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Sample records for core-shell structure preparation

  1. Coordination polymer core/shell structures: Preparation and up/down-conversion luminescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingmei; Xu, Hualan; Xiao, Chen; Shuai, Min; Chen, Weimin; Zhong, Shengliang

    2016-10-01

    Coordination polymer (CP) core-shell nanoparticles with Gd-based CP (GdCP) as core and Eu-based CP (EuCP) as shell have been successfully prepared. Allantoin was employed as the organic building block without the assistance of any template. The composition, size and structure of the core-shell nanospheres were well characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG). Results show that the resultant cores are uniform nanospheres with diameter of approximately 45nm, while the diameters of the core-shell nanospheres are increased to approximately 60nm. The core-shell products show enhanced luminescence efficiency than the core under 980nm laser excitation and decreased down-conversion luminescence when excited at 394nm.

  2. The multifunctional wound dressing with core-shell structured fibers prepared by coaxial electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qilin; Xu, Feiyang; Xu, Xingjian; Geng, Xue; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Aiying; Feng, Zengguo

    2016-06-01

    The non-woven wound dressing with core-shell structured fibers was prepared by coaxial electrospinning. The polycaprolactone (PCL) was electrospun as the fiber's core to provide mechanical strength whereas collagen was fabricated into the shell in order to utilize its good biocompatibility. Simultaneously, the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as anti-bacterial agent were loaded in the shell whereas the vitamin A palmitate (VA) as healing-promoting drug was encapsulated in the core. Resulting from the fiber's core-shell structure, the VA released from the core and Ag-NPs present in the shell can endow the dressing both heal-promoting and anti-bacteria ability simultaneously, which can greatly enhance the dressing's clinical therapeutic effect. The dressing can maintain high swelling ratio of 190% for 3 d indicating its potential application as wet dressing. Furthermore, the dressing's anti-bacteria ability against Staphylococcus aureus was proved by in vitro anti-bacteria test. The in vitro drug release test showed the sustainable release of VA within 72 h, while the cell attachment showed L929 cells can well attach on the dressing indicating its good biocompatibility. In conclusion, the fabricated nanofibrous dressing possesses multiple functions to benefit wound healing and shows promising potential for clinical application.

  3. Preparation and characterization of polymer-coated core-shell structured magnetic microbeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. L.; Ding, Z. H.; Yao, K. L.; Tao, J.; Du, G. H.; Lu, Q. H.; Wang, X.; Gong, F. L.; Chen, X.

    2003-09-01

    Composite microbeads consisting of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are prepared by the microemulsion polymerization of styrene, divinyl benzene and methacrylic acid in the presence of emulsifiers. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analysis indicates the presence of -COOH groups and Fe 3O 4 of the microbeads. The amount of -COOH groups localized on the surface, which is about 0.15 mmol/g, is determined by conductometric titration. Transmission electron microscope picture reveals that the microbeads have a core-shell structure. The dissolving experiments of microbeads in hydrochloric acid and toluene further identify the core-shell structure. Optical microscope indicates that the magnetic microbeads have uniform and spherical forms with the size of 1-5 μm. Magnetic sensitivity measurement indicates that the microbeads can be used conveniently. Magnetic property measurement shows very little residual magnetization and coercivity, which are below 0.5 emu/g and around 15 Oe, respectively. The magnetic properties are greatly related to the particle sizes. The thermal gravity analysis result shows the improvement of thermal stability. The experiment of immobilized antibody indicates that the functional groups on the surface are appropriate.

  4. A novel approach to preparing magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Fengsheng; Chen, Kai; Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Jialing; Zhou, Tianle; Guo, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic protein microspheres with core-shell structure were prepared through a novel approach based on the sonochemical method and the emulsion solvent evaporation method. The microspheres are composed of the oleic acid and undecylenic acid modified Fe 3O 4 cores and coated with globular bovine serum albumin (BSA). Under an optimized condition, up to 57.8 wt% of approximately 10 nm superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles could be uniformly encapsulated into the BSA microspheres with the diameter of approximately 160 nm and the high saturation magnetization of 38.5 emu/g, besides of the abundant functional groups. The possible formation mechanism of magnetic microspheres was discussed in detail.

  5. In situ preparation of nickel/carbon core-shell structure by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fuyang; Jiang, Qi; Fang, Yuan; Ban, Shengguang; Ou, Shisheng; Qian, Hongxia; Zhao, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Nickel/carbon core-shell structure with uniform diameter has been synthesized by galvanostatic electrodeposition nickel on its surface followed by chemical vapor deposition. We proposed the growth mechanism of the core-shell structure that the precipitation of carbon from metal catalysts during the high temperature growth period lifts up metal particles leading to the formation of core-shell structure or carbon nanotubes with respect to the diameter of catalyst particles. The substrate with deposited nickel was characterized by optical microscope. The elements and features of the substrate were studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. The morphology of the resulting material was examined by field emitting scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the electrochemical performance of the core-shell structure modified electrodes was also investigated. The result shows that electrodes modified with core structure have better electrochemical property than the bare electrodes in the [Fe(CN)6]3-/[Fe(CN)6]4- solution at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1.

  6. In situ preparation and protein delivery of silicate–alginate composite microspheres with core-shell structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Fan, Wei; Gelinsky, Michael; Xiao, Yin; Chang, Jiang; Friis, Thor; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2011-01-01

    The efficient loading and sustained release of proteins from bioactive microspheres remain a significant challenge. In this study, we have developed bioactive microspheres which can be loaded with protein and then have a controlled rate of protein release into a surrounding medium. This was achieved by preparing a bioactive microsphere system with core-shell structure, combining a calcium silicate (CS) shell with an alginate (A) core by a one-step in situ method. The result was to improve the microspheres' protein adsorption and release, which yielded a highly bioactive material with potential uses in bone repair applications. The composition and the core-shell structure, as well as the formation mechanism of the obtained CS–A microspheres, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer dot and line-scanning analysis. The protein loading efficiency reached 75 per cent in CS–A microspheres with a core-shell structure by the in situ method. This is significantly higher than that of pure A or CS–A microspheres prepared by non-in situ method, which lack a core-shell structure. CS–A microspheres with a core-shell structure showed a significant decrease in the burst release of proteins, maintaining sustained release profile in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at both pH 7.4 and 4.3, compared with the controls. The protein release from CS–A microspheres is predominantly controlled by a Fickian diffusion mechanism. The CS–A microspheres with a core-shell structure were shown to have improved apatite-mineralization in simulated body fluids compared with the controls, most probably owing to the existence of bioactive CS shell on the surface of the microspheres. Our results indicate that the core-shell structure of CS–A microspheres play an important role in enhancing protein delivery and mineralization, which makes these composite materials promising candidates for application in bone

  7. Hydrothermal Preparation of TiO2-ZnO Nano Core-Shell Structure with Quantum Size Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Shahab Khameneh; Rad, M. Kianpour; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Nano sized ZnO on TiO2 spherical core shells were prepared by using hydrothermal method. The particle size of initial TiO2 was around 20 nm, and the specific surface area was 50 m2/gr. Different ratios of TiO2 and ZnO applied to synthesize core shell particle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to phase characterization and crystalline size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to morphology and microstructure investigations. S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett and E. Teller method (BET) to find specific surface area, Diffusive UV-visible-NIR spectrometry to bang gap calculations. The results indicate that powders with a shell of zinc oxide in specific range have the quantum size effect. Titanium oxide and zinc oxide have similar band gap, but TiO2 could act as a template to produced 2D structure of ZnO with modified physical properties.

  8. Protein encapsulated core-shell structured particles prepared by coaxial electrospraying: investigation on material and processing variables.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Maedeh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Thian, Eng San; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-10-01

    Biodegradable polymeric particles have been extensively investigated for controlled drug delivery of various therapeutic agents. 'Coaxial' electrospraying was successfully employed in this study, to fabricate core-shell PLGA particles containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein, and the results were also compared to particles prepared by 'emulsion' electrospraying. Two different molecular weights of PLGA were employed to encapsulate the protein. Solution properties and processing parameters were found to influence the morphology of the core-shell particles. Depending on the type of solvent used to dissolve the polymer as well as the polymer concentration and molecular weight, the mean diameter of the particles varied between 3.0 to 5.5 μm. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the electrosprayed particles using FITC-conjugated BSA demonstrated the core-shell structure of the developed particles. The encapsulation efficiency and release behavior of BSA was influenced by shell:core feeding ratio, protein concentration, and the electrospraying method. The encapsulation efficiency of BSA within the core-shell particles of high and low molecular weight PLGA was found 15.7% and 25.1% higher than the emulsion electrosprayed particles, respectively. Moreover, the total amount of BSA released from low molecular weight PLGA particles was significantly higher than high molecular weight PLGA particles within 43 days of release studies, with negligible effect on encapsulation efficiency. The technique of coaxial electrospraying has high potential for encapsulation of susceptible protein-based therapeutic agents such as growth factors for multiple drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field.

  10. [Preparation and characterization of core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for nafcillin].

    PubMed

    Chen, Langxing; Liu, Yuxing; He, Xiwen; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-05-01

    The uniform core-shell nanostructured magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized using antibiotic nafcillin as a template. In this protocol, the magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the solvothermal reaction firstly. Subsequently, the vinyl groups were grated onto silica-modified Fe3O4 surface by 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane via sol-gel method. Finally, the nafcillin-MIPs film was formed on the surface of Fe3O4 @ SiO2 by the copolymerization of vinyl end group with functional monomer, methacrylic acid, cross-linking agent, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, the initiator azo-bis-isobutyronitrile and template molecule. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the MIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 320 nm had good monodispersity. The static binding experiment was carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and non imprinted polymers (NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity to template and good selectivity. The imprinting factor and the maximum adsorption capacity of Fe3O4 @ MIPs to nafcillin were 2.46 and 50.7 mg/g, respectively. It is expected that the prepared magnetic MIPs could be used for the enrichment of nafcillin in complex samples.

  11. Structural and Optical Properties of Core-Shell TiO2/CdS Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.

    2017-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). TiO2 NRAs were also obtained by using the same method on glass substrates coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The structure of the FTO/TiO2/CdS core-shell was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and photoelectrocatalysis of FTO/TiO2 and FTO/TiO2/CdS. The FTO/TiO2 conformed to anatase and rutile phase structures for different pH values and also with annealing. XRD patterns of the FTO/TiO2/CdS sample exhibited two peaks corresponding to hexagonal (100) and (101) for CdS. Scanning electron micrographs showed nanorod structures for the TiO2 thin films deposited at a pH value equal 0.7. Optical results showed the CdS deposited on nanorod TiO2 exhibited increased absorption ability in the visible light, indicating an increased photocatalytic activity for TiO2/CdS core-shell nanorods in the visible light. When illuminated with a UV-Vis light source, the TiO2/CdS core-shell films displayed high responses. A composite exists between the TiO2 nanostructure and CdS NPs because the film absorbs the incident light located in both the visible and UV-Vis regions. A higher response to UV-Vis light was attained with the use of TiO2 NRAs/CdS NPs films prepared by CBD. This approach offers a technique for fabricating photoelectrodes.

  12. Structural and Optical Properties of Core-Shell TiO2/CdS Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays (NRAs) sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). TiO2 NRAs were also obtained by using the same method on glass substrates coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The structure of the FTO/TiO2/CdS core-shell was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and photoelectrocatalysis of FTO/TiO2 and FTO/TiO2/CdS. The FTO/TiO2 conformed to anatase and rutile phase structures for different pH values and also with annealing. XRD patterns of the FTO/TiO2/CdS sample exhibited two peaks corresponding to hexagonal (100) and (101) for CdS. Scanning electron micrographs showed nanorod structures for the TiO2 thin films deposited at a pH value equal 0.7. Optical results showed the CdS deposited on nanorod TiO2 exhibited increased absorption ability in the visible light, indicating an increased photocatalytic activity for TiO2/CdS core-shell nanorods in the visible light. When illuminated with a UV-Vis light source, the TiO2/CdS core-shell films displayed high responses. A composite exists between the TiO2 nanostructure and CdS NPs because the film absorbs the incident light located in both the visible and UV-Vis regions. A higher response to UV-Vis light was attained with the use of TiO2 NRAs/CdS NPs films prepared by CBD. This approach offers a technique for fabricating photoelectrodes.

  13. Core-shell-structured magnetic ternary nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid N; Wang, Chongmin; Chernova, Natasha A; Engelhard, Mark H; Liu, Yao; Bae, In-Tae; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-12-22

    We report a novel core-shell-structured ternary nanocube of MnZn ferrite synthesized by controlling the reaction temperature and composition in the absence of conventionally used reducing agents. The highly monodispersed core-shell structure consists of an Fe(3)O(4) core and an MnZn Ferrite shell. The observation of a Moiré pattern indicates that the core and the shell are two highly crystalline materials with slightly different lattice constants that are rotated relative to each other by a small angle. The ternary core-shell nanocubes display magnetic properties regulated by a combination of the core-shell composition and exhibit an increased coercivity and field-cooled/zero-field-cooled characteristics drastically different from those of regular MnZn ferrite nanoparticles. The ability to engineer the spatial nanostructures of ternary magnetic nanoparticles in terms of shape and composition offers atomic-level versatility in fine-tuning the nanoscale magnetic properties.

  14. Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Ternary Nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Wang, Chong M.; Chernova, Natalya; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Yao; Bae, In-Tae; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-12-01

    While transition metal-doped ferrite nanoparticles constitute an important class of soft magnetic nanomaterials with spinel structures, the ability to control the shape and composition would enable a wide range of applications in homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions such as catalysis and magnetic separation of biomolecules. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of core-shell structured MnZn ferrite nanocubes synthesized in organic solvents by manipulating the reaction temperature and capping agent composition in the absence of the conventionally-used reducing agents. The core-shell structure of the highly-monodispersed nanocubes (~20 nm) are shown to consist of an Fe3O4 core and an (Mn0.5Zn0.5)(Fe0.9, Mn1.1)O4 shell. In comparison with Fe3O4 and other binary ferrite nanoparticles, the core-shell structured nanocubes were shown to display magnetic properties regulated by a combination of the core-shell composition, leading to a higher coercivity (~350 Oe) and field-cool/zero-field-cool characteristics drastically different from many regular MnZn ferrite nanoparticles. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique core-shell composition, the understanding of which has important implication to the exploration of this class of soft magnetic nanomaterials in many potential applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fuel cells, and batteries.

  15. Preparation and characterization of core-shell structured TiO 2-BaCO 3 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gablenz, Silvio; Damm, Cornelia; Müller, Franz Werner; Israel, Gunter; Rössel, Michael; Röder, Andreas; Abicht, Hans-Peter

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of core-shell structured TiO 2-BaCO 3 particles as precursor of BaTiO 3 genesis, proceeds using a two step procedure, by first coating the TiO 2 core by Ba(OH) 2 shell followed by conversion of the shell region with CO 2 gas by the formation of BaCO 3. Straightforward experimental results reveal environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as suitable methods for analytical characterization of the core and shell regions from individual TiO 2-BaCO 3 grains. Evidence of coating the whole ensemble of TiO 2 particles is possible using Photo Electro Motive Force (Photo EMF, PEMF) measurements. This method is able to indicate very sensitively changes of surface properties of TiO 2 after coating with Ba(OH) 2 and BaCO 3, respectively. PEMF measurements were used for the first time with concern to this topic.

  16. Ultra-high-performance core-shell structured Ru@Pt/C catalyst prepared by a facile pulse electrochemical deposition method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yuexia; Liao, Shijun; Su, Dong; Song, Huiyu; Li, Yingwei; Yang, Lijun; Li, Can

    2015-08-03

    Core-shell structured catalysts, made by placing either a monolayer or a thin layer of a noble metal on relatively cheap core-metal nanoparticles, are fascinating and promising fuel cell catalysts due to their high utilization of noble metals. Here, we report our development of a core-shell structured catalyst, Ru@Pt/C, generated by a novel and facile pulse electrochemical deposition (PED) approach. We demonstrate that compared with a commercial Pt/C catalyst, this novel catalyst achieves over four times higher mass activity towards the anodic oxidation of methanol, and 3.6 times higher mass activity towards the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Importantly, we find that the intrinsic activity of Pt in this Ru@Pt/C catalyst is doubled due to the formation of the core-shell structure. The catalyst also shows superior stability: even after 2000 scans, it still retains up to 90% of the peak current. Our findings demonstrate that this novel PED approach is a promising method for preparing high-performance core-shell catalysts for fuel cell applications.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymer electrolyte membranes based on silicon-containing core-shell structured nanocomposite latex particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Sun, Chenggang; Gao, Yushan; Cui, Xuejun

    2015-09-01

    A series of silicon-containing core-shell structured polyacrylate/2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (SiO2-CS-PA/A) nanocomposite latex particles are prepared by the emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and various amount of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) with colloidal nanosilica particles as seed. The chemical and morphological structures of latex particles with high monomer conversion are determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SiO2-CS-PA/A nanocomposite membranes are fabricated through pouring the latex onto a clean surface of glass and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The nanocomposite membranes possess good thermal and dimensional stability. In addition, in comparison to Nafion® 117, the nanocomposite membranes exhibit moderate proton conductivity, significantly better methanol barrier and selectivity. The methanol diffusion coefficient is in the range of 1.03 × 10-8 to 5.26 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 which is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of Nafion® 117 (2.36 × 10-6 cm2 s-1). The SiO2-CS-PA/A 5 membrane shows the highest selectivity value (2.34 × 105 S cm-3) which is approximately 11.0 times of that (2.13 × 104 S cm-3) of Nafion® 117. These results indicate that the nanocomposite membranes are promising candidates to be used as polymer electrolyte membranes in direct methanol fuel cells.

  18. Pulse electrodeposition to prepare core-shell structured AuPt@Pd/C catalyst for formic acid fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xueyi; Luo, Fan; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun; Li, Hualing

    2014-01-01

    A novel core-shell structured AuPt@Pd/C catalyst for the electrooxidation of formic acid is synthesized by a pulse electrodeposition process, and the AuPt core nanoparticles are obtained by a NaBH4 reduction method. The catalyst is characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The core-shell structure of the catalyst is revealed by the increase in particle size resulting from a Pd layer covering the AuPt core, and by a negative shift in the CO stripping peaks. The addition of a small amount of Pt improves the dispersion of Au and results in smaller core particles. The catalyst's activity is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in formic acid solution. The catalyst shows excellent activity towards the anodic oxidation of formic acid, the mass activity reaches 4.4 A mg-1Pd and 0.83 A mg-1metal, which are 8.5 and 1.6 times that of commercial Pd/C. This enhanced electrocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the good dispersion of Au core particles resulting from the addition of Pt, as well as to the interaction between the Pd shell layer and the Au and Pt in the core nanoparticles.

  19. The preparation of core/shell structured microsphere of multi first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs and evaluation of biological safety

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Pang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Zhengquan; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Penghui; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Zheng; Luo, Chengke; Wang, Xiyang; Nie, Hemin

    2015-01-01

    To introduce a modified method, namely coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization for the fabrication of distinct core/shell structured microspheres of four first-line ant-tuberculosis drugs with different characteristics in hydrophilic properties in one single step. In group B, we prepared microspheres in which the core and the shell contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, respectively. In contrast, in group C, the opposite is prepared. The detection of encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release test were performed to confirm the feasibility of the drug-loaded core/shell structured microspheres. Moreover, cell culture experiments and animal experiments have been carried out to evaluate the biological safety of different microspheres in cell growth, cell viability, osteogenesis and migration of BMSCs in vitro and the bone fusion in a bone deficits model in SD rat. Meanwhile, the distribution of drugs and liver and kidney toxicity were monitored. The release patterns of the two groups are significantly different. The release of drugs from Group B microspheres is rather sequential, whereas group C microspheres release drugs in a parallel (co-release) manner. And various concentrations of carrier materials produces core/shell structured microspheres with different appearance. Moreover, the biological safety of core/shell structured microspheres was testified to be satisfactory. These findings present the advantages and possible application of this kind of multi-drug release system in treating skeletal tuberculosis. Moreover, the characteristic sequential release of multi-drugs can be controlled and adjusted based on treatment need and used in treating other disorders. PMID:26309493

  20. [Preparation and Photoluminescent Properties of Ce³⁺-Activated LaPO₄ Nanocrystals and Core/Shell Structure].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-ya; Huang, Shi-ming; Gu, Mu; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2015-11-01

    Hydrophobic, monodisperse LaPO₄: Ce³⁺ nanoparticles, LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ and LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/ LaPO₄ core/shell structure nanocrystals were synthesized via a high-temperature organic solution approach. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The results show that: all the samples are a monoclinic phase, Because of the size small nanoparticles, the diffraction peaks of the sample occurs width phenomenon. The LaPO₄:Ce³⁺ nano- crystals exhibits the characteristic emission of Ce³⁺ ions, the photoluminescence intensity increases first and then decreases with the increasing doping concentration of Ce³⁺ ions, and the best doping amount is 6 at %, with the increasing doping amount, the photoluminescence intensity decreases which may caused by the concentration quenching. Compared to LaPO₄:Ce³⁺ nanoparti- cles, the photoluminescence intensity of LaPO₄:Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ and LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/LaPO₄: Ce³⁺/LaPO₄ core/shell structure nanocrystals improves about 41% and 95% respectively, this may be a synergy of larger particle size of nanocrystals and surface passivation effect. FTIR spectra data shows that the absorption peak at 1545 and 1461 cm⁻¹ corresponded to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibration of --COO⁻, the separation, Δ, between the two peaks is 84 cm⁻¹, The mechanism of the sample surface modification by the organics might be that the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl are coordinated with the lanthunum ions by a bidentate mode.

  1. Core-shell-structured silica/polyacrylate particles prepared by Pickering emulsion: influence of the nucleation model on particle interfacial organization and emulsion stability.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jing; Shu, Shi; Wang, Feng; Li, Zhilin; Liu, Jingjun; Song, Ye; Jia, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This work reports a new evidence of the versatility of silica sol as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions. The organization of silica particles at the oil-water interface is a function of the nucleation model. The present results show that nucleation model, together with monomer hydrophobicity, can be used as a trigger to modify the packing density of silica particles at the oil-water interface: Less hydrophobic methylmethacrylate, more wettable with silica particles, favors the formation of core-shell-structured composite when the composite particles are prepared by miniemulsion polymerization in which monomers are fed in batch (droplet nucleation). By contrast, hydrophobic butylacrylate promotes the encapsulating efficiency of silica when monomers are fed dropwise (homogeneous nucleation). The morphologies of polyacrylate-nano-SiO2 composites prepared from different feed ratio of methylmethacrylate/butylacrylate (with different hydrophobicity) and by different feed processes are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results from SEM and TEM show that the morphologies of the as-prepared polyacrylate/nano-SiO2 composite can be a core-shell structure or a bare acrylic sphere. The stability of resulting emulsions composed of these composite particles is strongly dependent on the surface coverage of silica particles. The emulsion stability is improved by densely silica-packed composite particles.

  2. Core-Shell Structured Electro- and Magneto-Responsive Materials: Fabrication and Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyoung Jin; Zhang, Wen Ling; Kim, Sehyun; Seo, Yongsok

    2014-01-01

    Core-shell structured electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) particles have attracted increasing interest owing to their outstanding field-responsive properties, including morphology, chemical and dispersion stability, and rheological characteristics of shear stress and yield stress. This study covers recent progress in the preparation of core-shell structured materials as well as their critical characteristics and advantages. Broad emphasises from the synthetic strategy of various core-shell particles to their feature behaviours in the magnetic and electric fields have been elaborated. PMID:28788258

  3. Synthesis, structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ch. Venkata; Shim, Jaesool; Cho, Migyung

    2017-04-01

    CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via two-step synthesis method. The as-prepared CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles were used to study the structural, morphological, and optical properties by PXRD, TEM, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, FT-IR, PL and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The XRD pattern confirms the crystal structure of the prepared ZnS, CdS, and CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles. The crystallinity of the as-prepared samples is confirmed by PXRD, TEM and HRTEM analysis. The BET analysis showed that the CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles had larger surface area and pore diameter than CdS and ZnS. The Raman and FT-IR spectra confirm the fundamental vibrational modes of CdS and ZnS respectively. Compared to pure CdS and ZnS, CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity in the CdS/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles is due to the interface actions between CdS and ZnS, which greatly reduces the recombination of photogenerated electrons-holes pair. The proposed mechanism for degradation of MO dye is discussed in detail.

  4. Hydrogen storage and hydrolysis properties of core-shell structured Mg-MFx (M=V, Ni, La and Ce) nano-composites prepared by arc plasma method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Zou, Jianxin; Lu, Chong; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang

    2017-10-01

    In this work, core-shell structured Mg-MFx (M = V, Ni, La and Ce) nano-composites are prepared by using arc plasma method. The particle size distribution, phase components, microstructures, hydrogen sorption properties of these composites and hydrolysis properties of their corresponding hydrogenated powders are carefully investigated. It is shown that the addition of MFx through arc plasma method can improve both the hydrogen absorption kinetics of Mg and the hydrolysis properties of corresponding hydrogenated powders. Among them, the Mg-NiF2 composite shows the best hydrogen absorption properties at relatively low temperatures, which can absorb 3.26 wt% of H2 at 373 K in 2 h. Such rapid hydrogen absorption rate is mainly due to the formation of Mg2Ni and MgF2 on Mg particles during arc evaporation and condensation. In contrast, measurements also show that the hydrogenated Mg-VF3 composite has the lowest peak desorption temperature and the fastest hydrolysis rate among all the hydrogenated Mg-MFx composites. The less agglomeration tendency of Mg particles and VO2 covered on MgH2 particles account for the reduced hydrogen desorption temperature and enhanced hydrolysis rate.

  5. Functional properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetoelectric ceramics prepared from powders with core-shell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Curecheriu, L. P.; Mitoseriu, L.; Postolache, P.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Buscaglia, V.; Ianculescu, A.; Nanni, P.

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, diphasic ceramic composites with core-shell nanostructures formed by Ni{sub 0.50}Zn{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core and BaTiO{sub 3} shell were investigated. Their properties were compared with those of composites prepared by coprecipitation. The core-shell structure was confirmed by microstructural powder analysis. Homogeneous microstructures with a good phase mixing and percolated dielectric phase by the magnetic one were obtained from coprecipitated powders. Less homogeneous microstructures resulted in ceramics produced from the powder prepared by core-shell method, with isolated small ferrite grains besides large ferrite aggregates embedded into the BaTiO{sub 3} matrix. Both the ferroelectric and magnetic phases preserve their basic properties in bulk composite form. However, important differences in the dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanisms were found as result of the microstructural difference. Extrinsic contributions play important roles in modifying the electric properties in both ceramics, causing space charge effect, Maxwell-Wagner relaxations and hopping conductivity, mainly due to the ferrite low resistivity phase. The conductivity and dielectric modulus spectra analysis allowed to identify different polaron contributions associated with the microstructural differences. It results that by using the core-shell method, improved dielectric properties and limited hopping contributions can be realized.

  6. Preparation of the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions and their synergistic anti-tumor effects with diethyldithiocarbamate in vivo.

    PubMed

    Daocheng, Wu; Mingxi, Wan

    2010-11-01

    We prepared the core-shell structure adriamycin lipiodol microemulsions (ADM-CSLMs) and evaluated their in vivo antitumor effects in combination with Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). Two types of ADM-CSLMs, adriamycin liposome-lipiodol microemulsion(ADM-LLM) and adriamycin microsphere lipiodol microemulsion (ADM-MLM), were prepared through the emulsification method. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of ADM-CSLMs were measured by the high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The size and shape of the ADM-CSLMs were determined by an atom force microscopy (AFM), a transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a particle size analyzer, respectively. The synergistic effects of DDC and ADM-CSLMs for cancer treatment of carcinoma drug-resistance cell was evaluated by the MTT method, the activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected by chemiluminescence, and the ADM accumulation in cells was measured by flow cytometry. Walker-256 carcinoma was transplanted to the livers of the male SD rats, ADM-CSLMs were administrated to the livers of the rats by intervention hepatic artery embolization through microsurgery. The tumor growth and animal survival were evaluated. The results show that the average diameter of ADM-LLM and ADM-MLM were 4.23 ± 1.2 μm and 4.67 ± 1.4 μm, respectively, and their ADM encapsulation efficiency were 83.7% and 87.2% with respect to loading efficiency of 82 μg/ml and 91 μg/ml. The tumor growth and animal survival in two of the ADM-CSLMs combined with DDC groups were significantly higher than that of ADM only treatment, ADM liposome combined with DDC (P < 0.01), as well as the ADM microsphere combined with DDC (P < 0.01). Therefore, ADM-CSLMs are useful carriers for the treatment of carcinoma and their anti-tumor effect can be enhanced by DDC in a suitable concentration.

  7. A scalable route to prepare core-shell structured ZnO@PEDOT nanowires and PEDOT nanotubes and their properties as electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Xianhong; Yang, Le; Xu, Dehong; Ma, Yuhong; Chen, Dong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Changwen; Yang, Wantai

    2016-05-01

    A composite of a core-shell structured nanowires with ZnO as a core and conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a shell was prepared. At first, the hexagonal ZnO nanowires, with diameter of about 80-100 nm and length 4-5 μm, were fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis process. Then a thick layer of poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (PTFEMA-b-PSSNa) was grafted from the surface of ZnO nanowires via atom transfer free radical polymerization. At last, with the ZnO@PTFEMA-b-PSSNa as a template and the PSSNa chain as the counterion dopant, PEDOT was precipitated onto the surface of the template to form the composite of ZnO@PEDOT/PSSNa. With the evaluation of the EDOT polymerization, the thickness of the PEDOT layer increased steadily. However, as the ratio of EDOT/ZnO was greater than 1:2, the ZnO nanowires templates were dissolved at last and then PEDOT particles were produced due to increasing of the acidity during the oxidation polymerization of EDOT. In this case, the product was the mixture of the nanotubes and particles of PEDOT/PPSNa. The electrochemical capacitances of the composites with different structures were investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques with three-electrode cell configuration. The maximum specific capacitance of ZnO@PEDOT electrode can reach 101.34 F/g at 20 mV/s.

  8. Core-shell structured polystyrene/BaTiO3 hybrid nanodielectrics prepared by in situ RAFT polymerization: a route to high dielectric constant and low loss materials with weak frequency dependence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Xingyi; Xie, Liyuan; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Pingkai; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-11-23

    A novel route to prepare core-shell structured nanocomposites with excellent dielectric performance is reported. This approach involves the grafting of polystyrene (PS) from the surface of BaTiO(3) by an in situ RAFT polymerization. The core-shell structured PS/BaTiO(3) nanocomposites not only show significantly increased dielectric constant and very low dielectric loss, but also have a weak frequency dependence of dielectric properties over a wide range of frequencies. In addition, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposites can also be easily tuned by varying the thickness of the PS shell. Our method is very promising for preparing high-performance nanocomposites used in energy-storage devices.

  9. Preparations and properties of a tunable void with shell thickness SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structures via activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yi-xian; Zhou, Guo-wei; Cao, Pei

    2016-02-01

    Core-shell structure nanoparticles are attracting considerable attention because of their applications in drug delivery, catalysis carrier, and nanomedicine. In this study, SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structure with tunable void and shell thickness was successfully prepared for the first time using SiO2-poly(buty acrylate) (PBA)-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) (SiO2-PBA-b-PDMAEMA) as the template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silica source. An amphiphilic copolymer PBA-b-PDMAEMA was first grafted onto the SiO2 nanosphere surface through activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. TEOS was hydrolyzed along with the PDMAEMA chain through hydrogen bonding, and the core-shell structure of SiO2@SiO2 was obtained through calcination to remove the copolymer. The gradient hydrophilicity of the PBA-b-PDMAEMA copolymer template facilitated the hydrolysis of TEOS molecules along the PDMAEMA to PBA segments, thereby tuning the voids between the SiO2 core and SiO2 shell, as well as the SiO2 shell thickness. The voids were about 10-15 nm and the shell thicknesses were about 4-11 nm when adding different amounts of DMAEMA monomer. SiO2@SiO2 core-shell structures with tunable void and shell thickness were employed as supports for the loading and release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) in PBS (pH 4.0). The samples demonstrated good loading capacity and controlled release rate of DOX.

  10. Preparation and photocatalytic application of Znsbnd Fe2O4@ZnO core-shell nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Heidari-Golafzani, Mahdi; Rabbani, Mahboubeh

    2015-09-01

    In this study, nanohallow Znsbnd Fe2O4 microspheres were synthesis by ZnCl2, FeCl3ṡ6H2O and ammonium acetate using the hydrothermal method. Then, Znsbnd Fe2O4@ZnO core-shell structured spheres were prepared by using immobilization of ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of Zn-ferrite spheres via sol-gel rout. SEM and TEM images showed morphology and core-shell structure of particles. Results of VSM illustrate that Znsbnd Fe2O4 and Znsbnd Fe2O4@ZnO particles are superparamagnetic. Photocatalytic activity studies confirm that synthesised Znsbnd Fe2O4@ZnO core-shell sphere with molar ratio of 1:1 had excellent photodegradating behavior to methylene blue (MB) as compared to other core-shell ratios, pure Znsbnd Fe2O4 and pure ZnO.

  11. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  12. Core-Shell-structured Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Combined Photodynamic Therapy and Antibody Delivery.

    PubMed

    Abbaraju, Prasanna Lakshmi; Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Fu, Jianye; Xu, Chun; Yu, Chengzhong

    2017-07-04

    Multifunctional core-shell-structured dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a fullerene-doped silica core, a dendritic silica shell and large pores have been prepared. The combination of photodynamic therapy and antibody therapeutics significantly inhibits the cancer cell growth by effectively reducing the level of anti-apoptotic proteins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural coloring in large scale core-shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Khudiyev, Tural; Ozgur, Erol; Yaman, Mecit; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2011-11-09

    We demonstrated two complementary size-dependent structural coloring mechanisms, interference and scattering, in indefinitely long core-shell nanowire arrays. The unusual nanostructures are comprised of an amorphous semiconducting core and a polymer shell layer with disparate refractive indices but with similar thermomechanical properties. Core-shell nanowires are mass produced from a macroscopic semiconductor rod by using a new top-to-bottom fabrication approach based on thermal size reduction. Nanostructures with diameters from 30 to 200 nm result in coloration that spans the whole visible spectrum via resonant Mie scattering. Nanoshell coloration based on thin film interference is proposed as a structural coloration mechanism which becomes dominant for nanowires having 700-1200 nm diameter. Controlled color generation in any part of visible and infrared spectral regions can be achieved by the simple scaling down procedure. Spectral color generation in mass-produced uniform core-shell nanowire arrays paves the way for applications such as spectral authentication at nanoscale, light-scattering ingredients in paints and cosmetics, large-area devices, and infrared shielding.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles by block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Fu, Xiaoning; Yang, Hui

    2011-02-21

    A novel route for a preparation of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with block copolymer shells as a template is reported. AuNPs with poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PVP-b-PEO) block copolymer shells are first prepared by UV irradiation of the solution of PVP-b-PEO/HAuCl(4) complexes. Then the sol-gel reaction of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) selectively on the surfaces of AuNPs leads to Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles. The eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles are obtained from the Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles by removal of organic interlayer by UV treatment. Photocatalytic activities of the resulting eccentric core-shell nanoparticles are investigated in terms of the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show that the eccentric core-shell structures endow the catalyst with greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  15. Enhancing oxidative stability in heated oils using core/shell structures of collagen and α-tocopherol complex.

    PubMed

    Gim, Seo Yeong; Hong, Seungmi; Kim, Jisu; Kwon, YongJun; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, GeunHyung; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-11-15

    In this study, collagen mesh structure was prepared by carrying α-tocopherol in the form of core/shell complex. Antioxidant properties of α-tocopherol loaded carriers were tested in moisture added bulk oils at 140°C. From one gram of collagen core/shell complex, 138mg α-tocopherol was released in medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT). α-Tocopherol was substantially protected against heat treatment when α-tocopherol was complexed in collagen core/shell. Oxidative stability in bulk oil was significantly enhanced by added collagen mesh structure or collagen core/shell complex with α-tocopherol compared to that in control bulk oils (p<0.05), although no significant difference was observed between oils containing collagen mesh structure and collagen core/shell with α-tocopherol (p>0.05). Results of DPPH loss in methanol demonstrated that collagen core/shell with α-tocopherol had significantly (p<0.05) higher antioxidant properties than collagen mesh structure up to a certain period. Therefore, collagen core/shell complex is a promising way to enhance the stability of α-tocopherol and oxidative stability in oil-rich foods prepared at high temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The preparation and properties of monodisperse core-shell silica magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lou, Min-yi; Jia, Qiu-ling; Wang, De-ping; Liu, Bing; Huang, Wen-hai

    2008-01-01

    The monodisperse core-shell silica magnetic microspheres (MMS) were synthesized by sol-gel method gelling in the emulsion. Optical microscope (OM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nitrogen adsorption and desorption Brunauer Emmett Teller Procedure (BET) isotherms and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the appearance, size distribution, phase, specific surface area, chemical composition and magnetic property of silica MMS. The results showed that silica MMS prepared through sol-gel method with acid-alkali two-step catalyze and gelling in emulsion exhibited the superior core-shell structure and size distribution of the microspheres concentrated in about 20 mum. The main phase of microspheres was amorphous silica and spinel ferroferric oxide. Meanwhile, the microspheres remained the superparamagnetic behavior and could be used as biomaterials.

  17. Preparation and properties of antibacterial TiO2@C/Ag core-shell composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, San-Xiang; Tan, Shao-Zao; Chen, Jing-Xing; Liu, Ying-Liang; Yuan, Ding-Sheng

    2009-08-01

    An environment-friendly hydrothermal method was used to prepare TiO2@C core-shell composite using TiO2 as core and sucrose as carbon source. TiO2@C served as a support for the immobilization of Ag by impregnation in silver nitrate aqueous solution. The chemical structures and morphologies of TiO2@C and TiO2@C/Ag composite were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The antibacterial properties of the TiO2@C/Ag core-shell composite against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were examined by the viable cell counting method. The results indicate that silver supported on the surface of TiO2@C shows excellent antibacterial activity.

  18. Ion Structure Near a Core-Shell Dielectric Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Manman; Gan, Zecheng; Xu, Zhenli

    2017-02-01

    A generalized image charge formulation is proposed for the Green's function of a core-shell dielectric nanoparticle for which theoretical and simulation investigations are rarely reported due to the difficulty of resolving the dielectric heterogeneity. Based on the formulation, an efficient and accurate algorithm is developed for calculating electrostatic polarization charges of mobile ions, allowing us to study related physical systems using the Monte Carlo algorithm. The computer simulations show that a fine-tuning of the shell thickness or the ion-interface correlation strength can greatly alter electric double-layer structures and capacitances, owing to the complicated interplay between dielectric boundary effects and ion-interface correlations.

  19. Preparation and characterization of core-shell structured LiFePO4/C composite using a novel carbon source for lithium-ion battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zan; Luo, Peifang; Wang, Daxiang

    2017-03-01

    Core-shell structured LiFePO4/C1 cathode material is synthesized via a rapid microwave irradiation route using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as the novel carbon source. XRD results reveal that all the patterns can be indexed as the olivine-type structured LiFePO4 with the space group of Pnma. TEM images show that the obtained carbon is an amorphous layer with a thickness of about 3-4 nm. When the LiFePO4/C1 used as cathode material for lithium-ion battery, it delivers an initial discharge capacity of 163.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C which is about 96% of the theoretical capacity. Moreover, it also shows excellent rate performance and good cycle stability due to the enhanced electronic conductivity as proved by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thus, this carbon decorated LiFePO4 composite synthesized via the rapid microwave irradiation method is a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  20. Preparation of core-shell coordination molecular assemblies via the enrichment of structure-directing "codes" of bridging ligands and metathesis of metal units.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Chen, Ying-Pin; Perry, Zachary; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-03

    A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs were synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L(1)) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0° (H2α-L(1)), 120° (H2β-L(1)), and of 90° (H2γ-L(1)), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature, H2L(1) and Mo2(OAc)4 or Cu2(OAc)4 were crystallized into a molecular square with γ-L(1) and Mo2/Cu2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with γ-L(1) but also a lantern-shaped cage with α-L(1) formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. On the basis of the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a postsynthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies.

  1. Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Chen, YP; Perry, Z; Li, JR; Zhou, HC

    2014-12-03

    A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs were synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L-1) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0 degrees (H-2 zeta-L(1)), 120 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), and of 90 degrees (H-2 beta-L-1), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature, (HL1)-L-2 and Mo-2(OAc)(4) or Cu-2(OAc)(4) were crystallized into a molecular square with ?-L-1 and Mo-2/Cu-2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with ?-L-1 but also a lantern-shaped cage with a-L-1 formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. On the basis of the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a postsynthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies.

  2. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-04

    Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs) were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and application of ZnO@SiO2 core-shell structured catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Galedari, Naghmeh Abuali; Rahmani, Mohammad; Tasbihi, Minoo

    2016-10-24

    In the current study, ZnO@SiO2 core-shell structured catalyst was synthesized for photocatalytic degradation of phenol from aqueous samples. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area, zeta potential, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The effect of catalyst loading, initial phenol concentration, pH, UV light intensity and weight ratio of ZnO/(SiO2 + ZnO) were studied towards photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Moreover, photocatalytic activities of bare ZnO and ZnO@SiO2 were compared. The results advocated that ZnO@SiO2 catalyst showed high photocatalytic performance for degradation of phenol (96 % after 120 min) at an initial pH of 5.9, catalyst loading of 0.5 g/L and initial phenol concentration of 25 mg/L. Increase in the weight ratio of ZnO/(SiO2 + ZnO) from 0.2 to 0.33 significantly enhanced the photodegradation of phenol from 84 to 94 %. It was also found that photocatalytic activity of ZnO@SiO2 was higher than bare ZnO nanoparticles. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Preparation and characterization of chain-like and peanut-like Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haowei; Huang, Yan; Cheng, Chao; Ji, Guoyuan; Yang, Yuxiang; Yuan, Hongming

    2013-10-01

    The size- and shape-controlled Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel method. The results showed that the size, shape, and property of the products were directly influenced by the amount of TEOS, and the concentration of water-based magnetic fluid in the coating process. The morphology and properties of the products were characterized by TEM, SEM, X-ray powder diffraction, IR and EDS. The Fe3O4@SiO2 composites with easily-controlled size arranged from 58 to 835 nm could be synthesized by adjusting the experimental parameters. When TEOS amount is 1 mL and the concentration of magnetic fluid were 30.0 and 10.0 mg/mL respectively, chain-like and peanuts-like well-dispersed Fe3O4@SiO2 particles with clear core-shell structure were obtained. These size- and shape-controlled Fe3O4@SiO2 composites may have potential application in the field of targeted drug delivery and MRI contrast agent.

  5. Preparation of mono-dispersed, high energy release, core/shell structure Al nanopowders and their application in HTPB propellant as combustion enhancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyi; Wu, Zhiguo; Shangguan, Xushui; Sun, Yunqiang; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Zhongyou; Chen, Luyang; Zuo, Shiyong; Zhuo, Renfu; Yan, Pengxun

    2017-07-12

    Mono-dispersed, spherical and core/shell structure aluminum nanopowders (ANPs) were produced massively by high energy ion beam evaporation (HEIBE). And the number weighted average particle size of the ANPs is 98.9 nm, with an alumina shell (3-5 nm). Benefiting from the passivation treatment, the friction, impact and electrostatic spark sensitivity of the ANPs are almost equivalent to those of aluminum micro powders. The result of TG-DSC indicates the active aluminum content of ANPs is 87.14%, the enthalpy release value is 20.37 kJ/g, the specific heat release S 1/Δm 1* (392-611 °C) which determined the ability of energy release is 19.95 kJ/g. And the value of S 1/Δm 1* is the highest compared with ANPs produced by other physical methods. Besides, the ANPs perfectly compatible with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), 3 wt. % of ANPs were used in HTPB propellant replaced micron aluminum powders, and improved the burning rate in the 3-12 MPa pressure range and reduced the pressure exponential by more than 31% in the 3-16 MPa pressure range. The production technology of ANPs with excellent properties will greatly promote the application of ANPs in the field of energetic materials such as propellant, explosive and pyrotechnics.

  6. A novel structural Fenton-like nanocatalyst with highly improved catalytic performance for generalized preparation of iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanghui; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Hongping; Wang, Jianzhi; Zhou, Lincheng; Zhao, Tianqi; Huang, Zhihao; Jiang, Haifei

    2015-05-01

    FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles with a soap-bubble-like shell have been synthesized, and the materials exhibit excellent Fenton catalytic performance. More importantly, FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles as catalysts and precursors could catalyze organic dye molecules to form iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

  7. Synthesis and properties MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co) nanoparticles and core-shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Greneche, J. M.; Belous, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Individual Fe3-xO4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as well as Fe3-xO4/CoFe2O4 core/shell structures were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from diethylene glycol solutions. Core/shell structure were synthesized with CoFe2O4-shell thickness of 1.0, 2.5 and 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of individual nanoparticles and core/shell are similar and indicate that all synthesized samples have a cubic spinel structure. Compares Mössbauer studies of CoFe2O4, Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles indicate superparamagnetic properties at 300 K. It was shown that individual magnetite nanoparticles are transformed into maghemite through oxidation during the synthesis procedure, wherein the smallest nanoparticles are completely oxidized while a magnetite core does occur in the case of the largest nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra of core/shell nanoparticles with increasing CoFe2O4-shell thickness show a gradual decrease in the relative intensity of the quadrupole doublet and significant decrease of the mean isomer shift value at both RT and 77 K indicating a decrease of the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena. Specific loss power for the prepared ferrofluids was experimentally calculated and it was determined that under influence of ac-magnetic field magnetic fluid based on individual CoFe2O4 and Fe3-xO4 particles are characterized by very low heating temperature, when magnetic fluids based on core/shell nanoparticles demonstrate higher heating effect.

  8. Core-shell particles: preparation, fundamentals and applications in high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard; Ahmed, Adham; Edge, Tony; Zhang, Haifei

    2014-08-29

    The challenges in HPLC are fast and efficient separation for a wide range of samples. Fast separation often results in very high operating pressure, which places a huge burden on HPLC instrumentation. In recent years, core-shell silica microspheres (with a solid core and a porous shell, also known as fused-core or superficially porous microspheres) have been widely investigated and used for highly efficient and fast separation with reasonably low pressure for separation of small molecules, large molecules and complex samples. In this review, we firstly show the types of core-shell particles and how they are generally prepared, focusing on the methods used to produce core-shell silica particles for chromatographic applications. The fundamentals are discussed on why core-shell particles can perform better with low back pressure, in terms of van Deemter equation and kinetic plots. The core-shell particles are compared with totally porous silica particles and also monolithic columns. The use of columns packed with core-shell particles in different types of liquid chromatography is then discussed, followed by illustrating example applications of such columns for separation of various types of samples. The review is completed with conclusion and a brief perspective on future development of core-shell particles in chromatography.

  9. Nanowire-in-microtube structured core/shell fibers via multifluidic coaxial electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Nü; Di, Jiancheng; Zhao, Yong; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2010-07-06

    A multifluidic coaxial electrospinning approach is reported here to fabricate core/shell ultrathin fibers with a novel nanowire-in-microtube structure from more optional fluid pairs than routine coaxial electrospinning. The advantage of this approach lies in the fact that it introduces an extra middle fluid between the core and shell fluids of traditional coaxial electrospinning, which can work as an effective spacer to decrease the interaction of the other two fluids. Under the protection of a proper middle fluid, more fluid pairs, even mutually miscible fluids, can be operated to generate "sandwich"-structured ultrathin fibers with a sharp boundary between the core and shell materials. It thereby largely extends the scope of optional materials. Selectively removing the middle layer of the as-prepared fibers results in an interesting nanowire-in-microtube structure. Either homogeneous or heterogeneous fibers with well-tailored sandwich structures have been successfully fabricated. This method is an important extension of traditional co-electrospinning that affords a more universal avenue to preparing core/shell fibers; moreover, the special hollow cavity structure may introduce some extra properties into the conventional core/shell structure, which may find potential applications such as optical applications, microelectronics, and others.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical performances of carbon sphere@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xuechun; Han, Bingqian; Chen, Gang; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Yude

    2017-01-01

    Carbon sphere (CS)@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low-temperature water-bath method without annealing treatment. The morphology and the microstructure of samples were characterized by transition electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. ZnO nanoparticles with several nanometers in size decorated on the surface of the carbon sphere and formed a core-shell structure. Electrochemical performances of the CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (GDC). The CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposite electrodes exhibit much larger specific capacitance and cycling stability is improved significantly compared with pure ZnO electrode. The CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposite with mole ratio of 1:1 achieves a specific capacitance of 630 F g−1 at the current density of 2 A g−1. Present work might provide a new route for fabricating carbon sphere and transition metal oxides composite materials as electrodes for the application in supercapacitors. PMID:28057915

  11. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of magnetically reusable Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Jinghai; Li, Xiuyan; Wang, Dandan; Wei, Bing; Song, Hang; Li, Xuefei; Fu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Fe3O4@ZnO binary nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple two-step chemical method and characterized using various analytical instruments. TEM result proved the binary nanoparticles have core/shell structures and average particle size is 60 nm. Photocatalytic investigation of Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles was carried out using rhodamine B (RhB) solution under UV light. Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic performance in comparison with the as prepared ZnO nanoparticles. The enhanced photocatalytic activity for Fe3O4@ZnO might be resulting from the higher concentration of surface oxygen vacancies and the suppressing effect of the Fe3+ ions on the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Magnetization saturation value (5.96 emu/g) of Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles is high enough to be magnetically removed by applying a magnetic field. The core/shell photocatalyst can be easily separated by using a commercial magnet and almost no decrease in photocatalytic efficiency was observed even after recycling six times.

  12. Preparation and electrochemical performances of carbon sphere@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xuechun; Han, Bingqian; Chen, Gang; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Yude

    2017-01-01

    Carbon sphere (CS)@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low-temperature water-bath method without annealing treatment. The morphology and the microstructure of samples were characterized by transition electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. ZnO nanoparticles with several nanometers in size decorated on the surface of the carbon sphere and formed a core-shell structure. Electrochemical performances of the CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge (GDC). The CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposite electrodes exhibit much larger specific capacitance and cycling stability is improved significantly compared with pure ZnO electrode. The CS@ZnO core-shell nanocomposite with mole ratio of 1:1 achieves a specific capacitance of 630 F g-1 at the current density of 2 A g-1. Present work might provide a new route for fabricating carbon sphere and transition metal oxides composite materials as electrodes for the application in supercapacitors.

  13. Magnetization processes in core/shell exchange-spring structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J. S.

    2015-03-27

    The magnetization reversal processes in cylindrical and spherical soft core/hard shell exchange-spring structures are investigated via the analytical nucleation theory, and are verified with numerical micromagnetic simulations. At small core sizes, the nucleation of magnetic reversal proceeds via the modified bulging mode, where the transverse component of the magnetization is only semi-coherent in direction and the nucleation field contains a contribution from self-demagnetization. For large core sizes, the modified curling mode, where the magnetization configuration is vortex-like, is favored at nucleation. The preference for the modified curling mode is beneficial in that the fluxclosure allows cylindrical and spherical core/shell exchange-spring elements to be densely packed into bulk permanent magnets without affecting the nucleation field, thereby offering the potential for high energy product.

  14. The preparation of core-shell magnetic silica nanospheres for enhancing magnetism and fluorescence intensity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong Ha; Kim, Jong Sung

    2013-11-01

    Recently, magnetic and luminescent composite silica with structure of micro- and nanospheres containing both magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MPs) and quantum dots (QDs) has attracted great interests. In this study, we have prepared core-shell structure of silica spheres in which magnets are incorporated into silica core and QDs into a mesoporous silica shell by using C18-TMS (octade-cyltrimethoxysilane). MPs were synthesized by a co-precipitation method from ferrous and ferric solutions with a molecular ratio of 2:3. Monodisperse magnetic silica cores have been prepared via sol-gel reaction of TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) and water using base catalyst. The size of magnetic silica nanospheres was confirmed by dynamic laser light scattering system (DLS) and scanning electoron microscope (SEM). The pore volume and surface area were calculated by using BET after calcination. The core-shell structure plays an important role in providing more domains for MPs in silica Core and QDs in silica shell. QDs were incorporated into the mesoporous shell by hydrophobic interactions. Magnetic characterization was performed using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The optical properties of the particles were characterized with UV/Vis spectrometer, PL spectrometer, and fluorescence microscope.

  15. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Jing; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  16. Preparation and electromagnetic properties of core/shell polystyrene@polypyrrole@nickel composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhe; Qiu, Teng; Wang, Leilei; Ren, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiangru; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-02-01

    Through a novel method, we successfully synthesized electromagnetic (EM) functional polystyrene@polypyrrole@nickel (PS@PPy@Ni) composite microspheres. The PS@PPy spheres with well-defined core/shell structure have been synthesized via an in situ chemical oxidative copolymerization of pyrrole (Py) and N-2-carboxyethylpyrrole (PyCOOH) templated by PS microspheres. The reaction was carried out under heterophase conditions using the mixture of ethanol and water as the continuous phase. Tailored by the carboxyl groups on the surface of microspheres, magnetic nickel layer has been steady deposited onto the P(Py-PyCOOH) layer of the microspheres through an activation-electroless plating technology. The fine PS@P(Py-PyCOOH)@Ni core/shell structures could be obtained with the PyCOOH content up to 50 wt % in the P(Py-PyCOOH) layer. Moreover, the as-prepared PS@P(Py-PyCOOH)@Ni composites are ferromagnetic materials and behave as a good electromagnetic (EM) absorption material due to the coating of Ni layer around the PS@P(Py-PyCOOH) spheres. The PS@P(Py-PyCOOH)@Ni composite spheres show the remarkable EM wave absorption property with the maximum reflection loss (around -20.06 dB) at 10.69 GHz. The EM wave absorption can retained lower than -10 dB within a broad frequency range from 9.16 to 13.75 GHz.

  17. Preparation of highly dispersed core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Kanda, Takashi; Shibata, Hirobumi; Ohkubo, Takahiro; Abe, Masahiko

    2006-04-19

    Core/shell-type titania nanocapsules containing a single Ag nanoparticle were prepared. Ag nanoparticles were prepared using the reduction of silver nitrate with hydrazine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as protective agent. The sol-gel reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was used to prepare core/shell-type titania nanocapsules with CTAB-coated Ag nanoparticles as the core. TEM observations revealed that the size of the core (Ag particle) and the thickness of the shell (titania) of the core/shell particles obtained are about 10 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. In addition, the nanocapsules were found to be dispersed in the medium as individual particles without aggregation. Moreover, titania coating caused the surface plasmon absorption of Ag nanoparticles to shift toward the longer wavelength side.

  18. Alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes through the structure evolution in Cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Liu, Hui; Cui, Penglei; Peng, Zhijian; Zhang, Suojiang; Yang, Jun

    2014-09-18

    Noble metal nanoparticles with hollow interiors and customizable shell compositions have immense potential for catalysis. Herein, we present an unique structure transformation phenomenon for the fabrication of alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes with polyhedral morphology. This strategy starts with the preparation of polyhedral Cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction upon the anisotropic growth of Pt on multiply twinned Cu seed particles, which are subsequently transformed into alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes due to the Kirkendall effect between the Cu core and Pt shell. The as-prepared alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes possess the rhombic dodecahedral morphology of their core-shell parents after the structural evolution. In particular, the resulting alloy Cu₃Pt nanoframes are more effective for oxygen reduction reaction but ineffective for methanol oxidation reaction in comparison with their original Cu-Pt core-shell precursors.

  19. Alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes through the structure evolution in Cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin; Liu, Hui; Cui, Penglei; Peng, Zhijian; Zhang, Suojiang; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles with hollow interiors and customizable shell compositions have immense potential for catalysis. Herein, we present an unique structure transformation phenomenon for the fabrication of alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes with polyhedral morphology. This strategy starts with the preparation of polyhedral Cu-Pt nanoparticles with a core-shell construction upon the anisotropic growth of Pt on multiply twinned Cu seed particles, which are subsequently transformed into alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes due to the Kirkendall effect between the Cu core and Pt shell. The as-prepared alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes possess the rhombic dodecahedral morphology of their core-shell parents after the structural evolution. In particular, the resulting alloy Cu3Pt nanoframes are more effective for oxygen reduction reaction but ineffective for methanol oxidation reaction in comparison with their original Cu-Pt core-shell precursors. PMID:25231376

  20. Structural and Magnetic Response in Bimetallic Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nairan, Adeela; Khan, Usman; Iqbal, Munawar; Khan, Maaz; Javed, Khalid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement technique confirms single phase nanoparticles with average seed size of about 18 nm and thickness of shell is 3 nm, which corroborates with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops showed interesting behavior. We have observed large coercivity 15.8 kOe at T = 5 K, whereas maximum saturation magnetization (125 emu/g) is attained at T = 100 K for CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization decreases due to structural distortions at the surface of shell below 100 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) plots show that synthesized nanoparticles are ferromagnetic till room temperature and it has been noticed that core/shell sample possess high blocking temperature than Cobalt Ferrite. Results indicate that presence of iron oxide shell significantly increases magnetic parameters as compared to the simple cobalt ferrite. PMID:28335200

  1. Structural and Magnetic Response in Bimetallic Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nairan, Adeela; Khan, Usman; Iqbal, Munawar; Khan, Maaz; Javed, Khalid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-04-14

    Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe₂O₄/Fe₃O₄ core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement technique confirms single phase nanoparticles with average seed size of about 18 nm and thickness of shell is 3 nm, which corroborates with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops showed interesting behavior. We have observed large coercivity 15.8 kOe at T = 5 K, whereas maximum saturation magnetization (125 emu/g) is attained at T = 100 K for CoFe₂O₄/Fe₃O₄ core/shell nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization decreases due to structural distortions at the surface of shell below 100 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) plots show that synthesized nanoparticles are ferromagnetic till room temperature and it has been noticed that core/shell sample possess high blocking temperature than Cobalt Ferrite. Results indicate that presence of iron oxide shell significantly increases magnetic parameters as compared to the simple cobalt ferrite.

