pc3, and (4) four of the galaxies (M87, NGC 3862, NGC 4594, NGC 6251) show evidence for exceptional nuclear mass concentrations.

  6. Halo Core Tracking for Galaxy Placement in Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korytov, Danila

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic galaxy catalogs are an important product of cosmological simulations. Upcoming surveys, such as LSST, require high volume and high resolution simulations for generating large object catalogs. These catalogs have many uses including testing and improving analysis pipelines, predictions for different cosmologies and investigations of systematic errors. Dark matter (DM) only simulations are able to reach the required volume and resolution but need an accurate prescription for galaxy placement within DM halos. We present a method for galaxy placement. For halos above a characteristic mass, central DM simulation particles are taken as tracer particles for a galaxy. These halo ``cores'' are tracked through the simulation and may merge with other ``cores'' or be ripped apart by halo tidal forces. We examine how accurately we can reproduce galaxy cluster profiles, two point correlation functions and other galaxy statistics.

  7. ChaMP Serendipitous Galaxy Cluster Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Green, P.J.; Vikhlinin, A.; Kim, D.-W.; Perley, D.; Cameron, R.; Silverman, J.; Mossman, A.; Burenin, R.; Jannuzi, B.T.; Kim, M.; Smith, M.G.; Smith, R.C.; Tananbaum, H.; Wilkes, B.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /SLAC /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Moscow, Space Res. Inst. /NOAO, Tucson /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2006-04-03

    We present a survey of serendipitous extended X-ray sources and optical cluster candidates from the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP). Our main goal is to make an unbiased comparison of X-ray and optical cluster detection methods. In 130 archival Chandra pointings covering 13 square degrees, we use a wavelet decomposition technique to detect 55 extended sources, of which 6 are nearby single galaxies. Our X-ray cluster catalog reaches a typical flux limit of about {approx} 10{sup -14} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, with a median cluster core radius of 21''. For 56 of the 130 X-ray fields, we use the ChaMP's deep NOAO/4m MOSAIC g', r', and i' imaging to independently detect cluster candidates using a Voronoi tessellation and percolation (VTP) method. Red-sequence filtering decreases the galaxy fore/background contamination and provides photometric redshifts to z {approx} 0.7. From the overlapping 6.1 square degree X-ray/optical imaging, we find 115 optical clusters (of which 11% are in the X-ray catalog) and 28 X-ray clusters (of which 46% are in the optical VTP catalog). The median redshift of the 13 X-ray/optical clusters is 0.41, and their median X-ray luminosity (0.5-2 keV) is L{sub X} = (2.65 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup 43} ergs s{sup -1}. The clusters in our sample that are only detected in our optical data are poorer on average ({approx} 4{sigma}) than the X-ray/optically matched clusters, which may partially explain the difference in the detection fractions.

  8. Color and magnitude dependence of galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Volker

    2016-10-01

    A quantitative study of the clustering properties of galaxies in the cosmic web as a function of absolute magnitude and colour is presented using the SDSS Data Release 7 galaxy redshift survey. We compare our results with mock galaxy samples obtained with four different semi-analytical models of galaxy formation imposed on the merger trees of the Millenium simulation.

  9. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  10. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  11. Velocity correlations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Bahcall, Neta A.; Gramann, Mirt

    1994-01-01

    We determine the velocity correlation function, pairwise peculiar velocity difference, and rms pairwise peculiar velocity dispersion of rich clusters of galaxies, as a function of pair separation, for three cosmological models: Omega = 1 and Omega = 0.3 cold dark matter (CDM), and Omega = 0.3 primeval baryonic isocurvature (PBI) models (all flat and Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized). We find that close cluster pairs, with separation r is less than or equal to 10/h Mpc, exhibit strong attractive peculiar velocities in all models; the cluster pairwise velocities depend sensitively on the model. The mean pairwise attractive velocity of clusters on 5/h Mpc scale ranges from approximately 1700 km/s for Omega = 1 CDM to approximately 1000 km/s for PBI to approximately 700 km/s for Omega = 0.3 CDM. The small-scale pairwise velocities depend also on cluster mass: richer, more massive clusters exhibit stronger attractive velocities than less massive clusters. On large scales, from approximately 20 to 200/h Mpc, the cluster peculiar velocities are increasingly dominated by bulk and random motions; they are independent of cluster mass. The cluster velocity correlation function is negative on small scales for Omega = 1 and Omega = 0.3 CDM, indicating strong pairwise motion relative to bulk motion on small scales; PBI exhibits relatively larger bulk motions. The cluster velocity correlation function is positive on very large scales, from r approximately 10/h Mpc to r approximately 200/h Mpc, for all models. These positive correlations, which decrease monotonically with scale, indicate significant bulk motions of clusters up to approximately 200/h Mpc. The strong dependence of the cluster velocity functions on models, especially at small separations, makes them useful tools in constraining cosmological models when compared with observations.

  12. Spiral galaxies in clusters. III. Gas-rich galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Bothun, G.D.; Schommer, R.A.; Sullivan, W.T. III

    1982-05-01

    We report the results of a 21-cm and optical survey of disk galaxies in the vicinity of the Pegasus I cluster of galaxies. The color--gas content relation (log(M/sub H//L/sub B/) vs (B-V)/sup T//sub 0/ ) for this particular cluster reveals the presence of a substantial number of blue, gas-rich galaxies. With few exceptions, the disk systems in Pegasus I retain large amounts of neutral hydrogen despite their presence in a cluster. This directly shows that environmental processes have not yet removed substantial amounts of gas from these disk galaxies. We conclude that the environment has had little or no observable effect upon the evolution of disk galaxies in Pegasus I. The overall properties of the Pegasus I spirals are consistent with the suggestion that this cluster is now at an early stage in its evolution.

  13. A Statistical Approach to Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity: Chandra Observations of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Erik D.; Kawahara, H.; Kitayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Suto, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, the intracluster medium (ICM) inhomogeneity of galaxy clusters is modeled statistically with a lognormal model for density inhomogeneity. Through mock observations of synthetic clusters the relationship between density inhomogeneities and that of the X-ray surface brightness has been developed. This enables one to infer the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the underlying three-dimensional density distribution of real galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. We explore inhomogeneity in the intracluster medium by applying the above methodology to Chandra observations of a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. We also consider extensions of the model, including Poissonian effects and compare this hybrid lognormal-Poisson model to the nearby cluster Chandra data. EDR gratefully acknowledges support from JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Fellowhip for Foreign Researchers award P07030. HK is supported by Grands-in-Aid for JSPS of Science Fellows. This work is also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific research of Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Nos. 20.10466, 19.07030, 16340053, 20340041, and 20540235) and by JSPS Core-to-Core Program "International Research Network for Dark Energy".

  14. Turbulence Produced by Tsunamis in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Wada, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Clusters of galaxies are filled with X-ray emitted hot gas with the temperature of T˜ 2--10 keV. Recent X-ray observations have been revealing unexpectedly that many cluster cores have complicated, peculiar X-ray structures, which imply dynamical motion of the hot gas. Moreover, X-ray spectra indicate that radiative cooling of the cool gas is suppressed by unknown heating mechanisms (the `cooling flow problem'). Here we propose a novel mechanism reproducing both the inhomogeneous structures and dynamics of the hot gas in the cluster cores, based on state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations. We showed that acoustic-gravity waves, which are naturally expected during the process of hierarchical structure formation of the universe, surge in the X-ray hot gas, causing a serous impact on the core. This reminds us of tsunamis on the ocean surging into an distant island. We found that the waves create fully-developed, stable turbulence, which reproduces the complicated structures in the core. Moreover, if the wave amplitude is large enough, they can suppress the cooling of the core. The turbulence could be detected in near-future space X-ray missions such as ASTRO-E2.

  15. Steep Spectrum Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Tracy E.

    2012-05-01

    Steep spectrum radio emission associated with galaxy clusters comes from compact central active galactic nuclei (AGN) driven radio sources in dense cool core clusters as well as from large regions of diffuse (halo and relic) emission associated with dynamically complex merging systems. These radio halos and relics are best traced at low radio frequencies where details of their morphology, location and spectral index distribution can be used to probe the underlying acceleration mechanism(s) as well as important details of large scale structure formation. Low frequency radio observations also play an important role in the study of AGN feedback into the intracluster medium and the regulation of cooling cores. While spectacular results are coming from the current generation of low frequency instruments, there will soon be a new revolution in studies of steep spectrum sources with the upcoming generation of low frequency interferometers on Earth and ultimately the moon.

  16. Shock Features in Merging Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasadia, Sarthak; Sun, Ming; Morandi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the largest and the most massive gravitationally collapsed objects in the universe. In the hierarchical scenarios of the large-scale structure formation of the universe, they form by subcluster mergers and infall. Major mergers inject tremendous amounts of energy (˜1064 erg) into the intracluster medium (ICM), triggering shocks and generating. These hydro-dynamical activities may amplify magnetic fields in the cluster and accelerate relativistic particles. These non-thermal phenomena have been revealed by the detection of Mpc-scale diffuse radio emission. Current studies hint at a correlation between X-ray and Radio morphologies.To further address this issue, shock properties of 15 galaxy clusters were studied. The sample was divided into two categories: with and without diffuse radio emission. In my dissertation, my goal is to address questions: Do more luminous clusters have stronger shocks?, How continuous gas stripping affect cool cores?, Why some clusters exhibit a stronger correlation between X-ray shocks and radio relic?

  17. Radio Emission From The Brightest Central Galaxies In The Shapley Concentration Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gennaro, Gabriella; Venturi, T.; Dallacasa, D.; Giacintucci, S.

    2016-10-01

    Extended cluster radio galaxies show different morphologies compared to those found isolated in the field. Indeed, symmetric double radio galaxies are only a small percentage of the total content of radio loud cluster galaxies, which show mainly tailed morphologies. Moreover, cluster mergers can deeply affect the statistical properties of their radio activity. In order to better understand the morphological and radio activity differences of the brightest central galaxies (BCGs) in major merging and non/tidal-merging clusters, we performed a multifrequency study of extended radio galaxies inside two cluster complexes, A3528 and A3558, belonging to the Shapley Concentration Core.

  18. Lopsidedness of cluster galaxies in modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xufen; Zhao, HongSheng; Famaey, Benoit E-mail: hz4@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2010-06-01

    We point out an interesting theoretical prediction for elliptical galaxies residing inside galaxy clusters in the framework of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), that could be used to test this paradigm. Apart from the central brightest cluster galaxy, other galaxies close enough to the centre experience a strong gravitational influence from the other galaxies of the cluster. This influence manifests itself only as tides in standard Newtonian gravity, meaning that the systematic acceleration of the centre of mass of the galaxy has no consequence. However, in the context of MOND, a consequence of the breaking of the strong equivalence principle is that the systematic acceleration changes the own self-gravity of the galaxy. We show here that, in this framework, initially axisymmetric elliptical galaxies become lopsided along the external field's direction, and that the centroid of the galaxy, defined by the outer density contours, is shifted by a few hundreds parsecs with respect to the densest point.

  19. The Growth of Cool Cores and Evolution of Cooling Properties in a Sample of 83 Galaxy Clusters at 0.3 < z < 1.2 Selected from the SPT-SZ Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M.; Benson, B. A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Stalder, B.; Bleem, L. E.; de Haan, T.; Lin, H. W.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M. W.; Bayliss, M.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gettings, D.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; High, F. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Murray, S. S.; Nurgaliev, D.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Šuhada, R.; Spieler, H. G.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare these properties to those for local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner ~100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z ~ 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed "entropy floor" at ~10 keV cm2. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density (ρ g, 0/ρcrit) increasing by an order of magnitude from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, ~150 M ⊙ yr-1 cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm2 and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z_{cool}=1.0^{+1.0}_{-0.2}, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. At high redshift (z >~ 0.75), galaxy clusters may be classified as "cooling flows" (low central entropy, cooling time) but not "cool cores" (cuspy surface brightness profile), meaning that care must be taken when classifying these high-z systems

  20. THE GROWTH OF COOL CORES AND EVOLUTION OF COOLING PROPERTIES IN A SAMPLE OF 83 GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0.3 < z < 1.2 SELECTED FROM THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.; Bautz, M. W.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Vikhlinin, A.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; De Haan, T.; Lin, H. W.; Aird, K. A.; Bocquet, S.; Desai, S.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; and others

    2013-09-01

    We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare these properties to those for local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner {approx}100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z {approx} 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed ''entropy floor'' at {approx}10 keV cm{sup 2}. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density ({rho}{sub g,0}/{rho}{sub crit}) increasing by an order of magnitude from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, {approx}150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm{sup 2} and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z{sub cool}=1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.2}, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. At high redshift (z {approx}> 0.75), galaxy clusters may be classified as ''cooling flows'' (low central entropy, cooling time) but not

  1. Construction of luminosity function for galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godłowski, Włodzimierz; Popiela, Joanna; Bajan, Katarzyna; Biernacka, Monika; Flin, Piotr; Panko, Elena

    2015-02-01

    The luminosity function is an important quantity for analysis of large scale structure statistics, interpretation of galaxy counts (Lin & Kirshner 1996). We investigate the luminosity function of galaxy clusters. This is performed by counting the brightness of galaxies belonging to clusters in PF Catalogue. The obtained luminosity function is significantly different than that obtained both for optical and radiogalaxies (Machalski & Godowski 2000). The implications of this result for theories of galaxy formation are discussed as well.

  2. Warming rays in cluster cool cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Marchegiani, P.

    2008-06-01

    Context: Cosmic rays are confined in the atmospheres of galaxy clusters and, therefore, they can play a crucial role in the heating of their cool cores. Aims: We discuss here the thermal and non-thermal features of a model of cosmic ray heating of cluster cores that can provide a solution to the cooling-flow problems. To this aim, we generalize a model originally proposed by Colafrancesco, Dar & DeRujula (2004) and we show that our model predicts specific correlations between the thermal and non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters and enables various observational tests. Methods: The model reproduces the observed temperature distribution in clusters by using an energy balance condition in which the X-ray energy emitted by clusters is supplied, in a quasi-steady state, by the hadronic cosmic rays, which act as “warming rays” (WRs). The temperature profile of the intracluster (IC) gas is strictly correlated with the pressure distribution of the WRs and, consequently, with the non-thermal emission (radio, hard X-ray and gamma-ray) induced by the interaction of the WRs with the IC gas and the IC magnetic field. Results: The temperature distribution of the IC gas in both cool-core and non cool-core clusters is successfully predicted from the measured IC plasma density distribution. Under this contraint, the WR model is also able to reproduce the thermal and non-thermal pressure distribution in clusters, as well as their radial entropy distribution, as shown by the analysis of three clusters studied in detail: Perseus, A2199 and Hydra. The WR model provides other observable features of galaxy clusters: a correlation of the pressure ratio (WRs to thermal IC gas) with the inner cluster temperature (P_WR/P_th) ˜ (kT_inner)-2/3, a correlation of the gamma-ray luminosity with the inner cluster temperature Lγ ˜ (kT_inner)4/3, a substantial number of cool-core clusters observable with the GLAST-LAT experiment, a surface brightness of radio halos in cool-core clusters

  3. Nature of multiple-nucleus cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, D.

    1984-05-01

    In models for the evolution of galaxy clusters which include dynamical friction with the dark binding matter, the distribution of galaxies becomes more concentrated to the cluster center with time. In a cluster like Coma, this evolution could increase by a factor of approximately 3 the probability of finding a galaxy very close to the cluster center, without decreasing the typical velocity of such a galaxy significantly below the cluster mean. Such an enhancement is roughly what is needed to explain the large number of first-ranked cluster galaxies which are observed to have extra ''nuclei''; it is also consistent with the high velocities typically measured for these ''nuclei.'' Unlike the cannibalism model, this model predicts that the majority of multiple-nucleus systems are transient phenomena, and not galaxies in the process of merging.

  4. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z~1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso

    2010-09-01

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  5. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  6. Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Britton; O'Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.

  7. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  8. Investigations of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  9. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, Matthew P.

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  10. Does faint galaxy clustering contradict gravitational instability?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been argued, based on the weakness of clustering of faint galaxies, that these objects cannot be the precursors of present galaxies in a simple Einstein-de Sitter model universe with clustering driven by gravitational instability. It is shown that the assumptions made about the growth of clustering were too restrictive. In such a universe, the growth of clustering can easily be fast enough to match the data.

  11. Tracking star formation in dwarf cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Cody Millard

    The evolution of galaxies in dense environments can be affected by close encounters with neighboring galaxies and interactions with the intracluster medium (ICM). Dwarf galaxies may be especially susceptible to these effects due to their low mass. The goal of my dissertation research is to look for signs of star formation in cluster dwarf galaxies by measuring and comparing the r- and u-band luminosity functions of 15 low redshift Abell galaxy clusters using archival data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). Luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions are measured in four cluster-centric annuli from stacked cluster data. To account for differences in cluster optical richness, each cluster is scaled according to r200, where r200 is the radius of a sphere, centered on the cluster, whose average density is 200 times the critical density of the universe. The outer region of the cluster sample shows an increase in the faint-end slope of the u-band luminosity function relative to the r-band, indicating star formation in dwarf galaxies. The blue fraction for dwarf galaxies steadily rises with increasing cluster-centric radii. The change in the blue fraction of giant galaxies also increases, but at a lower rate. Additionally, the inner regions of clusters ranging from 0.185 < z < 0.7 from the "Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH)" are used to generate blue- and red-band luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions. Comparisons of the inner region of the CLASH and CFHT clusters show an increase in the blue fraction of dwarf galaxies with redshift that is not present in giant galaxies.

  12. Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): projected galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, D. J.; Cole, Shaun; Norberg, Peder; Metcalfe, N.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Liske, J.; Loveday, Jon; Palamara, David P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sridhar, Srivatsan

    2015-12-01

    We measure the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg2 equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and 0.5. To do this, we further develop the Cole method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ˜3 h-1 Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al. (in preparation) and Gonzalez-Perez et al., and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models underpredict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and underpredict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with {˜ } 3 Lr^*. We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these clustering predictions. The measurements presented in this paper can be used to test other galaxy formation models, and we make the measurements available online to facilitate this.

  13. STAR CLUSTERS IN PSEUDOBULGES OF SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nino, Daiana; Trenti, Michele; Stiavelli, Massimo; Carollo, C. Marcella; Scarlata, Claudia; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2009-11-15

    We present a study of the properties of the star-cluster systems around pseudobulges of late-type spiral galaxies using a sample of 11 galaxies with distances from 17 Mpc to 37 Mpc. Star clusters are identified from multiband Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFPC2 imaging data by combining detections in three bands (F435W and F814W with ACS and F606W with WFPC2). The photometric data are then compared to population synthesis models to infer the masses and ages of the star clusters. Photometric errors and completeness are estimated by means of artificial source Monte Carlo simulations. Dust extinction is estimated by considering F160W NICMOS observations of the central regions of the galaxies, augmenting our wavelength coverage. In all galaxies we identify star clusters with a wide range of ages, from young (age {approx}< 8 Myr) blue clusters, with typical mass of 10{sup 3} M {sub sun} to older (age >100-250 Myr), more massive, red clusters. Some of the latter might likely evolve into objects similar to the Milky Way's globular clusters. We compute the specific frequencies for the older clusters with respect to the galaxy and bulge luminosities. Specific frequencies relative to the galaxy light appear consistent with the globular cluster specific frequencies of early-type spirals. We compare the specific frequencies relative to the bulge light with the globular cluster specific frequencies of dwarf galaxies, which have a surface brightness profile that is similar to that of the pseudobulges in our sample. The specific frequencies we derive for our sample galaxies are higher than those of the dwarf galaxies, supporting an evolutionary scenario in which some of the dwarf galaxies might be the remnants of harassed late-type spiral galaxies that hosted a pseudobulge.

  14. Clustering of galaxies in brane world models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the clustering of galaxies using a modified Newtonian potential. This modification of the Newtonian potential occurs due to the existence of extra dimensions in brane world models. We will analyze a system of galaxies interacting with each other through this modified Newtonian potential. The partition function for this system of galaxies will be calculated, and this partition function will be used to calculate the free energy of this system of galaxies. The entropy and the chemical potential for this system will also be calculated. We will derive explicit expression for the clustering parameter for this system. This parameter will determine the behavior of this system, and we will be able to express various thermodynamic quantities using this clustering parameter. Thus, we will be able to explicitly analyze the effect that modifying the Newtonian potential can have on the clustering of galaxies. We also analyse the effect of extra dimensions on the two-point functions between galaxies.

  15. ORIENTATION OF BRIGHTER GALAXIES IN NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Panko, E.; Juszczyk, T.; Flin, P. E-mail: sfflin@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2009-12-15

    A sample of 6188 nearby galaxy structures, complete to r{sub F} = 18fm3 and containing at least 10 members each, was the observational basis for an investigation of the alignment of bright galaxies with the major axes for the parent clusters. The distribution of position angles for galaxies within the clusters, specifically the brightest, the second brightest, the third, and the tenth brightest galaxies was tested for isotropy. Galaxy position angles appear to be distributed isotropically, as are the distributions of underlying cluster structure position angles. The characterization of galaxy structures according to richness class also appears to be isotropic. Characterization according to BM types, which are known for 1056 clusters, is more interesting. Only in the case of clusters of BM type I is there an alignment of the brightest cluster member with the major axis of the parent cluster. The effect is observed at the 2 significance level. In other investigated cases the distributions are isotropic. The results confirm the special role of cD galaxies in the origin/evolution of large-scale structures.

  16. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M{sub r}{sup 0.1}<−20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2σ, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  17. COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L.; Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.

    2015-11-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.

  18. The APM Galaxy Survey - V. Catalogues of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, G. B.; Maddox, S. J.; Sutherland, W. J.; Efstathiou, G.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the construction of catalogues of galaxy clusters from the APM Galaxy survey using an automated algorithm based on Abell-like selection criteria. We investigate the effects of varying several parameters in our selection algorithm, including the magnitude range and radius from the cluster centre used to estimate the cluster richnesses. We quantify the accuracy of the photometric distance estimates by comparing them with measured redshifts, and we investigate the stability and completeness of the resulting catalogues. We find that the angular correlation functions for different cluster catalogues are in good agreement with one another, and are also consistent with the observed amplitude of the spatial correlation function of rich clusters.

  19. Excess Of Post-Starburst Galaxies In Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolovsky, Miguel; Almaini, Omar; Hatch, Nina

    2017-06-01

    I present a study on the impact of environment on galaxy evolution in distant galaxy clusters between redshifts 0.5 and 1.0. We find candidate galaxy clusters by applying a friends-of-friends algorithm to the deep photometric data of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey. Through studying the stellar mass functions, we reveal a strong excess of low-mass rapidly-quenched galaxies in cluster environments compared to the field. This indicates that low-mass objects are preferentially quenched in dense environments. I also show the radial distribution of different galaxy populations as a function of cluster-centric distance, which provides insight about where this environmental quenching is taking place and its timescale. Finally, I explain how these results, taken together, point to the existence of two environmental quenching pathways (fast and slow), operating on different timescales. Fast quenching acts on galaxies with high sSFR, switching them off on timescales shorter than the cluster dynamical time, and is more efficient for quenching low-mass galaxies. In contrast, slow quenching affects galaxies with moderate sSFR regardless of their stellar mass, acting on longer timescales.

  20. Excess of Post-Starburst Galaxies in Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolovsky, Miguel; Hatch, Nina; Almaini, Omar; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-07-01

    I present a study on the impact of environment on galaxy evolution in distant galaxy clusters between redshifts 0.5 and 1.0. We find candidate galaxy clusters by applying a friends-of-friends algorithm to the deep photometric data of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey. Through studying the stellar mass functions, we reveal a strong excess of low-mass rapidly-quenched galaxies in cluster environments compared to the field. This indicates that low-mass objects are preferentially quenched in dense environments. I also show the radial distribution of different galaxy populations as a function of cluster-centric distance, which provides insight about where this environmental quenching is taking place and its timescale. Finally, I explain how these results, taken together, point to the existence of two environmental quenching pathways (fast and slow), operating on different timescales. Fast quenching acts on galaxies with high sSFR, switching them off on timescales shorter than the cluster dynamical time, and is more efficient for quenching low-mass galaxies. In contrast, slow quenching affects galaxies with moderate sSFR regardless of their stellar mass, acting on longer timescales.

  1. The Shapes of Galaxy Clusters and Related Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Abel Jiahui

    2012-05-01

    The cosmological many body problem describes the gravitational clustering of galaxies in the universe. These galaxies cluster about each other to produce some of the largest structures in the universe. These structures are modeled by the gravitational quasi-equilibrium distribution (GQED). The GQED is a fairly robust and simple theory based on thermodynamics and statistical mechanics that, in its simplest form, describes galaxies as point masses of equal mass. We show that more realistic descriptions of the universe only introduce higher order corrections to the theory, and the simple description is sufficient to model most cases of galaxy clustering. To demonstrate this, we use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to show that the observed counts-in-cells distribution of galaxies in the universe follows the GQED. Using the GQED, we develop a theory to study the structure of clusters and groups of galaxies, relating the internal structure of a cluster to the large scale structure of the universe. This theory describes the probability that the galaxies in a region of space have a given kinetic and correlation potential energy. These energies are closely related to the 6-dimensional phase space configuration and thus the shape and structure of a cluster of galaxies. This theory suggests that clusters of galaxies with more than 10 members are very likely to be bound and virialized on average, but may also contain substructure in the form of smaller subclusters that cluster about each other. These subclusters may be the cores of smaller clusters that have merged, which means that the merger history of a cluster may be an important factor that determines its internal structure. Because the full 6-dimensional phase space configuration of a cluster of galaxies cannot be observed, direct comparisons with observations are not possible. Instead, we attempt to model the unobservable dimensions and show that on a statistical basis, the kinetic energies of clusters in

  2. The Dependence of Cluster Galaxy Properties on the Central Entropy of their Host Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Ko, Jongwan; Hwang, Ho Seong; Edge, Alastair C.; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Lee, Jong Chul; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2017-02-01

    We present a study of the connection between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host galaxy clusters. Using galaxy clusters at 0.1< z< 0.3 from the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS) with X-ray information from the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT), we confirm that BCGs in low central entropy clusters are well aligned with the X-ray center. Additionally, the magnitude difference between BCG and the second brightest galaxy also correlates with the central entropy of the intracluster medium. From the red-sequence (RS) galaxies, we cannot find significant dependence of RS color scatter and stellar population on the central entropy of the intracluster medium of their host cluster. However, BCGs in low-entropy clusters are systematically less massive than those in high-entropy clusters, although this is dependent on the method used to derive the stellar mass of BCGs. In contrast, the stellar velocity dispersion of BCGs shows no dependence on BCG activity and cluster central entropy. This implies that the potential of the BCG is established earlier and the activity leading to optical emission lines is dictated by the properties of the intracluster medium in the cluster core.

  3. Galaxy clusters in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acebrón, A.; Durret, F.; Martinet, N.; Adami, C.; Guennou, L.

    2014-12-01

    Simulations of large scale structure formation in the universe predict that matter is essentially distributed along filaments at the intersection of which lie galaxy clusters. We have analysed 9 clusters in the redshift range 0.4clusters. Based on colour-magnitude diagrams, we have selected the galaxies likely to be in the cluster redshift range and studied their spatial distribution. We detect a number of structures and filaments around several clusters, proving that colour-magnitude diagrams are a reliable method to detect filaments around galaxy clusters. Since this method excludes blue (spiral) galaxies at the cluster redshift, we also apply the LePhare software to compute photometric redshifts from BVRIZ images to select galaxy cluster members and study their spatial distribution. We then find that, if only galaxies classified as early-type by LePhare are considered, we obtain the same distribution than with a red sequence selection, while taking into account late-type galaxies just pollutes the background level and deteriorates our detections. The photometric redshift based method therefore does not provide any additional information.

  4. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    2011-11-01

    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  5. Violent interaction between the active galactic nucleus and the hot gas in the core of the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, N.; Sun, M.; Bagchi, J.; Allen, S. W.; Taylor, G. B.; Sirothia, S. K.; Simionescu, A.; Million, E. T.; Jacob, J.; Donahue, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the energetic interaction between the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), the intracluster medium (ICM) and the optical emission-line nebula in the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03. We use X-ray data from Chandra, high-resolution X-ray spectra and ultraviolet (UV) images from XMM-Newton, Hα images from the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope radio data. The cluster centre displays signs of powerful AGN feedback, which has cleared the central regions (r < 7.5 kpc) of a dense, X-ray-emitting ICM. X-ray spectral maps reveal a high-pressure ring surrounding the central AGN at a radius of r˜ 15 kpc, indicating an AGN-driven weak shock. The cluster harbours a bright, 44 kpc long Hα+[N II] filament extending from the centre of the cD galaxy to the north. Along the filament, we see low-entropy, high-metallicity, cooling X-ray gas. The gas in the filament has most likely been uplifted by 'radio mode' AGN activity and subsequently stripped from the galaxy due to its relative southward motion. Because this X-ray gas has been removed from the direct influence of the AGN jets, part of it cools and forms stars as indicated by the observed dust lanes, molecular and ionized emission-line nebulae and the excess UV emission.