  2. Hollow core-shell structured Si/C nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tao, Huachao; Fan, Li-Zhen; Song, Wei-Li; Wu, Mao; He, Xinbo; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-03-21

    Hollow core-shell structured Si/C nanocomposites were prepared to adapt for the large volume change during a charge-discharge process. The Si nanoparticles were coated with a SiO2 layer and then a carbon layer, followed by etching the interface SiO2 layer with HF to obtain hollow core-shell structured Si/C nanocomposites. The Si nanoparticles are well encapsulated in a carbon matrix with an internal void space between the Si core and the carbon shell. The hollow core-shell structured Si/C nanocomposites demonstrate a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability, with capacity decay as small as 0.02% per cycle. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact that the internal void space can accommodate the volume expansion of Si during lithiation, thus preserving the structural integrity of electrode materials, and the carbon shell can increase the electronic conductivity of the electrode.

  3. Photonic bandgap of inverse opals prepared from core-shell spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Lin, Ya-Li; Huang, Shao-Xian

    2012-08-15

    In this study, we synthesized monodispersed polystyrene (PS)-silica core-shell spheres with various shell thicknesses for the fabrication of photonic crystals. The shell thickness of the spheres was controlled by various additions of tetraethyl orthosilicate during the shell growth process. The shrinkage ratio of the inverse opal photonic crystals prepared from the core-shell spheres was significantly reduced from 14.7% to within 3%. We suspected that the improvement resulted from the confinement of silica shell to the contraction of PS space during calcination. Due to the shell effect, the inverse opals prepared from the core-shell spheres have higher filling fraction and larger wavelength of stop band maximum.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell structured SiO2@YVO4:Yb3+,Er3+ microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanjie; Ouyang, Jun; Wang, Hongyou; Wang, Weili; Chui, Pengfei; Sun, Kangning

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, the core-shell structured SiO2@YVO4:Yb3+,Er3+ microspheres have been successfully prepared via a facile sol-gel process followed by a heat treatment. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the samples. The results reveal that the SiO2 spheres have been successfully coated by YVO4:Yb3+,Er3+ phosphors to form core-shell structures and the size of obtained microspheres has a uniform distribution. Additionally, the samples exhibit bright green luminescence under the excitation of a 980 nm laser diode. The photoluminescence intensity increases with the number of coatings. These core-shell structured SiO2@YVO4:Yb3+,Er3+ microspheres may have great potential in the fields of infrared detection and display devices.

  5. Preparation of multilayered gold-silica-polystyrene core-shell particles by seeded polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shunchao; Onishi, Junya; Mine, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2004-11-01

    A preparation method for multilayered gold-silica-polystyrene core-shell composite particles is proposed. The gold-silica core-shell particles of 192-nm-sized, synthesized by coating the 18-nm-sized gold particles with silica by a seeded growth technique, were used as cores for succeeding polystyrene coating. After surface modification of gold-silica composite particles by methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), polymerizations of styrene (0.16-0.4 M) were conducted with 8 x 10(-3) M of potassium persulfate initiator in the presence of 1 x 10(-3) M of sodium p-styrenesulfonate anionic monomer. Multilayered core-shell gold-silica-polystyrene particles that contained a single core could be obtained. The coefficient of variation of size distribution (CV) of the composite particles was less than 7%, and polystyrene shell thickness was in a range of 193 to 281 nm.

  6. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-21

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.

  7. CdSe/AsS core-shell quantum dots: preparation and two-photon fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Ming; Yan, Yongli; Wang, Zhe; Ho, Paul C; Loh, Kian Ping

    2009-08-19

    Arsenic(II) sulfide (AsS)-coated CdSe core-shell nanocrystals can be prepared by a cluster-complex deposition approach under mild conditions. At 60 degrees C, growth of an AsS shell onto a CdSe nanocrystal can be realized through the crystallization of a cluster complex of AsS/butylamine in a mixed solvent of isopropanol/chloroform. The new, type I core-shell nanocrystal exhibits markedly enhanced one-photon fluorescence as well two-photon upconversion fluorescence. The nanocrystals can be used for infrared-excited upconversion cellular labeling.

  8. Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated α-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Yu, Deng-Guang; Chatterton, Nicholas P; Zhu, Li-Min

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g/mL) and α-TAc (5%, g/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the core-shell fibers MAAP/α-TAc-PAN were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. As a negative control, the blend nanofibers MAAP/α-TAc/PAN were prepared from a normal electrospinning method. The results from SEM indicated that the morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were influenced by concentration of spinning solution, the polymer component of the shell, the carrying agent of the core and the fabricating methods, and the core-shell nanofibers obtained at the concentration of 8% had finer and uniform structure with the average diameters of 200 ± 15nm. From in vitro release studies it could be seen that both different fiber specimens showed a gradual increase in the amount of α-TAc or MAAP released from the nanofibers. Furthermore, α-TAc and MAAP released from the blend nanofibers showed the burst release at the maximum release of ∼15% and ∼40% during the first 6h, respectively, but their release amount from the core-shell nanofibers was only 10-12% during the initial part of the process. These results showed that core-shell nanofibers alleviated the initial burst release and gave better sustainability compared to that of the blend nanofibers. The present study would provide a basis for further optimization of processing conditions to obtain desired structured core-shell nanofibers and release kinetics for practical applications in dermal tissue.

  9. Formation of core-shell structure in high entropy alloy coating by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wu, Wanfei; He, Yizhu; Li, Mingxi; Guo, Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The formation of core-shell structure is an interesting phenomenon occurring during the solidification process, due to the liquid phase separation. The formation of core-shell structure in high-entropy alloys, a new class of advanced metallic materials, has not been reported previously, and thus constitutes an intriguing scientific question. Here, we firstly report the formation of core-shell structure in one laser cladded high-entropy alloy, where we show the nanosized-Y2O3 powder addition, serves as the catalyst for the liquid phase separation.

  10. Sub-nanometer dimensions control of core/shell nanoparticles prepared by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. J.; Verheijen, M. A.; Bol, A. A.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are the subject of intense research due to their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Accurate and independent control over the dimensions of both core and shell would allow for unprecedented catalytic performance. Here, we demonstrate that both core and shell dimensions of Pd/Pt core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Al2O3 substrates can be controlled at the sub-nanometer level by using a novel strategy based on atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results it is derived that the main conditions for accurate dimension control of these core/shell NPs are: (i) a difference in surface energy between the deposited core metal and the substrate to obtain island growth; (ii) a process yielding linear growth of the NP cores with ALD cycles to obtain monodispersed NPs with a narrow size distribution; (iii) a selective ALD process for the shell metal yielding a linearly increasing thickness to obtain controllable shell growth exclusively on the cores. For Pd/Pt core/shell NPs it is found that a minimum core diameter of 1 nm exists above which the NP cores are able to catalytically dissociate the precursor molecules for shell growth. In addition, initial studies on the stability of these core/shell NPs have been carried out, and it has been demonstrated that core/shell NPs can be deposited by ALD on high aspect ratio substrates such as nanowire arrays. These achievements show therefore that ALD has significant potential for the preparation of tuneable heterogeneous catalyst systems.

  11. Sub-nanometer dimensions control of core/shell nanoparticles prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Weber, M J; Verheijen, M A; Bol, A A; Kessels, W M M

    2015-03-06

    Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) are the subject of intense research due to their unique electronic, optical and catalytic properties. Accurate and independent control over the dimensions of both core and shell would allow for unprecedented catalytic performance. Here, we demonstrate that both core and shell dimensions of Pd/Pt core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Al2O3 substrates can be controlled at the sub-nanometer level by using a novel strategy based on atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results it is derived that the main conditions for accurate dimension control of these core/shell NPs are: (i) a difference in surface energy between the deposited core metal and the substrate to obtain island growth; (ii) a process yielding linear growth of the NP cores with ALD cycles to obtain monodispersed NPs with a narrow size distribution; (iii) a selective ALD process for the shell metal yielding a linearly increasing thickness to obtain controllable shell growth exclusively on the cores. For Pd/Pt core/shell NPs it is found that a minimum core diameter of 1 nm exists above which the NP cores are able to catalytically dissociate the precursor molecules for shell growth. In addition, initial studies on the stability of these core/shell NPs have been carried out, and it has been demonstrated that core/shell NPs can be deposited by ALD on high aspect ratio substrates such as nanowire arrays. These achievements show therefore that ALD has significant potential for the preparation of tuneable heterogeneous catalyst systems.

  12. Preparation of paclitaxel/chitosan co-assembled core-shell nanofibers for drug-eluting stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Liu, Yongjia; Zhu, Bangshang; Su, Yue; Zhu, Xinyuan

    2017-01-01

    The paclitaxel/chitosan (PTX/CS) core-shell nanofibers (NFs) are easily prepared by co-assembly of PTX and CS and used in drug-eluting stent. The mixture solution of PTX (dissolved in ethanol) and CS (dissolved in 1% acetic acid water solution) under sonication will make the formation of NFs, in which small molecule PTX co-assembles with biomacromolecular CS through non-covalent interactions. The obtained NFs are tens to hundreds nanometers in diameter and millimeter level in length. Furthermore, the structure of PTX/CS NFs was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoscale infra-red (nanoIR), which provided evidences demonstrated that PTX/CS NFs are core-shell structures. The 'shell' of CS wrapped outside of the NFs, while PTX is located in the core. Thus it resulted in high drug loading content (>40 wt.%). The well-controlled drug release, low cytotoxicity and good haemocompatibility were also found in drug carrier system of PTX/CS NFs. In addition, the hydrophilic and flexible properties of NFs make them easily coating and filming on stent to prepare drug-eluting stent (DES). Therefore, this study provides a convenient method to prepare high PTX loaded NFs, which is a promising nano-drug carrier used for DES and other biomedical applications. The possible molecular mechanism of PTX and CS co-assembly and core-shell nanofiber formation is also explored.

  13. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-6.5 wt.% Si/MnZn(Fe2O4)2 composites with core-shell structure prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Liang; Yan, Biao

    2017-07-01

    Fe-6.5 wt.% Si powder coated with 10 wt.% MnZn(Fe2O4)2 (MnZn ferrite) was successfully prepared by using dry-type stirring ball milling. The Fe-6.5 wt.% Si/MnZn(Fe2O4)2 soft magnetic composites were prepared by subsequent spark plasma sintering. This paper aims at analyzing the microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-6.5 wt.% Si/MnZn(Fe2O4)2 soft magnetic composites (sintering temperature: 750∘C, sintering pressure: 50 MPa, holding time: 8 min, heating rate: 60 K/min). Based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, microstructure and powder morphology were examined and magnetic measurements on bulk samples were conducted by vibrating sample magnetometer and impedance analyzer. According to the experiments results, Fe-6.5 wt.% Si/MnZn(Fe2O4)2 composites displayed a core-shell structure, and ceramic phase was observed after sintering. The Fe-6.5 wt.% Si/MnZn(Fe2O4)2 composites achieved high resistivity (ρ : 2.9 mΩ/cm) while maintaining excellent magnetic properties (Ms : 174.00 emu/g). Core losses especially at medium and high frequencies were significantly reduced.

  14. Hematite homogeneous core/shell hierarchical spheres: Surfactant-free solvothermal preparation and their improved catalytic property of selective oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Suoyuan; Li Haitao; He Xiaodie; Kang Zhenhui; Liu Yang; Lee, Shuit Tong

    2012-01-15

    Solvothermal synthesis is an efficient synthetic method for preparing nano and micromaterials. Preparation of hematite through alcoholysis of ferric ion under solvothermal condition has been carried out at low concentrations. In this paper, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/shell hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized via solvothermal treatment of FeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O and ethanol. The achievements of such structures can be attributed to two important factors: high temperature and high concentration. Besides, the crystal water and reaction time were also important factors to the synthesis of hematite. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and pore size distribution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a satellite peak at 719.8 eV, which is the characteristic peak of Fe(III). The formation mechanism of the spheres and the effects of the reactant concentrations and reaction temperatures have been discussed. Moreover, the enhanced catalytic activity of the spheres has also been investigated through oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high conversion (42%) and selectivity (95%). - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/shell hierarchical microspheres were synthesized by solvothermal method. Owing to the special structure, the synthesized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microspheres exhibit a superior catalytic activity in benzyl oxidation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core/shell microspheres were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microspheres were assembled by {beta}-FeOOH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample exhibits a superior catalytic activity and selectivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high activity and selectivity are due to the hierarchical core/shell structure.

  15. Establishing the Structural Integrity of Core-Shell Nanoparticles against Elemental Migration using Luminescent Lanthanide Probes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Peng, Dengfeng; Chen, Xian; Qiao, Xvsheng; Fan, Xianping; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-19

    Core-shell structured nanoparticles are increasingly used to host luminescent lanthanide ions but the structural integrity of these nanoparticles still lacks sufficient understanding. Herein, we present a new approach to detect the diffusion of dopant ions in core-shell nanostructures using luminescent lanthanide probes whose emission profile and luminescence lifetime are sensitive to the chemical environment. We show that dopant ions in solution-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles are firmly confined in the designed locations. However, annealing at certain temperatures (greater than circa 350 °C) promotes diffusion of the dopant ions and leads to degradation of the integrity of the nanoparticles. These insights into core-shell nanostructures should enhance our ability to understand and use lanthanide-doped luminescent nanoparticles.

  16. Preparation of core-shell structure Fe3 O4 @SiO2 superparamagnetic microspheres immoblized with iminodiacetic acid as immobilized metal ion affinity adsorbents for His-tag protein purification.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qian; Chen, Bing; Dong, Shaohua; Tian, Lei; Bai, Quan

    2016-04-01

    The core-shell structure Fe3 O4 /SiO2 magnetic microspheres were prepared by a sol-gel method, and immobiled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) as metal ion affinity ligands for protein adsorption. The size, morphology, magnetic properties and surface modification of magnetic silica nanospheres were characterized by various modern analytical instruments. It was shown that the magnetic silica nanospheres exhibited superparamagnetism with saturation magnetization values of up to 58.1 emu/g. Three divalent metal ions, Cu(2+) , Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) , were chelated on the Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -IDA magnetic microspheres to adsorb lysozyme. The results indicated that Ni(2+) -chelating magnetic microspheres had the maximum adsorption capacity for lysozyme of 51.0 mg/g, adsorption equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min and the adsorbed protein could be easily eluted. Furthermore, the synthesized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -IDA-Ni(2+) magnetic microspheres were successfully applied for selective enrichment lysozyme from egg white and His-tag recombinant Homer 1a from the inclusion extraction expressed in Escherichia coli. The result indicated that the magnetic microspheres showed unique characteristics of high selective separation behavior of protein mixture, low nonspecific adsorption, and easy handling. This demonstrates that the magnetic silica microspheres can be used efficiently in protein separation or purification and show great potential in the pretreatment of the biological sample.

  17. Core-shell structured PEO-chitosan nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, Mehdi; Heuzey, Marie-Claude; Ajji, Abdellah

    2012-02-13

    Core-shell structured PEO-chitosan nanofibers have been produced using a coaxial electrospinning setup. PEO and chitosan solutions, both in an aqueous acetic acid solvent, were used as the inner (core) and outer (shell) layer, respectively. Uniform-sized defect-free nanofibers of 150-190 nm diameter were produced. In addition, hollow nanofibers could be obtained subsequent to PEO washing of the membranes. The core-shell nanostructure and existence of chitosan on the shell layer were confirmed by TEM images obtained before and after washing the PEO content with water. The presence of chitosan on the surface of the composite nanofibers was further supported by XPS studies. The chitosan and PEO compositions in the nanofibrous mats were determined by TGA analysis, which were similar to their ratio in the feed solutions. The local compositional homogeneity of the membranes and the efficiency of the washing step to remove PEO were also verified by FTIR. In addition, DSC and XRD were used to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of the co-electrospun nonwoven mats. The prepared coaxial nanofibers (hollow and solid) have several potential applications due to the presence of chitosan on their outer surfaces.

  18. Preparation of nanofiber polythiophene layered on Ba x Sr1- x Fe12O19/Fe3O4/polyacrylic acid core-shell structure and its microwave absorption investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Moloudi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    Ba x Sr1- x Fe12O19/Fe3O4/polyacrylic acid/polythiophene (Ba x Sr1- x Fe12O19/Fe3O4/PAA/PTh) nanocomposites with multi-core-shell structure were successfully synthesized by four steps. The samples were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer, and radar absorbing material reflectivity far-field radar cross-section method, respectively. XRD and TEM results indicated that the obtained nanoparticles have multi-core-shell morphology. The magnetic properties and microwave absorption analyses reveal that there are interphase interactions at the interface of Ba x Sr1- x Fe12O19, Fe3O4, PAA, and PTh, which can affect the magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of the samples. The microwave-absorbing properties of nanocomposites were investigated at 8-14 GHz. A typical layer absorber exhibited an excellent microwave absorption with a -26 dB maximum absorption at 14 GHz. Compared with core material, the coercivity and saturation magnetization of multi-core-shell nanocomposites decrease obviously, but the microwave absorption properties of nanocomposites are improved greatly. The results show that these composite could be used as advancing absorption and shielding materials due to their favorable microwave-absorbing properties.

  19. Coaxial Electrospinning and Characterization of Core-Shell Structured Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced PMMA/PAN Composite Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Li, Qingde; Ni, Xiaohui; Liu, Guoxiang; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping

    2017-01-01

    A modified coaxial electrospinning process was used to prepare composite nanofibrous mats from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution with the addition of different cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the sheath fluid and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution as the core fluid. This study investigated the conductivity of the as-spun solutions that increased significantly with increasing CNCs addition, which favors forming uniform fibers. This study discussed the effect of different CNCs addition on the morphology, thermal behavior, and the multilevel structure of the coaxial electrospun PMMA + CNCs/PAN composite nanofibers. A morphology analysis of the nanofibrous mats clearly demonstrated that the CNCs facilitated the production of the composite nanofibers with a core-shell structure. The diameter of the composite nanofibers decreased and the uniformity increased with increasing CNCs concentrations in the shell fluid. The composite nanofibrous mats had the maximum thermal decomposition temperature that was substantially higher than electrospun pure PMMA, PAN, as well as the core-shell PMMA/PAN nanocomposite. The BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) formula results showed that the specific surface area of the CNCs reinforced core-shell composite significantly increased with increasing CNCs content. The specific surface area of the composite with 20% CNCs loading rose to 9.62 m2/g from 3.76 m2/g for the control. A dense porous structure was formed on the surface of the electrospun core-shell fibers. PMID:28772933

  20. Coaxial Electrospinning and Characterization of Core-Shell Structured Cellulose Nanocrystal Reinforced PMMA/PAN Composite Fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Qingde; Ni, Xiaohui; Liu, Guoxiang; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping

    2017-05-24

    A modified coaxial electrospinning process was used to prepare composite nanofibrous mats from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution with the addition of different cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as the sheath fluid and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution as the core fluid. This study investigated the conductivity of the as-spun solutions that increased significantly with increasing CNCs addition, which favors forming uniform fibers. This study discussed the effect of different CNCs addition on the morphology, thermal behavior, and the multilevel structure of the coaxial electrospun PMMA + CNCs/PAN composite nanofibers. A morphology analysis of the nanofibrous mats clearly demonstrated that the CNCs facilitated the production of the composite nanofibers with a core-shell structure. The diameter of the composite nanofibers decreased and the uniformity increased with increasing CNCs concentrations in the shell fluid. The composite nanofibrous mats had the maximum thermal decomposition temperature that was substantially higher than electrospun pure PMMA, PAN, as well as the core-shell PMMA/PAN nanocomposite. The BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) formula results showed that the specific surface area of the CNCs reinforced core-shell composite significantly increased with increasing CNCs content. The specific surface area of the composite with 20% CNCs loading rose to 9.62 m²/g from 3.76 m²/g for the control. A dense porous structure was formed on the surface of the electrospun core-shell fibers.

  1. Preparation and in vitro study of ZnO/PEGMEMA core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Jei; Chiu, Ding-Jiun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was using sol-gel method to prepare zinc oxide (ZnO) with specific nanostructures, including the ZnO/PEGMEMA composites with core-shell structure. Pure ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), ZnO-PEG NPs, and ZnO/SiO2-PEG NPs were prepared. Their chemical composition, particle size distribution, and optical properties were investigated. Under UV light excitation, the prepared ZnO NPs, ZnO-PEG NPs, and ZnO/SiO2-PEG NPs showed light emission in the wavelength of 563 nm, 540 nm, and 510 nm, respectively. The potential biomedical applications of these nanoparticles were further investigated in vitro. Through the cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) by using L929 cell line, better biocompatibility was observed under the concentration below 150 microg/mL for the PEGylated nanoparticles; and 40 microg/mL for ZnO comparatively. The fluorescence images taken by a confocal microscope showed that a large amount of materials were uptaken by the cells treated with 10 microg/mL for 8 hours. The results suggested that these ZnO-related nanoparticles with different light emitting wavelengths are of great potential for in vitro cell imageing.

  2. The structure, morphology, and the metal-enhanced fluorescence of nano-Ag/ZnO core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue; Ding, Yanli; Peng, Xiang; Zhou, Mingtao; Liang, Xiaoyan; Min, Jiahua; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin

    2015-06-01

    Nano-polyc rystalline silver (Ag) particles with the diameter of 60 nm were synthesized by the reducing agent sodium citrate. An amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) shell layer was then coated on the surface of silver particles using wet chemical method. The Ag/ZnO core-shell structure was characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence (FL) measurement. The results showed that nano-Ag/ZnO core-shell particles with an average diameter of ~100 nm were prepared successfully, and the FL intensity of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) mixed with Ag/ZnO nanoparticle was 53 % greater than that of the same amount of R6G without any nanoparticles, which may be related to the effect of surface plasmon resonance.

  3. Synthesis of polyacrylate core-shell structure latex by radiation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minghong, Wu; Weiping, Shen; Zueteh, Ma

    1993-07-01

    A series of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate)/poly (ethyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) was synthesized in latex form by emulsion polymerization. The multiphase morphology of the latex particles was studied after two-stage polymerization by using transimission electron microscope (TEM), the result indicated that the morphology of the particles comprises gradient shell structure, cellular structure and core-shell structure. The change of morphology might stem from emulsion polymerization by radiation initiation or chemical initiation and the weight composition of poly(EA-co-MMA) seed latex which formed the core. By radiation techniques, we successfully synthesized poly( BA-co-MMA)/poly(EA-co-AA) latex of core-shell structure having (42-8)/(46-4) weight compositions. The PA core-shell structure latex applied to textile as a water proofing coating showed higher water-pressure and easier handling than that with PA homogeneous phase structure latex.

  4. [Scattering properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-qi; Song, Wei; Wang, Yan; Miao, Xin-hui; Xu, Li-jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Cheng; Li Wen-long; Wang, Yi-ran; Cai, Hong-xing

    2014-12-01

    The authors have investigated the optical properties of core-shell structure of mist wrapped dust particles based on the method of discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The influence on the thickness of the elliptical core-shell structure were calculated which the ratio of long axis and short axis is 2:1, and the change of scattering angle for scattering characteristics. The results shows that the thickness of outer layer increase from 1.2 to 4.8 μm with the scattering and extinction coefficient of double core-shell layers particles decrease from 3.4 and 3.43 to 2.543 and 2.545, when the size of inner core isn't change. And scattering relative strength also increased obviously. The thickness of inner core increase from 0.6 to 2.4 μm with the of scattering and extinction coefficient change from 2.59 and 2.88 to 2.6 and 2.76 when thickness of outer remain constant. Effect of the thickness of visible outer layer on the scattering characteristics of double core-shell layers particles is greater, because of the interaction between scattering light and outer materials. The scattering relative intensity decrease with wavelength increased, while increased with the scale of core-shell structure increase. The results make a promotion on the study of the transportation characteristics of laser and scattering characteristics when the atmospheric aerosol and water mist interact together.

  5. Mapping the Atomistic Structure of Graded Core/Shell Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Yarema, Maksym; Xing, Yunhua; Lechner, Rainer T; Ludescher, Lukas; Dordevic, Nikola; Lin, Weyde M M; Yarema, Olesya; Wood, Vanessa

    2017-09-15

    Engineering the compositional gradient for core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals improves their optical properties. To date, however, the structure of graded core/shell nanocrystal emitters has only been qualitatively described. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to quantify nanocrystal structure, selecting graded Ag-In-Se/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals as a proof-of-concept material. A combination of multi-energy small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy techniques enables us to establish the radial distribution of ZnSe with sub-nanometer resolution. Using ab initio shape-retrieval analysis of X-ray scattering spectra, we further determine the average shape of nanocrystals. These results allow us to generate three-dimensional, atomistic reconstructions of graded core/shell nanocrystals. We use these reconstructions to calculate solid-state Zn diffusion in the Ag-In-Se nanocrystals and the lattice mismatch between nanocrystal monolayers. Finally, we apply these findings to propose design rules for optimal shell structure and record-luminescent core/shell nanocrystals.

  6. Synthesis of core-shell structured magnetic nanoparticles with a carbide shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shushan; Chi, Yue; Zhao, Zhankui

    2017-03-01

    Core-shell structured materials combining the functionalities of the core and shell have great application potential in many fields. In this work, by combining solvothermal, polymerization and the high temperature carbonization, we have successfully developed a facile method to generate core-shell structured nanoparticles which possess an internal magnetic nanoparticle with a carbide shell. The thickness of resorcinol formaldehyde resin as intermediate transition shell could be easily adjusted by changing the concentration of the RF precursor. The resulting nanoparticles possess well-defined structure, uniform size and high magnetization. The unique nanostructure of the magnetic core-shell structured nanoparticles could lead to many promising applications in areas ranging from drug delivery to the purifyication of sewage.

  7. Research advances in polymer emulsion based on "core-shell" structure particle design.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-zhong; Liu, Yi-hong; Bao, Yan; Liu, Jun-li; Zhang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, quite many studies on polymer emulsions with unique core-shell structure have emerged at the frontier between material chemistry and many other fields because of their singular morphology, properties and wide range of potential applications. Organic substance as a coating material onto either inorganic or organic internal core materials promises an unparalleled opportunity for enhancement of final functions through rational designs. This contribution provides a brief overview of recent progress in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of both inorganic-organic and organic-organic polymer emulsions with core-shell structure. In addition, future research trends in polymer composites with core-shell structure are also discussed in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Open structure ZnO/CdSe core/shell nanoneedle arrays for solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Open structure ZnO/CdSe core/shell nanoneedle arrays were prepared on a conducting glass (SnO2:F) substrate by solution deposition and electrochemical techniques. A uniform CdSe shell layer with a grain size of approximately several tens of nanometers was formed on the surface of ZnO nanoneedle cores after annealing at 400°C for 1.5 h. Fabricated solar cells based on these nanostructures exhibited a high short-circuit current density of about 10.5 mA/cm2 and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.07% with solar illumination of 100 mW/cm2. Incident photo-to-current conversion efficiencies higher than 75% were also obtained. PMID:22995031

  9. Open structure ZnO/CdSe core/shell nanoneedle arrays for solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxue; Wei, Lin; Zhang, Guanghua; Jiao, Jun

    2012-09-20

    Open structure ZnO/CdSe core/shell nanoneedle arrays were prepared on a conducting glass (SnO2:F) substrate by solution deposition and electrochemical techniques. A uniform CdSe shell layer with a grain size of approximately several tens of nanometers was formed on the surface of ZnO nanoneedle cores after annealing at 400°C for 1.5 h. Fabricated solar cells based on these nanostructures exhibited a high short-circuit current density of about 10.5 mA/cm2 and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.07% with solar illumination of 100 mW/cm2. Incident photo-to-current conversion efficiencies higher than 75% were also obtained.

  10. Preparation of AgBr@SiO2 core@shell hybrid nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Lisu; Zhao, Yanbao; Li, Binjie; Sun, Lei; Luo, Huajuan

    2013-04-01

    AgBr@SiO2 core@shell hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by sol-gel method. Their morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hybrid NPs are predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 180-200 nm, and each NP contains one inorganic core. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the hybrid NPs were examined against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. Results indicated that the AgBr@SiO2 NPs had excellent antibacterial activity.

  11. Enhanced performance of core-shell structured polyaniline at helical carbon nanotube hybrids for ammonia gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Xiangnan; Yang, Weiqing; Xu, Xiaoling E-mail: bihan-2001@163.com; Jiang, Man; Zhou, Zuowan E-mail: bihan-2001@163.com; Wu, Zuquan

    2014-11-17

    A core-shell structured hybrid of polyaniline at helical carbon nanotubes was synthesized using in situ polymerization, which the helical carbon nanotubes were uniformly surrounded by a layer of polyaniline nanorods array. More interestingly, repeatable responses were experimentally observed that the sensitivity to ammonia gas of the as-prepared helical shaped core-shell hybrid displays an enhancement of more than two times compared to those of only polyaniline or helical carbon nanotubes sensors because of the peculiar structures with high surface area. This kind of hybrid comprising nanorod arrays of conductive polymers covering carbon nanotubes and related structures provide a potential in sensors of trace gas detection for environmental monitoring and safety forecasting.

  12. Enhanced performance of core-shell structured polyaniline at helical carbon nanotube hybrids for ammonia gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Xiangnan; Yang, Weiqing; Wu, Zuquan; Xu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Man; Zhou, Zuowan

    2014-11-01

    A core-shell structured hybrid of polyaniline at helical carbon nanotubes was synthesized using in situ polymerization, which the helical carbon nanotubes were uniformly surrounded by a layer of polyaniline nanorods array. More interestingly, repeatable responses were experimentally observed that the sensitivity to ammonia gas of the as-prepared helical shaped core-shell hybrid displays an enhancement of more than two times compared to those of only polyaniline or helical carbon nanotubes sensors because of the peculiar structures with high surface area. This kind of hybrid comprising nanorod arrays of conductive polymers covering carbon nanotubes and related structures provide a potential in sensors of trace gas detection for environmental monitoring and safety forecasting.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Based Core-Shell Microcapsules Containing Clove Oil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Li, Duxin; Xiao, Ya; Yang, Xingxing; Liu, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    The biodegradable microcapsules based on chitosan for a controlled delivery of clove oil were prepared by the single coagulation process. The effect of chitosan concentration, core to shell ratio, types of emulsifier, flocculating agent and hardening agent on the microcapsule diameter and the particle size distribution of microcapsule were investigated. The optimized conditions for the preparation of microcapsules with well-defined structure and narrow dispersibility were under that (1) the concentration of chitosan was 1.0 wt%, (2) clove oil to chitosan ratio was 75:25, (3) OP-10 and 10 wt% sodium sulfate were used as emulsifier and flocculating agent respectively, and (4) the concentration hardening agent glyoxal was 1 wt% based on the weight of chitosan. The uniform spherical structures with smooth surfaces with a particle size distribution of 1-15 μm were evidenced by SEM images of microcapsules. Core-shell, hetero-structures were confirmed by optical micrograph. The chemical component of the microcapsules was determined by FTIR. Thermal analysis showed the microcapsules were thermally stable below 150 degrees C. It was found that the pH value and temperature play important roles on the release rate of clove oil from the microcapsules. The release volume of clove oil from microcapsules at pH = 7, and pH = 10 were smaller than that at pH = 2. And the release volume of Clove oil from microcapsules at 60 degrees C was smaller than that at 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C, which showed a sustained and prolonged release.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic performance of pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Jian-Qi; Ge, Hong-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres with good monodispersity were prepared via a seed-mediated particle growth procedure, where metal Ag (by reducing Ag+ with Sn2+) deposited on the as-prepared ZnO submicrospheres served as seeds (nucleation sites) for further growth of Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectra. Structure characterization demonstrates that the ZnO/Ag composites are composed of pear-shaped wurtzite ZnO submicrosphere core and Ag nanoparticles (nanoshell). Photoluminescence indicates that Ag nanoshell can effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electrons and holes of ZnO. This is responsible for the higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/Ag core-shell composites. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared ZnO/Ag samples for degradation of Rhodamine B was evaluated with a comparative study. The relationship between the structure of the samples and their photocatalytic performance shows that Ag deposits can significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO submicrospheres.

  15. Structural Basis for Near Unity Quantum Yield Core/Shell Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, James; Treadway, Joe; Pennycook, Stephen J; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy of core/shell nanocrystals shows clear correlations between structure and quantum efficiency. Uniform shell coverage is obtained only for a graded CdS/ZnS shell material and is found to be critical to achieving near 100% quantum yield. The sublattice sensitivity of the images confirms that preferential growth takes place on the anion-terminated surfaces. This explains the three-dimensional "nanobullet" shape observed in the case of core/shell nanorods.

  16. Core/shell structured magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by inert gas condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Abdullah

    In this work, it is our goal to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of core/shell magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by inert gas condensation technique. For that purpose, Fe/FeO, Fe/FeO/PMMA, Ni/NiO/CoO, and NiFe 2O4 have been chosen to study exchange bias phenomenon that is observed in these systems. Two sets (small and large) of Fe/FeO nanoparticles with different particle sizes, (6.0/1.5nm and 9.0/3.0nm) have been prepared and the magnetic properties in terms of temperature dependencies of exchange bias field (H EB, horizontal shift of the hysteresis loops) and magnetic viscosity were investigated. Small particles have shown superparamagnetic behavior above Blocking Temperature, TB and exhibited 1574+/-25Oe exchange bias whereas the large particles had 277+/-25Oe. It has been observed that HEB is inversely proportional with the particle size and exponentially decreases and vanishes as the temperature increases up to TB. Along with the horizontal shift, vertical shift of the hysteresis loops due to pinned interface spins has also been realized. Dispersion of 14nm Fe/FeO particles in a non-magnetic polymer PMMA in order to study interparticle interactions has revealed that the magnetic response is in general nonmonotonic as a function of particle concentration in the polymer. The nonmonotonic behavior is linked to the competition between the exchange and dipolar interactions one of which being dominant above/below a threshold concentration. In order to synthesize core/shell nanoparticles composed of different metal and metal oxides rather than metal and its native oxide forming the core/shell, two techniques, resistive evaporation and laser ablation, have been combined in our inert gas condensation system. Condensation of evaporated Ni and laser ablated CoO allowed us to prepare core/shell particles. Structural analyses have revealed that Ni/CoO nanoparticles with a thin (˜1nm) NiO intermediate layer in the form of Ni/NiO/CoO can only be formed

  17. Core-shell structured Ag@C for direct electrochemistry and hydrogen peroxide biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shuxian; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng; Deng, Anping

    2013-10-15

    Ag@C core-shell nano-composites have been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method and are further explored for protein immobilization and bio-sensing. The electrochemical behavior of immobilized horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on Ag@C modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and its application as H₂O₂ sensor are investigated. Electrochemical and UV-vis spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that Ag@C nano-composites provide excellent matrixes for the adsorption of HRP and the entrapped HRP retains its bioactivities. It is found that on the HRP-Ag@C/ITO electrode, HRP exhibited a fast electron transfer process and good electrocatalytic reduction toward H₂O₂. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responds to H₂O₂ concentration in the range of 5.0×10⁻⁷-1.4×10⁻⁴ M with a detection limit of 2.0×10⁻⁷ M (S/N=3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(app)(M)) of the biosensor is calculated to be 3.75×10⁻⁵ M, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward H₂O₂. In addition, the HRP-Ag@C/ITO bio-electrode shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, the core-shell structured Ag@C is an attractive material for application in the fabrication of biosensors due to its direct electrochemistry and functionalized surface for efficient immobilization of bio-molecules.

  18. Core-shell structured TiO2@polydopamine for highly active visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wen-Xin; Lin, Xi-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Chi, Zi-Xiang; Lyu, Rong-Wen; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-06-04

    This communication reports that the TiO2@polydopamine nanocomposite with a core-shell structure could be a highly active photocatalyst working under visible light. A very thin layer of polydopamine at around 1 nm was found to be critical for the degradation of Rhodamine B.

  19. High thermal stability of core-shell structures dominated by negative interface energy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Ning; Jin, Bo; Zhao, Ming; Jiang, Qing

    2017-03-29

    Nanoscale core/shell structures are of interest in catalysis due to their superior catalytic properties. Here we investigated the thermal stability of the coherent core-shell structures in a thermodynamic way by considering the impact from the core with the bulk melting point Tm(∞) lower or higher than the shell. When a low-Tm(∞) core is adopted, core-shell melting induced by the melting depression of the core does not occur upon heating because of the superheating, although the melting depression of the core can be triggered ultimately by the preferential melting of the high-Tm(∞) shell for small cores. The superheating of the core is contributed by the negative solid-solid interface energy, while the depression is originated from the positive solid-liquid interface energy. Owing to the presence of the negative interface energy, moreover, the low-Tm(∞)-core structure possesses a low difference in thermal expansion between the core and the shell, high activation energy of outward atomic diffusion from the core to shell, and low heat capacity. This result is beneficial for the core-shell structure design for its application in catalysis.

  20. Silica colloidal spheres as metal ions reservoir for synthesis of semiconductor core-shell structure and hollow spheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Guozhong; Wang, Hongqiang; Tang, Chunjuan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Lide

    2009-08-01

    Serial semiconductors core-shell and hollow sphere structures were prepared by using silica colloidal spheres as template in alkaline solution. This method presented in this paper involves mainly two steps with metal ions stored into surface layer of silica colloidal spheres in alkaline condition in the first step, followed metal ions reacted with thioacetamide to form semiconductor shell under microwave heating in a short-time. Cadmium ions were used as an example to illustrate the synthesis process. The electron microscopy results suggested that CdS core-shell structure and hollow spheres with complete and uniform shell were successfully synthesized, and the thickness of shell can be controlled in a certain range precisely. The mechanism of this method was discussed in detail. In addition, complex peanut hollow structure was synthesized by using this method, which indicated that this method might be extended to synthesize desired morphology with corresponding silica template. This novel method provides an avenue to synthesize uniform different semiconductor core-shell structure and hollow spheres with controllable morphology and shell thickness.

  1. A facile route to synthesize core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Xiaosi; Xu, Jianle; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Controllable synthesis of core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid and their tunable magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The paper reports a simple route for core/shell structured carbon/magnetic nanoparticles hybrid. • By controlling the temperature, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CNCs, Fe@HCNTs and Fe@LCNTs were produced selectively. • The magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned effectively. - Abstract: By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, core/shell structured Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/carbon nanocages, Fe/helical carbon nanotubes and Fe/low helicity of carbon nanotubes could be synthesized selectively over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes generated by a hydrothermal method. The transmission electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic investigations revealed that the efficiency of generating core/shell structured hybrid was high, exceeding 90%. Because of the magnetic nanoparticles tightly wrapped in graphitic layers, the obtained core/shell structured hybrids showed high stability and good magnetic properties. And the magnetic properties of the obtained core/shell structured hybrid could be tuned by the decomposition temperature and time. Therefore, a simple, inexpensive and environment-benign route was proposed to produce magnetism-tunable core/shell structured hybrid in large quantities.

  2. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of core-shell nano-TiO2 @ α-Al2O3 microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Wang, Zhou; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell nano-TiO2@a-Al2O3 microspheres of 5-20 μm were prepared by the heterogeneous precipitation method combined with the hydro-thermal and calcination process using α-Al2O3 microspheres as substrate. Their morphologies, microstructure and crystalline phase were characterized by SEM and XRD respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange. The as-prepared 10 wt.% nano-TiO2@α -Al2O3 microspheres possess α core-shell structure with a monolayer of nano-TiO2 particles less than 30 nm on the surface of α-Al2O3 microspheres. Their photocatalytic properties are largely influenced by the calcination temperature and the sample calcined at 800 degrees C for 2 h has the best photocatalytic activity. This high photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the synergetic effects of the unique structure of nano-TiO2 @α-Al2O3 microspheres, quantum size effect, composition of crystalline phase and crystallinity of nano-TiO2. These nano-TiO2@α-Al2O3 microspheres may be conveniently separable and useful in practical treatment of organic waste waters due to the large particle size and high photocatalytic properties.

  3. Enhanced oxidation stability of quasi core-shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots prepared through aqueous microwave synthesis technique.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong-Ju; Zhou, Pei-Jiang; Ma, Rong; Liu, Xi-Jing; He, Yu-Ning; Zhou, Chuan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Quasi core shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared through a facile aqueous-phase route employing microwave irradiation technique. The optical spectroscopy and structure characterization evidenced the quasi core shell alloyed structures of CdSeS QDs. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained CdSeS QDs displayed peak positions very close to those of bulk cubic CdS crystal structures and the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data re-confirmed the thick CdS shell on the CdSe core. The TEM images and HRTEM images of the CdSeS QDs ascertained the well-defined spherical particles and a relatively narrow size distribution. On the basis, the stability of the obtained QDs in an oxidative environment was also discussed using etching reaction by H2O2. The experiments result showed the as-prepared QDs present high tolerance towards H2O2, obviously superior to the commonly used CdTe QDs and core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs, which was attributed to the unique quasi core-shell CdSeS crystal structure and the small lattice mismatch between CdSe and CdS semiconductor materials. This assay provided insight to obtain high stable crystal structured semiconductor nanocrystals in the design and synthesis process.

  4. Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon nanocapsules with improved electromagnetic wave absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niandu; Liu, Xianguo; Or, Siu Wing

    2016-05-01

    Core/shell-structured nickel/nitrogen-doped onion-like carbon (Ni/(C, N)) nanocapsules are synthesized by a modified arc-discharge method using N2 gas as the source of N atoms. Core/shell-structured Ni/C nanocapsules are also prepared for comparison. The Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules with diameters of 10-80 nm exhibit a clear core/shell structure. The doping of N atoms introduces more lattice defects into the (C, N) shells and creates more disorderly C in the (C, N) shells. This leads to a slight shift in the dielectric resonance peak to the lower frequency side and an increase in the dielectric loss tangent for the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules in comparison with the Ni/C nanocapsules. The magnetic permeability of both types of nanocapsules remains almost unaltered since the N atoms exist only in the (C, N) shells. The reflection loss (RL) of the Ni/(C, N) nanocapsules not only reaches a high value of -35 dB at 13.6 GHz, but also is generally improved in the low-frequency S and C microwave bands covering 2-8 GHz as a result of the N-doping-induced additional dipolar polarization and dielectric loss from the (C, N) shells.

  5. Liquid-liquid phase equilibrium and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyang; Jia, Peng; Sun, Xiaofei; Geng, Haoran; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the liquid-phase separation of ternary immiscible Al45Bi19.8Sn35.2 and Al60Bi14.4Sn25.6 melts was studied with resistivity and thermal analysis methods at different temperature. The resistivity-temperature curves appear abrupt and anomalously change with rising temperature, corresponding to the anomalous and low peak of melting process in DSC curves, indicative of the occurrence of the liquid-phase separation. The anomalous behavior of the resistivity temperature dependence is attributable to concentration-concentration fluctuations. The effect of composition and melt temperature on the liquid-phase separation and core-shell structure formation in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys was studied. The liquid-phase separation and formation of the core-shell structure in immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys are readily acquired when the alloy compositions fall into liquid miscibility gap. What's more, the cross-sectional structure changes from irregular, dispersed to core-type shapes under the actions of Marangoni motion with increasing melt temperature. This study provides some clues for the preparation of core-shell microspheres of immiscible Al-Bi-Sn alloys via liquid-phase separation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiqin; Qiu, Teng; Han, Feng; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2012-07-01

    The inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) gradually, using functional polymethacryloxypropylsilsesquioxane (PSQ) latex particles with reactive methacryloxypropyl groups synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane in the presence of mixed emulsifiers as seeds. The FTIR spectra show that acrylate monomers and D4 are effectively involved in the emulsion copolymerization and formed the polydimethylsiloxane-containing hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirm that the resultant hybrid latex particles have evident trilayer core-shell structure and a narrow size distribution. XPS analysis also indicates that polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared and PDMS is rich in the surface of the hybrid latex film. Additionally, compared with the hybrid latex film without PDMS, the hybrid latex film containing PDMS shows higher hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and lower water absorption.

  7. Biodegradable and magnetic core-shell composite particle prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Horiishi, Nanao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-01

    The present paper describes optimization of preparation conditions of a core-shell composite particle, and its heat generation by alternating magnetic fields. The composite particles are prepared with a modified emulsion solvent diffusion method, which is combined with Pickering emulsion stabilized by magnetic nanoparticles. In this method, the magnetic nanoparticles act as an emulsifier, and its amount and size are crucial to morphology of the composite particles. The magnetic nanoparticles of 8-9 nm would be strongly adsorbed at a liquid-liquid interface rather than the larger nanoparticles. At the optimized concentration of the magnetic nanoparticle’s suspension for the preparation, small and uniform composite particles are obtained since the amount of the nanoparticles is enough to prevent coalescence of droplets during the formation of the composites. The heat generation by alternating magnetic fields emerged certainly. This result suggests the composite particles have a property as a heat-generating carrier for hyperthermia treatment.

  8. Preparation of hollow core/shell microspheres of hematite and its adsorption ability for samarium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-Hui; Yao, Qi-Zhi; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Quan

    2014-07-09

    Hollow core/shell hematite microspheres with diameter of ca. 1-2 μm have been successfully achieved by calcining the precursor composite microspheres of pyrite and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The synthesized products were characterized by a wide range of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas sorptometry. Temperature- and time-dependent experiments unveil that the precursor pyrite-PVP composite microspheres finally transform into hollow core/shell hematite microspheres in air through a multistep process including the oxidation and sulfation of pyrite, combustion of PVP occluded in the precursor, desulfation, aggregation, and fusion of nanosized hematite as well as mass transportation from the interior to the exterior of the microspheres. The formation of the hollow core/shell microspheres dominantly depends on the calcination temperature under current experimental conditions, and the aggregation of hematite nanocrystals and the core shrinking during the oxidation of pyrite are responsible for the formation of the hollow structures. Moreover, the adsorption ability of the hematite for Sm(III) was also tested. The results exhibit that the hematite microspheres have good adsorption activity for trivalent samarium, and that its adsorption capacity strongly depends on the pH of the solution, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Sm(III) is 14.48 mg/g at neutral pH. As samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, our results suggest that the hollow hematite microspheres have potential application in removal of rare earth elements (REEs) entering the water environment.

  9. Probing atomic structure in magnetic core/shell nanoparticles using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Roy, M; Thornton, S C; Qureshi, M; Binns, C

    2010-09-29

    Core/shell Fe/Cu and Fe/Au nanoparticles were prepared directly by deposition from the gas phase. A detailed study of the atomic structure in both the cores and shells of the nanoparticles was undertaken by means of extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. For Fe/Cu nanoparticles, a Cu shell ∼ 20 monolayers thick appears similar in structure to bulk Cu and is sufficient to cause the structure in the Fe core to switch from body centred cubic (bcc; as in bulk Fe) to face centred cubic. This is not the case for thinner Cu shells, 1-2 monolayers in thickness, in which there is a considerable contraction in nearest-neighbour interatomic distance as the shell structure changes to bcc. In Fe/Au nanoparticles, the crystal structure in the Fe core remains bcc for all Au thicknesses although there is some stretching of the lattice. In thin Au shells ∼ 2 monolayers thick, there is strong contraction in interatomic distances. There does not appear to be significant alloying at the Fe/Au interface.

  10. Facile preparation of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles for Li-ion battery cathode materials

    PubMed Central

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Naito, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Core@shell and concentration-gradient particles have attracted much attention as improved cathodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, most of their preparation routes have employed a precisely-controlled co-precipitation method. Here, we report a facile preparation route of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles by dry powder processing. The core@shell particles composed of the MnO2 core and the Li(Ni,Mn)2O4 spinel shell are prepared by mechanical treatment using an attrition-type mill, whereas the concentration-gradient spinel particles with an average composition of LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 are produced by calcination of their core@shell particles as a precursor. The concentration-gradient LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 spinel cathode exhibits the high discharge capacity of 135.3 mA h g−1, the wide-range plateau at a high voltage of 4.7 V and the cyclability with a capacity retention of 99.4% after 20 cycles. Thus, the facile preparation route of the core@shell and concentration-gradient particles may provide a new opportunity for the discovery and investigation of functional materials as well as for the cathode materials for LIBs. PMID:27877756

  11. Facile preparation of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles for Li-ion battery cathode materials.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Naito, Makio

    2015-02-01

    Core@shell and concentration-gradient particles have attracted much attention as improved cathodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, most of their preparation routes have employed a precisely-controlled co-precipitation method. Here, we report a facile preparation route of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles by dry powder processing. The core@shell particles composed of the MnO2 core and the Li(Ni,Mn)2O4 spinel shell are prepared by mechanical treatment using an attrition-type mill, whereas the concentration-gradient spinel particles with an average composition of LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 are produced by calcination of their core@shell particles as a precursor. The concentration-gradient LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 spinel cathode exhibits the high discharge capacity of 135.3 mA h g(-1), the wide-range plateau at a high voltage of 4.7 V and the cyclability with a capacity retention of 99.4% after 20 cycles. Thus, the facile preparation route of the core@shell and concentration-gradient particles may provide a new opportunity for the discovery and investigation of functional materials as well as for the cathode materials for LIBs.

  12. Facile preparation of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles for Li-ion battery cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Naito, Makio

    2015-02-01

    Core@shell and concentration-gradient particles have attracted much attention as improved cathodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, most of their preparation routes have employed a precisely-controlled co-precipitation method. Here, we report a facile preparation route of core@shell and concentration-gradient spinel particles by dry powder processing. The core@shell particles composed of the MnO2 core and the Li(Ni,Mn)2O4 spinel shell are prepared by mechanical treatment using an attrition-type mill, whereas the concentration-gradient spinel particles with an average composition of LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 are produced by calcination of their core@shell particles as a precursor. The concentration-gradient LiNi0.32Mn1.68O4 spinel cathode exhibits the high discharge capacity of 135.3 mA h g-1, the wide-range plateau at a high voltage of 4.7 V and the cyclability with a capacity retention of 99.4% after 20 cycles. Thus, the facile preparation route of the core@shell and concentration-gradient particles may provide a new opportunity for the discovery and investigation of functional materials as well as for the cathode materials for LIBs.

  13. Preparation of core-shell Ag@CeO2 nanocomposite by LSPR photothermal induced interface reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H. X.; Wei, Y.; Yue, Y. Z.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The core-shell structure of Ag@CeO2 was prepared by a novel and facile method, which was based on the photothermal effect of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag were dispersed in a solution containing citric acid, ethylene glycol and cerium nitrate, then under irradiation, Ag NPs generated heat from LSPR and the heat-induced polymerization reaction in the interface between Ag and the sol resulted in cerium gel formation only on the surface of the Ag NPs. After calcination, Ag@CeO2 was successfully obtained, then Ag@CeO2/SiO2 was prepared by loading Ag@CeO2 on SiO2. The resultant catalyst exhibited favorable activity and stability for CO oxidation. The preparation method proposed here should be extendable to other composites with metallic cores and oxide shells in which the metallic nanoparticle possesses LSPR properties.

  14. Structure-property relationship in core-shell rubber toughened epoxy nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gam, Ki Tak

    The structure-property relationships of epoxy nanocomposites with inorganic layer-structure nanofillers have been studied to obtain the fundamental understanding of the role of nanofillers and the physics of polymer nanocomposites in this dissertation. Several polymer nanocomposite systems with modified montmorillonite (MMT) or alpha-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanofillers were prepared with epoxy matrices of different ductility and properties. The successful nanofiller's exfoliations were confirmed with X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) on the prepared epoxy nanocomposites revealed the significant increase in rubbery plateau moduli of the epoxy nanocomposite systems above Tg, as high as 4.5 times, and tensile test results showed improved modulus by the nanofiller addition, while the fracture toughness was not affected or slightly decreased by nanofillers. The brittle epoxy nanocomposite systems were toughened with core shell rubber (CSR) particles and showed remarkable increase in fracture toughness (KIC) value up to 270%. The CSR toughening is more effective at ductile matrices, and TEM observation indicates that major toughening mechanisms induced by the CSR addition involve a large scale CSR cavitation, followed by massive shear deformation of the matrix.

  15. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Ying; Yu, Zhiwu

    2016-12-17

    A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO₂-Al₂O₃-TiO₂ nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570), and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), contact angle meter (CA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570). Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO₂-Al₂O₃-TiO₂ nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  16. Laser-assisted solid-state synthesis of carbon nanotube/silicon core/shell structures.

    PubMed

    Mahjouri-Samani, M; Zhou, Y S; Fan, L; Gao, Y; Xiong, W; More, K L; Jiang, L; Lu, Y F

    2013-06-28

    A single-step solid-state synthetic approach was developed for the synthesis of silicon-coated carbon nanotube (CNT) core/shell structures. This was achieved through laser-induced melting and evaporation of CNT-deposited Si substrates using a continuous wavelength CO2 laser. The synthesis location of the CNT/Si structures was defined by the laser-irradiated spots. The thickness of the coating was controlled by tuning the laser power and synthesis time during the coating process. This laser-based synthetic technique provides a convenient approach for solid-state, controllable, gas-free, simple and cost-effective fabrication of CNT/Si core/shell structures.

  17. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.

  18. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-01-01

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures have been widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures. PMID:26040539

  19. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; ...

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore » the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  20. Magnetic Core-Shell Morphology of Structurally Uniform Magnetite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krycka, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoscale structures are intriguing, in part, because of the exotic properties that emerge compared with bulk. The reduction of magnetic moment per atom in magnetite with decreasing nanoparticle size, for example, has been hypothesized to originate from surface disordering to anisotropy-induced radial canting, which are difficult to distinguish using conventional magnetometry. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is ideal for probing structure, both chemical and magnetic, from nm to microns across an ensemble of particles. Adding polarization analysis (PASANS) of the neutron spin orientation before and after interaction with the scattering particles allows the magnetic structure to be separated into its vector components. Application of this novel technique to 9 nm magnetite nanoparticles closed-packed into face-centered crystallites with order of a micron revealed that at nominal saturation the missing magnetic moments unexpectedly interacted to form well-ordered shells 1.0 to 1.5 nm thick canted perpendicular to their ferrimagnetic cores between 160 to 320 K. These shells additionally displayed intra-particle ``cross-talk'', selecting a common orientation over clusters of tens of nanoparticles. However, the shells disappeared when the external field was removed and interparticle magnetic interactions were negligible (300 K), confirming their magnetic origin. This work has been carried out in collaboration with Ryan Booth, Julie Borchers, Wangchun Chen, Liv Dedon, Thomas Gentile, Charles Hogg, Yumi Ijiri, Mark Laver, Sara Majetich, James Rhyne, and Shannon Watson.

  1. The stability and catalytic activity of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Lu; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Su, Yan-Jing; Qian, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42. Corresponding to the process of O molecular decomposition, the rate-limiting step of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42 is 0.386 eV, which is lower than that for Pt55 of 0.5 eV. In addition by alloying with W, the core-shell structure reduces the consumption of Pt and enhances the catalytic efficiency, so W13@Pt42 has a promising perspective of industrial application. PMID:27759038

  2. The stability and catalytic activity of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Lu; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Su, Yan-Jing; Qian, Ping

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42. Corresponding to the process of O molecular decomposition, the rate-limiting step of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42 is 0.386 eV, which is lower than that for Pt55 of 0.5 eV. In addition by alloying with W, the core-shell structure reduces the consumption of Pt and enhances the catalytic efficiency, so W13@Pt42 has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  3. The stability and catalytic activity of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Li, Lu; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Su, Yan-Jing; Qian, Ping

    2016-10-19

    This paper reports a study of the electronic properties, structural stability and catalytic activity of the W13@Pt42 core-shell structure using the First-principles calculations. The degree of corrosion of W13@Pt42 core-shell structure is simulated in acid solutions and through molecular absorption. The absorption energy of OH for this structure is lower than that for Pt55, which inhibits the poison effect of O containing intermediate. Furthermore we present the optimal path of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42. Corresponding to the process of O molecular decomposition, the rate-limiting step of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by W13@Pt42 is 0.386 eV, which is lower than that for Pt55 of 0.5 eV. In addition by alloying with W, the core-shell structure reduces the consumption of Pt and enhances the catalytic efficiency, so W13@Pt42 has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  4. Controllable synthesis of a novel hedgehog-like core/shell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shumin; Tian Hongwei; Pei Yanhui; Meng Qingnan; Chen Jianli; Wang Huan; Zeng Yi; Zheng Weitao; Liu Yichun

    2012-02-15

    A novel hedgehog-like core/shell structure, consisting of a high density of vertically aligned graphene sheets and a thin graphene shell/a copper core (VGs-GS/CC), has been synthesized via a simple one-step synthesis route using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations show that the morphology of this core/shell material could be controlled by deposition time. For a short deposition time, only multilayer graphene shell tightly surrounds the copper particle, while as the deposition time is relative long, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC. The GS can protect CC particles from oxidation. The growth mechanism for the obtained GS/CC and VGs-GS/CC has been revealed. Compared to VGs, VGs-GS/CC material exhibits a better electron field emission property. This investigation opens a possibility for designing a core/shell structure of different carbon-metal hybrid materials for a wide variety of practical applications. - Graphical abstract: With increasing deposition time, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC, causing the multilayer graphene encapsulated copper to be converted into vertically aligned graphene sheets-graphene shell/copper core structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel hedgehog-like core/shell structure has been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure consists of vertical graphene sheets-graphene shell and copper core. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of VGs-GS/CC can be controlled by choosing a proper deposition time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With increasing deposition time, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VGs-GS/CC exhibits a better electron field emission property as compared with VGs.