  6. Low mass galaxy clusters and galaxy morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Órdenes, Y.; Ramos, F.; Alonso, M. V.; Cuevas, H.; García Lambas, D.; Ramírez, A.

    We present preliminary results about the galaxy morphology evolution in three low mass galaxy clusters: RX J0533.9-5809 ([VMF98]046, z 0.198), RX J1204.3-0350 ([VMF98]113, z 0.261) and RX J0533.8-5746 ([VMF98]045, z 0.295). Full photometric catalogues were created using SExtractor v2.8.0. Also, photometric redshifts (z phot ) were obtained for all the object classified as galaxies, using the ANNz code. Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) were generated for those galaxies clas- sified as cluster members. Clear Red Cluster Sequences (RCS) with a me- dian slopes of -0.03 are observed for all the tree clusters. Based on the RCS best fit, a blue and a red population of galaxies were defined, observ- ing that the color distribution of the cluster [VMF98]045 is well fitted by a double Gaussian function (2 0.2), while the clusters [VMF98]046 and [VMF98]113 presents a third population between the blue and red peak dis- tributions. These preliminary results would show the existence of a possible transi- tion population between the blue and the red population in these low mass galaxy clusters at low redshifts.

  7. Kinematic evidence of satellite galaxy populations in the potential wells of first-ranked cluster galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, L.L.; Hu, E.M.

    1986-06-01

    The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation. 14 references.

  8. Kinematic evidence of satellite galaxy populations in the potential wells of first-ranked cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Hu, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation.

  9. SUPERMODEL ANALYSIS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fusco-Femiano, R.; Cavaliere, A.; Lapi, A.

    2009-11-01

    We present the analysis of the X-ray brightness and temperature profiles for six clusters belonging to both the Cool Core (CC) and Non Cool Core (NCC) classes, in terms of the Supermodel (SM) developed by Cavaliere et al. Based on the gravitational wells set by the dark matter (DM) halos, the SM straightforwardly expresses the equilibrium of the intracluster plasma (ICP) modulated by the entropy deposited at the boundary by standing shocks from gravitational accretion, and injected at the center by outgoing blast waves from mergers or from outbursts of active galactic nuclei. The cluster set analyzed here highlights not only how simply the SM represents the main dichotomy CC versus NCC clusters in terms of a few ICP parameters governing the radial entropy run, but also how accurately it fits even complex brightness and temperature profiles. For CC clusters like A2199 and A2597, the SM with a low level of central entropy straightforwardly yields the characteristic peaked profile of the temperature marked by a decline toward the center, without requiring currently strong radiative cooling and high mass deposition rates. NCC clusters like A1656 require instead a central entropy floor of a substantial level, and some like A2256 and even more A644 feature structured temperature profiles that also call for a definite floor extension; in such conditions the SM accurately fits the observations, and suggests that in these clusters the ICP has been just remolded by a merger event, in the way of a remnant cool core. The SM also predicts that DM halos with high concentration should correlate with flatter entropy profiles and steeper brightness in the outskirts; this is indeed the case with A1689, for which from X-rays we find concentration values c approx 10, the hallmark of an early halo formation. Thus, we show the SM to constitute a fast tool not only to provide wide libraries of accurate fits to X-ray temperature and density profiles, but also to retrieve from the ICP

  10. Dynamics of 10 clusters of galaxies with substructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lakhchaura, Kiran; Singh, K. P.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed Chandra study of a sample of 10 clusters of galaxies selected based on the presence of substructures in their optical images. The X-ray surface brightness maps of most of these clusters show anisotropic morphologies, especially in the central regions. A total of 22 well resolved significantly bright X-ray peaks (corresponding with high-density regions) are seen in the central parts (within r{sub c} /2) of the clusters. Multiple peaks are seen in central parts of six clusters. We found 11 peaks to have optical counterparts (10 coinciding with the brightest cluster galaxies of the 10 clusters and 1 coinciding with the second brightest galaxy in A539). For most of the clusters, the optical substructures detected in the previous studies are found to be outside the field of view of Chandra. In the spectroscopically produced two-dimensional temperature maps, significantly lower temperatures are seen at the locations of three peaks (two in A539 and one in A376). The centers of five clusters in our sample also host regions of higher temperature compared to the ambient medium, indicating the presence of galaxy scale mergers. The X-ray luminosity, gas mass, and central cooling time estimates for all the clusters are presented. The radial X-ray surface-brightness profiles of all but one of the clusters are found to be best-fitted with a double-β model, pointing toward the presence of double-phased central gas due to cool cores. The cooling time estimates of all the clusters, however, indicate that none of them hosts a strong cool core, although the possibility of weak cool cores cannot be ruled out.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Seppo; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Lauer, Tod R.; Postman, Marc; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2003-02-01

    We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to obtain I-band images of the centers of 81 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), drawn from a volume-limited sample of nearby BCGs. The images show a rich variety of morphological features, including multiple or double nuclei, dust, stellar disks, point-source nuclei, and central surface brightness depressions. High-resolution surface brightness profiles could be inferred for 60 galaxies. Of those, 88% have well-resolved cores. The relationship between core size and galaxy luminosity for BCGs is indistinguishable from that of Faber et al. (published in 1997, hereafter F97) for galaxies within the same luminosity range. However, the core sizes of the most luminous BCGs fall below the extrapolation of the F97 relationship rb~L1.15V. A shallower relationship, rb~L0.72V, fits both the BCGs and the core galaxies presented in F97. Twelve percent of the BCG sample lacks a well-resolved core; all but one of these BCGs have ``power law'' profiles. Some of these galaxies have higher luminosities than any power-law galaxy identified by F97 and have physical upper limits on rb well below the values observed for core galaxies of the same luminosity. These results support the idea that the central structure of early-type galaxies is bimodal in its physical properties but also suggest that there exist high-luminosity galaxies with power-law profiles (or unusually small cores). The BCGs in the latter category tend to fall at the low end of the BCG luminosity function and tend to have low values of the quantity α (the logarithmic slope of the metric luminosity as a function of radius, at 10 kpc). Since theoretical calculations have shown that the luminosities and α-values of BCGs grow with time as a result of accretion, this suggests a scenario in which elliptical galaxies evolve from power-law profiles to core profiles through accretion and merging. This is consistent with theoretical scenarios that invoke the

  12. Clustering of galaxies with dynamical dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan, Behnam; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Hameeda, Mir; Faizal, Mir

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study thermodynamics of the cluster of galaxies under the effect of dynamical dark energy. We evaluate the configurational integral for interacting system of galaxies in an expanding Universe by including the effects produced by the varying Λ. The gravitational partition function is obtained using this configuration integral. We obtain thermodynamics quantities in canonical ensemble which depend on time and investigate the second law of thermodynamics. We also calculate the distribution function in grand canonical ensemble. The time evolution of the clustering parameter of galaxies is investigated for the time-dependent (dynamical) dark energy. We conclude that the second law of thermodynamics is valid for the total system of cluster of galaxies and dynamical dark energy. We calculate the correlation function and show that our model is very close to Peebles's power law, in agreement with the N-body simulation. It is observed that thermodynamics quantities depend on the modified clustering parameter for this system of galaxies.

  13. Clusters of Galaxies in Infrared Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, B.

    2008-12-01

    Far infrared emission (FIR) of the sky is generally thought to originate mainly in cold dust grains distributed in space. The FIR emission of galaxy clusters may be considered therefore as a tracer of the dust constituent of the intracluster medium. The presence of dust distributed in the intergalactic medium of galaxy clusters is of considerable interest for several studies. Based on IRAS and COBE/DIRBE sky surveys we found excess FIR emission from the sky area occupied by galaxy cluster ZW5897. Very good positional and extensional coincidence between infrared source and ZW5897 may suggest intracluster origin of the emission. We studied the distribution of stars and galaxies in the cluster area using Palomar Survey data to check whether these distributions are affected by local dust. We found that a foreground obscuring cloud, overlapping accidentally the distant cluster ZW5897, may be responsible for some part of the detected FIR emission.

  14. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G. Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be “relaxed” based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Toward a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C ≳ 0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 h70-1 kpc compared to inside 500 {h}70-1 kpc. We report and compare morphologies of these clusters inferred from Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) maps of the hot gas and in from projected mass maps based on strong and weak lensing. We find a strong agreement in alignments of the orientation of major axes for the lensing, X-ray, and SZE maps of nearly all of the CLASH clusters at radii of 500 kpc (approximately 1/2 R500 for these clusters). We also find a striking alignment of clusters shapes at the 500 kpc scale, as measured with X-ray, SZE, and lensing, with that of the near-infrared stellar light at 10 kpc scales for the 20 “relaxed” clusters. This strong alignment indicates a powerful coupling between the cluster- and galaxy-scale galaxy formation processes.

  15. The galaxy population of the complex cluster system Abell 3921

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranger, Florian; Böhm, Asmus; Ferrari, Chiara; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Hunstead, Richard; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Brinchmann, Jarle; Schindler, Sabine

    2013-09-01

    Context. We present a spectrophotometric analysis of the galaxy population in the area of the merging cluster Abell 3921 at z = 0.093. Aims: We investigate the impact of the complex cluster environment on galaxy properties such as morphology or star formation rate. Methods: We combine multi-object spectroscopy from the two-degree field (2dF) spectrograph with optical imaging taken with the ESO Wide Field Imager. We carried out a redshift analysis and determine cluster velocity dispersions using biweight statistics. Applying a Dressler-Shectman test we sought evidence of cluster substructure. Cluster and field galaxies were investigated with respect to [OII] and Hα equivalent width, star formation rate, and morphological descriptors, such as concentration index and Gini coefficient. We studied these cluster galaxy properties as a function of clustercentric distance and investigated the spatial distribution of various galaxy types. Results: Applying the Dressler-Shectman test, we find a third component (A3921-C) in addition to the two main subclusters (A3921-A and A3921-B) that are already known. The re-determined mass ratio between the main components A and B is ~2:1. Similar to previous studies of galaxy clusters, we find that a large fraction of the disk galaxies close to the cluster core show no detectable star formation. These are likely systems that are quenched due to ram pressure stripping. Interestingly, we also find quenched spirals at rather large distances of 3-4 Mpc from the cluster core. Conclusions: A3921-C might be a group of galaxies falling onto the main cluster components. We speculate that the unexpected population of quenched spirals at large clustercentric radii in A3921-A and A3921-B might be an effect of the ongoing cluster merger: shocks in the ICM might give rise to enhanced ram pressure stripping and at least in part be the cause for the quenching of star formation. These quenched spirals might be an intermediate stage in the morphological

  16. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  17. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II. NGC 6166

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. Hubble Space Telescope data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and WFC3 cameras in F475W and F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sérsic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least Rgc = 250 kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is NGC = 39000 ± 2000, the global specific frequency is SN = 11.2 ± 0.6, and 57% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the intracluster medium (ICM) of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected ellipticity, and mean metallicity of the red (metal-richer) clusters match the halo light extremely well for {R}{gc}≳ 15 {{kpc}}, both of them varying as {σ }{MRGC}∼ {σ }{light}∼ {R}-1.8. By comparison, the blue (metal-poor) GC component has a much shallower falloff {σ }{MPGC}∼ {R}-1.0 and a more nearly spherical distribution. This strong difference in their density distributions produces a net metallicity gradient in the GCS as a whole that is primarily generated by the population gradient. With NGC 6166 we appear to be penetrating into a regime of high enough galaxy mass and rich enough environment that the bimodal two-phase description of GC formation is no longer as clear or effective as it has been in smaller galaxies.

  18. Stellar Populations of Brightest Cluster Galaxies and Intracluster Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Louise O. V.; Trierweiller, Isabella L.

    2017-03-01

    We present 3 representative cases from a sample of 16 local Brightest Cluster Galaxies observed using integral field spectroscopy. The observations extend to nearby neighbours and into the Intracluster Light (ICL). Population synthesis modeling shows that the ICL is younger and more metal poor compared to the BCG core and outskirts. This is consistent with a scenario in which the ICL grows by cluster processes, and alongside the growth of the BCG.

  19. Brightest cluster galaxies in the extended GMRT radio halo cluster sample. Radio properties and cluster dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, R.; Venturi, T.; Cassano, R.; Giacintucci, S.; Bardelli, S.; Dallacasa, D.; Zucca, E.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: First-ranked galaxies in clusters, usually referred to as brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), show exceptional properties over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. They are the most massive elliptical galaxies and show the highest probability to be radio loud. Moreover, their special location at the centres of galaxy clusters raises the question of the role of the environment in shaping their radio properties. In the attempt to separate the effect of the galaxy mass and of the environment on their statistical radio properties, we investigate the possible dependence of the occurrence of radio loudness and of the fractional radio luminosity function on the dynamical state of the hosting cluster. Methods: We studied the radio properties of the BCGs in the Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey (EGRHS), which consists of 65 clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.4, with X-ray luminosity LX ≥ 5 × 1044 erg s-1, and quantitative information on their dynamical state from high-quality Chandra imaging. We obtained a statistical sample of 59 BCGs, which we divided into two classes, depending on whether the dynamical state of the host cluster was merging (M) or relaxed (R). Results: Of the 59 BCGs, 28 are radio loud and 31 are radio quiet. The radio-loud sources are favourably located in relaxed clusters (71%), while the reverse is true for the radio-quiet BCGs, which are mostly located in merging systems (81%). The fractional radio luminosity function for the BCGs in merging and relaxed clusters is different, and it is considerably higher for BCGs in relaxed clusters, where the total fraction of radio loudness reaches almost 90%, to be compared to the ~30% in merging clusters. For relaxed clusters, we found a positive correlation between the radio power of the BCGs and the strength of the cool core, consistent with previous studies on local samples. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the radio loudness of the BCGs strongly depends on the cluster dynamics; their fraction is

  20. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low-mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We present improved clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a scenario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  1. AGN-driven Turbulence in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggen, M.; Scannapieco, E.

    Hot, underdense bubbles powered by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are likely to play a key role in halting catastrophic cooling in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters. We present three-dimensional simulations that capture the evolution of such bubbles, using an adaptive-mesh hydrodynamic code, FLASH3, to which we have added a subgrid model of turbulence and mixing. Pure-hydro simulations indicate that AGN bubbles are disrupted into resolution-dependent pockets of underdense gas. However, proper modeling of subgrid turbulence shows that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities act to mix the heated regions with their surroundings, while at the same time preserving them as coherent structures, consistent with observations. Thus bubbles are transformed into hot clouds of mixed material as they move outwards in the hydrostatic intracluster medium. Properly capturing the evolution of such clouds has important implications for many ICM properties.

  2. Brighter galaxy bias: underestimating the velocity dispersions of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Old, L.; Gray, M. E.; Pearce, F. R.

    2013-09-01

    We study the systematic bias introduced when selecting the spectroscopic redshifts of brighter cluster galaxies to estimate the velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters from both simulated and observational galaxy catalogues. We select clusters with Ngal ≥ 50 at five low-redshift snapshots from the publicly available De Lucia & Blaziot semi-analytic model galaxy catalogue. Clusters are also selected from the Tempel Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 groups and clusters catalogue across the redshift range 0.021 ≤ z ≤ 0.098. We employ various selection techniques to explore whether the velocity dispersion bias is simply due to a lack of dynamical information or is the result of an underlying physical process occurring in the cluster, for example, dynamical friction experienced by the brighter cluster members. The velocity dispersions of the parent dark matter (DM) haloes are compared to the galaxy cluster dispersions and the stacked distribution of DM particle velocities is examined alongside the corresponding galaxy velocity distribution. We find a clear bias between the halo and the semi-analytic galaxy cluster velocity dispersion on the order of σgal/σDM ˜ 0.87-0.95 and a distinct difference in the stacked galaxy and DM particle velocities distribution. We identify a systematic underestimation of the velocity dispersions when imposing increasing absolute I-band magnitude limits. This underestimation is enhanced when using only the brighter cluster members for dynamical analysis on the order of 5-35 per cent, indicating that dynamical friction is a serious source of bias when using galaxy velocities as tracers of the underlying gravitational potential. In contrast to the literature we find that the resulting bias is not only halo mass dependent but also that the nature of the dependence changes according to the galaxy selection strategy. We make a recommendation that, in the realistic case of limited availability of spectral observations, a strictly

  3. Regulation of Star Formation amidst Heating and Cooling in Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Sravani

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the Universe and often host the largest galaxies (known as the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG)) at its centers. These BCG's are embedded in hot 1-10 keV X-ray gas. A subset of galaxy clusters known as cool-core clusters show sharply peaked X-ray emission and high central densities, demonstrating cooling of the surrounding halo gas in timescales much shorter than a Hubble time. These observations led to the development of a simple cooling flow model. In the absence of an external heating process, a cooling flow model predicts that the hot intracluster medium gas in these dense cores would hydrostatically cool, generating cooling flows in the center of the cluster. This cooled gas will eventually collapse to form stars and contribute to the bulk of galaxy mass. The rates of star formation actually observed in the clusters however are far less than predicted by the cooling flow model, suggesting a non-gravitational heating source. Active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxies hosting a supermassive black hole that ejects outflows via accretion, is currently the leading heating mechanism (referred to as AGN feedback) explaining the observed deficit in the star formation rates. AGN feedback also offers an elegant explanation to the observed black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Much of the evidence for AGN feedback has been obtained from studies focussed on galaxy clusters and luminous massive systems with little evidence that it occurs in more typical systems in the local universe. Our research investigates this less explored area to address the importance of AGN heating in the regulation of star formation in typical early type galaxies in the local universe. We selected a sample of 200+ early type, low redshift galaxies and carried out a multiple wavelength study using archival observed in the UV, IR and radio. Our results suggest that early type galaxies in the current epoch are rarely powerful AGN and AGN

  4. A serach for 'failed clusters' of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, W. H.; Tananbaum, H.; Remillard, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a search for a new type of object - large clouds of hot gas with no visible galaxies - which we call failed clusters of galaxies. We calculate the expected X-ray luminosity, temperature, and angular diameter of such objects as a function of total cloud mass and convert the results to expected X-ray fluxes from failed clusters at different redshifts. Using the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) database, we establish a strategy to search for candidate failed clusters. From this initial screening of 1435 IPC fields, 17 candidates are selected for more detailed analysis, which indicates that 10 of these are very probably extended X-ray sources. Optical follow-up on the 10 prime candidates finds eight clusters of galaxies (including six reproted for the first time in this paper), one stellar identification, and one without an obvious optical counterpart (the candidate with the weakest evidence for X-ray extent). Investigation of several candidates with less evidence for X-ray extent yields two additional new clusters of galaxies. A conservative comparison of our results with the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey demonstrates that failed clusters are a relatively unimportant contributor to the mass density of the universe. Our inability to find failed clusters is consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario for the formation of galaxies and clusters.

  5. THE FATE OF STELLAR MASS LOSS IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan

    2011-09-10

    Star formation within the central galaxies of galaxy clusters is often interpreted as being fueled by cooling of the hot intracluster medium. However, the star-forming gas is dusty, and Spitzer spectra show that the dust properties are similar to those in more normal star-forming environments, in which the dust has come from the winds of dying stars. Here we consider whether the primary source of the star-forming gas in central cluster galaxies could be normal stellar mass loss. We show that the overall stellar mass-loss rate in a large central galaxy ({approx}4-8 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) is at least as large as the observed star formation rates in all but the most extreme cases and must be included in any assessment of the gas-mass budget of a central cluster galaxy. We also present arguments suggesting that the gas shed by stars in galaxy clusters with high core pressures and short central cooling times may remain cool and distinct from its hot surroundings, thereby preserving the dust within it.

  6. The Formation of Galaxies and Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Stephen; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on the formation of galaxies and clusters, focusing on research examining how the materials in galaxies seen today separated from the universal expansion and collapsed into stable bodies. A list of six nontechnical books and articles for readers with less background is included. (JN)

  7. The Formation of Galaxies and Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Stephen; Morrison, Nancy D.

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on the formation of galaxies and clusters, focusing on research examining how the materials in galaxies seen today separated from the universal expansion and collapsed into stable bodies. A list of six nontechnical books and articles for readers with less background is included. (JN)

  8. Radio luminosity function of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2016-08-01

    By cross-matching the currently largest optical catalogue of galaxy clusters and the NVSS radio survey data base, we obtain a large complete sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the redshift range of 0.05 < z ≤ 0.45, which have radio emission and redshift information. We confirm that more powerful radio BCGs tend to be these optically very bright galaxies located in more relaxed clusters. We derived the radio luminosity functions of the largest sample of radio BCGs, and find that the functions depend on the optical luminosity of BCGs and the dynamic state of galaxy clusters. However, the radio luminosity function does not show significant evolution with redshift.

  9. A 30 kpc CHAIN OF ''BEADS ON A STRING'' STAR FORMATION BETWEEN TWO MERGING EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF A STRONG-LENSING GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, Grant R.; Davis, Timothy A.; Gladders, Michael D.; Florian, Michael; Baum, Stefi A.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Cooke, Kevin C.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Dahle, Håkon; Rigby, Jane R.; Sharon, Keren; Soto, Emmaris; Wuyts, Eva

    2014-08-01

    New Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and optical imaging of the strong-lensing galaxy cluster SDSS J1531+3414 (z = 0.335) reveals two centrally dominant elliptical galaxies participating in an ongoing major merger. The interaction is at least somewhat rich in cool gas, as the merger is associated with a complex network of 19 massive superclusters of young stars (or small tidal dwarf galaxies) separated by ∼1 kpc in projection from one another, combining to an estimated total star formation rate of ∼5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The resolved young stellar superclusters are threaded by narrow Hα, [O II], and blue excess filaments arranged in a network spanning ∼27 kpc across the two merging galaxies. This morphology is strongly reminiscent of the well-known ''beads on a string'' mode of star formation observed on kiloparsec scales in the arms of spiral galaxies, resonance rings, and in tidal tails between interacting galaxies. Nevertheless, the arrangement of this star formation relative to the nuclei of the two galaxies is difficult to interpret in a dynamical sense, as no known ''beads on a string'' systems associated with kiloparsec-scale tidal interactions exhibit such lopsided morphology relative to the merger participants. In this Letter, we present the images and follow-up spectroscopy and discuss possible physical interpretations for the unique arrangement of the young stellar clusters. While we suggest that this morphology is likely to be dynamically short-lived, a more quantitative understanding awaits necessary multiwavelength follow-up, including optical integral field spectroscopy, ALMA submillimeter interferometry, and Chandra X-ray imaging.

  10. Arms pattern speed of galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Dottori, H.; Reichert, D.

    We aim to study arm pattern speed and consequently pattern resonances in galaxies of clusters. If the perturbation of cluster galaxies is mainly produced by the interaction with the cluster ambient the pattern speed might well depend on the history of the galaxy orbit within the cluster. We are trying to determine if this constrain exist. We use published data cube of HII regions velocity fields (Asram et al. 1992, Garrido et al. 2004, 2005) and 2-mass images to apply the Tremaine-Weinberg (1984)method to determine pattern speed in barred galaxies. The use of a 2-mass image to obtain the galaxies brightness distribution is justified since it traces the distribution of disk stars and consequently the position of the original perturbation that influence the velocity field of all the matter, including that of the HII regions. First results for the Pegasus cluster indicates that NGC 7536 and NGC 7593 present pattern speeds Ω_p= 26±3 km/sec/kpc and 41±4km/sec/kpc with correlation coefficient of 0.97 and 0.99 respectively. A third galaxy, NGC 7643, presents a quite noisy vs , that does not allow to determine a reliable pattern speed, indicating probably that the perturbation is to weak in this galaxy as to be detected with T-W method.

  11. Globular cluster systems in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantais, Julie Beth

    We have performed a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the M81 globular cluster system, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging in the B, V, and I bands and 74 globular cluster spectra from Hectospec at the MMT. We have also performed a small spectroscopic study of the NGC 300 globular cluster system using the Boller & Chivens (B&C) Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope in Chile. We confirm 9 probable globular clusters in NGC 300 and 3 possible clusters with very low radial velocities. For our full NGC 300 cluster sample, plus one cluster from the literature, we find a mean [Fe/H] = --0.94 +/- 0.15; without the 3 "possible" clusters we find a mean [Fe/H] = --0.98 +/- 0.12. We identify over 200 globular cluster candidates in HST I-band imaging, and spectroscopically confirm 62 new globular clusters in M81. The M81 globular cluster system shows marginal evidence for a bimodal metallicity distribution. The mean metallicity of 107 confirmed M81 globular clusters is [Fe/H] = 1.06 +/- 0.07. The M81 globular cluster system shows significant rotation, at 108 +/- 22 km s-1. There is evidence for a metallicity gradient among the metal-poor clusters. We perform HST ACS BV I photometry and radial profile fitting on 85 spectroscopically confirmed globular clusters, 136 "good" globular cluster candidates, and 198 other star cluster candidates. The globular cluster luminosity function peaks at V0 ˜20.26. The properties of the M81 globular cluster system are very similar to those of the Milky Way and M31, suggesting a similar origin for all three galaxies. Our understanding of the origins of spiral galaxy globular cluster systems would be vastly improved by comprehensive studies of low-mass and late-type spiral galaxies, including HST I-band imaging to identify globular cluster candidates for spectroscopic confirmation.

  12. Galaxy Recycling in the Centaurus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. D.; West, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Centaurus cluster of galaxies contains a spectacular example of galaxy destruction and recycling, a giant plume of stellar debris over 100 kpc in length and ~ 15 kpc wide. We have obtained HST/WFPC2 V and I band images of a tiny portion of the Centaurus plume. A highly significant excess of objects is detected in the plume, compared to surrounding regions. The excess objects, assuming they are in Centaurus, range from -6 > MV> -12, providing evidence that globular clusters and dwarf galaxies can be born from tidal debris in rich galaxy clusters, just as is known to occur in field galaxy tidal interactions. Over time, the recycled debris from many such disruption events augments the intracluster population of stars, clusters, dwarf galaxies, and gas, and is a major driver of the global evolution of the cluster. We will also discuss our deep u'g'r'i'z' multicolor images of Centaurus, obtained with the CTIO 4m 8K Mosaic to investigate the entire plume and enabling a cluster-wide search for additional tidal debris to very faint levels. We acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation and the Space Telescope Science Institute. Part of this work was done at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. The Distances to Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodeggio, Marco

    1997-12-01

    The properties of the Fundamental Plane (FP) of E and S0 galaxies are analyzed using a sample of early-type galaxies in s nearby clusters of galaxies. I band CCD observations are presented for 631 galaxies in the A262, Cancer, A1367, Coma, Pegasus, and A2634 clusters, and in the NGC 383 and NGC 507 groups. Medium dispersion spectroscopic observations are presented for a sub-set composed of 212 galaxies. Combining this data-set with data taken from the literature, gives a FP sample of 294 galaxies. The clusters are chosen to span as large as possible a range of environmental conditions, from a rich, relaxed, X-ray luminous cluster like Coma, to rather poor groups of galaxies like the NGC 383 group. They are also chosen among the clusters that have the largest available samples of Tully-Fisher (TF) measurements, to allow an accurate comparison of the distance scales obtained using the FP and TF relations independently. Both selection criteria are aimed at quantifying the possible presence of environmental effects on the FP relation. The scatter observed around the FP template implies that the distance to a single galaxy can be obtained, using the FP, with a 22% uncertainty (a 0.48 mag uncertainty on the galaxy distance modulus). The peculiar velocity estimates for the 8 clusters in the sample are all small, consistent with the clusters being at rest in the Cosmic Microwave Background reference frame. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the effects of sample selection and measurement uncertainties on the FP template, and correct the resulting biases. After these corrections are applied, it is found that the properties of the FP do not change significantly as a function of the cluster richness, or as a function of the galaxy position within the cluster. Moreover there is very good agreement between the distance measurements obtained using the FP relation, and those obtained using the TF relation. These results are used to derive an upper limit of 5% on

  14. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-03-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 < z < 0.07. We discover a significant population of superdense massive galaxies with masses and sizes comparable to those observed at high redshift. They approximately represent 22% of all cluster galaxies more massive than 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R{sub e} ) = 1.61 +- 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 +- 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 +- 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10{sup -2} Mpc{sup -3} for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3} in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z {approx} 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M{sub *} > 4 x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  15. New Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How do ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) galaxies that are especially small and dense form and evolve? Scientists have recently examined distant galaxy clusters, searching for more UCDs to help us answer this question.Origins of DwarfsIn recent years we have discovered a growing sample of small, very dense galaxies. Galaxies that are tens to hundreds of light-years across, with masses between a million and a billion solar masses, fall into category of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs).An example of an unresolved compact object from the authors survey that is likely an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy. [Adapted from Zhang Bell 2017]How do these dense and compact galaxies form? Two possibilities are commonly suggested:An initially larger galaxy was tidally stripped during interactions with other galaxies in a cluster, leaving behind only its small, dense core as a UCD.UCDs formed as compact galaxies at very early cosmic times. The ones living in a massive dark matter halo may have been able to remain compact over time, evolving into the objectswe see today.To better understand which of these formation scenarios applies to which galaxies, we need a larger sample size! Our census of UCDs is fairly limited and because theyare small and dim, most of the ones weve discovered are in the nearby universe. To build a good sample, we need to find UCDs at higher redshifts as well.A New SampleIn a recent study, two scientists from University of Michigan have demonstrated how we might find more UCDs. Yuanyuan Zhang (also affiliated with Fermilab) and Eric Bell used the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH) to search 17 galaxy clusters at intermediate redshifts of 0.2 z 0.6, looking for unresolved objects that might be UCDs.The mass and size distributions of the UCD candidates reported in this study, in the context of previously known nuclear star clusters, globular clusters (GCs), UCDs, compact elliptical galaxies (cEs), and dwarf galaxies. [Zhang Bell 2017]Zhang and

  16. SEEDisCs: How Clusters Form and Galaxies Transform in the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonka, P.

    2017-08-01

    This presentation introduces a new survey, the Spatial Extended EDisCS Survey (SEEDisCS), which aims at understanding how clusters assemble and the level at which galaxies are preprocessed before falling on the cluster cores. I focus on the changes in galaxy properties in the cluster large scale environments, and how we can get constraints on the timescale of star formation quenching. I also discuss new ALMA CO observations, which trace the fate of the galaxy cold gas content along the infalling paths towards the cluster cores.

  17. Galaxy Cluster Baryon Fractions Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2013-11-01

    We measure the baryons contained in both the stellar and hot-gas components for 12 galaxy clusters and groups at z ~ 0.1 with M = 1-5 × 1014 M ⊙. This paper improves upon our previous work through the addition of XMM-Newton X-ray data, enabling measurements of the total mass and masses of each major baryonic component—intracluster medium, intracluster stars, and stars in galaxies—for each system. We recover a mean relation for the stellar mass versus halo mass, M_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.52+/- 0.04}, that is 1σ shallower than in our previous result. We confirm that the partitioning of baryons between the stellar and hot-gas components is a strong function of M 500; the fractions of total mass in stars and X-ray gas within a sphere of radius r 500 scale as f_{\\star }\\propto M_{500}^{-0.45+/- 0.04} and f_{gas}\\propto M_{500}^{0.26+/- 0.03}, respectively. We also confirm that the combination of the brightest cluster galaxy and intracluster stars is an increasingly important contributor to the stellar baryon budget in lower halo masses. Studies that fail to fully account for intracluster stars typically underestimate the normalization of the stellar baryon fraction versus M 500 relation by ~25%. Our derived stellar baryon fractions are also higher, and the trend with halo mass weaker, than those derived from recent halo occupation distribution and abundance matching analyses. One difference from our previous work is the weak, but statistically significant, dependence here of the total baryon fraction upon halo mass: f_{bary}\\propto M_{500}^{0.16+/- 0.04}. For M 500 >~ 2 × 1014, the total baryon fractions within r 500 are on average 18% below the universal value from the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) analysis, or 7% below for the cosmological parameters from the Planck analysis. In the latter case, the difference between the universal value and cluster baryon fractions is less than the systematic uncertainties associated with

  18. The fundamental plane of clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bindoni, D.; Cava, A.; Fasano, G.; Marziani, P.; Moles, M.; Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Varela, J.

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed the growth curves and the surface brightness light profiles of the clusters of the WINGS sample (Fasano et al. 2006) in the B and V bands, measuring the effective radii, the effective surface brightnesses and the total luminosities of our clusters. The similarly of the radial surface brightness profiles of early-type galaxies (ETGs) and clusters indicate that within r200 almost all clusters are virialized structures. The total luminosities L_B of clusters are found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity L_X, following approximately the same relation measured for galaxies by Eskridge et al. (1995). By coupling the photometric data with the central velocity dispersions, derived from the radial velocities of the galaxies measured by Cava et al. (2009), we were able to fit the fundamental plane (FP) of clusters of galaxies. We find that it has approximately the same slope of the FPs of early-type galaxies (ETGs) and globular clusters (GCs), but differs from them in the zero-point. This behavior can be easily explained in terms of a different contribution of dark matter (DM).

  19. The Dynamical Equilibrium of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Ellingson, E.; Morris, S. L.; Abraham, R.; Gravel, P.; Pritchet, C. J.; Smecker-Hane, T.; Hartwick, F. D. A.; Hesser, J. E.; Hutchings, J. B.; Oke, J. B.

    1997-02-01

    If a galaxy cluster is effectively in dynamical equilibrium, then all galaxy populations within the cluster must have distributions in velocity and position that individually reflect the same underlying mass distribution, although the derived virial masses can be quite different. Specifically, within the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology cluster sample, the virial radius of the red galaxy population is, on the average, a factor of 2.05 +/- 0.34 smaller than that of the blue population. The red galaxies also have a smaller rms velocity dispersion, a factor of 1.31 +/- 0.13 within our sample. Consequently, the virial mass calculated from the blue galaxies is 3.5 +/- 1.3 times larger than from the red galaxies. However, applying the Jeans equation of stellar hydrodynamic equilibrium to the red and blue subsamples separately gives statistically identical cluster mass profiles. This is strong evidence that these clusters are effectively equilibrium systems and therefore demonstrates empirically that the masses in the virialized region are reliably estimated using dynamical techniques.

  20. How robust are predictions of galaxy clustering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, S.; Baugh, C. M.; Norberg, P.; Padilla, N.

    2013-07-01

    We use the Millennium Simulation data base to compare how different versions of the Durham and Munich semi-analytical galaxy formation models populate dark matter haloes with galaxies. The models follow the same physical processes but differ in how these are implemented. All of the models we consider use the Millennium N-body Simulation; however, the Durham and Munich groups use independent algorithms to construct halo merger histories from the simulation output. We compare the predicted halo occupation distributions (HODs) and correlation functions for galaxy samples defined by stellar mass, cold gas mass and star formation rate. The model predictions for the HOD are remarkably similar for samples ranked by stellar mass. The predicted bias averaged over pair separations in the range 5-25 h-1 Mpc is consistent between models to within 10 per cent. At small pair separations there is a clear difference in the predicted clustering. This arises because the Durham models allow some satellite galaxies to merge with the central galaxy in a halo when they are still associated with resolved dark matter subhaloes. The agreement between the models is less good for samples defined by cold gas mass or star formation rate, with the spread in predicted galaxy bias reaching 20 per cent and the small-scale clustering differing by an order of magnitude, reflecting the uncertainty in the modelling of star formation. The model predictions in these cases are nevertheless qualitatively similar, with a markedly shallower slope for the correlation function than is found for stellar mass selected samples and with the HOD displaying an asymmetric peak for central galaxies. We provide illustrative parametric fits to the HODs predicted by the models. Our results reveal the current limitations on how well we can predict galaxy bias in a fixed cosmology, which has implications for the interpretation of constraints on the physics of galaxy formation from galaxy clustering measurements and the

  1. Accretion and Feedback from Supermassive Black Holes in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yu; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Park, KwangHo

    2017-01-01

    A significant fraction of galaxy clusters, namely the cool-core clusters, exhibit a dip in their central temperature profiles, with radiative cooling times much shorter than the Hubble time. Unchecked, radiative cooling of this magnitude is expected to cause the accumulation of cold gas at the cluster center that leads to star formation rates 100-1000 times higher than those inferred by observations. This discrepancy suggests the existence of active heating mechanisms that counteract the overcooling in cluster centers. The dominant mechanism has now been widely recognized as the mechanical feedback from the radio-loud active galactic nuclei. However, recent observations find substantial amounts of cold gas in a number of cool-core clusters, as well as evidence that some clusters host quasars in their central dominant galaxies, raising concerns about the significance of radiative feedback in such systems. Motivated by these findings we use 3D radiation hydrodynamic simulations to explore the joint role of the radio- and quasar-mode feedback in the accretion and feedback cycle of supermassive black holes in cool-core clusters.

  2. A BRIGHT RING OF STAR BIRTH AROUND A GALAXY'S CORE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    n image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals clusters of infant stars that formed in a ring around the core of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 4314. This stellar nursery, whose inhabitants were created within the past 5 million years, is the only place in the entire galaxy where new stars are being born. The Hubble image is being presented today (June 11) at the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, Calif. This close-up view by Hubble also shows other interesting details in the galaxy's core: dust lanes, a smaller bar of stars, dust and gas embedded in the stellar ring, and an extra pair of spiral arms packed with young stars. These details make the center resemble a miniature version of a spiral galaxy. While it is not unusual to have dust lanes and rings of gas in the centers of galaxies, it is uncommon to have spiral arms full of young stars in the cores. NGC 4314 is one of the nearest (only 40 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices) examples of a galaxy with a ring of infant stars close to the core. This stellar ring - whose radius is 1,000 light-years - is a great laboratory to study star formation in galaxies. The left-hand image, taken in February 1996 by the 30-inch telescope Prime Focus Camera at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, shows the entire galaxy, including the bar of stars bisecting the core and the outer spiral arms, which begin near the ends of this bar. The box around the galaxy's core pinpoints the focus of the Hubble image. The right-hand image shows Hubble's close-up view of the galaxy's core, taken in December 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The bluish-purple clumps that form the ring are the clusters of infant stars. Two dark, wispy lanes of dust and a pair of blue spiral arms are just outside the star-forming ring. The lanes of dust are being shepherded into the ring by the longer, primary stellar bar seen in the ground-based (left-hand) image. The gas is trapped inside the ring

  3. A BRIGHT RING OF STAR BIRTH AROUND A GALAXY'S CORE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    n image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals clusters of infant stars that formed in a ring around the core of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 4314. This stellar nursery, whose inhabitants were created within the past 5 million years, is the only place in the entire galaxy where new stars are being born. The Hubble image is being presented today (June 11) at the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, Calif. This close-up view by Hubble also shows other interesting details in the galaxy's core: dust lanes, a smaller bar of stars, dust and gas embedded in the stellar ring, and an extra pair of spiral arms packed with young stars. These details make the center resemble a miniature version of a spiral galaxy. While it is not unusual to have dust lanes and rings of gas in the centers of galaxies, it is uncommon to have spiral arms full of young stars in the cores. NGC 4314 is one of the nearest (only 40 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices) examples of a galaxy with a ring of infant stars close to the core. This stellar ring - whose radius is 1,000 light-years - is a great laboratory to study star formation in galaxies. The left-hand image, taken in February 1996 by the 30-inch telescope Prime Focus Camera at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, shows the entire galaxy, including the bar of stars bisecting the core and the outer spiral arms, which begin near the ends of this bar. The box around the galaxy's core pinpoints the focus of the Hubble image. The right-hand image shows Hubble's close-up view of the galaxy's core, taken in December 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The bluish-purple clumps that form the ring are the clusters of infant stars. Two dark, wispy lanes of dust and a pair of blue spiral arms are just outside the star-forming ring. The lanes of dust are being shepherded into the ring by the longer, primary stellar bar seen in the ground-based (left-hand) image. The gas is trapped inside the ring

  4. Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, I; Churazov, E; Schekochihin, A A; Allen, S W; Arévalo, P; Fabian, A C; Forman, W R; Sanders, J S; Simionescu, A; Sunyaev, R; Vikhlinin, A; Werner, N

    2014-11-06

    The hot (10(7) to 10(8) kelvin), X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is the dominant baryonic constituent of clusters of galaxies. In the cores of many clusters, radiative energy losses from the ICM occur on timescales much shorter than the age of the system. Unchecked, this cooling would lead to massive accumulations of cold gas and vigorous star formation, in contradiction to observations. Various sources of energy capable of compensating for these cooling losses have been proposed, the most promising being heating by the supermassive black holes in the central galaxies, through inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma. Regardless of the original source of energy, the question of how this energy is transferred to the ICM remains open. Here we present a plausible solution to this question based on deep X-ray data and a new data analysis method that enable us to evaluate directly the ICM heating rate from the dissipation of turbulence. We find that turbulent heating is sufficient to offset radiative cooling and indeed appears to balance it locally at each radius-it may therefore be the key element in resolving the gas cooling problem in cluster cores and, more universally, in the atmospheres of X-ray-emitting, gas-rich systems on scales from galaxy clusters to groups and elliptical galaxies.

  5. Turbulent heating in galaxy clusters brightest in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Allen, S. W.; Arévalo, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.; Sanders, J. S.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2014-11-01

    The hot (107 to 108 kelvin), X-ray-emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is the dominant baryonic constituent of clusters of galaxies. In the cores of many clusters, radiative energy losses from the ICM occur on timescales much shorter than the age of the system. Unchecked, this cooling would lead to massive accumulations of cold gas and vigorous star formation, in contradiction to observations. Various sources of energy capable of compensating for these cooling losses have been proposed, the most promising being heating by the supermassive black holes in the central galaxies, through inflation of bubbles of relativistic plasma. Regardless of the original source of energy, the question of how this energy is transferred to the ICM remains open. Here we present a plausible solution to this question based on deep X-ray data and a new data analysis method that enable us to evaluate directly the ICM heating rate from the dissipation of turbulence. We find that turbulent heating is sufficient to offset radiative cooling and indeed appears to balance it locally at each radius--it may therefore be the key element in resolving the gas cooling problem in cluster cores and, more universally, in the atmospheres of X-ray-emitting, gas-rich systems on scales from galaxy clusters to groups and elliptical galaxies.

  6. On the distribution of dark matter in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, David J.

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this thesis is to provide constraints on the dark matter density profile in galaxy clusters by developing and combining different techniques. The work is motivated by the fact that a precise measurement of the logarithmic slope of the dark matter on small scales provides a powerful test of the Cold Dark Matter paradigm for structure formation, where numerical simulations suggest a density profile r DM 0( r -1 or steeper in the innermost regions. We have obtained deep spectroscopy of gravitational arcs and the dominant brightest cluster galaxy in six carefully chosen galaxy clusters. Three of the clusters have both radial and tangential gravitational arcs while the other three display only tangential arcs. We analyze the stellar velocity dispersion for the brightest cluster galaxies in conjunction with axially symmetric lens models to jointly constrain the dark and baryonic mass profiles jointly. For the radial are systems we find the inner dark matter density profile is consistent with r DM 0( r -b , with [left angle bracket]b[right angle bracket] = [Special characters omitted.] (68% CL). Likewise, an upper limit on b for the tangential arc sample is found to be b <0.57 (99% CL). We study a variety of possible systematic uncertainties, including the consequences of our one- dimensional mass model, fixed dark matter scale radius, and simple velocity dispersion analysis, and conclude that at most these systematics each contribute a Db ~ 0.2 systematic into our final conclusions. These results suggest the relationship between dark and baryonic matter in cluster cores is more complex than anticipated from dark matter only simulations. Recognizing the power of our technique, we have performed a systematic search of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 data archive for further examples of systems containing tangential and radial gravitational arcs. We carefully examined 128 galaxy cluster cores and found 104 tangential arcs and 12

  7. A Snapshot Survey of The Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2007-07-01

    We propose the continuation of our highly successful SNAPshot survey of a sample of 125 very X-ray luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.3-0.7. As demonstrated by the 25 snapshots obtained so far in Cycle14 and Cycle15 these systems frequently exhibit strong gravitational lensing as well as spectacular examples of violent galaxy interactions. The proposed observations will provide important constraints on the cluster mass distributions, the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and a set of optically bright, lensed galaxies for further 8-10m spectroscopy. All of our primary science goals require only the detection and characterisation of high-surface-brightness features and are thus achievable even at the reduced sensitivity of WFPC2. Because of their high redshift and thus compact angular scale our target clusters are less adversely affected by the smaller field of view of WFPC2 than more nearby systems. Acknowledging the broad community interest in this sample we waive our data rights for these observations. Due to a clerical error at STScI our approved Cycle15 SNAP program was barred from execution for 3 months and only 6 observations have been performed to date - reinstating this SNAP at Cycle16 priority is of paramount importance to reach meaningful statistics.

  8. The baryon content of distant X-ray Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Joana

    In the framework of the current cosmological paradigm, cosmic evolution is mostly driven by gravity through the hierarchical growth of cold dark matter structures. However, the evolution of the directly observed luminous component involves complex non-gravitational processes such as cooling, star formation and feedback mechanisms involving the conventional matter well known to us, termed shortly as baryons. Clusters of galaxies are the largest virialized systems in the Universe, hence are ideal laboratories to study the evolution of baryons. The baryon content of clusters accounts for roughly 15% of their total mass, encompassing a "cold phase" in the form of luminous galaxy masses, and a "hot phase" corresponding to the X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM). The thermodynamics of baryons is affected by non-trivial phenomena and the interplay of the intricate processes between these two phases remains, to a large extent, unclear. In this thesis I investigate the properties of both the ICM and the underlying galaxy populations in X-ray selected distant clusters, with the aim of constraining physical processes governing the evolution of clusters and their galaxies. The inner regions of local clusters often exhibit radiative cooling, termed cool cores (CC). I have made an important step in investigating the abundance of cool cores in the distant cluster population, by devising efficient methods to characterize local CCs, that were applied to the highest redshift cluster sample currently available (0.7 < z < 1.4) from the Chandra archive. The fraction of CCs seems to decrease with redshift, since I find that the majority of the distant clusters are in an intermediate state of cooling. High-z (z ˜ >1) clusters are hard to find. The XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project (XDCP) is a survey aimed to construct a complete sample of z ˜-1 clusters from the XMM-Newton archive. Within this scope a large effort has been done to confirm potential distant cluster candidates by

  9. Tidal Stripping of Globular Clusters in a Simulated Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, F.; Coenda, V.; Muriel, H.; Abadi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Using a cosmological N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a galaxy-cluster-sized halo, we analyze the temporal evolution of its globular cluster population. We follow the dynamical evolution of 38 galactic dark matter halos orbiting in a galaxy cluster that at redshift z = 0 has a virial mass of 1.71 × 1014 M⊙ h-1. In order to mimic both “blue” and “red” populations of globular clusters, for each galactic halo we select two different sets of particles at high redshift (z ≈ 1), constrained by the condition that, at redshift z = 0, their average radial density profiles are similar to the observed profiles. As expected, the general galaxy cluster tidal field removes a significant fraction of the globular cluster populations to feed the intracluster population. On average, halos lost approximately 16% and 29% of their initial red and blue globular cluster populations, respectively. Our results suggest that these fractions strongly depend on the orbital trajectory of the galactic halo, specifically on the number of orbits and on the minimum pericentric distance to the galaxy cluster center that the halo has had. At a given time, these fractions also depend on the current clustercentric distance, just as observations show that the specific frequency of globular clusters SN depends on their clustercentric distance.

  10. TIDAL STRIPPING OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN A SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, F.; Coenda, V.; Muriel, H.; Abadi, M.

    2015-06-20

    Using a cosmological N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a galaxy-cluster-sized halo, we analyze the temporal evolution of its globular cluster population. We follow the dynamical evolution of 38 galactic dark matter halos orbiting in a galaxy cluster that at redshift z = 0 has a virial mass of 1.71 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} h{sup −1}. In order to mimic both “blue” and “red” populations of globular clusters, for each galactic halo we select two different sets of particles at high redshift (z ≈ 1), constrained by the condition that, at redshift z = 0, their average radial density profiles are similar to the observed profiles. As expected, the general galaxy cluster tidal field removes a significant fraction of the globular cluster populations to feed the intracluster population. On average, halos lost approximately 16% and 29% of their initial red and blue globular cluster populations, respectively. Our results suggest that these fractions strongly depend on the orbital trajectory of the galactic halo, specifically on the number of orbits and on the minimum pericentric distance to the galaxy cluster center that the halo has had. At a given time, these fractions also depend on the current clustercentric distance, just as observations show that the specific frequency of globular clusters S{sub N} depends on their clustercentric distance.

  11. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Behind Lensing Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Lauchlan Cowie, Lennox; Barger, Amy J.; Desai, Vandana; Murphy, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Faint submillimeter galaxies are the major contributors to the submillimeter extragalactic background light and hence the dominant star-forming population in the dusty universe. Determining how much these galaxies overlap the optically selected samples is critical to fully account for the cosmic star formation history. Observations of massive cluster fields are the best way to explore this faint submillimeter population, thanks to gravitational lensing effects. We have been undertaking a lensing cluster survey with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map nine galaxy clusters, including the northern five clusters in the HST Frontier Fields program. We have also been using the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array to determine the accurate positions of our detected sources. Our observations have discovered high-redshift dusty galaxies with far-infrared luminosities similar to that of the Milky Way or luminous infrared galaxies. Some of these galaxies are still undetected in deep optical and near-infrared images. These results suggest that a substantial amount of star formation in even the faint submillimeter population may be hidden from rest-frame optical surveys.

  12. THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES OF THE FIRST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Stiavelli, Massimo; Trenti, Michele

    2010-06-20

    We study the clustering properties of the first galaxies formed in the universe. We find that, due to chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium by isolated Population III stars formed in mini-halos at redshift z {approx_gt} 30, the (chronologically) first galaxies are composed of metal-poor Population II stars and are highly clustered on small scales. In contrast, chemically pristine galaxies in halos with mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} may form at z < 20 in relatively underdense regions of the universe. This occurs once self-enrichment by Population III in mini-halos is quenched by the buildup of an H{sub 2} photodissociating radiative background in the Lyman-Werner bands. We find that these chemically pristine galaxies are spatially uncorrelated. Thus, we expect that deep fields with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) may detect clusters of chemically enriched galaxies but individual chemically pristine objects. We predict that metal-free galaxies at 10 {approx}< z {approx}< 15 have surface densities of about 80 arcmin{sup -2} and per unit redshift but most of them will be too faint even for JWST. However, the predicted density makes these objects interesting targets for searches behind lensing clusters.

  13. Separating galaxies from the cluster dark matter halo in Abell 611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Geller, M. J.; Zitrin, A.; Mercurio, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Postman, M.; Fabricant, D. G.; Hwang, H. S.; Koekemoer, A.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the mass content of galaxies in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 611. We perform a strong lensing analysis of the cluster core and use velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members as additional constraints. Despite the small number of multiply-imaged systems and cluster members with central velocity dispersions available in the core of A611, the addition of velocity dispersion measurements leads to tighter constraints on the mass associated with the galaxy component, and as a result, on the mass associated with the dark matter halo. Without the spectroscopic velocity dispersions, we would overestimate the mass of the galaxy component by a factor of ∼1.5, or, equivalently, we would underestimate the mass of the cluster dark halo by ∼5 per cent. We perform an additional lensing analysis using surface brightness (SB) reconstruction of the tangential giant arc. This approach improves the constraints on the mass parameters of the five galaxies close to the arc by a factor up to ∼10. The resulting parameters are in good agreement with the σ-rtr scaling relation derived in the pointlike analysis. The galaxy velocity dispersions resulting from the SB analysis are consistent at the 1σ confidence level with the spectroscopic measurements. In contrast, the truncation radii for 2-3 galaxies depart significantly from the galaxy scaling relation and suggest differences in the stripping history from galaxy to galaxy.

  14. The Evolving Shape of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Dennis W.; Yee, H. K. C.; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Gilbank, David G.; Gladders, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We present the first measurement of the evolution of the apparent projected shape of galaxy clusters from 0.2<~ z<~2. We measure the ellipticities (ɛcl) of homogeneously selected galaxy clusters over this wide redshift range. We confirm the predictions of N-body simulations that clusters are more elongated at higher redshift, finding the mean projected ellipticity changes linearly from 0.36+/-0.01 to 0.25+/-0.01 over that range. The fraction of relaxed clusters (defined as having ɛ cl <0.2) is 9+5-3% at z~1.8, steadily increasing to 42+7-6% by z~0.3. Because more spherical clusters have a higher degree of virialization, our result shows significant evolution in the degree of cluster virialization over cosmic time.

  15. Properties of the galaxy population in hydrodynamical simulations of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saro, A.; Borgani, S.; Tornatore, L.; Dolag, K.; Murante, G.; Biviano, A.; Calura, F.; Charlot, S.

    2006-11-01

    We present a study of the galaxy population predicted by hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters. These simulations, which are based on the GADGET-2 TREE + SPH code, include gas cooling, star formation, a detailed treatment of stellar evolution and chemical enrichment, as well as supernova energy feedback in the form of galactic winds. As such, they can be used to extract the spectrophotometric properties of the simulated galaxies, which are identified as clumps in the distribution of star particles. Simulations have been carried out for a representative set of 19 cluster-sized haloes, having mass M200 in the range 5 × 1013-1.8 × 1015h-1Msolar. All simulations have been performed for two choices of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), namely using a standard Salpeter IMF with power-law index x = 1.35, and a top-heavy IMF with x = 0.95. In general, we find that several of the observational properties of the galaxy population in nearby clusters are reproduced fairly well by simulations. A Salpeter IMF is successful in accounting for the slope and the normalization of the colour-magnitude relation for the bulk of the galaxy population. In contrast, the top-heavy IMF produces too red galaxies, as a consequence of their exceedingly large metallicity. Simulated clusters have a relation between mass and optical luminosity, which generally agrees with observations, both in normalization and in slope. Also in keeping with observational results, galaxies are generally bluer, younger and more star forming in the cluster outskirts. However, we find that our simulated clusters have a total number of galaxies which is significantly smaller than the observed one, falling short by about a factor of 2-3. We have verified that this problem does not have an obvious numerical origin, such as lack of mass and force resolution. Finally, the brightest cluster galaxies are always predicted to be too massive and too blue, when compared to observations. This is due to gas

  16. Galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing: a promising union to constrain cosmological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciato, Marcello; van den Bosch, Frank C.; More, Surhud; Li, Ran; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu

    2009-04-01

    Galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing probe the connection between galaxies and their dark matter haloes in complementary ways. Since the clustering of dark matter haloes depends on cosmology, the halo occupation statistics inferred from the observed clustering properties of galaxies are degenerate with the adopted cosmology. Consequently, different cosmologies imply different mass-to-light ratios for dark matter haloes. Galaxy-galaxy lensing, which yields direct constraints on the actual mass-to-light ratios, can therefore be used to break this degeneracy, and thus to constrain cosmological parameters. In this paper, we establish the link between galaxy luminosity and dark matter halo mass using the conditional luminosity function (CLF), Φ(L|M)dL, which gives the number of galaxies with luminosities in the range L +/- dL/2 that reside in a halo of mass M. We constrain the CLF parameters using the galaxy luminosity function and the luminosity dependence of the correlation lengths of galaxies. The resulting CLF models are used to predict the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal. For a cosmology that agrees with constraints from the cosmic microwave background, i.e. (Ωm,σ8) = (0.238,0.734), the model accurately fits the galaxy-galaxy lensing data obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For a comparison cosmology with (Ωm,σ8) = (0.3,0.9), however, we can accurately fit the luminosity function and clustering properties of the galaxy population, but the model predicts mass-to-light ratios that are too high, resulting in a strong overprediction of the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal. We conclude that the combination of galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the galaxy-dark matter connection, with the potential to yield tight constraints on cosmological parameters. Since this method mainly probes the mass distribution on relatively small (non-linear) scales, it is complementary to constraints obtained from the galaxy power spectrum, which

  17. Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Bernard

    For a long time, the small number of clusters at z > 0.3 in the Abell survey catalogue and simulations of the standard CDM formation of large scale structures provided a paradigm where clusters were considered as young merging structures. At earlier times, loose concentrations of galaxy clumps were mostly anticipated. Recent observations broke the taboo. Progressively we became convinced that compact and massive clusters at z = 1 or possibly beyond exist and should be searched for.

  18. ROSAT observations of Coma Cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, K. L.; White, S. D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The approximately 86 ks ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) image of the Coma Cluster is deeper than any previous X-ray observation of a galaxy cluster. We search for X-ray emission from 35 individual galaxies in a magnitude-limited sample, all of which lie within 20 arcmins of the optical axis in at least one of the four Coma pointings. We detect seven galaxies in the 0.4-2.4 keV band at a significance level exceeding 3 sigma, and a further four at above 2 sigma. Although we can set only upper limits on the individual flux from each of the other galaxies, we are able to measure their mean flux by stacking the observations. The X-ray luminosities of the seven detections range from 6.2 x 10(exp 40) to 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs/s (0.4-2.4 keV for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc). For galaxies with a blue absolute magnitude of about -21 we find a mean X-ray luminosity of 1.3 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosity is substantially smaller for such subjects than for the brightest galaxies in the cluster. The X-ray luminosities of the four brightest galaxies are ill-defined, however, because of ambiguity in distinguishing galaxy emission from cluster emission. Each object appears to be related to significant structure in the diffuse intracluster medium. We also investigate emission in the softer 0.2-0.4 keV band where detections are less significant because of the higher background, and we discuss the properties of a number of interesting individual sources. The X-ray luminosities of the Coma galaxies are similar to those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster and in other regions with relatively low galaxy density. We conclude that large-scale environmental effects do not significantly enhance or suppress the average X-ray emission from galaxies, but that individual objects vary in luminosity substantially in a way which may depend on the detailed history of their environment.