  5. Investigation of CuInSe2 nanowire arrays with core-shell structure electrodeposited at various duty cycles into anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Jia-Jun; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2017-02-01

    Copper indium selenide (CuInSe2) nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various electrolyte duty cycles by filling anodic alumina templates through the pulsed electrodeposition technique. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the nucleation mechanism of CuInSe2 NW arrays was affected by the electrodeposition duty cycle. Moreover, SEM images showed that the diameter and length of the NWs were 80 nm and 2 μm, respectively. Furthermore, PEDOT/CuInSe2 NW core-shell arrays were fabricated using surfactant-modified CuInSe2 NW surfaces showing the lotus effect. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed that a core-shell structure was achieved. Current-voltage plots revealed that the CuInSe2 NW arrays were p-type semiconductors; moreover, the core-shell structure improved the diode ideality factor from 3.91 to 2.63.

  6. Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of Fe/Pt core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Pisane, K. L.; Singh, Sobhit; Seehra, M. S.

    2015-05-07

    Structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Pt core-shell nanostructure prepared by a sequential reduction process are reported. Transmission electron microscopy shows nearly spherical particles fitting a lognormal size distribution with D{sub o} = 3.0 nm and distribution width λ{sub D} = 0.31. In x-ray diffraction, Bragg lines only from the Pt shell are clearly identified with line-widths yielding crystallite size = 3.1 nm. Measurements of magnetization M vs. T (2 K–350 K) in magnetic fields up to 90 kOe show a blocking temperature T{sub B} = 13 K below which hysteresis loops are observed with coercivity H{sub C} increasing with decreasing T reaching H{sub C} = 750 Oe at 2 K. Temperature dependence of the ac susceptibilities at frequencies f{sub m} = 10 Hz–5 kHz is measured to determine the change in T{sub B} with f{sub m} using the Vogel-Fulcher law. This analysis shows the presence of significant interparticle interaction, the Neel-Brown relaxation frequency f{sub o} = 5.3 × 10{sup 10 }Hz and anisotropy constant K{sub a} = 3.6 × 10{sup 6 }ergs/cm{sup 3}. A fit of the M vs. H data up to H = 90 kOe for T > T{sub B} to the modified Langevin function taking particle size distribution into account yields magnetic moment per particle consistent with the proposed core-shell structure; Fe core of 2.2 nm diameter and Pt shell of 0.4 nm thickness.

  7. Modeling heterogeneous polymer-grafted nanoparticle networks having biomimetic core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Yashin, Victor V.; Holten-Andersen, Niels; Balazs, Anna C.

    Inspired by the remarkable mechanical properties of such biological structures as mussel adhesive fibers, we use 3D computational modeling to study the behavior of heterogeneous polymer-grafted nanoparticle (PGN) networks under tensile deformation. The building block of a PGN network is a nanoparticle with grafted polymer chains whose free ends' reactive groups can form both permanent and labile bonds with the end chains on the nearby particles. The tunable behavior of cross-linked PGN networks makes them excellent candidates for designing novel materials with enhanced mechanical properties. Here, we consider the PGN networks having the core-shell structures, in which the type and strength of the inter-particle bonds in the outer shell differ from those in the core. Using the computer simulations, we obtain and compare the ultimate tensile properties (strength, toughness, ductility) and the strain recovery properties for the uniform samples and various core-shell structures. We demonstrate that the core-shell structures could be designed to obtain highly resilient self-healing materials

  8. Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Xilin; Qi, Wen N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xu, Wu; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-14

    Hollow core-shell structured porous Si-C nanocomposites with void space up to tens of nanometers are designed to accommodate the volume expansion during lithiation for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes. An initial capacity of {approx}760 mAh/g after formation cycles (based on the entire electrode weight) with {approx}86% capacity retention over 100 cycles is achieved at a current density of 1 A/g. Good rate performance is also demonstrated.

  9. Gap state related blue light emitting boron-carbon core shell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup

    2016-05-06

    Boron-carbon core shell structures have been synthesized by solvo-thermal synthesis route. The synthesized material is highly pure. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the reduction of reactants in to boron and carbon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shell is uniform with average thickness of 340 nm. Photo luminescence studies showed that the material is blue light emitting with CIE color coordinates: x=0.16085, y=0.07554.

  10. Gap state related blue light emitting boron-carbon core shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paviter; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-05-01

    Boron- carbon core shell structures have been synthesized by solvo-thermal synthesis route. The synthesized material is highly pure. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the reduction of reactants in to boron and carbon. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shell is uniform with average thickness of 340 nm. Photo luminescence studies showed that the material is blue light emitting with CIE color coordinates: x=0.16085, y=0.07554.

  11. Preparation and characterization of folate-chitosan-gemcitabine core-shell nanoparticles for potential tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Jiahua; Wang, Junying; Zhang, Niping; Zhang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of achieving targeted chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray technology, with folate-chitosan as the polymeric coating material and gemcitabine as the encapsulated drug. The effects of various solution properties and processing parameters on nanoparticles formation were investigated. By optimizing the electrospray parameters, the diameter of the core-shell nanoparticles was in the range of 200-300 nm with drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of 3.91 +/- 0.12% and 85.37 +/- 4.9%. The drug release kinetics revealed a controlled initial burst release followed by a sustained release over a period of 72 h at pH 7.4 and pH 5.0, and at pH 5.0 the drug released more quickly. Moreover, the cellular uptake experiment confirmed that the folate conjugated core-shell nanoparticles had high pancreatic cancer (BXPC3) cells uptake efficiency. And the cell cytotoxicity test displayed that they had remarkable cytotoxicity towards BXPC3 cells. This study indicates that coaxial electrospray is a facile technique in producing core-shell nanoparticles encapsulating hydrophilic small molecule drugs, and clearly infers that the folate conjugated core-shell nanoparticles is very much effective to use as a pancreatic tumor-targeted delivery carrier for anticancer drugs.

  12. [Effect of silver/zinc selenide core-shell structure spheres on the infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Chun; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Yuan, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Silver/zinc selenide (Ag/ZnSe) core-shell structure spheres were made through the method of silver mirror reaction on zinc selenide micro spheres. Surface morphology of the spheres was depicted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier infrared absorption spectrum. This paper studies the effect of Ag/ZnSe core-shell structure spheres on the infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate solution. The results show that, the anti-symmetric vibration absorption peaks of nitrate are blue-shifted, and the intensity are improved obviously by the effect of core-shell structure spheres.

  13. Kinetically controlled autocatalytic chemical process for bulk production of bimetallic core-shell structured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Taufany, Fadlilatul; Pan, Chun-Jern; Rick, John; Chou, Hung-Lung; Tsai, Mon-Che; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Lee, Yao-Chang; Chen, Ching-Iue

    2011-12-27

    Although bimetallic core@shell structured nanoparticles (NPs) are achieving prominence due to their multifunctionalities and exceptional catalytic, magnetic, thermal, and optical properties, the rationale underlying their design remains unclear. Here we report a kinetically controlled autocatalytic chemical process, adaptable for use as a general protocol for the fabrication of bimetallic core@shell structured NPs, in which a sacrificial Cu ultrathin layer is autocatalytically deposited on a dimensionally stable noble-metal core under kinetically controlled conditions, which is then displaced to form an active ultrathin metal-layered shell by redox-transmetalation. Unlike thermodynamically controlled under-potential deposition processes, this general strategy allows for the scaling-up of production of high-quality core-shell structured NPs, without the need for any additional reducing agents and/or electrochemical treatments, some examples being Pd@Pt, Pt@Pd, Ir@Pt, and Ir@Pd. Having immediate and obvious commercial potential, Pd@Pt NPs have been systematically characterized by in situ X-ray absorption, electrochemical-FTIR, transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical techniques, both during synthesis and subsequently during testing in one particularly important catalytic reaction, namely, the oxygen reduction reaction, which is pivotal in fuel cell operation. It was found that the bimetallic Pd@Pt NPs exhibited a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity, with respect to this reaction, in comparison with their monometallic counterparts.

  14. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, M.; Yano, M.; Sakuma, N.; Kishimoto, H.; Manabe, A.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Dempsey, N. M.; Givord, D.; Zimanyi, G. T.

    2016-05-01

    Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth) nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd)2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  15. MAGNETIC CORE SHELL STRUCTURES: from 0D to 1D assembling.

    PubMed

    Ficai, Denisa; Ficai, Anton; Dinu, Elena; Oprea, Ovidiu; Sonmez, Maria; Keler, Memduh Kagan; Sahin, Yesim Muge; Ekren, Nazmi; Inan, Ahmet Talat; Daglilar, Sibel; Gunduz, Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    Material research and development studies are focused on different techniques of bringing out nanomaterials with desired characteristics and properties. From the point of view of materials development, nowadays scientists are strongly focused on obtaining materials with predefined characteristics and properties. The morphology control seems to be a determinant factor and increasing attention is devoted to this aspect. At this moment it is possible to engineer the material's features by using different methods and materials combination for both medical and industrial applications. In the applications of chemistry and synthesis, biology, mechanics, optics solar cells and microelectronics tailoring the adjustable parameters of stoichiometry, chemical structure, shape and segregation are evaluated and opens new fields. Because of the magnetic features of nanoparticles and durable particle size, less than 100 nm, this study is aiming to describe their uses in practical applications. That's why the whole hydrodynamic magnetic core shell topic will be reviewed on this paper. Additionally, the properties acting in general sight in solid-state physics are utilized for material selection and for defining issue connecting the core, shell structure and their producing properties. Here, in the study of core/shell nanoparticle various physical and chemical synthesis routes and the effect of electrospun method are briefly discussed. Starting from a real void of the scientific literature, the existent data related to the 1D magnetic electrospun materials are reviewed. The perspectives in the medical, environmental or energetic sector is great and bring some real advantages related to the 0D core@shell structures because both mechanical and biological properties are dependent on the morphology of the materials.

  16. Robust synthesis of green fuels from biomass-derived ethyl esters over a hierarchically core/shell-structured ZSM-5@(Co/SiO2) catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Darui; Wang, Bo; Ding, Yu; Yuan, Qingqing; Wu, Haihong; Guan, Yejun; Wu, Peng

    2017-09-12

    A novel bifunctional ZSM-5@(Co/SiO2) material with a hierarchical core/shell structure was successfully prepared through a simple chemoselective interaction between the crystal surface silica species of zeolite and the external Co(2+) source in basic media, which served as an excellent catalyst in the synthesis of green fuels from biomass-derived ethyl esters.

  17. Transforming powder mechanical properties by core/shell structure: compressible sand.

    PubMed

    Shi, Limin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2010-11-01

    Some active pharmaceutical ingredients possess poor mechanical properties and are not suitable for tableting. Using fine sand (silicon dioxide), we show that a core/shell structure, where a core particle (sand) is coated with a thin layer of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), can profoundly improve powder compaction properties. Sand coated with 5% PVP could be compressed into intact tablets. Under a given compaction pressure, tablet tensile strength increases dramatically with the amount of coating. This is in sharp contrast to poor compaction properties of physical mixtures, where intact tablets cannot be made when PVP content is 20% or less. The profoundly improved tabletability of core/shell particles is attributed to the formation of a continuous three-dimensional bonding network in the tablet. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  18. Potential of electrospun core-shell structured gelatin-chitosan nanofibers for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jalaja, K; Naskar, Deboki; Kundu, Subhas C; James, Nirmala R

    2016-01-20

    Coaxial electrospinning is an upcoming technology that has emerged from the conventional electrospinning process in order to realize the production of nanofibers of less spinnable materials with potential applications. The present work focuses on the production of chitosan nanofibers in a benign route, using natural polymer as core template, mild solvent system and naturally derived cross-linkers. Nanofibers with chitosan as shell are fabricated by coaxial electrospinning with highly spinnable gelatin as core using aqueous acetic acid as solvent. For maintaining the biocompatibility and structural integrity of the core-shell nanofibers, cross-linking is carried out using naturally derived cross-linking agents, dextran aldehyde and sucrose aldehyde. The biological evaluation of gelatin/chitosan mat is carried out using human osteoblast like cells. The results show that the cross-linked core-shell nanofibers are excellent matrices for cell adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic properties of mixed spin (1, 3/2) Ising nanoparticles with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Şener, Yunus

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic properties of mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising nanoparticles with core/shell structure are studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. We investigate the thermal variations of the core, shell and total magnetizations and the Q-, R-, P-, S-, N- and L-types of compensation behavior in Néel classification nomenclature exists in the system. The effects of the crystal-field, core and shell interactions and interface coupling, on the phase diagrams are investigated in detail and the obtained phase diagrams are presented in three different planes. The system exhibits both second- and first-order phase transitions besides tricritical point, double critical end point, triple point and critical end point depending on the appropriate values of the interaction parameters. The system strongly affected by the surface situations and some characteristic phenomena are found depending on the ratio of the physical parameters in the surface shell and the core.

  20. Core-shell-structured monodisperse copolymer/silica particle suspension and its electrorheological response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying Dan; Quan, Xuemei; Hwang, Bora; Kwon, Yong Ku; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2014-02-25

    Monodisperse core-shell-structured poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate-co-[2-(methacryloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride)/silica (PSBM/SiO2) nanoparticles were applied as new electrorheological (ER) materials in which the particles were dispersed in an insulating oil. These nanoparticles were prepared by the consecutive precipitation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and negatively charged tetraethylorthosilicate onto the cationic surfaces of PSBM colloidal particles. The successful deposition of the shell phase of the particles and their morphology was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Their ER properties were studied with a rotational rheometer under different shear modes: controlled shear rate, steady shear under constant shear rate, and creep test. The silica shell allowed the PSBM/SiO2 particles to exhibit typical ER performance under an applied electric field. The dielectric spectra of the PSBM/SiO2-based ER fluid were also recorded using an LCR meter, which was correlated to the ER performance of the ER fluid.

  1. PbOx/Au-Pd core-shell structures for Schottky junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipal B.; Chauhan, Khushbu R.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of the era of third generation solar cells, researchers are motivated to explore various semiconductor-metal configurations for the efficient solar energy conversion. We first time report the use of non-stoichiometric PbOx electrodes in the Schottky junction solar cell. This metal oxide makes an efficient Schottky junction with the high work function alloy of Au-Pd. It was found that thin films of anodized lead metal prepared via potential pulse technique result in the nanowall assemblies. When a few nanometer layer of Au-Pd was sputtered on these assemblies, we obtained a core-shell Schottky junction solar cells of PbOx/Au-Pd. With these newly developed structures, we obtained highest Jsc of 2.04 mA/cm2 with Voc of 707 mV achieving an overall efficiency of 0.384%. The performance of solar cell was assessed by D.C. and A.C. techniques. An equivalent circuit model is also presented for understanding the charge transfer mechanisms in such solar cells.

  2. Preparation and optical properties of alloyed Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Sun, Yujie

    2015-02-01

    Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a colloidal route by reacting zinc and cadmium ions with sulfide ions, followed by coating with alginate. The crystal structure, morphology, size and optical properties of the core/shell nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV/vis and photoluminescent spectra, respectively. The Znx Cd1-x S nanoparticles are spherical and have a cubic structure with a mean crystalline size of 2-4 nm. The band gap of Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles increases with increasing Zn/Cd molar ratio, and the UV/vis absorption blue-shifts correspondingly. Two emissions related to zinc and sulfide ion vacancies were observed for the Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles due to the surface changes from the alginate coating. A cadmium-related emission was observed for both the uncovered Znx Cd1-x S and Znx Cd1-x S/alginate core/shell nanoparticles, which has a significant blue-shift with increasing Zn/Cd molar ratio.

  3. Structural impact on the nanoscale optical properties of InGaN core-shell nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. T.; Ren, C. X.; Coulon, P.-M.; Le Boulbar, E. D.; Bryce, C. G.; Girgel, I.; Howkins, A.; Boyd, I.; Martin, R. W.; Allsopp, D. W. E.; Shields, P. A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    III-nitride core-shell nanorods are promising for the development of high efficiency light emitting diodes and novel optical devices. We reveal the nanoscale optical and structural properties of core-shell InGaN nanorods formed by combined top-down etching and regrowth to achieve non-polar sidewalls with a low density of extended defects. While the luminescence is uniform along the non-polar {1-100} sidewalls, nano-cathodoluminescence shows a sharp reduction in the luminescent intensity at the intersection of the non-polar {1-100} facets. The reduction in the luminescent intensity is accompanied by a reduction in the emission energy localised at the apex of the corners. Correlative compositional analysis reveals an increasing indium content towards the corner except at the apex itself. We propose that the observed variations in the structure and chemistry are responsible for the changes in the optical properties at the corners of the nanorods. The insights revealed by nano-cathodoluminescence will aid in the future development of higher efficiency core-shell nanorods.

  4. A core-shell templated approach to the nanocomposites of silver sulfide and noble metal nanoparticles with hollow/cage-bell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Cao, Hongbin; Ji, Ge; Lee, Jim Yang; Yang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The integration of semiconductor and noble metal nanoparticles with controlled structures into a nanosystem can effectively couple various effects specific to the different domains of the nanocomposite for greater application versatility. Herein, we demonstrate the general synthesis of nanocomposites of Ag2S and noble metal nanoparticles with a hollow or cage-bell structure. The synthesis is based on the inside-out diffusion of Ag in core-shell nanoparticles. It begins with the preparation of core-shell Ag-M or core-shell-shell MA-Ag-MB nanoparticles in an organic solvent. The Ag is then removed from the core or from the internal shell and converted into Ag2S by elemental sulfur or sodium sulfide. The Ag2S forms the semiconductor domain in the nanocomposite and shares solid-state interfaces with the resultant hollow or cage-bell structured metal nanoparticle. The structural transformation from core-shell to heterogeneous nanocomposites may provide new opportunities to design and fabricate hybrid nanostructures with interesting physicochemical properties.The integration of semiconductor and noble metal nanoparticles with controlled structures into a nanosystem can effectively couple various effects specific to the different domains of the nanocomposite for greater application versatility. Herein, we demonstrate the general synthesis of nanocomposites of Ag2S and noble metal nanoparticles with a hollow or cage-bell structure. The synthesis is based on the inside-out diffusion of Ag in core-shell nanoparticles. It begins with the preparation of core-shell Ag-M or core-shell-shell MA-Ag-MB nanoparticles in an organic solvent. The Ag is then removed from the core or from the internal shell and converted into Ag2S by elemental sulfur or sodium sulfide. The Ag2S forms the semiconductor domain in the nanocomposite and shares solid-state interfaces with the resultant hollow or cage-bell structured metal nanoparticle. The structural transformation from core-shell to

  5. Water-assisted and controllable synthesis of core/shell/shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, and their magnetic and microwave absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaosi; Yang, Erqi; Cai, Hongbo; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2017-08-29

    By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, core/shell/shell structured Fe/Fe5C2/carbon nanotube bundles (Fe/Fe5C2/CNTBs), Fe/Fe3C/helical carbon nanotubes (Fe/Fe3C/HCNTs) and Fe/Fe3C/chain-like carbon nanospheres (Fe/Fe3C/CCNSs) with high encapsulation efficiency could be selectively synthesized in large-scale by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Water vapor was proved to play an important role in the growth process. Because of α-Fe nanoparticles tightly wrapped by two layers, the obtained core/shell/shell structured nanohybrids showed high stabilities and good magnetic properties. The minimum reflection loss values of the as-prepared nanohybrids reached approximately -15.0, -46.3 and -37.1 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the as-prepared core/shell/shell structured nanohybrids were considered to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the possible enhanced microwave absorption mechanism of the as-prepared Fe/Fe3C/HCNTs and Fe/Fe3C/CCNSs were discussed in details. Therefore, we proposed a simple, inexpensive and environment-benign strategy for the synthesis of core/shell/shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, exhibiting a promising prospect as high performance microwave absorbing materials.

  6. Step-by-step assembly preparation of core-shell Si-mesoporous TiO2 composite nanospheres with enhanced lithium-storage properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Wang, Fei; Su, Tingting; Du, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-12

    Core-shell structured Si-mesoporous TiO2 (Si@mTiO2) composite nanospheres are designed and prepared via a step-by-step assembly method. Si@mTiO2 exhibit excellent lithium-storage properties when used as anode materials in lithium ion batteries. The reversible specific capacity is maintained at as high as 700 mA h g(-1) with no capacity decay even after 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1).

  7. Dynamic structural evolution of supported palladium-ceria core-shell catalysts revealed by in situ electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Chen, Chen; Cargnello, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Gorte, Raymond J.; Graham, George W.; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-07-01

    The exceptional activity for methane combustion of modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits on silicon-functionalized alumina that was recently reported has created renewed interest in the potential of core-shell structures as catalysts. Here we report on our use of advanced ex situ and in situ electron microscopy with atomic resolution to show that the modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits undergo structural evolution over a wide temperature range. In situ observations performed in an atmospheric gas cell within this temperature range provide real-time evidence that the palladium and ceria nanoparticle constituents of the palladium-ceria core-shell participate in a dynamical process that leads to the formation of an unanticipated structure comprised of an intimate mixture of palladium, cerium, silicon and oxygen, with very high dispersion. This finding may open new perspectives about the origin of the activity of this catalyst.

  8. Dynamic structural evolution of supported palladium-ceria core-shell catalysts revealed by in situ electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyi; Chen, Chen; Cargnello, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Gorte, Raymond J; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-07-10

    The exceptional activity for methane combustion of modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits on silicon-functionalized alumina that was recently reported has created renewed interest in the potential of core-shell structures as catalysts. Here we report on our use of advanced ex situ and in situ electron microscopy with atomic resolution to show that the modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits undergo structural evolution over a wide temperature range. In situ observations performed in an atmospheric gas cell within this temperature range provide real-time evidence that the palladium and ceria nanoparticle constituents of the palladium-ceria core-shell participate in a dynamical process that leads to the formation of an unanticipated structure comprised of an intimate mixture of palladium, cerium, silicon and oxygen, with very high dispersion. This finding may open new perspectives about the origin of the activity of this catalyst.

  9. Preparation of Cu-Zn/ZnO core-shell nanocomposite by wire electrical explosion and precipitation process in aqueous solution and CO sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Haibin; Qiao, Liang; Qi, Qi; Cao, Feng; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Cu-Zn/ZnO nanocomposites with a novel core-shell structure have been prepared by a surface precipitation process in aqueous solution. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy are employed to analyze the structure and morphology of the present products. The influence of the annealing temperature on the core-shell structure of the nanocomposites is investigated, and a possible growth model is proposed. Furthermore, the gas sensors based on the Cu-Zn/ZnO nanocomposites are fabricated and tested, which exhibits high sensitivity and fast response to CO. The best results are obtained for the sensor based on the film annealed at 350 °C, which shows that the sensitivity is about 6.3 when the sensor is exposed to 100 ppm CO at the operating temperature of 240 °C. The possible sensing mechanism of the Cu-Zn/ZnO sensing film has also been discussed.

  10. Synthesis and characterisation of core-shell structures for orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rusen, Edina; Zaharia, Cătălin; Zecheru, Teodora; Mărculescu, Bogdan; Filmon, Robert; Chappard, Daniel; Bădulescu, Roxana; Cincu, Corneliu

    2007-01-01

    This paperwork deals with the obtaining and characterisation of new acrylic cements for bone surgery. The final mixture of cement contains derivatives of methacryloyloxyethyl phosphate, methacrylic acid or 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid. The idea of using these monomers is sustained by their ability to form ionic bonds with barium, which is responsible for X-ray reflection and by the biocompatibility of these structures. The strategy consists in the obtaining of core-shell structures through heterogeneous polymerisation, which are used for final cement's manufacture. The orthopaedic cements were characterised by SEM, EDX, compression resistance and cytotoxicity assays.

  11. Synthesis and optical properties of luminescent core-shell structured silicate and phosphate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembski, Sofia; Rupp, Sabine; Milde, Moritz; Gellermann, Carsten; Dyrba, Marcel; Schweizer, Stefan; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Osvet, Andres; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2011-05-01

    Monodisperse, luminescent core-shell structured inorganic nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technology. They exhibit an amorphous SiO 2 core and a crystalline luminescent shell. Zn 2SiO 4:Mn 2+ and Ca 10(PO 4) 6OH:Eu 3+ shell materials are investigated. The influence of the doping concentration on optical and structural properties was studied. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  12. TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers: Controllable preparation and enhanced visible photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Shao, Changlu; Zhang, Zhenyi; Zhang, Mingyi; Mu, Jingbo; Guo, Zengcai; Liu, Yichun

    2011-07-01

    TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers (TiO2@C NFs) with different thinkness of carbon layers (from 2 to 8 nm) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. The results showed that a uniform graphite carbon layer was formed around the electrospun TiO2 nanofiber via C-O-Ti bonds. By adjusting the hydrothermal fabrication parameters, the thickness of carbon layer could be easily controlled. Furthermore, the TiO2@C NFs had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO2@C NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TiO2 nanofibers under visible light irradiation, which might be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes based on the synergistic effect between carbon as a sensitizer and TiO2 with one dimension structure. Notably, the TiO2@C NFs could be easily recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.TiO2@carbon core/shell nanofibers (TiO2@C NFs) with different thinkness of carbon layers (from 2 to 8 nm) were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. The results showed that a uniform graphite carbon layer was formed around the electrospun TiO2 nanofiber via C-O-Ti bonds. By adjusting the hydrothermal fabrication parameters, the thickness of carbon layer could be easily controlled. Furthermore, the TiO2@C NFs had remarkable light absorption in the visible region. The photocatalytic studies revealed that the TiO2@C NFs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with the pure TiO2 nanofibers under visible light irradiation, which might be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes based on the synergistic effect between carbon as a sensitizer and TiO2 with one dimension structure. Notably, the TiO2@C NFs could be easily recycled due to their

  13. Brake performance of core-shell structured carbonyl iron/silica based magnetorheological suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Bac; Do, Xuan-Phu; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2014-10-01

    Chemically stable core-shell structured magnetic particles were synthesized by coating soft-magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres with silica through a sol-gel reaction, and applied as magnetorheological (MR) materials for a specially designed small-sized MR brake. The dynamic yield stress of the MR suspension containing the synthesized particles was also measured using a rotational rheometer under an applied magnetic field. The performance characteristics of the MR brake, including field dependent torque, hysteresis, time and torque tracking control responses were examined. The results showed that with the exception of the settling time, the other response times were faster than those of the pristine CI based MR fluid.

  14. Ising nanowires with simple core-shell structure; Their characteristic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneyoshi, T.

    2016-09-01

    The phase diagrams and magnetizations of Ising nanowires with simple core-shell structure are investigated by the use of the effective field theory with correlations. A lot of characteristic behaviors observed in ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials as well as novel phenomena have been obtained, although one section of the system is consisted of one spin-1/2 surface shell atom and one spin-1/2 core atom and they are coupled with a positive or a negative shell-core exchange interaction.

  15. Structural optical correlated properties of SnO2/Al2O3 core@ shell heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Zein K.; Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Nano size polycrystalline samples of the core@shell heterostructure of SnO2 @ xAl2O3 (x = 0, 25, 50, 75 wt.%) were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The resulting samples were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns manifest diffraction peaks of SnO2 as main phase with weak peaks corresponding to Al2O3 phase. The formation of core@ shell structure is confirmed by TEM images and Rietveld quantitative phase analysis which revealed that small part of Al2O3 is incorporated into the SnO2 lattice while the main part (shell) remains as a separate phase segregated on the grain boundary surface of SnO2 (core). It is found that the grain size of the mixed oxides SnO2 @ xAl2O3 is below 10 nm while for pure SnO2 it is over 41 nm, indicating that alumina can effectively prevent SnO2 from further growing up in the process of calcination. This is confirmed by the large increase in the specific surface area for mixed oxide samples. The PL emission showed great dependence on the structure properties analyzed by XRD and FTIR. The PL results recommend Al2O3@SnO2 core@shell heterostructure to be a promising short-wavelength luminescent optoelectronic devices for blue, UV, and laser light-emitting diodes.

  16. A core-shell structured nanocomposite material for detection, adsorption and removal of Hg(II) ions in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Tang, Shuangyang; Ding, Dexin; Hu, Nan; Yang, Shengyuan; He, Shuya; Wang, Yongdong; Tan, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a core-shell structured nanocomposite material was prepared for the detection, adsorption and removal of Hg(ll) ions in aqueous solution. The core was made from Fe3O4 nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior and the outer shell was made from amorphous silica modified with pyrene-based sensing-probes. The material could detect and adsorb Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution due to its surface being modified with pyrene-based sensing-probes, and could easily be removed from the solution by magnetic force because of its core being made from magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. This multifunctional core-shell structure was confirmed and characterized by TEM, IR spectra, TGA, XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Experiments were conducted on its functions of detection, adsorption and removal of Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The experimental results showed that this composite material had high sensitivity and unique selectivity to Hg(II), and that it could easily be removed from the solution.

  17. In Situ Multimodal 3D Chemical Imaging of a Hierarchically Structured Core@Shell Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Thomas L; Price, Stephen W T; Benzi, Federico; Baier, Sina; Klumpp, Michael; Dittmeyer, Roland; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2017-06-14

    A Cu/ZnO/Al2O3@ZSM-5 core@shell catalyst active for one-step conversion of synthesis gas to dimethyl ether (DME) was imaged simultaneously and in situ using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) computed tomography (CT) with micrometer spatial resolution. An identical sample volume was imaged stepwise, first under oxidizing and reducing atmospheres (imitating calcination and activation processes), and then under model reaction conditions for DME synthesis (H2:CO:CO2 ratio of 16:8:1, up to 250 °C). The multimodal imaging methods offered insights into the active metal structure and speciation within the catalyst, and allowed imaging of both the catalyst core and zeolite shell in a single acquisition. Dispersion of nanosized Cu species was observed in the catalyst core during reduction, with formation of a metastable Cu(+) phase at the core-shell interface. Under DME reaction conditions at 1 bar, the coexistence of Cu(0) in the active catalyst core together with partially oxidized Cu species was unraveled. The zeolite shell and core-shell interface remained stable under all conditions, preserving the bifunctional nature of the catalyst. These observations are inaccessible using standard bulk techniques like X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XRD, demonstrating the potential of multimodal in situ X-ray CT for characterization of hierarchically designed materials, which stand to benefit tremendously from such 3D spatially resolved measurements.

  18. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Xia, Chenghui; Zhou, Huajian

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis and luminescent properties of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with different shell thickness are reported in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies present that the ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thickness have a cubic zinc-blende structure. The tests of transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures exhibit that the QDs obtained are spherical-shaped particles and the average grain size increased from 2.7 to 3.8 nm with the growth of ZnS shell. The emission peak position of QDs has a small redshift from 461 to 475 nm with the growth of ZnS shell within the blue spectral window. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and stability of the ZnSe:Cu core d-dots are both enhanced by coating ZnS shell on the surface of core d-dots. The largest PL intensity of the core/shell QDs is almost 3 times larger than that of Cu doped ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe:Cu d-dots). The redshift of core/shell QDs compared with the core QDs are observed in both the absorption and the photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  19. Metastability in pressure-induced structural transformations of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Michael; Lutker, Katie; Alivisatos, A Paul; Rabani, Eran; Geissler, Phillip L

    2013-04-10

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of structural transformations under pressure depend strongly on particle size due to the influence of surface free energy. By suitable design of surface structure, composition, and passivation it is possible, in principle, to prepare nanocrystals in structures inaccessible to bulk materials. However, few realizations of such extreme size-dependent behavior exist. Here, we show with molecular dynamics computer simulation that in a model of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals the core high-pressure structure can be made metastable under ambient conditions by tuning the thickness of the shell. In nanocrystals with thick shells, we furthermore observe a wurtzite to NiAs transformation, which does not occur in the pure bulk materials. These phenomena are linked to a fundamental change in the atomistic transformation mechanism from heterogeneous nucleation at the surface to homogeneous nucleation in the crystal core.

  20. Designing of luminescent GdPO4:Eu@LaPO4@SiO2 core/shell nanorods: Synthesis, structural and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Labis, Joselito P.; Aslam Manthrammel, M.

    2017-09-01

    GdPO4:Eu3+ (core) and GdPO4:Eu@LaPO4 (core/shell) nanorods (NRs) were successfully prepared by urea based co-precipitation process at ambient conditions which was followed by coating with amorphous silica shell via the sol-gel chemical route. The role of surface coating on the crystal structure, crystallinity, morphology, solubility, surface chemistry and luminescence properties were well investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-Vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD pattern revealed highly purified, well-crystalline, single phase-hexagonal-rhabdophane structure of GdPO4 crystal. The TEM micrographs exhibited highly crystalline and narrow size distributed rod-shaped GdPO4:Eu3+ nanostructures with average width 14-16 nm and typical length 190-220 nm. FTIR spectra revealed characteristic infrared absorption bands of amorphous silica. High absorbance in a visible region of silica modified core/shell/Si NRs in aqueous environment suggests the high solubility along with colloidal stability. The photoluminescence properties were remarkably enhanced after growth of undoped LaPO4 layers due to the reduction of nonradiative transition rate. The advantages of presented high emission intensity and high solubility of core/shell and core/shell/Si NRs indicated the potential applications in monitoring biological events.

  1. Core-shell Mn3O4/birnessite-MnO2 hierachical structure with enhanced adsorption towards methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feifan; Zhou, Bowen; Xiao, Han; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The core-shell Mn3O4/birnessite-MnO2 (Mn3O4/MnO2) was successfully established by assembly of birnessite-type MnO2 over Mn3O4 backbones. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis) to assess its adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from neutral aqueous solutions. Compared to the individual Mn3O4, the prepared Mn3O4/MnO2 shows enhanced adsorption capability towards MB. Such enhancement is due to the higher surface area and the unique nanosheet shells. The adsorption of MB on the surface of Mn3O4/MnO2 was studied in terms of pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and the latter was found better. The present study indicates that hierarchically structured core-shell manganese oxides are promising adsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  2. Facile preparation of hexadecyl-functionalized magnetic core-shell microsphere for the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Han; Zhang, Shou-Wen; Qin, Shi-Bin; Li, Xiao-Shui; Zhang, Yuan; Qi, Shi-Hua

    2017-03-10

    Alkyl moieties which can retain target analytes due to their lipophilicity are important in sample preparation. In this work, hexadecyl-functionalized magnetic core-shell microspheres (Fe3O4@SiO2-C16) was successfully prepared by one-pot sol-gel method and used for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental water samples. Optimized preparation method was achieved by altering the adding moment of hexadecyl-silane. The resultant materials were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, tensionmeter, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results demonstrated that the optimized adsorbent exhibited core-shell structure, superparamagnetic (66 emu/g), and extremely hydrophobic (water contact angle of 122°) properties. To evaluate the extraction performance, the prepared material coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was applied to determinate PCBs. The extraction conditions were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed a good linearity range of 1-100 ng L(-1) with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.9989-0.9993. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range 0.14-0.27 and 0.39-0.91 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 9.06%. The absolute recoveries of PCBs in spiked real water samples were in the range of 75.17 to 101.20%. Additionally, reusability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of the resultant material were acceptable with RSDs less than 5.64 and 3.25%, respectively. Graphical Abstract The synthesis procedure of Fe3O4@SiO2-C16 and determination of PCBs in water sample 129 × 50 mm (300 × 300 DPI).

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. de los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell. PMID:28165012

  4. Structural characterization of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles by Cs-corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Esparza, R; García-Ruiz, Amado F; Salazar, J J Velázquez; Pérez, R; José-Yacamán, M

    2012-12-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified polyol method. A thermal method under refluxing, carrying on the reaction up to 285 °C, has been performed to reduce metallic salts using ethylene glycol as reducer and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as protective reagent of the formed bimetallic nanoparticles. According to other works, this type of structure has been studied and utilized to successfully increase the catalytic properties of monometallic nanoparticles Pt or Pd. Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles were structurally characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) equipped with a high-angle annular dark field detector, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The high-resolution elemental line scan and mappings were carried out using a combination of STEM-EDS and STEM-EELS. The obtained results show the growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core with polyhedral morphology. The average size of the bimetallic nanoparticles was 13.5 nm and the average size of the core was 8.5 nm; consequently, the thickness of the shell was around 2.5 nm. The growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core is layer by layer, suggesting a Frank-van der Merwe growth mechanism.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. De Los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.

  6. An AgI@g-C3N4 hybrid core@shell structure: Stable and enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Qi, Yuehong; Yang, Jinyi; Cui, Wenquan; Li, Xingang; Zhang, Zisheng

    2015-12-01

    A novel visible-light-active material AgI@g-C3N4 was prepared by ultrasonication/chemisorption method. The core@shell structure AgI@g-C3N4 catalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Nearly 96.5% of MB was degraded after 120 min of irradiation in the presence of the AgI@g-C3N4 photocatalyst. Superior stability was also observed in the cyclic runs indicating that the as prepared hybrid composite is highly desirable for the remediation of organic contaminated wastewaters. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to synergistic effects at the interface of AgI and g-C3N4 which can effectively accelerate the charge separation and reinforce the photostability of hybrid composite. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity of AgI@g-C3N4 was tentatively proposed.

  7. Monodisperse core-shell structured up-conversion Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄:Er³+ hollow spheres as drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenhe; Ma, Ping'an; Li, Chunxia; Hou, Zhiyao; Zhai, Xuefeng; Huang, Shanshan; Lin, Jun

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we report a facile solution-phase synthesis of monodisperse core-shell structured Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ hollow spheres (size around 380 nm) by utilizing the colloidal sphere of Yb(OH)CO₃ as the sacrificial template via the Kirkendall effect. The Er³+ doped Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ core-shell hollow spheres can be prepared similarly, which exhibit strong green emission under 980 nm NIR laser excitation even after loading with drug molecules. Most importantly, the sample can be used as an effective drug delivery carrier. The biocompatibility test on L929 fibroblast cells using MTT assay reveals low cytotoxicity of the system. A typical anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX), is used for drug loading, and the release properties, cytotoxicity, uptake behavior and therapeutic effects were examined. It is found that DOX is shuttled into cell by core-shell hollow spheres carrier and released inside cells after endocytosis, and the DOX-loaded spheres exhibited greater cytotoxicity than free DOX. These results indicate that the core-shell Er³+ doped Yb(OH)CO₃@YbPO₄ hollow spheres have potential for drug loading and delivery into cancer cells to induce cell death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Titania nanocoating on MnCO3 microspheres via liquid-phase deposition for fabrication of template-assisted core-shell- and hollow-structured composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hack-Keun; Sakemi, Daisuke; Selyanchyn, Roman; Lee, Cheal-Gyu; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-01-08

    A novel class of core-shell- and hollow-structured MnCO3/TiO2 composites was synthesized by titania nanocoating on MnCO3 microspheres via two-step liquid-phase deposition at room temperature. Morphological change from core-shell to hollow microparticles was possible in the prepared samples by controlling prereaction time of MnCO3 and [NH4]2TiF6. Upon the prereaction process, the core of the core-shell MnCO3/TiO2 became highly porous, and a honeycomb-like surface that resembled the orientation of self-assembled MnCO3 nanocrystals was developed. The MnCO3 core was completely removed after 6 h prereaction. Calcination at 600 °C resulted in the transformation of both core-shell- and hollow-structured composites to Mn2O3/TiO2 anatase microspheres that retained their original morphologies. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis were employed for microsphere characterization. As the first trial for application of the synthesized materials, solid-extraction of organics from aqueous media was examined using methylene blue (MB). Both types of Mn2O3/TiO2 composites showed very fast adsorption of MB with high extraction values of 5.2 and 6.4 μmol g(-1) for the core-shell and hollow structures, respectively. Current work provides a new approach for facile fabrication of titania-metal oxide nanocomposites with unique morphological features and promising application possibilities.

  9. Preparation of CdS@CeO2 core/shell composite for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijaz, Sana; Ehsan, Muhammad Fahad; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Karamat, Nazia; He, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Present work demonstrates fabrication of CdS@CeO2 core/shell composite and its application in the photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). CdS@CeO2 composite has been successfully prepared by two-step chemical method, while CeO2 and CdS have been synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of fluorite cubic structure of CeO2 and cubic phase of CdS. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal the microsphere morphology of CdS, while CeO2 (shell) is in the form of spherical particles that surround the CdS (core) in case of the composite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to confirm the composition, oxidation state of the elements and valance band of the obtained materials. The CdS@CeO2 core/shell composite and CdS can convert CO2 into methane and methanol under visible-light irradiation. The CdS@CeO2 composite shows higher yield for both methane and methanol than CdS due to low recombination rate of photogenerated electron/hole pairs, as well as a larger BET specific surface area. Moreover, the CdS@CeO2 core/shell composite also shows improved stability upon photocatalysis.

  10. Preparation of bovine serum albumin surface-imprinted submicrometer particles with magnetic susceptibility through core-shell miniemulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chau Jin; Chua, Hong Gap; Ker, Kwee Hong; Tong, Yen Wah

    2008-02-01

    Molecular imprinting is a state-of-the-art technique for preparing mimics of natural, biological receptors. Nevertheless, the imprinting of macromolecules like proteins remains a challenge due to their bulkiness and sensitivity to denaturation. In this work, a surface imprinting strategy based on covalently immobilized template molecules was adopted for protein imprinting. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) surface-imprinted submicrometer particles (500-600 nm) with magnetic susceptibility were prepared through a two-stage core-shell miniemulsion polymerization system using methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as functional and cross-linking monomers, respectively. The particles possessed a novel red blood cell-like structure and exhibited a very favorable recognition property toward the template BSA molecules in aqueous medium. In a two-protein system, the particles had shown a very high specific recognition of the template proteins over the nontemplate proteins. The magnetic susceptibility was imparted through the successful encapsulation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Their superparamagnetic nature increases their potential applications in the fields such as magnetic bioseparation, cell labeling, and bioimaging. In addition, the importance of template immobilization for successful protein imprinting had also been illustrated to demonstrate the potential of this approach as a general methodology for protein imprinting.

  11. Fe3O4/WO3 hierarchical core-shell structure: high-performance and recyclable visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Yue, Bing; Cao, Junyu; Ye, Jinhua

    2011-04-26

    A facile solvothermal epitaxial growth combined with a mild oxidation route has been developed for the fabrication of a magnetically recyclable Fe(3)O(4)/WO(3) core-shell visible-light photocatalyst. In this core-shell structured photocatalyst, visible-light-active WO(3) nanoplates (the shells) with high surface area are used as a medium to harvest absorbed photons and convert them to photogenerated charges, while conductive Fe(3)O(4) microspheres (the cores) are used as charge collectors to transport the photogenerated charges. This is a new role for magnetite. The Fe(3)O(4)/WO(3) core-shell structured photocatalysts possess large surface-exposure area, high visible-light-absorption efficiency, stable recyclability, and efficient charge-separation properties, the combination of which has rarely been reported in other visible-light-active photocatalysts. Photoelectrochemical investigations verify that the core-shell structured Fe(3)O(4)/WO(3) has a more effective photoconversion capability than pure WO(3) or Fe(3)O(4). At the same time, the visible-light photocatalytic ability of the Fe(3)O(4)/WO(3) photocatalyst has significantly enhanced activity in the photodegradation of organic-dye materials. The results presented herein provide new insights into core-shell materials as high-performance visible-light photocatalysts and their potential use in environmental protection. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Exploring the structural and magnetic properties of TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanocomposite: An experimental and density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-12-01

    TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanocomposite is prepared via a simple sol-gel method and the properties are compared with the individual TiO2 (core) and SnO2 (shell). The corresponding characterizations are carried out in terms of structural and magnetic properties of TiO2/SnO2, TiO2 and SnO2 nanosystems. Structural properties are studied via XRD, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR and XPS. Magnetic characterization is performed by measuring Moment vs. Applied Field for all the samples and Moment vs. Temperature for TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanocomposite. We also went for a better insight with the help of theoretical measures. First principle calculations have been executed using “Density Functional Theory” (DFT)-based MedeA VASP package to compare the results of TiO2/SnO2 with TiO2 (1 1 0) and SnO2 (1 1 0) surface calculations and its effect on the magnetic nature of the specific nanoparticles. XRD, RAMAN and FTIR gave indirect evidence of formation of core shell nanostructure while TEM micrographs provide the direct evidence of formation of core shell nanostructure. The magnetic study shows a higher saturation magnetization for the core/shell nanostructure compared to pristine TiO2 and SnO2. In this report, we have attempted to relate this experimental observation with the results of the first principle calculations.

  13. Structural Evolution of Core-Shell Gold Nanoclusters: Aun(-) (n = 42-50).

    PubMed

    Pande, Seema; Huang, Wei; Shao, Nan; Wang, Lei-Ming; Khetrapal, Navneet; Mei, Wai-Ning; Jian, Tian; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-22

    Gold nanoclusters have attracted great attention in the past decade due to their remarkable size-dependent electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, the structures of large gold clusters are still not well-known because of the challenges in global structural searches. Here we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical study of the structural evolution of negatively charged core-shell gold nanoclusters (Aun(-)) for n = 42-50. Photoelectron spectra of size-selected Aun(-) clusters are well resolved with distinct spectral features, suggesting a dominating structural type. The combined PES data and density functional calculations allow us to systematically identify the global minimum or candidates of the global minima of these relatively large gold nanoclusters, which are found to possess low-symmetry structures with gradually increasing core sizes. Remarkably, the four-atom tetrahedral core, observed first in Au33(-), continues to be highly robust and is even present in clusters as large as Au42(-). Starting from Au43(-), a five-atom trigonal bipyramidal core appears and persists until Au47(-). Au48(-) possesses a six-atom core, while Au49(-) and Au50(-) feature seven- and eight-atom cores, respectively. Notably, both Au46(-) and Au47(-) contain a pyramidal Au20 motif, which is stacked with another truncated pyramid by sharing a common 10-atom triangular face. The present study sheds light on our understanding of the structural evolution of the medium-sized gold nanoclusters, the shells and core as well as how the core-shell structures may start to embrace the golden pyramid (bulk-like) fragment.

  14. Electronic structure and transport properties of III-V core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Florinda; Leijnse, Martin

    We have modeled electron structure and low-temperature transport in III-V core/shell nanowires to establish a relationship between electron-hole hybridization and signatures in thermoelectrical measurements. Nanowires with a GaSb core and an InAs shell (and inverted) are interesting for studies of hybridization effects due to the bulk broken band gap alignment at the material interface. By varying the core radius and shell thickness of such wires we can modify the size of the band gap and create wires with band structures that exhibit hole-electron hybridization states. The band structures are obtained using 8-band k . p theory together with the envelope function approximation. The calculated energy dispersions are used as input to the Boltzmann equation to study thermoelectric transport quantities such as the Seebeck coefficient, in the diffusive limit.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of magnetic core-shell mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption of tetrabromobisphenol S.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Huang, Pengfei; Ma, Xiaomin; Wang, Huan; Lu, Xiaoquan; Du, Xinzhen

    2017-05-01

    Novel magnetic mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with core-shell structure were prepared by simple surface molecular imprinting polymerization using tetrabromobisphenol-S (TBBPS) as the template. The MMIPs-TBBPS were characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption transmission, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The resultant MMIPs-TBBPS were successfully applied magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with HPLC determination of TBBPS in spiked real water samples with recoveries of 77.8-88.9%. The adsorption experiments showed that the binding capacity of MMIPs-TBBPS to TBBPS and six structural analogs were significantly higher than that of the magnetic nonimprinted polymers (MNIPs). Meanwhile, the MMIPs-TBBPS possessed rapid binding affinity, excellent magnetic response, specific selectivity and high adsorption capacity toward TBBPS with a maximum adsorption capacity of 1626.8µgg(-1). The analytical results indicate that the MMIPs-TBBPS are promising materials for selective separation and fast enrichment of TBBPS from complicated enviromental samples.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of core-shell CNTs@MIPs nanocomposites and selective removal of estrone from water samples.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Su, Xiaoqian; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-01-15

    This paper reports the preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for advanced removal of estrone. CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites with a well-defined core-shell structure were obtained using a semi-covalent imprinting strategy, which employed a thermally reversible covalent bond at the surface of silica-coated CNTs for a large-scale production. The morphology and structure of the products were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption properties were demonstrated by equilibrium rebinding experiments and Scatchard analysis. The results demonstrate that the imprinted nanocomposites possess favourable selectivity, high capacity and fast kinetics for template molecule uptake, yielding an adsorption capacity of 113.5 μmol/g. The synthetic process is quite simple, and the different batches of synthesized CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites showed good reproducibility in template binding. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water using the CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites was demonstrated using water samples spiked with estrone.

  17. Highly effective heterogeneous chemosensors of luminescent silica@coordination polymer core-shell micro-structures for metal ion sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Sora; Kim, Yoona; Oh, Moonhyun

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous solid sensors are regarded as promising next-generation sensor due to their excellent chemical stability, low contamination, and excellent recyclability, despite their low sensitivity and weak signal. The dispersity and signals specifically from the exterior of solid sensors are critical aspects which define the sensing sensitivity and selectivity. A novel strategy for the preparation of ideal heterogeneous sensors based upon luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers (LnCP) has been demonstrated. Ideal heterogeneous sensors are systematically achieved by producing the sensors in small, uniform, and thin core-shell particles (silica@LnCP, Ln = Eu, Tb). Eventually, we found that the extremely small amount of well-structured silica@LnCP microsphere, less than ca. 1/400 compared to the amount of several known coordination polymer-based sensors, was sufficient to achieve a reliable Cu2+ sensing with even much greater sensitivity (ca. 550% improvement). PMID:25269855

  18. One-pot preparation of nanoporous Ag-Cu@Ag core-shell alloy with enhanced oxidative stability and robust antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Du, Jing; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Yao, Ke-Fu

    2017-08-31

    Metallic core-shell nanostructures have inspired prominent research interests due to their better performances in catalytic, optical, electric, and magnetic applications as well as the less cost of noble metal than monometallic nanostructures, but limited by the complicated and expensive synthesis approaches. Development of one-pot and inexpensive method for metallic core-shell nanostructures' synthesis is therefore of great significance. A novel Cu network supported nanoporous Ag-Cu alloy with an Ag shell and an Ag-Cu core was successfully synthesized by one-pot chemical dealloying of Zr-Cu-Ag-Al-O amorphous/crystalline composite, which provides a new way to prepare metallic core-shell nanostructures by a simple method. The prepared nanoporous Ag-Cu@Ag core-shell alloy demonstrates excellent air-stability at room temperature and enhanced oxidative stability even compared with other reported Cu@Ag core-shell micro-particles. In addition, the nanoporous Ag-Cu@Ag core-shell alloy also possesses robust antibacterial activity against E. Coli DH5α. The simple and low-cost synthesis method as well as the excellent oxidative stability promises the nanoporous Ag-Cu@Ag core-shell alloy potentially wide applications.

  19. The fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell structures using a spin-coating-based successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Kim, Darae; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jun, Hwichan; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Yong, Kijung; Kim, Sungjee; Jeon, Sangmin

    2010-08-13

    We developed a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method based on spin-coating (spin-SILAR) and applied the method to the fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays. Because the adsorption, reaction, and rinsing steps occur simultaneously during spin-coating, the spin-SILAR method does not require rinsing steps between the alternating ion adsorption steps, making the growth process simpler and faster than conventional SILAR methods based on dip-coating (dip-SILAR). The ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by spin-SILAR had a denser and more uniform structure than those prepared by dip-SILAR, resulting in the higher power efficiency for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

  20. Periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials with uniform spherical core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Haffer, Stefanie; Tiemann, Michael; Fröba, Michael

    2010-09-10

    We report the synthesis of monodisperse, spherical periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) materials. The particles have diameters between about 350 and 550 nm. They exhibit a regular core-shell structure with a solid, non-porous silica core and a mesoporous PMO shell with a thickness of approximately 75 nm and uniform pores of about 1.7 nm. The synthesis of the core and the shell is carried out in a one-pot, two-stage synthesis and can be accomplished at temperatures between 25 and 100 °C. Higher synthesis temperatures lead to substantial shrinking of the solid core, generating an empty void between core and shell. This leads to interesting cavitation phenomena in the nitrogen physisorption analysis at 77.4 K.

  1. Preparation, characterization and dielectric studies on carbonyl iron/cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate core/shell nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Reshmi, G; Mohan Kumar, P; Malathi, M

    2009-01-05

    A method to prepare composite colloidal nanoparticles, consisting of a magnetic core (carbonyl iron) and a biodegradable polymeric shell (cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate) was described and also particle size was characterized by Optical Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Dielectric properties of Cellulose Acetate Hydrogen Phthalate (CAP) and carbonyl iron/CAP (core/shell) tablets were studied in the frequency range of 70 Hz-400 kHz at 300 K using LCR meter and compared the dielectric parameters of core/shell and ordinary phase of CAP tablets. From the dielectric results, the importance of core/shell nanoparticles in controlled drug delivery was discussed.

  2. Emergence of cluster structures and collectivity within a no-core shell-model framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launey, K. D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.; Baker, R.

    2014-12-01

    An innovative symmetry-guided concept, which capitalizes on partial as well as exact symmetries that underpin the structure of nuclei, is discussed. Within this framework, ab initio applications of the theory to light nuclei reveal the origin of collective modes and the emergence a simple orderly pattern from first principles. This provides a strategy for determining the nature of bound states of nuclei in terms of a relatively small fraction of the complete shell-model space, which, in turn, can be used to explore ultra-large model spaces for a description of alpha-cluster and highly deformed structures together with the associated rotations. We find that by using only a fraction of the model space extended far beyond current no-core shell-model limits and a long-range interaction that respects the symmetries in play, the outcome reproduces characteristic features of the low-lying 0+ states in 12 C (including the elusive Hoyle state and its 2+ excitation) and agrees with ab initio results in smaller spaces. This is achieved by selecting those particle configurations and components of the interaction found to be foremost responsible for the primary physics governing clustering phenomena and large spatial deformation in the ground-state and Hoyle-state rotational bands of 12 C. For these states, we offer a novel perspective emerging out of no-core shell-model considerations, including a discussion of associated nuclear deformation, matter radii, and density distribution. The framework we find is also extensible to negative-parity states (e.g., the 3-1 state in 12C) and beyond, namely, to the low-lying 0+ states of 8Be as well as the ground-state rotational band of Ne, Mg, and Si isotopes. The findings inform key features of the nuclear interaction and point to a new insight into the formation of highly-organized simple patterns in nuclear dynamics.

  3. Structural and optical investigation of semiconductor CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dot thin films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A B; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, M; Pandey, R K; Reddy, D S

    2009-03-01

    Highly luminescent CdSe/CdS core-shell nanocrystals have been assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates using a wet synthesis route. The physical properties of the quantum dots (QD) have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. These quantum dots showed a strong enhancement in the near band edge absorption. The in situ luminescence behavior has been interpreted in the light of the quantum confinement effect and induced strain in the core-shell structure.

  4. Combining RAFT polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction for core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanodielectrics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high energy storage capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Huang, Xingyi; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Liyuan; Tanaka, Toshikatsu; Jiang, Pingkai

    2014-02-12

    Nanodielectric materials with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and high energy storage capability are highly desirable in modern electric and electronics industries. It has been proved that the preparation of core-shell structured dielectric polymer nanocomposites via "grafting from" method is an effective approach to these materials. However, by using this approach, the deep understanding of the structure-dielectric property relationship of the core-shell structured nanodielectrics has been limited because of the lack of detailed information (e.g., molecular weight, grafting density) about the macromolecules grafted onto the nanoparticle surfaces. In this work, by the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction, two types of core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 (polymer@BT) nanocomposites with high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss were successfully prepared via a "grafting to" method. Compared with the "grafting from" method, this "grafting to" method has two merits: the molecular weight of the polymer chains in the shell layer can be easily controlled and the grafting density can be tailored by changing the molecular weight of the grafting polymer. Moreover, a clear insight into the relationship among the dielectric properties and energy storage capability of the core-shell structured polymer@BT nanocomposites, the molecular weight of the polymer chains, and the grafting density of the core-shell structured nanoparticles was achieved. The study provides new insights into the design and preparation of nanodielectric materials with desirable dielectric properties.

  5. Exploring the structural and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite: An experimental and density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-12-15

    TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite is prepared via a simple sol–gel method and the properties are compared with the individual TiO{sub 2} (core) and SnO{sub 2} (shell). The corresponding characterizations are carried out in terms of structural and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} nanosystems. Structural properties are studied via XRD, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR and XPS. Magnetic characterization is performed by measuring Moment vs. Applied Field for all the samples and Moment vs. Temperature for TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite. We also went for a better insight with the help of theoretical measures. First principle calculations have been executed using “Density Functional Theory” (DFT)-based MedeA VASP package to compare the results of TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} with TiO{sub 2} (1 1 0) and SnO{sub 2} (1 1 0) surface calculations and its effect on the magnetic nature of the specific nanoparticles. XRD, RAMAN and FTIR gave indirect evidence of formation of core shell nanostructure while TEM micrographs provide the direct evidence of formation of core shell nanostructure. The magnetic study shows a higher saturation magnetization for the core/shell nanostructure compared to pristine TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}. In this report, we have attempted to relate this experimental observation with the results of the first principle calculations. - Graphical abstract: Above pictorial presentation (from left) represents the model for TS, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} used for DFT calculation and the obtained magnetic results for all the prepared systems. - Highlights: • Synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites by a simple sol–gel technique. • The nanocomposites show better magnetic property than pristine nanoparticles. • DFT based calculations also support the experimental evidences.

  6. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalska-Szostko, B.; Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  7. Synthesis of In2O3-In2S3 core-shell nanorods with inverted type-I structure for photocatalytic H2 generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Wong, Tailun; Yang, Qingdan; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2013-08-14

    In2O3-In2S3 core-shell nanostructures were prepared via a simple hydrothermal process at low temperatures. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) shows that the In2O3-In2S3 nanorod is an inverted type I nanostructure. The energy potential in this structure would drive both the photo-generated holes and electrons towards the shell to facilitate photocatalytic H2 generation. Such inverted type-I nanostructure is firstly used for hydrogen generation. Comparing with reported indium-based photocatalysts upon UV-Vis illumination, the core-shell In2O3-In2S3 nanostructure obtained here exhibits a good H2 evolution rate of 61.4 μmol h(-1) g(-1).

  8. The novel albumin-chitosan core-shell nanoparticles for gene delivery: preparation, optimization and cell uptake investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Avci, Pinar; Mobasseri, Rezvan; Hamblin, Michael R.; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Natural polymers and proteins such as chitosan (CS) and albumin (Alb) have recently attracted much attention both in drug delivery and gene delivery. The underlying rationale is their unique properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and controlled release. This study aimed to prepare novel albumin-chitosan-DNA (Alb-CS-DNA) core-shell nanoparticles as a plasmid delivery system and find the best conditions for their preparation. Phase separation method and ionic interaction were used for preparation of Alb nanoparticles and Alb-CS-DNA core-shell nanoparticles, respectively. The effects of three important independent variables (1) CS/Alb mass ratio, (2) the ratios of moles of the amine groups of cationic polymers to those of the phosphate groups of DNA (N/P ratio), and (3) Alb concentration, on the nanoparticle size and loading efficiency of the plasmid were investigated and optimized through Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions were found to be CS/Alb mass ratio = 3, N/P ratio = 8.24 and Alb concentration = 0.1 mg/mL. The most critical factors for the size of nanoparticles and loading efficiency were Alb concentration and N/P ratio. The optimized nanoparticles had an average size of 176 ± 3.4 nm and loading efficiency of 80 ± 3.9 %. Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were not toxic. The high cellular uptake of nanoparticles ( 85 %) was shown by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.

  9. Core/shell nano-structuring of metal oxide semiconductors and their photocatalytic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakumar, S.; Rakkesh, R. Ajay

    2013-02-01

    Core/Shell Nanostructures of Metal Oxide Semiconductors (MOS) have attracted much attention because of their most fascinating tunable applications. These core shell morphologies can be easily engineered to enhance the unique properties of the metal-oxide nanostructures, which make them suitable as photocatalyst due to their high catalytic activity, substantial stability, and brilliant perspective in applications. This paper provides an overview on our work on the synthesis of some interesting core/ shell nanostructures of MOS such as ZnO-TiO2, ZnO-MoO3, and V2O5-TiO2 using a low temperature wet chemical route and hydrothermal techniques and their photocatalytic properties from the aspects of different shell materials and shell thicknesses. The effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature, and ratio of core and shell materials, was systematically studied. Here the evidence for the core shell formation with different shell thicknesses came from the X-ray diffraction peak intensities. The shell thickness variation was also confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopic studies. Effect of shell thickness on optical band gap of the core shell fabricated was also investigated using DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. A comprehensive study was carried out for the photocatalytic efficiency of core shell nanostructures by evaluating the photo-degradation of Acridine Orange (AO) dye in aqueous solution under visible and solar light irradiations. These results offered simple approaches to the nanoscale engineering and synthesis of MOS hybrid systems to serve as better photocatalytic materials.

  10. Preparation and characterization of polystyrene/Ag core-shell microspheres--a bio-inspired poly(dopamine) approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wencai; Jiang, Yi; Wen, Shipeng; Liu, Li; Zhang, Liqun

    2012-02-15

    A facile and versatile method using a biopolymer as a chelating agent for silver ions and as a reducing agent for the formation of catalytic sites is proposed to prepare polystyrene (PS)/Ag core-shell microspheres. More specifically, the core-shell microspheres were fabricated by electroless plating after the formation of poly(dopamine) (PDA) on the surface of PS microspheres through insitu spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine. The PS-PDA microspheres were characterized by SEM, XPS, and TGA. The results showed that a uniform PDA layer was formed on the PS microsphere surface and the thickness of the PDA layer could be well controlled by varying the concentration of dopamine solution. The PDA layer was used as a chelating agent for silver ions, as a reducing agent for the formation of catalytic sites by reducing the silver ions into silver nanoparticles, and as an adhesion layer between the PS microspheres and silver layer. SEM and XRD results indicate that the diameter of the silver nanoparticles decreased with the increase in the thickness of the PDA layer. The silver nanoparticles could form a continuous and compact silver layer on the surface of the PS microspheres. Furthermore, the PS-PDA/Ag core-shell microspheres showed a good conductivity of 10S/cm and a low effective density of 1.8 g/cm(3), much lower than the corresponding values for block silver. Finally, hollow silver microspheres could be prepared by removing the PS core through calcination. SEM images showed that the hollow Ag microspheres remained unbroken and retained the spherical shape.

  11. Polydopamine-coated, nitrogen-doped, hollow carbon-sulfur double-layered core-shell structure for improving lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Xiao, Xingcheng; Cai, Mei; Yang, Li

    2014-09-10

    To better confine the sulfur/polysulfides in the electrode of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) batteries and improve the cycling stability, we developed a double-layered core-shell structure of polymer-coated carbon-sulfur. Carbon-sulfur was first prepared through the impregnation of sulfur into hollow carbon spheres under heat treatment, followed by a coating polymerization to give a double-layered core-shell structure. From the study of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images, we demonstrated that the sulfur not only successfully penetrated through the porous carbon shell but also aggregated along the inner wall of the carbon shell, which, for the first time, provided visible and convincing evidence that sulfur preferred diffusing into the hollow carbon rather than aggregating in/on the porous wall of the carbon. Taking advantage of this structure, a stable capacity of 900 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 150 cycles and 630 mA h g(-1) at 0.6 C after 600 cycles could be obtained in Li/S batteries. We also demonstrated the feasibility of full cells using the sulfur electrodes to couple with the silicon film electrodes, which exhibited significantly improved cycling stability and efficiency. The remarkable electrochemical performance could be attributed to the desirable confinement of sulfur through the unique double-layered core-shell architectures.

  12. Composites Based on Core-Shell Structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 and Polyarylene Ether Nitriles with Excellent Dielectric and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zejun; Zhong, Jiachun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    Core-shell structured magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Fe3O4) coated with hyperbranched copper phthalocyanine (HBCuPc) (HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4) hybrids were prepared by the solvent-thermal method. The results indicated that the HBCuPc molecules were decorated on the surface of CNTs-Fe3O4 through coordination behavior of phthalocyanines, and the CNTs-Fe3O4 core was completely coaxial wrapped by a functional intermediate HBCuPc shell. Then, polymer-based composites with a relatively high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss were fabricated by using core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids as fillers and polyarylene ether nitriles (PEN) as the polymer matrix. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of composites showed that there is almost no agglomeration and internal delamination. In addition, the rheological analysis reveals that the core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids present better dispersion and stronger interface adhesion with the PEN matrix than CNTs-Fe3O4, thus resulting in significant improvement of the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of polymer-based composites.

  13. Composites Based on Core-Shell Structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 and Polyarylene Ether Nitriles with Excellent Dielectric and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zejun; Zhong, Jiachun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-06-01

    Core-shell structured magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Fe3O4) coated with hyperbranched copper phthalocyanine (HBCuPc) (HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4) hybrids were prepared by the solvent-thermal method. The results indicated that the HBCuPc molecules were decorated on the surface of CNTs-Fe3O4 through coordination behavior of phthalocyanines, and the CNTs-Fe3O4 core was completely coaxial wrapped by a functional intermediate HBCuPc shell. Then, polymer-based composites with a relatively high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss were fabricated by using core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids as fillers and polyarylene ether nitriles (PEN) as the polymer matrix. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of composites showed that there is almost no agglomeration and internal delamination. In addition, the rheological analysis reveals that the core-shell structured HBCuPc@CNTs-Fe3O4 hybrids present better dispersion and stronger interface adhesion with the PEN matrix than CNTs-Fe3O4, thus resulting in significant improvement of the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of polymer-based composites.

  14. Preparation and optical properties of silica Ag-Cu alloy core-shell composite colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianhui Liu Huaiyong; Wang Zhenlin; Ming Naiben

    2007-04-15

    The silica Ag-Cu alloy core-shell composite colloids have been successfully synthesized by an electroless plating approach to explore the possibility of modifying the plasmon resonance at the nanoshell surface by varying the metal nanoshell composition for the first time. The surface plasmon resonance of the composite colloids increases in intensity and shifts towards longer, then shorter wavelengths as the Cu/Ag ratio in the alloy shell is increased. The variations in intensity of the surface plasmon resonance with the Cu/Ag ratio obviously affect the Raman bands of the silica colloid core. The report here may supply a new technique to effectively modify the surface plasmon resonance. - Graphical abstract: The silica Ag-Cu alloy core-shell colloids have been successfully synthesized to explore the possibility of modifying the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) by varying the metal nanoshell composition for the first time. Varying the Cu/Ag ratio of the alloy nanoshell has obvious influences on the SPR of the composite colloids and the Raman bands of the amorphous silica core.

  15. Compressive elastic moduli and polishing performance of non-rigid core/shell structured PS/SiO2 composite abrasives evaluated by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailian; Mu, Weibin; Chen, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The core/shell structured polystyrene (PS)/SiO2 composite microspheres with different silica shell morphology were synthesized by a modified Stöber method. As confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the rough discontinuous shell consisted of separate SiO2 nanoparticles for composite-A, while the smooth continuous one was composed of amorphous silica network for composite-B. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to probe the compressive Young's moduli (E) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of the as-prepared PS/SiO2 composite microspheres. On the basis of the Hertzian contact mechanics, the calculated E values of the PS microspheres, composite-A and composite-B were 2.9 ± 0.4, 5.1 ± 1.2 and 6.0 ± 1.2 GPa, respectively. Compared to traditional abrasives, thermally grown silicon oxide wafers after polished by the core/shell PS/SiO2 composite abrasives obtained a lower root mean square roughness and a higher material removal rate value. In addition, there is an obvious effect of shell morphology of the composites on oxide CMP performance and structural stability during polishing process. This approach would provide a basis for understanding the actual role of organic/inorganic core/shell composite abrasives in the material removal process of CMP.

  16. Direct imaging the upconversion nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level: shell thickness dependence in upconverting optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Che, Renchao; Li, Xiaomin; Yao, Chi; Yang, Jianping; Shen, Dengke; Hu, Pan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-06-13

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles have shown considerable promise in solid-state lasers, three-dimensional flat-panel displays, and solar cells and especially biological labeling and imaging. It has been demonstrated extensively that the epitaxial coating of upconversion (UC) core crystals with a lattice-matched shell can passivate the core and enhance the overall upconversion emission intensity of the materials. However, there are few papers that report a precise link between the shell thickness of core/shell nanoparticles and their optical properties. This is mainly because rare earth fluoride upconversion core/shell structures have only been inferred from indirect measurements to date. Herein, a reproducible method to grow a hexagonal NaGdF(4) shell on NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals with monolayer control thickness is demonstrated for the first time. On the basis of the cryo-transmission electron microscopy, rigorous electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field investigations on the core/shell structure under a low operation temperature (96 K), direct imaging the NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level was realized for the first time. Furthermore, a strong linear link between the NaGdF(4) shell thickness and the optical response of the hexagonal NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) core/shell nanocrystals has been established. During the epitaxial growth of the NaGdF(4) shell layer by layer, surface defects of the nanocrystals can be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition process, which results in the obvious enhancement in overall UC emission intensity and lifetime and is more resistant to quenching by water molecules.

  17. Structural and electronic properties of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanowires: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo Seok; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Carrying out density functional theory (DFT) calculation, we studied the relative effects of quantum confinement and strain on the electronic structures of II-IV semiconductor compounds with a large lattice-mismatch, CdS and ZnS, in the core/shell nanowire geometry. We considered different core radii and shell thickness of the CdS/ZnS core/shell nanowire, different surface facets, and various defects in the core/shell interface and surface regions. To properly describe the band level alignment at the core/shell boundary, we adopted the self-interaction correction (SIC)-DFT scheme. Implications of our findings in the context of device applications will be also discussed. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Grant (No. 2012R1A1A2044793), Global Frontier Program (No. 2013-073298), and Nano-Material Technology Development Program (2012M3A7B4049888) of the National Research Foundation funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Korea. Corresponding author

  18. Preparation of monodispersed macroporous core-shell molecularly imprinted particles and their application in the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; He, Yonghuan; Jin, Yulong; Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Guoquan; Zhao, Rui

    2014-01-03

    Porous polymers have aroused extensive attention due to their controllable porous structure in favor of mass transfer and binding capacity. In this work, the novel macroporous core-shell molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for selective recognition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were prepared by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (si-ATRP). By using one-step swelling and polymerization method, the monodispersed macroporous poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) particles were synthesized and used as supporting matrix for preparing surface MIP particles (PGMA@MIP). Thanks to the inner and outer surface-located binding cavities and the macroporous structure, the PGMA@MIPs revealed desirable efficiency for template removal and mass transfer, and thus excellent accessibility and affinity toward template 2,4-D. Moreover, PGMA@MIPs exhibited much higher selectivity toward 2,4-D than PGMA@NIPs. PGMA@MIP particles were directly used to selectively enrich 2,4-D from tap water and the recoveries of 2,4-D were obtained as 90.0-93.4% with relative standard division of 3.1-3.4% (n=3). The macroporous PGMA@MIPs also possessed steady and excellent reusable performance for 2,4-D in four extraction/stripping cycles. This novel macroporous core-shell imprinted material may become a powerful tool for rapid and efficient enrichment and separation of target compounds from the complicated samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural stability of alloyed and core-shell Cu-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongcheng; Qi, Weihong; Ji, Wenhai; Li, Siqi; He, Jieting

    2017-03-01

    Combining the bond-energy model and Debye theory, we generalized the Gibbs free energy model for Cu-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) by introducing a shape factor considering the shape effect. We studied the structural stability of the Cu-Pt NPs and plotted the corresponding composition-, shape- and size-dependent phase diagrams. It is shown that the Cu-Pt NPs can form alloyed structure in a large size range. But when the particle size continues to decrease, the NPs will form the core-shell structure due to surface segregation. Meanwhile, the composition segregation could make the atoms of less-content element to gather in the surface. The predictions from the present calculated phase diagrams are consistent with a series of experimental results in literatures. To further prove the efficiency of the phase diagrams, we synthesized the alloyed Cu-Pt NPs of 4-15 nm by a co-reduction method, which is in agreement with the predictions from the phase diagrams.

  20. On the structure of Ce-containing silicophosphate glasses: a core-shell molecular dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Gambuzzi, Elisa; Pedone, Alfonso

    2014-10-21

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the local and medium range structure of Ce-containing silicophosphate glasses widely used in optical and photonic devices because of their enhanced UV absorption and radiation damage resistance properties. New Ce(3+)-O and Ce(4+)-O parameters for a force-field based on the core-shell model were developed by fitting on the crystalline structures of Ce-containing crystal phases, and used to get insights into the structure of five silicophosphate glasses with increasing Ce2O3 and P2O5 content. An excellent agreement between experimental and computational data was found for the local environment around cerium ions and network former cations. The Ce(3+)-O bond lengths are generally longer than Ce(4+)-O, which shows higher coordination numbers. Both P and Si are four-fold coordinated; their allocation in the network is not uniform: the increasing Ce content leads to the formation of silica-rich domains and phosphate-rich domains, which entrap Ce cations increasing their solubility in the glass. We found that both the Q(n) distributions of phosphorous and Ce clustering depend on the Ce/P ratio in the glass. In particular, Ce clustering begins for Ce/P ratios between 0.17 and 0.29 in the glass series investigated.

  1. Preparation of PMMA-Ni core-shell composite particles by electroless plating on polyelectrolyte-modified PMMA beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan-Ju; Wu, Hong-Mao; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Ho, Chan-Yuan; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Hsing; Tseng, Wenjea J.

    2013-10-01

    Surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads was modified deliberately by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) molecules and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) molecules through electrostatic adsorption in water. The adsorbed polyelectrolytes facilitated preferential deposition and growth of uniform nickel (Ni) shell on the PMMA surface when electroless (autocatalytic) plating was carried out using nickel chloride as the metal source and dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as the reducing agent. A dense Ni layer with an adhesive interface resulted. Crystallinity, film structure, and the electrical resistivity of the PMMA-Ni core-shell composites were examined as the DMAB concentration varies.

  2. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  3. Preparation of magnetic core-shell iron oxide@silica@nickel-ethylene glycol microspheres for highly efficient sorption of uranium(VI).

    PubMed

    Tan, Lichao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Sun, Yanbo; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-04-21

    We report a facile approach for the formation of magnetic core-shell iron oxide@silica@nickel-ethylene glycol (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L) microspheres. The structure and morphology of Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen sorption isotherm. The composite possesses a high specific surface area of 382 m(2) g(-1). The obtained core/shell structure is composed of a superparamagnetic core with a strong response to external fields, which are recovered readily from aqueous solutions by magnetic separation. When used as the adsorbent for uranium(vi) in water, the as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L multi-structural microspheres exhibit a high adsorption capacity, which is mainly attributed to the large specific surface area and typical mesoporous characteristics of Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L microspheres. This work provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of multifunctional microspheres, which can be used for water treatment, as well as having other potential applications in a variety of biomedical fields including drug delivery and biosensors.

  4. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement of thiolated chitosan-pHEMA core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Firooze Aghaei; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro mucoadhesion and permeation enhancement properties of thiolated chitosan (chitosan-glutathione) coated poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles. Core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by radical emulsion polymerization method initiated by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. Different molecular weights of chitosan were utilized for nanoparticles preparation. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were characterized by size, zeta potential, and thiol content. Incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4, MW 4400 Da), which was used as the model macromolecule, was achieved by incubation method. The intestinal mucoadhesion and penetration enhancement properties of nanoparticles were investigated using excised rat jejunum. All nanoparticle systems showed mucoadhesion and improved apparent permeation coefficient (P(app)) of FD4. Nanoparticles prepared by thiolated chitosan with medium molecular weight revealed the most mucoadhesion and penetration enhancement properties.

  5. Crossover from disordered to core-shell structures of nano-oxide Y2O3 dispersed particles in Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M. P.; Lu, C. Y.; Lu, Z.; Shao, L.; Wang, L. M.; Gao, F.

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations of Y2O3 in bcc Fe and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were used to understand the structure of Y2O3 nano-clusters in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel matrix. The study showed that Y2O3 nano-clusters below 2 nm were completely disordered. Y2O3 nano-clusters above 2 nm, however, form a core-shell structure, with a shell thickness of 0.5-0.7 nm that is independent of nano-cluster size. Y2O3 nano-clusters were surrounded by off-lattice Fe atoms, further increasing the stability of these nano-clusters. TEM was used to corroborate our simulation results and showed a crossover from a disordered nano-cluster to a core-shell structure.

  6. Effects of pressure on maghemite nanoparticles with a core/shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorida, Y.; Mito, M.; Deguchi, H.; Takagi, S.; Tajiri, T.; Millán, A.; Silva, N. J. O.; Laguna, M. A.; Palacio, F.

    2010-08-01

    The magnetic property and intraparticle structure of the γ phase of Fe 2O 3 (maghemite) nanoparticles with a diameter ( D) of 5.1±0.5 nm were investigated through AC and DC magnetic measurements and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at pressures ( P) up to 27.7 kbar. Maghemite originally exhibits ferrimagnetic ordering below 918 K, and has an inverse-spinel structure with vacancies. Maghemite nanoparticles studied here consist of a core with structural periodicity and a disordered shell without the periodicity, and core shows superparamagnetism. The DC and AC susceptibilities reveal that the anisotropy energy barrier (Δ E/ kB) and the effective value of the core moment decrease against the initial pressure ( P≤3.8 kbar), recovering at P≥3.8 kbar. The change of Δ E/ kB with P is qualitatively identical with that of the core moment, suggesting a down-and-up fluctuation of the number of Fe 3+ ions constituting the core at the pressure threshold of about 4 kbar. This phenomenon was confirmed by the analysis of the XRD measurement using Scherrer's formula. The core volume decreased for P≤2.5 kbar, whereas at higher pressure the core was restructured. For 2.5≤ P≤10.7 kbar, the volume shrinkage of particle hardly occurs. There, Δ E/ kB is approximately proportional to the volume associated to the ordered fraction of the nanoparticles as seen from XRD, Vcore. From this dependence it is possible to separate the core/shell contribution to Δ E/ kB and estimate core and surface anisotropy constants. As for the structural experiments, similar experimental data have been obtained for D=12.8±3.2 nm as well.

  7. Plateau-Rayleigh Instability Morphology Evolution (PRIME): From Electrospun Core-Shell Polymer Fibers to Polymer Microbowls.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Jing; Tseng, Hsiao-Fan; Lo, Yu-Ching; Wu, Bo-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2017-03-01

    Electrospun core-shell fibers have great potentials in many areas, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and organic solar cells. Although many core-shell fibers have been prepared and studied, the morphology transformation of core-shell fibers have been rarely studied. In this work, the morphology evolution of electrospun core-shell polymer fibers driven by the Plateau-Rayleigh instability is investigated. Polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) core-shell fibers are first prepared by using blend solutions and a single axial electrospinning setup. After PS/PMMA core-shell fibers are annealed on a PS film, the fibers undulate and sink into the polymer film, forming core-shell hemispheres. The evolution process, which can be observed in situ by optical microscopy, is mainly driven by achieving lower surface and interfacial energies. The morphologies of the transformed structures can be confirmed by a selective removal technique, and polymer microbowls can be obtained.

  8. Preparation of monodisperse polystyrene/silica core-shell nano-composite abrasive with controllable size and its chemical mechanical polishing performance on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Zefang; Qin, Fei; Liu, Weili; Song, Zhitang

    2011-11-01

    Monodisperse silica-coated polystyrene (PS) nano-composite abrasives with controllable size were prepared via a two-step process. Monodisperse positively charged PS colloids were synthesized via polymerization of styrene by using a cationic initiator. In the subsequent coating process, silica formed shell on the surfaces of core PS particles via the ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. Neither centrifugation/water wash/redispersion cycle process nor surface modification or addition surfactant was needed in the whole process. The morphology of the abrasives was characterized by scanning electron microscope. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis results indicated that silica layer was successfully coated onto the surfaces of PS particles. Composite abrasive has a core-shell structure and smooth surface. The chemical mechanical polishing performances of the composite abrasive and conventional colloidal silica abrasive on blanket copper wafers were investigated. The root mean square roughness decreases from 4.27 nm to 0.56 nm using composite abrasive. The PS/SiO2 core-shell composite abrasives exhibited little higher material removal rate than silica abrasives.

  9. Ductile all-cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from core-shell structured cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per A; Berglund, Lars A; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-06-09

    Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 μm long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 °C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL·μL/(m(2)·24 h·kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.

  10. Structural synergy in a core-shell spin crossover nanoparticle investigated by an electroelastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Ahmed; Khemakhem, Hamadi; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how surrounding environments act on the functional properties of switchable nano-objects across extended and multiple length scales is of growing interest in many areas of material science. Here, we examine in details, using a microscopic model, the interplay between the structural properties of an inert shell and a spin-active spin-crossover (SCO) core, composed of atoms which can switch thermally between the low-spin (LS) and high-spin (HS) states, a transition which is accompanied with a volume expansion. To come closer to realistic experimental data, we considered a shell having the lattice parameter of the HS state. Intensive Monte Carlo simulations, running on the spin states and atomic positions, are performed on the core-shell spin-crossover nanoparticle using an electroelastic model based on a compressible 2D lattice. A detailed analysis of the effect of the shell's size and rigidity on the magnetostructural properties of the core allows us to address the following issues: (i) the heteroelastic properties of the lattice induce a spatially inhomogeneous pressure (negative in the shell and positive in the core) which strongly distorts the lattice when the core is in the LS state, creating a visible spatial deflection of the shell/core interface; (ii) the thermally-induced first-order SCO transition of the core is significantly affected by the increase of the shell size, which lowers the transition temperature and reduces the thermal hysteresis width; (iii) the shell's rigidity dependence of the thermal hysteresis of the nanoparticle exhibited a resonance behavior when the shell's rigidity equals that of the core, a feature that is analyzed on the basis of acoustic impedance mismatch between the core and the shell. All these outcomes reflect the crucial influence of the surrounding environment on the structural properties of the nanoparticle and provide potentialities in the control of the bistability and cooperativity of the SCO nanoparticles

  11. Nanosheet-based titania microspheres with hollow core-shell structure encapsulating horseradish peroxidase for a mediator-free biosensor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing; Zhao, Yingying; Chen, Xu; Liu, Haimei; Evans, David G; Yang, Wensheng

    2011-09-01

    Nanosheet-based titania (TiO(2)) microspheres with a hollow core-shell structure have been synthesized and employed to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in order to fabricate a mediator-free biosensor. The morphology and structure of the TiO(2) microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. A possible growth mechanism has been proposed. Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements revealed that the TiO(2) microspheres are an immobilization support with biocompatibility for enzymes, affording good enzyme stability and bioactivity. Due to the nanosheet-based hollow core-shell structure of the TiO(2) microspheres, the direct electron transfer of HRP is facilitated and the resulting biosensor displayed good performance for the detection of H(2)O(2), with both a low detection limit of 0.05 μM and a wide linear range of 0.4-140 μM, as well as a fast response and excellent long-term stability. The nanosheet-based TiO(2) microspheres with hollow core-shell structure, can be used for the efficient entrapment of other redox-active proteins and have wide potential applications in biosensors, biocatalysis, biomedical devices and bioelectronics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of concave magnetoplasmonic core-shell supraparticles of gold-coated iron oxide via ion-reducible layer-by-layer method for surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Song, Younseong; Tran, Van Tan; Kim, Jeonghyo; Park, Enoch Y; Lee, Jaebeom

    2017-03-23

    Preparation of suprastructure assemblies with unique colloidal and optical properties remains challenging. Non-uniform covering of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with an external inert Au shell has been attempted to protect the magnetic core against oxidation as well as to produce multifunctional supraparticles (SPs) possessing respective optical and magnetic properties. In this study, a concave Au NP coating was deposited on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with precise control of the shell thickness and roughness through a layer-by-layer (LbL) assisted ionic reduction method termed ion-reducible LbL (IR-LbL) method. Surface enhanced Raman spectra were obtained using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on the magnetically aligned structure of the prepared core-shell SPs. It is probable that this synthesis method and the generated SPs are essential for characterizing the merge of electronics and magnetism in the nano-regime and may be applicable for further electronics, magnetic storage, and biomedical applications.

  13. Thermal Stability of Co-Pt and Co-Au Core-Shell Structured Nanoparticles: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu-Hua; Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2017-09-07

    Co-Pt and Co-Au core-shell nanoparticles were heated by molecular dynamics simulations to investigate their thermal stability. Two core structures, that is, hcp Co and fcc Co, have been addressed. The results demonstrate that the hcp-fcc phase transition happens in the hcp-Co-core/fcc-Pt-shell nanoparticle, while it is absent in the hcp-Co-core/fcc-Au-shell one. The stacking faults appear in both Pt and Au shells despite different structures of the Co core. The Co core and Pt shell concurrently melt and present an identical melting point in both Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles. However, typical two-stage melting occurs in both Co-Au core-shell nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Au shell in the hcp-Co-core/fcc-Au-shell nanoparticle exhibits a lower melting point than that in the fcc-Co-core/fcc-Au-shell one, while the melting points are closely equal for both hcp and fcc Co cores. All of these observations suggest that their thermal stability strongly depends on the structure of the core and the element of the shell.

  14. Site-specific carbon deposition for hierarchically ordered core/shell-structured graphitic carbon with remarkable electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingying; Wu, Zhangxiong; Qian, Xufang; Fang, Yin; Feng, Dan; Xia, Yongyao; Tu, Bo; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2013-10-01

    A fascinating core-shell-structured graphitic carbon material composed of ordered microporous core and uniform mesoporous shell is fabricated for the first time through a site-specific chemical vapor deposition process by using a nanozeolite@mesostructured silica composite molecular sieve as the template. The mesostructure-directing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the shell of the template can be either burned off or carbonized so that it is successfully utilized as a pore switch to turn the shell of the template "on" or "off" to allow selective carbon deposition. The preferred carbon deposition process can be performed only in the inner microporous zeolite cores or just within the outer mesoporous shells, resulting in a zeolite-like ordered microporous carbon or a hollow mesoporous carbon. Full carbon deposition in the template leads to the new core-shell-structured microporous@mesoporous carbon with a nanographene-constructed framework for fast electron transport, a microporous nanocore with large surface area for high-capacity storage of lithium ions, a mesoporous shell with highly opened mesopores as a transport layer for lithium ions and electron channels to access inner cores. The ordered micropores are protected by the mesoporous shell, avoiding pore blockage as the formation of solid electrolyte interphase layers. Such a unique core-shell-structured microporous@mesoporous carbon material represents a newly established lithium ion storage model, demonstrating high reversible energy storage, excellent rate capability, and long cyclic stability.

  15. A novel acid-base bifunctional catalyst (ZSM-5@Mg3Si4O9(OH)4) with core/shell hierarchical structure and superior activities in tandem reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Darui; Wang, Bo; Ding, Yu; Wu, Haihong; Wu, Peng

    2016-10-25

    A hierarchically core/shell structured base-acid bifunctional catalyst, ZSM-5@Mg3Si4O9(OH)4, was successfully prepared through a simple hydrothermal reaction between the silica species on the ZSM-5 crystal surface and the Mg(2+) source in basic solution. The obtained catalyst showed superior activity and stability in one-pot deacetalization-Knoevenagel condensation reaction.

  16. Colorimetric and plasmonic detection of lectins using core-shell gold glyconanoparticles prepared by copper-free click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Le; Jin, Hong-Ying; He, Xiao-Peng; James, Tony D; Chen, Guo-Rong; Long, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-28

    This study describes the simple preparation of core-shell glycosyl gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using stepwise, copper-free click chemistry-promoted self-assembly. The as-formed glyco-AuNPs can be used for the selective detection of sugar-lectin interactions, which are vital to many important physiological and pathological processes. The approach uses AuNPs as bioprobes since they produce, sensitively, changes in both color visible to the naked eye and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), on aggregation. Strain-promoted click reaction of an azido galactoside with a lipid cyclooctyne affords a galactolipid that can be embedded into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated AuNP via self-assembly. Subsequently, using naked-eye and plasmon resonance scattering spectroscopy, we were able to observe the colorimetric and plasmonic variations of the glyco-AuNPs, respectively, in the presence of a selective lectin over other proteins.

  17. Using electroless deposition for the preparation of micron sized polymer/metal core/shell particles and hollow metal spheres.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Pietro; Goedel, Werner A

    2006-02-23

    Uniform and stable core-shell microspheres composed of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) core and a thin metallic shell of nickel-phosphorus, cobalt-phosphorus, or mixed metal alloys (CoNiP, NiFeP, CoFeP) were prepared by dispersion polymerization of methyl methacrylate followed by electroless plating. The presence of the metallic shell around the particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy images of the cross-section of individual particles show that the thickness of the metal/alloy can be precisely tuned by adjusting the immersion time of the microspheres in the electroless bath. Depending on the deposited metallic material, various magnetic properties, from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic, are achieved. Finally, uniform hollow metallic spheres composed of nickel, cobalt, or nickel-cobalt alloy are obtained by dissolving the polymer core.

  18. The interface effect on the band offset of semiconductor nanocrystals with type-I core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ziming; Ouyang, Gang; Yang, Guowei

    2013-04-21

    In order to pursue the interface effect on the band offset of the semiconductor nanocrystals with the type-I core-shell structure, we have established a theoretical model to elucidate the underlying mechanism based on the atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. It was found that the size-dependent interface bond-nature-factor of the core-shell nanocrystals can be deduced on the basis of the proposed model. Taking the typical CdSe-ZnSe nanostructure as an example, we showed that the theoretical results were consistent with the experimental observations. These investigations provided a useful guide in opening up the possibility to engineer nanodevices with special optoelectronic properties.

  19. Versatile Core-Shell Nanoparticle@Metal-Organic Framework Nanohybrids: Exploiting Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine for Tailored Structural Integration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiajing; Wang, Peng; Wang, Chenxu; Goh, Yi Ting; Fang, Zheng; Messersmith, Phillip B; Duan, Hongwei

    2015-07-28

    We report a versatile strategy based on the use of multifunctional mussel-inspired polydopamine for constructing well-defined single-nanoparticle@metal-organic framework (MOF) core-shell nanohybrids. The capability of polydopamine to form a robust conformal coating on colloidal substrates of any composition and to direct the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of MOFs makes it possible for customized structural integration of a broad range of inorganic/organic nanoparticles and functional MOFs. Furthermore, the unique redox activity of polydopamine adds additional possibilities to tailor the functionalities of the nanohybrids by sandwiching plasmonic/catalytic metal nanostructures between the core and shell via localized reduction. The core-shell nanohybrids, with the molecular sieving effect of the MOF shell complementing the intrinsic properties of nanoparticle cores, represent a unique class of nanomaterials of considerable current interest for catalysis, sensing, and nanomedicine.

  20. Pyridine-containing block copolymer/silica core-shell nanoparticles for one-step preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junyan; Wang, Li; He, Ling; Sun, Shaodong

    2013-07-14

    Two poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-polystyrene diblock copolymer/silica core-shell nanoparticles (P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs) are developed in this work. Confirmed by DLS analysis and TEM observation, one comprises a SiO2 core surrounded by a P4VP-b-PS shell and the other comprises a P4VP-b-PS core surrounded by a SiO2 shell, which is facilely prepared by the in situ hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) using cationic P4VP-b-PS micelles obtained in a THF-H2C2O4 (aq, 0.1 mol L(-1)) mixture and a DMF-H2C2O4 (aq, 0.01 mol L(-1)) mixture as template, respectively. The SCA, CAH, SA and SEM measurements reveal that one-step deposition of P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs with SiO2 cores formed at a high level of TEOS creates a superhydrophobic surface with an SCA of 160°, a CAH of 2° and an SA of around 4° originating from the formation of a typical micro-nanoscale binary structure (MNBS). For the NPs with SiO2 cores formed at a low level of TEOS, the superhydrophobicity with a SCA of 151°, CAH of 3° and SA of around 5° can be induced by the transition of the surface microstructure from an uneven and discontinuous MNBS, created by a one-step deposition process, to the coexistence of MNBS and a nanoscale structure (NS) after annealing with toluene for 30 min. In contrast, one-step deposition of P4VP-b-PS/SiO2 NPs with P4VP-b-PS cores and SiO2 shells usually results in the inhomogeneous precipitation of SiO2 from bulk P4VP-b-PS along with the production of micro-cracks, with which is impossible to achieve surface superhydrophobicity.

  1. Improved Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of Highly Crystalline Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanofibers with Core-Shell Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Kang; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Lin, Ting-Han; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lu, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Tz-Feng; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Lee, Kun-Mu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Kordás, Krisztián; Su, Wei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses. Photodegradation of various organic dyes such as methyl orange, rhodamine 6G and brilliant green is shown to take place with significantly higher rates on our novel catalyst than on pristine TiO2 nanofibers and commercial nanoparticle based photocatalytic materials, which is attributed to surface defects (oxygen vacancy and Ti3+ interstitial defect) on the hydrogen treated surface. We propose three properties/mechanisms responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which are: (1) improved absorbance allowing for increased exciton generation, (2) highly crystalline anatase TiO2 that promotes fast charge transport rate, and (3) decreased charge recombination caused by the nanoscopic Schottky junctions at the interface of pristine core and hydrogenated shell thus promoting long-life surface charges. The developed H:TiO2 NFs can be helpful for future high performance photocatalysts in environmental applications.

  2. Improved Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of Highly Crystalline Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanofibers with Core-Shell Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Kang; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Lin, Ting-Han; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lu, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Tz-Feng; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Lee, Kun-Mu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Kordás, Krisztián; Su, Wei-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses. Photodegradation of various organic dyes such as methyl orange, rhodamine 6G and brilliant green is shown to take place with significantly higher rates on our novel catalyst than on pristine TiO2 nanofibers and commercial nanoparticle based photocatalytic materials, which is attributed to surface defects (oxygen vacancy and Ti3+ interstitial defect) on the hydrogen treated surface. We propose three properties/mechanisms responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which are: (1) improved absorbance allowing for increased exciton generation, (2) highly crystalline anatase TiO2 that promotes fast charge transport rate, and (3) decreased charge recombination caused by the nanoscopic Schottky junctions at the interface of pristine core and hydrogenated shell thus promoting long-life surface charges. The developed H:TiO2 NFs can be helpful for future high performance photocatalysts in environmental applications. PMID:28102314

  3. Metal-based magnetic fluids with core-shell structure FeB@SiO2 amorphous particles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengchun; Bian, Xiufang; Wang, Tianqi; Wang, Junzhang

    2017-09-27

    FeB@SiO2 amorphous particles were firstly introduced into Ga85.8In14.2 alloys to prepare metal-based magnetic fluids. The morphology of the FeB amorphous particles is spherical with an average particle size of about 190 nm. The shape of the particles is regular and the particle size is homogeneous. Stable core-shell structure SiO2 modified FeB amorphous particles are obtained and the thickness of the SiO2 coatings is observed to be about 40 nm. The results of VSM confirm that the saturation magnetization of the FeB amorphous particles is 131.5 emu g(-1), which is almost two times higher than that of the Fe3O4 particles. The saturation magnetization of the FeB@SiO2 amorphous particles is 106.9 emu g(-1), an approximate decrease of 18.7% due to the non-magnetic SiO2 coatings. The results from the torsional oscillation viscometer show that the metal-based magnetic fluids with FeB amorphous particles exhibit a desirable high temperature performance and are ideal candidates for high temperature use.

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of Core-Shell-Structured, Hemicellulose-Rich Nanofibrillated Cellulose in Dispersion and Wet-Film States.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Reina; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Hänninen, Tuomas; Ono, Yuko; Hakalahti, Minna; Tammelin, Tekla; Isogai, Akira

    2016-06-13

    We report the viscoelastic properties of core-shell-structured, hemicellulose-rich nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in dispersion and wet-film states. The hemicellulose-rich NFC (hemicellulose neutral sugars 23%, carboxylate 0.2 mmol g(-1)), prepared from Japanese persimmons, had a core crystallite thickness of 2.3 nm and unit fibril thickness of 4.2 nm. A carboxylate-rich NFC (hemicellulose neutral sugars 7%, carboxylate 0.9 mmol g(-1)) with crystallite and fibril widths of 2.5 and 3.3 nm, respectively, was used as a reference. The solid-concentration dependencies of the storage moduli of gel-like water dispersions of the hemicellulose-rich NFC were weaker than those of carboxylate-rich NFC, and the dispersions were loosely flocculated even at high salt concentrations and low pH values. The viscoelastic properties of wet NFC films were similar to those of their dispersions; the hemicellulose-rich NFC films were significantly less sensitive to salt concentration and pH and were soft and swollen at high salt concentrations and low pH values.

  5. Improved Solar-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of Highly Crystalline Hydrogenated TiO2 Nanofibers with Core-Shell Structure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Kang; Hsiao, Kai-Chi; Lin, Ting-Han; Chan, Shun-Hsiang; Wu, Po-Yeh; Lu, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Lin, Tz-Feng; Hsu, Kai-Hsiang; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Lee, Kun-Mu; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Kordás, Krisztián; Su, Wei-Fang

    2017-01-19

    Hydrogenated titanium dioxide has attracted intensive research interests in pollutant removal applications due to its high photocatalytic activity. Herein, we demonstrate hydrogenated TiO2 nanofibers (H:TiO2 NFs) with a core-shell structure prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent heat treatment in hydrogen flow. H:TiO2 NFs has excellent solar light absorption and photogenerated charge formation behavior as confirmed by optical absorbance, photo-Kelvin force probe microscopy and photoinduced charge carrier dynamics analyses. Photodegradation of various organic dyes such as methyl orange, rhodamine 6G and brilliant green is shown to take place with significantly higher rates on our novel catalyst than on pristine TiO2 nanofibers and commercial nanoparticle based photocatalytic materials, which is attributed to surface defects (oxygen vacancy and Ti(3+) interstitial defect) on the hydrogen treated surface. We propose three properties/mechanisms responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which are: (1) improved absorbance allowing for increased exciton generation, (2) highly crystalline anatase TiO2 that promotes fast charge transport rate, and (3) decreased charge recombination caused by the nanoscopic Schottky junctions at the interface of pristine core and hydrogenated shell thus promoting long-life surface charges. The developed H:TiO2 NFs can be helpful for future high performance photocatalysts in environmental applications.

  6. Core-shell structured titanium-nitrogen alloys with high strength, high thermal stability and good plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S; Zhao, Y H; Zhang, W; Lu, J W; Hu, J J; Huo, W T; Zhang, P X

    2017-01-06

    Multifunctional materials with more than two good properties are widely required in modern industries. However, some properties are often trade-off with each other by single microstructural designation. For example, nanostructured materials have high strength, but low ductility and thermal stability. Here by means of spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitrided Ti particles, we synthesized bulk core-shell structured Ti alloys with isolated soft coarse-grained Ti cores and hard Ti-N solid solution shells. The core-shell Ti alloys exhibit a high yield strength (~1.4 GPa) comparable to that of nanostructured states and high thermal stability (over 1100 °C, 0.71 of melting temperature), contributed by the hard Ti-N shells, as well as a good plasticity (fracture plasticity of 12%) due to the soft Ti cores. Our results demonstrate that this core-shell structure offers a design pathway towards an advanced material with enhancing strength-plasticity-thermal stability synergy.

  7. Thermal Stability of Platinum-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Chemically Disordered Alloys, Ordered Intermetallics, and Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zhang, Yang; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-04-12

    Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles are promising candidates for Pt-based nanocatalysts and magnetic-storage materials. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we here present a detailed examination on the thermal stabilities of Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles with three configurations including chemically disordered alloy, ordered intermetallics, and core-shell structures. It has been revealed that ordered intermetallic nanoparticles possess better structural and thermal stability than disordered alloyed ones for both Pt3Co and PtCo systems, and Pt3Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the highest melting points and the best thermal stability among Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles, although their meltings all initiate at the surface and evolve inward with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles display the worst thermal stability compared with the aforementioned nanoparticles. Furthermore, their melting initiates in the core and extends outward surface, showing a typical two-stage melting mode. The solid-solid phase transition is discovered in Co core before its melting. This work demonstrates the importance of composition distribution to tuning the properties of binary nanoparticles.

  8. Core-shell structured titanium-nitrogen alloys with high strength, high thermal stability and good plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y. S.; Zhao, Y. H.; Zhang, W.; Lu, J. W.; Hu, J. J.; Huo, W. T.; Zhang, P. X.

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional materials with more than two good properties are widely required in modern industries. However, some properties are often trade-off with each other by single microstructural designation. For example, nanostructured materials have high strength, but low ductility and thermal stability. Here by means of spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitrided Ti particles, we synthesized bulk core-shell structured Ti alloys with isolated soft coarse-grained Ti cores and hard Ti-N solid solution shells. The core-shell Ti alloys exhibit a high yield strength (~1.4 GPa) comparable to that of nanostructured states and high thermal stability (over 1100 °C, 0.71 of melting temperature), contributed by the hard Ti-N shells, as well as a good plasticity (fracture plasticity of 12%) due to the soft Ti cores. Our results demonstrate that this core-shell structure offers a design pathway towards an advanced material with enhancing strength-plasticity-thermal stability synergy. PMID:28059150

  9. Core-shell structured titanium-nitrogen alloys with high strength, high thermal stability and good plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. S.; Zhao, Y. H.; Zhang, W.; Lu, J. W.; Hu, J. J.; Huo, W. T.; Zhang, P. X.

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional materials with more than two good properties are widely required in modern industries. However, some properties are often trade-off with each other by single microstructural designation. For example, nanostructured materials have high strength, but low ductility and thermal stability. Here by means of spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitrided Ti particles, we synthesized bulk core-shell structured Ti alloys with isolated soft coarse-grained Ti cores and hard Ti-N solid solution shells. The core-shell Ti alloys exhibit a high yield strength (~1.4 GPa) comparable to that of nanostructured states and high thermal stability (over 1100 °C, 0.71 of melting temperature), contributed by the hard Ti-N shells, as well as a good plasticity (fracture plasticity of 12%) due to the soft Ti cores. Our results demonstrate that this core-shell structure offers a design pathway towards an advanced material with enhancing strength-plasticity-thermal stability synergy.

  10. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tunable Size Synthesis and Analysis in Terms of the Core-Shell Structure and Mixed Coercive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phong, P. T.; Oanh, V. T. K.; Lam, T. D.; Phuc, N. X.; Tung, L. D.; Thanh, Nguyen T. K.; Manh, D. H.

    2017-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are currently a very active research field. To date, a comprehensive study of iron oxide NPs is still lacking not only on the size dependence of structural phases but also in the use of an appropriate model. Herein, we report on a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide NPs prepared by a co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the NPs have an inverse spinel structure of iron oxide phase (Fe3O4) with average crystallite sizes ( D XRD) of 6-19 nm, while grain sizes ( D TEM) are of 7-23 nm. In addition, the larger the particle size, the closer the experimental lattice constant value is to that of the magnetite structure. Magnetic field-dependent magnetization data and analysis show that the effective anisotropy constants of the Fe3O4 NPs are about five times larger than that of their bulk counterpart. Particle size ( D) dependence of the magnetization and the non-saturating behavior observed in applied fields up to 50 kOe are discussed using the core-shell structure model. We find that with decreasing D, while the calculated thickness of the shell of disordered spins ( t ˜ 0.3 nm) remains almost unchanged, the specific surface areas S a increases significantly, thus reducing the magnetization of the NPs. We also probe the coercivity of the NPs by using the mixed coercive Kneller and Luborsky model. The calculated results indicate that the coercivity rises monotonously with the particle size, and are well matched with the experimental ones.

  11. Preparation of Novel Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-coglycidyl methacrylate)-Grafted Core-Shell Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres and Immobilization of Lactase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Rui-Jin; Qian, Ting-Ting; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Katiyo, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe3O4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6–17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization. PMID:23743822

  12. Preparation of novel poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted core-shell magnetic chitosan microspheres and immobilization of lactase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Yang, Rui-Jin; Qian, Ting-Ting; Hua, Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Katiyo, Wendy

    2013-06-06

    Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate)-grafted magnetic chitosan microspheres (HG-MCM) were prepared using reversed-phase suspension polymerization method. The HG-MCM presented a core-shell structure and regular spherical shape with poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto the chitosan layer coating the Fe3O4 cores. The average diameter of the magnetic microspheres was 10.67 μm, within a narrow size distribution of 6.6-17.4 μm. The saturation magnetization and retentivity of the magnetic microspheres were 7.0033 emu/g and 0.6273 emu/g, respectively. The application of HG-MCM in immobilization of lactase showed that the immobilized enzyme presented higher storage, pH and thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. This indicates that HG-MCM have potential applications in bio-macromolecule immobilization.

  13. A facile synthesis of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 supraparticles@MIL-100(Fe) core-shell nanostructures: Preparation, characterization and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shoushan; Wan, Jiaqi; Chen, Kezheng

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 supraparticles@MIL-100(Fe) core-shell nanostructure microspheres were successfully constructed by a facile step-by-step method. The polyacrylate formed in situ during the process of the preparation of Fe3O4 supraparticles not only acted as a stabilizer on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles surface, but also played a crucial role as a "bridge" in the initial stage of the framework components selectively assembly on the Fe3O4 supraparticle surfaces. The structure and composition of the obtained microspheres were characterized by SEM, TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR, and TG analysis. The MPMS results revealed that the introduction of the MOF shells can inhibit the interplay among the neighboring Fe3O4 supraparticles while an external magnetic field applied. The well-dispersed microspheres are biocompatible, which endow the microspheres great potential in drug targeting applications with enhanced efficiency.

  14. Morphology-Control Synthesis of a Core-Shell Structured NiCu Alloy with Tunable Electromagnetic-Wave Absorption Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Biao; Zhao, Wanyu; Shao, Gang; Fan, Bingbing; Zhang, Rui

    2015-06-17

    In this work, dendritelike and rodlike NiCu alloys were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process at various reaction temperatures (120, 140, and 160 °C). The structure and morphology were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, which that demonstrate NiCu alloys have core-shell heterostructures with Ni as the shell and Cu as the core. The formation mechanism of the core-shell structures was also discussed. The uniform and perfect dendritelike NiCu alloy obtained at 140 °C shows outstanding electromagnetic-wave absorption properties. The lowest reflection loss (RL) of -31.13 dB was observed at 14.3 GHz, and the effective absorption (below -10 dB, 90% attenuation) bandwidth can be adjusted between 4.4 and 18 GHz with a thin absorber thickness in the range of 1.2-4.0 mm. The outstanding electromagnetic-wave-absorbing properties are ascribed to space-charge polarization arising from the heterogeneous structure of the NiCu alloy, interfacial polarization between the alloy and paraffin, and continuous micronetworks and vibrating microcurrent dissipation originating from the uniform and perfect dendritelike shape of NiCu prepared at 140 °C.

  15. Molecular dynamics study on core-shell structure stability of aluminum encapsulated by nano-carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Yi; Zhai, Dong; Zhou, Kai; Pan, Deng

    2017-02-01

    A ReaxFF reactive forcefield for aluminum-carbon composite system has been developed to investigate structural stability and thermal decomposition mechanism of nano-carbon materials coating aluminum particles. Research results indicated the Al@C particles were structurally stable in a broad temperature range from room temperature up to 2735 K. In particular, the broken carbon cage self-healed to reconstruct a more stable Al@C core-shell structure after Al atoms sequentially departing from carbon cage during thermal decomposition, proffering an effective protection for aluminum surface-activeness.

  16. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z0.5-T0.5)) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  17. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z0.5-T0.5)) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  18. Scalable synthesis of core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lu; Wang, Weikun; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo; Jin, Zhaoqing; Yang, Yusheng

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite has been prepared by simply dispersing the SiOx particles, which are synthesized by a thermal evaporation method from an equimolar mixture of Si and SiO2, into the dopamine solution, followed by a carbonization process. The SiOx core is well covered by the conformal and homogeneous nitrogen-doped carbon layer from the pyrolysis of polydopamine. By contrast with the bare SiOx, the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared core-shell structured SiOx/nitrogen-doped carbon composite has been improved significantly. It delivers a reversible capacity of 1514 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1 and 933 mA h g-1 at 2 A g-1, much higher than those of commercial graphite anodes. The nitrogen-doped carbon layer ensures the excellent electrochemical performance of the SiOx/C composite. In addition, since dopamine can self-polymerize and coat virtually any surface, this versatile, facile and highly efficient coating process may be widely applicable to obtain various composites with uniform nitrogen-doped carbon coating layer.

  19. Preparation of a novel core-shell Ag-graphene@SiO2 nanocomposite for fluorescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongguang; Liu, Binhu; Zhang, Le; Wu, Minghong

    2012-06-01

    A facile one-pot water-in-oil microemulsion method has been developed for the synthesis of a novel core-shell Ag-graphene@SiO2 nanocomposite with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) doped in the shell. During the preparation process, reducing both Ag+ and graphene oxide, and loading of Ag nanoparticles on graphene were occurred in the microemulsion simultaneously. Then FITC was covalently doped in the silica shell through a copolymerization reaction with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The morphology and optical properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis spectrum, fluorescence emission spectrum and FT-IR spectrum, respectively. The results showed that the emission intensity from the as-prepared nanocomposite was 3-fold higher than that of control silica nanoparticles in which graphene was absent. The graphene in the as-prepared nanocomposite exhibited an enhanced effect for the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). This enhancement offers a potential increase in overall nanoprobe detectability. This work could provide new insights into fabrication of Ag-graphene based nanocomposites and facilitate their application.

  20. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350-400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  1. A Novel Organophosphorus Hybrid with Excellent Thermal Stability: Core-Shell Structure, Hybridization Mechanism, and Application in Flame Retarding Semi-Aromatic Polyamide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue-Bao; Du, Shuang-Lan; Long, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2016-01-13

    An organophosphorous hybrid (BM@Al-PPi) with unique core-shell structure was prepared through hybridization reaction between boehmite (BM) as the inorganic substrate and phenylphosphinic acid (PPiA) as the organic modifier. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), solid state (31)P and (27)Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and element analysis were used to investigate the chemical structure of the hybrids, where the microrod-like core was confirmed as Al-PPi aggregates generated from the reaction between BM and PPiA, and those irregular nanoparticles in the shell belonged to residual BM. Compared with the traditional dissolution-precipitation process, a novel analogous suspension reaction mode was proposed to explain the hybridization process and the resulting product. Scanning electronic microscopy further proved the core-shell structure of the hybrids. BM exhibited much higher initial decomposition temperature than that of Al-PPi; therefore, the hybrid showed better thermal stability than Al-PPi, and it met the processing temperature of semi-aromatic polyamide (HTN, for instance) as an additive-type flame retardant. Limiting oxygen index and cone calorimetric analysis suggested the excellent flame-retardant performance and smoke suppressing activity by adding the resulting hybrid into HTN.

  2. Preparation of core-shell nanofibers with selectively localized CNTs from Shish Kebab-like hierarchical composite micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Lei; Wang, Mei-Jia; Wu, Gang; You, Jiao; Chen, Si-Chong; Liu, Ya; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    A novel and facile bottom-up strategy for preparing core-shell nanofibers with selectively localized carbon nanotubes is developed using hierarchical composite micelles of crystalline-coil copolymer and carbon nanotubes as the building blocks. An amphiphilic di-block copolymer of poly (p-dioxanone) (PPDO) and PEG (polyethylene glycol) functionalized with pyrene moieties at the chain ends of PPDO blocks (Py-PPDO-b-PEG) is designed for constructing composite micelles with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The self-assembly of Py-PPDO-b-PEG and MWCNTs is co-induced by the crystallization of PPDO blocks and the π-π stacking interactions between pyrene moieties and MWCNTs, resulting in composite micelles with "shish kebab"-like nanostructure. A mixture of composite micelles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) water solution is then used as the spinning solution for preparing electrospun nanofibers. The morphologies of the nanofibers with different composition are investigated by SEM and TEM. The results suggest that the MWCNTs selectively localized in the core of the nanofibers of MWCNTs/Py-PPDO-b-PEG/PVA. The alignment and interfusion of composite micelles during the formation of nanofibers may confine the carbon nanotubes in the hydrophobic core region. In contrast, the copolymer without pyrene moieties cannot form composite micelles, thus these nanofibers show selective localization of MWCNTs in the PVA shell region. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Impacts of core-shell structures on properties of lanthanide-based nanocrystals: crystal phase, lattice strain, downconversion, upconversion and energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Kar, Arik; Patra, Amitava

    2012-06-21

    This feature article highlights the new development and current status of rare-earth (RE) based core-shell nanocrystals, which is one of the new classes of hybrid nanostructures. Attractive properties of rare-earth based nanomaterials include extremely narrow emission bands, long lifetimes, large Stoke's shifts, photostability and absence of blinking that can be exploited for biophotonic and photonic applications. Core-shell nanostructures have been attracting a great deal of interest to improve the luminescence efficiency by the elimination of deleterious cross-relaxation. The main focus of this feature article is to address the impacts of core-shell structures on the properties of lanthanide based nanocrystals including crystal phase, lattice strain, downconversion emission, upconversion emission and energy transfer. We describe general synthetic methodologies to design core-shell nanostructure materials. An interesting finding reported is that the local environment of an ion in the core-shell structure significantly affects the modifications of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms. Finally, a tentative outlook on future developments of this research field is given. Here, we attempt to identify the critical parameters governing the design of luminescent lanthanide based core-shell nanostructures.

  4. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres and its application for magnetic separation of nucleic acids from E. coli BL21.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; He, Nongyue; Wang, Fang; Ma, Ningning; Zhang, Liming; Lu, Zhuoxuan; Ali, Zeeshan; Xi, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaolong; Liang, Gaofeng; Liu, Hongna; Deng, Yan; Xu, Lijian; Wang, Zhifei

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we present an easy route to prepare monodisperse core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with uniform size and shape. Their structures and properties were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The results showed that spherical Fe3O4 microspheres with well dispersion have a rough surface and an average diameter (about 500 nm). After the modification with silica, the particles have a well-defined core-shell structure and a much smoother surface and larger particle diameter (about 600 nm). Furthermore, VSM measurements indicated that the as-prepared Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were superparamagnetic at room temperature and the saturation magnetization (M(s)) were 58.110 emu/g and 33.479 emu/g, respectively. And then, the prepared monodisperse core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were subsequently applied to separate nucleic acids from the bacteria (E. coli BL21) and verified the great application prospects for bioseparation technology of the biomoleculars.