  19. ROSAT observations of Coma Cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, K. L.; White, S. D. M.

    1995-01-01

    The approximately 86 ks ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) image of the Coma Cluster is deeper than any previous X-ray observation of a galaxy cluster. We search for X-ray emission from 35 individual galaxies in a magnitude-limited sample, all of which lie within 20 arcmins of the optical axis in at least one of the four Coma pointings. We detect seven galaxies in the 0.4-2.4 keV band at a significance level exceeding 3 sigma, and a further four at above 2 sigma. Although we can set only upper limits on the individual flux from each of the other galaxies, we are able to measure their mean flux by stacking the observations. The X-ray luminosities of the seven detections range from 6.2 x 10(exp 40) to 1.5 x 10(exp 42) ergs/s (0.4-2.4 keV for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc). For galaxies with a blue absolute magnitude of about -21 we find a mean X-ray luminosity of 1.3 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosity is substantially smaller for such subjects than for the brightest galaxies in the cluster. The X-ray luminosities of the four brightest galaxies are ill-defined, however, because of ambiguity in distinguishing galaxy emission from cluster emission. Each object appears to be related to significant structure in the diffuse intracluster medium. We also investigate emission in the softer 0.2-0.4 keV band where detections are less significant because of the higher background, and we discuss the properties of a number of interesting individual sources. The X-ray luminosities of the Coma galaxies are similar to those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster and in other regions with relatively low galaxy density. We conclude that large-scale environmental effects do not significantly enhance or suppress the average X-ray emission from galaxies, but that individual objects vary in luminosity substantially in a way which may depend on the detailed history of their environment.

  20. Quenching star formation in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranu, Dan S.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Smith, Russell J.; Power, Chris; Oman, Kyle A.; Krane, Brad

    2014-05-01

    In order to understand the processes that quench star formation in cluster galaxies, we construct a library of subhalo orbits drawn from Λ cold dark matter cosmological N-body simulations of four rich clusters. We combine these orbits with models of star formation followed by environmental quenching, comparing model predictions with observed bulge and disc colours and stellar absorption line-strength indices of luminous cluster galaxies. Models in which the bulge stellar populations depend only on the galaxy subhalo mass while the disc is quenched upon infall are acceptable fits to the data. An exponential disc quenching time-scale of 3-3.5 Gyr is preferred. Quenching in lower mass groups prior to infall (`pre-processing') provides better fits, with similar quenching time-scales. Models with short (≲1 Gyr) quenching time-scales yield excessively steep cluster-centric gradients in disc colours and Balmer line indices, even if quenching is delayed for several Gyr. The data slightly prefer models where quenching occurs only for galaxies falling within ˜0.5r200. These results imply that the environments of rich clusters must impact star formation rates of infalling galaxies on relatively long time-scales, indicative of gentler quenching mechanisms such as slow `strangulation' over more rapid ram-pressure stripping.

  1. Hot X-ray gas in galaxies, groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming

    I investigate several aspects of X-ray gas in galaxies, groups and clusters, all related to the fundamental problems of radiative cooling and AGN feedback. A sample of 14 relaxed clusters and groups are studied, with an emphasis on their temperature and entropy profiles. Three clusters with isothermal temperature distributions are discovered which also have isentropic gas cores and weaker central radio activity than other cooling core clusters. This suggests a connection between gas cooling and feedback from supermassive black holes. A comparison of entropy profiles shows that within 0.1 virial radii, group entropy profiles are flatter than those of hot clusters and those predicted from simulations involving only gravity. From 0.1 to 0.35 virial radius, the slope of the cluster entropy profiles is consistent with simulations. Interesting systems (e.g., a hot but X-ray faint group and an isothermal group with a very high gas density core) in the sample are also discussed. I also present work on the X-ray coronae of galaxies in rich clusters, including detailed studies of coronae in A1367 and a small corona in NGC 1265. Cool X-ray coronae of early-type galaxies (0.5-1 keV), pressure confined in hot (>3 keV) clusters, are found to be common, although their properties have been significantly modified by the ICM environment. Despite the effects of gas stripping, ICM evaporation and AGN outbursts of the central SMBH, the survival of these small and vulnerable coronae puts interesting constraints on the physics of the interactions of the coronae. For example, transport processes (e.g., heat conduction) must be strongly suppressed, presumably by magnetic fields and the coronae must avoid disruption by energy output from the central AGN.

  2. Scalar field dark matter in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Tula; Robles, Victor H.; Matos, Tonatiuh

    2017-07-01

    One alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm is the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model, which assumes dark matter is a spin-0 ultra-light scalar field (SF) with a typical mass m ˜ 10-22 eV/c2 and positive self-interactions. Due to the ultra-light boson mass, the SFDM could form Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the very early Universe, which are interpreted as the dark matter haloes. Although cosmologically the model behaves as CDM, they differ at small scales: SFDM naturally predicts fewer satellite haloes, cores in dwarf galaxies and the formation of massive galaxies at high redshifts. The ground state (or BEC) solution at zero temperature suffices to describe low-mass galaxies but fails for larger systems. A possible solution is adding finite-temperature corrections to the SF potential which allows combinations of excited states. In this work, we test the finite-temperature multistate SFDM solution at galaxy cluster scales and compare our results with the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and BEC profiles. We achieve this by fitting the mass distribution of 13 Chandra X-ray clusters of galaxies, excluding the region of the brightest cluster galaxy. We show that the SFDM model accurately describes the clusters' DM mass distributions offering an equivalent or better agreement than the NFW profile. The complete disagreement of the BEC model with the data is also shown. We conclude that the theoretically motivated multistate SFDM profile is an interesting alternative to empirical profiles and ad hoc fitting-functions that attempt to couple the asymptotic NFW decline with the inner core in SFDM.

  3. HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  4. HUBBLE SPIES GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN NEIGHBORING GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. G1, also known as Mayall II, orbits the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the nearest major spiral galaxy to our Milky Way. Located 130,000 light-years from Andromeda's nucleus, G1 is the brightest globular cluster in the Local Group of galaxies. The Local Group consists of about 20 nearby galaxies, including the Milky Way. The crisp image is comparable to ground-based telescope views of similar clusters orbiting the Milky Way. The Andromeda cluster, however, is nearly 100 times farther away. A glimpse into the cluster's finer details allow astronomers to see its fainter helium-burning stars whose temperatures and brightnesses show that this cluster in Andromeda and the oldest Milky Way clusters have approximately the same age. These clusters probably were formed shortly after the beginning of the universe, providing astronomers with a record of the earliest era of galaxy formation. During the next two years, astronomers will use Hubble to study about 20 more globular clusters in Andromeda. The color picture was assembled from separate images taken in visible and near-infrared wavelengths taken in July of 1994. CREDIT: Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, and James D. Neill (Columbia University), and Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Observatories), and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  5. Recent Galaxy Mergers and Residual Star Formation of Red Sequence Galaxies in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Ree, Chang H.; Jaffé, Yara; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet (UV) properties of optical red sequence galaxies in four rich Abell clusters at z≤slant 0.1. In particular, we tried to find a hint of merger-induced recent star formation (RSF) in red sequence galaxies. Using the NUV - r\\prime colors of the galaxies, RSF fractions were derived based on various criteria for post-merger galaxies and normal galaxies. Following k-correction, about 36% of the post-merger galaxies were classified as RSF galaxies with a conservative criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5), and that number was doubled (˜72%) when using a generous criterion (NUV - r\\prime ≤slant 5.4). The trend was the same when we restricted the sample to galaxies within 0.5 × R 200. Post-merger galaxies with strong UV emission showed more violent, asymmetric features in the deep optical images. The RSF fractions did not show any trend along the clustocentric distance within R 200. We performed a Dressler-Shectman test to check whether the RSF galaxies had any correlation with the substructures in the galaxy clusters. Within R 200 of each cluster, the RSF galaxies did not appear to be preferentially related to the clusters’ substructures. Our results suggested that only 30% of RSF red sequence galaxies show morphological hints of recent galaxy mergers. This implies that internal processes (e.g., stellar mass loss or hot gas cooling) for the supply of cold gas to early-type galaxies may play a significant role in the residual star formation of early-type galaxies at a recent epoch.

  6. Morphology of galaxies in the WINGS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, G.; Vanzella, E.; Dressler, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moles, M.; Bettoni, D.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Moretti, A.; D'Onofrio, M.; Varela, J.; Couch, W. J.; Kjærgaard, P.; Fritz, J.; Omizzolo, A.; Cava, A.

    2012-02-01

    We present the morphological catalogue of galaxies in nearby clusters of the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-clusters Survey (WINGS). The catalogue contains a total number of 39 923 galaxies, for which we provide the automated estimates of the morphological type, applying the purposely devised tool MORPHOT to the V-band WINGS imaging. For ˜3000 galaxies we also provide visual estimates of the morphological type. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to the description of the MORPHOT tool, whose application is limited, at least for the moment, to the WINGS imaging only. The approach of the tool to the automation of morphological classification is a non-parametric and fully empirical one. In particular, MORPHOT exploits 21 morphological diagnostics, directly and easily computable from the galaxy image, to provide two independent classifications: one based on a maximum likelihood (ML), semi-analytical technique and the other one on a neural network (NN) machine. A suitably selected sample of ˜1000 visually classified WINGS galaxies is used to calibrate the diagnostics for the ML estimator and as a training set in the NN machine. The final morphological estimator combines the two techniques and proves to be effective both when applied to an additional test sample of ˜1000 visually classified WINGS galaxies and when compared with small samples of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies visually classified by Fukugita et al. and Nair et al. Finally, besides the galaxy morphology distribution (corrected for field contamination) in the WINGS clusters, we present the ellipticity (ɛ), colour (B-V) and Sersic index (n) distributions for different morphological types, as well as the morphological fractions as a function of the clustercentric distance (in units of R200).

  7. Three-point correlations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, Gabor; Hollosi, Joseph; Szalay, Alexander S.

    1989-01-01

    A relation between two- and three-point correlation functions similar to that of galaxies is presently established by estimating the irreducible angular three-point correlation function of Abell clusters in distance classes 5 and 6, for Galactic latitudes below 40 deg. The shape of the three-point correlation function is fully consistent with the quadratic scaling law found by Groth and Peebles (1977) for galaxies. The three-point correlation function is inconsistent with the expectations from biasing.

  8. CORE SHAPES AND ORIENTATIONS OF CORE-SÉRSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Graham, Alister W.

    2015-01-01

    The inner and outer shapes and orientations of core-Sérsic galaxies may hold important clues to their formation and evolution. We have therefore measured the central and outer ellipticities and position angles for a sample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and data. By selecting galaxies with core-Sérsic break radii R{sub b} —a measure of the size of their partially depleted core—that are ≳ 0.''2, we find that the ellipticities and position angles are quite robust against HST seeing. For the bulk of the galaxies, there is a good agreement between the ellipticities and position angles at the break radii and the average outer ellipticities and position angles determined over R {sub e}/2 < R < R {sub e}, where R {sub e} is the spheroids' effective half light radius. However there are some interesting differences. We find a median ''inner'' ellipticity at R{sub b} of ε{sub med} = 0.13 ± 0.01, rounder than the median ellipticity of the ''outer'' regions ε{sub med} = 0.20 ± 0.01, which is thought to reflect the influence of the central supermassive black hole at small radii. In addition, for the first time we find a trend, albeit weak (2σ significance), such that galaxies with larger (stellar deficit-to-supermassive black hole) mass ratios—thought to be a measure of the number of major dry merger events—tend to have rounder inner and outer isophotes, suggesting a connection between the galaxy shapes and their merger histories. We show that this finding is not simply reflecting the well known result that more luminous galaxies are rounder, but it is no doubt related.

  9. Core Shapes and Orientations of Core-Sérsic Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Graham, Alister W.

    2015-01-01

    The inner and outer shapes and orientations of core-Sérsic galaxies may hold important clues to their formation and evolution. We have therefore measured the central and outer ellipticities and position angles for a sample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and data. By selecting galaxies with core-Sérsic break radii Rb —a measure of the size of their partially depleted core—that are >~ 0.''2, we find that the ellipticities and position angles are quite robust against HST seeing. For the bulk of the galaxies, there is a good agreement between the ellipticities and position angles at the break radii and the average outer ellipticities and position angles determined over R e/2 < R < R e, where R e is the spheroids' effective half light radius. However there are some interesting differences. We find a median "inner" ellipticity at Rb of epsilonmed = 0.13 ± 0.01, rounder than the median ellipticity of the "outer" regions epsilonmed = 0.20 ± 0.01, which is thought to reflect the influence of the central supermassive black hole at small radii. In addition, for the first time we find a trend, albeit weak (2σ significance), such that galaxies with larger (stellar deficit-to-supermassive black hole) mass ratios—thought to be a measure of the number of major dry merger events—tend to have rounder inner and outer isophotes, suggesting a connection between the galaxy shapes and their merger histories. We show that this finding is not simply reflecting the well known result that more luminous galaxies are rounder, but it is no doubt related.

  10. Gas and Galaxy Evolution: from Voids to Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the growth of large scale structure has advanced enormously over the last decade, thanks to an impressive synergy between theoretical and observational efforts. The formation and evolution of galaxies within these structures is less well understood and especially the details of the gas physics during accretion and outflow are still controversial. Hydrogen images can help distinguish between growth by mergers and accretion of gas, and between inflow and outflow. I will show results of HI imaging surveys of galaxies in the local universe in a wide range of environments, from the deepest underdensities of voidsto the cores of galaxy clusters confirming some of the general trends seen in simulations. Small galaxies in voids still seem to accrete gas, and galaxies in clusters are losing it fast. Until recently these HI imaging surveys could not go beyond 0.1. This has changeddramatically with the upgrade of the Very Large Array. I will present the very first results of CHILES, the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey, a 1000 hour JVLA survey for which the first observations started this fall. The survey will cover one pointing in the COSMOS field, and image in HI hundreds of galaxies from z=0 to z=0.45.

  11. Testing Cosmological Models with Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Schuecker, Peter

    2003-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are ideal probes for the large-scale structure of the Universe and for the tests of cosmological models. We use, REFLEX, the currently largest and best defined cluster X-ray survey to illustrate this application of galaxy cluster studies. Based on this survey of X-ray selected clusters of galaxies we determine statistical properties of the galaxy cluster population, their spatial correlation, and the density fluctuation power spectrum of the cosmic matter distribution on large scales up to about 1 Gpc. Comparing these results with predictions of cosmological models we obtain tight constrains for the matter density parameter of the Universe, consistent with the combined results from observations of the microwave background anisotropies and distant type Ia supernovae. The only difference between the present results and the ``concordance model'' is a low value for the σ8-normalization. Exploring the parameter space of the cosmic matter density and the equation of state parameter of dark energy most favoured by the combined observations of REFLEX clusters and distant type Ia supernovae we find that the conventional cosmological constant model is best consistent with the observational data.

  12. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  13. Stellar evolution in clusters and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of numerical models of stellar evolution to observations of star clusters provides useful information about such star systems. Computer models are constructed for stars with masses ranging from 0.5 to 30 Mass{sub sun} and metallicities from Z = 0.0001 to Z = 0.030. These stellar models are then used to construct isochrones and synthetic cluster diagrams of 5 open clusters (pleadies, M 11, IC 4756, NGC 1817 and Hyades). Models are also constructed for 4 globular clusters (47 Tuc, M 13, M 68 and M 15) and 4 nearby galaxies (LMC, Sculptor, Draco and SMC). Values obtained for the distance, interstellar reddening, metallicity, age and observational scatter for each cluster or galaxy are summarized in the results.

  14. Dust in Cluster Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, I.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Verstappen, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Boselli, A.; Clemens, M.; Corbelli, E.; Cortese, L.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J. I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Fadda, D.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanardi, C.; Grossi, M.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L. K.; Jones, A. P.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Sabatini, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vlahakis, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zibetti, S.

    Based on single cross-scan data of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we report the first detections of dust in cluster early-type dwarf galaxies: VCC 209, VCC 781 and VCC 951. All three galaxies have dust masses M d ≈ 105 - 106 M⊙ and average dust temperatures ≈ 16-20 K. Since these three early-type dwarfs reside in densely crowded regions close to the center of the Virgo cluster, and several H I-detected dwarfs in the outskirts of Virgo were not detected by Herschel(implying a dust content < 104 M⊙), this might imply that dust in dwarfs is more closely related to the molecular gas, which is more centrally peaked in a galaxy's potential well and therefore, not easily removed by any stripping mechanism. We conclude that the removal of interstellar dust from these early-type dwarfs appears to be less efficient than the removal of the H I gas.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Merging Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Loken, Chris; Burns, Jack O.

    1997-04-01

    We present results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of head-on mergers between two clusters of galaxies using a hybrid hydro/N-body code. In these simulations, the gaseous intracluster medium (ICM) is evolved as a massless fluid within a changing gravitational potential defined by the collisionless dark matter component. The ICM is represented by the equations of hydrodynamics which are solved by an Eulerian, finite-difference method. The cluster dark matter component is represented by the N-body particle distribution. A series of simulations have been conducted in which we have systematically varied the cluster-subcluster mass ratio between 8:1 and 1:1. We find that cluster-subcluster mergers result in an elongation of both the cluster dark matter and gas distributions. The dark matter distribution is elongated parallel to the merger axis and accompanied by anisotropy in the dark matter velocity dispersion. Both the elongation and corresponding velocity anisotropy are sustained for more than 5 Gyr after the merger. The elongation of the gas distribution is also generally along the merger axis, although shocks and adiabatic compressions produce elongations perpendicular to the merger axis at various times during the merger. We also find a significant offset between dark matter and gas centroids in the period following core passage. The gasdynamics is also severely affected by the cluster-subcluster merger. In these simulations, the subcluster enters the primary at supersonic speeds initiating bulk flows that can exceed 2000 km s-1. The width of the bulk flows are seen to range between several hundred kiloparsecs to nearly 1 Mpc. We believe the bulk flows can produce the bending of wide-angle tailed (WAT) radio sources. The most significant gasdynamics is seen to subside on timescales of 2 Gyr, although still significant dynamics is seen even after 5 Gyr. The merger-induced gasdynamics may also play a role in the formation of radio halo sources, and

  16. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Coupon, Jean; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.

    2017-02-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  17. Star Formation and Supercluster Environment of 107 nearby Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction (fSF) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h‑1 Mpc (D8). The slope of fSF versus D8 is ‑0.008 ± 0.002. The fSF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster fSF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher fSF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  18. A Global Model for Circumgalactic and Cluster-core Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, G. Mark; Meece, Greg; Li, Yuan; O'Shea, Brian W.; Bryan, Greg L.; Donahue, Megan

    2017-08-01

    We provide an analytic framework for interpreting observations of multiphase circumgalactic gas that is heavily informed by recent numerical simulations of thermal instability and precipitation in cool-core galaxy clusters. We start by considering the local conditions required for the formation of multiphase gas via two different modes: (1) uplift of ambient gas by galactic outflows, and (2) condensation in a stratified stationary medium in which thermal balance is explicitly maintained. Analytic exploration of these two modes provides insights into the relationships between the local ratio of the cooling and freefall timescales (i.e., {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}), the large-scale gradient of specific entropy, and the development of precipitation and multiphase media in circumgalactic gas. We then use these analytic findings to interpret recent simulations of circumgalactic gas in which global thermal balance is maintained. We show that long-lasting configurations of gas with 5≲ \\min ({t}{cool}/{t}{ff})≲ 20 and radial entropy profiles similar to observations of cool cores in galaxy clusters are a natural outcome of precipitation-regulated feedback. We conclude with some observational predictions that follow from these models. This work focuses primarily on precipitation and AGN feedback in galaxy-cluster cores, because that is where the observations of multiphase gas around galaxies are most complete. However, many of the physical principles that govern condensation in those environments apply to circumgalactic gas around galaxies of all masses.

  19. Magnetorotational instability in galaxy clusters: looking forward to ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, Lorenzo; Ettori, Stefano; Bianconi, Matteo

    2015-09-01

    Clusters of galaxies are embedded in halos of weakly magnetized plasma at the system's virial temperature. Though mainly pressure supported,such intracluster medium (ICM) might rotate significantly. Currentlyavailable measures of X-ray emission lines, X-ray isophote flatteningand hydrostatic mass bias leave ample room for rotational motions. If the ICM rotates significantly, its stability properties aresubstantially modified and, in particular, the magnetorotationalinstability (MRI) can play an important role. We present simplemodels of rotating cool-core clusters and we demonstrate that the MRIcan be the dominant instability over significant portions of theclusters, with possible implications for the dynamics of the coolcores. The direct measures of the ICM rotation that will be obtainedwith ATHENA will allow us to gauge the importance of the MRI for theevolution of galaxy clusters.

  20. Characterizing the Small Scale Structure in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    2001-01-01

    We studied galaxy clusters Abell 119, Abell 754, and Abell 1750, using data from the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. In addition, we completed the paper "Merging Binary Clusters". In this paper we study three prominent bi-modal X-ray clusters: A3528, A1750 and A3395. Since the sub-clusters in these systems have projected separations of 0.93, 1.00 and 0.67 Mpc respectively, we examine their X-ray and optical observations to investigate the dynamics and possible merging of these sub-clusters. Using data taken with ROSAT and ASCA, we analyze the temperature and surface brightness distributions. We also analyze the velocity distributions of the three clusters using new measurements supplemented with previously published data. We examined both the overall cluster properties as well as the two sub-cluster elements in each. These results were then applied to the determination of the overall cluster masses, that demonstrate excellent consistency between the various methods used. While the characteristic parameters of the sub-clusters are typical of isolated objects, our temperature results for the regions between the two sub-clusters clearly confirm the presence of merger activity that is suggested by the surface brightness distributions. These three clusters represent a progression of equal-sized sub-cluster mergers, starting from initial contact to immediately before first core passage.

  1. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  2. Globular cluster systems as clues to galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Ashman, Keith M.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the properties of systems of globular clusters in light of the hypothesis that galaxy mergers play a major role in galaxy evolution. In a previous paper, we presented a model in which the formation of globular clusters occurs during galaxy interactions and mergers. We discussed several predictions of the model, including the existence of young globular clusters in currently merging galaxies and the presence of two or more metallicity peaks in the globular clusters systems of normal elliptical galaxies. Here, we present recent observational evidence which supports both of these predictions and suggests that mergers may have a significant influence on the formation and evolution of galaxies and their globular clusters.

  3. Intracluster Light in Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our study on the origin and assembly history of the intracluster starlight (ICL) for a sample of 29 galaxy groups and clusters with 3x1013clusters show clear negative color gradients. Such negative colour (and equivalently, metallicity) gradients can arise from tidal stripping of L* galaxies and/or the disruption of dwarf galaxies, but not major mergers with the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We also find ICL luminosities of 3-9 L* in the range 10 < r < 110 kpc for these clusters. Dwarf disruption alone cannot explain the total luminosity of the ICL and remain consistent with the observed evolution in the faint-end slope of the luminosity function. The results of our study are suggestive of a formation history in which the ICL is built-up by a combination of stripping of L* galaxies and/or dwarf disruption and disfavor significant contribution by major mergers with the BCG.This sample of groups and clusters is the largest with HST/WFC3 data for ICL analysis that spans two orders of magnitude in halo mass at redshifts >0.3. Because of this we can investigate how the ICL color profile changes as a function of cluster mass for the first time, as well as expand previous studies of the changing fraction of cluster luminosity that is contained in the BCG+ICL as a function of halo mass. We present our preliminary results and describe our next steps using this sample to investigate the intracluster light in massive halos.

  4. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. III: Beyond Bimodality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, William E.; Ciccone, Stephanie M.; Eadie, Gwendolyn M.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry; Bailin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the rich globular cluster (GC) systems around the Brightest Cluster Galaxies UGC 9799 (Abell 2052) and UGC 10143 (Abell 2147), obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS and WFC3 cameras. For comparison, we also present new reductions of similar HST/ACS data for the Coma supergiants NGC 4874 and 4889. All four of these galaxies have huge cluster populations (to the radial limits of our data, comprising from 12,000 to 23,000 clusters per galaxy). The metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of the GCs can still be matched by a bimodal-Gaussian form where the metal-rich and metal-poor modes are separated by ≃ 0.8 dex, but the internal dispersions of each mode are so large that the total MDF becomes very broad and nearly continuous from [Fe/H] ≃ ‑2.4 to solar. There are, however, significant differences between galaxies in the relative numbers of metal-rich clusters, suggesting that they underwent significantly different histories of mergers with massive gas-rich halos. Last, the proportion of metal-poor GCs rises especially rapidly outside projected radii R≳ 4 {R}{eff}, suggesting the importance of accreted dwarf satellites in the outer halo. Comprehensive models for the formation of GCs as part of the hierarchical formation of their parent galaxies will be needed to trace the systematic change in structure of the MDF with galaxy mass, from the distinctly bimodal form in smaller galaxies up to the broad continuum that we see in the very largest systems.

  5. SPECTRAL IMAGING OF GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Rasia, E.

    2015-12-20

    The Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  6. Spectral Imaging of Galaxy Clusters with Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Rasia, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect is a promising tool for detecting the presence of hot gas out to the galaxy cluster peripheries. We developed a spectral imaging algorithm dedicated to the SZ observations of nearby galaxy clusters with Planck, with the aim of revealing gas density anisotropies related to the filamentary accretion of materials, or pressure discontinuities induced by the propagation of shock fronts. To optimize an unavoidable trade-off between angular resolution and precision of the SZ flux measurements, the algorithm performs a multi-scale analysis of the SZ maps as well as of other extended components, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and the Galactic thermal dust. The demixing of the SZ signal is tackled through kernel-weighted likelihood maximizations. The CMB anisotropies are further analyzed through a wavelet analysis, while the Galactic foregrounds and SZ maps are analyzed via a curvelet analysis that best preserves their anisotropic details. The algorithm performance has been tested against mock observations of galaxy clusters obtained by simulating the Planck High Frequency Instrument and by pointing at a few characteristic positions in the sky. These tests suggest that Planck should easily allow us to detect filaments in the cluster peripheries and detect large-scale shocks in colliding galaxy clusters that feature favorable geometry.

  7. Constraining the Mass of A Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemenenkoff, Nicholas; Rines, Kenneth J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate cluster masses are critical for understanding dark matter and for using clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. We use the observed surface number density profile and velocity dispersion profile of galaxies in the Coma cluster to constrain its mass profile via Jeans analysis. In particular, we evaluate the robustness of the mass estimate M_200 by using different parametric forms for the distribution of mass and galaxies as well as different models of the orbital anisotropy parameter β (r) . Allowing for variation between the scale radii of the mass profile and the galaxy profile (i.e. relaxing the assumption that galaxies trace mass) does not significantly change the estimate of M 200 . We use a Bayesian approach to construct probability distribution functions of M 200, scale radius, and beta via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. We apply this approach to ensemble clusters stacked by either their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals or X-ray luminosities to measure the scaling relations of dynamical mass estimates with these mass proxies. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the apparent deficit of SZ clusters (compared to predictions based on observations of the microwave background) can be explained by a bias of ˜ 60% in the normalization of the scaling relation between SZ signal and mass.

  8. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    First Visiting Astronomers to VLT ANTU Observe the Early Universe When the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (ANTU) was "handed over" to the scientists on April 1, 1999, the first "visiting astronomers" at Paranal were George Miley and Huub Rottgering from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands) [1]. They obtained unique pictures of a distant exploding galaxy known as 1138 - 262 . These images provide new information about how massive galaxies and clusters of galaxies may have formed in the early Universe. Formation of clusters of galaxies An intriguing question in modern astronomy is how the first galaxies and groupings or clusters of galaxies emerged from the primeval gas produced in the Big Bang. Some theories predict that giant galaxies, often found at the centres of rich galaxy clusters, are built up through a step-wise process. Clumps develop in this gas and stars condense out of those clumps to form small galaxies. Finally these small galaxies merge together to form larger units. An enigmatic class of objects important for investigating such scenarios are galaxies which emit intense radio emission from explosions that occur deep in their nuclei. The explosions are believed to be triggered when material from the merging swarm of smaller galaxies is fed into a rotating black hole located in the central regions. There is strong evidence that these distant radio galaxies are amongst the oldest and most massive galaxies in the early Universe and are often located at the heart of rich clusters of galaxies. They can therefore help pinpoint regions of the Universe in which large galaxies and clusters of galaxies are being formed. The radio galaxy 1138-262 The first visiting astronomers pointed ANTU towards a particularly important radio galaxy named 1138-262 . It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water Snake). This galaxy was discovered some years ago using ESO's 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla. Because 1138-262 is at a distance of

  9. Numerical experiments on the clustering of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Consistent and robust growth rates for disturbances which lead to galaxy clustering are obtainable with a precision of 1-2 percent, in numerical experiments that encompass such conditions as expansion, nonexpansion, and parameter variations. The experiments have given attention to the dominant physical processes of gravitational clustering in an expanding universe of conventional matter, and are based on n-body integrations for 100,000 particles responding self-consistently to forces of self-gravitation with periodic boundary conditions. Observed structures of the scale of galaxy clusters and superclusters are most easily described in terms of matter swept away from growing empty regions. The result of this process has a cellular appearance which resembles clustering of the scale of large voids and superclusters.

  10. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Søren S.

    2017-03-01

    Dwarf galaxies can have very high globular cluster specific frequencies, and the GCs are in general significantly more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars. In some dwarfs, such as Fornax, WLM, and IKN, the fraction of metal-poor stars that belong to GCs can be as high as 20%-25%, an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-2% typical of GCs in halos of larger galaxies. Given that chemical abundance anomalies appear to be present also in GCs in dwarf galaxies, this implies severe difficulties for self-enrichment scenarios that require GCs to have lost a large fraction of their initial masses. More generally, the number of metal-poor field stars in these galaxies is today less than what would originally have been present in the form of low-mass clusters if the initial cluster mass function was a power-law extending down to low masses. This may imply that the initial GC mass function in these dwarf galaxies was significantly more top-heavy than typically observed in present-day star forming environments.

  11. STAR CLUSTERS, GALAXIES, AND THE FUNDAMENTAL MANIFOLD

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H. E-mail: azabludoff@as.arizona.edu

    2011-02-01

    We explore whether global observed properties, specifically half-light radii, mean surface brightness, and integrated stellar kinematics, suffice to unambiguously differentiate galaxies from star clusters, which presumably formed differently and lack dark matter halos. We find that star clusters lie on the galaxy scaling relationship referred to as the fundamental manifold (FM), on the extension of a sequence of compact galaxies, and so conclude that there is no simple way to differentiate star clusters from ultracompact galaxies. By extending the validity of the FM over a larger range of parameter space and a wider set of objects, we demonstrate that the physics that constrains the resulting baryon and dark matter distributions in stellar systems is more general than previously appreciated. The generality of the FM implies (1) that the stellar spatial distribution and kinematics of one type of stellar system do not arise solely from a process particular to that set of systems, such as violent relaxation for elliptical galaxies, but are instead the result of an interplay of all processes responsible for the generic settling of baryons in gravitational potential wells, (2) that the physics of how baryons settle is independent of whether the system is embedded within a dark matter halo, and (3) that peculiar initial conditions at formation or stochastic events during evolution do not ultimately disturb the overall regularity of baryonic settling. We also utilize the relatively simple nature of star clusters to relate deviations from the FM to the age of the stellar population and find that stellar population models systematically and significantly overpredict the mass-to-light ratios of old, metal-rich clusters. We present an empirical calibration of stellar population mass-to-light ratios with age and color. Finally, we use the FM to estimate velocity dispersions for the low surface brightness, outer halo clusters that lack such measurements.

  12. OPTICAL COLORS OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Morrison, Heather L.; Feldmeier, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven

    2010-09-01

    We continue our deep optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster using the CWRU Burrell Schmidt telescope by presenting B-band surface photometry of the core of the Virgo cluster in order to study the cluster's intracluster light (ICL). We find ICL features down to {mu}{sub B} {approx}29 mag arcsec{sup -2}, confirming the results of Mihos et al., who saw a vast web of low surface brightness streams, arcs, plumes, and diffuse light in the Virgo cluster core using V-band imaging. By combining these two data sets, we are able to measure the optical colors of many of the cluster's low surface brightness features. While much of our imaging area is contaminated by galactic cirrus, the cluster core near the cD galaxy, M87, is unobscured. We trace the color profile of M87 out to over 2000'', and find a blueing trend with radius, continuing out to the largest radii. Moreover, we have measured the colors of several ICL features which extend beyond M87's outermost reaches and find that they have similar colors to the M87's halo itself, B - V {approx}0.8. The common colors of these features suggest that the extended outer envelopes of cD galaxies, such as M87, may be formed from similar streams, created by tidal interactions within the cluster, that have since dissolved into a smooth background in the cluster potential.

  13. Radio Selection of the Most Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daddi, E.; Jin, S.; Strazzullo, V.; Sargent, M. T.; Wang, T.; Ferrari, C.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Calabró, A.; Coogan, R.; Delhaize, J.; Delvecchio, I.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Gu, Q.; Liu, D.; Novak, M.; Valentino, F.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the most distant X-ray-detected cluster known to date, Cl J1001 at {z}{spec}=2.506, hosts a strong overdensity of radio sources. Six of them are individually detected (within 10\\prime\\prime ) in deep 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 75 resolution VLA 3 GHz imaging, with {S}3{GHz}> 8 μ {Jy}. Of the six, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) likely affects the radio emission in two galaxies, while star formation is the dominant source powering the remaining four. We searched for cluster candidates over the full COSMOS 2 deg2 field using radio-detected 3 GHz sources and looking for peaks in {{{Σ }}}5 density maps. Cl J1001 is the strongest overdensity by far with > 10σ , with a simple {z}{phot}> 1.5 preselection. A cruder photometric rejection of z< 1 radio foregrounds leaves Cl J1001 as the second strongest overdensity, while even using all radio sources Cl J1001 remains among the four strongest projected overdensities. We conclude that there are great prospects for future deep and wide-area radio surveys to discover large samples of the first generation of forming galaxy clusters. In these remarkable structures, widespread star formation and AGN activity of massive galaxy cluster members, residing within the inner cluster core, will ultimately lead to radio continuum as one of the most effective means for their identification, with detection rates expected in the ballpark of 0.1–1 per square degree at z≳ 2.5. Samples of hundreds such high-redshift clusters could potentially constrain cosmological parameters and test cluster and galaxy formation models.

  14. Interpreting the Clustering of Distant Red Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Zheng, Zheng; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2009-08-03

    We analyze the angular clustering of z {approx} 2.3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) measured by Quadri et al. (2008). We find that, with robust estimates of the measurement errors and realistic halo occupation distribution modeling, the measured clustering can be well fit within standard halo occupation models, in contrast to previous results. However, in order to fit the strong break in w({theta}) at {theta} = 10{double_prime}, nearly all satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range are required to be DRGs. Within this luminosity-threshold sample, the fraction of galaxies that are DRGs is {approx} 44%, implying that the formation of DRGs is more efficient for satellite galaxies than for central galaxies. Despite the evolved stellar populations contained within DRGs at z = 2.3, 90% of satellite galaxies in the DRG luminosity range have been accreted within 500 Myr. Thus, satellite DRGs must have known they would become satellites well before the time of their accretion. This implies that the formation of DRGs correlates with large-scale environment at fixed halo mass, although the large-scale bias of DRGs can be well fit without such assumptions. Further data are required to resolve this issue. Using the observational estimate that {approx} 30% of DRGs have no ongoing star formation, we infer a timescale for star formation quenching for satellite galaxies of 450 Myr, although the uncertainty on this number is large. However, unless all non-star forming satellite DRGs were quenched before accretion, the quenching timescale is significantly shorter than z {approx} 0 estimates. Down to the completeness limit of the Quadri et al sample, we find that the halo masses of central DRGs are {approx} 50% higher than non-DRGs in the same luminosity range, but at the highest halo masses the central galaxies are DRGs only {approx} 2/3 of the time.

  15. The Virgo Cluster of Galaxies in the Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Virgo cluster in his famous catalogue of nebulae. An image of the core of the cluster obtained with the Wide Field Imager camera at the ESO La Silla Observatory was published last year as PR Photo 04a/03. Clusters of galaxies are believed to have formed over a long period of time by the assembly of smaller entities, through the strong gravitational pull from dark and luminous matter. The Virgo cluster is considered to be a relatively young cluster because previous studies have revealed small "sub-clusters of galaxies" around the major galaxies Messier 87, Messier 86 and Messier 49. These sub-clusters have yet to merge to form a denser and smoother galaxy cluster. Recent observations have shown that the so-called "intracluster" space, the region between galaxies in a cluster, is permeated by a sparse "intracluster population of stars", which can be used to study in detail the structure of the cluster. Cosmic wanderers The first discoveries of intracluster stars in the Virgo cluster were made serendipitously by Italian astronomer, Magda Arnaboldi (Torino Observatory, Italy) and her colleagues, in 1996. In order to study the extended halos of galaxies in the Virgo cluster, with the ESO New Technology Telescope at La Silla, they searched for objects known as "planetary nebulae" [3]. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be detected out to large distances from their strong emission lines. These narrow emission lines also allow for a precise measure of their radial velocities. Planetary Nebulae can thus serve to investigate the motions of stars in the halo regions of distant galaxies. In their study, the astronomers found several planetary nebulae apparently not related to any galaxies but moving in the gravity field of the whole cluster. These "wanderers" belonged to a newly discovered intracluster population of stars. Since these first observations, several hundreds of these wanderers have been discovered. They must represent the tip of the iceberg of a huge population of stars

  16. Quenching of the star formation activity in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Roehlly, Y.; Fossati, M.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Burgarella, D.; Ciesla, L.; Gavazzi, G.; Serra, P.

    2016-11-01

    We study the star formation quenching mechanism in cluster galaxies by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Herschel Reference Survey, a complete volume-limited K-band-selected sample of nearby galaxies including objects in different density regions, from the core of the Virgo cluster to the general field. The SEDs of the target galaxies were fitted using the CIGALE SED modelling code. The truncated activity of cluster galaxies was parametrised using a specific star formation history with two free parameters, the quenching age QA and the quenching factor QF. These two parameters are crucial for the identification of the quenching mechanism, which acts on long timescales when starvation processes are at work, but is rapid and efficient when ram pressure occurs. To be sensitive to an abrupt and recent variation of the star formation activity, we combined twenty photometric bands in the UV to far-infrared in a new way with three age-sensitive Balmer line absorption indices extracted from available medium-resolution (R 1000) integrated spectroscopy and with Hα narrow-band imaging data. The use of a truncated star formation history significantly increases the quality of the fit in HI-deficient galaxies of the sample, that is to say, in those objects whose atomic gas content has been removed during the interaction with the hostile cluster environment. The typical quenching age of the perturbed late-type galaxies is QA ≲ 300 Myr whenever the activity of star formation is reduced by 50% < QF ≤ 80% and QA ≲ 500 Myr for QF > 80%, while that of the quiescent early-type objects is QA ≃ 1-3 Gyr. The fraction of late-type galaxies with a star formation activity reduced by QF > 80% and with an HI-deficiency parameter HI-def > 0.4 drops by a factor of 5 from the inner half virial radius of the Virgo cluster (R/Rvir < 0.5), where the hot diffuse X-ray emitting gas of the cluster is located, to the outer regions (R/Rvir > 4). The efficient quenching of the

  17. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    This thesis straddles two areas of cosmology, each of which are active, rich and plagued by controversy in their own right: merging clusters and the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution. While the greater context of this thesis is major cluster mergers, our individual subjects are galaxies, and we apply techniques traditionally used to study the differential evolution of galaxies with environment. The body of this thesis is drawn from two papers: Mansheim et al. 2016a and Mansheim et al. 2016b, one on each system. Both projects benefited from exquisite data sets assembled as part of the Merging Cluster Collaboration (MC2), and Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey, allowing us to scrutinize the evolutionary states of galaxy populations in multiple lights. Multi-band optical and near-infrared imaging was available for both systems, allowing us to calculate photometric redshifts for completeness corrections, colors (red vs. blue) and stellar masses to view the ensemble properties of the populations in and around each merger. High-resolution spectroscopy was also available for both systems, allowing us to confirm cluster members by measuring spectroscopic redshifts, which are unparalleled in accuracy, and gauge star formation rates and histories by measuring the strengths of certain spectral features. We had the luxury of HST imaging for Musket Ball, allowing us to use galaxy morphology as an additional diagnostic. For Cl J0910, 24 mum imaging allowed us to defeat a most pernicious source of uncertainty. Details on the acquisition and reduction of multi-wavelength data for each system are found within each respective chapter. It is important to note that the research presented in Chapter 3 is based on a letter which had significant space restrictions, so much of the observational details are outsourced to papers written by ORELSE collaboration members. Below is a free-standing summary of each project, drawn from the

  18. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. Super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, Mark

    2009-07-01

    M82 is the archetype starburst galaxy and the nearest {3.6 Mpc} analogue to the star-forming galaxies identified at high-z. No other galaxy affords the opportunity to study an active starburst at such high spatial resolution, and with such a wealth of complimentary data available in the literature. In our cycle 10 STIS programme, we carried out the first spectroscopic study of a cluster in the core of the M82 starburst. Intriguingly, we found this young {6.5 Myr} cluster to be surrounded by a compact {4.5 pc}, high-pressure HII region, whose evolution appears to have been significantly affected by the high ambient pressures found in this region of the starburst. We therefore propose to obtain spatially resolved STIS spectroscopy of a sample of star clusters within the starburst core, distributed over a range of ambient conditions. Together with measuring accurate ages, masses, sizes, and extinctions of the star clusters, we will also measure the properties of their immediate environments {gas dynamics, pressures/densities, excitations}. Only with the spatial resolution of STIS can we isolate individual clusters in the crowded starburst core of M82, where the background is also bright and highly variable.The data from this proposal will uniquely chart relationships between SSCs and the ISM in their immediate vicinities. By so doing, they will provide the first systematic measurements of how SSCs transmit their power to their surroundings, and ultimately to the starburst-powered galactic wind.

  20. Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters: exploring the thermodynamics of the hot intra-cluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planelles, S.

    2015-05-01

    Modern cosmological simulations represent a powerful means to analyse and interpret the formation and evolution of cosmic structures. The first attempts to perform such simulations, dated back to 1960-1970, consisted in N-body collisionless computations with few point masses. Since then, cosmological simulations have experienced a great progress and have increased significantly in scale and complexity. A relevant effort has been done to properly model the hydrodynamical mechanisms shaping the observational properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Despite the significant improvements of the last years, results from current simulations still show important deviations from observations, especially within the core regions of galaxy clusters and within the framework of galaxy formation. In this contribution, I will briefly review the current numerical methods employed in large-scale cosmological simulations. A special emphasis will be put on the effects that the inclusion of different baryonic processes, such as radiative cooling, star formation or AGN feedback, has on the physical properties of the hot intra-cluster medium of massive galaxy clusters. In addition, some of the technical and computational challenges that numerical cosmology has to overcome in the near future will be outlined.

  1. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-06-10

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6. Merging these cluster samples gives 1644 clusters in the four survey fields, of which 1088 are newly identified and more than half are from the large SWIRE field. Among 228 clusters of z {>=} 1, 191 clusters are newly identified, and most of them from the SWIRE field. With this large sample of high-redshift clusters, we study the color evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The r' - z' and r{sup +} - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z{sub f} {>=} 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m{sub 3.6{mu}m} colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z{sub f} {approx} 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  2. Exploring the Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E.; George, J.; Mushotzky, R.; Bautz, M.; Davis, D.; Henry, J.

    2014-07-01

    A number of recent studies have traced the hot intracluster medium (ICM) to the virial radius in a sizeable sample of galaxy clusters. These results have begun to clarify the thermodynamic conditions at the edge of clusters, constraining models of cluster growth and evolution, yet the observations are challenging and bedeviled by a host of systematic issues due to the very low ICM surface brightness in the cluster outskirts. We are currently embarked on a program to observe a sample of about ten relaxed clusters with Suzaku, fully imaging each cluster to beyond R_{200}, and leveraging complementary data from XMM-Newton and Chandra. Our results support the idea that the ICM is not in hydrostatic equilibrium in the cluster outskirts, where we see indications of low-entropy substructures and some evidence for azimuthal variations in temperature and surface brightness. I will present the latest results from this project, explore the possible sources of systematic error, and discuss the remarkable ``universality'' of thermodynamic profiles to the outer limits of galaxy clusters.

  3. The abundance and spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Muzzin, Adam; Hoekstra, Henk

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations have highlighted a significant population of faint but large (reff> 1.5 kpc) galaxies in the Coma cluster. The origin of these ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) remains puzzling, as the interpretation of these observational results has been hindered by the (partly) subjective selection of UDGs, and the limited study of only the Coma (and some examples in the Virgo-) cluster. In this paper we extend the study of UDGs using eight clusters in the redshift range 0.044 galaxies. We find that the abundance of the UDGs we can detect increases with cluster mass, reaching ~200 in typical haloes of M200 ≃ 1015M⊙. For the ensemble cluster we measure the size distribution of UDGs, their colour-magnitude distribution, and their completeness-corrected radial density distribution within the clusters. The morphologically-selected cluster UDGs have colours consistent with the cluster red sequence, and have a steep size distribution that, at a given surface brightness, declines as n [ dex-1 ] ∝ reff-3.4 ± 0.2. Their radial distribution is significantly steeper than NFW in the outskirts, and is significantly shallower in the inner parts. We find them to follow the same radial distribution as the more massive quiescent galaxies in the clusters, except within the core region of r ≲ 0.15 × R200 (or ≲ 300 kpc). Within this region the number density of UDGs drops and is consistent with zero. These diffuse galaxies can only resist tidal forces down to this cluster-centric distance if they are highly centrally dark-matter dominated. The observation that the radial distribution of more compact dwarf galaxies (reff< 1.0 kpc) with similar luminosities follows the same distribution as the UDGs, but exist down to a smaller distance of 100 kpc from the

  4. Line-of-sight structure toward strong lensing galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Johnson, Traci; Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the line-of-sight structure toward a sample of 10 strong lensing cluster cores. Structure is traced by groups that are identified spectroscopically in the redshift range, 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and we measure the projected angular and comoving separations between each group and the primary strong lensing clusters in each corresponding line of sight. From these data we measure the distribution of projected angular separations between the primary strong lensing clusters and uncorrelated large-scale structure as traced by groups. We then compare the observed distribution of angular separations for our strong lensing selected lines of sight against the distribution of groups that is predicted for clusters lying along random lines of sight. There is clear evidence for an excess of structure along the line of sight at small angular separations (θ ≤ 6') along the strong lensing selected lines of sight, indicating that uncorrelated structure is a significant systematic that contributes to producing galaxy clusters with large cross sections for strong lensing. The prevalence of line-of-sight structure is one of several biases in strong lensing clusters that can potentially be folded into cosmological measurements using galaxy cluster samples. These results also have implications for current and future studies—such as the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields—that make use of massive galaxy cluster lenses as precision cosmological telescopes; it is essential that the contribution of line-of-sight structure be carefully accounted for in the strong lens modeling of the cluster lenses.

  5. Dynamic evolution of nearby galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, M.; Flin, P.

    2011-06-01

    A study of the evolution of 377 rich ACO clusters with redshift z<0.2 is presented. The data concerning galaxies in the investigated clusters were obtained using FOCAS packages applied to Digital Sky Survey I. The 377 galaxy clusters constitute a statistically uniform sample to which visual galaxy/star reclassifications were applied. Cluster shape within 2.0 h-1 Mpc from the adopted cluster centre (the mean and the median of all galaxy coordinates, the position of the brightest and of the third brightest galaxy in the cluster) was determined through its ellipticity calculated using two methods: the covariance ellipse method (hereafter CEM) and the method based on Minkowski functionals (hereafter MFM). We investigated ellipticity dependence on the radius of circular annuli, in which ellipticity was calculated. This was realized by varying the radius from 0.5 to 2 Mpc in steps of 0.25 Mpc. By performing Monte Carlo simulations, we generated clusters to which the two ellipticity methods were applied. We found that the covariance ellipse method works better than the method based on Minkowski functionals. We also found that ellipticity distributions are different for different methods used. Using the ellipticity-redshift relation, we investigated the possibility of cluster evolution in the low-redshift Universe. The correlation of cluster ellipticities with redshifts is undoubtly an indicator of structural evolution. Using the t-Student statistics, we found a statistically significant correlation between ellipticity and redshift at the significance level of α = 0.95. In one of the two shape determination methods we found that ellipticity grew with redshift, while the other method gave opposite results. Monte Carlo simulations showed that only ellipticities calculated at the distance of 1.5 Mpc from cluster centre in the Minkowski functional method are robust enough to be taken into account, but for that radius we did not find any relation between e and z. Since CEM

  6. Enhancement of AGN Activity in Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Charutha; Hatch, Nina; Almaini, Omar

    2017-07-01

    I present our recent study of the prevalence of X-ray AGN in the high-redshift protocluster Cl 0218.3-0510 at z=1.62, and review the implications for our understanding of galaxy evolution. There has long been a consensus that X-ray AGN avoid clusters in the local universe, particularly their cores. The high-redshift universe appears to not follow these trends, as there is a reversal in the local anti-correlation between galaxy density and AGN activity. In this z=1.62 protocluster, we find a large overdensity of AGN by a factor of 23, and an enhancement in the AGN fraction among massive galaxies relative to the field by a factor of 2. I will discuss the comparison of the properties of AGN in the protocluster to the field, and explain how our results point towards similar triggering mechanisms in the two environments. I will also describe how our study of the morphologies of these galaxies provide tentative evidence towards galaxy mergers and interactions being responsible for triggering AGN, and explain the reversal of the local anti-correlation between galaxy density and AGN activity.

  7. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-02-10

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  8. The cluster of galaxies Abell 376

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, D.; Capelato, H. V.; Hickel, G.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cuevas, H.

    2003-08-01

    We present a dynamical analysis of the galaxy cluster Abell 376 based on a set of 73 velocities, most of them measured at Pic du Midi and Haute-Provence observatories and completed with data from the literature. Data on individual galaxies are presented and the accuracy of the determined velocities is discussed as well as some properties of the cluster. We obtained an improved mean redshift value z = 0.0478+0.005-0.006 and velocity dispersion sigma = 852+120-76 km s-1. Our analysis indicates that inside a radius of ~ 900 h70-1 kpc ( ~ 15 arcmin) the cluster is well relaxed without any remarkable features and the X-ray emission traces fairly well the galaxy distribution. A possible substructure is seen at 20 arcmin from the centre towards the Southwest direction, but is not confirmed by the velocity field. This SW clump is, however, kinematically bound to the main structure of Abell 376. A dense condensation of galaxies is detected at 46 arcmin (projected distance 2.6 h70-1 Mpc) from the centre towards the Northwest and analysis of the apparent luminosity distribution of its galaxies suggests that this clump is part of the large scale structure of Abell 376. X-ray spectroscopic analysis of ASCA data resulted in a temperature kT = 4.3 +/- 0.4 keV and metal abundance Z = 0.32 +/- 0.08 Zsun. The velocity dispersion corresponding to this temperature using the TX-sigma scaling relation is in agreement with the measured galaxies velocities. Based on observations made Haute-Provence and Pic du Midi Observatories (France). Table 1 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/31

  9. Motions in Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence of Hidden Superstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. X-ray Image of Fornax with labels X-ray Image of Fornax with labels "At a relatively nearby distance of about 60 million light years, the Fornax cluster represents a crucial laboratory for studying the interplay of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter as the cluster evolves." said Caleb Scharf of Columbia University in New York, NY, lead author of a paper describing the Chandra survey that was presented at an American Astronomical Society meeting in New Orleans, LA. "What we are seeing could be associated directly with the intergalactic gas surrounding a very large scale structure that stretches over millions of light years." The infalling galaxy group, whose motion was detected by Michael Drinkwater of the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues, is about 3 million light years from the cluster core, so a collision with the core will not occur for a few billion years. Insight as to how this collision will look is provided by the elliptical galaxy NGC 1404 that is plunging into the core of the cluster for the first time. As discussed by Scharf and another group

  10. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  11. Quantitative descriptions of nonlinear gravitational galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto

    1990-08-01

    Results are presented on three different quantitative analyses of nonlinear gravitational galaxy clustering, including determinations of two-point correlation function, xi(r); fractal dimensions, Dq; and f(N) statistics. The analyses show that, for models with n = 1 and n = 0, the exponent of the correlation function (which has a general form xi/r/ proportional to r exp -gamma) is about 2 in the nonlinear regime. It is shown that the thermodynamic f(N), which connnects the fractal dimensions with the exponent of xi(r) can describe the distribution of galaxies in the nonlinear regime.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE METAL ENRICHMENT OF LOW-MASS GALAXIES IN NEARBY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Petropoulou, V.; Vilchez, J.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.

    2012-04-20

    In this paper, we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history, as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the spectroscopic properties of SF galaxies of stellar masses 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, located from the core to the cluster's outskirts. The gas-phase O/H and N/O chemical abundances have been derived using the latest empirical calibrations. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies, finding well-defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster environment on the chemical evolution of SF galaxies should be sensitive to both the galaxy mass and the host cluster mass. The H I gas content of Coma and A1367 galaxies indicates that low-mass SF galaxies, located at the core of these clusters, have been severely affected by ram-pressure stripping (RPS). The observed mass-dependent enhancement of the metal content of low-mass galaxies in dense environments seems plausible, according to hydrodynamic simulations. This enhanced metal enrichment could be produced by the combination of effects such as wind reaccretion, due to pressure confinement by the intracluster medium (ICM), and the truncation of gas infall, as a result of the RPS. Thus, the

  13. The Faint Globular Cluster in the Dwarf Galaxy Andromeda I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Strader, Jay; Sand, David J.; Willman, Beth; Seth, Anil C.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of globular clusters in dwarf galaxies can be used to study a variety of topics, including the structure of dark matter halos and the history of vigorous star formation in low-mass galaxies. We report on the properties of the faint globular cluster (M V -3.4) in the M31 dwarf galaxy Andromeda I. This object adds to the growing population of low-luminosity Local Group galaxies that host single globular clusters.

  14. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  15. The coma cluster after lunch: Has a galaxcy group passed through the cluster core?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Ledlow, Michael; Klypin, Anatoly

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the Coma cluster has recently undergone a collision with the NGC 4839 galaxy group. The ROSAT X-ray morphology, the Coma radio halo, the presence of poststarburst galaxies in the bridge between Coma and NGC 4839, the usually high velocity dispersion for the NGC 4839 group, and the position of a large-scale galaxy filament to the NE of Coma are all used to argue that the NGC 4839 group passed through the core of Coma approximately 2 Gyr ago. We present a new Hydro/N-body simulation of the merger between a galaxy group and a rich cluster that reproduces many of the observed X-ray and optical properties of Coma/NGC 4839.

  16. The era of star formation in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, C. L.; Gettings, D. P.; Zeimann, G. R.; Snyder, G. F.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Pope, A.; Alberts, S.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Stern, D.; Moustakas, L. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Chary, R.-R.; Dey, Arjun; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Miller, E. D.; Moustakas, J.

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We present new spectroscopic confirmation for six of these high-redshift clusters, five of which are at z > 1.35. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations at 24 μm, along with robust optical + IRAC photometric redshifts and spectral-energy-distribution-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates, and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that z ∼ 1.4 represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift, the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at z > 1.4 environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. By combining these observations with complementary studies showing a rapid increase in the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, a stochastic star formation history, and a major merging episode at the same epoch in this cluster sample, we suggest that the starburst activity is likely merger-driven and that the subsequent quenching is due to feedback from merger-fueled AGNs. The totality of the evidence suggests we are witnessing the final quenching period that brings an end to the era of star formation in galaxy clusters and initiates the era of passive evolution.

  17. Xray AGN in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulouridis, Elias; XMM-LSS Consortium

    2012-09-01

    Given that the triggering mechanism of the AGN phenomenon is still a matter of debate, our aim is to investigate the possible effects of the AGN host's environment in the activity of the nucleus. Following a pilot study of 16 Abell clusters back in 2010 (Koulouridis & Plionis 2010), in which we argued that the AGN activity within 1 Mpc of the cluster center is strongly suppressed, we would like to extent our research to larger and more diverse samples. The completion of the XMM-LSS survey gives us a unique opportunity to study AGN not only in the environment of rich clusters but also poor clusters and groups of galaxies. Investigating over 40 clusters, over a range of redshifts and dynamical states, in the 10deg^2 of the XMM-LSS field will provide a preliminary analysis since our target is to complete our study using the full XXL 50 deg^2 survey.

  18. The fate of the gaseous discs of galaxies that fall into clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Rafael; Lima Neto, Gastao B.

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy clusters are known to induce gas loss in infalling galaxies due to the ram pressure exerted by the intracluster medium over their gas content. In this paper, we investigate this process through a set of simulations of Milky Way like galaxies falling inside idealized clusters of 1014 and 1015 M⊙, containing a cool core or not, using the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We use these simulations to constrain how much of the initial mass contained in the gaseous disc of the galaxy will be converted into stars and how much of it will be lost, after a single crossing of the entire cluster. We find that, if the galaxy reaches the central region of a cool-core cluster, it is expected to lose all its gas, independently of its entry conditions and of the cluster's mass. On the other hand, it is expected to never lose all its gas after crossing a cluster without a cool core just once. Before reaching the centre of the cluster, the star formation rate (SFR) of the galaxy is always enhanced, by a factor of 1.5-3. If the galaxy crosses the cluster without being completely stripped, its final amount of gas is on average two times smaller after crossing the 1015 M⊙ cluster, relative to the 1014 M⊙ cluster. This is reflected in the final SFR of the galaxy, which is also two times smaller in the former, ranging from 0.5 to 1 M⊙ yr-1, compared to 1-2 M⊙ yr-1 for the latter.

  19. When galaxy clusters collide: the impact of merger shocks on cluster gas and galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroe, A.

    2015-09-01

    Galaxy clusters mainly grow through mergers with other clusters and groups. Major mergers give rise to cluster-wide traveling shocks, which can be detected at radio wavelengths as relics: elongated, diffuse synchrotron emitting areas located at the periphery of merging clusters. The 'Sausage' cluster hosts an extraordinary Mpc-wide relic, which enables us to study to study particle acceleration and the effects of shocks on cluster galaxies. We derive shock properties and the magnetic field structure for the relic. Our results indicate that particles are shock-accelerated, but turbulent re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particles in the downstream area are important effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of high-frequency observations of radio relics, by presenting a 16 GHz detection of the 'Sausage' relic. Halpha mapping of the cluster provides the first direct test as to whether the shock drives or prohibits star formation. We find numerous galaxies in! close proximity to the radio relic which are extremely massive, metal-rich, star-forming with evidence for gas mass loss though outflows. We speculate that the complex interaction between the merger, the shock wave and gas is a fundamental driver in the evolution of cluster galaxies from gas rich spirals to gas-poor ellipticals.