  5. Stress-driven buckling patterns in spheroidal core/shell structures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Cao, Zexian; Li, Chaorong; Sheinman, Izhak; Chen, Xi

    2008-01-01

    Many natural fruits and vegetables adopt an approximately spheroidal shape and are characterized by their distinct undulating topologies. We demonstrate that various global pattern features can be reproduced by anisotropic stress-driven buckles on spheroidal core/shell systems, which implies that the relevant mechanical forces might provide a template underpinning the topological conformation in some fruits and plants. Three dimensionless parameters, the ratio of effective size/thickness, the ratio of equatorial/polar radii, and the ratio of core/shell moduli, primarily govern the initiation and formation of the patterns. A distinct morphological feature occurs only when these parameters fall within certain ranges: In a prolate spheroid, reticular buckles take over longitudinal ridged patterns when one or more parameters become large. Our results demonstrate that some universal features of fruit/vegetable patterns (e.g., those observed in Korean melons, silk gourds, ribbed pumpkins, striped cavern tomatoes, and cantaloupes, etc.) may be related to the spontaneous buckling from mechanical perspectives, although the more complex biological or biochemical processes are involved at deep levels. PMID:19036924

  6. Stress-driven buckling patterns in spheroidal core/shell structures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Cao, Zexian; Li, Chaorong; Sheinman, Izhak; Chen, Xi

    2008-12-09

    Many natural fruits and vegetables adopt an approximately spheroidal shape and are characterized by their distinct undulating topologies. We demonstrate that various global pattern features can be reproduced by anisotropic stress-driven buckles on spheroidal core/shell systems, which implies that the relevant mechanical forces might provide a template underpinning the topological conformation in some fruits and plants. Three dimensionless parameters, the ratio of effective size/thickness, the ratio of equatorial/polar radii, and the ratio of core/shell moduli, primarily govern the initiation and formation of the patterns. A distinct morphological feature occurs only when these parameters fall within certain ranges: In a prolate spheroid, reticular buckles take over longitudinal ridged patterns when one or more parameters become large. Our results demonstrate that some universal features of fruit/vegetable patterns (e.g., those observed in Korean melons, silk gourds, ribbed pumpkins, striped cavern tomatoes, and cantaloupes, etc.) may be related to the spontaneous buckling from mechanical perspectives, although the more complex biological or biochemical processes are involved at deep levels.

  7. Fast defluorination and removal of norfloxacin by alginate/Fe@Fe3O4 core/shell structured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongyun; Dizhang; Meng, Zhaofu; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-08-15

    Alginate-Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) polymer coated Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe MNPs) with core/shell structure are prepared and used as heterogeneous Fenton nanocatalyst to degrade norfloxacin (NOF). The Fenton-like process based on Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe shows much higher efficiency on NOF degradation. Compared with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle-H(2)O(2) system, NOF degradation in Fe(3)O(4)@AlG/Fe-H(2)O(2) system can be conducted in a wide pH range (pH 3.5-6.5) and independent on temperature. With 0.98 mM H(2)O(2) and 0.4 g L(-1) Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe, 100% of NOF and 90% of TOC is removed within 60 min, and the fluorine element in NOF molecule changes into F(-) ions within 1 min, indicating that NOF degradation in this Fenton-like reaction is performed through direct defluorination pathway. XPS analysis shows that TOC removal in reaction solution mainly results from the adsorption of NOF degradation intermediates on catalyst. Due to the paramagneticity and high saturation magnetization of Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe, the used catalyst with adsorbed NOF intermediate is collected from aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field, leading to complete removal of NOF from water samples. As being composed of inorganic materials and biopolymer, Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe MNPs are robust, thermo-stable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly. These attractive features endow Fe(3)O(4)@ALG/Fe as a potent Fenton-like catalyst for fluoroquinolones degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of multi-layer core-shell structural LiFeBO3/C as a novel Li-battery cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bao; Ming, Lei; Zheng, Jun-chao; Zhang, Jia-feng; Shen, Chao; Han, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-long; Qin, Shan-e.

    2014-09-01

    A multi-layer core-shell structural LiFeBO3/C has been successfully synthesized via spray-drying and carbothermal method using LiBO2·8H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, and citric acid as starting materials. The Rietveld refinement results indicate the sample consists of two phases: LiFeBO3 [94(6)% w/w], and LiFeO2 [6(4)% w/w]. SEM images show that the LiFeBO3 powders consist of rough similar-spherical particles with a size distribution ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm. TEM results present that the LiFeBO3 spherical particles are well coated by nano-carbon webs and form a multi-layer core-shell structure. The amount of carbon was determined to be 6.50% by C/S analysis. The prepared LiFeBO3-LiFeO2/C presents an initial discharge capacity of 196.5 mAh g-1 at the current density of 10 mA g-1 between 1.5 and 4.5 V, and it can deliver a discharge capacity of 136.1 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles, presents excellent electrochemical properties, indicating the surface sensitivity in the air was restrained.

  9. Surface-segregation-induced phase separation in epitaxial Au/Co nanoparticles: Formation and stability of core-shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuhisa; Matsushima, Yuta; Konno, Toyohiko J.

    2017-06-01

    We have studied formation and stability of core-shell structures in epitaxial Au/Co nanoparticles (NPs) by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. As the particle size reduces, number of NPs having Au-shell increases and their frequency of occurrence reached 65%. Au segregation proceeds during particle growth at 520 K. The core-shell structure formation is particle size-dependent; the critical diameter dividing the Au-shell and the Co-shell structures is about 11 nm, below which the Au-shell is stable. After annealing at 800 K for 3.6 ks, Au-shell NPs were conserved while the Co-shell NPs changed to two-phase structures with a planar interface separating Au and Co. There is a local energy minimum where the Co-shell NP is metastable in the as-deposited state. A simple model based on surface and interfacial energies suggests stability of Au-shell structures. Surface-segregation-induced phase separation in small NPs, due to low surface free energy of Au, will be responsible for the Au-shell formation.

  10. High performance and durability of order-structured cathode catalyst layer based on TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Meng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xindong

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an order-structured cathode catalyst layer consisting of Pt-TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays that in situ grown on commercial gas diffusion layer (GDL) are prepared and applied to membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In order to prepare the TiO2@PANI core-shell nanowire arrays with suitable porosity and prominent conductivity, the morphologies of the TiO2 nanoarray and electrochemical polymerization process of aniline are schematically investigated. The MEA with order-structured cathode catalyst layer is assembled in the single cell to evaluate the electrochemical performance and durability of PEMFC. As a result, the PEMFC with order-structured cathode catalyst layer shows higher peak power density (773.54 mW cm-2) than conventional PEMFC (699.30 mW cm-2). Electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and charge transfer impedance (Rct) are measured before and after accelerated degradation test (ADT), and the corresponding experimental results indicate the novel cathode structure exhibits a better stability with respect to conventional cathode. The enhanced electrochemical performance and durability toward PEMFC can be ascribed to the order-structured cathode nanoarray structure with high specific surface area increases the utilization of catalyst and reduces the tortuosity of transport pathways, and the synergistic effect between TiO2@PANI support and Pt nanoparticles promotes the high efficiency of electrochemical reaction and improves the stability of catalyst. This research provides a facile and controllable method to prepare order-structured membrane electrode with lower Pt loading for PEMFC in the future.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline-silica composites: Raspberry vs core-shell structures. Where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Roosz, Nicolas; Euvard, Myriam; Lakard, Boris; Buron, Cédric C; Martin, Nicolas; Viau, Lydie

    2017-09-15

    The synthesis of polyaniline-silica composites has been reinvestigated in view of the opposing results found in the literature. Firstly, we synthesized silica particles with tunable size using the Stöber process. These silica particles have been fully characterized before being used as solid support for the polymerization of aniline. This polymerization was performed according to a published procedure where the pH of the reaction mixture was below the pKa of aniline but at a value where the silica particles surface was still slightly negatively charged. The objective of this procedure was to favor electrostatic interactions between anilinium cations and the silica surface to lead to the formation of silica-polyaniline core-shell particles. Several sets of nanocomposites were prepared under different experimental conditions (oxidant/aniline ratio, silica concentration, temperature, silica particles diameters). The study evidenced that under all the conditions used the formation of core-shell nanoparticles is impossible. However, using different particle sizes, noticeable morphological differences were observed. The use of large silica particles led to the formation of non-uniform polyaniline-silica composites whereas the use of smaller particles always led to raspberry-like morphology as reported by other groups in highly acidic media. The difference in morphology led to different electrical properties with electrical conductivities measured at room temperature ranging from 1.6×10(-3) to 2.5×10(-5)S cm(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A new type of porous graphite foams and their integrated composites with oxide/polymer core/shell nanowires for supercapacitors: structural design, fabrication, and full supercapacitor demonstrations.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Chao, Dongliang; Fan, Zhanxi; Guan, Cao; Cao, Xiehong; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2014-03-12

    We attempt to meet the general design requirements for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes by combining the strategies of lightweight substrate, porous nanostructure design, and conductivity modification. We fabricate a new type of 3D porous and thin graphite foams (GF) and use as the light and conductive substrates for the growth of metal oxide core/shell nanowire arrays to form integrated electrodes. The nanowire core is Co3O4, and the shell is a composite of conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) and metal oxide (MnO2). To show the advantage of this integrated electrode design (viz., GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 core/shell nanowire arrays), three other different less-integrated electrodes are also prepared for comparison. Full supercapacitor devices based on the GF + Co3O4/PEDOT-MnO2 as positive electrodes exhibit the best performance compared to other three counterparts due to an optimal design of structure and a synergistic effect.

  13. Size-Tunable and Functional Core-Shell Structured Silica Nanoparticles for Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Fangli; Guo, Ya Nan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2010-02-18

    Size-tunable silica cross-linked micellar core-shell nanoparticles (SCMCSNs) were successfully synthesized from a Pluronic nonionic surfactant (F127) template system with organic swelling agents such as 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) and octanoic acid at room temperature. The size and morphology of SCMCSNs were directly evidenced by TEM imaging and DLS measurements (up to ~90 nm). Pyrene and coumarin 153 (C153) were used as fluorescent probe molecules to investigate the effect and location of swelling agent molecules. Papaverine as a model drug was used to measure the loading capacity and release property of nanoparticles. The swelling agents can enlarge the nanoparticle size and improve the drug loading capacity of nanoparticles. Moreover, the carboxylic acid group of fatty acid can adjust the release behavior of the nanoparticles.

  14. Dilute Nitride Nanowire Lasers Based on a GaAs/GaNAs Core/Shell Structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shula; Jansson, Mattias; Stehr, Jan E; Huang, Yuqing; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Chen, Weimin M; Buyanova, Irina A

    2017-03-08

    Nanowire (NW) lasers operating in the near-infrared spectral range are of significant technological importance for applications in telecommunications, sensing, and medical diagnostics. So far, lasing within this spectral range has been achieved using GaAs/AlGaAs, GaAs/GaAsP, and InGaAs/GaAs core/shell NWs. Another promising III-V material, not yet explored in its lasing capacity, is the dilute nitride GaNAs. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, optically pumped lasing from the GaNAs shell of a single GaAs/GaNAs core/shell NW. The characteristic "S"-shaped pump power dependence of the lasing intensity, with the concomitant line width narrowing, is observed, which yields a threshold gain, gth, of 3300 cm(-1) and a spontaneous emission coupling factor, β, of 0.045. The dominant lasing peak is identified to arise from the HE21b cavity mode, as determined from its pronounced emission polarization along the NW axis combined with theoretical calculations of lasing threshold for guided modes inside the nanowire. Even without intentional passivation of the NW surface, the lasing emission can be sustained up to 150 K. This is facilitated by the improved surface quality due to nitrogen incorporation, which partly suppresses the surface-related nonradiative recombination centers via nitridation. Our work therefore represents the first step toward development of room-temperature infrared NW lasers based on dilute nitrides with extended tunability in the lasing wavelength.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate soap-free latices with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; An, Qiufeng; Hao, Lifen; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Min

    2013-03-01

    Novel self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate soap-free latices (FMBN) with core-shell structure were synthesized by semicontinuous seeded emulsion polymerization method from dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and N-methylolamide (NMA) in the presence of a polymerizable emulsifier-ammonium allyloxtmethylate nonylphenol ethoxylates sulfate (DNS-86). Effects of the DNS-86 and DFMA amounts on stability and properties of the FMBN emulsions were studied. Besides, the latices and their film were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), contact angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. FT-IR spectra and 1H NMR spectrum showed that DFMA successfully participated in soap-free emulsion polymerization and monomers formed the fluorinated acrylate copolymer. The resulted latex particles had the core-shell structure. The films formed from the FMBN latices thus had two Tg. Their thermal stability and Tg of the shell phase increased gradually with augment of DFMA amount in polymer. XPS, AFM and hydrophobicity analyses indicated the fluoroalkyl groups had the tendency to enrich at the film-air interface. This enrichment of fluorine at the film-air interface was more evident after the annealing process. Water contact angles of the FMBN film before and after the annealing process could attain 115.5° and 117.5°, individually.

  16. Core-shell structured photovoltaic devices based on PbS quantum dots and silicon nanopillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Fute; Lei, Xiaofei; Xu, Yonglan; Lee, Shuittong; Sun, Baoquan

    2012-02-21

    We fabricated three-dimensional silicon nanopillar array (SiNP)-based photovoltaic (PV) devices using PbS quantum dots (QDs) as the hole-transporting layers. The core-shell structured device, which is based on high aspect ratio SiNPs standing on roughed silicon substrates, displays a higher PV performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.53% compared with that of the planar device (2.11%). The enhanced PCE is ascribed to the increased light absorption and the improved charge carrier collections in SiNP-modified silicon surfaces. We also show that, for the core-shell structured device, the thickness of the shell layer plays a critical role in enhancing the PV performance and around five monolayers of QDs are preferred for efficient hole-transporting. Wafer-scale PV devices with a radial PbS/SiNP heterojunction can be fabricated by solution phase techniques at low temperatures, suggesting a facile route to fabricate unique three-dimensional nanostructured devices.

  17. Facile synthesis of hairy core-shell structured magnetic polymer submicrospheres and their adsorption of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xianming; Kong, Juan; Yang, Chongchong; Fu, Guoqi

    2015-05-01

    Highly magnetic polymer submicrospheres with a hairy core-shell structure were facilely synthesized by combining distillation-precipitation polymerization (DPP) with subsequent surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and then investigated for protein adsorption. A robust polymer shell consisting of poly(divinylbenzene-co-chloromethylstyrene) (P(DVB-co-CMS)) was coated on superparamagnetic submicrometer-sized magnetite colloid nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) via DPP. With the benzyl chloride groups on the shell as initiator, poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) hairs were grafted by SI-ATRP approach. The resulting hairy core-shell structured Fe3O4@ P(DVB-co-CMS)-PDMAEMA microspheres showed pH- and temperature-sensitivity, and high-magnetization. The composite microspheres were further investigated for adsorption of a typical acidic protein, i.e. bovine serum albumin (BSA). They exhibited a high binding capacity up to over 660 mg/g (corresponding to 158 DMAEMA monomer units cooperating for binding one BSA molecule) and could rapidly reach binding equilibrium within 5 min. Moreover, the adsorption of BSA was found to be remarkably dependent on the pH and salt concentration of the protein solutions, and the bound protein could be quantitatively desorbed by washing with a medium with lowered pH or raised salt concentration.

  18. Ag@AgI, core@shell structure in agarose matrix as hybrid: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Saraswathi, A; Indi, S S; Hoti, S L; Vasan, H N

    2012-06-05

    A novel in situ core@shell structure consisting of nanoparticles of Ag (Ag Nps) and AgI in agarose matrix (Ag@AgI/agarose) has been synthesized as a hybrid, in order to have an efficient antibacterial agent for repetitive usage with no toxicity. The synthesized core@shell structure is very well characterized by XRD, UV-visible, photoluminescence, and TEM. A detailed antibacterial studies including repetitive cycles are carried out on Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria in saline water, both in dark and on exposure to visible light. The hybrid could be recycled for the antibacterial activity and is nontoxic toward human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells). The water insoluble Ag@AgI in agarose matrix forms a good coating on quartz, having good mechanical strength. EPR and TEM studies are carried out on the Ag@AgI/agarose and the bacteria, respectively, to elucidate a possible mechanism for killing of the bacteria.

  19. Silica-modified luminescent LaPO4 :Eu@LaPO4 @SiO2 core/shell nanorods: Synthesis, structural and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Anees A

    2017-08-17

    Monoclinic-type tetragonal LaPO4 :Eu (core) and LaPO4 :Eu@LaPO4 (core/shell) nanorods (NRs) were successfully prepared using a urea-based co-precipitation process under ambient conditions. An amorphous silica layer was coated around the luminescent core/shell NRs via the sol-gel process to improve their solubility and colloidal stability in aqueous and non-aqueous media. The prepared nano-products were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and FTIR, UV/Vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy to examine their phase purity, crystal phase, surface chemistry, solubility and luminescence characteristics. The length and diameter of the nano-products were in the range 80-120 nm and 10-15 nm, respectively. High solubility of the silica-modified core/shell/Si NRs was found for the aqueous medium. The luminescent core NRs exhibited characteristic excitation and emission transitions in the visible region that were greatly affected by surface growth of insulating LaPO4 and silica layers due to the multiphonon relaxation rate. Our luminescence spectral results clearly show a distinct difference in intensities for core, core/shell, and core/shell/Si NRs. Highly luminescent NRs with good solubility could be useful candidates for a variety of photonic-based biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Design and preparation of a core-shell metal-organic framework for selective CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2013-07-10

    The design of a core-shell metal-organic framework comprising a porous bio-MOF-11/14 mixed core and a less porous bio-MOF-14 shell is reported. The growth of the MOF shell was directly observed and supported by SEM and PXRD. The resulting core-shell material exhibits 30% higher CO2 uptake than bio-MOF-14 and low N2 uptake in comparison to the core. When the core-shell architecture is destroyed by fracturing the crystallites via grinding, the amount of N2 adsorbed doubles but the CO2 adsorption capacity remains the same. Finally, the more water stable bio-MOF-14 shell serves to prevent degradation of the water-sensitive core in aqueous environments, as evidenced by SEM and PXRD.

  1. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications.

  2. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-03-23

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications.

  3. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jun; Zhang Dongming; Zhao Jie

    2011-09-15

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu-Ag) core-shell powders. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of fabricating Cu-Ag particles with good dispersibility using {beta}-CDs as a protective agent was studied because of its special structure. Highlights: > Green supramolecular {beta}-CD used as a protective agent and ascorbic acid(Vc) as a reducing agent to fabricate Cu-Ag powders. > Particles are monodisperse and the diameter is close to nanoscale(100-150 nm). > Resistance of Cu particles to oxidation was higher. > Formation mechanism explained.

  4. Effective adsorbent for arsenic removal: core/shell structural nano zero-valent iron/manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Bui, Trung Huu; Kim, Choonsoo; Hong, Sung Pil; Yoon, Jeyong

    2017-09-09

    Recently, nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) has emerged as an effective adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. However, its use in various applications has suffered from reactivity loss resulting in a decreased efficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an effective arsenic adsorbent as a core/shell structural nZVI/manganese oxide (or nZVI/Mn oxide) to minimize the reactivity loss of the nZVI. As the major result, the arsenic adsorption capacities of the nZVI/Mn oxide for As(V) and As(III) were approximately two and three times higher than that of the nZVI, respectively. In addition, the As(V) removal efficiency of the nZVI/Mn oxide was maintained through 4 cycles of regeneration whereas that of the nZVI was decreased significantly. The enhanced reactivity and reusability of the nZVI/Mn oxide can be successfully explained by the synergistic interaction of the nZVI core and manganese oxide shell, in which the manganese oxides participate in oxidation reactions with corroded Fe(2+) and subsequently retard the release of aqueous iron providing additional surface sites for arsenic adsorption. In summary, this study reports the successful fabrication of a core/shell nZVI/Mn oxide as an effective adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions.

  5. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  6. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications. PMID:27004738

  7. Understanding the Metal Distribution in Core-Shell Nanoparticles Prepared in Micellar Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, Concha; Buceta, David; López-Quintela, M. Arturo

    2015-08-01

    The factors that govern the reaction rate of Au/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles prepared in microemulsions by a one-pot method are examined in the light of a simulation model. Kinetic analysis proves that the intermicellar exchange has a strong effect on the reaction rates of the metal precursors. Relating to Au, reaction rate is controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate whenever concentration is high enough. With respect to Pt, the combination of a slower reduction rate and the confinement of the reactants inside micelles gives rise to an increase of local Pt salt concentration. Two main consequences must be emphasized: On one hand, Pt reduction may continue independently whether or not a new intermicellar exchange takes place. On the other hand, the accumulation of Pt reactants accelerates the reaction. As the reactant accumulation is larger when the exchange rate is faster, the resulting Pt rate increases. This results in a minor difference in the reduction rate of both metals. This difference is reflected in the metal distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticle, which shows a greater degree of mixture as the intermicellar exchange rate is faster.

  8. The unexpected structures of ``core-shell'' and ``alloy'' LnF3 nanoparticles as examined by variable energy X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Cunhai; Pichaandi, Jothirmayanantham; Regier, Tom; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous media using procedures intended for a core-shell structure of Ln(1)F3-Ln(2)F3, its reverse architecture, and an alloy structure. Their structures were examined by variable photon energy photo-electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, along with X-ray powder diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and luminescence spectroscopy. The results show that the nanoparticles intended for a core-shell structure do not have a core-shell structure, and that nanoparticles intended for an alloy structure do not always have an alloy structure. A possible explanation for this is cation exchange, a phenomenon that occurs when LnF3 nanoparticles are exposed to another Ln3+ ion in aqueous media, resulting in Ln3+ ions in nanoparticles being quickly replaced by Ln3+ ions in solution. This cation exchange effectively competes with the precipitation of LnF3, which leads to a concentration gradient in the case of the combination of LaF3 and GdF3, and to nearly an alloy structure (isotropic mixture of all the ions) in the case of the combination of LaF3 and NdF3, regardless of the procedure used. Finally, the intended ``core-shell'' nanoparticles were doped with Eu3+ to show that a non-core-shell structure can also give rise to the improvement of optical properties as compared with the corresponding core nanoparticles. These results suggest that conclusions in the literature that a core-shell structure was obtained as inferred by TEM or enhanced luminescence may not be correct.Lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous media using procedures intended for a core-shell structure of Ln(1)F3-Ln(2)F3, its reverse architecture, and an alloy structure. Their structures were examined by variable photon energy photo-electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation, along with X-ray powder diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X

  9. Effective enhancement of gas separation performance in mixed matrix membranes using core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/graphene oxide nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingzhong; Pan, Xinglong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Guo, Qikai

    2017-02-01

    Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/graphene oxide nanoribbons (MWCNT@GONRs) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a modified chemical longitudinal unzipping method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@GONRs nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the gas separation performance of polyimide based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). It is found that MMMs concurrently exhibited higher gas selectivity and higher gas permeability compared to pristine polyimide. The high gas selectivity could be attributed to the GONRs shell, which provided a selective barrier and large gas adsorbed area, while the high gas permeability resulted from the hollow structured MWCNTs core with smooth internal surface, which acted as a rapid transport channel. MWCNT@GONRs could be promising candidates to improve gas separation performance of MMMs due to the unique microstructures, ease of synthesis and low filling loading.

  10. B80 and B101-103 clusters: Remarkable stability of the core-shell structures established by validated density functionalsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengyu; Jin, Peng; Jiang, De-en; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Shengbai B.; Zhao, Jijun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2012-02-01

    Prompted by the very recent claim that the volleyball-shaped B80 fullerene [X. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 82, 153409 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.153409] is lower in energy than the B80 buckyball [N. G. Szwacki, A. Sadrzadeh, and B. I. Yakobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 166804 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.166804] and core-shell structure [J. Zhao, L. Wang, F. Li, and Z. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 9969 (2010), 10.1021/jp1018873], and inspired by the most recent finding of another core-shell isomer as the lowest energy B80 isomer [S. De, A. Willand, M. Amsler, P. Pochet, L. Genovese, and S. Goedecher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 225502 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.225502], we carefully evaluated the performance of the density functional methods in the energetics of boron clusters and confirmed that the core-shell construction (stuffed fullerene) is thermodynamically the most favorable structural pattern for B80. Our global minimum search showed that both B101 and B103 also prefer a core-shell structure and that B103 can reach the complete core-shell configuration. We called for great attention to the theoretical community when using density functionals to investigate boron-related nanomaterials.

  11. Mechanical ball-milling preparation of fullerene/cobalt core/shell nanocomposites with high electrochemical hydrogen storage ability.

    PubMed

    Bao, Di; Gao, Peng; Shen, Xiande; Chang, Cheng; Wang, Longqiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yujin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Sun, Shuchao; Li, Guobao; Yang, Piaoping

    2014-02-26

    The design and synthesis of new hydrogen storage nanomaterials with high capacity at low cost is extremely desirable but remains challenging for today's development of hydrogen economy. Because of the special honeycomb structures and excellent physical and chemical characters, fullerenes have been extensively considered as ideal materials for hydrogen storage materials. To take the most advantage of its distinctive symmetrical carbon cage structure, we have uniformly coated C60's surface with metal cobalt in nanoscale to form a core/shell structure through a simple ball-milling process in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectra, high-solution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) elemental mappings, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been conducted to evaluate the size and the composition of the composites. In addition, the blue shift of C60 pentagonal pinch mode demonstrates the formation of Co-C chemical bond, and which enhances the stability of the as-obtained nanocomposites. And their electrochemical experimental results demonstrate that the as-obtained C60/Co composites have excellent electrochemical hydrogen storage cycle reversibility and considerably high hydrogen storage capacities of 907 mAh/g (3.32 wt % hydrogen) under room temperature and ambient pressure, which is very close to the theoretical hydrogen storage capacities of individual metal Co (3.33 wt % hydrogen). Furthermore, their hydrogen storage processes and the mechanism have also been investigated, in which the quasi-reversible C60/Co↔C60/Co-Hx reaction is the dominant cycle process.

  12. Self-Assembly of Crystalline Structures of Magnetic Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Fabrication of Nanostructured Materials.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaozheng; Wang, Jianchao; Furlani, Edward P

    2015-10-14

    A theoretical study is presented of the template-assisted formation of crystalline superstructures of magnetic-dielectric core-shell particles. The templates produce highly localized gradient fields and a corresponding magnetic force that guides the assembly with nanoscale precision in particle placement. The process is studied using two distinct and complementary computational models that predict the dynamics and energy of the particles, respectively. Both mono- and polydisperse colloids are studied, and the analysis demonstrates for the first time that although the particles self-assemble into ordered crystalline superstructures, the particle formation is not unique. There is a Brownian motion-induced degeneracy in the process wherein various distinct, energetically comparable crystalline structures can form for a given template geometry. The models predict the formation of hexagonal close packed (HCP) and face centered cubic (FCC) structures as well as mixed phase structures due to in-plane stacking disorders, which is consistent with experimental observations. The polydisperse particle structures are less uniform than the monodisperse particle structures because of the irregular packing of different-sized particles. A comparison of self-assembly using soft- and hard-magnetic templates is also presented, the former being magnetized in a uniform field. This analysis shows that soft-magnetic templates enable an order-of-magnitude more rapid assembly and much higher spatial resolution in particle placement than their hard-magnetic counterparts. The self-assembly method discussed is versatile and broadly applies to arbitrary template geometries and multilayered and multifunctional mono- and polydisperse core-shell particles that have at least one magnetic component. As such, the method holds potential for the bottom-up fabrication of functional nanostructured materials for a broad range of applications. This work provides unprecedented insight into the assembly

  13. Towards micrometer sized core-shell actuators from liquid crystalline elastomers by a continuous flow synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischmann, Eva-Kristina; Liang, Hsin-Ling; Lagerwall, Jan; Zentel, Rudolf

    2012-03-01

    We present here the successful preparation of liquid crystalline core-shell elastomers via a microfluidic double-emulsion process. The customized set-up allows for a temperature-controlled fabrication of the core-shell particles from a thermoresponsive mesogenic monomer. The nematic liquid crystalline shell is filled with a non-mesogenic core of silicone oil. To verify the core-shell structure with optical microscopy, we prepared particles with a colored core using a red dye. We were also able to micro-manipulate the particles and penetrate them with a small glass capillary to extract the liquid core.

  14. A high-capacity dual core-shell structured MWCNTs@S@PPy nanocomposite anode for advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiongwei; Yuan, Xinhai; Yu, Jingang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Faxing; Fu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenxin; Zhu, Yusong; Zhou, Qingming; Wu, Yuping

    2017-08-10

    Anode materials with high capacity for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs) are very rarely reported. Here we found that a dual core-shell structured MWCNTs@S@PPy nanocomposite prepared by us shows excellent electrochemical performance. Its initial discharge capacity in a saturated LiAc aqueous electrolyte is very high, which is up to 481 mA h g(-1) based on the weight of the composite and 879 mA h g(-1) based on the sulfur content. It shows excellent rate capability. When nanotube LiMn2O4 is used as a cathode, the assembled ARLB can deliver an energy density of 110 Wh kg(-1) based on two electrodes and show excellent cycling. These results show great promise for the practical application of ARLBs.

  15. Supersaturation-controlled surface structure evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanocrystals: enhancement of the ORR activity at a sub-10 nm scale.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kun; Zheng, Weitao; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-21

    Here, we designed and implemented a facile strategy for controlling the surface evolution of Pd@Pt core-shell nanostructures by simply adjusting the volume of OH(-) to control the reducing ability of ascorbic acid and finally manipulating the supersaturation in the reaction system. The surface structure of the obtained Pd@Pt bimetallic nanocrystals transformed from a Pt {111} facet-exposed island shell to a conformal Pt {100} facet-exposed shell by increasing the pH value. The as-prepared well aligned Pd@Pt core-island shell nanocubes present both significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and favorable long-term stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media.

  16. Nitrite sensing composite systems based on a core-shell emissive-superamagnetic structure: Construction, characterization and sensing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Liang; Zha, Jianhua; Yuan, Ningyi

    2017-04-01

    Two recyclable nitrite sensing composite samples were designed and constructed through a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as shell and two rhodamine derivatives as chemosensors, respectively. These samples and their structure were identified with their electron microscopy images, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing behavior was discussed based on emission intensity quenching, their limit of detection was found as low as 1.2 μM. Further analysis suggested a static sensing mechanism between nitrite and chemosensors through an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After finishing their nitrite sensing, these composite samples and their emission could be recycled and recovered by sulphamic acid.

  17. On two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposites having a core-shell structure: Construction, characterization and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadeerhazi, Muhetaer; Ali, Azam; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din

    2017-01-01

    This paper reported two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposite samples having a core-shell structure, where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as core, two rhodamine derivatives served as chemosensor and MCM-41 was applied as supporting host, respectively. These composite samples and their structure were analyzed and confirmed SEM/TEM, XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, magnetic feature, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing performance was discussed based on emission quenching, with limit of detection as low as 1.2 μM. Detailed analysis suggested that these composite samples followed a static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After being quenched by nitrite, these samples could be recovered by sulphamic acid.

  18. Optical and Structural Investigations of Manganese Doped ZnS/SiO2 Core-Shell Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Prabha; Verma, Shammi; Malik, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    The paper reports room temperature synthesis of wurtzite type manganese doped ZnS nanostructures via colloidal technique. The reaction procedure found to play an important role in the crystal growth of ZnS. Surface encapsulation of ZnS by silica (SiO2) provides effective approach for uniform coating, where 3-Mercaptopropyl Tri methoxysilane (MPS) has been used for silica source as a capping molecule. The obtained silica coated ZnS nanocrystals were well dispersed with hexagonal wurtzite structure of core-shell particles size of about 15 nm. Aggregation of these nanoparticles has been promoted to special shaped structures, which are crystals of 8H wurtzite with prominent pyramidal morphology with curved faces. Growth phenomena of this wurtzite polytype of homologous series 8H is based on screw dislocations and exhibited optimal photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  19. Axially connected nanowire core-shell p-n junctions: a composite structure for high-efficiency solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sijia; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    A composite nanostructure for high-efficiency solar cells that axially connects nanowire core-shell p-n junctions is proposed. By axially connecting the p-n junctions in one nanowire, the solar spectrum is separated and absorbed in the top and bottom cells with respect to the wavelength. The unique structure of nanowire p-n junctions enables substantial light absorption along the nanowire and efficient radial carrier separation and collection. A coupled three-dimensional optoelectronic simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the structure. With an excellent current matching, a promising efficiency of 19.9% can be achieved at a low filling ratio of 0.283 (the density of the nanowire array), which is much higher than the tandem axial p-n junctions.

  20. Ag-Sn Bimetallic Catalyst with a Core-Shell Structure for CO2 Reduction.

    PubMed

    Luc, Wesley; Collins, Charles; Wang, Siwen; Xin, Hongliang; He, Kai; Kang, Yijin; Jiao, Feng

    2017-02-08

    Converting greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added chemicals is an appealing approach to tackle CO2 emission challenges. The chemical transformation of CO2 requires suitable catalysts that can lower the activation energy barrier, thus minimizing the energy penalty associated with the CO2 reduction reaction. First-row transition metals are potential candidates as catalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction; however, their high oxygen affinity makes them easy to be oxidized, which could, in turn, strongly affect the catalytic properties of metal-based catalysts. In this work, we propose a strategy to synthesize Ag-Sn electrocatalysts with a core-shell nanostructure that contains a bimetallic core responsible for high electronic conductivity and an ultrathin partially oxidized shell for catalytic CO2 conversion. This concept was demonstrated by a series of Ag-Sn bimetallic electrocatalysts. At an optimal SnOx shell thickness of ∼1.7 nm, the catalyst exhibited a high formate Faradaic efficiency of ∼80% and a formate partial current density of ∼16 mA cm(-2) at -0.8 V vs RHE, a remarkable performance in comparison to state-of-the-art formate-selective CO2 reduction catalysts. Density-functional theory calculations showed that oxygen vacancies on the SnO (101) surface are stable at highly negative potentials and crucial for CO2 activation. In addition, the adsorption energy of CO2(-) at these oxygen-vacant sites can be used as the descriptor for catalytic performance because of its linear correlation to OCHO* and COOH*, two critical intermediates for the HCOOH and CO formation pathways, respectively. The volcano-like relationship between catalytic activity toward formate as a function of the bulk Sn concentration arises from the competing effects of favorable stabilization of OCHO* by lattice expansion and the electron conductivity loss due to the increased thickness of the SnOx layer.

  1. The Synthesis of the Core/Shell Structured Diamond/Akageneite Hybrid Particles with Enhanced Polishing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Xu, Yongchao; Zhang, Dayu; Xu, Xipeng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of the core/shell structured diamond/akageneite hybrid particles was performed through one-step isothermal hydrolyzing. The hybrid particle was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The test results overall reveal that the akageneite coating, phase β-FeO(OH), was uniformly coated onto the diamond surface. The polishing performance of the pristine diamond and hybrid particles for the sapphire substrate was evaluated respectively. The experimental results show that the hybrid particles exhibited improved polishing quality and prolonged effective processing time of polishing pad compared with diamond particles without compromising the material remove rate and surface roughness. The improved polishing behavior might be attributed to the β-FeOOH coating, which is conducive to less abrasive shedding and reducing the scratch depth. PMID:28773033

  2. Core-shell structured square mixed-spin 1 and 1/2 Ising nanowire on the Bethe lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2016-03-01

    The square Ising nanowire is constructed by adding square nanoparticles consisting of one spin-1 at the center and four spin-1/2 at the corners along a straight line in both directions. Therefore, this system may be taken to be equivalent to Bethe lattice of coordination number two and can be solved in terms of the exact recursion relations. This core-shell structured model is studied by using ferromagnetic exchange interactions between surface spins (Js), between core spins (Jc) and between surface and core spins (Jsc) and crystal field interaction (D) at the sites of spin-1. The phase diagrams of the model are obtained in terms of these parameters by varying the temperature on the possible planes. It is found that the model presents both second- and first-order phase transitions and tricritical points for the appropriate values of these parameters.

  3. Tungsten Micropowder/Copper Nanoparticle Core/Shell-Structured Composite Powder Synthesized by Inductively Coupled Thermal Plasma Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Choi, Hanshin; Han, Chulwoong

    2017-01-01

    We here synthesized a Cu nanoparticle-coated W micropowder using in-situ reactive radio frequency thermal plasma with a blended feedstock of tungsten (W) and copper oxide micropowder. The spherical W micropowder improves the packing density and uniformity of the compacted body. On the other hand, the Cu nanoparticles coated on the W micropowder allow the spherical W powders to be compacted by rigid-die compaction only at 400 MPa. Moreover, homogeneous sintering in both solid state and liquid state occurs even at low Cu contents of 5 wt pct due to the uniformly coated Cu nanoparticles. The effect of W/Cu core/shell structure on the physical properties of sintered W-5 wt pct Cu composite is investigated based on the density, resistivity, and hardness. The results show that homogeneously sintered W-5 wt pct Cu composite well agree with the theoretical values calculated from the rule of mixture.

  4. Plasma-assisted synthesis and study of structural and magnetic properties of Fe/C core shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, K. P.; Ranot, M.; Choi, C. J.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, K. C.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles with an average diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by using the DC plasma arc discharge method. Fe core nanoparticles were encapsulated with carbon layer, which is acting as protection layer against both oxidation and chemical reaction. The morphology and the Fe/C core/shell structure of the nanoparticles were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction study showed that the α-Fe phase exists with γ-Fe as an impurity. The studied samples have been interrelated with the variation of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercive field with the amount of carbon coating. The pure α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization = 172 emu/g, and coercive field = 150 Oe, on the other hand few layer carbon coated α-Fe sample shows saturation magnetization =169 emu/g with higher coercive field 398 Oe.

  5. Core-Shell Structure of Intermediate Precipitates in a Nb-Based Z-Phase Strengthened 12% Cr Steel.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Masoud; Andrén, Hans-Olof; Liu, Fang

    2017-04-01

    In creep resistant Z-phase strengthened 12% Cr steels, MX (M=Nb, Ta, or V, and X=C and/or N) to Z-phase (CrMN, M=Ta, Nb, or V) transformation plays an important role in achieving a fine distribution of Z-phase precipitates for creep strengthening. Atom probe tomography was employed to investigate the phase transformation in a Nb-based Z-phase strengthened trial steel. Using iso-concentration surfaces with different concentration values, and subtracting the matrix contribution enabled us to reveal the core-shell structure of the transient precipitates between MX and Z-phase. It was shown that Z-phase forms by diffusion of Cr into NbN upon ageing, and Z-phase has a composition corresponding to Cr1+x Nb1-x N with x=0.08.

  6. Honeycomb Films with Core-Shell Dispersed Phases Prepared by the Combination of Breath Figures and Phase Separation Process of Ternary Blends.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, A; de León, A S; Rodríguez-Hernández, J; Muñoz-Bonilla, A

    2017-03-21

    Herein, we propose a strategy to fabricate core-shell microstructures ordered in hexagonal arrays by combining the breath figures approach and phase separation of immiscible ternary blends. This simple strategy to fabricate these structures involves only the solvent casting of a ternary polymer blend under moist atmosphere, which provides a facile and low-cost fabrication method to obtain the porous structures with a core-shell morphology. For this purpose, blends consisting of polystyrene (PS) as a major component and PS40-b-P(PEGMA300)48 amphiphilic copolymer and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as minor components were dissolved in tetrahydrofuran and cast onto glass wafers under humid conditions, 70% of relative humidity. The resulting porous morphologies were characterized by optical and confocal Raman microscopy. In particular, confocal Raman results demonstrated the formation of core-shell morphologies into the ordered pores, in which the PS forms the continuous matrix, whereas the other two phases are located into the cavities (PDMS is the core while the amphiphilic copolymer is the shell). Besides, by controlling the weight ratio of the polymer blends, the structural parameters of the porous structure such as pore diameter and the size of the core can be effectively tuned.

  7. Model design on calculations of microwave permeability and permittivity of Fe/SiO2 particles with core/shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, Z. W.; Neo, C. P.; Ding, J.

    2014-02-01

    Fe/SiO2 particles with core/shell structure were prepared by coating silica on the surface of a commercial spherical carbonyl iron via the hydrolysis process of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The electromagnetic performance of commercial carbonyl iron and as-prepared Fe/SiO2 particles was studied theoretically and experimentally. As predicted by the theoretical calculation based on the Bruggeman formula and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) theory, the insulating surface layer of silica was effective to reduce the permittivity parameters of pure carbonyl iron. The measured results showed good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Although there was a little decrease in the permeability of the Fe/SiO2 core/shell particles, a better impedance match especially at higher frequency range was obtained when used as a microwave absorber. The reflection loss (RL) curves show that the lowest reflection loss of Fe/Epoxy composite (-20.5 GHz) was obtained corresponding to the frequency of 8.5 GHz when the thickness of the absorber was 3 mm. A different trend was observed in Fe/SiO2/Epoxy composite. The reflection loss value got lower by decreasing the thickness of absorbers. At the thickness of 2.2 mm, a relative low reflection loss (-17 GHz) corresponding to the frequency of 13.6 GHz was obtained. Compared with the Fe/Epoxy composite, the improvement on shifting the reflection loss peak to higher frequency and on reducing the optimal thickness of absorbers was made by Fe/SiO2/Epoxy composite.

  8. 3D structure through planting core-shell Si@TiN into an amorphous carbon slag: improved capacity of lithium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiguo; Zhao, Zuochao; Hu, Liwen; Jiao, Shuqiang; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2013-07-07

    A 3D-structured anode material, planting core-shell Si@TiN into an amorphous carbon slag (3D STC), was synthesized via a facile pyrolyzing process in assistance with the low-temperature reduction route in a liquid Na-NH3 system. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge tests. From morphological analysis, TiN nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of Si to form the Si@TiN core-shell structure, subsequently plating into an amorphous C slag to form the 3D STC composite. The electrochemical capacity of the 3D STC anode was measured at a higher rate of 1 C with the cut-off voltages of 0.01 V and 1.5 V. It was found that the initial charge capacity reached up to 1604.6 mA h g(-1). In particular, the reversible charge capacity was as high as 588.7 mA h g(-1) over 100 cycles, with a small capacity loss of about 0.63% per cycle, exhibiting the excellent cycle stability of the 3D STC anode at the higher rate of 1 C. Furthermore, the reversible capacity of the 3D STC anode decreased from 2048.8 mA h g(-1) to 624.0 mA h g(-1) with increasing the current rate from 0.1 C to 2 C, while it was still maintained at 1419.7 mA h g(-1) as the current rate returned to 0.1 C. Consequentially, the 3D structure with a continuous conductive path could provide facile lithium insertion/extraction and fast electron transfer, making for the high rate capacity and good cycle stability.

  9. Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: structure, stability, electronic, and magnetic properties: a spin-polarized density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinyan; Liu, Jianlan; Yang, Yanhui

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) have attracted great interest not only because of their superior stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity but also due to their tunable properties achieved by changing the morphology, sequence, and sizes of both core and shell. In this study, the structure, stability, charge transfer, electronic, and magnetic properties of 13-atom and 55-atom Cu and Cu-Ni CSNPs were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Ni@Cu CSNPs with a Cu surface shell are more energetically favorable than Cu@Ni CSNPs with a Ni surface shell. Interestingly, three-shell Ni@Cu12@Ni42 is more stable than two-shell Cu13@Ni42, while two-shell Ni13@Cu42 is more stable than three-shell Cu@Ni12@Cu42. Analysis of Bader charge illustrates that the charge transfer increases from Cu core to Ni shell in Cu@Ni NPs, while it decreases from Ni core to Cu shell in Ni@Cu NPs. Furthermore, the charge transfer results that d-band states have larger shift toward the Fermi level for the Ni@Cu CSNPs with Cu surface shell, while the Cu@Ni CSNPs with Ni surface shell have similar d-band state curves and d-band centers with the monometallic Ni NPs. In addition, the Cu-Ni CSNPs possess higher magnetic moment when the Ni atoms aggregated at core region of CSNPs, while having lower magnetic moment when the Ni atoms segregate on surface region. The change of the Cu atom location in CSNPs has a weak effect on the total magnetic moment. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic core-shell catalysts.

  10. The influence of MOVPE growth conditions on the shell of core-shell GaN microrod structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Avramescu, Adrian; Koller, Andreas; Fernando-Saavedra, Amalia; Hartmann, Jana; Ledig, Johannes; Waag, Andreas; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    A core-shell geometry is employed for most next-generation, three-dimensional opto-electric devices based on III-V semiconductors and grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Controlling the shape of the shell layers is fundamental for device optimization, however no detailed analysis of the influence of growth conditions has been published to date. We study homogeneous arrays of gallium nitride core-shell microrods with height and diameter in the micrometer range and grown in a two-step selective area MOVPE process. Changes in shell shape and homogeneity effected by deliberately altered shell growth conditions were accurately assessed by digital analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscope images. Most notably, two temperature regimes could be established, which show a significantly different behavior with regard to material distribution. Above 900 °C of wafer carrier temperature, the shell thickness along the growth axis of the rods was very homogeneous, however variations between vicinal rods increase. In contrast, below 830 °C the shell thickness is higher close to the microrod tip than at the base of the rods, while the lateral homogeneity between neighboring microrods is very uniform. This temperature effect could be either amplified or attenuated by changing the remaining growth parameters such as reactor pressure, structure distance, gallium precursor, carrier gas composition and dopant materials. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with respect to GaN decomposition as well as the surface and gas phase diffusion of growth species, leading to an improved control of the functional layers in next-generation 3D V-III devices.

  11. Uniform and controllable preparation of Au-Ag core-shell nanorods using anisotropic silver shell formation on gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yoshifumi; Nishioka, Koji; Kiya, Ayaka; Nakashima, Naotoshi; Ishibashi, Ayumu; Niidome, Yasuro

    2010-08-01

    Anisotropic and controllable silver shell formation on gold nanorods was realized in a micellar solution of hexadecytrimethylammonium chloride. Uniformity of the anisotropic Au-Ag core-shell particles contributes separation of four extinction bands. The ability to manipulate the shapes and sizes of these nanoparticles offers a wide-range control of the surface extinction from the visible to the near infrared regions (450-800 nm).

  12. A simple and convenient approach for preparing core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles: highly efficient and stable catalyst for the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Hui; Liu, Wei; Li, An; Liu, Ya-Juan; Chao, Zi-Sheng

    2015-01-21

    A simple and convenient approach denoted as gel-deposition-precipitation (G-D-P) for the preparation of core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles was studied systematically. Core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles consisted of a Si-rich core and a Ni-rich shell. The G-D-P process included two steps: one was the deposition-precipitation of nickel over the gelled colloidal silica particle, generating core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles, and the other was the aging period. It was found that the nickel phyllosilicate layer was formed mainly during the aging period and served as the protective cover to resist against aggregation of the nanoparticles, which could be utilized for regulating the dispersion of nickel over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles. In the present paper, the silica@nickel species nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for preparing catechol via dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol. Their catalytic activity and long-term stability were compared to those of a catalyst prepared by a conventional deposition-precipitation (D-P) approach. The higher activity and better stability of the title reaction over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles catalyst prepared by G-D-P than those over the catalyst prepared by D-P could be due to the higher dispersion of metallic nickel stabilized by the layers of nickel phyllosilicates. Moreover, it was found that the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol was a structurally sensitive reaction.

  13. Fabrication of V2O3/C core-shell structured composite and VC nanobelts by the thermal treatment of VO2/C composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifu; Fan, Meijuan; Hu, Ling; Wu, Weibing; Zhang, Juecheng; Liu, Xinghai; Zhong, Yalan; Huang, Chi

    2012-10-01

    Belt-like V2O3 encapsulated into carbon tubes (V2O3/C) core-shell structured composite and vanadium carbide (VC) nanobelts have been successfully synthesized by the thermal treatment with VO2/C core-shell structured composite through adjusting the heating temperature for the first time. The amorphous carbon on the surface of VO2 plays a dual role in this thermal process, namely as the reductant to reduce VO2 to V2O3 or VC, and as the carbon precursor for the V2O3/C carbon shell and VC. The as-obtained samples were respectively characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, Raman spectrum, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. V2O3/C was successfully synthesized at 700-900 °C for 2 h, and VC nanobelts were successfully prepared at 1000 °C for 2 h. The as-obtained V2O3/C composite and VC nanobelts contain C-H groups, which will facilitate the linkage of catalytic species or polymers to the surface in their potential applications. V2O3/C composite has higher specific surface area than that of VC due to the amorphous carbon coated on the surface of V2O3. Furthermore, the thermal stability of VC in air was investigated by Thermo-Gravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyzer, revealing that it had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 335 °C in air.

  14. Facile Preparation of magnetic metal organic frameworks core-shell nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Bi, Ke; Xiao, Ling; Shi, Xiaowen

    2017-10-06

    Facile synthesis of core-shell magnetic MOFs for drug delivery is of significance due to the advantages of high drug load and easy separation. In this work, magnetic metal organic frameworks (MOFs, Fe3O4-NH2@MIL101-NH2) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly in water phase by microwave irradiation using Fe3+ and 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (BDC-NH2) as metal ions and ligands respectively. The resulting magnetic MOFs exhibit large surface areas (96.04 m2/g), excellent magnetic response (21.32 emu·g-1 ) and large mesopore volume (22.07 cm3/g) along with spherical morphologies with the diameters ranging from 140 nm to 330 nm. Using doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug, the drug loading capacity of Fe3O4-NH2@MIL101-NH2 could reach 36.02%, substantially higher than pristine MIL101-NH2. Importantly, the release of DOX could be controlled by pH as well as the meso pore size of MOFs. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the magnetic MOFs have low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. The results suggest great potential of the magnetic MOFs core-shell nanoparticles fabricated in this study on controlled drug release of DOX. . © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Preparation, Characterization, and Optimization of Folic Acid-Chitosan-Methotrexate Core-Shell Nanoparticles by Box-Behnken Design for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Naghibi Beidokhti, Hamid Reza; Ghaffarzadegan, Reza; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Ghazizadeh, Leila; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the combined influence of independent variables in the preparation of folic acid-chitosan-methotrexate nanoparticles (FA-Chi-MTX NPs). These NPs were designed and prepared for targeted drug delivery in tumor. The NPs of each batch were prepared by coaxial electrospray atomization method and evaluated for particle size (PS) and particle size distribution (PSD). The independent variables were selected to be concentration of FA-chitosan, ratio of shell solution flow rate to core solution flow rate, and applied voltage. The process design of experiments (DOE) was obtained with three factors in three levels by Design expert software. Box-Behnken design was used to select 15 batches of experiments randomly. The chemical structure of FA-chitosan was examined by FTIR. The NPs of each batch were collected separately, and morphologies of NPs were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The captured pictures of all batches were analyzed by ImageJ software. Mean PS and PSD were calculated for each batch. Polynomial equation was produced for each response. The FE-SEM results showed the mean diameter of the core-shell NPs was around 304 nm, and nearly 30% of the produced NPs are in the desirable range. Optimum formulations were selected. The validation of DOE optimization results showed errors around 2.5 and 2.3% for PS and PSD, respectively. Moreover, the feasibility of using prepared NPs to target tumor extracellular pH was shown, as drug release was greater in the pH of endosome (acidic medium). Finally, our results proved that FA-Chi-MTX NPs were active against the human epithelial cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

  16. Microwave synthesis of Ag@SiO2 core-shell using oleylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimipour, Masoud; Shabani, Elahe; Mollaei, Mohsen; Molaei, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave irradiation. Oleylamine was used as a stabilizer and capping agent, dimethylformamide as a reducing agent, and deionized water as a solvent. Synthetic parameters of Ag nanoparticles were optimized systematically. The Ag nanoparticles were used subsequently without any treatment in the preparation of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows a characteristic plasmon peak at 407 and 430 nm for Ag nanoparticles and Ag@SiO2 core-shells, respectively. Transmission electron microscope images show that Ag nanoparticles have the average size of 15 nm. It is also depicted that the core-shell structure was formed uniformly with the average size of 100 and 25 nm for Ag core and SiO2 shell, respectively. The application of Na-Cit in the preparation of core-shells yields single Ag core structure.

  17. Size dependent structural, vibrational and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 and core-shell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Chhoker, Sandeep; Katyal, S. C.

    2014-04-01

    Bulk BiFeO3, BiFeO3 nanoparticles and core-shell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction method, sol-gel and Stöber process (SiO2 shell) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the core-shell structure of BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles with BiFeO3 core ˜50-90 nm and SiO2 shell ˜16 nm. X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy results showed the presence of distorted rhombohedral structure with R3c space group in all three samples. The magnetic measurement indicated the existence of room-temperature weak ferromagnetism in core-shell BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles and BiFeO3 nanoparticles, whereas bulk BiFeO3 showed antiferromagnteic nature. Electron Spin Resonance results confirmed the enhancement in magnetic properties of coreshell structured BiFeO3@SiO2 nanoparticles in comparison with BiFeO3 nanoparticles and bulk BiFeO3.

  18. Structural characterization of Pt-Pd and Pd-Pt core-shell nanoclusters at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Sergio I; Small, Matthew W; Zuo, Jian-min; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2009-06-24

    We describe the results of a study at atomic resolution of the structures exhibited by polymer-capped monometallic and bimetallic Pt and Pd nanoclusters--models for nanoscale material electrocatalysts--as carried out using an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The coupling of sub-nanometer resolution with Z-contrast measurements provides unprecedented insights into the atomic structures and relative elemental speciation of Pt and Pd within these clusters. The work further defines the nature of deeply quenched states that prevent facile conversions of core-shell motifs to equilibrium alloys and the nature of nonidealities such as twinning (icosahedral cores) and atomic segregation that these structures can embed. The nature of the facet structure present in these model systems is revealed by theory directed modeling in which experimental intensity profiles obtained in Z-contrast measurements at atomic resolution are compared to simulated intensity profiles using theoretically predicted cluster geometries. These comparisons show close correspondences between experiment and model and highlight striking structural complexities in these systems that are compositionally sensitive and subject to amplification by subsequent cluster growth processes. The work demonstrates an empowering competency in nanomaterials research for STEM measurements carried out using aberration corrected microscopes, approaches that hold considerable promise for characterizing the structure of these and other important catalytic materials systems at the atomic scale.

  19. Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Protière, Myriam; Li, Liang

    2009-02-01

    Colloidal core/shell nanocrystals contain at least two semiconductor materials in an onionlike structure. The possibility to tune the basic optical properties of the core nanocrystals, for example, their fluorescence wavelength, quantum yield, and lifetime, by growing an epitaxial-type shell of another semiconductor has fueled significant progress on the chemical synthesis of these systems. In such core/shell nanocrystals, the shell provides a physical barrier between the optically active core and the surrounding medium, thus making the nanocrystals less sensitive to environmental changes, surface chemistry, and photo-oxidation. The shell further provides an efficient passivation of the surface trap states, giving rise to a strongly enhanced fluorescence quantum yield. This effect is a fundamental prerequisite for the use of nanocrystals in applications such as biological labeling and light-emitting devices, which rely on their emission properties. Focusing on recent advances, this Review discusses the fundamental properties and synthesis methods of core/shell and core/multiple shell structures of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V semiconductors.

  20. Atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: from alloy to core/shell architectures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Shao, Gui-Fang; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-06-22

    Bimetallic nanoparticles comprising noble metal and non-noble metal have attracted intense interest over the past few decades due to their low cost and significantly enhanced catalytic performances. In this article, we have explored the atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe alloy and core-shell nanoparticles by molecular dynamics simulations. In Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles, Fe with three different structures, i.e., body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and amorphous phases, has been considered. Our results show that Pt-Fe alloy is the most stable configuration among the four types of bimetallic nanoparticles. It has been discovered that the amorphous Fe cannot stably exist in the core and preferentially transforms into the fcc phase. The phase transition from bcc to hexagonal close packed (hcp) has also been observed in bcc-Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles. In contrast, Fe with the fcc structure is the most preferred as the core component. These findings are helpful for understanding the structure-property relationships of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles, and are also of significance to the synthesis and application of noble metal based nanoparticle catalysts.

  1. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  2. Diverse Melting Modes and Structural Collapse of Hollow Bimetallic Core-Shell Nanoparticles: A Perspective from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability. PMID:25394424

  3. The Structural Transition Behavior of CdSe/ZnS Core/shell Quantum Dots under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Z Li; L Wang; B Liu; J Wang; B Liu; Q Li; B Zou; T Cui; Y Meng; H Mao

    2011-12-31

    The structural phase transition of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) has been studied by in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction under high pressure up to 53.6?GPa. The CdSe core transforms from wurtzite to rock-salt structure near 6.3?GPa and then to Cmcm or distorted Cmcm structure probably occurs at 45.1?GPa which has not been observed in CdSe nanomaterials before. The critical pressure from wurtzite to rock-salt and the bulk modulus of rock-salt phase are much higher than those for bulky and uncapped nanoparticle CdSe. The released sample can be kept in rock-salt phase for a certain time, verified by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, quite different from the reversible transition for pure CdSe. A reasonable interpretation of the experimental phenomena is given by comparing the bulk modulus of the core and shell and studying the stress sate of the core after decompression. Our study suggests that capping a hard shell is an effective approach to quench the high pressure phase of nanomaterial with a reversible phase transition.