  20. When clusters collide - A numerical Hydro/N-body simulation of merging galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettiger, Kurt; Burns, Jack; Loken, Chris

    1993-01-01

    A 3D numerical simulation of two merging clusters of galaxies, using a hybrid Hydro/N-body code, is presented. The hydrodynamics of the code is solved by an Eulerian finite difference method. Initial results disclose that the X-ray emission of the dominant cluster becomes elongated and broadened; heating occurs at the core of the dominant cluster as a result of multiple shocks, and high velocity gas motions within the intracluster medium. It is predicted that clusters which have undergone recent mergers and do not have cooling flows will have high peculiar gas velocities and that the shocks and turbulence generated during the merger may power cluster-wide radio halos. Prolonged high-velocity gas motions through the dominant cluster core possibly play a major role in the formation and shaping of wide-angle tailed radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies. The N-body component of the simulation reveals the subcluster to be dispersed as it passes through the dominant cluster.

  1. Shaken and Stirred: Conduction and Turbulence in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkowski, M.; Oh, S. Peng

    2010-04-01

    Uninhibited radiative cooling in clusters of galaxies would lead to excessive mass accretion rates contrary to observations. One of the key proposals to offset radiative energy losses is thermal conduction from outer, hotter layers of cool core (CC) clusters to their centers. However, thermal conduction is sensitive to magnetic field topology. In CC clusters where temperature decreases inwards, the heat buoyancy instability (HBI) leads to magnetic fields ordered preferentially in the direction perpendicular to that of gravity, which significantly reduces the level of conduction below the classical Spitzer-Braginskii value. However, the CC clusters are rarely in perfect hydrostatic equilibrium. Sloshing motions due to minor mergers and stirring motions induced by cluster galaxies or active galactic nuclei can significantly perturb the gas. The turbulent cascade can then affect the topology of the magnetic field and the effective level of thermal conduction. We perform three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the effect of turbulence on the properties of the anisotropic thermal conduction in CC clusters. We show that very weak subsonic motions, well within observational constraints, can randomize the magnetic field and significantly boost effective thermal conduction beyond the saturated values expected in the pure unperturbed HBI case. We find that the turbulent motions can essentially restore the conductive heat flow to the CC to level comparable to the theoretical maximum of ~1/3 Spitzer for a highly tangled field. Runs with radiative cooling show that the cooling catastrophe can be averted and the cluster core stabilized; however, this conclusion may depend on the central gas density. Above a critical Froude number, these same turbulent motions also eliminate the tangential bias in the velocity and magnetic field that is otherwise induced by the trapped g-modes, and possibly allow significant turbulent heat diffusion. Our

  2. Intermediate Redshift Galaxy Clusters from DPOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, P. A. A.

    2003-06-01

    In this thesis we discuss the selection of intermediate redshift galaxy cluster candidates based on the Digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). Clusters are detected using the best DPOSS plates based on seeing and limiting magnitude. The search is further restricted to high galactic latitudes (|b| > 50 °), where stellar contamination is mild and nearly uniform. The input galaxy catalogs used for this search are limited to r = 21.1. The cluster selection is based on two techniques, the adaptive kernel and the voronoi tesselation methods. The final combined catalog contains ~ 10,000 candidates over ~ 2,700 square degrees, with ~ 0.30 and ~ 40 (Ngals is a richness estimate we provide). Rich clusters are detected down to z ~ 0.5. This cluster catalog is a supplement to the previous DPOSS catalogs, being the largest resource of rich clusters in this redshift range to date. In order to optimize the detection algorithms and estimate the contamination and completeness rates, we perform a large number of simulations for both catalogs. Redshift and richness estimates are also provided for all candidates in the two catalogs. As a by-product we present a comparison between the DPOSS and SDSS surveys. This comparison is used to estimate the DPOSS detection limits. Some of the projects to be developed in the future are also discussed.

  3. Pressure of the hot gas in simulations of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planelles, S.; Fabjan, D.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Rasia, E.; Biffi, V.; Truong, N.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Granato, G. L.; Dolag, K.; Pierpaoli, E.; Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, Lisa K.; Gaspari, M.

    2017-06-01

    We analyse the radial pressure profiles, the intracluster medium (ICM) clumping factor and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) scaling relations of a sample of simulated galaxy clusters and groups identified in a set of hydrodynamical simulations based on an updated version of the treepm-SPH GADGET-3 code. Three different sets of simulations are performed: the first assumes non-radiative physics, the others include, among other processes, active galactic nucleus (AGN) and/or stellar feedback. Our results are analysed as a function of redshift, ICM physics, cluster mass and cluster cool-coreness or dynamical state. In general, the mean pressure profiles obtained for our sample of groups and clusters show a good agreement with X-ray and SZ observations. Simulated cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters also show a good match with real data. We obtain in all cases a small (if any) redshift evolution of the pressure profiles of massive clusters, at least back to z = 1. We find that the clumpiness of gas density and pressure increases with the distance from the cluster centre and with the dynamical activity. The inclusion of AGN feedback in our simulations generates values for the gas clumping (√{C}_{ρ }˜ 1.2 at R200) in good agreement with recent observational estimates. The simulated YSZ-M scaling relations are in good accordance with several observed samples, especially for massive clusters. As for the scatter of these relations, we obtain a clear dependence on the cluster dynamical state, whereas this distinction is not so evident when looking at the subsamples of CC and NCC clusters.

  4. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  5. Surface Brightness-dependent Clustering of APM Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Z.

    Based on a simple estimation of surface brightness (SB) of galaxies in the Automated Plate Measuring Machine (APM) catalogue, a homogeneous sample of apparent central SB data for more than 2 million galaxies brighter than BJ=20.5, covering 4300 deg2 in the region of the south galactic cap, was taken account to investigate the dependence of the strength of galaxy clustering on SB. The two point correlation function was used to compare the clustering pattern of galaxies in a series of SB volume-limited samples. Galaxies with high SB were found to have a significantly strong clustering strength in comparison to normal and low SB galaxies.

  6. Clusters of Galaxies in the last 5 Billion Years: from the Brightest Cluster Galaxy to the Intra-Cluster Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillepich, Annalisa

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the physical processes which shape the galaxy population in the high density environment of galaxy clusters as a function of cosmic time is a central open question in galaxy evolution studies. With the Frontier Field Initiative, HST will provide an ultra-deep view and an unprecedented multi-wavelength dataset to study the galaxy population in and around galaxy clusters at intermediate redshift. With our study, we aim at providing the first self-consistent theoretical framework based on cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to understand the evolution of cluster galaxies: our analysis is designed to complement and aid the interpretation of the wealth of observational data within the LCDM Cosmology. In particular, we plan an in-depth analysis of a sample of 15 haloes with masses between 7x10^13 and 2x10^15 Msun at z=0, simulated with the gravity+hydrodynamics code Arepo. The numerical scheme and the galaxy formation model adopted in this study have already been successfully tested against a series of global measurements: they will allow us to follow the fate, within each cluster, of hundreds of well-resolved galaxies with stellar masses above 5x10^9 Msun. Our analysis will include the assembly properties of the central brightest galaxies as well as the demographics of the satellite populations and their cluster-centric gradients of colors, morphologies and star formation rates. Our setup is suitable to quantify the effects of environment on star formation, stripping, and quenching across an unprecedented range of galaxy masses, cluster masses and spatial scales, in addition to providing valuable clues about the diffuse intra-cluster light.

  7. An Automated Method for Characterizing the Relaxedness of Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    George, Matt; /Harvard Coll. Observ. /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    Relaxed galaxy clusters are useful tools for probing cosmological parameters like the gas mass fraction of the universe. Selecting relaxed clusters for this purpose can be a time-consuming and subjective task, so we present methods to automate parts of the process. We fit elliptical isophotes to a diverse sample of Chandra cluster data and summarize other methods for quantifying relaxedness which will be included in future work. Analysis of the results of tests from isophote fitting, combined with numerical simulations of cluster structures and comparison to previous classifications will allow us to formulate criteria for selection of relaxed clusters. We find that they tend to have core radii less than approximately 60 kpc from King model fits, shifts in isophote centroids of less than 25 kpc over a range in semi-major axes of several hundred kpc, and significantly greater surface brightness profile gradients within 30 kpc of their cores than unrelaxed clusters. These criteria will help with future cosmological work as larger amounts of cluster data are taken and need objective classification.

  8. Galaxy luminosity functions in WINGS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, A.; Bettoni, D.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Varela, J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Vulcani, B.; Cava, A.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W. J.; Moles, M.; Kjærgaard, P.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: Using V band photometry of the WINGS survey, we derive galaxy luminosity functions (LF) in nearby clusters. This sample is complete down to MV = -15.15, and it is homogeneous, thus facilitating the study of an unbiased sample of clusters with different characteristics. Methods: We constructed the photometric LF for 72 out of the original 76 WINGS clusters, excluding only those without a velocity dispersion estimate. For each cluster we obtained the LF for galaxies in a region of radius = 0.5 × r200, and fitted them with single and double Schechter's functions. We also derive the composite LF for the entire sample, and those pertaining to different morphological classes. Finally, we derive the spectroscopic cumulative LF for 2009 galaxies that are cluster members. Results: The double Schechter fit parameters are correlated neither with the cluster velocity dispersion nor with the X-ray luminosity. Our median values of the Schechter's fit slope are, on average, in agreement with measurements of nearby clusters, but are less steep that those derived from large surveys, such as the SDSS. Early-type galaxies out number late-types at all magnitudes, but both early and late types contribute equally to the faint end of the LF. Finally, the spectroscopic LF is in excellent agreement with the one derived for A2199, A85 and Virgo, and with the photometric LF at the bright magnitudes (where both are available). Conclusions: There is a large spread in the LF of different clusters, however, this spread is not caused by correlation of the LF shape with cluster characteristics such as X-ray luminosity or velocity dispersions. The faint end is flatter than previously derived (αf = -1.7), which is at odds with that predicted from numerical simulations. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile. Progs. ID 67.A-0030, 68.A-0139, and 69.A-0119.Table 1 and full Fig. 1 (Fig. A.1) are available in

  9. Galaxy Cluster Takes It to the Extreme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for an awesome upheaval in a massive galaxy cluster was discovered in an image made by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The origin of a bright arc of ferociously hot gas extending over two million light years requires one of the most energetic events ever detected. The cluster of galaxies is filled with tenuous gas at 170 million degree Celsius that is bound by the mass equivalent of a quadrillion, or 1,000 trillion, suns. The temperature and mass make this cluster a giant among giants. VLA Radio Image of 3C438 VLA Radio Image of 3C438 "The huge feature detected in the cluster, combined with the high temperature, points to an exceptionally dramatic event in the nearby Universe," said Ralph Kraft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass., and leader of a team of astronomers involved in this research. "While we're not sure what caused it, we've narrowed it down to a couple of exciting possibilities." The favored explanation for the bright X-ray arc is that two massive galaxy clusters are undergoing a collision at about 4 million miles per hour. Shock waves generated by the violent encounter of the clusters' hot gas clouds could produce a sharp change in pressure along the boundary where the collision is occurring, giving rise to the observed arc-shaped structure which resembles a titanic weather front. "Although this would be an extreme collision, one of the most powerful ever seen, we think this may be what is going on," said team member Martin Hardcastle, of the University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Images of 3C438 and Surrounding Galaxy Cluster Images of 3C438 and Surrounding Galaxy Cluster A problem with the collision theory is that only one peak in the X-ray emission is seen, whereas two are expected. Longer observations with Chandra and the XMM-Newton X-ray observatories should help determine how serious this problem is for the collision hypothesis. Another possible explanation is that the disturbance was

  10. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  11. Observational and Numerical Diagnostics of Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r(sub 200) and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to several recent results, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We note a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. The general trend of steepening density around the virial radius indicates that the shallow density profiles found in several recent works were probably obtained along particular directions (e.g., filaments) and are not representative of the

  12. The galaxy cluster outskirts probed by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Andrea; Sun, Ming; Forman, William; Jones, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Exploring the virialization region of galaxy clusters has recently raised the attention of the scientific community, offering a direct view of structure formation. In this talk, I will present recent results on the physical properties of the intracluster medium in the outer volumes of a sample of 320 clusters (0.056 3 keV) in the Chandra archive, with a total integration time of ~20 Ms. We stacked the emission measure profiles of the clusters to detect a signal out to R_{100}. We then measured the average emission measure, gas density and gas fraction, which scale according to the self-similar model of cluster formation. We observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond R_{500} with slope beta ~ 0.68 at R_{500} and beta ~ 1 at R_{200} and beyond. By tracking the direction of the cosmic filaments where the clusters are embedded, we report that galaxy clusters deviate from spherical symmetry. We also did not find evolution of the gas density with redshift, confirming the self-similar evolution of the gas density. The value of the baryon fraction reaches the cosmic value at R_{200}: however, systematics due to non-thermal pressure support and clumpiness might enhance the measured gas fraction, leading to an actual deficit of the baryon budget with respect to the primordial value). This novel method, the stacking the X-ray signal of cluster outskirts, has the capacity to provide a generational leap forward in our understanding of cluster physics and formation, and the use of clusters as cosmological probes.

  13. Correlation analysis of objectively defined galaxy and cluster catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. R. F.; Fong, R.; Shanks, T.

    1988-10-01

    The authors present further galaxy clustering results from the objective COSMOS/UKST galaxy catalogue of Stevenson et al. They first re-examine the results of SSFM for the galaxy correlation function, wgg(θ), testing the stability of the result against possible systematic effects and extending the analysis to larger angular scales. They then use the method of Turner & Gott to automatically detect groups and clusters in these catalogues. The authors next present the cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function wcg. Finally, the above correlation analyses are carried out on simulated galaxy and cluster catalogues.

  14. The Adopted Morphological Types of 247 Rich PF Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Elena; Bajan, Katarzyna; Flin, Piotr; Gotsulyak, Alla

    2016-10-01

    Morphological types were determined for 247 rich galaxy clusters from the PF Catalogue of Galaxy Clusters and Groups. The adopted types are based on classical morphological schemes and consider concentration to the cluster center, the signs of preferential direction or plane in the cluster, and the positions of the brightest galaxies. It is shown that both concentration and preferential plane are significant and independent morphological criteria.

  15. Brightest Cluster Galaxies at the Present Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Postman, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E.

    2014-12-01

    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z <= 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω m = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the Lm -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, Lm , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter "metric plane" relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of Lm , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, rx of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = -2.33 power law over 1 < rx < 103 kpc. The median offset is ~10 kpc, but ~15% of the BCGs have rx > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV 1|/σ c follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both Lm and α increase with σ c . The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on Lm . Likewise, residuals from the metric plane show no correlation with either the spatial or velocity offset from the cluster center. The

  16. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT THE PRESENT EPOCH

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Tod R.; Postman, Marc; Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E.

    2014-12-20

    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z ≤ 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω {sub m} = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the L{sub m} -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, L{sub m} , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter ''metric plane'' relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of L{sub m} , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, r{sub x} of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = –2.33 power law over 1 < r{sub x} < 10{sup 3} kpc. The median offset is ∼10 kpc, but ∼15% of the BCGs have r{sub x} > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV {sub 1}|/σ {sub c} follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both L{sub m} and α increase with σ {sub c}. The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on L{sub m} . Likewise, residuals from the metric plane

  17. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  18. Chandra observations of dying radio sources in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims: We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods: We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results: The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions: We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  19. Dynamical evolution of globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzio, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    The dynamical processes that affect globular-cluster systems in clusters of galaxies are analyzed. Two-body and impulsive approximations are utilized to study dynamical friction, drag force, tidal stripping, tidal radii, globular-cluster swapping, tidal accretion, and galactic cannibalism. The evolution of galaxies and the collision of galaxies are simulated numerically; the steps involved in the simulation are described. The simulated data are compared with observations. Consideration is given to the number of galaxies, halo extension, location of the galaxies, distribution of the missing mass, nonequilibrium initial conditions, mass dependence, massive central galaxies, globular-cluster distribution, and lost globular clusters. 116 references.

  20. Nonextensivity and galaxy clustering in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.; Ramos, F. M.; Rosa, R. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate two important questions about the use of the nonextensive thermostatistics (NETS) formalism in the context of nonlinear galaxy clustering in the Universe. Firstly, we define a quantitative criterion for justifying nonextensivity at different physical scales. Then, we discuss the physics behind the ansatz of the entropic parameter q(r). Our results suggest the approximate range where nonextensivity can be justified and, hence, give some support to the applicability of NETS to the study of large-scale structures.

  1. Surface photometry of Virgo cluster galaxies - Barred galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in B and V is presented for three barred galaxies in the Virgo cluster: N4548, N4596, and N4608. Intercomparisons of luminosity and color profiles and standard photometric parameters indicate that for these galaxies: (1) the nuclear component follows the fourth-root-of-radius luminosity law for both B and V, (2) the luminosity profiles along the bar show a characteristic shoulder with a slight fall in B-V color profile at the brightest point in the bar, the strength of the effect declining from N4548 to N4608, (3) the integrated bar component is slightly bluer than the nucleus, and (4) as the disk, arm, and ring components contribute less to the total luminosity of the system, the contribution of the bar increases as does the equivalent gradient.

  2. Masses of Galaxy Clusters from Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Henk; Bartelmann, Matthias; Dahle, Håkon; Israel, Holger; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Despite consistent progress in numerical simulations, the observable properties of galaxy clusters are difficult to predict ab initio. It is therefore important to compare both theoretical and observational results to a direct measure of the cluster mass. This can be done by measuring the gravitational lensing effects caused by the bending of light by the cluster mass distribution. In this review we discuss how this phenomenon can be used to determine cluster masses and study the mass distribution itself. As sample sizes increase, the accuracy of the weak lensing mass estimates needs to improve accordingly. We discuss the main practical aspects of these measurements. We review a number of applications and highlight some recent results.

  3. Particle Acceleration in Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, M.; Naito, Tsuguya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shinpei

    2003-07-01

    Clusters of galaxies have non-thermal high energy particles as well as the thermal intracluster medium in the intracluster space. One bit of direct evidence is the existence of non-thermal synchrotron radio halos and relics. However, it is still unclear how they are accelerated. Here, we consider two kinds of acceleration processes which likely work in the intracluster space and intro duce models based on them. One is shock acceleration associated with cluster mergers. We calculate evolution of non-thermal electrons during cluster merger based on N-b o dy + SPH simulations. Radio emission is localized near the shocks. This is qualitatively similar to radio relics. The other is resonant scattering of random Alfv´n waves. e We calculate steady state electron distribution functions when Alfv´n wave power e spectra are power-law. We successfully repro duce the Coma cluster radio halo spectrum.

  4. Cosmic Ray Streaming in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Joshua; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Oh, Siang P.

    2017-08-01

    The origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters remains an open question in astrophysics. This emission indicates the presence of cluster-wide magnetic fields and high energy cosmic ray (CR) electrons. I will discuss how the properties of the observed radio emission in clusters are shaped by different CR transport processes, namely CR streaming. Recent work has shown that fast streaming may turn off radio emission on relatively short time scales - a full treatment of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave damping shows that streaming may be even faster than previously thought in high β environments. I will briefly introduce the physics behind CR transport, and present simple numerical simulations of the Coma cluster that predict radio emission, as well as other observable signatures such as gamma radiation that can differentiate between models for the source of the CR electrons.

  5. Cores in dwarf galaxies from dark matter with a Yukawa potential.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Abraham; Weiner, Neal

    2011-04-29

    We show that cold dark matter particles interacting through a Yukawa potential could naturally explain the recently observed cores in dwarf galaxies without affecting the dynamics of objects with a much larger velocity dispersion, such as clusters of galaxies. The velocity dependence of the associated cross section as well as the possible exothermic nature of the interaction alleviates earlier concerns about strongly interacting dark matter. Dark matter evaporation in low-mass objects might explain the observed deficit of satellite galaxies in the Milky Way halo and have important implications for the first galaxies and reionization.

  6. ZFIRE: Similar Stellar Growth in Halpha-emitting Cluster and Field Galaxies at z~2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy; Alcorn, Leo; Kacprzak, Glenn; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Straatman, Caroline; Yuan, Tiantian; Cowley, Michael; Dave, Romeel; Glazebrook, Karl; Kewley, Lisa J.; Labbe, Ivo; martizzi, davide; Papovich, Casey J.; Quadri, Ryan; Spitler, Lee; Tomczak, Adam R.

    2017-01-01

    We compare galaxy scaling relations as a function of environment at z~2 with our ZFIRE survey where we have measured Halpha fluxes for 90 galaxies selected from a mass-limited sample based on ZFOURGE. The cluster galaxies (37) are part of a spectroscopically confirmed system at z=2.095 and the field galaxies (53) have redshifts of 1.9cluster and field populations when comparing their star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, galaxy size, star formation rate surface density, and stellar age distributions. Approximately 20-25% of Halpha-emitting galaxies in both the cluster and field are IR-luminous. In our combined cluster and field sample, IR-luminous galaxies have ~5 times more stellar mass and radii that are ~70% larger than the low-IR galaxies. To track stellar growth, we separate galaxies into those that lie above, on, and below the Halpha star-forming main sequence (SFMS) using delta[SFR]=+/-0.2 dex. Galaxies above the SFMS (starbursts) tend to have higher Halpha SFR surface densities and younger stellar ages compared to galaxies below the SFMS. Our results indicate that starbursts (+SFMS) in the cluster and field at z~2 are growing their stellar cores. Lastly, we compare to the (SFR-stellar mass) relation predicted by the RHAPSODY galaxy cluster simulations and find that the predicted slope is nominally consistent with the observations. However, the predicted cluster SFRs tend to be too low by a factor of ~2 which suggests that simulations may be over-predicting how efficient environment is at quenching star formation.

  7. Not a galaxy: IRAS 04186+5143, a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, Davide; Djupvik, A. A.; Torrelles, J. M.; Molinari, S.

    2015-09-01

    We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy located at the position of an IRAS Point Source Catalog source that has been previously misidentified as an external galaxy. The cluster is seen in our near-infrared imaging towards IRAS 04186+5143 and in archive Spitzer images confirming the young stellar nature of the sources detected. There is also evidence of subclustering seen in the spatial distributions of young stars and of gas and dust. Near- and mid-infrared photometry indicates that the stars exhibit colours compatible with reddening by interstellar and circumstellar dust and are likely to be low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) with a large proportion of Class I YSOs. Ammonia and CO lines were detected, with the CO emission well centred near the position of the richest part of the cluster. The velocity of the CO and NH3 lines indicates that the gas is Galactic and located at a distance of about 5.5 kpc, in the outer Galaxy. Herschel data of this region characterize the dust environment of this molecular cloud core where the young cluster is embedded. We derive masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the molecular clumps where the young stars reside and discuss their evolutionary stages.

  8. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  9. Assembly bias and splashback in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Philipp; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-10-01

    We use publicly available data for the Millennium Simulation to explore the implications of the recent detection of assembly bias and splashback signatures in a large sample of galaxy clusters. These were identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Data Release 8 (SDSS/DR8) photometric data by the redMaPPer algorithm and split into high- and low-concentration subsamples based on the projected positions of cluster members. We use simplified versions of these procedures to build cluster samples of similar size from the simulation data. These match the observed samples quite well and show similar assembly bias and splashback signals. Previous theoretical work has found the logarithmic slope of halo density profiles to have a well-defined minimum whose depth decreases and whose radius increases with halo concentration. Projected profiles for the observed and simulated cluster samples show trends with concentration which are opposite to these predictions. In addition, for high-concentration clusters the minimum slope occurs at significantly smaller radius than predicted. We show that these discrepancies all reflect confusion between splashback features and features imposed on the profiles by the cluster identification and concentration estimation procedures. The strong apparent assembly bias is not reflected in the three-dimensional distribution of matter around clusters. Rather it is a consequence of the preferential contamination of low-concentration clusters by foreground or background groups.

  10. An extended cold gas absorber in a central cluster galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Edge, Alastair C.

    2017-10-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of an extended cold gas structure projected close to the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) of the z=0.045 cluster Abell 3716, from archival integral field spectroscopy. The gas is revealed through narrow Na D line absorption, seen against the stellar light of the BCG, which can be traced for $\\sim$25 kpc, with a width of 2-4 kpc. The gas is offset to higher velocity than the BCG (by $\\sim$100 km/s), showing that it is infalling rather than outflowing; the intrinsic linewidth is $\\sim$80 km/s (FWHM). Very weak H$\\alpha$ line emission is detected from the structure, and a weak dust absorption feature is suggested from optical imaging, but no stellar counterpart has been identified. We discuss some possible interpretations for the absorber: as a projected low-surface-brightness galaxy, as a stream of gas that was stripped from an infalling cluster galaxy, or as a "retired" cool-core nebula filament.

  11. Intracluster medium cooling, AGN feedback, and brightest cluster galaxy properties of galaxy groups. Five properties where groups differ from clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Reiprich, T. H.; Schellenberger, G.; Eckmiller, H. J.; Mittal, R.; Israel, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We aim to investigate cool-core and non-cool-core properties of galaxy groups through X-ray data and compare them to the AGN radio output to understand the network of intracluster medium (ICM) cooling and feedback by supermassive black holes. We also aim to investigate the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) to see how they are affected by cooling and heating processes, and compare the properties of groups to those of clusters. Methods: Using Chandra data for a sample of 26 galaxy groups, we constrained the central cooling times (CCTs) of the ICM and classified the groups as strong cool-core (SCC), weak cool-core (WCC), and non-cool-core (NCC) based on their CCTs. The total radio luminosity of the BCG was obtained using radio catalogue data and/or literature, which in turn was compared to the cooling time of the ICM to understand the link between gas cooling and radio output. We determined K-band luminosities of the BCG with 2MASS data, and used a scaling relation to constrain the masses of the supermassive black holes, which were then compared to the radio output. We also tested for correlations between the BCG luminosity and the overall X-ray luminosity and mass of the group. The results obtained for the group sample were also compared to previous results for clusters. Results: The observed cool-core/non-cool-core fractions for groups are comparable to those of clusters. However, notable differences are seen: 1) for clusters, all SCCs have a central temperature drop, but for groups this is not the case as some have centrally rising temperature profiles despite very short cooling times; 2) while for the cluster sample, all SCC clusters have a central radio source as opposed to only 45% of the NCCs, for the group sample, all NCC groups have a central radio source as opposed to 77% of the SCC groups; 3) for clusters, there are indications of an anticorrelation trend between radio luminosity and CCT. However, for groups this trend is absent; 4) the indication of

  12. The Gas Distribution in the Outer Regions of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Lau, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present our analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We have exploited the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius, We stacked the density profiles to detect a signal beyond T200 and measured the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also computed the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compared our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict density profiles that are too steep, whereas runs including additional physics and/ or treating gas clumping agree better with the observed gas distribution. We report high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non cool-core clusters beyond approximately 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond approximately r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only small differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the ENZO simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside

  13. The Gas Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Outer Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Nagai, D.; Laue, E. T.; Roncarelli, M.; Rossetti, M.; Snowden, S. L.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We present the analysis of a local (z = 0.04 - 0.2) sample of 31 galaxy clusters with the aim of measuring the density of the X-ray emitting gas in cluster outskirts. We compare our results with numerical simulations to set constraints on the azimuthal symmetry and gas clumping in the outer regions of galaxy clusters. Methods. We exploit the large field-of-view and low instrumental background of ROSAT/PSPC to trace the density of the intracluster gas out to the virial radius. We perform a stacking of the density profiles to detect a signal beyond r200 and measure the typical density and scatter in cluster outskirts. We also compute the azimuthal scatter of the profiles with respect to the mean value to look for deviations from spherical symmetry. Finally, we compare our average density and scatter profiles with the results of numerical simulations. Results. As opposed to some recent Suzaku results, and confirming previous evidence from ROSAT and Chandra, we observe a steepening of the density profiles beyond approximately r(sub 500). Comparing our density profiles with simulations, we find that non-radiative runs predict too steep density profiles, whereas runs including additional physics and/or treating gas clumping are in better agreement with the observed gas distribution. We report for the first time the high-confidence detection of a systematic difference between cool-core and non-cool core clusters beyond 0.3r(sub 200), which we explain by a different distribution of the gas in the two classes. Beyond r(sub 500), galaxy clusters deviate significantly from spherical symmetry, with only little differences between relaxed and disturbed systems. We find good agreement between the observed and predicted scatter profiles, but only when the 1% densest clumps are filtered out in the simulations. Conclusions. Comparing our results with numerical simulations, we find that non-radiative simulations fail to reproduce the gas distribution, even well outside cluster

  14. An exploration of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering in the Millennium-XXL simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Laura; Smith, Robert E.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering data has the potential to simultaneously constrain both the cosmological and galaxy formation models. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive exploration of these signals and their covariances through a combination of analytic and numerical approaches. First, we derive analytic expressions for the projected galaxy correlation function and stacked tangential shear profile and their respective covariances, which include Gaussian and discreteness noise terms. Secondly, we measure these quantities from mock galaxy catalogues obtained from the Millennium-XXL simulation and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. We find that on large scales (R > 10 h-1 Mpc), the galaxy bias is roughly linear and deterministic. On smaller scales (R ≲ 5 h-1 Mpc), the bias is a complicated function of scale and luminosity, determined by the different spatial distribution and abundance of satellite galaxies present when different magnitude cuts are applied, as well as by the mass dependence of the host haloes on magnitude. Our theoretical model for the covariances provides a reasonably good description of the measured ones on small and large scales. However, on intermediate scales (1 < R < 10 h-1 Mpc), the predicted errors are ˜2-3 times smaller, suggesting that the inclusion of higher order, non-Gaussian terms in the covariance will be required for further improvements. Importantly, both our theoretical and numerical methods show that the galaxy-galaxy lensing and clustering signals have a non-zero cross-covariance matrix with significant bin-to-bin correlations. Future surveys aiming to combine these probes must take this into account in order to obtain unbiased and realistic constraints.