  4. Tailoring of GaAs/GaAsSb core-shell structured nanowires for IR photodetector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan Kumar; Ojha, Sai Krishna; Sami, Shifat Us; Reynolds, Lewis; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-02-01

    Ga assisted GaAs/GaAsSb core-shell structured nanowires were successfully grown on chemically etched p-type Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The morphology, structural and optical properties of the nanowires are found to be strongly influenced by the shell growth temperature and Sb% in the nanowires. The nanowires exhibit planar defects like twins and stacking faults, with more stacking faults and micro-twins found at the top section. Optical characteristics of the nanowires as measured by 4K photoluminescence (PL) exhibit a red shift to 1.2 eV with increasing Sb incorporation up to 12%. The Raman spectra of reference GaAs nanowires show TO and LO modes representative of the zinc blende structure at 291 cm-1 and 267.8 cm-1, respectively. Red shifts of both modes in conjunction with corresponding asymmetrical peak broadening observed in X-ray diffraction with increasing Sb incorporation are attributed to enhanced strain and disorder within the nanostructures. Nanowires of similar Sb composition but grown at different shell temperatures reveal straight nanowires with better microstructural and optical quality when grown at higher growth temperatures. The presence of GaAs passivation layer significantly enhanced the PL intensity such that PL was observed even at room temperature.

  5. Diverse melting modes and structural collapse of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles: a perspective from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability.

  6. Diverse Melting Modes and Structural Collapse of Hollow Bimetallic Core-Shell Nanoparticles: A Perspective from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability.

  7. New Double-Infiltration Methodology to Prepare PCL-PS Core-Shell Nanocylinders Inside Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Belén; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Palacios, Jordana K; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-09

    Melt nanomolding of core-shell nanocylinders of different sizes, employing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, is reported here for the first time. The core-shell nanostructures are achieved by a new melt double-infiltration technique. During the first infiltration step, polystyrene (PS) nanotubes are produced by an adequate choice of AAO nanopore diameter size. In the second step, PCL is infiltrated inside the PS nanotubes, as its melting point (and infiltration temperature) is lower than the glass transition temperature of PS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the complete double-infiltration of the polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments show that the infiltrated PCL undergoes a confined fractionated crystallization with two crystallization steps located at temperatures that depend on which surface is in contact with the PCL nanocylinders (i.e., alumina or PS). The melt double-infiltration methodology represents a novel approach to study the effect of the surrounding surface on polymer crystallization under confinement.

  8. Preparation and characterization of core-shell battery materials for Li-ion batteries manufactured by substrate induced coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basch, Angelika; Albering, Jörg H.

    2011-03-01

    In this work Substrate Induced Coagulation (SIC) was used to coat the cathode material LiCoO2, commonly used in Li-ion batteries, with fine nano-sized particulate titania. Substrate Induced Coagulation is a self-assembled dip-coating process capable of coating different surfaces with fine particulate materials from liquid media. A SIC coating consists of thin and rinse-prove layers of solid particles. An advantage of this dip-coating method is that the method is easy and cheap and that the materials can be handled by standard lab equipment. Here, the SIC coating of titania on LiCoO2 is followed by a solid-state reaction forming new inorganic layers and a core-shell material, while keeping the content of active battery material high. This titania based coating was designed to confine the reaction of extensively delithiated (charged) LiCoO2 and the electrolyte. The core-shell materials were characterized by SEM, XPS, XRD and Rietveld analysis.

  9. SiO2-Ag-SiO2 core/shell structure with a high density of Ag nanoparticles for CO oxidation catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaoqian; Li, Hongmo; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Lian

    2016-11-01

    SiO2-Ag-SiO2, a sandwiched core/shell structure with a layer of Ag nanoparticles (˜4 nm) encapsulated between a shallow SiO2 surface layer and a SiO2 submicrosphere substrate (˜200 nm), has been synthesized from {{Ag}}{{({{{NH}}}3)}2}+ and SiO2 spheres by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The composite is proposed to result from the dynamic balance between the {{Ag}}{{({{{NH}}}3)}2}+ reduction and the dissolution-redeposition of SiO2 in mild basic media. The synthetic mechanism and the roles of the reaction time, temperature, and the amount of ammonia in the formation of this unique structure are investigated and discussed. The composite structure shows superior catalytic performance in CO oxidation to the control Ag/SiO2 structure prepared by impregnation. Pre-treatment by O2 at 600 °C significantly improves the catalytic performance of the composite structure and preserves the nanocomposite structure well.

  10. Growth control, structure, chemical state, and photoresponse of CuO-CdS core-shell heterostructure nanowires.

    PubMed

    El Mel, A A; Buffière, M; Bouts, N; Gautron, E; Tessier, P Y; Henzler, K; Guttmann, P; Konstantinidis, S; Bittencourt, C; Snyders, R

    2013-07-05

    The growth of single-crystal CuO nanowires by thermal annealing of copper thin films in air is studied. We show that the density, length, and diameter of the nanowires can be controlled by tuning the morphology and structure of the copper thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. After identifying the optimal conditions for the growth of CuO nanowires, chemical bath deposition is employed to coat the CuO nanowires with CdS in order to form p-n nanojunction arrays. As revealed by high-resolution TEM analysis, the thickness of the polycrystalline CdS shell increases when decreasing the diameter of the CuO core for a given time of CdS deposition. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy combined with transmission x-ray microscopy allows the chemical analysis of isolated nanowires. The absence of modification in the spectra at the Cu L and O K edges after the deposition of CdS on the CuO nanowires indicates that neither Cd nor S diffuse into the CuO phase. We further demonstrate that the core-shell nanowires exhibit the I-V characteristic of a resistor instead of a diode. The electrical behavior of the device was found to be photosensitive, since increasing the incident light intensity induces an increase in the collected electrical current.

  11. Luminescence properties of core-shell structured SiO2@CaMoO4:Eu3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Xiaoxia; Li, Xueming; Yang, Yuling; Li, Wulin; Tao, Chuanyi; Feng, Wenlin

    2012-03-01

    Uniform SiO2@CaMoO4:Eu3+ red phosphor has been synthesized by sol-gel method, and its luminescence properties have been studied by fluorescence spectrometer. The structure and morphology of the SiO2@CaMoO4:Eu3+ red phosphor have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR spectrometer. Results indicate that phosphor particles have a core-shell structure and the thickness of the SiO2-shell is about 60 nm. In addition, the luminescent intensity of SiO2@CaMoO4:Eu3+ red phosphor has been greatly enhanced with respect to CaMoO4:Eu3+ phosphor. But the lifetime τ value of SiO2-coated CaMoO4:Eu3+ is slightly smaller than that of non-coated CaMoO4:Eu3+.

  12. Preparation and characterization of WO3 nanoparticles, WO3/TiO2 core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I.; Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szżcs, Júlia; Szilágyi, Imre M.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, monoclinic WO3 nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH4)xWO3 in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO2 films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO3 nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO3 and core/shell WO3/TiO2 nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO3 thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  13. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I.; Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia; Szilágyi, Imre M.

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  14. Enhanced photoluminescence properties of methylene blue dye encapsulated in nanosized hydroxyapatite/silica particles with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Chengfeng; Fan, Chengyu; Feng, Xiaoxing; Cao, Bingqiang

    2013-11-01

    Organic dye of methylene blue (MB) was encapsulated in core-shell structured hydroxyapatite/silica particles (HAp/silica-MB) through a modified Stöber method with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone molecules. It was found that MB molecules were released from HAp/silica-MB at a slower rate than those from silica-MB in deionized water. In phosphate buffered saline (pH: 7.2-7.4) and acidic solutions (pH: 1.5-1.6), the penetration of ions in the interface influenced the interaction between HAp and MB molecules, which resulted in the rapid release of MB molecules from HAp/silica-MB. From the UV-Vis absorbance spectra, one could see that MB molecules in HAp/silica-MB were weakly aggregated in comparison with those in silica-MB. For HAp/silica-MB, enhanced luminescence properties were observed in the photoluminescence spectra and dual luminescence with two emission peaks were caused by the presence of monomers and dimers. Contrarily, no photoluminescence emission was detected for samples of free MB and silica-MB under the same excitation condition because of the self-quenching effect. It was the adsorption of MB molecules on HAp that had resulted in the enlargement of intramolecular distance and the reduction of self-quenching effect. These hybrid particles with enhanced luminescent properties might find wide applications in the field of bioanalysis, bioseparation, and biomedical imaging.

  15. Enhanced upconversion luminescence through core/shell structures and its application for detecting organic dyes in opaque fishes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Shigang; Chen, Zenghui; Yan, Huanyuan; Xi, Zaifang; Yu, Yi; Dai, Gangtao; Liu, Yunxin

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report the enhanced upconversion luminescence of NaLuF4:18%Yb(3+),2%Er(3+) through core/shell structures. Among NaYF4, NaGdF4, and NaLuF4 shells, the first one presents the highest efficiency. These upconversion fluorescent nanoprobes with an oleic acid/PEG hybrid ligand can efficiently capture Rhodamine B (RB) and sodium fluorescein (SF) in opaque fishes to present their residues in vivo through luminescence resonant energy transfer (LRET) processes. It can be confirmed based on LRET technology that no RB is absorbed by opaque fishes after incubating in the aqueous solution of 1 μg ml(-1) RB for one day, while SF residue can be obviously detected after incubating in the aqueous solution of 1 μg ml(-1) SF for one day. The merit of this LRET technology with the upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) donor is ascribed to the deep penetration depth of the infrared pumping laser and high signal to noise ratio.

  16. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core-shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b‧]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of "on" and "off" states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity).

  17. Structurally ordered intermetallic platinum-cobalt core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced activity and stability as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deli; Xin, Huolin L; Hovden, Robert; Wang, Hongsen; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2013-01-01

    To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst performance and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel-cell applications, we look beyond Pt-metal disordered alloys and describe a new class of Pt-Co nanocatalysts composed of ordered Pt(3)Co intermetallic cores with a 2-3 atomic-layer-thick platinum shell. These nanocatalysts exhibited over 200% increase in mass activity and over 300% increase in specific activity when compared with the disordered Pt(3)Co alloy nanoparticles as well as Pt/C. So far, this mass activity for the oxygen reduction reaction is the highest among the Pt-Co systems reported in the literature under similar testing conditions. Stability tests showed a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles and the ordered core-shell structure was maintained virtually intact, as established by atomic-scale elemental mapping. The high activity and stability are attributed to the Pt-rich shell and the stable intermetallic Pt(3)Co core arrangement. These ordered nanoparticles provide a new direction for catalyst performance optimization for next-generation fuel cells.

  18. Drug release profile in core-shell nanofibrous structures: a study on Peppas equation and artificial neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Mahboubeh; Amani-Tehran, Mohammad; Latifi, Masoud; Mathur, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Release profile of drug constituent encapsulated in electrospun core-shell nanofibrous mats was modeled by Peppas equation and artificial neural network. Core-shell fibers were fabricated by co-axial electrospinning process using tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) as the core and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) as the shell materials. The density and hydrophilicity of the shell polymers, feed rates and concentrations of core and shell phases, the contribution of TCH in core material and electrical field were the parameters fed to the perceptron network to predict Peppas constants in order to derive release pattern. This study demonstrated the viability of the prediction tool in determining drug release profile of electrospun core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds.

  19. Preparation of core/shell NaYF4:Yb,Tm@dendrons nanoparticles with enhanced upconversion luminescence for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Francolon, Nadège; Boyer, Damien; Leccia, Felicia; Jouberton, Elodie; Walter, Aurélie; Bordeianu, Catalina; Parat, Audrey; Felder-Flesch, Delphine; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Mahiou, Rachid

    2016-10-01

    Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were successfully dendronized for fluorescence medical imaging applications. The structural and morphological characterizations of resulting core/shell NaYF4:Yb,Tm@dendrons nanoparticles were performed by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity assays have evidenced their low toxicity. In vivo fluorescence imaging study was performed in mice upon IR excitation, showing promising imaging capacities at low concentrations (0.5mg/mL) and low power (50mW/cm(2)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  1. Structure and magnetism in Fe/FexPd1-x core/shell nanoparticles formed by alloying in Pd-embedded Fe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baker, S H; Lees, M; Roy, M; Binns, C

    2013-09-25

    We have investigated atomic structure and magnetism in Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 2 nm embedded in a Pd matrix. The samples for these studies were prepared directly from the gas phase by co-deposition, using a gas aggregation source and an MBE-type source for the Fe nanoparticles and Pd matrix respectively. Extended absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicate that there is an appreciable degree of alloying at the nanoparticle/matrix interface; at dilute nanoparticle concentrations, more than half of the Fe atoms are alloyed with Pd. This leads to a core/shell structure in the embedded nanoparticles, with an FexPd1-x shell surrounding a reduced pure Fe core. Magnetism in the nanocomposite samples was probed by means of magnetometry measurements, which were interpreted in the light of their atomic structure. These point to a magnetized cloud of Pd atoms surrounding the embedded nanoparticles which is significantly larger than around single Fe atoms in Pd. The coercivities in the Fe/Pd nanocomposite samples are larger than in FexPd1-x atomic alloys of corresponding composition, which is consistent with exchange coupling between the magnetically harder and softer regions in the nanocomposite samples.

  2. Preparation of the TiO2/Graphic Carbon Nitride Core-Shell Array as a Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tao; Gao, Bin; Gong, Hao; Xue, Hairong; Guo, Hu; Song, Li; Xia, Wei; Huang, Xianli; He, Jianping

    2016-12-20

    The photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxygen evolution reaction over a photoanode is a promising process for renewable energy. The fascinating properties of graphic carbon nitride (g-CN) in water splitting make the photoelectrode engineering of it for PEC use quite meaningful. In this work, we report the fabrication of the core-shell-structured TiO2/g-CN composite film by hydrothermal growth for TiO2 nanorod arrays and solvothermal growth for the g-CN layer. Herein, TiO2 is used as an effective electron-transfer layer, and g-CN is used as a visible light absorption layer. Different reaction conditions were investigated in order to obtain the uniform TiO2/g-CN nanorod core-shell structure. Outstanding photoelectrochemical performances of the optimized composites were obtained compared to that of pristine TiO2 or g-CN because the high-quality heterojunction between g-CN and TiO2 turned out to effectively reduce the recombination of charge carriers and improve the photoelectric conversion ability. Thus, the photocurrent density under visible light of TiO2/g-CN reached 80.9 μA cm(-2), which is 21 times that of g-CN under 0.6 V (vs SCE). Finally, a systematic photoelectrocatalytic mechanism of charge carrier migration and the recombination path in the TiO2/g-CN nanorod core-shell heterojunction was proposed, which can be considered to be a probable explanation of efficient PEC performance.

  3. Exploring the first steps in core-shell electrocatalyst preparation: in situ characterization of the underpotential deposition of Cu on supported Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen W T; Speed, Jonathon D; Kannan, Prabalini; Russell, Andrea E

    2011-12-07

    The underpotential deposition (upd) of a Cu shell on a non-Pt nanoparticle core followed by galvanic displacement of the Cu template shell to form core-shell electrocatalyst materials is one means by which the Pt-based mass activity targets required for commercialization of PEM fuel cells may be reached. In situ EXAFS measurements were conducted at both the Au L(3) and the Cu K absorption edges during deposition of Cu onto a carbon-supported Au electrocatalyst to study the initial stages of formation of such a core-shell electrocatalyst. The Au L(3) EXAFS data obtained in 0.5 mol dm(-3) H(2)SO(4) show that the shape of the Au core is potential dependent, from a flattened to a round spherical shape as the Cu upd potential is approached. Following the addition of 2 mmol dm(-3) Cu, the structure was also measured as a function of the applied potential. At +0.2 V vs Hg/Hg(2)SO(4), the Cu(2+) species was found to be a hydrated octahedron. As the potential was made more negative, single-crystal studies predict an ordered bilayer of sulfate anions and partially discharged Cu ions, followed by a complete/uniform layer of Cu atoms. In contrast, the model obtained by fitting the Au L(3) and Cu K EXAFS data corresponds first to partially discharged Cu ions deposited at the defect sites in the outer shell of the Au nanoparticles at -0.42 V, followed by the growth of clusters of Cu atoms at -0.51 V. The absence of a uniform/complete Cu shell, even at the most negative potentials investigated, has implications for the structure, and the activity and/or stability, of the core-shell catalyst that would be subsequently formed following galvanic displacement of the Cu shell.

  4. Novel method for the preparation of core shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; He, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Cheng; Ge, Xue-Wu; Li, Jian; Liu, Hua-Rong; Jiang, Hao

    2006-04-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag@PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: γ-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under γ-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe 2+-EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag@PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  5. Novel method for the preparation of core-shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Weijun; Zhang Zhicheng . E-mail: lwj3600@ustc.edu; He Weidong; Zheng Cheng; Ge Xuewu; Li, Jian; Liu Huarong; Jiang Hao

    2006-04-15

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag at PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: {gamma}-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under {gamma}-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe {sup 2+}-EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag at PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  6. All solution processed low turn-on voltage near infrared LEDs based on core-shell PbS-CdS quantum dots with inverted device structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rafael S.; Binetti, Enrico; Torre, Jose A.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.; Striccoli, Marinella; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extraordinarily appealing for the development of light emitting devices (LEDs) due to tunable and pure color emission, brightness and solution processability. This last advantage of the QD-LEDs is even more evident in the field of infrared emission where the devices currently used are prepared by high cost epitaxial techniques. Here we show the fabrication of low cost NIR QD-LEDs based on high quantum yield core-shell PbS-CdS QDs and a novel inverted device structure. Devices are produced using SnO2:F (FTO) as the conductive transparent contact, nanostructured TiO2 as the electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT as the hole transport layer (HTL). Despite the roughness of this ETL, the obtained external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) are similar to previously reported values, obtained with regular configuration and more expensive ITO substrates. A turn-on voltage as low as the QD band gap (1.47 eV) is achieved for a large area (1.54 cm2) and relatively stable QD-LEDs.Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extraordinarily appealing for the development of light emitting devices (LEDs) due to tunable and pure color emission, brightness and solution processability. This last advantage of the QD-LEDs is even more evident in the field of infrared emission where the devices currently used are prepared by high cost epitaxial techniques. Here we show the fabrication of low cost NIR QD-LEDs based on high quantum yield core-shell PbS-CdS QDs and a novel inverted device structure. Devices are produced using SnO2:F (FTO) as the conductive transparent contact, nanostructured TiO2 as the electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT as the hole transport layer (HTL). Despite the roughness of this ETL, the obtained external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) are similar to previously reported values, obtained with regular configuration and more expensive ITO substrates. A turn-on voltage as low as

  7. Core-shell structured nanoassemblies based on β-cyclodextrin containing block copolymer and poly(β-benzyl L-aspartate) via host-guest complexation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianxiang; Ma, Peter X

    2011-01-01

    Double hydrophilic copolymers (PEG-b-PCDs) with one PEG block and another block containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) units were synthesized by macromolecular substitution reaction. Via a dialysis procedure, complex assemblies with a core-shell structure were prepared using PEG-b-PCDs in the presence of a hydrophobic homopolymer poly(β-benzyl L-aspartate) (PBLA). The hydrophobic PBLA resided preferably in the cores of assemblies, while the extending PEG chains acted as the outer shell. Host-guest interaction between β-CD and hydrophobic benzyl group was found to mediate the formation of the assemblies, where PEG-b-PCD and PBLA served as the host and guest macromolecules, respectively. The particle size of the assemblies could be modulated by the composition of the host PEG-b-PCD copolymer. The molecular weight of the guest polymer also had a significant effect on the size of the assemblies. The assemblies prepared from the host and guest polymer pair were stable during a long-term storage. These assemblies could also be successfully reconstituted after freeze-drying. The assemblies may therefore be used as novel nanocarriers for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. PMID:22046058

  8. Hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon nanoparticles embed in carbon nanofibers as binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Hu, Yi; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Renzhong; He, Xia; Zhang, Xiangwu; Li, Yongqiang; Wu, Keshi

    2017-02-01

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for lithium-ion battery anodes owing to its large theoretical energy density (about 4200 mAh g-1) and low working potential (vs. Li/Li+). However, its practical application is limited by structure degradation and a comparatively poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling. In this study, we have prepared a novel nanofiber form of silicon/carbon with hollow core-shell structured silicon@carbon (Si@C) nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanofibers. Voids between the silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) core and carbon shell help to accommodate the volume expansion associated with the lithiation/delithiation process in a working electrode and allow formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film. The obtained electrodes exhibited good cycle performance with a high reversible capacity of 1020.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, and also delivered excellent cycling performance at a high current density of 3.2 A g-1. The design of this new structure provides a potential method for developing other functional composite anode materials with high reversible capacities and long-term cycle stabilities.

  9. Preparation of core-shell NaGdF4 nanoparticles doped with luminescent lanthanide ions to be used as upconversion-based probes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Renren; Liu, Xiaogang

    2014-07-01

    Sodium gadolinium fluoride (NaGdF4) is an ideal host material for the incorporation of luminescent lanthanide ions because of its high photochemical stability, low vibrational energy and its ability to mediate energy exchanges between the lanthanide dopants. This protocol describes the detailed experimental procedure for synthesizing core-shell NaGdF4 nanoparticles that incorporate lanthanide ions into different layers for efficiently converting a single-wavelength, near-IR excitation into a tunable visible emission. These nanoparticles can then be used as luminescent probes in biological samples, in 3D displays, in solar energy conversion and in photodynamic therapy. The NaGdF4 nanoparticles are grown through co-precipitation in a binary solvent mixture of oleic acid and 1-octadecene. Doping by lanthanides with controlled compositions and concentrations can be achieved concomitantly with particle growth. The lanthanide-doped NaGdF4 nanoparticles then serve as seed crystals for subsequent epitaxial growth of shell layers comprising different lanthanide dopants. The entire procedure for the preparation and isolation of the core-shell nanoparticles comprising two epitaxial shell layers requires ∼15 h for completion.

  10. Preparation of Li2TiO3-Li4SiO4 core-shell ceramic pebbles with enhanced crush load by graphite bed process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Maoqiao; Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Shuya; Liu, Hui; Wang, Chaofu; Gu, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Li4SiO4 and Li2TiO3 have been regarded as the most favored ceramic breeders of the test blanket modules (TBMs). The lithium density of Li4SiO4 is higher than that of Li2TiO3; however, the thermo-mechanical stability of Li2TiO3 is better than that of Li4SiO4. Hence, the biphasic yLi2TiO3-(1-y)Li4SiO4 (y = 25%, 50%, 75%, molar ratio) pebbles were fabricated by a graphite bed process for the next generation of advanced tritium breeder materials. The pebbles with interesting core-shell structure (core: Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4, shell: Li2TiO3) were fabricated for the first time. The thickness of Li2TiO3 shell can be controlled by sintering time. Crystal structure, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biphasic pebbles were investigated. The experimental results showed that the core-shell structure improved the crush load dramatically. The average crush load of 50%Li2TiO3-50%Li4SiO4 pebbles sintered at 1100 °C for 5 h was up to104.79 N.

  11. Structural Color Palettes of Core-Shell Photonic Ink Capsules Containing Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Seok; Seo, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Photonic microcapsules with onion-like topology are microfluidically designed to have cholesteric liquid crystals with opposite handedness in their core and shell. The microcapsules exhibit structural colors caused by dual photonic bandgaps, resulting in a rich variety of color on the optical palette. Moreover, the microcapsules can switch the colors from either core or shell depending on the selection of light-handedness. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Self-construction of core-shell structure by metallofullerene-containing polymer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Yue, Dongmei; Zhao, Shixiong; Dong, Jinquan; Yang, Limei; Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jiaou; Yang, Shangyuan; Hao, Jian; Hu, Zhongbo; Sun, Baoyun

    2011-03-01

    Metallofullerene Gd@C82 offers the opportunity to produce novel and advanced polymer-based nanocomposite materials. In this work, we reported the synthesis of novel Gd@C82-containing copolymers with the optimum condition found by changing the temperature, initiator and fullerene contents of C60-PS. The developed materials, based on polystyrene, displayed unique nanostructures which were confirmed by many measurements (GPC, AFM, SEM, TGA/DSC and NEXAFS analysis). The mechanism, stability and structure of Gd@C82-containing copolymer were discussed. This approach offers a new possibility of optimizing the polymer performance with metallofullerene.

  13. Core-shell structured square mixed-spin-2 and 3/2 Ising nanowire on the Bethe lattice: a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic properties of square Ising nanowire on the Bethe lattice with core-shell structure consisting of spin-2 at the center and four spin-3/2 at the corners are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The core-shell structured model is studied using exchange interactions between surface spins (Jss ), between core spins (J σσ ) and between surface and core spins (J S σ ) and crystal field interaction (Δ) at the sites of spin-2 and spin-3/2. The critical temperature is deduced for different layers (N) and different shell-shell exchange interactions. The variation of magnetization with the reduced crystal field and exchange interactions on square Ising nanowire on the Bethe lattice has been studied with effect of other physical parameters. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is studied with different parameters such as: temperature, crystal field and shell-shell exchange interactions. The multiple hysteresis cycles are found.

  14. Core-shell structured silicon nanoparticles@TiO2-x/carbon mesoporous microfiber composite as a safe and high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jae-Geun; Park, Min-Sik; Seo, Minsu; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Young-Ugk; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2014-03-25

    A core-shell structured Si nanoparticles@TiO2-x/C mesoporous microfiber composite has been synthesized by an electrospinning method. The core-shell composite exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and improved cycle performance as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, it shows remarkable suppression of exothermic behavior, which can prevent possible thermal runaway and safety problems of the cells. The improved electrochemical and thermal properties are ascribed to the mechanically, electrically, and thermally robust shell structure of the TiO2-x/C nanocomposite encapsulating the Si nanoparticles, which is suggested as a promising material architecture for a safe and reliable Si-based Li-ion battery of high energy density.

  15. Facile fabrication of core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/cross-linked polyphosphazene nanocomposite particles with high stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuzhe; Wang, Minghuan; Fu, Jianwei; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Qun

    2013-08-01

    We herein report a facile approach to the fabrication of core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol) nanocomposite particles via precipitation polymerization of comonomers hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol in the presence of Fe3O4 nanopaticles. The morphology, composition, thermal property, and magnetic property of the magnetic nanocomposite particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Results indicated that the submicron-sized magnetic nanocomposite particles own core/shell structures, 410 °C of initial decomposition temperature under an air atmosphere, and 6.2 emu/g of saturation magnetization, which should make them have potential applications in biotechnology and catalyst supports. Furthermore, we also proposed a possible formation mechanism of these magnetic Fe3O4/PZS nanocomposite particles.

  16. Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongxiang; Lode, Anja; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Gelinsky, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite scaffolds with predesigned structures, are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Various methods including direct mixing of HAP powder with polymers or incubating polymer scaffolds in simulated body fluid for preparing polymer/HAP composite scaffolds are either uncontrolled or require long times of incubation. In this work, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions (at room temperature and without the use of any organic solvents). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microcomputer tomography, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. Mechanical properties and protein delivery of the scaffolds were evaluated, as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). The obtained data indicate that this method is suitable to fabricate alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release, compared to pure alginate scaffolds without nano-HAP shell layer. The results demonstrated that the method provides an interesting option for bone tissue engineering application.

  17. Hierarchical core/shell structure of MnO2@polyaniline composites grown on carbon fiber paper for application in pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, MinHo; Hong, Seok Bok; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-11-28

    Hierarchical core/shell structured arrays of MnO2@polyaniline (PANI) nanosheets are successfully deposited on the surface of carbon fiber paper (CFP) by a two-step method of a redox reaction-assisted deposition of MnO2 and post electrodeposition of PANI. The CFP is used as a three-dimensional (3D) current collector to ensure 3D transport of ions and electrons with a large surface area. In addition, the electrodeposition technique enables conformal and thin coating of a layer of PANI across the entire MnO2 nanosheet. The MnO2@PANI on the CFP shows a unique architecture for efficient ion diffusion pathways in hierarchical porous structures and rapid electron transfer through PANI coated layers. The MnO2@PANI/CFP can be applied as a binder- and carbon-free electrode for supercapacitors. Evaluation of the electrochemical performance revealed that the as-prepared electrodes have a high value of specific capacitance (437 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), high rate capability (62.4% retention at 15 A g(-1)), and good cycle life (∼100% at sequential current densities of 1 and 5 A g(-1) over 3000 cycles).

  18. Zero-valent iron treatment of dark brown colored coffee effluent: Contributions of a core-shell structure to pollutant removals.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Mayuka; Kurosu, Shunji; Kobayashi, Maki; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2016-12-01

    The decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of dark brown colored coffee effluent by zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been systematically examined with solution pH of 3.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 under oxic and anoxic conditions. The optimal decolorization and TOC removal were obtained at pH 8.0 with oxic condition. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal were 92.6 and 60.2%, respectively. ZVI presented potential properties for pollutant removal at nearly neutral pH because of its core-shell structure in which shell or iron oxide/hydroxide layer on ZVI surface dominated the decolorization and TOC removal of coffee effluent. To elucidate the contribution of the core-shell structure to removals of color and TOC at the optimal condition, the characterization of ZVI surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted. It was confirmed that the core-shell structure was formed and the shell on ZVI particulate surface and the precipitates formed during the course of ZVI treatment consisted of iron oxides and hydroxides. They were significantly responsible for decolorization and TOC removal of coffee effluent via adsorption to shell on ZVI surface and inclusion into the precipitates rather than the oxidative degradation by OH radicals and the reduction by emitted electrons. The presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced the formation of the core-shell structure and as a result improved the efficiency of ZVI treatment for the removal of colored components in coffee effluents. ZVI was found to be an efficient material toward the treatment of coffee effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis of a 3D graphite microball using a microfluidic droplet generator and its polymer composite with core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Hwan; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Yong Tae; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-10-21

    Spherical 3D graphite microballs (3D GMs) and their nanohybrids (3D GM-Fe3O4 nanoparticles) were synthesized by using a microfluidic droplet generator and a thermal evaporation-induced capillary compression method. Using the 3D GM-Fe3O4 nanoparticle as a support for polymerization, 3D GM-polypyrrole composites were produced with a unique core-shell structure.

  20. Core-Shell Structural CdS@SnO₂ Nanorods with Excellent Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Zhang, Ping; Tian, Baozhu; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 nanorods (NRs) were fabricated by synthesizing SnO2 nanoparticles with a solvent-assisted interfacial reaction and further anchoring them on the surface of CdS NRs under ultrasonic stirring. The morphology, composition, and microstructures of the obtained samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was found that SnO2 nanoparticles can be tightly anchored on the surface of CdS NRs, and the thickness of SnO2 shells can be conveniently adjusted by simply changing the addition amount of SnO2 quantum dots. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum indicated that SnO2 shell layer also can enhance the visible light absorption of CdS NRs to a certain extent. The results of transient photocurrents and photoluminescence spectra revealed that the core-shell structure can effectively promote the separation rate of electron-hole pairs and prolong the lifetime of electrons. Compared with the single CdS NRs, the core-shell structural CdS@SnO2 exhibited a remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA) to benzaldehyde (BAD) under visible light irradiation, attributed to the more efficient separation of electrons and holes, improved surface area, and enhanced visible light absorption of core-shell structure. The radical scavenging experiments proved that in acetonitrile solution, ·O2- and holes are the main reactive species responsible for BA to BAD transformation, and the lack of ·OH radicals is favorable to obtaining high reaction selectivity.

  1. The optical-plasmonic properties of core-shell structured, metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise Anne

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit unique optical-plasmonic properties that make them advantageous for numerous applications. Gold nanomaterials in particular have been employed in imaging, sensing, and therapeutic applications due to their simple conjugation with various biomarkers as well as their biocompatibility and low reactivity. As a result of the large electric fields generated at the surfaces of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the conduction band electrons, Ag and Au NPs greatly enhance the signals of Raman scattering by adsorbed molecules. The suitability of a particle for use in a specific application is often dependent on the particle's LSPR properties. The computational methods of Mie Theory and the Discrete Dipole Approximation enable the computation of optical scattering and absorption spectra, and surface electric fields (E-fields) and offer valuable insight into the effects of NP characteristics on NP LSPR properties. In this dissertation, we have investigated the effects of various NP attributes including particle size, chemical composition, structure, and shape. Through these studies we have aimed to guide experimental efforts in optimizing the design of NPs for various applications as well as to provide a better understanding of the observed LSPR properties of previously synthesized NPs.

  2. Formation of core-shell structured complex microparticles during fabrication of magnetorheological elastomers and their magnetorheological behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xinru; Chung, Kyungho; Liu, Chengcen; Choi, Seung-Bok; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-11-01

    To improve mechanical and magnetorheological properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), a facile method was used to fabricate high-performance MREs which consisted of the core-shell complex microparticles with an organic-inorganic network structure dispersed in an ethylene propylene diene rubber. In this work, the proposed magnetic complex microparticles were in situ formed during MREs fabrication as a result of strong interaction between matrix and CIPs using carbon black as a connecting point. The morphology of both isotropic (i-MREs) and anisotropic MREs (a-MREs) was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of carbonyl iron particle (CIP) volume content on mechanical properties and hysteresis loss of MREs were investigated. The effects of CIP volume content on the shear storage modulus, MR effect and loss tangent were studied using a modified dynamic mechanical analyzer under applied magnetic field strengths. The results showed that the orientation effect became more pronounced with increasing CIPs in the a-MREs, whereas CIPs distributed uniformly in the i-MREs. The tensile strength, tear strength and elongation at break decreased with increasing CIP content up to 40 vol.%, while the hardness increased. It is worth noting that the tensile strength of i-MREs and a-MREs containing 40 vol.% CIPs still had high mechanical properties as a result of good compatibility between complex microparticles and rubber matrix. The MR performance of shear storage modulus and damping properties of MREs increased remarkably with CIP content due to strong dipole-dipole interaction of complex microparticles. Besides, the hysteresis loss increased with increasing CIP content as a result of magnetic field induced interfacial sliding between complex microparticles.

  3. Benefits of Silica Core-Shell Structures on the Temperature Sensing Properties of Er,Yb:GdVO4 Up-Conversion Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Savchuk, Oleksandr A; Carvajal, Joan J; Cascales, C; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2016-03-23

    We studied the temperature-dependent luminescence of GdVO4 nanoparticles co-doped with Er(3+) (1 mol %) and Yb(3+) (20 mol %) and determined their thermal sensing properties through the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique. We also analyzed how a silica coating, in a core-shell structure, affects the temperature sensing properties of this material. Spectra were recorded in the range of biological temperatures (298-343 K). The absolute sensitivity for temperature determination calculated for the core-shell nanoparticles is double the one calculated for bare nanoparticles, achieving a thermal resolution of 0.4 K. Moreover, silica-coated nanoparticles show good dispersibility in different solvents, such as water, DMSO, and methanol. Also, they show good luminescence stability without interactions with solvent molecules. Furthermore, we also observed that the silica coating shell prevents progressive heating of the nanoparticles during prolonged excitation periods with the 980 nm laser, preventing effects on their thermometric applications.

  4. Tuning Optical Properties of Two-Dimensional Ordered Arrays of Silica/Gold and Silver Core/Shell Structured Nanoparticles in Near-Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Sakai, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Daido; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Core/shell type nanoparticles, in which the shell consists of a thin layer of metal and the core consists of monodispersed dielectric nanoparticles, are of great interest owing to their characteristic plasmonic properties. In this study, we have fabricated highly regular two-dimensional arrays of silica-core/gold (or silver)-shell nanoparticles protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by drop-casting their colloidal ethanol solutions onto tilted glass plates. The structure and plasmonic properties of the arrays were evaluated by visible/near-infrared transmission absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic broad plasmon band in the near-infrared wavelength region, derived from a hybridized mode of dipolar plasmon modes of the individual core/shell nanoparticle, appeared by changing the concentration of PVP added.

  5. Synthesis and features of the structure and luminescence of monodisperse SiO2/(Lu1 - x Eu x )2O3 ( x = 0.07) core-shell heteroparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaeva, Yu. V.; Masalov, V. M.; Gruzintsev, A. N.; Yakimov, E. E.; Zver'kova, I. I.; Barthou, C.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Emel'Chenko, G. A.

    2010-08-01

    Monodisperse SiO2/Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 core-shell heteroparticles have been obtained using a method developed previously for the synthesis of spherical colloidal particles of silicon dioxide with a size spread of 2-2.5%, followed by the coprecipitation of europium-doped lutetium oxide nanocoating on these spheres. The structure of heteroparticles was studied and their photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra were analyzed. The luminescence decay time in heteroparticles is almost twice that in Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 phosphor powder prepared and treated under the same thermal conditions.

  6. Liquid-phase deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 spheres: preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian-Qi; Guo, Shao-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Hua; Ge, Hong-Guang

    2015-07-01

    To prevent and avoid magnetic loss caused by magnetite core phase transition involving in high-temperature crystallization of amorphous sol-gel TiO2, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 composite spheres were synthesized via non-thermal process of TiO2. First, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 particles were synthesized through a solvothermal method followed by a sol-gel process. Second, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were directly coated on Fe3O4@SiO2 surface by liquid-phase deposition method, which uses (NH4)2TiF6 as Ti source for TiO2 and H3BO3 as scavenger for F- ions at 50 °C. The morphology, structure, composition, and magnetism of the resulting composites were characterized and their photocatalytic activities were also evaluated. The results demonstrate that TiO2 NPs with an average size of 6-8 nm were uniformly deposited on the Fe3O4@SiO2 surface. Magnetic hysteresis curves indicate that the composite spheres exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics with a magnetic saturation of 32.5 emu/g at room temperature. The magnetic TiO2 composites show high photocatalytic performance and can be recycled five times by magnetic separation without major loss of activity, which meant that they can be used as efficient and conveniently renewable photocatalyst.

  7. Visible light-responsive core-shell structured In₂O₃@CaIn₂O₄ photocatalyst with superior bactericidal properties and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ku; Sun, Der-Shan; Chan, Hao; Huang, Pai-Tsang; Wu, Wen-Shiang; Lin, Ching-Hui; Tseng, Yao-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hung; Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2012-07-01

    Antibacterial activity of photocatalytic substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible light-responsive photocatalysts were recently discovered, offering greater opportunity to use photocatalysts as disinfectants in our living environment. The development of antibacterial photocatalysts, however, has mainly focused on titanium oxide (TiO(2))-related materials with antibacterial properties not comparable with conventional chemical disinfectants. This study demonstrated that a core-shell structured In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) substrate has superior visible light-induced bactericidal properties, as compared with several commercially available and laboratory-prepared visible light-responsive photocatalysts. The high performance is enhanced by more easily photoexcited electron transfer between the interfaces of In(2)O(3) and CaIn(2)O(4) to minimize the electron-hole recombination during photocatalysis. Additionally, when compared with TiO(2)-based photocatalysts, In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) treatments did not induce significant cell death and tissue damage, implying a superior biocompatibility. These findings suggest that In(2)O(3)@CaIn(2)O(4) may have potential application in the development of a safer and highly bactericidal photocatalyst. A photocatalytic susbstrate is described that functions in visible light, possesses bactericidal properties and better biocompatibility than the standard TiO(2) based methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of core/shell structured SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ composite and its photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jehong; Kim, Jongsu; Kwon, Hansang

    2017-10-01

    Core/shell structured SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ composite was prepared by thermal-diffusion reaction between SiO2 and Zn1-xMnxO particles, which is a low cost solid-state method. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope results showed that a 5- μm-thick dense Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ layer was successfully formed on the surface of the SiO2 particles. The PL spectrum of the SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ composite revealed a green emission peak at 526 nm with PL intensity 20% higher than that of the conventional Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ particles. In addition, the decay time of the SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ composite was shorter ( τ 10% = 7 ms) than that of the conventional Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ particles ( τ 10% =12 ms), which is owing to the relaxation of forbidden transition of Mn2+ ions due to the localized stress of Mn2+ ions arising from the surface tension in the SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ composite.

  9. Methane explosion suppression characteristics based on the NaHCO3/red-mud composite powders with core-shell structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Cheng, Yi-Shen; Yu, Ming-Gao; Li, Yao; Cao, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Li-Gang; Yi, Hong-Wei

    2017-08-05

    The NaHCO3/red-mud (RM) composite powders were successfully prepared by the solvent-anti-solvent method for methane explosion suppression. The RM was used as a carrier, and the NaHCO3 was used as a loaded inhibitor. The NaHCO3/RM composite powders showed a special core-shell structure and excellent endothermic performance. The suppression properties of NaHCO3/RM composite for 9.5% CH4 explosion were tested in a 20L spherical explosion vessel and a 5L Perspex duct. The results showed that the NaHCO3/RM composite powders displayed a much better suppression property than the pure RM or NaHCO3 powders. The loading amount of NaHCO3 has an intensive influence on the inhibition property of NaHCO3/RM composite powders. The best loaded content of NaHCO3 is 35%. It exhibited significant inhibitory effect that the explosion max-pressure declined 44.9%, the max-pressure rise rate declined 96.3% and the pressure peak time delayed 366.7%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. All solution processed low turn-on voltage near infrared LEDs based on core-shell PbS-CdS quantum dots with inverted device structure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rafael S; Binetti, Enrico; Torre, Jose A; Garcia-Belmonte, G; Striccoli, Marinella; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2014-08-07

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are extraordinarily appealing for the development of light emitting devices (LEDs) due to tunable and pure color emission, brightness and solution processability. This last advantage of the QD-LEDs is even more evident in the field of infrared emission where the devices currently used are prepared by high cost epitaxial techniques. Here we show the fabrication of low cost NIR QD-LEDs based on high quantum yield core-shell PbS-CdS QDs and a novel inverted device structure. Devices are produced using SnO2:F (FTO) as the conductive transparent contact, nanostructured TiO2 as the electron transport layer (ETL) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT as the hole transport layer (HTL). Despite the roughness of this ETL, the obtained external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) are similar to previously reported values, obtained with regular configuration and more expensive ITO substrates. A turn-on voltage as low as the QD band gap (1.47 eV) is achieved for a large area (1.54 cm(2)) and relatively stable QD-LEDs.

  11. Eco-friendly synthesis of core-shell structured (TiO2/Li2CO3) nanomaterials for low cost dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Karuppuchamy, S; Brundha, C

    2016-12-01

    Core-shell structured TiO2/Li2CO3 electrode was successfully synthesized by eco-friendly solution growth technique. TiO2/Li2CO3 electrodes were characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photocurrent-voltage measurements. The synthesized core-shell electrode material was sensitized with tetrabutylammonium cis-di(thiocyanato)-N,N'-bis(4-carboxylato-4'-carboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenate(II) (N-719). The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on N719 dye modified TiO2/Li2CO3 electrodes was investigated. The effect of various shell thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the core-shell structured electrode is also investigated. We found that Li2CO3 shells of all thicknesses perform as inert barriers which improve open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the DSCs. The energy conversion efficiency was greatly dependent on the thickness of Li2CO3 on TiO2 film, and the highest efficiency of 3.7% was achieved at the optimum Li2CO3 shell layer.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing a SnO2-TiO2 core-shell structure made by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Martin; Jõgi, Indrek; Eriksson, Susanna K; Rensmo, Håkan; Boman, Mats; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of core-shell structures, based on SnO2 and TiO2, for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). Atomic layer deposition is employed to control and vary the thickness of the TiO2 shell. Increasing the TiO2 shell thickness to 2 nm improved the device performance of liquid electrolyte-based DSC from 0.7% to 3.5%. The increase in efficiency originates from a higher open-circuit potential and a higher short-circuit current, as well as from an improvement in the electron lifetime. SnO2-TiO2 core-shell DSC devices retain their photovoltage in darkness for longer than 500 seconds, demonstrating that the electrons are contained in the core material. Finally core-shell structures were used for solid-state DSC applications using the hole transporting material 2,2',7,7',-tetrakis(N, N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9',-spirofluorene. Similar improvements in device performance were obtained for solid-state DSC devices.

  13. Improving dielectric properties of BaTiO3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by employing core-shell structured BaTiO3@Poly(methylmethacrylate) and BaTiO3@Poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhong; Zhao, Sidi; Wang, Fang; Ma, Yuhong; Wang, Li; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Changwen; Yang, Wantai

    2017-05-01

    Polymer based dielectric composites were fabricated through incorporation of core-shell structured BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles into PVDF matrix by means of solution blending. Core-shell structured BT nanoparticles with different shell composition and shell thickness were prepared by grafting methacrylate monomer (MMA or TFEMA) onto the surface of BT nanoparticles via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The content of the grafted polymer and the micro-morphology of the core-shell structured BT nanoparticles were investigated by thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The dielectric properties were measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The results showed that high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are successfully realized in the polymer based composites. Moreover, the type of the grafted polymer and its content had different effect on the dielectric constant. In detail, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 16.6% for BT@PMMA1/PVDF and 10.7% for BT@PMMA2/PVDF composite in the range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz, in which the grafted content of PMMA was 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. However, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 5.5% for BT@PTFEMA1/PVDF and 4.0% for BT@PTFEMA2/PVDF composite, in which the grafted content of PTFEMA was 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. These attractive features of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites suggested that dielectric ceramic fillers modified with fluorinated polymer can be used to prepare high performance composites, especially those with low dielectric loss and high dielectric constant.

  14. Energy storage in ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites filled with core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles: understanding the role of polymer shells in the interfacial regions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Huang, Xingyi; Yang, Ke; Zhai, Xing; Zhang, Jun; He, Jinliang; Jiang, Pingkai

    2014-11-26

    The interfacial region plays a critical role in determining the electrical properties and energy storage density of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. However, we still know a little about the effects of electrical properties of the interfacial regions on the electrical properties and energy storage of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. In this work, three types of core-shell structured polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles with polymer shells having different electrical properties were used as fillers to prepare ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites. All the polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles were prepared by surface-initiated reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the polymer shells were controlled to have the same thickness. The morphology, crystal structure, frequency-dependent dielectric properties, breakdown strength, leakage currents, energy storage capability, and energy storage efficiency of the polymer nanocomposites were investigated. On the other hand, the pure polymers having the same molecular structure as the shells of polymer@BaTiO3 nanoparticles were also prepared by RAFT polymerization, and their electrical properties were provided. Our results show that, to achieve nanocomposites with high discharged energy density, the core-shell nanoparticle filler should simultaneously have high dielectric constant and low electrical conductivity. On the other hand, the breakdown strength of the polymer@BaTiO3-based nanocomposites is highly affected by the electrical properties of the polymer shells. It is believed that the electrical conductivity of the polymer shells should be as low as possible to achieve nanocomposites with high breakdown strength.

  15. Effect of core-shell structure and chitosan addition on catalytic activities of copper-containing silica-aluminosilicate composites in deNO(x) reaction by H2.

    PubMed

    Chamnankid, Busaya; Samanpratan, Rattanaporn; Kongkachuichay, Paisan

    2012-12-01

    Mesoporous silica-aluminosilicate composites were used as supports for selective catalytic reduction of NO by H2 using copper catalyst. Effect of loading techniques and structures of the supports on the catalytic performance were investigated. The nature, the oxidation state of copper, the structural properties and the morphology of the catalysts were characterized by means of UV-vis spectra, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), nitrogen sorption, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using substitution technique, the copper(II) species were introduced into the silica-aluminosilicate framework by replacing aluminum atoms that located in the tetrahedral coordination. On the other hand, by using incipient wetness impregnation method, the copper species were deposited on the surface of composite materials. Upon testing their performances in deNO(x) reaction, the catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method showed higher catalytic activity than those prepared by substitution technique in any copper content. The core-shell structure was able to enhance the catalytic performance. It was found that, among the tested catalysts, the 1.5% Cu loaded core-shell mesoporous silica aluminosilicate composites prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation yielded the highest NO conversion of approximately 59%. However, the addition of chitosan creating macroporosity and controlling the uniform small clusters did not improve the catalytic performance.

  16. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Eu3+-doped silica@coordination polymer core-shell structures and their calcinated silica@Gd2O3:Eu and hollow Gd2O3:Eu microsphere products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jung; Park, Ju-Un; Choi, Sora; Son, Juhee; Oh, Moonhyun

    2013-02-25

    The conjugation of Eu(3+)-doped coordination polymers constructed from Gd(3+) and isophthalic acid (H(2)IPA) with silica particles is investigated for the production of luminescent microspheres. A series of doping ratio-controlled silica@coordination polymer core-shell spheres is easily synthesized by altering the amounts of metal nodes used in the reactions, where the ratios of Gd(3+) and Eu(3+) are 10:0 (1a), 9:1 (1b), 8:2 (1c), 7:3 (1d), 5:5 (1e), and 0:10 (1f). The formation of monodisperse uniform core-shell structures is achieved throughout the entirety of a series. Investigations of the photoluminescence property of the resulting series of silica@coordination polymer core-shell spheres reveal that 20% Eu(3+)-doped product (1c) has the strongest emission intensity. The subsequent calcination process on the silica@coordination polymer core-shell structures (1a-f) results in the formation of a series of doping ratio-controlled silica@Gd(2)O(3):Eu core-shell microspheres (2a-f) with uniform shell thickness. During the calcination step, the coordination polymers within silica@coordination polymer core-shells are transformed into metal oxides, resulting in silica@Gd(2)O(3):Eu core-shell structures. The final etching process on the silica@Gd(2)O(3):Eu core-shell microspheres (2a-f) produces a series of hollow Gd(2)O(3):Eu microspheres (3a-f) as a result of the elimination of silica cores. The luminescence intensities of silica@Gd(2)O(3):Eu core-shell (2a-f) and hollow Gd(2) O(3):Eu microspheres (3a-f) also vary depending upon the doping ratio of Eu(3+) ions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electrohydrodynamic fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell structures with micro- and nanometric dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    This dissertation describes the fabrication of inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) fibers and core-shell spheres and tubes with micro and submicrometric dimensions. These structures resulted from the application of electrohydrodynamic forces to carefully aged, viscous sol-gel precursors. The contribution of Dr. Larsen and Dr. Dzenis (Engineering Mechanics, UNL) to the field was to extend the electrospinning technique to the inorganic materials field. At a later stage, Dr. Larsen and collaborators made such structures with hollow geometries for the first time. Using this technique, titania-silica, silica, alumina, mullite, zirconia and yttria-stabilized zirconia fibers of quasi-circular cross sections with diameters ranging from 0.15 to 1 mum, and fibers with non-circular cross sections (ribbons) with widths of 20--40 mum and thicknesses of just few microns were produced. The materials initially collected were amorphous, and after an appropriate thermal treatment they formed polycrystalline phases, and in all cases they displayed a remarkable structural stability retaining their individual fibrous identity. Furthermore, using a coaxial nozzle that was previously used to carry out liquid-liquid encapsulations expanded the range of potential applications of this novel technique. The coaxial nozzle allows the generation of compound liquid jets. In this case the shell liquid was the aged sol and the core liquid was an inert, immiscible or slow-mixing liquid such as olive oil, glycerin or water. The result was the formation of well-defined spherical hollow silica spheres and tubes with average diameters from 200 nm to 5 mum, and wall thicknesses of few nanometers to 2 mum. Since the injection of the shell and core liquids is done using independently controlled pumps, the flow rate ratio of both streams can be conveniently adjusted and different wall thicknesses can be obtained. On collection, certain liquid templates evaporate at room temperatures, thereby producing

  18. Enhancing photocatalytic activity by using TiO{sub 2}-MgO core-shell-structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun; Nastasi, Michael; Kim, Jeong-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Park, Jong-Sung; Hong, Kug Sun; Shin, Hyunho

    2006-01-02

    Hygroscopic Mg(OH){sub 2} gel was topotactically decomposed on TiO{sub 2} particle surfaces, resulting in highly nanoporous MgO-coated TiO{sub 2} particles. The highly hygroscopic and nanoporous MgO shell absorbed more water molecules and hydroxyl groups from the environment to yield an improved photocatalytic property of the core-shell particles as compared to the uncoated TiO{sub 2} counterpart.

  19. Tuning Surface Structure and Strain in Pd-Pt Core-Shell Nanocrystals for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yalin; Shan, Hao; Zhou, Zhengnan; Yan, Yucong; Chen, Wenlong; Yang, Yaxiong; Liu, Yongfeng; Tian, He; Wu, Jianbo; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2017-02-01

    Icosahedral, octahedral, and cubic Pd@Pt core-shell nanocrystals with two atomic Pt layers are epitaxially generated under thermodynamic control. Such icosahedra exhibit remarkably enhanced catalytic properties for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the octahedra and cubes as well as commercial Pt/C, which can be attributed to ligand and geometry effects, especially twin-induced strain effect that is revealed by geometrical phase analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Carbon/two-dimensional MoTe2 core/shell-structured microspheres as an anode material for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Ju, Hyeon Seok; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2017-02-02

    Unique-structured composite microspheres of carbon and MoTe2 were prepared by a two-step process. Precursor C-MoOx composite microspheres were prepared by spray pyrolysis, and then the precursor was transformed into C-MoTe2 composite microspheres by a tellurization process. C-MoTe2 composites with a uniform distribution of MoTe2 nanocrystals (C/MoTe2) and core-shell-structured C-MoTe2 composites (C@MoTe2) were synthesized at tellurization temperatures of 450 and 600 °C, respectively. At a higher tellurization temperature of 600 °C, all of the MoTe2 nanocrystals moved to the surface of the microsphere because of the Ostwald ripening process. The initial discharge capacities of the C/MoTe2, C@MoTe2, and bare MoTe2 (i.e., containing no carbonaceous materials) powders for Na-ion storage at a current density of 1.0 A g(-1) were 328, 388, and 341 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacities of the C/MoTe2, C@MoTe2, and bare MoTe2 powders for the 200(th) cycle were 241, 286, and 104 mA h g(-1), respectively, and the corresponding capacity retentions, which were measured from the second cycle were 100%, 99%, and 37%, respectively. The high structural stability and well-developed two-dimensional layer of MoTe2 of the C@MoTe2 microspheres provide superior Na-ion storage properties compared to those of the C/MoTe2 microspheres and bare MoTe2 powder.

  1. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  2. Preparation of Porous Core-Shell Poly L-Lactic Acid/Polyethylene Glycol Superfine Fibres Containing Drug.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; He, Nongyue; Fu, Juan; Li, Zhiyang; Ji, Xuyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) blended with polyethylene glycol (PEG) was dissolved in methylene dichloride solution as the shell solution, and rapamycin (RAPA), was encapsulated inside the core of PLLA micro/nano fibres as a model drug. The effects of the blending ratio of PLLA to PEG, the concentration of the electrospinning solution, the voltage, the flow rate, and the encapsulation efficiency were studied. Uniform and porous RAPA-Loading PLLA fibres were obtained when the ratio of PLLA to PEG was 7/3, the concentration of PLLA was 3%, the applied voltage was 7.5 kV, and the pump speed was V(core) = 0.1 mL/h, V(shell) = 1 mL/h, repectively. The average diameter of PLLA fibres increased with the gradual increase in PLLA concentration. FTIR results showed that RAPA was successfully encapsulated into the core-co-shell PLLA fibres. Meanwhile, the RAPA-loading of coaxial electrospun PLLA fibres was significantly higher than that of the blending electrospun fibres. It was also found that the porous core-shell PLLA/PEG blending superfine fibres could regulate the appearance of pore on the surface of superfine fibres by adjusting the electrospinning parameters. The porous PLLA/PEG blending fibres can be used as drug carriers and, to improve the single way of drug release depending on the degradation of shell material to meet different need. It will be a remarkable breakthrough in the area for sustained and controlled release drug delivery system.

  3. Electrospinning of artemisinin-loaded core-shell fibers for inhibiting drug re-crystallization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongli; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Shuxin; Dong, Anjie

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to inhibit the re-crystallization of a potent antimalarial drug, artemisinin (ART), by encapsulating it in core-shell fibers via a coaxially electrospun method. The ART-infiltrated cellulose acetate (CA) solution as the core material and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solution as the shell material were used to prepared ART-loaded core-shell fibers ([ART/CA]/PVP). Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the core-shell structures of the coaxially electrospun fibers. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize the physical states of ART in the fibers. It was observed that ART crystals were formed in the ART-loaded CA/PVP composite fibers (ART/CA/PVP) during the electrospinning process and increased during storage duration. While ART crystals hardly were observed in the fresh core-shell [ART/CA]/PVP fibers with high ART entrapped amount (20 wt.%) and a little was detected after 6-month storage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results illustrated the hydrogen bonding interaction between ART and CA in the core-shell [ART/CA]/PVP fibers mainly contributed to the amorphous state of ART. Importantly, combination of the hydrophilic PVP shell and the amorphous ART in CA core, the core-shell [ART/CA]/PVP fibers provided a continued and stable ART release manner. Ex vivo permeation studies suggested the amorphous ART in the medicated core-shell fibers could permeate through the stratum corneum smoothly. Hence, the core-shell [ART/CA]/PVP fiber matrix could provide a potential application in transdermal patches.

  4. One-pot synthesis of Size-Controllable core-shell CdS and derivative CdS@ZnxCd1-xS structures for dramatic Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Kai, Shuangshuang; Xi, Baojuan; Wang, Yifeng; Xiong, Shenglin

    2017-09-18

    Chalcogenide micro/nano composite structures have been attracting world-wide attention due to the enormous prospect of applications in photocatalytic hydrogen production. Well-defined micro/nanostructures, featured with predominant properties, are of extraordinary importance. Herein, we reported a facile one-pot method on synthesis of monodispersed size-controllable CdS and CdS@ZnxCd1-xS core-shell submicrospheres, which were engineered with respect to the structural conformation and size. CdS core-shell submicrospheres with different size were selectively prepared for the first time. The growth mechanism was investigated in detail by monitoring the time-dependent morphology of intermediates via TEM technique. By introduction of zinc precursor in the synthetic system, CdS@ZnxCd1-xS core-double shell submicrospheres had been obtained by cation exchange of CdS with zinc ions, experiencing the process of diffusion of CdS towards outside and transformation of ZnxCd1-xS crystallites. The H2 evolution rate over CdS@CdxZn1-xS (5.17 mmol h-1 g -1) is 12.3 times that of CdS core-shell (0.42 mmol h- 1 g -1) under visible light, owing to the efficient charge separation demonstrated by the electrochemical impedance and transient-state time-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Furthermore, CdS@ZnxCd1-xS core-double shell structures exhibited excellent stability over 20 h hydrogen production. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Novel morphology-controlled hierarchical core@shell structural organo-layered double hydroxides magnetic nanovehicles for drug release.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xue; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Hui

    2014-11-26

    Novel hierarchical core@shell structured salicylate (SA) intercalated ZnAl-LDH (layered double hydroxides) magnetic nanovehicles were obtained via a special double-drop coprecipitation strategy assembling organo-ZnAl-LDH nanocrystals onto the surface of Fe3O4 submicrospheres (∼480 nm) from cheap aspirin and Zn- and Al-nitrates in alkaline solutions. The obtained Fe3O4@SA-LDH-r nanovehicles exhibit varied morphologies with hexagonal LDH ab-face horizontal, vertical, and vertical/slant/horizontal to the surfaces of Fe3O4 upon proper mass ratio (r) of Zn-salt to Fe3O4 from 1.93 to 7.71 in a low supersaturation system and possess moderate drug loadings and strong superparamagnetism. An in vitro release study reveals that under "no MF" mode (without external magnetic field) the SA release exhibits the higher accumulated release amount and smaller half-life (t0.5) for Fe3O4@SA-LDH-3.85 (41.2%, 1.63 min) and Fe3O4@SA-LDH-7.71 (51.1%, 1.66 min) probably owing to their mainly vertical LDH orientations, while the dramatically reduced SA release (10.0%) and greatly elongated t0.5 (25.6 min) for Fe3O4@SA-LDH-1.93 may be due to its relatively stronger host-guest interaction and compact horizontally oriented LDH shell stack. Under "MF on" mode, all the magnetic samples show a detectable reduced SA release owing to the particle-particle interactions among the magnetic nanovehicles. The kinetic fittings show that the release processes of all the samples involve the bulk and surface diffusion. The SA release from Fe3O4@SA-LDH-1.93 is mainly determined by the interparticle diffusion among the horizontally oriented LDH shell nanocrystals while those of Fe3O4@SA-LDH-3.85 and Fe3O4@SA-LDH-7.71 mainly involve the interlayer intraparticle diffusion between LDHs layers due to their largely vertical LDH shell nanocrystals.

  6. Single Domain SmCo5@Co Exchange-coupled Magnets Prepared from Core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6].4H2O@GO Particles: A Novel Chemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-12-01

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets.

  7. Single Domain SmCo5@Co Exchange-coupled Magnets Prepared from Core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6]·4H2O@GO Particles: A Novel Chemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-01-01

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets. PMID:24356309

  8. Single domain SmCo5@Co exchange-coupled magnets prepared from core/shell Sm[Co(CN)6]·4H2O@GO particles: a novel chemical approach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ce; Jia, Lihui; Wang, Shouguo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Dawei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

    2013-12-20

    SmCo5 based magnets with smaller size and larger maximum energy product have been long desired in various fields such as renewable energy technology, electronic industry and aerospace science. However, conventional relatively rough synthetic strategies will lead to either diminished magnetic properties or irregular morphology, which hindered their wide applications. In this article, we present a facile chemical approach to prepare 200 nm single domain SmCo5@Co core/shell magnets with coercivity of 20.7 kOe and saturation magnetization of 82 emu/g. We found that the incorporation of GO sheets is responsible for the generation of the unique structure. The single domain SmCo5 core contributes to the large coercivity of the magnets and the exchange-coupled Co shell enhances the magnetization. This method can be further utilized in the synthesis other Sm-Co based exchange-coupled magnets.

  9. Photoconductivity of structures based on the SnO{sub 2} porous matrix coupled with core-shell CdSe/CdS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Drozdov, K. A.; Kochnev, V. I.; Dobrovolsky, A. A.; Khokhlov, D. R.; Popelo, A. V.; Rumyantseva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.; Ryabova, L. I.; Vasiliev, R. B.

    2013-09-23

    Embedding of quantum dots into porous oxide matrixes is a perspective technique for photosensitization of a structure. We show that the sensitization efficiency may be increased by the use of core-shell quantum dots. It is demonstrated that the photoresponse amplitude in a SnO{sub 2} porous matrix with CdSe/CdS quantum dots depends non-monotonously on the number of atomic layers in a shell. The best results are obtained for SnO{sub 2} matrixes coupled with the quantum dots with three atomic layers of a shell. Mechanisms responsible for the structure sensitization are discussed.

  10. Structure and mechanism of the formation of core-shell nanoparticles obtained through a one-step gas-phase synthesis by electron beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Nomoev, Andrey V; Bardakhanov, Sergey P; Schreiber, Makoto; Bazarova, Dashima G; Romanov, Nikolai A; Baldanov, Boris B; Radnaev, Bair R; Syzrantsev, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    The structure of core-shell Cu@silica and Ag@Si nanoparticles obtained in one-step through evaporation of elemental precursors by a high-powered electron beam are investigated. The structure of the core and shell of the particles are investigated in order to elucidate their mechanisms of formation and factors affecting the synthesis. It is proposed that the formation of Cu@silica particles is mainly driven by surface tension differences between Cu and Si while the formation of Ag@Si particles is mainly driven by differences in the vapour concentration of the two components.

  11. DNA nanocages swallow gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form AuNP@DNA cage core-shell structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Li, Xiang; Tian, Cheng; Yu, Guimei; Li, Yulin; Jiang, Wen; Mao, Chengde

    2014-02-25

    DNA offers excellent programming properties to nanomaterials syntheses. Host-guest interaction between DNA nanostructures and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is of particular interest because the resulting complexes would possess both programming properties intrinsic to DNA and physical properties associated with inorganic NPs, such as plasmonic and magnetic features. Here, we report a class of core-shell complexes (AuNP@DNA cages): hard gold NPs (AuNPs) are encapsulated in geometrically well-defined soft DNA nanocages. The AuNP guest can be further controllably released from the host (DNA nanocages), pointing to potential applications in surface engineering of inorganic NPs and cargo delivery of DNA nanocages.

  12. Application of Ni-Oxide@TiO₂ Core-Shell Structures to Photocatalytic Mixed Dye Degradation, CO Oxidation, and Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwon; Lee, Jisuk; Nam, Kyusuk; Shin, Weon Gyu; Sohn, Youngku

    2016-12-20

    Performing diverse application tests on synthesized metal oxides is critical for identifying suitable application areas based on the material performances. In the present study, Ni-oxide@TiO₂ core-shell materials were synthesized and applied to photocatalytic mixed dye (methyl orange + rhodamine + methylene blue) degradation under ultraviolet (UV) and visible lights, CO oxidation, and supercapacitors. Their physicochemical properties were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. It was shown that their performances were highly dependent on the morphology, thermal treatment procedure, and TiO₂ overlayer coating.

  13. Energy transfer study between Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions in doped and core-shell sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pushpal; Kar, Arik; Patra, Amitava

    2010-07-01

    Here, we report the preparation of Ce(3+) and Tb(3+) co-doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanorods and NaYF(4):Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) core-shell nanoparticles by the emulsion method. The core-shell nanoparticles are confirmed by X-ray diffraction study and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The hexagonal crystal phase of Ce(3+)-doped sodium yttrium fluoride nanocrystals is converted to the cubic polymorph after surface coating by TbF(3). Cell volume, cell parameters and lattice strain have been modified due to core-shell structure. The decay times are found to be 8.4 ms and 5.4 ms for doped nanorods and core-shell nanoparticles, respectively, which reveals that non-radiative decay is higher in the case of core-shell nanoparticles than doped nanorods. Energy transfer efficiencies from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+)are 65% and 45% for doped Na(Y(1.5)Na (0.5))F(6):Ce:Tb material and NaYF(4):Ce/Tb core-shell materials, respectively. Quantum yields are found to be 75% and 42% for doped and core-shell samples, respectively.

  14. Synthesis and property investigations of well-defined polymer/inorganic core-shell nanomaterials with structural, optical, electronic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravano, Stefanie Marie

    Polymer grafted inorganic nano-objects typically consist of an inorganic core with an end-grafted, tailored polymer shell. Herein described is the combination of magnetic, electronic, or optical properties of the inorganic core with the versatile mechanical and chemical properties of the polymer shell. The synthesis, characterization and application of nanomaterials require interdisciplinary work. For example, Fe2O3/Poly(styrene) core-shell structures were synthesized using chemical analysis, characterized using physics and implemented as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent using biology. There are three structural components to the core-shell particles: the inorganic core, the interface and the polymer shell. The inorganic core can impart properties to the overall structure, such as photoluminescence, magnetism, and mechanical reinforcement, which cannot easily be obtained using just organic materials. The interface where the core and shell meet is another key component in the design of the core-shell nanoparticle. The polymeric shell must be tethered to the core for optimum stability of the structure and to overcome potential incompatibilities between the two phases. The distribution of polymeric initiators as tethers allowed for polymerization from the surface. The research described used "grafting from" methods by living polymerizations. The grafted polymer can add function to the overall hybrid, as chemical functionality in the side chains can assist in particle self-assembly or serve as a scaffold for the attachment of biological molecules. The polymer, itself, can serve as a protective barrier, a matrix for the composite, or a solubility/dispersibility enhancer. The effect of variations in the length of the polymer chains on mechanical and morphological properties was studied. The research described herein will develop the ideas of core-shell structures: (1) in macro-scale synthesis and application of spherical silica particles in poly

  15. Chloride salt of conducting polyaniline synthesized in the presence of CeO2: Structural analysis of the core-shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, J. S. M.; de Souza, S. M.; Trovati, G.; Sanches, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Chloride salt of conducting Polyaniline (ES-PANI) was synthesized in the presence of cerium dioxide (CeO2) for structural and morphological evaluation of the resulting core-shell nanocomposite. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), estimative of crystallinity percentage, Le Bail Method, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and DC electrical conductivity were used for materials characterization. The resulting nanocomposite was constituted of three phases as identified by X-Ray Diffraction: ES-PANI, CeO2 and CeCl3(H2O)7, chloride hepta-hydrate cerium. Crystallinity of ES-PANI and nanocomposite were estimated around 40 and 85%, respectively. XRD patterns were also used to perform the Le Bail Method. This refinement allowed structural characterization of each phase, obtainment of cell parameters and crystallite size and shape. For ES-PANI and CeCl3(H2O)7, crystallites showed a prolate-like shape with an average size of 21 Å and 104 Å, respectively. CeO2 crystallites presented much larger size, as expected, with isotropic average size of 490 Å. SEM images showed that the nanocomposite has a core-shell morphology with both ES-PANI nanofibers and CeCl3(H2O)7 particles coating the CeO2 particles. The polymerization of ES-PANI over the CeO2 particles in order to form the nanocomposite affected the natural chain alignment of the polymer, resulting in better molecular rearrangement and larger crystallites. Finally, measurements of DC electrical conductivity of ES-PANI and nanocomposite have showed values of 1.11 × 10-4 and 2.22 × 10-4 S/cm, respectively. Nanocomposite has showed electrical conductivity 50 times greater than the pure ES-PANI. Thus, in this work we have reported a systematic structural and morphological investigation of PANI/CeO2/CeCl3(H2O)7 core-shell nanocomposite.

  16. Controlled preparation of Au/Ag/SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles using a photochemical method and applications in LSPR based sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Ye, Chen; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-05-21

    A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ∼442 nm RIU(-1). The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ∼7.5 × 10(-7) M. This photochemical method allows the controlled preparation of various Au/Ag/SnO2 nanoparticles to adjust their LSPR to suit various applications.

  17. Microwave absorption behavior of core-shell structured poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)-barium ferrite nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ohlan, Anil; Singh, Kuldeep; Chandra, Amita; Dhawan, Sundeep K

    2010-03-01

    The present paper reports the complex permittivity, permeability, and microwave absorption properties of core shell type poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT) nanocomposite with barium ferrite, synthesized by in situ emulsion polymerization, in the 12.4-18 GHz frequency range. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal the formation of core-shell type morphology with ferrite particles (60-80 nm) as the center while the polymer (PEDOT) formulates the outer shell of the composite. The presence of barium ferrite nanoparticles in the polymer matrix includes the magnetic losses, which mainly arise from the magnetic hysteresis, domain-wall displacement, and eddy current loss. The higher dielectric (epsilon'' = 23.5) and magnetic loss (micro'' = 0.22) contributes to the microwave absorption value of 22.5 dB (>99% attenuation) and are found to increase with the amount of ferrite constituents. The polymer was further characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  18. Triple-functional core-shell structured upconversion luminescent nanoparticles covalently grafted with photosensitizer for luminescent, magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Jia-Cai; Xiao, Jia-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fu; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-08-07

    Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical fields, due to their characteristic large anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, deep tissue penetration and minimal background interference. UCNPs-derived multifunctional materials that integrate the merits of UCNPs and other functional entities have also attracted extensive attention. Here in this paper we present a core-shell structured nanomaterial, namely, NaGdF(4):Yb,Er@CaF(2)@SiO(2)-PS, which is multifunctional in the fields of photodynamic therapy (PDT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence/luminescence imaging. The NaGdF(4):Yb,Er@CaF(2) nanophosphors (10 nm in diameter) were prepared via sequential thermolysis, and mesoporous silica was coated as shell layer, in which photosensitizer (PS, hematoporphyrin and silicon phthalocyanine dihydroxide) was covalently grafted. The silica shell improved the dispersibility of hydrophobic PS molecules in aqueous environments, and the covalent linkage stably anchored the PS molecules in the silica shell. Under excitation at 980 nm, the as-fabricated nanomaterial gave luminescence bands at 550 nm and 660 nm. One luminescent peak could be used for fluorescence imaging and the other was suitable for the absorption of PS to generate singlet oxygen for killing cancer cells. The PDT performance was investigated using a singlet oxygen indicator, and was investigated in vitro in HeLa cells using a fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, the nanomaterial displayed low dark cytotoxicity and near-infrared (NIR) image in HeLa cells. Further, benefiting from the paramagnetic Gd(3+) ions in the core, the nanomaterial could be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the clinical commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA, the as-fabricated nanomaterial showed a comparable longitudinal relaxivities value (r(1)) and similar imaging effect.

  19. Photonic band structure and effective medium properties of doubly-resonant core-shell metallo-dielectric nanowire arrays: low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujetas, D. R.; Paniagua-Domínguez, R.; Nieto-Vesperinas, M.; Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate theoretically and numerically the photonic band structure in the optical domain of an array of core-shell metal-semiconductor nanowires. Corresponding negative-index photonic bands are calculated, showing isotropic equifrequency surfaces. The effective (negative) electric permittivity and magnetic permeability, retrieved from S-parameters, are used to compare the performance of such nanowire arrays with homogeneous media in canonical examples, such as refraction through a prism and flat-lens focusing. Very good agreement is found, confirming the effective medium behavior of the nanowire array as a low-loss, isotropic (2D) and bulk, optical negative index metamaterial. Indeed, disorder is introduced to further stress its robustness.

  20. Investing the effectiveness of retention performance in a non-volatile floating gate memory device with a core-shell structure of CdSe nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Min; Lim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Bang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the retention performance of organic non-volatile floating gate memory devices with CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trapping elements. Core-structured CdSe NPs or core-shell-structured ZnS/CdSe NPs were mixed in PMMA and their performance in pentacene based device was compared. The NPs and self-organized thin tunneling PMMA inside the devices exhibited hysteresis by trapping hole during capacitance-voltage characterization. Despite of core-structured NPs showing a larger memory window, the retention time was too short to be adopted by an industry. By contrast core-shell structured NPs showed an improved retention time of >10000 seconds than core-structure NCs. Based on these results and the energy band structure, we propose the retention mechanism of each NPs. This investigation of retention performance provides a comparative and systematic study of the charging/discharging behaviors of NPs based memory devices. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Enhanced photodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid using a novel TiO2@MgFe2O4 core@shell structure.

    PubMed

    Huy, Bui The; Jung, Da-Som; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2017-10-01

    A novel TiO2@MgO-Fe2O3 core-shell structure has been synthesized via a hydrolysis and co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C and has proven to be an efficient photocatalyst. The obtained TiO2@MgO-Fe2O3 core-shell was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis diffused reflectance techniques. Its photocatalytic activity toward 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was investigated in aqueous solutions with and without visible light irradiation in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. It was revealed that a strong electronic coupling exists between two components within the TiO2@MgO-Fe2O3 core-shell structure. The present findings clearly highlight that TiO2@MgO-Fe2O3 exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation in the presence of H2O2. More than 83% degradation of 2,4-D was observed within 240 min, at an initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 0.5 g of catalyst per liter. Moreover, the material showed high chemical stability after four consecutive experiments with no significant difference in the rate of photocatalytic degradation. Therefore, the results reported herein offer a green, low cost and highly efficient photocatalyst for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical performance and structure evolution of core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan-Hui; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Feng-Chen; Nan, Jun-Min

    2016-12-01

    Core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon (CSNR) composites with different carbon content (CSNR-5%C and CSNR-13%C) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method by controlling different amounts of glucose and α-Fe2O3 nano-rings with further annealing. The CSNR electrodes exhibit much improved specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability compared with that of bare nano-ring α-Fe2O3 (BNR), which is attributed to the core-shell nano-ring structure of CSNR. The carbon shell in the inner and outer surface of CSNR composite can increase electron conductivity of the electrode and inhibit the volume change of α-Fe2O3 during discharge/charge processes, and the nano-ring structure of CSNR can buffer the volume change too. The CSNR-5%C electrode shows super high initial discharge/charge capacities of 1570/1220 mAh g-1 and retains 920/897 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 500 mA g-1 (0.5C). Even at 2000 mA g-1 (2C), the electrode delivers the initial capacities of 1400/900 mAh g-1, and still maintains 630/610 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. The core-shell nano-rings opened during cycling and rebuilt a new flower-like structure consisting of α-Fe2O3@Carbon nano-sheets. The space among the nano-sheet networks can further buffer the volume expansion of α-Fe2O3 and facilitate the transportation of electrons and Li+ ions during the charge/discharge processes, which increases the capacity and rate capability of the electrode. It is the first time that the evolution of core-shell α-Fe2O3@Carbon changing to flower-like networks during lithiation/de-lithiation has been reported.

  3. Palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction prepared with the assistance of citric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lulu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Shangqian; Chang, Qiaowan; Yue, Jeffrey; Du, Zheng; Shao, Minhua

    2016-04-26

    Core–shell structure is a promising alternative to solid platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A simple method of preparing palladium (Pd)–platinum (Pt) core–shell catalysts (Pd@Pt/C) in a gram-batch was developed with the assistance of citric acid. The Pt shell deposition involves three different pathways: galvanic displacement reaction between Pd atoms and Pt cations, chemical reduction by citric acid, and reduction by negative charges on Pd surfaces. The uniform ultrathin (~0.4 nm) Pt shell was characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Compared with state-of-the-art Pt/C, the Pd@Pt/C core–shell catalyst showed 4 times higher Pt mass activity and much better durability upon potential cycling. As a result, both the mass activity and durability were comparable to that of Pd@Pt/C synthesized by a Cu-mediated-Pt-displacement method, which is more complicated and difficult for mass production.

  4. Palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction prepared with the assistance of citric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lulu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Shangqian; Chang, Qiaowan; Yue, Jeffrey; Du, Zheng; Shao, Minhua

    2016-04-26

    Core–shell structure is a promising alternative to solid platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A simple method of preparing palladium (Pd)–platinum (Pt) core–shell catalysts (Pd@Pt/C) in a gram-batch was developed with the assistance of citric acid. The Pt shell deposition involves three different pathways: galvanic displacement reaction between Pd atoms and Pt cations, chemical reduction by citric acid, and reduction by negative charges on Pd surfaces. The uniform ultrathin (~0.4 nm) Pt shell was characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Compared with state-of-the-art Pt/C, the Pd@Pt/C core–shell catalyst showed 4 times higher Pt mass activity and much better durability upon potential cycling. As a result, both the mass activity and durability were comparable to that of Pd@Pt/C synthesized by a Cu-mediated-Pt-displacement method, which is more complicated and difficult for mass production.

  5. Palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction prepared with the assistance of citric acid

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Lulu; Su, Dong; Zhu, Shangqian; ...

    2016-04-26

    Core–shell structure is a promising alternative to solid platinum (Pt) nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A simple method of preparing palladium (Pd)–platinum (Pt) core–shell catalysts (Pd@Pt/C) in a gram-batch was developed with the assistance of citric acid. The Pt shell deposition involves three different pathways: galvanic displacement reaction between Pd atoms and Pt cations, chemical reduction by citric acid, and reduction by negative charges on Pd surfaces. The uniform ultrathin (~0.4 nm) Pt shell was characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopymore » (HAADF-STEM) images combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Compared with state-of-the-art Pt/C, the Pd@Pt/C core–shell catalyst showed 4 times higher Pt mass activity and much better durability upon potential cycling. As a result, both the mass activity and durability were comparable to that of Pd@Pt/C synthesized by a Cu-mediated-Pt-displacement method, which is more complicated and difficult for mass production.« less

  6. Preparation, characterization and application of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO core/shell magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R.Y. Zhang, S.Z.; Di, G.Q.; Li, H.Z.; Zheng, Y. Ding, J. Wei, D.G.

    2008-08-04

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The phase purity was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The crystal size was found to be 10 nm from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is evidenced that the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs was modified by sodium citrate. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO core/shell MNPs were obtained by coating the MNPs with direct precipitation using zinc acetate and ammonium carbonate. The precursor was firstly dried and then calcined at 350 deg. C. The antioxidation tests indicated that the core/shell MNPs give better antioxidation than that of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange revealed that the core/shell MNPs have higher photocatalytic activity than that of the ZnO nanoparticles. Separation of the core/shell MNPs from the aqueous suspension using a magnet provides an easy way to recycle the core/shell MNPs. After four-time recycling, the photocatalytic degradation percentage of the core/shell MNPs is about 70%.

  7. Pulsed laser deposited porous nano-carpets of indium tin oxide and their use as charge collectors in core-shell structures for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Timothy R.; Farnum, Byron H.; Lopez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much of the device improvement was shown to be due to the TiO2 shell blocking the recombination of photoelectrons with the electrolyte as recombination lifetimes increased drastically from a few seconds in uncoated ITO to over 50 minutes in the ITO with a TiO2 shell layer. Additionally, an order of magnitude increase in the electron transport rate in ITO/TiO2 (core/shell) films was observed, giving the core-shell structure a superior ratio of recombination/transport times.Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much

  8. Preparation of thermo and pH-responsive polymer@Au/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles as a carrier for delivery of anticancer agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Marjan; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Arsalani, Naser; Entezami, Ali Akbar

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a thermo and pH-responsive poly- N-isopropylacrylamide-co-itaconic acid containing thiol side groups were successfully synthesized to prepare Doxorubicin-loaded polymer@Au/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles (DOX-NPs). Copolymer and NPs were fully characterized by FT-IR, HNMR, photo-correlation spectroscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, thermal gravimetric analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The stimuli-responsive characteristics of NPs were evaluated by in vitro release study in simulated cancerous environment. The biocompatibility and cytotoxic properties of NPs and DOX-NPs are explored by MTT method. The prepared NPs with the size of 50 nm showed paramagnetic characteristics with suitable and stable dispersion at physiological medium and high loading capacity (up to 55 %) of DOX. DOX-NPs yielded a pH- and temperature-triggered release of entrapped drugs at tumor tissue environment (59 % of DOX release) compared to physiological condition (20 % of DOX release) during 48 h. In vitro cytotoxicity studies indicated that the NPs showed no cytotoxicity on A549 cells at different amounts after incubation for 72 h confirming its suitability as a drug carrier. DOX-NPs, on the other hand, caused an efficient anticancer performance as verified by MTT assay test. It was concluded that developed NPs by us in this study may open the possibilities for targeted delivery of DOX to the cancerous tissues.

  9. Surface protein imprinted core-shell particles for high selective lysozyme recognition prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinran; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Jianxi; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-12-24

    A novel kind of lysozyme (Lys) surface imprinted core-shell particles was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) strategy. With controllable polymer shell chain length, such particles showed obviously improved selectivity for protein recognition. After the RAFT initial agent and template protein was absorbed on silica particles, the prepolymerization solution, with methacrylic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate as the monomers, and N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) as the cross-linker, was mixed with the silica particles, and the polymerization was performed at 40 °C in aqueous phase through the oxidation-reduction initiation. Ater polymerization, with the template protein removal and destroying dithioester groups with hexylamine, the surface Lyz imprinted particles were obtained with controllable polymer chain length. The binding capacity of the Lys imprinted particles could reach 5.6 mg protein/g material, with the imprinting factor (IF) as 3.7, whereas the IF of the control material prepared without RAFT strategy was only 1.6. The absorption equilibrium could be achieved within 60 min. Moreover, Lys could be selectively recognized by the imprinted particles from both a four-proteins mixture and egg white sample. All these results demonstrated that these particles prepared by RAFT strategy are promising to achieve the protein recognition with high selectivity.

  10. Facile Preparation of Core-Shell Magnetic Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles for the Selective Capture of Phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yajing; Xiong, Zhichao; Peng, Li; Gan, Yangyang; Zhao, Yiman; Shen, Jie; Qian, Junhong; Zhang, Lingyi; Zhang, Weibing

    2015-08-05

    In regard to the phosphoproteome, highly specific and efficient capture of heteroideous kinds of phosphopeptides from intricate biological sample attaches great significance to comprehensive and in-depth phosphorylated proteomics research. However, until now, it has been a challenge. In this study, a new-fashioned porous immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) material was designed and fabricated to promote the selectivity and detection limit for phosphopeptides by covering a metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) shell onto Fe3O4 nanoparticles, taking advantage of layer-by-layer method (the synthesized nanoparticle denoted as Fe3O4@MIL-100 (Fe)). The thick layer renders the nanoparticles with perfect hydrophilic character, super large surface area, large immobilization of the Fe(3+) ions and the special porous structure. Specifically, the as-synthesized MOF-decorated magnetic nanoparticles own an ultra large surface area which is up to 168.66 m(2) g(-1) as well as two appropriate pore sizes of 1.93 and 3.91 nm with a narrow grain-size distribution and rapid separation under the magnetic circumstance. The unique features vested the synthesized nanoparticles an excellent ability for phosphopeptides enrichment with high selectivity for β-casein (molar ratio of β-casein/BSA, 1:500), large enrichment capacity (60 mg g(-1)), low detection limit (0.5 fmol), excellent phosphopeptides recovery (above 84.47%), fine size-exclusion of high molecular weight proteins, good reusability, and desirable batch-to-batch repeatability. Furthermore, encouraged by the experimental results, we successfully performed the as-prepared porous IMAC nanoparticle in the specific capture of phosphopeptides from the human serum (both the healthy and unhealthy) and nonfat milk, which proves itself to be a good candidate for the enrichment and detection of the low-abundant phosphopeptides from complicated biological samples.

  11. Crossover from disordered to core-shell structures of nano-oxide Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersed particles in Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M. P.; Wang, L. M.; Gao, F.; Lu, C. Y.; Lu, Z.; Shao, L.

    2016-07-18

    Molecular dynamic simulations of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in bcc Fe and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were used to understand the structure of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel matrix. The study showed that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters below 2 nm were completely disordered. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters above 2 nm, however, form a core-shell structure, with a shell thickness of 0.5–0.7 nm that is independent of nano-cluster size. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters were surrounded by off-lattice Fe atoms, further increasing the stability of these nano-clusters. TEM was used to corroborate our simulation results and showed a crossover from a disordered nano-cluster to a core-shell structure.

  12. Facile spray-drying/pyrolysis synthesis of core-shell structure graphite/silicon-porous carbon composite as a superior anode for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Hou, Xianhua; Sha, Yujing; Wang, Jie; Hu, Shejun; Liu, Xiang; Shao, Zongping

    2014-02-01

    A silicon/graphite/amorphous carbon (Si/C) composite with a low silicon content in a core-shell structure has been easily synthesized using a simple method based on spray drying in combination with a subsequent pyrolysis process; natural graphite serves as the core, and silicon nanoparticles, which filled in the porous carbon matrix formed from the pyrolysis of citric acid and pitch precursors, serve as the shell. The combination of the core-shell structure for the composite and porous carbon-coating layer accommodates the large volume change of the silicon during the lithium intercalation/extraction process, thus stabilizing the electrode structure during discharge/charge cycles. As an anode material, the as-obtained Si/C composite demonstrates high capacity and excellent cycle stability. An initial specific discharge capacity of approximately 723.8 mAh g-1 and a reversible specific capacity of approximately 600 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a constant density of 100 mA g-1 are reached, about two times the values for graphite. Due to the simple synthesis process and the excellent performance of the resulted electrode, great commercial potential is envisioned.

  13. Compensation temperature in a dendrimer nano-system with a core-shell structure: Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaj, A.; Jabar, A.; Labrim, H.; Ziti, S.; Bahmad, L.; Laânab, L.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the magnetic properties of a nanostructure based on an hexagonal core-shell geometry. The model is formed with core spins σ =3/2 and surface spins S=2. More precisely, we investigate the effect of the coupling exchange interactions in the absence/presence of both an external magnetic and crystal fields. In a first step, we elaborate the ground state phase diagrams, and then we discuss the stable phases. At different non null temperatures, we explore Monte Carlo to study computation and the magnetic properties. Among others, we find a compensation temperature between the spins σ and S. To close this study, we examine the hysteresis loop behaviors.

  14. One-pot synthesis of gold-palladium@palladium core-shell nanoflowers as efficient electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaoyu; Dai, Yuxuan; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong; Wei, Shaohua; Chen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple polyallylamine-assisted water-based synthesis is successfully used to synthesize high-quality gold-palladium@palladium (Au-Pd@Pd) core-shell nanoflowers. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, element mapping, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques are used to characterize the morphology, structure and composition of Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers. The as-prepared Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers exhibit significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in basic medium compared with commercial Pd black. In addition, Au-Pd@Pd core-shell nanoflowers also show higher durability for the EOR than commercial Pd black.

  15. Recent advances in the application of core-shell structured magnetic materials for the separation and enrichment of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man; Xie, Yiqin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2014-08-29

    Many endogenous proteins/peptides and proteins/peptides with post-translational modifications (PTMs) are presented at extremely low abundance, and they usually suffer strong interference with highly abundant proteins/peptides as well as other contaminants, resulting in low ionization efficiency in MS analysis. Therefore, the separation and enrichment of proteins/peptides from complex mixtures is of great importance to the successful identification of them. Core-shell structured magnetic microspheres have been widely used in the enrichment and isolation of proteins/peptides, thanks to unique properties such as strong magnetic responsiveness, outstanding binding capacity, excellent biocompatibility, robust mechanical strength and admirable recoverability. The aim of this review is to update the advances in the application of core-shell structured magnetic materials for proteomics analysis, including the separation and enrichment of low-concentration proteins/peptides, the selective enrichment of phosphoproteins and the selective enrichment of glycoproteins, and to compare the enrichment performance of magnetic microspheres with different kinds of functionalization.

  16. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Modeling of Gold Core-Shell Structures with Different Shell Morphology for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorunmez, Zohre; Jana, Debrina; He, Jie; Sagle, Laura; Beck, Thomas

    Core-shell (CS) nanostructures have received attention in recent years due to their usefulness in applications ranging from catalysis to cancer treatment. SERS has been shown to be one of the most sensitive techniques for molecular detection, achieving single molecule detection. It has been established that the electromagnetic mechanism (EM) provides the main contribution to SERS enhancement due to the normal Raman spectroscopy arising from coupling of both the incident and re-emitted fields. The FDTD technique has been developed to provide numerical solutions to Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations in order to promise modeling capabilities for EM enhancement of SERS. Herein, we apply this method to the study of three morphologically different gold core-shell nanoparticles to investigate their contributions to SERS. In these structures, the dye/probe molecule resides in between the shell and the core and only the shell morphology is altered. The data shows that the surface plasmon resonances (PRs) influencing the SERS of the probe molecules, due to the coupling of the core and shell, are tunable by changing the shell morphologies and CS structures with sharp features on their surfaces highlight larger enhancements due to stronger localized surface PRs. University of Cincinnati start-up funds, NSF, Ohio Supercomputer Center, and the Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Turkey.

  17. Effect of Paclitaxel-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with a Core-Shell Structure on the Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tieliang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A nanodrug delivery system of paclitaxel-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure (PAC-csMSN) was used to increase the dissolution of paclitaxel (PAC) and improve its treatment of lung cancer. PAC was loaded into the core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (csMSN) by the adsorption equilibrium method and was in an amorphous state in terms of its mesoporous structure. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that csMSN increased the dissolution rate of PAC and improved its lung absorption. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC) value of PAC-csMSN used for pulmonary delivery in rabbits was 2.678-fold higher than that obtained with the PAC. After continuous administration for 3 days, a lung biopsy showed no signs of inflammation. Cell apoptosis results obtained by flow cytometry indicated that PAC-csMSN was more potent than pure PAC in promoting cell apoptosis. An absorption investigation of PAC-csMSN in A549 cells was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The obtained results indicated that the cellular uptake was time-dependent and csMSN was uptaken into the cytoplasm. All these results demonstrate that csMSN have the potential to achieve pulmonary inhalation administration of poorly water-soluble drugs for the treatment of lung cancer.

  18. Effect of Paclitaxel-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with a Core-Shell Structure on the Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieliang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao

    2017-12-01

    A nanodrug delivery system of paclitaxel-mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a core-shell structure (PAC-csMSN) was used to increase the dissolution of paclitaxel (PAC) and improve its treatment of lung cancer. PAC was loaded into the core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles (csMSN) by the adsorption equilibrium method and was in an amorphous state in terms of its mesoporous structure. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that csMSN increased the dissolution rate of PAC and improved its lung absorption. The area under concentration-time curve (AUC) value of PAC-csMSN used for pulmonary delivery in rabbits was 2.678-fold higher than that obtained with the PAC. After continuous administration for 3 days, a lung biopsy showed no signs of inflammation. Cell apoptosis results obtained by flow cytometry indicated that PAC-csMSN was more potent than pure PAC in promoting cell apoptosis. An absorption investigation of PAC-csMSN in A549 cells was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The obtained results indicated that the cellular uptake was time-dependent and csMSN was uptaken into the cytoplasm. All these results demonstrate that csMSN have the potential to achieve pulmonary inhalation administration of poorly water-soluble drugs for the treatment of lung cancer.

  19. BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core-shell structured nanocomposites as visible-active photocatalysts and their optical response mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shun; Lin Yuanhua; Li Jingfeng; Nan Cewen; Zhang Boping

    2009-03-01

    Anatase titania-coated bismuth ferrite nanocomposites (BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}) have been fabricated via a hydrothermal approach combined with a hydrolysis precipitation processing. Analysis of the microstructure and phase composition reveals that a core-shell BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} structure can be formed, which results in a significant redshift in the UV-vis absorption spectra as compared to a simple mechanical mixture of BiFeO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The core-shell structured BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of Congo red under visible-light ({lambda}>400 nm) irradiation, which should be attributed to the enhancement of the quantum efficiency by separating the electrons and holes effectively. The obtained BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites can be used as potential visible-light driven photocatalysts.

  20. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in apparel textile by core-shell structured Fe3O4@silica@triblock-copolymer magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei; Liu, Minhua; Sun, Meirong; Chen, Kun; Cao, Xiujun; Hu, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, novel core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/silica nanocomposites with triblock-copolymer grafted on their surface (Fe3O4@SiO2@MDN) were successfully fabricated by combining a sol-gel method with a seeded aqueous-phase radical copolymerization approach. Owing to the excellent characteristics of the strong magnetic responsivity, outstanding hydrophilicity and abundant π-electron system, the obtained core-shell structured microspheres showed great potential as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent. Several kinds of phthalate esters (PAEs) were selected as model analytes to systematically evaluate the applicability of adsorbents for extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Various parameters, including adsorbents amounts, adsorption time, species of eluent, and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Validation experiments such as recovery, reproducibility, and limit of detection were carried on and showed satisfactory results. The analysis method showed excellent linearity with a wide range of 0.2-10mg/kg (R(2)>0.9974) and low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.02-0.09 mg/kg (S/N=3). Ultimately, the novel magnetic adsorbents were successfully employed to detect the PAEs in apparel textile samples. And the results indicated that this novel approach brought forward in the present work offered an attractive alternative for rapid, efficient and sensitive MSPE for PAEs compounds.

  1. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  2. Core-shell hybrid nanostructured delivery platforms for advanced RNAi therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sajeesh, S; Choe, Jeong Yong; Lee, Dong Ki

    2017-09-04

    Study was aimed at combining the advantages of nonclassical RNAi-triggering oligonucleotides with nanoparticle-based advanced delivery platforms for developing efficient therapeutic systems. We utilized a core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform for effectively delivering nonclassical RNAi triggers, namely long double stranded interfering RNA and tripodal interfering RNA. Core-shell structure was prepared by stably anchoring thiol-modified cationic polymer on the surface of growing crystal gold (Au) seeds, and the resulting particles were further complexed with nonclassical RNAi candidates via electrostatic interactions. Our studies clearly demonstrated that the unique combination of nonclassical RNAi structures with an advanced core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform is an effective module for advanced RNAi-based therapeutic development.

  3. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery.

    PubMed

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-22

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  4. Preparation of Fe(3)O(4)@C@CNC multifunctional magnetic core/shell nanoparticles and their application in a signal-type flow-injection photoluminescence immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengchao; Li, Meng; Li, Long; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2013-11-01

    We describe here the preparation of carbon-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that were further fabricated into multifunctional core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@C@CNCs) through a layer-by-layer self-assembly process of carbon nanocrystals (CNCs). The nanoparticles were applied in a photoluminescence (PL) immunosensor to detect the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CEA primary antibody was immobilized onto the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, CEA secondary antibody and glucose oxidase were covalently bonded to silica nanoparticles. After stepwise immunoreactions, the immunoreagent was injected into the PL cell using a flow-injection PL system. When glucose was injected, hydrogen peroxide was obtained because of glucose oxidase catalysis and quenched the PL of the Fe3O4@C@CNC nanoparticles. The here proposed PL immunosensor allowed us to determine CEA concentrations in the 0.005–50 ng·mL-1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 1.8 pg·mL-1.

  5. Preparation of core-shell magnetic molecular imprinted polymer with binary monomer for the fast and selective extraction of bisphenol A from milk.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanhao; Liu, Yan; Teng, Weidi; Tan, Jiean; Liang, Yong; Tang, Youwen

    2016-09-02

    In the current study, a new strategy for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from milk has been employed by using surface-imprinted core-shell magnetic beads, prepared by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In order to obtain highly selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, e.g. 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was chosen for BPA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic properties of the Fe3O4-MIP beads were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The characterization results suggested that MIP was synthesized evenly on Fe3O4-SiO2 surface. The adsorption experiments revealed that Fe3O4-MIPs showed better extraction capacity and selectivity toward BPA and its analogues than the non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The saturation capacity of Fe3O4-MIP was 17.98mg/g. In milk samples, the present method displayed a lower the detection thresholds, down to 3.7μg/L. The recoveries of BPA in milk samples for three concentrations were found to be within 99.21%, 98.07% and 97.23%, respectively to three concentrations: 1.0μmol/L, 10.0mol/L, 100.0μmol/L. Thus, the MIPs can be used for remove BPA in milk samples.

  6. Controlled preparation of Au/Ag/SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles using a photochemical method and applications in LSPR based sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Na; Ye, Chen; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Xu, Qing-Hua

    2015-05-01

    A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ~442 nm RIU-1. The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ~7.5 × 10-7 M. This photochemical method allows the controlled preparation of various Au/Ag/SnO2 nanoparticles to adjust their LSPR to suit various applications.A photochemical method for the controlled preparation of core-shell Au/Ag/SnO2 nanorods (NRs) and nanospheres (NSs) has been developed based on photo-induced electron transfer processes in the plasmonic metal-semiconductor system. Au/AgNR/SnO2 and Au/AgNS/SnO2 were prepared by the UV irradiation of a mixture of mesoporous SnO2 coated AuNRs, or AuNSs, and AgNO3, in which AgNO3 was reduced by electrons transferred from the photo-excited mesoporous SnO2 (semiconductor) to the gold (metal). This method allows precise control over the composition and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles. The LSPR refractive index sensitivity of the obtained Au/AgNR/SnO2 nanoparticles has been optimized to obtain a refractive index sensitivity of ~442 nm RIU-1. The optimized nanoparticles were subsequently chosen for the LSPR based sensing of glutathione (GSH) with the limit of detection of ~7.5 × 10-7 M. This photochemical method allows

  7. Structural and optical nanoscale analysis of GaN core-shell microrod arrays fabricated by combined top-down and bottom-up process on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wen, Baomei; Blanchard, Paul; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew R.; Davydov, Albert V.; Christen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Large arrays of GaN core-shell microrods were fabricated on Si(111) substrates applying a combined bottom-up and top-down approach which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of patterned GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and selective overgrowth of obtained GaN/Si pillars using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The structural and optical properties of individual core-shell microrods have been studied with a nanometer scale spatial resolution using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) directly performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). SEM, TEM, and CL measurements reveal the formation of distinct growth domains during the HVPE overgrowth. A high free-carrier concentration observed in the non-polar \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} HVPE shells is assigned to in-diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate. In contrast, the HVPE shells directly grown on top of the c-plane of the GaN pillars reveal a lower free-carrier concentration.

  8. Precise Tuning of the Nanostructured Surface leading to the Luminescence Enhancement in SrAl2O4 Based Core/Shell Structure.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Rocío Estefanía; Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Serrano, Aida; Del Campo, Adolfo; Fernandez, José Francisco

    2017-03-28

    Intensive research has been focused on the synthesis of long-lasting SrAl2O4:EuDy in luminescent materials field. Traditionally, SrAl2O4:EuDy is synthesized in bulk form by solid state. However, their development remains restrained due to this technique is not compatible with large-scale production, sustainability and nanometer-scale requirements. Despite nano-range particles have been obtained by chemical routes, photoluminescence response decreases and application became unpractical. It remains a challenge to synthesize nonrare-earth (RE) phosphors with high photoluminescence. One major challenge for the luminescent materials community is to devise methods to deliver innovative, sustainable and cost effective solutions for the reduction of RE because of the lack of RE availability. Here, we suggest a solution based on molten salts, obtaining nanosheets or micro/nanostructured SrAl2O4:Eu, Dy particles with core-shell structure, employing only 50% of standard amounts of RE. Core-size and shell thickness and crystallinity can be tuned by post-thermal treatment, through which can be modulated the Eu(+2) fraction. We find that our methodology leads the functional features of the analogous micron counterpart. These results can be considered a great achievement to scale-up the process. Besides, the harmful collateral effect of nanotechnology must be addressed by using new safe by design core-shell nanostructures.

  9. Ultrasonic assisted rapid synthesis of high uniform super-paramagnetic microspheres with core-shell structure and robust magneto-chromatic ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Chen, Jiahua; Wang, Wei; Lu, GongXuan; Hao, Lingyun; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi

    2017-03-01

    Super-paramagnetic core-shell microspheres were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted routine under low ultrasonic irradiation powers. Compared with conventional routine, ultrasonic effect could not only improve the uniformity of the core-shell structure of Fe3O4@SiO2, but shorten the synthesis time in large scale. Owing to their hydrophilicity and high surface charge, the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres could be dispersed well in distilled water to form homogeneous colloidal suspension. The suspensions have favorable magneto-chromatic ability that they sensitively exhibit brilliant colorful ribbons by magnetic attraction. The colorful ribbons, which distributed along the magnetic lines, make morphology of the magnetic fields become "visible" to naked eyed. Those colorful ribbons originate from strong magnetic interaction between the microspheres and magnetic fields. Furthermore, the magneto-chromatic performance is reversible as the colorful ribbons vanished rapidly with the removing of magnetic fields. The silica layer effectively enhanced the acid resistance and surface-oxidation resistance of theFe3O4@SiO2 microspheres, so they could exhibit stable magnetic nature and robust magneto-chromatic property in acid environment.

  10. Influence of SiO2 shell thickness on power conversion efficiency in plasmonic polymer solar cells with Au nanorod@SiO2 core-shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ran; Zhou, Yongfang; Peng, Ling; Li, Xue; Chen, Shufen; Feng, Xiaomiao; Guan, Yuqiao; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Locating core-shell metal nanoparticles into a photoactive layer or at the interface of photoactive layer/hole extraction layer is beneficial for fully employing surface plasmon energy, thus enhancing power conversion efficiency (PCE) in plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Herein, we first investigated the influence of silica shell thickness in Au nanorods (NRs)@SiO2 core-shell structures on OPV performances by inserting them into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) interface, and amazedly found that a 2–3 nm silica shell onto Au NRs induces a highest short-circuit current density of 21.2 mA cm‑2 and PCE of 9.55%. This is primarily due to an extremely strong local field and a much slower attenuation of localized surface plasmon resonance around ultrathin silica-coated Au NRs, with which the field intensity remains a high value in the active layer, thus sufficiently improves the absorption of PTB7. Our work provides a clear design concept on precise control of the shell of metal nanoparticles to realize high performances in plasmonic OPVs.

  11. Influence of SiO2 shell thickness on power conversion efficiency in plasmonic polymer solar cells with Au nanorod@SiO2 core-shell structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Zhou, Yongfang; Peng, Ling; Li, Xue; Chen, Shufen; Feng, Xiaomiao; Guan, Yuqiao; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-29

    Locating core-shell metal nanoparticles into a photoactive layer or at the interface of photoactive layer/hole extraction layer is beneficial for fully employing surface plasmon energy, thus enhancing power conversion efficiency (PCE) in plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). Herein, we first investigated the influence of silica shell thickness in Au nanorods (NRs)@SiO2 core-shell structures on OPV performances by inserting them into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7) interface, and amazedly found that a 2-3 nm silica shell onto Au NRs induces a highest short-circuit current density of 21.2 mA cm(-2) and PCE of 9.55%. This is primarily due to an extremely strong local field and a much slower attenuation of localized surface plasmon resonance around ultrathin silica-coated Au NRs, with which the field intensity remains a high value in the active layer, thus sufficiently improves the absorption of PTB7. Our work provides a clear design concept on precise control of the shell of metal nanoparticles to realize high performances in plasmonic OPVs.

  12. Pulsed laser deposited porous nano-carpets of indium tin oxide and their use as charge collectors in core-shell structures for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Timothy R; Farnum, Byron H; Lopez, Rene

    2015-02-14

    Porous In2O3:Sn (ITO) films resembling from brush carpets to open moss-like discrete nanostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition under low to high background gas pressures, respectively. The charge transport properties of these mesoporous substrates were probed by pulsed laser photo-current and -voltage transient measurements in N719 dye sensitized devices. Although the cyclic voltammetry and dye adsorption measurements suggest a lower proportion of electro-active dye molecules for films deposited at the high-end background gas pressures, the transient measurements indicate similar electron transport rates within the films. Solar cell operation was achieved by the deposition of a conformal TiO2 shell layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Much of the device improvement was shown to be due to the TiO2 shell blocking the recombination of photoelectrons with the electrolyte as recombination lifetimes increased drastically from a few seconds in uncoated ITO to over 50 minutes in the ITO with a TiO2 shell layer. Additionally, an order of magnitude increase in the electron transport rate in ITO/TiO2 (core/shell) films was observed, giving the core-shell structure a superior ratio of recombination/transport times.

  13. Metal Oxide Assisted Preparation of Core-Shell Beads with Dense Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Enhanced Extraction of Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Mateo; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Gonzalez, Veronica; Maya, Fernando; Parra, Jose B; Cerdà, Victor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-08-08

    Dense and homogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings on functional bead surfaces are easily prepared by using intermediate sacrificial metal oxide coatings containing the metal precursor of the MOF. Polystyrene (PS) beads are coated with a ZnO layer to give ZnO@PS core-shell beads. The ZnO@PS beads are reactive in the presence of 2-methylimidazole to transform part of the ZnO coating into a porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) external shell positioned above the internal ZnO precursor shell. The obtained ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads can be easily packed in column format for flow-through applications, such as the solid-phase extraction of trace priority-listed environmental pollutants. The prepared material shows an excellent permeance to flow when packed as a column to give high enrichment factors, facile regeneration, and excellent reusability for the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A. It also shows an outstanding performance for the simultaneous enrichment of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol), facilitating their analysis when present at very low levels (<1 μg L(-1) ) in drinking waters. For the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A, the prepared ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads also show a superior extraction and preconcentration capacity to that of the PS beads used as precursors and the composite materials obtained by the direct growth of ZIF-8 on the surface of the PS beads in the absence of metal oxide intermediate coatings.

  14. Dual Drug Release Electrospun Core-Shell Nanofibers with Tunable Dose in the Second Phase

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Deng-Guang; Li, Ying; Liao, Yao-Zu; Wang, Xia; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a new type of drug-loaded core-shell nanofibers capable of providing dual controlled release with tunable dose in the second phase. The core-shell nanofibers were fabricated through a modified coaxial electrospinning using a Teflon-coated concentric spinneret. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and ethyl cellulose were used as the shell and core polymer matrices respectively, and the content of active ingredient acetaminophen (APAP) in the core was programmed. The Teflon-coated concentric spinneret may facilitate the efficacious and stable preparation of core-shell nanofibers through the modified coaxial electrospinning, where the core fluids were electrospinnable and the shell fluid had no electrospinnability. The resultant nanofibers had linear morphologies and clear core-shell structures, as observed by the scanning and transmission electron microscopic images. APAP was amorphously distributed in the shell and core polymer matrices due to the favorite second-order interactions, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopic tests. The results from the in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the core-shell nanofibers were able to furnish the desired dual drug controlled-release profiles with a tunable drug release amount in the second phase. The modified coaxial electrospinning is a useful tool to generate nanostructures with a tailored components and compositions in their different parts, and thus to realize the desired functional performances. PMID:24406731

  15. Influence of core size on the upconversion luminescence properties of spherical Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2} particles with core-shell structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Kezhi; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Ye; Song, Weiye; Qin, Weiping

    2013-11-14

    Spherical SiO{sub 2} particles with different sizes (30, 80, 120, and 180 nm) have been coated with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} layers by a heterogeneous precipitation method, leading to the formation of core-shell structural Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+}@SiO{sub 2} particles. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, upconversion (UC) emission spectra, and fluorescent dynamical analysis. The obtained core-shell particles have perfect spherical shape with narrow size distribution. Under the excitation of 980 nm diode laser, the core-shell samples showed size-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) properties. The inner SiO{sub 2} cores in core-shell samples were proved to have limited effect on the total UCL intensities of Er{sup 3+} ions. The UCL intensities of core-shell particles were demonstrated much higher than the values obtained in pure Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Yb{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} with the same phosphor volume. The dependence of the specific area of a UCL shell on the size of its inner SiO{sub 2} particle was calculated and analyzed for the first time. It was confirmed that the surface effect came from the outer surfaces of emitting shells is dominant in influencing the UCL property in the core-shell samples. Three-photon UC processes for the green emissions were observed in the samples with small sizes of SiO{sub 2} cores. The results of dynamical analysis illustrated that more nonradiative relaxation occurred in the core-shell samples with smaller SiO{sub 2} core sizes.

  16. Robust preparation of core-shell type silica/polymer nanocomposites by using surface-initiated ARGET ATRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Thanh Binh; Tran, Thi Nga; Kim, Dong Woo; Lim, Kwon Taek; Hong, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan

    2015-01-01

    A facile route for covalent functionalization of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated. The surfaces of the SiO2 nanoparticles were treated with 2-bromo-2-methyl-N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] propanamide to introduce the initiator moieties on the surface. Subsequently, activators regenerated by using electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) of methyl methacrylate were employed for the preparation of SiO2/PMMA nanocomposites with a CuBr2/ N,N,N', N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine catalyst system and a tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate reducing agent. The modification of SiO2 was confirmed by surface analyses including Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A thermogravimetric analysis was used to evaluate the thermal properties and the grafting density. The colloidal stability of silica nanoparticles in a common organic solvent was explicitly shown to have been remarkably improved by the grafting process.

  17. Lateral structuring and stability phenomena induced by block copolymers and core-shell nanogel particles at immiscible polymer/polymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozen, Arif Omer

    We have investigated the parameters such as copolymer/nanoparticle concentration, architecture and molecular weight combined with film thickness, time and temperature in order to develop a molecular-level insight on how lateral interfacial structuring occurs at immiscible polymer/polymer interfaces. I order to develop a molecular-level understanding of how these 'smart' self-assembling materials and core-shell nanogel particles interact both intra- and inter-molecularly and form ordered structures in bulk, as well as at immiscible interfaces, we first focused on the response of core-shell polymer nanoparticles, designated CSNGs, composed of a cross-linked divinylbenzene core and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) arms as they segregate from PMMA homopolymer. We have demonstrated that these nanogel particles exhibit autophobic character when dispersed in high molecular weight homopolymer matrices and segregate to the interface with another fluid. We have further explored the migration of these new-generation nanogel particles (CSNG-Rs) segregating from PS homopolymer to PS/PMMA interfaces. Unlike the instability patterns observed with the CSNGs, which exhibit classical nucleation and growth mechanism with circular hole formation, we have observed an intriguing dewetting pattern and CSNG-Rs forming lateral aggregates and tentacle-like structures at the interface. In parallel with our core-shell particle studies, we have also explored the structuring of copolymer molecules that are far from equilibrium in bulk and complex laminate of polymer thin films. Our early triblock copolymer studies have proven that molecular asymmetry has a profound effect on order-disorder transition temperature. We focused primarily on the effect of the copolymer chemical composition (i.e., block sizes) on the dewetting behavior of PS/SM thin films on PMMA. We elucidate the interfacial segregation and concurrent micellization of diblock copolymers in a dynamically evolving environment with

  18. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Benhadjala, W.; Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M.; Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y.; Suhir, E.; Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V.

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  19. Biodegradable m-PEG/PCL Core-Shell Micelles: Preparation and Characterization as a Sustained Release Formulation for Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Danafar, Hossein; Davaran, Soodabeh; Rostamizadeh, Kobra; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Among the potent anticancer agents, curcumin is known as a very efficacious against many different types of cancer cells, but its clinical applications has been limited because of hydrophobicity, low gastrointestinal absorption, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. In this way, a novel micellar delivery system with mPEG–PCL was synthesized and the release profile of the curcumin from the drug-loaded micelles was evaluated. Methods: In this study, curcumin was encapsulated within monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to creation of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PCL (Cur/mPEG-PCL) micelles. Di-block mPEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare micelles. mPEG-PCL copolymer was characterized in vitro by HNMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. Then, mPEG–PCL copolymers with curcumin were self-assembled into micelles in aqueous solution. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results: The findings showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin-loaded micelles. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was 88 ± 3.32%. The results of AFM revealed that the micelles have spherical shapes with size of 73.8 nm. The release behavior of curcumin from micelles was compared in different media. In vitro release of curcumin from curcumin-entrapped micelles was followed remarkably sustained profile. The sustained release of drug was hypothetically due to the entrapment of curcumin in core of micelles. Conclusion: The results indicate the successful formulation of curcumin loaded m-PEG/PCL micelles. From the results, iIt can be concluded that curcumin m-PEG-PCL micelles may be considered as an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. PMID:25671181

  20. Nanoscale Phase-Separated Structure in Core-Shell Nanoparticles of SiO2-Si1-xGexO2 Glass Revealed by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yugo; Yonezawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-09-05

    SiO2-based optical fibers are indispensable components of modern information communication technologies. It has recently become increasingly important to establish a technique for visualizing the nanoscale phase-separated structure inside SiO2-GeO2 glass nanoparticles during the manufacturing of SiO2-GeO2 fibers. This is because the rapidly increasing price of Ge has made it necessary to improve the Ge yield by clarifying the detailed mechanism of Ge diffusion into SiO2. However, direct observation of the internal nanostructure of glass particles has been extremely difficult, mainly due to electrostatic charging and the damage induced by electron and X-ray irradiation. In the present study, we used state-of-the-art scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to examine cross-sectional samples of SiO2-GeO2 particles embedded in an epoxy resin, which were fabricated using a broad Ar ion beam and a focused Ga ion beam. These advanced techniques enabled us to observe the internal phase-separated structure of the nanoparticles. We have for the first time clearly determined the SiO2-Si1-xGexO2 core-shell structure of such particles, the element distribution, the degree of crystallinity, and the quantitative chemical composition of microscopic regions, and we discuss the formation mechanism for the observed structure. The proposed imaging protocol is highly promising for studying the internal structure of various core-shell nanoparticles, which affects their catalytic, optical, and electronic properties.