  15. a Snapshot Survey of X-Ray Selected Central Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Alastair

    1999-07-01

    Central cluster galaxies are the most massive stellar systems known and have been used as standard candles for many decades. Only recently have central cluster galaxies been recognised to exhibit a wide variety of small scale {<100 pc} features that can only be reliably detected with HST resolution. The most intriguing of these are dust lanes which have been detected in many central cluster galaxies. Dust is not expected to survive long in the hostile cluster environment unless shielded by the ISM of a disk galaxy or very dense clouds of cold gas. WFPC2 snapshot images of a representative subset of the central cluster galaxies from an X-ray selected cluster sample would provide important constraints on the formation and evolution of dust in cluster cores that cannot be obtained from ground-based observations. In addition, these images will allow the AGN component, the frequency of multiple nuclei, and the amount of massive-star formation in central cluster galaxies to be ass es sed. The proposed HST observatio ns would also provide high-resolution images of previously unresolved gravitational arcs in the most massive clusters in our sample resulting in constraints on the shape of the gravitational potential of these systems. This project will complement our extensive multi-frequency work on this sample that includes optical spectroscopy and photometry, VLA and X-ray images for the majority of the 210 targets.

  16. Polarization diagnostics for cool core cluster emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Cracraft, M.; Meyer, E. T.; Carswell, R. F.; Voit, G. M.; Donahue, M.; Hough, J. H.; Manset, N.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between low-excitation gas filaments at ∼10{sup 4} K, seen in optical line emission, and diffuse X-ray emitting coronal gas at ∼10{sup 7} K in the centers of galaxy clusters remains a puzzle. The presence of a strong, empirical correlation between the two gas phases is indicative of a fundamental relationship between them, though as yet of undetermined cause. The cooler filaments, originally thought to have condensed from the hot gas, could also arise from a merger or the disturbance of cool circumnuclear gas by nuclear activity. Here, we have searched for intrinsic line emission polarization in cool core galaxy clusters as a diagnostic of fundamental transport processes. Drawing on developments in solar astrophysics, direct energetic particle impact induced polarization holds the promise to definitively determine the role of collisional processes such as thermal conduction in the ISM physics of galaxy clusters, while providing insight into other highly anisotropic excitation mechanisms such as shocks, intense radiation fields, and suprathermal particles. Under certain physical conditions, theoretical calculations predict of the order of 10% polarization. Our observations of the filaments in four nearby cool core clusters place stringent upper limits (≲ 0.1%) on the presence of emission line polarization, requiring that if thermal conduction is operative, the thermal gradients are not in the saturated regime. This limit is consistent with theoretical models of the thermal structure of filament interfaces.

  17. Strong lensing in the inner halo of galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, C.; Campusano, L. E.; Cypriano, E. S.; Sodré, L.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2016-08-01

    We present an axially symmetric formula to calculate the probability of finding gravitational arcs in galaxy clusters, being induced by their massive dark matter haloes, as a function of clusters redshifts and virial masses. The formula includes the ellipticity of the clusters dark matter potential by using a pseudo-elliptical approximation. The probabilities are calculated and compared for two dark matter halo profiles, the Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) and the non-singular-isothermal-sphere (NSIS). We demonstrate the power of our formulation through a Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test on the strong lensing statistics of an X-ray bright sample of low-redshift Abell clusters. This KS test allows us to establish limits on the values of the concentration parameter for the NFW profile (c_Δ) and the core radius for the NSIS profile (rc), which are related to the lowest cluster redshift (zcut) where strong arcs can be observed. For NFW dark matter profiles, we infer cluster haloes with concentrations that are consistent to those predicted by ΛCDM simulations. As for NSIS dark matter profiles, we find only upper limits for the clusters core radii and thus do not rule out a purely SIS model. For alternative mass profiles, our formulation provides constraints through zcut on the parameters that control the concentration of mass in the inner region of the clusters haloes. We find that zcut is expected to lie in the 0.0-0.2 redshift, highlighting the need to include very low-z clusters in samples to study the clusters mass profiles.

  18. Arcminute fluctuations in the microwave background from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markevitch, M.; Blumenthal, G. R.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Suniaev, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing arcmin microwave fluctuations produced by Compton scattering of the cosmic background photons by hot electrons in clusters of galaxies is described. Microwave images of the sky for a range of Omega and primordial fluctuation spectral index n are generated which are then 'observed' to determine Delta T/T in precisely the same manner as actual observations to determine if the cluster-induced fluctuations are consistent with the measured upper limit. The geometry used by Uson and Wilkinson (1984) in the NRAO experiment and Readhead et al. (1989) in the OVRO experiment are applied to the simulated images. The 95 percent confidence lower limit for Omega is found to be about 1/10 for n = -1 (which approximates the CDM mass spectrum for clusters), while for n = 0 it is 1/7; for n = +1 the limit is 1/5 if the gas density profile extends to five core radii.

  19. STUDYING INTERCLUSTER GALAXY FILAMENTS THROUGH STACKING gmBCG GALAXY CLUSTER PAIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuanyuan; Dietrich, Joerg P.; McKay, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Alex T. Q.; Sheldon, Erin S.

    2013-08-20

    We present a method to study the photometric properties of galaxies in filaments by stacking the galaxy populations between pairs of galaxy clusters. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, this method can detect the intercluster filament galaxy overdensity with a significance of {approx}5{sigma} out to z = 0.40. Using this approach, we study the g - r color and luminosity distribution of filament galaxies as a function of redshift. Consistent with expectation, filament galaxies are bimodal in their color distribution and contain a larger blue galaxy population than clusters. Filament galaxies are also generally fainter than cluster galaxies. More interestingly, the observed filament population seems to show redshift evolution at 0.12 < z < 0.40: the blue galaxy fraction has a trend to increase at higher redshift; such evolution is parallel to the ''Butcher-Oemler effect'' of galaxy clusters. We test the dependence of the observed filament density on the richness of the cluster pair: richer clusters are connected by higher density filaments. We also test the spatial dependence of filament galaxy overdensity: this quantity decreases when moving away from the intercluster axis between a cluster pair. This method provides an economical way to probe the photometric properties of filament galaxies and should prove useful for upcoming projects like the Dark Energy Survey.

  20. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  1. Anisotropic thermal conduction with magnetic fields in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, Alexander; Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role for the propagation and diffusion of charged particles, which are responsible for thermal conduction. In this poster, we present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the cosmological simulation code GADGET and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with low efficiency. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism allows small-scale structure in the temperature distribution to remain stable, because of their decoupling caused by magnetic field lines. Compared to observations, strong isotropic conduction leads to an oversmoothed temperature distribution within clusters, while the results obtained with anisotropic thermal conduction reproduce the observed temperature fluctuations well. A proper treatment of heat transport is crucial especially in the outskirts of clusters and also in high density regions. It's connection to the local dynamical state of the cluster also might contribute to the observed bimodal distribution of cool core and non cool core clusters. Our new scheme significantly advances the modelling of thermal conduction in numerical simulations and overall gives

  2. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Cluster properties and the impact on galaxy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owers, Matt S.

    2015-08-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey will provide resolved spectroscopy for around 3000 galaxies. Of those galaxies, ~600 have been selected to be members of eight massive clusters of galaxies. These eight clusters were the subject of a deep redshift survey using the AAOmega multi-object spectrograph with the aim of characterising the cluster dynamical properties (galaxy membership, cluster mass and substructure). Seven of the clusters also have existing Chandra and/or XMM-Newton X-ray data. In this talk I will describe the global characteristics of the clusters, such as the total masses and merging status, which have been measured using the combination of the redshift and X-ray data. These data are also used to provide a more physical description of galaxy environment local to the SAMI targets. Preliminary results will be presented on the environments of galaxies with evidence for environmentally impacted star formation properties, as indicated by the resolved information provided by the SAMI data.

  3. The Frequency of Anomalously Red Galaxies in SDSS Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, O.; Pimbblet, K. A.

    2014-09-01

    We present a systematic photometric search for spectroscopically confirmed anomalously red galaxies members of 748 low redshift clusters between 0.03 z 0.17 from the SDSS-C4 cluster catalogue (Miller et al. 2005). For each cluster we spectroscopically determine cluster membership, construct a colour-magnitude diagram and fit the red sequence using a robust bi-weight fit. We define an "anomalously red galaxy" as having a (g - r) colour of greater than 3σ redward of the fitted cluster colour-magnitude relation. We find that of 7485 galaxies at r ≤ 17.77 in (g - r), 7 galaxies are anomalously red - 0.0935 per cent of all galaxies in our sample. We show that two of the red outliers are caused by red contamination from nearby sources and are therefore not intrinsically anomalous red. However, 5 have no underlying cause to be so red and we speculate that they may have a high internal dust content. These intrinsically red galaxies are rare - comprising no more than 0.0668 per cent of all cluster galaxies. Most are morphologically early type galaxies, with a few probable late type galaxies that are viewed edge-on and one low surface brightness late type. One of our anomalously red galaxies appears to be a dust-shrouded starburst and we speculate that this may be a unique galaxy amoungst this galaxy set.

  4. Dynamical Analyses of Galaxy Clusters With Large Redshift Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, J. J.; Richstone, D. O.; Wegner, G.

    1998-12-01

    We construct equilibrium models of galaxy orbits in five nearby galaxy clusters to study the distribution of binding mass, the nature of galaxy orbits and the kinematic differences between cluster populations of emission-line and non emission-line galaxies. We avail ourselves of 1718 galaxy redshifts (and 1203 cluster member redshifts) in this Jeans analysis; most of these redshifts are new, coming from multifiber spectroscopic runs on the MDM 2.4m with the Decaspec and queue observing on WIYN with Hydra. In addition to the spectroscopic data we have V and R band CCD mosaics (obtained with the MDM 1.3m) of the Abell region in each of these clusters. Our scientific goals include: (i) a quantitative estimate of the range of binding masses M500 consistent with the optical and X-ray data, (ii) an estimate of the typical galaxy oribital anisotropies required to make the galaxy data consistent with the NFW expectation for the cluster potential, (iii) a better understanding of the systematics inherent in the process of rescaling and ``stacking'' galaxy cluster observations, (iv) a reexamination of the recent CNOC results implying that emission-line (blue) galaxies are an equilibrium population with a more extended radial distribution than their non emission-line (red) galaxy counterparts and (v) a measure of the galaxy contribution to the cluster mass of baryons.

  5. A GMBCG Galaxy Cluster Catalog of 55,424 Rich Clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; Sheldon, Erin; /Brookhaven

    2011-08-22

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  6. A GMBCG galaxy cluster catalog of 55,880 rich clusters from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Siegel, Seth R.; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; /Fermilab /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /UC, Santa Barbara /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Caltech /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    We present a large catalog of optically selected galaxy clusters from the application of a new Gaussian Mixture Brightest Cluster Galaxy (GMBCG) algorithm to SDSS Data Release 7 data. The algorithm detects clusters by identifying the red sequence plus Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) feature, which is unique for galaxy clusters and does not exist among field galaxies. Red sequence clustering in color space is detected using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model. We run GMBCG on 8240 square degrees of photometric data from SDSS DR7 to assemble the largest ever optical galaxy cluster catalog, consisting of over 55,000 rich clusters across the redshift range from 0.1 < z < 0.55. We present Monte Carlo tests of completeness and purity and perform cross-matching with X-ray clusters and with the maxBCG sample at low redshift. These tests indicate high completeness and purity across the full redshift range for clusters with 15 or more members.

  7. ON THE CLUSTERING OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christina C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Yun, Min S.; Pope, Alexandra; Wilson, Grant W.; Cybulski, Ryan; Schloerb, F. Peter; Porciani, Cristiano; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason E.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David H.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryo; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Kohno, Kotaro; Perera, Thushara

    2011-06-01

    We measure the angular two-point correlation function of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) from 1.1 mm imaging of the COSMOS field with the AzTEC camera and ASTE 10 m telescope. These data yield one of the largest contiguous samples of SMGs to date, covering an area of 0.72 deg{sup 2} down to a 1.26 mJy beam{sup -1} (1{sigma}) limit, including 189 (328) sources with S/N {>=}3.5 (3). We can only set upper limits to the correlation length r{sub 0}, modeling the correlation function as a power law with pre-assigned slope. Assuming existing redshift distributions, we derive 68.3% confidence level upper limits of r{sub 0} {approx}< 6-8h{sup -1} Mpc at 3.7 mJy and r{sub 0} {approx}< 11-12 h{sup -1} Mpc at 4.2 mJy. Although consistent with most previous estimates, these upper limits imply that the real r{sub 0} is likely smaller. This casts doubts on the robustness of claims that SMGs are characterized by significantly stronger spatial clustering (and thus larger mass) than differently selected galaxies at high redshift. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that even strongly clustered distributions of galaxies can appear unclustered when sampled with limited sensitivity and coarse angular resolution common to current submillimeter surveys. The simulations, however, also show that unclustered distributions can appear strongly clustered under these circumstances. From the simulations, we predict that at our survey depth, a mapped area of 2 deg{sup 2} is needed to reconstruct the correlation function, assuming smaller beam sizes of future surveys (e.g., the Large Millimeter Telescope's 6'' beam size). At present, robust measures of the clustering strength of bright SMGs appear to be below the reach of most observations.

  8. The Cluster of Galaxies Surrounding Cygnus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Frazer N.; Ledlow, Michael J.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Hill, John M.

    1997-10-01

    We report optical imaging and spectroscopy of 41 galaxies in a 22' square region surrounding Cygnus A. The results show that there is an extensive rich cluster associated with Cyg A of Abell richness of at least 1 and possibly as high as 4. The velocity histogram has two peaks, one centered on Cyg A and a more significant peak redshifted by about 2060 km s-1 from the velocity of Cyg A. The dynamical centroid of the spatial distribution is also shifted somewhat to the northwest. However, statistical tests show only weak evidence that there are two distinct clusters. The entire system has a velocity dispersion of 1581 km s-1, which is slightly larger than other, well-studied examples of rich clusters.

  9. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Slosar, Anže; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Hirata, Christopher M.; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy haloes, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. We generalize the approach of Baldauf et al. to remove small-scale information (below 2 and 4 h-1 Mpc for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 deg2, containing 69 150, 62 150 and 35 088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28 and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy samples, at a level consistent with theoretical expectations. When we vary both σ8 and Ωm (and marginalize over non-linear galaxy bias) in a flat Λ cold dark matter model, the best-constrained quantity is σ8(Ωm/0.25)0.57 = 0.80 ± 0.05 (1σ, stat. + sys.), where statistical and systematic errors (photometric redshift and shear calibration) have comparable contributions, and we have fixed ns = 0.96 and h = 0.7. These strong constraints on the matter clustering suggest that this method is competitive with cosmic shear in current data, while having very complementary and in some ways less serious systematics. We therefore expect that this method will play a prominent role in future weak lensing surveys. When we combine these data with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year (WMAP7) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, constraints on σ8, Ωm, H0, wde and ∑mν become 30-80 per cent tighter than with CMB data alone, since our data break several parameter

  10. ON THE ROAD TO MORE REALISTIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATIVE COOLING AND THERMAL FEEDBACK PRESCRIPTIONS ON THE OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Skory, Stephen; Hallman, Eric; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Samuel W.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D.

    2013-01-20

    Flux-limited X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters show that clusters come in two roughly equally proportioned varieties: 'cool core' clusters (CCs) and non-'cool core' clusters (NCCs). In previous work, we have demonstrated using cosmological N-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations that NCCs are often consistent with early major merger events that destroy embryonic CCs. In this paper we extend those results and conduct a series of simulations using different methods of gas cooling and of energy and metal feedback from supernovae, where we attempt to produce a population of clusters with realistic central cooling times, entropies, and temperatures. We find that the use of metallicity-dependent gas cooling is essential to prevent early overcooling, and that adjusting the amount of energy and metal feedback can have a significant impact on observable X-ray quantities of the gas. We are able to produce clusters with more realistic central observable quantities than have previously been attained. However, there are still significant discrepancies between the simulated clusters and observations, which indicates that a different approach to simulating galaxies in clusters is needed. We conclude by looking toward a promising subgrid method of modeling galaxy feedback in clusters that may help to ameliorate the discrepancies between simulations and observations.

  11. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of the cores of X-ray luminous clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, E. M.; York, D. G.; Cowie, L. L.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a two-dimensional spectrophotometric survey of the core regions of 11 rich clusters of galaxies are presented. A number of these clusters have spectacular optical emission line systems in their cores. Both morphologically and kinematically, the emission line regions divide into extended, 20-100 kpc systems of long linear filaments associated with the cluster core and more compact, homogeneous elongated regions associated with the dominant central cluster galaxy. It is suggested that the present results can be expected, as hot X-ray emitting gas cools in the cluster center. Luminosities almost entirely agree with expected values. The morphology of the systems can be understood if the filaments form initially in the cooling flow and, in some cases, are subsequently accreted by the central galaxy.

  12. DETECTING STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES WITH GALEX

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A. K.; Donahue, M.; Mushotzky, R. E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.ed

    2010-08-20

    We present the results of GALEX observations of 17 cool core (CC) clusters of galaxies. We show that GALEX is easily capable of detecting star formation in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) out to z {>=} 0.45 and 50-100 kpc. In most of the CC clusters studied, we find significant UV luminosity excesses and colors that strongly suggest recent and/or current star formation. The BCGs are found to have blue UV colors in the center which become increasingly redder with radius, indicating that the UV signature of star formation is most easily detected in the central regions. Our findings show good agreement between UV star formation rates and estimates based on H{alpha} observations. IR observations coupled with our data indicate moderate-to-high dust attenuation. Comparisons between our UV results and the X-ray properties of our sample suggest clear correlations between UV excess, cluster entropy, and central cooling time, confirming that star formation is directly and incontrovertibly related to the cooling gas.

  13. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  14. Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.

  15. The clustering of clusters of galaxies in the REFLEX survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzo, L.; Böhringer, H.; Collins, C. A.; Schuecker, P.; Chincarini, G.; Cruddace, R.; de Grandi, S.; Neumann, D. M.; Schindler, S.; Shaver, P. A.; Voges, W.

    We summarize the major clustering results obtained so far from the REFLEX survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies. The REFLEX survey is now virtually 100% redshift complete to a flux limit 3×10-12 erg s-1 cm-2 (in the ROSAT band, 0.1-2.4 keV) and several clustering analyses are underway. The most interesting results are being obtained on the power spectrum, which has been estimated on scales approaching ~1000h-1 Mpc and whose shape and amplitude are both in very good agreement with the predictions of a low-ΩM (open or Λ-dominated) CDM model. Both the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function show a remarkable agreement in shape - just scaled by a constant b2 ~ 7 - 10 in amplitude - with the corresponding statistics measured from galaxy surveys, confirming the validity of a simple biasing scheme. Several tests, as e.g. the behaviour of the mean cluster density as a function of redshift, or the isotropy of the correlation function ξ(τp, π), represent additional confirmation that the current REFLEX sample is highly complete (>90%) and with a well-controlled selection function.

  16. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A.

    2014-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip. PMID:24843167

  17. Gas loss in simulated galaxies as they fall into clusters.

    PubMed

    Cen, Renyue; Pop, Ana Roxana; Bahcall, Neta A

    2014-06-03

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulations to gain insights into how galaxies lose their cold gas at low redshift as they migrate from the field to the high-density regions of clusters of galaxies. We find that beyond three cluster virial radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies is constant, representing the field. Within three cluster-centric radii, the fraction of gas-rich galaxies declines steadily with decreasing radius, reaching <10% near the cluster center. Our results suggest galaxies start to feel the effect of the cluster environment on their gas content well beyond the cluster virial radius. We show that almost all gas-rich galaxies at the cluster virial radius are falling in for the first time at nearly radial orbits. Furthermore, we find that almost no galaxy moving outward at the cluster virial radius is gas-rich (with a gas-to-baryon ratio greater than 1%). These results suggest that galaxies that fall into clusters lose their cold gas within a single radial round-trip.

  18. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2017-08-01

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90^circ . Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017.

  19. Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.

  20. Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and the Mass-to-number Ratio of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.; Zehavi, Idit; Blanton, Michael R.; Busha, Michael T.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    We place constraints on the average density (Ω m ) and clustering amplitude (σ8) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, wp (rp ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our wp (rp ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both wp (rp ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Ω m or σ8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using wp (rp ) and M/N alone, we find Ω0.5 m σ8 = 0.465 ± 0.026, with individual constraints of Ω m = 0.29 ± 0.03 and σ8 = 0.85 ± 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are Ω m = 0.290 ± 0.016 and σ8 = 0.826 ± 0.020. All errors are 1σ. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

  1. IPC two-color analysis of x ray galaxy clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1990-01-01

    The mass distributions were determined of several clusters of galaxies by using X ray surface brightness data from the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). Determining cluster mass distributions is important for constraining the nature of the dark matter which dominates the mass of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the Universe. Galaxy clusters are permeated with hot gas in hydrostatic equilibrium with the gravitational potentials of the clusters. Cluster mass distributions can be determined from x ray observations of cluster gas by using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and knowledge of the density and temperature structure of the gas. The x ray surface brightness at some distance from the cluster is the result of the volume x ray emissivity being integrated along the line of sight in the cluster.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jellyfish galaxy candidates in galaxy clusters (Poggianti+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffe, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-10-01

    WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) is a large survey targeting 76 clusters of galaxies selected on the basis of their X-ray luminosity (Ebeling et al. 1996, Cat. J/MNRAS/281/799; Ebeling et al. 1998, Cat. J/MNRAS/301/881; Ebeling et al. 2000, Cat. J/MNRAS/318/333), covering a wide range in cluster masses (σ=500-1200+km/s, logLX=43.3-45erg/s, Fasano et al. 2006A&A...445..805F). The original WINGS data set consisted of B and V deep photometry of a 34'*34' field of view with the WFC@INT and the WFC@2.2mMPG/ESO (Varela et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/497/667), spectroscopic follow-ups with 2dF@AAT and WYFFOS@WHT (Cava et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/495/707), plus J and K imaging with WFC@UKIRT (Valentinuzzi et al. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/501/851) and some U-band imaging (Omizzolo et al. 2014, Cat. J/A+A/561/A111). This database is presented in Moretti et al. 2014A&A...564A.138M and has been employed for a number of studies (see https://sites.google.com/site/wingsomegawings/). OmegaCAM-VST observations of WINGS galaxy clusters (OMEGAWINGS) is a recent extention of this project, that quadruples the area covered (1deg2) and allows to reach up to ~2.5 cluster virial radii. OMEGAWINGS is based on two OmegaCAM@VST GTO programs for 46 WINGS clusters: a B and V campaign completed in P93, and an ongoing u-band programme. The B and V data, the data reduction and the photometric catalogs are presented in Gullieuszik et al. 2015 (Cat. J/A+A/581/A41). Spectra are obtained with AAOmega@AAT on the OmegaCAM field. So far, we have secured high quality spectra for ~30 OMEGAWINGS clusters, reaching very high spectroscopic completeness levels for galaxies brighter than V=20 from the cluster cores to their periphery (A. Moretti et al. 2016, in preparation). Galaxies are considered cluster members if they are within 3σ from the cluster redshift. The mean redshift uncertainty, computed from the differences between WINGS and OMEGAWINGS redshift values of repeated objects, is Δz=0.0002. For this

  3. Quantifying peculiarity of cluster galaxies and their kinematic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sree; Jeong, Hyunjin; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy morphology involves complex effects from both secular and non-secular evolution of galaxies. Although it is a final product of galaxy evolution, it gives a clue to the processes that the galaxy suffer. Galaxy clusters are the sites where the most massive galaxies are found, and so the most dramatic merger histories are embedded. Our extra-ordinary deep (μr ~ 28 mag/''2) imaging of Abell 119 at z = 0.044 using a Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO enable us to detect low surface brightness features, and we found post-merger signatures for 25% of red-sequence galaxies in the clusters suggesting that so many galaxies even in clusters have gone through galaxy mergers at recent epochs. We quantified the degree of peculiarity of morphology utilizing residual lights from model subtracted images to pin down the merger frequency in cluster environments more objectively. With our technique we measured the degree of features which in turn allow us to extract the details of the merger properties, such as the galaxy mass ratios and the merger frequency. We went further to understand the impact of galaxy mergers in cluster environment using the SAMI Integral Field Unit on the galaxies of Abell 119 and found that half of galaxies related to mergers show misalignment in the angle between the photometric major and the rotation axes, and most of them show complex kinematic features. Our research on quantification of merger features through deep imaging help us to understand the merger history of cluster galaxies, and we present our understanding of galaxy mergers in cluster environment from the perspective of kinematics.

  4. QUASAR-GALAXY CLUSTERING THROUGH PROJECTED GALAXY COUNTS AT z = 0.6-1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shaohua; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Wang Huiyuan E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the spatial clustering of galaxies around quasars at z = 0.6-1.2 using photometric data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. The quasar and galaxy cross-correlation functions are measured through the projected galaxy number density n(r{sub p} ) on scales of 0.05 < r{sub p} < 20 h {sup -1} Mpc around quasars for a sample of 2300 quasars from Schneider et al. We detect strong clustering signals at all redshifts and find that the clustering amplitude increases significantly with redshift. We examine the dependence of quasar-galaxy clustering on quasar and galaxy properties and find that the clustering amplitude is significantly larger for quasars with more massive black holes or with bluer colors, while there is no dependence on quasar luminosity. We also show that quasars have a stronger correlation amplitude with blue galaxies than with red galaxies. We finally discuss the implications of our findings.

  5. Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standard candles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. We have obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshifts for an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199 BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metric luminosity, L(sub m), within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs and the logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. The L(sub m)-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter in L(sub m) from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distance accuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the L(sub m)-alpha relationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - R(sub c) color, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the host cluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness even before correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides further evidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed, the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of the alpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution. Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradients as a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but with almost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, with the central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B - R(sub c) color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. The narrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of 'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich cluster environment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distance indicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

  6. Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standard candles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. We have obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshifts for an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199 BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metric luminosity, L(sub m), within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs and the logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. The L(sub m)-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter in L(sub m) from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distance accuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the L(sub m)-alpha relationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - R(sub c) color, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the host cluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness even before correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides further evidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed, the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of the alpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution. Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradients as a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but with almost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, with the central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B - R(sub c) color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. The narrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of 'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich cluster environment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distance indicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

  7. Are Large Core Radius Clusters Merging Systems?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed observations for two lensing clusters of galaxies, A1689 and A2218. Our investigations have explored the implications of their X-ray properties for mass determinations both in X-rays and through both weak and strong gravitational lensing. The work on these two clusters is summarized below and copies of the two papers submitted to the Astrophysical Journal and accepted for publication are attached.

  8. Selections from 2015: Discovery of Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Forty-Seven Milky Way-Sized, Extremely Diffuse Galaxies in the Coma ClusterPublished January 2015Main takeaway:Using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered 47 ultra-diffuse galaxies in the Coma galaxy cluster. These galaxies are very large, with half-light (effective) radii of 1.54.6 kpc, similar to that of the Milky Ways disk. But their stellar masses are a factor of 1000 lower than the Milky Ways, and theyre accordingly much dimmer.Plot of the effective radius versus the central surface brightness for the ultra-diffuse Coma cluster galaxies (red markers). These galaxies are similar in size to the Milky Ways disk (blue), but significantly dimmer. [Van Dokkum et al. 2015]Why its interesting:These galaxies make up an odd population. Why are their stellar masses so low? The authors posit that these objects may be failed galaxies that lost their gas after having formed their first generation of stars. Adding to the intrigue, the authors find that in order for these galaxies to hold themselves together at their current distance from the cluster core, they must have a whopping dark-matter fraction of 98%.About the discovery:These ultra-diffuse galaxies were actually discovered entirely by accident. Van Dokkum and collaborators observed the Coma cluster in a project to measure properties of the intra-cluster light and look for streams and tidal features. Surprisingly, their images revealed these faint, uncataloged galaxies.CitationPieter G. van Dokkum et al 2015 ApJ 798 L45. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/2/L45

  9. Alignments of the Dominant Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Todd M.; West, Michael J.; Bridges, Terry J.

    1999-07-01

    We have examined the orientations of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in poor MKW (Morgan, Kayser, and White) and AWM (Albert, White, and Morgan) clusters and find that, like their counterparts in richer Abell clusters, poor cluster BCGs exhibit a strong propensity to be aligned with the principal axes of their host clusters as well as the surrounding distribution of nearby (<=20 h-1 Mpc) Abell clusters. The processes responsible for dominant galaxy alignments are therefore independent of cluster richness. We argue that these alignments most likely arise from anisotropic infall of material into clusters along large-scale filaments.

  10. Temperature Maps of Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have completed our analysis of the temperature structure of clusters of galaxies. The next to last paper to be supported by this project has been published in the Astrophysical Journal. The analysis for the final paper is nearly complete, but has been delayed by the high priority demands of Chandra Mission Planning and Chandra Calibration which have required more than the expected amount of work by Forman and Donnelly. For this paper, a final check of the 55 member cluster sample identified several clusters for which X-ray luminosities are needed. We also verified the ASCA analysis and the novel method we use for the derivation of the temperature maps against XMM-Newton observations for a few clusters which are publicly available in the XMM-Newton archives We find excellent agreement. This final paper is expected to be submitted by November 2002. It will provide a large, well-defined sample of clusters for comparison to large numerical simulations which can help clarify the evolution of the largest collapsed systems in the Universe.

  11. Line-of-sight Structure toward Strong Lensing Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Johnson, Traci; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Oguri, Masamune

    2014-03-01

    We present an analysis of the line-of-sight structure toward a sample of 10 strong lensing cluster cores. Structure is traced by groups that are identified spectroscopically in the redshift range, 0.1 <= z <= 0.9, and we measure the projected angular and comoving separations between each group and the primary strong lensing clusters in each corresponding line of sight. From these data we measure the distribution of projected angular separations between the primary strong lensing clusters and uncorrelated large-scale structure as traced by groups. We then compare the observed distribution of angular separations for our strong lensing selected lines of sight against the distribution of groups that is predicted for clusters lying along random lines of sight. There is clear evidence for an excess of structure along the line of sight at small angular separations (θ <= 6') along the strong lensing selected lines of sight, indicating that uncorrelated structure is a significant systematic that contributes to producing galaxy clusters with large cross sections for strong lensing. The prevalence of line-of-sight structure is one of several biases in strong lensing clusters that can potentially be folded into cosmological measurements using galaxy cluster samples. These results also have implications for current and future studies—such as the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields—that make use of massive galaxy cluster lenses as precision cosmological telescopes; it is essential that the contribution of line-of-sight structure be carefully accounted for in the strong lens modeling of the cluster lenses. From observations taken with the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona; the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; with the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf

  12. The Cluster-EAGLE project: global properties of simulated clusters with resolved galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Jenkins, Adrian; Thomas, Peter A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce the Cluster-EAGLE (c-eagle) simulation project, a set of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom simulations of the formation of 30 galaxy clusters in the mass range of 1014 < M200/M⊙ < 1015.4 that incorporates the Hydrangea sample of Bahé et al. (2017). The simulations adopt the state-of-the-art eagle galaxy formation model, with a gas particle mass of 1.8 × 106 M⊙ and physical softening length of 0.7 kpc. In this paper, we introduce the sample and present the low-redshift global properties of the clusters. We calculate the X-ray properties in a manner consistent with observational techniques, demonstrating the bias and scatter introduced by using estimated masses. We find the total stellar content and black hole masses of the clusters to be in good agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters are too gas rich, suggesting that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback model is not efficient enough at expelling gas from the high-redshift progenitors of the clusters. The X-ray properties, such as the spectroscopic temperature and the soft-band luminosity, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich properties are in reasonable agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters have too high central temperatures and larger-than-observed entropy cores, which is likely driven by the AGN feedback after the cluster core has formed. The total metal content and its distribution throughout the intracluster medium are a good match to the observations.

  13. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  14. REVISITING SCALING RELATIONS FOR GIANT RADIO HALOS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Pratt, G. W.; Markevitch, M.

    2013-11-10

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R{sub 500} as P{sub 1.4}∼L{sup 2.1±0.2}{sub 500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L{sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P{sub 1.4} scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R{sub 500}, measured by Planck, as P{sub 1.4}∼Y{sup 2.05±0.28}{sub 500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that 'SZ-luminous' Y{sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup 2} clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle

  15. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, M.

    2013-11-01

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R 500 as P_{1.4} \\sim L^{2.1+/- 0.2}_{500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L 500 > 5 × 1044 erg s-1) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P 1.4 scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R 500, measured by Planck, as P_{1.4}\\sim Y^{2.05+/- 0.28}_{500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y 500 > 6 × 10-5 Mpc2 clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  16. Shock Heating of the Merging Galaxy Cluster A521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 +/- 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  17. SHOCK HEATING OF THE MERGING GALAXY CLUSTER A521

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Markevitch, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Brunetti, G.

    2013-02-10

    A521 is an interacting galaxy cluster located at z = 0.247, hosting a low-frequency radio halo connected to an eastern radio relic. Previous Chandra observations hinted at the presence of an X-ray brightness edge at the position of the relic, which may be a shock front. We analyze a deep observation of A521 recently performed with XMM-Newton in order to probe the cluster structure up to the outermost regions covered by the radio emission. The cluster atmosphere exhibits various brightness and temperature anisotropies. In particular, two cluster cores appear to be separated by two cold fronts. We find two shock fronts, one that was suggested by Chandra and that is propagating to the east, and another to the southwestern cluster outskirt. The two main interacting clusters appear to be separated by a shock-heated region, which exhibits a spatial correlation with the radio halo. The outer edge of the radio relic coincides spatially with a shock front, suggesting that this shock is responsible for the generation of cosmic-ray electrons in the relic. The propagation direction and Mach number of the shock front derived from the gas density jump, M = 2.4 {+-} 0.2, are consistent with expectations from the radio spectral index, under the assumption of Fermi I acceleration mechanism.

  18. Detection of CO emission in Hydra 1 cluster galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of bright Hydra cluster spiral galaxies for the CO(1-0) transition at 115 GHz was performed with the 15m Swedish-ESO submillimeter telescope (SEST). Five out of 15 galaxies observed have been detected in the CO(1-0) line. The largest spiral galaxy in the cluster, NGC 3312, got more CO than any spiral of the Virgo cluster. This Sa-type galaxy is optically largely distorted and disrupted on one side. It is a good candidate for ram pressure stripping while passing through the cluster's central region. A comparison with global CO properties of Virgo cluster spirals shows a relatively good agreement with the detected Hydra cluster galaxies.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gunn photometry of seven clusters of galaxies (Molinari+ 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, E.; Buzzoni, A.; Chincarini, G.

    1996-04-01

    Gunn g, r, i photometry for the 7 clusters MRC0254-274, Cl0317+15, MS0418.3-3 844, Cl1141-283, A1689, A3594, S0781B is presented. For each cluster we derived the spatial distribution properties obtaining the core radius and the concentration parameters. Color properties of the cluster galaxy population are also briefly discussed. (7 data files).

  20. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey - XIV. Transition-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Looze, Ilse; Baes, Maarten; Boselli, Alessandro; Cortese, Luca; Fritz, Jacopo; Auld, Robbie; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Boquien, Médéric; Clemens, Marcel; Ciesla, Laure; Davies, Jonathan; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Grossi, Marco; Jones, Anthony; Madden, Suzanne C.; Pappalardo, Ciro; Pierini, Daniele; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Verstappen, Joris; Vlahakis, Catherine; Zibetti, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    We use dust scaling relations to investigate the hypothesis that Virgo cluster transition-type dwarfs are infalling star-forming field galaxies, which is argued based on their optical features (e.g. discs, spiral arms and bars) and kinematic properties similar to late-type galaxies. After their infall, environmental effects gradually transform them into early-type galaxies through the removal of their interstellar medium and quenching of all star formation activity. In this paper, we aim to verify whether this hypothesis holds using far-infrared diagnostics based on Herschel observations of the Virgo cluster taken as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We select transition-type objects in the nearest cluster, Virgo, based on spectral diagnostics indicative for their residual or ongoing star formation. We detect dust (Md ˜ 105-6 M⊙) in 36 per cent of the transition-type dwarfs located on the high end of the stellar mass distribution. This suggests that the dust reservoirs present in non-detections fall just below the Herschel detection limit (≲1.1 × 105 M⊙). Dust scaling relations support the hypothesis of a transformation between infalling late-type galaxies to quiescent low-mass spheroids governed by environmental effects, with dust-to-stellar mass fractions for transition-type dwarfs in between values characteristic for late-type objects and the lower dust fractions observed in early-type galaxies. Several transition-type dwarfs demonstrate blue central cores, hinting at the radially outside-in removal of gas and quenching of star formation activity. The fact that dust is also confined to the inner regions suggests that metals are stripped in the outer regions along with the gas. In the scenario of most dust being stripped from the galaxy along with the gas, we argue that the ejected metals by transition-type dwarfs significantly contribute to the enrichment of the intracluster medium over the lifetime of the Virgo cluster. The accretion of gas

  1. A partial list of southern clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, H.; White, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    An inspection of 34 SRC/ESO J southern sky fields is the basis of the present list of clusters of galaxies and their approximate classifications in terms of cluster concentration, defined independently of richness and shape-symmetry. Where possible, an estimate of the cluster morphological population is provided. The Bautz-Morgan classification was applied using a strict comparison with clusters on the Palomar Sky Survey. Magnitudes were estimated on the basis of galaxies with photoelectric or photographic magnitudes.

  2. A comprehensive study of the radio properties of brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. T.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Hamer, S. L.; Mahony, E. K.; Russell, H. R.; Fabian, A. C.; McNamara, B. R.; Wilman, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    We examine the radio properties of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a large sample of X-ray selected galaxy clusters comprising the Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS), the extended BCS and ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray cluster catalogues. We have multifrequency radio observations of the BCG using a variety of data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, Jansky Very Large Array and Very Long Baseline Array telescopes. The radio spectral energy distributions of these objects are decomposed into a component attributed to on-going accretion by the active galactic nuclei (AGN) that we refer to as `the core', and a more diffuse, ageing component we refer to as the `non-core'. These BCGs are matched to previous studies to determine whether they exhibit emission lines (principally Hα), indicative of the presence of a strong cooling cluster core. We consider how the radio properties of the BCGs vary with cluster environmental factors. Line emitting BCGs are shown to generally host more powerful radio sources, exhibiting the presence of a strong, distinguishable core component in about 60 per cent of cases. This core component more strongly correlates with the BCG's [O III] 5007 Å line emission. For BCGs in line emitting clusters, the X-ray cavity power correlates with both the extended and core radio emission, suggestive of steady fuelling of the AGN over bubble-rise time-scales in these clusters.

  3. SPATIAL ANISOTROPY OF GALAXY KINEMATICS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Skielboe, Andreas; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Pedersen, Kristian; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2012-10-10

    Measurements of galaxy cluster kinematics are important in understanding the dynamical state and evolution of clusters of galaxies, as well as constraining cosmological models. While it is well established that clusters exhibit non-spherical geometries, evident in the distribution of galaxies on the sky, azimuthal variations of galaxy kinematics within clusters have yet to be observed. Here we measure the azimuthal dependence of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile in a stacked sample of 1743 galaxy clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The clusters are drawn from the SDSS DR8 redMaPPer catalog. We find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of galaxies lying along the major axis of the central galaxy is larger than those that lie along the minor axis. This is the first observational detection of anisotropic kinematics of galaxies in clusters. We show that the result is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations. Furthermore, we find that the degree of projected anisotropy is strongly dependent on the line-of-sight orientation of the galaxy cluster, opening new possibilities for assessing systematics in optical cluster finding.

  4. The Nature of LSB galaxies revealed by their Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2005-07-01

    Low Surface Brightness {LSB} galaxies encompass many of the extremes in galaxy properties. Their understanding is essential to complete our picture of galaxy formation and evolution. Due to their historical under-representation on galaxy surveys, their importance to many areas of astronomy has only recently began to be realized. Globular clusters are superb tracers of the formation histories of galaxies and have been extensively used as such in high surface brightness galaxies. We propose to investigate the nature of massive LSB galaxies by studying their globular cluster systems. No globular cluster study has been reported for LSB galaxies to date. Yet, both the presence or absence of globular clusters set very strong constraints on the conditions prevailing during LSB galaxy formation and evolution. Both in dwarf and giant high surface brightness {HSB} galaxies, globular clusters are known to form as a constant fraction of baryonic mass. Their presence/absence immediately indicates similarities or discrepancies in the formation and evolution conditions of LSB and HSB galaxies. In particular, the presence/absence of metal-poor halo globular clusters infers similarities/differences in the halo formation and assembly processes of LSB vs. HSB galaxies, while the presence/absence of metal-rich globular clusters can be used to derive the occurrence and frequency of violent events {such as mergers} in the LSB galaxy assembly history. Two band imaging with ACS will allow us to identify the globular clusters {just resolved at the selected distance} and to determine their metallicity {potentially their rough age}. The composition of the systems will be compared to the extensive census built up on HSB galaxies. Our representative sample of six LSB galaxies {cz < 2700 km/s} are selected such, that a large system of globular clusters is expected. Globular clusters will constrain phases of LSB galaxy formation and evolution that can currently not be probed by other means. HST

  5. The Formation of Cluster Populations Through Direct Galaxy Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Bradley W.; Smith, Beverly J.; Struck, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made on the question of how globular clusters form. In particular, the study of extragalactic populations of young, high-mass clusters ("super star clusters") has revealed a class of objects can evolve into globular clusters. The process by which these clusters form, and how many survive long enough to become globular clusters, is not wholly understood. Here, we use new data on the colliding galaxy system Arp 261 to investigate the possibility that young, massive clusters form in greater numbers during direct galaxy collisions, compared to less direct tidal collisions.

  6. A class of compact dwarf galaxies from disruptive processes in galaxy clusters.

    PubMed

    Drinkwater, M J; Gregg, M D; Hilker, M; Bekki, K; Couch, W J; Ferguson, H C; Jones, J B; Phillipps, S

    2003-05-29

    Dwarf galaxies have attracted increased attention in recent years, because of their susceptibility to galaxy transformation processes within rich galaxy clusters. Direct evidence for these processes, however, has been difficult to obtain, with a small number of diffuse light trails and intra-cluster stars being the only signs of galaxy disruption. Furthermore, our current knowledge of dwarf galaxy populations may be very incomplete, because traditional galaxy surveys are insensitive to extremely diffuse or compact galaxies. Aware of these concerns, we recently undertook an all-object survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster. This revealed a new population of compact members, overlooked in previous conventional surveys. Here we demonstrate that these 'ultra-compact' dwarf galaxies are structurally and dynamically distinct from both globular star clusters and known types of dwarf galaxy, and thus represent a new class of dwarf galaxy. Our data are consistent with the interpretation that these are the remnant nuclei of disrupted dwarf galaxies, making them an easily observed tracer of galaxy disruption.

  7. Cosmology with EMSS Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark

    1999-01-01

    We use ASCA observations of the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey sample of clusters of galaxies to construct the first z = 0.5 - 0.8 cluster temperature function. This distant cluster temperature function, when compared to local z approximately 0 and to a similar moderate redshift (z = 0.3 - 0.4) temperature function strongly constrains the matter density of the universe. Best fits to the distributions of temperatures and redshifts of these cluster samples results in Omega(sub M) = 0.45 +/- 0.1 if Lambda = 0 and Omega = 0.27 +/- 0.1 if Lambda + Omega(sub M) = 1. The uncertainties are 1sigma statistical. We examine the systematics of our approach and find that systematics, stemming mainly from model assumptions and not measurement errors, are about the same size as the statistical uncertainty +/- 0.1. In this poster proceedings, we clarify the issue of a8 as reported in our paper Donahue & Voit (1999), since this was a matter of discussion at the meeting.

  8. STIRRING UP THE POT: CAN COOLING FLOWS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS BE QUENCHED BY GAS SLOSHING?

    SciTech Connect

    ZuHone, J. A.; Markevitch, M.; Johnson, R. E.

    2010-07-10

    X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies reveal the presence of edges in surface brightness and temperature, known as 'cold fronts'. In relaxed clusters with cool cores, these commonly observed edges have been interpreted as evidence for the 'sloshing' of the core gas in the cluster's gravitational potential. Such sloshing may provide a source of heat to the cluster core by mixing hot gas from the cluster outskirts with the cool-core gas. Using high-resolution N-body/Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations, we model gas sloshing in galaxy clusters initiated by mergers with subclusters. The simulations include merger scenarios with gas-filled and gasless subclusters. The effect of changing the viscosity of the intracluster medium is also explored, but heat conduction is assumed to be negligible. We find that sloshing can facilitate heat inflow to the cluster core, provided that there is a strong enough disturbance. Additionally, sloshing redistributes the gas in the cluster core, causing the gas to expand and decreasing the efficiency of radiative cooling. In adiabatic simulations, we find that sloshing can raise the entropy floor of the cluster core by nearly an order of magnitude in the strongest cases. If the ICM is viscous, the mixing of gases with different entropies is decreased and consequently the heat flux to the core is diminished. In simulations where radiative cooling is included, we find that although eventually a cooling flow develops, sloshing can prevent the significant buildup of cool gas in the core for times on the order of a Gyr for small disturbances and a few Gyr for large ones. If repeated encounters with merging subclusters sustain the sloshing of the central core gas, as is observed, this process can provide a relatively steady source of heat to the core, which can help prevent a significant cooling flow.

  9. Deep spectroscopy in nearby galaxy clusters - III. Orbital structure of galaxies in Abell 85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Agulli, I.; Diaferio, A.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2017-06-01

    Galaxies in clusters are strongly affected by their environment. They evolve according to several physical mechanisms that are active in clusters. Their efficiency can strongly depend on the orbital configuration of the galaxies. Our aim is to analyse the orbits of the galaxies in the cluster Abell 85, based on the study of the galaxy velocity anisotropy parameter. We have solved the Jeans equation under the assumption that the galaxies in A 85 are collisionless objects, within the spherically symmetric gravitational potential of the virialized cluster. The mass of the cluster was estimated with X-ray and caustic analyses. We find that the anisotropy profile of the full galaxy population in A 85 is an increasing monotonic function of the distance from the cluster centre: on average, galaxies in the central region (r/r200 < 0.3) are on isotropic orbits, while galaxies in the outer regions are on radial orbits. We also find that the orbital properties of the galaxies strongly depend on their stellar colour. In particular, blue galaxies are on less radial orbits than red galaxies. The different families of cluster galaxies considered here have the pseudo phase-space density profiles Q(r) and Qr(r) consistent with the profiles expected in virialized dark matter haloes in N-body simulations. This result suggests that the galaxies in A 85 have reached dynamical equilibrium within the cluster potential. Our results indicate that the origin of the blue and red colours of the different galaxy populations is the different orbital shape rather than the accretion time.

  10. Young star clusters in the interacting galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, J. A.; Sharples, R. M.; Cho, J.

    2015-03-01

    Deep images of Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) have been obtained using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We report results for star clusters observed in the interacting pair of galaxies NGC 7174 and NGC 7176. We present magnitude and colour distributions for the observed cluster population and find that the majority of objects show colours similar to intermediate/old age (>1 Gyr) globular clusters. However, a significant population of blue star clusters are also observed which may have formed from the tidal interaction currently occurring between the two galaxies. We find luminosity function turnover magnitudes of m^{TO}g = 25.1 ± 0.1 and m^{TO}z = 24.3 ± 0.1 for the g and z bands, respectively, implying distances of Dg = 28.8 ± 2.6 Mpc and Dz = 34.7 ± 3.1 Mpc to these galaxies, using the globular cluster luminosity function method. Lastly, we determine a total cluster population of approximately NGC ≃ 212 ± 10 over all magnitudes and a low specific frequency of SN ˜ 0.6 ± 0.1 for this pair of interacting elliptical and spiral galaxies. The small globular cluster population is likely due to tidal interactions taking place between the two galaxies which may have stripped many progenitor clusters away and formed the diffuse light observed at the core of HCG 90.

  11. The Ophiuchus cluster - A bright X-ray cluster of galaxies at low galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. D.; Bradt, H. V.; Doxsey, R. E.; Marshall, F. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Margon, B.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of an extended X-ray source identified with a cluster of galaxies at low galactic latitude is reported. The source, designated the Ophiuchus cluster, was detected near 4U 1708-23 with the HEAO 1 Scanning Modulation Collimator, and identified with the cluster on the basis of extended X-ray size and positional coincidence on the ESO/SRC (J) plate of the region. An X-ray flux density in the region 2-10 keV of approximately 25 microJ was measured, along with an X-ray luminosity of 1.6 x 10 to the 45th ergs/sec and an X-ray core radius of approximately 4 arcmin (0.2 Mpc) for an assumed isothermal sphere surface brightness distribution. The X-ray spectrum in the range 2-10 keV obtained with the HEAO 1 A-2 instrument is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT = 8 keV and a 6.7-keV iron line of equivalent width 450 eV. The steep-spectrum radio source MSH 17-203 also appears to be associated with the cluster, which is the closest and brightest representative of the class of X-ray clusters with a dominant central galaxy.

  12. The Luminosity Functions of Low Redshift Field and Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, I.; Hill, G. J.; Bergmann, M. P.; Elston, R.; Vanden Berk, D.; Jurcevic, J. S.

    1999-12-01

    We present a comparison of the luminosity functions for low redshift field and cluster galaxies. The luminosity functions are established for field galaxies in UBVRI, and for galaxies in the Coma cluster in UBRI. The field galaxy sample is drawn from The Texas Deep Sky Survey (TDSS) of a 2.1 by 2.1 sq. deg. area around the North Galactic Pole. More than 40000 objects have been detected in our survey of this area. We have obtained spectra of approximately 700 galaxies, making the redshift information complete to a total R magnitude of 18.5 mag. We have surveyed the central square degree of the Coma cluster in UBRI. Approximately 16000 objects have been detected in our survey. We have obtained spectra for 220 galaxies in the area with no previous measurements. Together with published data these observations make the redshift information complete for galaxies brighter than a total R magnitude of 17.5. A total of 480 members of the cluster have measured redshifts, while 180 background and foreground galaxies in the field have measured redshifts. The accurate determination of the luminosity functions for low redshift galaxies is important for the interpretation of luminosity functions established for higher redshift galaxies, both in clusters and in the field. This research was supported in part by NASA through grant number HF-01073.01.94A to IJ from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  13. Galaxy Merger Candidates in High-redshift Cluster Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaye, A. G.; Webb, T. M. A.; Nantais, J.; DeGroot, A.; Wilson, G.; Muzzin, A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Foltz, R.; Noble, A. G.; Demarco, R.; Tudorica, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Hayden, B.; Boone, K.; Surace, J.

    2017-07-01

    We compile a sample of spectroscopically and photometrically selected cluster galaxies from four high-redshift galaxy clusters (1.59< z< 1.71) from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS), and a comparison field sample selected from the UKIDSS Deep Survey. Using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we classify potential mergers involving massive ({M}* ≥slant 3× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) cluster members by eye, based on morphological properties such as tidal distortions, double nuclei, and projected near neighbors within 20 kpc. With a catalog of 23 spectroscopic and 32 photometric massive cluster members across the four clusters and 65 spectroscopic and 26 photometric comparable field galaxies, we find that after taking into account contamination from interlopers, {11.0}-5.6+7.0 % of the cluster members are involved in potential mergers, compared to {24.7}-4.6+5.3 % of the field galaxies. We see no evidence of merger enhancement in the central cluster environment with respect to the field, suggesting that galaxy-galaxy merging is not a stronger source of galaxy evolution in cluster environments compared to the field at these redshifts.

  14. Abell 2384: the galaxy population of a cluster post-merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranger, Florian; Böhm, Asmus; Ferrari, Chiara; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Höller, Harald; Schindler, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Context. We present a spectrophotometric analysis of the galaxy population in the area of the merging cluster Abell 2384 at z = 0.094. Aims: We investigate the impact of the complex cluster environment on galaxy properties, such as colour, morphology, and star formation rate. Methods: We combined multi-object spectroscopy from the 2dF and EFOSC2 spectrographs with optical imaging of the inner 30 × 30 arcmin of A2384 taken with the ESO Wide Field Imager. We carried out a kinematical analysis using the EMMIX algorithm and biweight statistics. We address the possible presence of cluster substructures with the Dressler-Shectman test. Cluster galaxies are investigated with respect to [OII] and Hα equivalent width. Galaxies covered by our optical imaging observations are additionally analysed in terms of colour, star formation rate, and morphological descriptors, such as Gini coefficient and M20 index. We study cluster galaxy properties as a function of clustercentric distance and investigate the distribution of various galaxy types in colour-magnitude and physical space. Results: The Dressler-Shectman test reveals a substructure in the east of the 2dF field of view. We determine the mass ratio between the northern and southern subclusters to be ≲1.6:1. In accordance with other cluster studies, we find that a large number of the disk galaxies close to the cluster core show no detectable star formation (SF). Probably these are systems that are quenched by ram-pressure stripping. The sample of quenched disks populates the transition area between the blue cloud and the red sequence in colour-magnitude space. We also find a population of morphologically distorted galaxies in the central cluster region. Conclusions: The substructure east of A2384 might be a group of galaxies falling onto the main cluster. We speculate that our sample of quenched spirals represents an intermediate phase in the ram-pressure-driven transformation of infalling field spirals into cluster S0s

  15. Temperature map computation for X-ray clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, H.; Sauvageot, J.-L.; Slezak, E.; Bijaoui, A.; Teyssier, R.

    2004-02-01

    Recent numerical simulations have shown that the variations of the gas temperature in clusters of galaxies are indicative of the dynamical state of these clusters. Maps of the temperature variation show complex structures with different shapes at different spatial scales, such as hot compression regions, filaments, cooling flows, or large-scale temperature profiles. A new multiscale spectro-imagery algorithm for restoring the spatial temperature variations within clusters of galaxies is presented here. It has been especially developed to work with the EPIC MOS1, MOS2 and PN spectro-imagers on board the XMM-Newton satellite. The temperature values are fitted to an emission model that includes the source, the cosmic X-ray background and cosmic-ray induced particle background. The spatial temperature variations are coded at different scales in the wavelet space using the Haar wavelet and denoised by thresholding the wavelet coefficients. Our local temperature estimator behaves asymptotically like an optimal mininum variance bound estimator. But it is highly sensitive to the instrumental and astrophysical backgrounds, so that a good knowledge of each component of the emission model is required. Our algorithm has been applied to a simulated 60 ks observation of a merging cluster at z =0.1. The cluster at different stages of merging has been provided by 3-D hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation (AMR). The multiscale approach has enabled us to restore the faint structures within the core of the merging subgroups where the gas emissivity is high, but also the temperature decrease at large scale in their external regions.

  16. Clusters of galaxies and the hot intracluster medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Forman, W.

    1990-01-01

    The luminous material in clusters of galaxies falls primarily into two forms: the visible galaxies and the X-ray emitting intracluster medium. The hot intracluster medium is the major observed baryonic component of clusters with a mass equal to or greater than that of the stellar matter. In this paper, the structure and morphology of rich clusters as inferred from X-ray observations of the ICM are reviewed. Changes in the efficiency of galaxy formation for different clusters and the origin of the intracluster medium are also discussed.

  17. Precise strong lensing mass profile of the CLASH galaxy cluster MACS 2129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Grillo, C.; Halkola, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Coe, D.; Caminha, G. B.; Frye, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Postman, M.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed strong lensing mass reconstruction of the core of the galaxy cluster MACSJ 2129.4-0741 (z_{cl}=0.589) obtained by combining high-resolution HST photometry from the CLASH survey with new spectroscopic observations from the CLASH-VLT survey. A background bright red passive galaxy at z_{sp}=1.36, sextuply lensed in the cluster core, has four radial lensed images located over the three central cluster members. Further 19 background lensed galaxies are spectroscopically confirmed by our VLT survey, including 3 additional multiple systems. A total of 31 multiple images are used in the lensing analysis. This allows us to trace with high precision the total mass profile of the cluster in its very inner region (R<100 kpc). Our final lensing mass model reproduces the multiple images systems identified in the cluster core with high accuracy of 0.4″. This translates to an high precision mass reconstruction of MACS 2129, which is constrained at a level of 2%. The cluster has Einstein parameter ΘE = (29 ± 4)″ and a projected total mass of M_{tot}(<Θ _E)=(1.35± 0.03)× 10^{14}M_{⊙} within such radius. Together with the cluster mass profile, we provide here also the complete spectroscopic dataset for the cluster members and lensed images measured with VLT/VIMOS within the CLASH-VLT survey.

  18. Cosmology with galaxy cluster phase spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Huterer, Dragan

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel approach to constrain accelerating cosmologies with galaxy cluster phase spaces. With the Fisher matrix formalism we forecast constraints on the cosmological parameters that describe the cosmological expansion history. We find that our probe has the potential of providing constraints comparable to, or even stronger than, those from other cosmological probes. More specifically, with 1000 (100) clusters uniformly distributed in the redshift range 0 ≤z ≤0.8 , after applying a conservative 80% mass scatter prior on each cluster and marginalizing over all other parameters, we forecast 1 σ constraints on the dark energy equation of sta