  1. Preparation and characterization of ZnS:Fe/MX (M = Cd, Zn; X = S, Se) core-shell nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihua; Xie, Ruishi; Gu, Yongjun; Huang, Jinliang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    ZnS:Fe/MX (M = Cd, Zn; X = S, Se) nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. Compared to ZnS:Fe nanocrystals, the diffraction peaks intensity of ZnS:Fe/ZnS nanocrystals reduced and the diffraction peaks of ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals moved to lower angles. TEM photos show that ZnS:Fe and ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals are spheroidal and the average particles size is about 2-4 nm. The selected-area electron diffraction pattern of ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals shows the diffraction rings, indicating the ZnS:Fe/ZnSe nanocrystals have a polycrystalline structure. XPS shows that the divalent and trivalent of Fe ion are coexisted in ZnS:Fe nanocrystals. The emission peaks of ZnS:Fe nanocrystals were from S and Zn ions vacancy defects and surface defects for the range of 200-900 nm. The use of ZnS (CdS, ZnSe) as surface modifying reagent inhibited the luminescent intensity of ZnS:Fe nanocrystallines at 420 nm. The PL spectra of ZnS:Fe/CdS nanocrystals show a new peak at 554 nm.

  2. Magnetic behavior of core shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Rong; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, I.-Han

    2006-09-01

    We have prepared composite magnetic core-shell particles using the process of soap-free emulsion polymerization and the co-precipitation method. The shell of the synthesized composite sphere is cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) nanoparticles and the core consists of poly(styrene-co-methacrylic acid) polymer. The mean crystallite sizes of the coated CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles were controlled in the range of 2.4-6.7 nm by the concentration of [NH 4+] and heated temperature. The magnetic properties of the core-shell spherical particles can go from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behavior depending on the crystalline sizes of CoFe 2O 4.

  3. Mechanism of in situ surface polymerization of gallic acid in an environmental-inspired preparation of carboxylated core-shell magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Ildikó Y; Szekeres, Márta; Turcu, Rodica; Sáringer, Szilárd; Illés, Erzsébet; Nesztor, Dániel; Tombácz, Etelka

    2014-12-30

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with biocompatible coatings are good candidates for MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrasting, magnetic hyperthermia treatments, and drug delivery systems. The spontaneous surface induced polymerization of dissolved organic matter on environmental mineral particles inspired us to prepare carboxylated core-shell MNPs by using a ubiquitous polyphenolic precursor. Through the adsorption and in situ surface polymerization of gallic acid (GA), a polygallate (PGA) coating is formed on the nanoparticles (PGA@MNP) with possible antioxidant capacity. The present work explores the mechanism of polymerization with the help of potentiometric acid-base titration, dynamic light scattering (for particle size and zeta potential determination), UV-vis (UV-visible light spectroscopy), FTIR-ATR (Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflection), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) techniques. We observed the formation of ester and ether linkages between gallate monomers both in solution and in the adsorbed state. Higher polymers were formed in the course of several weeks both on the surface of nanoparticles and in the dispersion medium. The ratio of the absorbances of PGA supernatants at 400 and 600 nm (i.e., the E4/E6 ratio commonly used to characterize the degree of polymerization of humic materials) was determined to be 4.3, similar to that of humic acids. Combined XPS, dynamic light scattering, and FTIR-ATR results revealed that, prior to polymerization, the GA monomers became oxidized to poly(carboxylic acid)s due to ring opening while Fe(3+) ions reduced to Fe(2+). Our published results on the colloidal and chemical stability of PGA@MNPs are referenced thoroughly in the present work. Detailed studies on biocompatibility, antioxidant property, and biomedical applicability of the particles will be published.

  4. Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb, Tm/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles with controllable shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daisheng; Zhao, Dan; Zheng, Kezhi; Liu, Ning; Qin, Weiping

    2011-11-01

    NaYF4:Yb, Tm/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a two-step method. First, the NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals were prepared using solvothermal technology; then, TiO2 shells were deposited on the nanocrystals by the hydrolysis of titanium ethoxide (TEOT) to form core/shell structures. By controlling the reaction time, we can adjust the thickness of TiO2 shell and thereby the weight percentage of TiO2 in the core/shell nanoparticles. The effect of shell thickness on the upconversion fluorescence of NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals was investigated in detail.

  5. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Tali, S. A. Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S.; Sanaee, Z.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C2H2 and N2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm2 (45 F/cm3) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 103 Wh/m3 (8.3 × 106 J/m3) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 108 W/m3 which is among the highest reported values. PMID:28186204

  6. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tali, S. A. Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S.; Sanaee, Z.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2017-02-01

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C2H2 and N2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm2 (45 F/cm3) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 103 Wh/m3 (8.3 × 106 J/m3) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 108 W/m3 which is among the highest reported values.

  7. Nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon-silicon core-shell structures for high-power supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tali, S A Safiabadi; Soleimani-Amiri, S; Sanaee, Z; Mohajerzadeh, S

    2017-02-10

    We report successful deposition of nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon films to realize high-power core-shell supercapacitor electrodes. A catalyst-free method is proposed to deposit large-area stable, highly conformal and highly conductive nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C:N) films by means of a direct-current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (DC-PECVD). This approach exploits C2H2 and N2 gases as the sources of carbon and nitrogen constituents and can be applied to various micro and nanostructures. Although as-deposited a-C:N films have a porous surface, their porosity can be significantly improved through a modification process consisting of Ni-assisted annealing and etching steps. The electrochemical analyses demonstrated the superior performance of the modified a-C:N as a supercapacitor active material, where specific capacitance densities as high as 42 F/g and 8.5 mF/cm(2) (45 F/cm(3)) on silicon microrod arrays were achieved. Furthermore, this supercapacitor electrode showed less than 6% degradation of capacitance over 5000 cycles of a galvanostatic charge-discharge test. It also exhibited a relatively high energy density of 2.3 × 10(3) Wh/m(3) (8.3 × 10(6) J/m(3)) and ultra-high power density of 2.6 × 10(8) W/m(3) which is among the highest reported values.

  8. Structural and chemical evolution of the spontaneous core-shell structures of AlxGa1-xN/GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Fath Allah, Rabie; Ben, Teresa; González, David

    2014-08-01

    A study by electron microscopy techniques of the structural and compositional properties of Al x Ga1-x N/GaN nanowire (NW) heterostructures on Si(111) is presented. Al x Ga1-x N depositions grown without catalyst by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were designed to form NWs in the range of 0.20core-shell radial structure with a complex chemical distribution along and across the growth direction that finally affects the NW morphology. All the wires have an initial stage with a maximum Al content in the core slightly above the GaN/Al x Ga1-x N interface, which initially decreases exponentially with the NW height depending on the nominal Al content and the growth temperature. In longer NWs, this trend changes and evolves increasing both the Al/Ga ratio and the core diameter as well as sharpening the shell. Adatom surface kinetic differences and the geometrical shadow effect during the growth are the probable drivers of this behavior.

  9. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-08-30

    Lead halide perovskite materials are blooming for optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to their extreme ease for hydrolysis is still a bottleneck for their potential applications. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained with modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed core-shell like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of luminescence of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the PL-inactive CsPb2Br5-coating with wide bandgap. The water-stable-enhanced NCs pave a pathway for more stable QLED applications and even biological fluorescence detection applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. The Electronic Structure of CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Seeded Nanorods: Type-I or Quasi-Type-II?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure of CdSe/CdS core/shell seeded nanorods of experimentally relevant size is studied using a combination of molecular dynamics and semiempirical pseudopotential techniques with the aim to address the transition from type-I to a quasi-type-II band alignment. The hole is found to be localized in the core region regardless of its size. The overlap of the electron density with the core region depends markedly on the size of the CdSe core. For small cores, we observe little overlap, consistent with type-II behavior. For large cores, significant core-overlap of a number of excitonic states can lead to type-I behavior. When electron–hole interactions are taken into account, the core-overlap is further increased. Our calculations indicate that the observed transition from type-II to type-I is largely due to simple volume effects and not to band alignment. PMID:24215466

  11. Synthesis of TiN-BaTiO3 core-shell structured ceramics: A new approach to ferroelectric thin-film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Masayuki; Cheng, Ikung; Kao, Yuju; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Sano, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of the topotaxial growth of perovskite BaTiO3 on TiN by a solid-state reaction between BaCO3 and TiN. The sintering of the BaTiO3 powder in a conventional controlled-atmosphere continuous furnace is also quite unique in the sense that it mainly involves the mass transfer of BaTiO3 shell layers by diffusion. Consequently, the TiN core does not actually contribute to the sintering process, as its diffusion activity is very low. Thus, the obtained core-shell structured TiN-BaTiO3 ceramic is rather unique in having a retained TiN core that can act as a noncontact metallic electrode.

  12. Triple-functional core-shell structured upconversion luminescent nanoparticles covalently grafted with photosensitizer for luminescent, magnetic resonance imaging and photodynamic therapy in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Jia-Cai; Xiao, Jia-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fu; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical fields, due to their characteristic large anti-Stokes shifts, narrow emission bands, deep tissue penetration and minimal background interference. UCNPs-derived multifunctional materials that integrate the merits of UCNPs and other functional entities have also attracted extensive attention. Here in this paper we present a core-shell structured nanomaterial, namely, NaGdF4:Yb,Er@CaF2@SiO2-PS, which is multifunctional in the fields of photodynamic therapy (PDT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence/luminescence imaging. The NaGdF4:Yb,Er@CaF2 nanophosphors (10 nm in diameter) were prepared via sequential thermolysis, and mesoporous silica was coated as shell layer, in which photosensitizer (PS, hematoporphyrin and silicon phthalocyanine dihydroxide) was covalently grafted. The silica shell improved the dispersibility of hydrophobic PS molecules in aqueous environments, and the covalent linkage stably anchored the PS molecules in the silica shell. Under excitation at 980 nm, the as-fabricated nanomaterial gave luminescence bands at 550 nm and 660 nm. One luminescent peak could be used for fluorescence imaging and the other was suitable for the absorption of PS to generate singlet oxygen for killing cancer cells. The PDT performance was investigated using a singlet oxygen indicator, and was investigated in vitro in HeLa cells using a fluorescent probe. Meanwhile, the nanomaterial displayed low dark cytotoxicity and near-infrared (NIR) image in HeLa cells. Further, benefiting from the paramagnetic Gd3+ ions in the core, the nanomaterial could be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the clinical commercial contrast agent Gd-DTPA, the as-fabricated nanomaterial showed a comparable longitudinal relaxivities value (r1) and similar imaging effect.Upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been widely used in many biochemical

  13. Facile synthesis of CdS/C core-shell nanospheres with ultrathin carbon layer for enhanced photocatalytic properties and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Fu; Zhao, Yu-Ling; Guo, Yan-Chuan; Gong, Peijun; Li, Zheng-Quan; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we described a facile one-pot hydrothermal process developed to synthesize CdS/C core-shell nanospheres successfully. The as-prepared CdS/C core-shell nanospheres are with 100 nm in diameter and the amorphous carbon shell is with several nanometers in thickness. The phase, morphology and structures of the samples were investigated by X-ray power diffraction (XRD) analyses, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, JEOL-6700F) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL 3010); respectively. The as-prepared CdS/C core-shell nanospheres showed enhanced photocatalytic properties and photostability compared to the single counterpart of CdS nanospheres owing to the efficiently separation of photogenerated electrons (e-) and holes (h+) derived from the photocatalyst. In addition, the as-prepared CdS/C core-shell nanospheres might find wide application in wastewater treatment, solar cells, lithium ion batteries, etc.

  14. [Removal and Recycle of Phosphor from Water Using Magnetic Core/Shell Structured Fe₃O₄ @ SiO₂Nanoparticles Functionalized with Hydrous Aluminum Oxide].

    PubMed

    Lai, Li; Xie, Qiang; Fang, Wen-kan; Xing, Ming-chao; Wu, De-yi

    2016-04-15

    A novel magnetic core/shell structured nano-particle Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂phosphor-removal ahsorbent functionalized with hydrous aluminum oxides (Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O) was synthesized. Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O was characterized by XRD, TEM, VSM and BET nitrogen adsorption experiment. The XRD and TEM results demonstrated the presence of the core/shell structure, with saturated magnetization and specific surface area of 56.00 emu · g⁻¹ and 47.27 m² · g⁻¹, respectively. In batch phosphor adsorption experiment, the Langmuir adsorption maximum capacity was 12.90 mg · g⁻¹ and nearly 96% phosphor could be rapidly removed within a contact time of 40 mm. Adsorption of phosphor on Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃ · nH₂O was highly dependent on pH condition, and the favored pH range was 5-9 in which the phosphor removal rate was above 90%. In the treatment of sewage water, the recommended dosage was 1.25 kg · t⁻¹. In 5 cycles of adsorption-regeneration-desorption experiment, over 90% of the adsorbed phosphor could be desorbed with 1 mol · L⁻¹ NaOH, and Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O could be reused after regeneration by pH adjustment with slightly decreased phosphor removal rate with increasing recycling number, which proved the recyclability of Fe₃O₄@ SiO₂@ Al₂O₃· nH₂O and thereby its potential in recycling of phosphor resources.

  15. Determination of and evidence for non-core-shell structure of particles containing black carbon using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J., III; Lewis, Ernie R.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The large uncertainty associated with black carbon (BC) direct forcing is due, in part, to the dependence of light absorption of BC-containing particles on the position of the BC within the particle. It is predicted that this absorption will be greatest for an idealized core-shell configuration in which the BC is a sphere at the center of the particle whereas much less absorption should be observed for particles in which the BC is located near or on the surface. Such microphysical information on BC-containing particles has previously been provided only by labor-intensive microscopy techniques, thus often requiring that climate modelers make assumptions about the location of the BC within the particle that are based more on mathematical simplicity than physical reality. The present paper describes a novel analysis method that utilizes the temporal behavior of the scattering and incandescence signals from individual particles containing refractory BC (rBC) measured by the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to distinguish particles with rBC near the surface from those that have structures more closely resembling the core-shell configuration. This approach permits collection of a high-time-resolution data set of the fraction of rBC-containing particles with rBC near the surface. By application of this method to a plume containing tracers for biomass burning, it was determined that this fraction was greater than 60%. Such a data set will not only provide previously unavailable information to the climate modeling community, allowing greater accuracy in calculating rBC radiative forcing, but also will yield insight into aerosol processes.

  16. Core/shell colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Benoit; Nadal, Brice; Bouet, Cecile; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoit

    2012-11-14

    We have recently synthesized atomically flat semiconductor colloidal nanoplatelets with quasi 2D geometry. Here, we show that core/shell nanoplatelets can be obtained with a 2D geometry that is conserved. The epitaxial growth of the shell semiconductor is performed at room temperature. We report the detailed synthesis of CdSe/CdS and CdSe/CdZnS structures with different shell thicknesses. The shell growth is characterized both spectroscopically and structurally. In particular, the core/shell structure appears very clearly on high-resolution, high-angle annular dark-field transmission electron microscope images, thanks to the difference of atomic density between the core and the shell. When the nanoplatelets stand on their edge, we can precisely count the number of atomic planes forming the core and the shell. This provides a direct measurement, with atomic precision, of the core nanoplatelets thickness. The constraints exerted by the shell growth on the core is analyzed using global phase analysis. The core/shell nanoplatelets we obtained have narrow emission spectra with full-width at half-maximum close to 20 nm, and quantum yield that can reach 60%.

  17. Effects of core/shell structure on magnetic induction heating promotion in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shih-Chi; Fu, Chao-Ming; Chang, Fu-Hsiung

    2013-10-01

    Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have demonstrated superior heating efficiency by applying the alternating magnetic field. The magnetic induction heating properties of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles were analyzed by the rate-dependent hysteresis model, taken into account the magnetic anisotropies and actual size distribution of particles. The analyzed results have disclosed the significance of magnetic anisotropies and shell-thickness to the promotion of magnetic induction heating performance. Further experiments about the cancer cells with uptake of these core-shell magnetic nanoparticles conjugated biocompatible cationic liposomes have achieved in vitro intracellular magnetically induced hyperthermia under a weak alternating magnetic field.

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Myung, Seung-Taek; Sun, Yang-Kook

    Micro-scale core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 powders for use as cathode material are synthesized by a co-precipitation method. To protect the core material Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 from structural instability at high voltage, a Li[Ni 1/2Mn 1/2]O 2 shell, which provides structural and thermal stability, is used to encapsulate the core. A mixture of the prepared core-shell precursor and lithium hydroxide is calcined at 770 °C for 12 h in air. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the prepared material has a typical layered structure with an R 3 bar m space group. Spherical morphologies with mono-dispersed powders are observed in the cross-sectional images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The core-shell Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 electrode has an excellent capacity retention at 30 °C, maintaining 99% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles in the voltage range of 3-4.5 V. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the core-shell material in the highly delithiated state is improved compared to that of the core material. The resulting exothermic onset temperature appear at approximately 272 °C, which is higher than that of the highly delithiated Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 (261 °C).

  19. Structural Transitions from Pyramidal to Fused Planar to Tubular to Core/Shell Compact in Gold Clusters: Au-n (n=21-25)

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, Satya; Li, Xi; Wang, Lai S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2007-03-22

    We report a joint theoretical and experimental study of low-lying structures and structural transitions of gold cluster anions Aun- in the size range of n ) 21-25. Well-resolved photoelectron spectra are used to compare with density functional theory calculations and to identify the low-lying structures of the gold cluster anions. Due to the high stability of the tetrahedral Au20, the pyramid-based structures are found to be competitive for n ) 21-23. In addition to the pyramid-based structures, global-minimum searches also reveal two other generic structural types of low-lying clusters in the size range of n ) 21-24, namely, the fused-planar and the hollow-tubular structures. At n ) 24, the pyramid-based structures are no longer competitive and the hollow-tubular structures dominate the low-lying population. At n ) 25, a structural transition from hollowtubular to core/shell compact structure is observed.

  20. Ternary core/shell structure of Co3O4/NiO/C nanowire arrays as high-performance anode material for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. B.; Guo, R. Q.; Huang, X. H.; Lin, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Self-supported core/shell nanowire arrays are highly desirable for designing high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. Herein, we report self-supported ternary core/shell nanowire arrays of Co3O4/NiO/C on the nickel foam with the help of hydrothermal synthesis, chemical bath deposition and annealing carbonation methods. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the Co3O4/NiO/C core/shell nanowire arrays exhibit excellent electrochemical performances with lower polarization, higher capacity, improved cycle life and better high-rate capability than the pure Co3O4 nanowire arrays and single NiO nanoflake arrays. The enhanced electrochemical properties are mainly ascribed to the core/shell nanowire architecture with potential synergistic contribution such as improved mechanical stability and enhanced conductivity as well as faster ion/electron transfer.

  1. Cationic amphiphilic drugs self-assemble to the core-shell interface of PEGylated phospholipid micelles and stabilize micellar structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xing, Xueqing; Fang, Xiaocui; Zhou, Chang; Huang, Feng; Wu, Zhonghua; Lou, Jizhong; Liang, Wei

    2013-10-13

    Since polymeric micelles are promising and have potential in drug delivery systems, people have become more interested in studying the compatibility of polymeric carriers and drugs, which might help them to simplify the preparation method and increase the micellar stability. In this article, we report that cationic amphiphilic drugs can be easily encapsulated into PEGylated phospholipid (PEG-PE) micelles by self-assembly method and that they show high encapsulation efficiency, controllable drug release and better micellar stability than empty micelles. The representative drugs are doxorubicin and vinorelbine. However, gemcitabine and topotecan are not suitable for PEG-PE micelles due to lack of positive charge or hydrophobicity. Using a series of experiments and molecular modelling, we figured out the assembly mechanism, structure and stability of drug-loaded micelles, and the location of drugs in micelles. Integrating the above information, we explain the effect of the predominant force between drugs and polymers on the assembly mechanism and drug release behaviour. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of pKa and to evaluate the compatibility of drugs with PEG-PE in self-assembly preparation method. In summary, this work provides a scientific understanding for the reasonable designing of PEG-PE micelle-based drug encapsulation and might enlighten the future study on drug-polymer compatibility for other polymeric micelles.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell acrylate based latex and study of its reactive blends.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Fan, Xiao-Dong; Tang, Min-Feng; Nie, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA) component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA) component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS) tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF) or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF). It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment. PMID:19325753

  4. Size dependent structural, vibrational and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} and core-shell structured BiFeO{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, Sunil Kumar, Manoj Chhoker, Sandeep Katyal, S. C.

    2014-04-24

    Bulk BiFeO{sub 3}, BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles and core-shell structured BiFeO{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction method, sol-gel and Stöber process (SiO{sub 2} shell) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the core-shell structure of BiFeO{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with BiFeO3 core ∼50-90 nm and SiO{sub 2} shell ∼16 nm. X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy results showed the presence of distorted rhombohedral structure with R3c space group in all three samples. The magnetic measurement indicated the existence of room-temperature weak ferromagnetism in core-shell BiFeO{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and BiFeO3 nanoparticles, whereas bulk BiFeO{sub 3} showed antiferromagnteic nature. Electron Spin Resonance results confirmed the enhancement in magnetic properties of coreshell structured BiFeO{sub 3}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in comparison with BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles and bulk BiFeO{sub 3}.

  5. Structure and Composition of Isolated Core-Shell (In ,Ga )N /GaN Rods Based on Nanofocus X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Thilo; Hanke, Michael; Nicolai, Lars; Cheng, Zongzhe; Niehle, Michael; Trampert, Achim; Kahnt, Maik; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schroer, Christian G.; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Nanofocus x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the structure and local strain field of an isolated (In ,Ga )N /GaN core-shell microrod. Because the high spatial resolution of the x-ray beam is only 80 ×90 nm2, we are able to investigate several distinct volumes on one individual side facet. Here, we find a drastic increase in thickness of the outer GaN shell along the rod height. Additionally, we performed high-angle annular dark-field scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy measurements on several rods from the same sample showing that (In,Ga)N double-quantum-well and GaN barrier thicknesses also increase strongly along the height. Moreover, plastic relaxation is observed in the top part of the rod. Based on the experimentally obtained structural parameters, we simulate the strain-induced deformation using the finite-element method, which serves as the input for subsequent kinematic scattering simulations. The simulations reveal a significant increase of elastic in-plane relaxation along the rod height. However, at a certain height, the occurrence of plastic relaxation yields a decrease of the elastic strain. Because of the experimentally obtained structural input for the finite-element simulations, we can exclude unknown structural influences on the strain distribution, and we are able to translate the elastic relaxation into an indium concentration which increases by a factor of 4 from the bottom to the height where plastic relaxation occurs.

  6. New Approach to Create TiO2(B)/Carbon Core/Shell Nanotubes: Ideal Structure for Enhanced Lithium Ion Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xianfeng; Lv, Chunxiao; Guo, Shaojun; Li, Jianjiang; Zheng, Zhanfeng; Zhu, Huaiyong; Yang, Dongjiang

    2016-07-27

    To achieve uniform carbon coating on TiO2 nanomaterials, high temperature (>500 °C) annealing treatment is a necessity. However, the annealing treatment inevitably leads to the strong phase transformation from TiO2(B) with high lithium ion storage (LIS) capacity to anatase with low LIS one as well as the damage of nanostructures. Herein, we demonstrate a new approach to create TiO2(B)/carbon core/shell nanotubes (C@TBNTs) using a long-chain silane polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) to bind the TBNTs by forming Si-O-Ti bonds. The key feature of this work is that the introduction of PMHS onto TBNTs can afford TBNTs with very high thermal stability at higher than 700 °C and inhibit the phase transformation from TiO2(B) to anatase. Such a high thermal property of PMHS-TBNTs makes them easily coated with highly graphitic carbon shell via CVD process at 700 °C. The as-prepared C@TBNTs deliver outstanding rate capability and electrochemical stability, i.e., reversible capacity above 250 mAh g(-1) at 10 C and a high specific capacity of 479.2 mAh g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 1 C. As far as we know, the LIS performance of our sample is the highest among the previously reported TiO2(B) anode materials.

  7. TEOA-mediated formation of hollow core-shell structured CoNi2S4 nanospheres as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Li, Meng; Chai, Yao; Luo, Min; Li, Li

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report for the first time a cost-effective and general approach for the high-yield synthesis of a hierarchical core-shell and hollow structure of ternary CoNi2S4 in a triethanolamine (TEOA)-assisted hydrothermal system. It is found that a continuous increase in TEOA usages facilitates the formation and transformation of hierarchical CoNi2S4 hollow nanospheres, and the formation mechanism of the unique structure is revealed to be assembly-then-inside-out evacuation and Ostwald ripening mechanism during the sulfidation process. More importantly, when used as faradaic electrode for supercapacitors, the hierarchical hollow CoNi2S4 nanospheres display not only exceptional pseudocapacitve performance with high specific capacitance (2035 Fg-1 at 1 Ag-1) and excellent rate capability (1215 Fg-1 at 20 Ag-1), but also superior cycling stability, with only about 8.7% loss over 3000 cycles at 10 Ag-1. This work can provide some guidance for us in the structural and compositional tuning of mixed binary-metal sulfides toward many desired applications.

  8. Magnetically separable core-shell structural γ-Fe2O3@Cu/Al-MCM-41 nanocomposite and its performance in heterogeneous Fenton catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuhan; Long, Mingce; Hu, Peidong; Chen, Ya; Huang, Juwei

    2014-01-15

    To target the low catalytic activity and the inconvenient separation of copper loading nanocatalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, a core-shell structural magnetically separable catalyst, with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as the core layer and the copper and aluminum containing MCM-41 as the shell layer, has been fabricated. The role of aluminum has been discussed by comparing the copper containing mesoporous silica with various Cu contents. Their physiochemical properties have been characterized by XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, TEM, nitrogen physisorption and magnetite susceptibility measurements. Double content Cu incorporation results in an improved catalytic activity for phenol degradation at the given condition (40°C, initial pH=4), but leads to a declined BET surface area and less ordered mesophase structure. Aluminum incorporation helps to retain the high BET surface area (785.2m(2)/g) and the regular hexagonal mesoporous structure of MCM-41, which make the catalyst possess a lower copper content and even a higher catalytic activity than that with the double copper content in the absence of aluminum. The catalysts can be facilely separated by an external magnetic field for recycle usage.

  9. Synthesis of LiFePO4@carbon nanotube core-shell nanowires with a high-energy efficient method for superior lithium ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Shao, Guangjie; Kong, Lingxue; Gao, Weimin

    2015-09-01

    A high-energy efficient method is developed for the synthesis of LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowire structures. The method consists of two steps: liquid deposition approach to prepare FePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires and solvothermal lithiation to obtain the LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires at a low temperature. The solution phase method can be easily scaled up for commercial application. The performance of the materials produced by this method is evaluated in Li ion batteries. The one-dimensional LiFePO4@CNT nanowires offer a stable and efficient backbone for electron transport. The LiFePO4@CNT core-shell nanowires exhibit a high capacity of 132.8 mAh g-1 at a rate of 0.2C, as well as high rate capability (64.4 mAh g-1 at 20C) for Li ion storage.

  10. Multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode consisting of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    An easily-operated and inexpensive strategy (pencil-drawing-electrodeposition-electro-oxidation) is proposed to synthesize a novel class of multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode, which consists of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers. This interesting electrode structure plays a pivotal role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, facilitating ion and electron transport and shorting their diffusion pathways. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance of 601 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and retains 83% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.4 W h kg-1 at the power density of 0.40 kW kg-1 and a favorable cycling stability (95.3%, 8000 cycles) were achieved for this electrode. When this electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor with carbon paper as negative electrode, the device displays remarkable electrochemical performances with a large areal capacitances (122 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), high areal energy density (10.8 μW h cm-2 at 402.5 μW cm-2) and outstanding cycling stability (91.5%, 5000 cycles). These results unveil the potential of this composite electrode as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  11. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pan; Han, Jia-Jun; Jiang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning

    2017-04-01

    The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  12. Finite element analysis of depth effect on measuring elastic modulus of a core-shell structure for application of instrumented indentation in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is a complex structure, consisting of numerous enamel rods surrounded by a protein-rich sheath. Considering the possible effect of the protein-rich sheath on the indentation deformation of an enamel rod and the limitation of the Oliver-Pharr method in measuring the elastic modulus of the enamel rod, we used a finite element method to analyze the indentation deformation of an elastic-perfectly plastic cylinder surrounded by an elastic-perfectly plastic film. A concept of the threshold indentation depth was proposed, at which the percentage error of the measured modulus of the cylinder is ±10%. For the indentation depth less than the threshold indentation depth, the elastic modulus measured from the indentation test can be approximated as the intrinsic elastic modulus of the cylinder. The normalized threshold indentation depth strongly depends on the modulus ratio of the film to the cylinder and the ratio of the film thickness to the cylinder radius. The results can be used to guide the use of the Oliver-Pharr method in characterizing the mechanical properties of tooth enamel and bio-composites with core-shell structures.

  13. One-pot synthesis of bicrystalline titanium dioxide spheres with a core-shell structure as anode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zichao; Liu, Li; Tan, Jinli; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Zhifeng; Xia, Dongdong; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-12-01

    Bicrystalline titanium dioxide spheres (anatase@TiO2(B) spheres) with enhanced electrochemical activity in lithium and sodium ion batteries have been successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The anatase@TiO2(B) spheres have a core-shell structure with TiO2(B) nanosheets sheathing the anatase TiO2 sphere core which consists of nanoparticles, as characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM). The anatase@TiO2(B) spheres show excellent lithium storage performance, which have high initial discharge capacity (114.8 mAh g-1) with almost no capacity fading after 100 cycles and still maintain at 91.7 mAh g-1 after 375 cycles at a super-high current density of 5040 mA g-1 (30 C). What's more, they also show excellent rate capability in sodium ion batteries at various current densities ranging from 85 to 850 mA g-1. The unique hierarchical structure of anatase@TiO2(B) spheres with excellent cycle performance and rate capability make a compelling case for their development as anode materials for both lithium and sodium ion batteries.

  14. Core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction via core-shell Au@Ag/Pd constructions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created in these core-shell particles. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles from their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd parents. This strategy begins with the preparation of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles in an organic solvent. Then, the pure Ag shells are converted into the shells made of Ag/Pd alloy by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shells and Pd2+ precursors. Subsequently, the Ag component is removed from the alloy shell using saturated NaCl solution to form core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a Pd shell. In comparison with the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles upon directly depositing Pd shell on the Au seeds and commercial Pd/C catalysts, the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles via their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd templates display superior activity and durability in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction, mainly due to the larger lattice tensile effect in Pd shell induced by the Au core and Ag removal. PMID:26144550

  15. Agglomeration in core-shell structure of CuAg nanoparticles synthesized by the laser ablation of Cu target in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, S.; Salatić, B.; Milovanović, D.; Lazović, V.; Živković, Lj; Trtica, M.; Jelenković, B.

    2015-02-01

    Metallic copper Cu and bimetallic copper-silver CuAg nanoparticles (NPs) are generated by the ablation of copper bulk target in water and aqueous Ag colloidal solution, respectively. The experiments were performed using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The generated NPs are characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The conducted investigations can be summarized as follows: (i) CuAg NPs colloidal solution possess the absorption in UV-vis spectral region, which can be attributed to the Cu-component; (ii) the primary bimetallic CuAg NPs have near uniform dimensions with diameter of about 15 nm, and as a rule, they are grouped into larger agglomerates without defined morphology; (iii) the obtained Cu NPs have mainly spherical form with average diameters up to 20 nm. Both types of NPs show a tendency towards the formation of large agglomerates with different morphology. Bimetallic NPs show the plasmon resonance in the vicinity of 640 nm with a good coincidence with formation of the colloidal solution of pure Cu NPs. The results also demonstrate that the core-shell structure (Ag-rich core/Cu-rich shell) is important for the formation of the bimetallic NPs, also agreeing very well with theory.

  16. Core/Shell Structured TiO2/CdS Electrode to Enhance the Light Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insung; Baek, Minki; Yong, Kijung

    2015-12-23

    In this work, enhanced light stability of perovskite solar cell (PSC) achieved by the introduction of a core/shell-structured CdS/TiO2 electrode and the related mechanism are reported. By a simple solution-based process (SILAR), a uniform CdS shell was coated onto the surface of a TiO2 layer, suppressing the activation of intrinsic trap sites originating from the oxygen vacancies of the TiO2 layer. As a result, the proposed CdS-PSC exhibited highly improved light stability, maintaining nearly 80% of the initial efficiency after 12 h of full sunlight illumination. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is suggested that the degradation of the efficiency of PSC during illumination occurs regardless of the decomposition of the perovskite absorber. Considering the light-soaking profiles of the encapsulated cells and the OCVD characteristics, it is likely that the CdS shell had efficiently suppressed the undesirable electron kinetics, such as trapping at the surface defects of the TiO2 and preventing the resultant charge losses by recombination. This study suggests that further complementary research on various effective methods for passivation of the TiO2 layer would be highly meaningful, leading to insight into the fabrication of PSCs stable to UV-light for a long time.

  17. Influence of interface combination of RGO-photosensitized SnO2@RGO core-shell structures on their photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoru; Duan, Libing; Liu, Ruidi; Wu, Hongjing; Hou, Tian; Jiang, Xianwu; Gao, Haodi

    2017-01-01

    SnO2@reduced graphene oxide (RGO) core-shell structures were successfully synthesized by two different strategies (electrostatic interaction method and direct chemical bonding reaction method). The investigation of morphologies and microstructures showed that RGO was wrapped tightly on the surface of SnO2 microspheres with different interface combinations, i.e., electrostatic interaction and chemical bonding. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrated that graphene as a photosensitizer could transfer photogenerated electrons to the conduction band (CB) of SnO2 and receive holes from the valence band (VB) of SnO2, resulting in the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized composites was evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. It was found that SnO2@RGO with chemical bonding interface combination exhibited higher photodegradation rate (k = 0.038 min-1) than those with electrostatic interaction interface combination (k = 0.021 min-1) and pure SnO2 (k = 0.010 min-1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the photosensitization of RGO and the intimate interface combination between SnO2 and RGO.

  18. Multiple label-free detection of antigen-antibody reaction using localized surface plasmon resonance-based core-shell structured nanoparticle layer nanochip.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tatsuro; Kerman, Kagan; Nagatani, Naoki; Hiepa, Ha Minh; Kim, Do-Kyun; Yonezawa, Yuji; Nakano, Koichi; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-09-15

    In this research, a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based bioanalysis method for developing multiarray optical nanochip suitable for screening bimolecular interactions is described. LSPR-based label-free monitoring enables to solve the problems of conventional methods that require large sample volumes and time-consuming labeling procedures. We developed a multiarray LSPR-based nanochip for the label-free detection of proteins. The multiarray format was constructed by a core-shell-structured nanoparticle layer, which provided 300 nanospots on the sensing surface. Antibodies were immobilized onto the nanospots using their interaction with Protein A. The concentrations of antigens were determined from the peak absorption intensity of the LSPR spectra. We demonstrated the capability of the array measurement using immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgG, IgM), C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. The detection limit of our label-free method was 100 pg/mL. Our nanochip is readily transferable to monitor the interactions of other biomolecules, such as whole cells or receptors, with a massively parallel detection capability in a highly miniaturized package. We anticipate that the direct label-free optical immunoassay of proteins reported here will revolutionize clinical diagnosis and accelerate the development of hand-held and user-friendly point-of-care devices.

  19. The use of the core-shell structure of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) for long-term removal of sulphide in sludge during anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Su, Lianghu; Zhen, Guangyin; Zhang, Longjiang; Zhao, Youcai; Niu, Dongjie; Chai, Xiaoli

    2015-12-01

    A core-shell structure results in zero-valent iron nanoparticles (NZVI) with manifold functional properties. In this study, the long-term effects of NZVI on hydrogen sulphide removal in an anaerobic sludge digester were investigated. Within 20 days, the average hydrogen sulphide content in the biogas was successfully reduced from 300 (or 3620 of sulphate-rich sludge) mg Nm(-3) to 6.1 (121), 0.9 (3.3) and 0.5 (1.3) mg Nm(-3) in the presence of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20% (wt) NZVI, respectively. Methane yield was enhanced at the low NZVI dose (0.05-0.10%) but decreased at the elevated dose (0.20%). Methane production and volatile solid degradation analyses implied that doses of 0.5-0.10% NZVI could accelerate sludge stabilization during anaerobic digestion. The phosphorus fractionation profile suggested that methane production could be inhibited at the elevated NZVI dose, partly due to the limited availability of soluble phosphorus due to the immobilization of bioavailable-P through the formation of vivianite. An analysis of the reducible inorganic sulphur species revealed that the elimination of hydrogen sulphide occurred via the reaction between hydrogen sulphide and the oxide shell of NZVI, which mainly formed FeS and some FeS2 and S(0).

  20. Core-shell structured polypyrrole/mesoporous SiO2 nanocomposite capped with graphene quantum dots as gatekeeper for irradiation-controlled release of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Shou, Dan; Chen, Chuanxiang; Mao, Huihui; Kong, Yong; Tao, Yongxin

    2017-12-01

    A core-shell structured nanocomposite of polypyrrole/mesoporous SiO2 (PPy/mSiO2) is rationally designed as the nanocarrier for methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic drug for cancer treatment. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are introduced to the outer surface of PPy/mSiO2, and it functions as a gatekeeper for the loaded MTX through the formation of H-bonds with the functionalized mSiO2. In the proposed nanocarrier for MTX, the mesopores in mSiO2 are beneficial for the accommodation of MTX, resulting in enhanced encapsulation capacity of the nanocarrier; on the other hand, PPy can effectively convert the near-infrared (NIR) light to heat. Under the irradiation of NIR light, the H-bonds between GQDs and mSiO2 are broken due to the gradually increased temperature, and therefore the GQDs cap is removed and consequently the encapsulated MTX is released from the nanocarrier. In this study, NIR irradiation-controlled drug delivery is achieved successfully owing to the synergistic effects of PPy, mSiO2 and GQDs, which opens a new window for the construction of smart drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic core-shell structure nanocomposite and application for Zn ions removal from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Shokoofeh; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Ghazi, Mohsen Mehdipour

    2015-12-01

    An organic-inorganic core/shell structure, γ-Fe2O3/polyrhodanine nanocomposite with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle as core with average diameter of 15 nm and polyrhodanine as shell with thickness of 1.5 nm, has been synthesized via chemical oxidation polymerization and applied for adsorption of Zn ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column. The properties of nanocomposite were characterized with transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The performance of the column was assessed under variable bed heights (10, 15 and 20 cm) and influent Zn concentrations (50, 100 and 150 ppm) at a constant flow rate (0.5 mL/min). The results demonstrated that the breakthrough curves are S-shaped and the breakthrough time increases with increasing bed height and decreases with increasing influent concentration. Moreover, the dynamics of the adsorption process were evaluated by using Adams-Bohart, bed depth service time (BDST), Thomas and Yoon-Nelson kinetic models. The models were nearly in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Optical and structural characterization of CdS/ZnS and CdS:Cu(2+) /ZnS core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Murugadoss, G; Kumar, M Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell CdS/ZnS (Zn 0.025-0.125 M) and CdS:Cu(2+) (1%)/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV/Visible (UV/Vis) techniques were used to characterize the novel CdS/ZnS and CdS:Cu(2+) /ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. All absorption peaks of the synthesized samples were highly blue-shifted from the bulk CdS and ZnS. Very narrow and symmetric PL emission was observed in the yellow region for core-shell CdS/ZnS. Furthermore, the PL emission of CdS/ZnS was tuned into orange region by incorporate the Cu ion into the core CdS lattice.

  3. High-performance and moisture-stable cellulose-starch nanocomposites based on bioinspired core-shell nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prakobna, Kasinee; Galland, Sylvain; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-03-09

    Moisture stability and brittleness are challenges for plant fiber biocomposites intended for load-bearing applications, for instance those based on an amylopectin-rich (AP) starch matrix. Core-shell amylopectin-coated cellulose nanofibers and nanocomposites are prepared to investigate effects from the distribution of AP matrix. The core-shell nanocomposites are compared with nanocomposites with more irregular amylopectin (AP) distribution. Colloidal properties (DLS), AP adsorption, nanofiber dimensions (atomic force microscopy), and nanocomposite structure (transmission electron microscopy) are analyzed. Tensile tests are performed at different moisture contents. The core-shell nanofibers result in exceptionally moisture stable, ductile, and strong nanocomposites, much superior to reference CNF/AP nanocomposites with more irregular AP distribution. The reduction in AP properties is less pronounced as the AP forms a favorable interphase around individual CNF nanofibers.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersed CdTe/CdSe core/shell type II quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sai, Li-Man; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2011-05-27

    A facile synthesis of mercaptanacid-capped CdTe/CdSe (core/shell) type II quantum dots in aqueous solution by means of a microwave-assisted approach is reported. The results of X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the as-prepared CdTe/CdSe quantum dots had a core/shell structure with high crystallinity. The core/shell quantum dots exhibit tunable fluorescence emissions by controlling the thickness of the CdSe shell. The photoluminescent properties were dramatically improved through UV-illuminated treatment, and the time-resolved fluorescence spectra showed that there is a gradual increase of decay lifetime with the thickness of CdSe shell.

  5. Tuning the modulus of nanostructured ionomer films of core-shell nanoparticles based on poly(n-butyl acrylate).

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhamad S; Milani, Amir H; Shaw, Peter; Simpson, Gareth; Lovell, Peter A; Eaves, Elizabeth; Hodson, Nigel; Saunders, Brian R

    2016-10-04

    In this study we investigate the structure-mechanical property relationships for nanostructured ionomer films containing ionically crosslinked core-shell polymer nanoparticles based on poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA). Whilst nanostructured ionomer films of core-shell nanoparticles have been previously shown to have good ductility [Soft Matter, 2014, 10, 4725], the modulus values were modest. Here, we used BA as the primary monomer to construct core-shell nanoparticles that provided films containing nanostructured polymers with much higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. The core-shell nanoparticles were synthesised using BA, acrylonitrile (AN), methacrylic acid (MAA) and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BDDA). Nanostructured ionomer films were prepared by casting aqueous core-shell nanoparticle dispersions in which the shell -COOH groups were neutralised with KOH and ZnO. The film mechanical properties were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile stress-strain measurements. The use of BA-based nanoparticles increased the Tg values to close to room temperature which caused a strong dependence of the film mechanical properties on the AN content and extent of neutralisation of the -COOH groups. The Young's modulus values for the films ranged from 1.0 to 86.0 MPa. The latter is the highest modulus reported for cast films of nanostructured ionomer films prepared from core-shell nanoparticles. The films had good ductility with strain-at-break values of at least 200%. The mechanical properties of the films were successfully modelled using the isostrain model. From comparison with an earlier butadiene-based system this study demonstrates that the nature of the primary monomer used to construct the nanoparticles can profoundly change the film mechanical properties. The aqueous nanoparticle dispersion approach used here provides a simple and versatile method to prepare high modulus elastomer films with tuneable mechanical properties.

  6. Synthesis and alignment of silver nanorods and nanowires and the formation of Pt, Pd, and core/shell structures by galvanic exchange directly on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sławiński, Grzegorz W; Zamborini, Francis P

    2007-09-25

    Here we describe the synthesis of Ag nanorods (NRs) (aspect ratio <20) and nanowires (NWs) (aspect ratio > or =20) directly on surfaces by seed-mediated growth. The procedure involves attaching gold seed nanoparticles (Au NPs) to 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS)-functionalized silicon or glass surfaces and growing them into NRs/NWs by placing the substrates into a solution containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), silver nitrate, and ascorbic acid with the pH ranging from 7 to 12. Under our conditions, Ag NRs/NWs grow optimally at pH 10.6 with a 3% yield, where spherical, triangular, and hexagonal nanostructures represent the other byproducts. The length of Ag NRs/NWs ranges from 50 nm to more than 10 microm, the aspect ratio (AR) ranges from 1.4 to >300, and the average diameter is approximately 35 nm. Approximately 40% of the 1D structures are NRs, and 60% are NWs as defined by their ARs. We also report the alignment of Ag NRs/NWs directly on surfaces by growing the structures on amine-functionalized Si(100) surfaces after an amidation reaction with acetic acid and a method to improve the percentage of Ag NRs/NWs on the surface by removing structures of other shapes with adhesive tape. Surface-grown Ag NRs/NWs also react with salts of palladium, platinum, and gold via galvanic exchange reactions to form high-surface-area 1D structures of the corresponding metal. The combination of the seed-mediated growth of Ag on Au NRs followed by the galvanic exchange of Ag with Pd leads to interesting core/shell NRs grown directly on surfaces. We used scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the surface-grown nanostructures.

  7. Extracting band structure characteristics of GaSb/InAs core-shell nanowires from thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Florinda; Xu, H. Q.; Leijnse, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Nanowires with a GaSb core and an InAs shell (and the inverted structure) are interesting for studies of electron-hole hybridization and interaction effects due to the bulk broken band-gap alignment at the material interface. We have used eight-band k .p theory together with the envelope function approximation to calculate the band structure of such nanowires. For a fixed core radius, as a function of shell thickness the band structure changes from metallic (for a thick shell) to semiconducting (for a thin shell) with a gap induced by quantum confinement. For intermediate shell thickness, a different gapped band structure can appear, where the gap is induced by hybridization between the valence band in GaSb and the conduction band in InAs. To establish a relationship between the nanowire band structures and signatures in thermoelectrical measurements, we use the calculated energy dispersions as input to the Boltzmann equation and to ballistic transport equations to study the diffusive limit and the ballistic limit, respectively. Our theoretical results provide a guide for experiments, showing how thermoelectric measurements in a gated setup can be used to distinguish between different types of band gaps, or tune the system into a regime with few electrons and few holes, which can be of interest for studies of exciton physics.

  8. Multifunctional CdS/CoFe2O4 fluorescent/magnetic core/shell nanocomposite structure for bio-applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Simrjit; Khare, Neeraj; Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Aravind, Athulya; Nair Sakthikumar, Dasappan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, self-assembled core/shell nanostructures of CdS/CoFe2O4 (CFO) have been synthesized using a chemical solution method to include magnetic and fluorescent properties in a single composite material for bioapplications. Successful synthesis of the core/shell nanostructure has been evidenced from the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results. Alternating gradient magnetometer and photoluminescence spectroscopy results confirm good magnetic and luminescent characteristics of the core/shell nanostructure. The in vitro biocompatibility of the CFO and CdS/CFO nanostructures has been studied in the Alamar blue assay in four different cell lines (MIAPaCa-2, MCF-7, KUSA-A1, and L929 cells) at different concentrations of nanostructures. The CdS/CFO nanostructure shows improved biocompatibility in all the cell lines as compared to bare CFO nanostructures at all concentrations. However, the biocompatibility for both the nanostructures is found to decrease in the KUSA-A1 cell line at higher concentrations of the nanostructures, which is due to the higher sensitivity of the KUSA-A1 cell line to the nanostructures at higher concentrations than other cell lines. Biocompatibility studies show the potentiality of these core/shell nanostructures for bio-applications.

  9. Enhanced electrical properties and field emission characteristics of AZO/ZnO-nanowire core-shell structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jheng-Ming; Tsai, Shang-You; Ku, Ching-Shun; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, San-Yuan; Lee, Hsin-Yi

    2016-06-01

    The electrical properties and field-emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) fabricated using a vapor-liquid-solid method were systematically investigated. In particular, we explored the effects of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films (thickness 4-100 nm) deposited on ZnO-NWs using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on the optoelectronic properties. The results show that the sheet resistance of net-like ZnO-NW structures can be significantly improved, specifically to become ∼1/1000 of the sheet resistance of the as-grown ZnO-NWs, attaining less than 10 Ω Sq(-1). The emission current density measured at the maximum field was roughly quadrupled relative to that of the as-grown ZnO-NWs. The data of the enhanced field-emission characteristics show that, with the ALD system, the AZO films of small resistance are readily coated on a structure with a high aspect ratio and the coating radius is controlled relative to the turn-on voltage and current density. The ultrathin AZO film from a one-monolayer coating process also significantly improved emission properties through modification of the effective work function at the AZO/ZnO-NW surface.

  10. Enhancement of Electrochromic Durability of a Film Made of Silica-Polyaniline Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Lee, Heungyeol; Kim, Hohyeong; Kim, Gyuntak; Mun, Gyeongjin

    Enhancing the operation life time or the electrochemical durability is one of the key issues in electrochromic material studies. It is generally accepted that the inorganic-organic hybrid structure is one of the effective ways to enhance the chemical stability of the material. In this study, an electrochromic film made of silica-polyaniline core-shell composite nanoparticles was tested. The composite particles were prepared through a chemical dispersion polymerization of aniline in an aqueous colloidal solution of silica. The synthesized particles were then dispersed into ethanol and the solution was deposited onto an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate. The electrochromic characterization on the prepared films was performed using the cyclovoltammetry and the optical response to a switching potential. The results showed that the inorganic-organic core-shell hybrid nanoparticle could be a promising choice for the enhancement of electrochromic durability.

  11. Synthesis and magnetic studies of Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsha, C.; Anumol, C. N.; Chithra, M.; Sahu, B. N.; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2015-06-01

    Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method followed by oxidation by two different methods; (a) in air and (b) in microwave oven. Structural studies showed that the thickness of NiO shell on Ni core is less in air oxidized sample than the microwave oxidized samples which were supported by the magnetic studies. The samples prepared by air oxidation showed positive exchange biasing where as the samples prepared by microwave oxidation showed negative exchange biasing. Our study also showed that the thickness of the antiferromagnetic NiO is responsible for the different types of magnetic interactions at the interfaces between antiferromagnetic NiO and ferromagnetic Ni in Ni/NiO core/shell nanoparticles.

  12. Preparation and application of L-cysteine-modified CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals as a novel fluorescence probe for detection of nucleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fenghua; Chen, Guonan

    2008-07-01

    The water-soluble L-cysteine-modified CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals (expressed as CdSe/CdS/Cys nanocrystals) have been synthesized in aqueous by using L-cysteine as stabilizer. The size, shape, component and spectral property of CdSe/CdS/Cys nanocrystals were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX), infrared spectrum (IR) and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the spherical CdSe/CdS/Cys nanocrystals with an average diameter of 2.3 nm have favorable fluorescent property, theirs photostability and fluorescence intensity are enhanced greatly after overcoating with CdS. The cysteine modified on the surface of core/shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals renders the nanocrystals water-soluble and biocompatible. Based on the fluorescence quenching of the nanocrystals in the presence of calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA), a fluorescence quenching method has been developed for the determination of ct-DNA by using the nanocrystals as a novel fluorescence probe. The pH value of the system was selected at pH 7.4, with excitation and emission wavelength at 380 and 522 nm, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence quenching intensity of the system is linear with the concentration of ct-DNA in the range of 0.1-3.5 μg/mL ( r = 0.9987). The detection limit is 0.06 μg/mL. And two synthetic samples were analyzed satisfactorily.

  13. The Core-Shell Approach to Formation of Ordered Nanoporous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jeong H.; Wang, Li Q.; Shin, Yongsoon; Jeong, Byeongmoon; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2002-03-04

    This work describes a novel core-shell approach for the preparation of ordered nanoporous ceramic materials that involve a self-assembly process at the molecular level using MPEG-b-PDLLA bloack copolymers. This approach provides for rapid self-assembly and structural reorganization at room temperature. Selected MPEG-b-PDLLA block copolymers were synthesized with systematic variation of the chain lengths of the resident hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks. This allows the micelle size to be systematically varied. Results from this work are used to understand the formation mechanism of nanoporous structures in which the pore size and wall thickness are closely dependent on the size of hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells of the block copolymer templates. The core-shell mechanism for nanoporous structure evolution is based on the size and contrasting micellar packing arrangements that are controlled by the copolymer.

  14. Core-Shell-Structured Tungsten Carbide Encapsulated within Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Spheres for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Xu, Miao; Han, Yujie; Yu, You; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-10-06

    It is highly desirable and remains a great challenge to develop alternative hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts that are low-cost, highly efficient, and exhibit excellent stability. In this work, we report the synthesis of tungsten carbide nanocrystallites encapsulated within nitrogen-doped carbon (TCNC) spheres through in situ polymerization of dopamine with metatungstate followed by carburization under an inert atmosphere. During the in situ and confined carburization process, very small tungsten carbide nanocrystallites are obtained and uniformly dispersed in the simultaneously generated carbon matrix. Benefited from the unique structure and morphology, the resultant TCNC spheres exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability toward HER in both acidic and alkaline solutions. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Core-Shell and Segmented Polymer-Metal Composite Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lahav, Michal; Weiss, Emily; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite nanostructures (~200 nm wide and several μm long) of metal and polyaniline (PANI) in two new variations of core-shell (PANI-Au) and segmented (Au-PANI and Ni-Au-PANI) architectures were fabricated electrochemically within anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Control over the structure of these composites (including the length of the gold shells in the core-shell structures) was accomplished by adjusting the time and rate of electrodeposition, and the pH of the solution from which the materials were grown. Exposure of the core-shell structures to oxygen plasma removed the PANI and yielded aligned gold nanotubes. In the segmented structures, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioaniline nucleated the growth of PANI on top of metal nanorods, and acted as an adhesion layer between the metal and PANI components. PMID:16968046

  16. The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation.

  17. The effect of operational parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red organic dye using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was investigated using ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure coated on glass by Doctor Blade method in aqueous solution under irradiation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the morphological and structural characterization of ZnO-CdS core-shell nanostructures. XRD results showed diffractions of wurtzite zinc oxide core and wurtzite cadmium sulfide shell. FESEM results showed that nanoparticles are nearly hexagonal with an average diameter of about 50 nm. The effect of catalyst loading, UV-light irradiation time and solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was studied and optimized values were obtained. Results showed that the employment of efficient photocatalyst and selection of optimal operational parameters may lead to complete decolorization of dye solutions. It was found that ZnO-CdS core-shell nano-structure is more favorable for the degradation of Congo red compare to pure ZnO or pure CdS due to lower electron hole recombination. The results showed that the photocatalytic degradation rate of Congo red is enhanced with increasing the content of ZnO up to ZnO(0.2 M)/CdS(0.075 M) which is reached 88.0% within 100 min irradiation.

  18. Facile Synthesis of Nb2O5@Carbon Core-Shell Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystalline Structure for High-Power Anodes in Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunho; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Mok-Hwa; Mun, Yeongdong; Chun, Jinyoung; Ye, Youngjin; Hwang, Jongkook; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kang, Kisuk; Yoon, Songhun; Lee, Jinwoo

    2015-07-28

    Hybrid supercapacitors (battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices, HSCs) deliver high energy within seconds (excellent rate capability) with stable cyclability. One of the key limitations in developing high-performance HSCs is imbalance in power capability between the sluggish Faradaic lithium-intercalation anode and rapid non-Faradaic capacitive cathode. To solve this problem, we synthesize Nb2O5@carbon core-shell nanocyrstals (Nb2O5@C NCs) as high-power anode materials with controlled crystalline phases (orthorhombic (T) and pseudohexagonal (TT)) via a facile one-pot synthesis method based on a water-in-oil microemulsion system. The synthesis of ideal T-Nb2O5 for fast Li(+) diffusion is simply achieved by controlling the microemulsion parameter (e.g., pH control). The T-Nb2O5@C NCs shows a reversible specific capacity of ∼180 mA h g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) (1.1-3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)) with rapid rate capability compared to that of TT-Nb2O5@C and carbon shell-free Nb2O5 NCs, mainly due to synergistic effects of (i) the structural merit of T-Nb2O5 and (ii) the conductive carbon shell for high electron mobility. The highest energy (∼63 W h kg(-1)) and power (16 528 W kg(-1) achieved at ∼5 W h kg(-1)) densities within the voltage range of 1.0-3.5 V of the HSC using T-Nb2O5@C anode and MSP-20 cathode are remarkable.

  19. Current Status of Magnetite-Based Core@Shell Structures for Diagnosis and Therapy in Oncology Short running title: Biomedical Applications of Magnetite@Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angela Leao; Fabris, Jose Domingos; Domingues, Rosana Zacarias; Pereira, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxides, as magnetite (Fe3O4) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), are primary materials with intrinsic properties that enable them, as single components or as special composites, to base advanced techniques in medical clinical practices, as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as magnetically-induced hyperthermic heat generator, and as a magnetic guide to locally deliver drugs to specific sites in the human body. An interesting approach to developing nanoplatforms for those applications consists in manufacturing core@shell nanostructures, in which the precursor magnetic iron oxide (usually, magnetite) acts as a core, and an organic, or inorganic compound is used as a shell in a multifunctional composite. In this review, we report the current advances in the use of magnetite-based core@shell nanostructures, including Fe3O4@SiO2 and Fe3O4@polymers, in MRI, magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery systems for diagnosis and therapy of tumor cells. The development of nanoplatforms for combined therapy and diagnostic (theranostic) is also addressed.

  20. Simultaneous in-situ synthesis and characterization of Co@Cu core-shell nanoparticle arrays

    DOE PAGES

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Wu, Yueying; Fowlkes, Jason D.; ...

    2014-12-23

    Core-shell nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their unique and tunable properties relative to bulk structures of the same materials, making core-shell nanoparticles candidates for a variety of applications with multiple functionalities.[1,2] Intriguing magnetic behavior can be tailored by variation of size, interface, crystal orientation, and composition, and core-shell nanostructures with noble-metal shells yield novel optical responses[3] and enhanced electrocatalytic activity.[4

  1. Effect of Growth Parameters and Substrate Surface Preparation for High-Density Vertical GaAs/GaAsSb Core-Shell Nanowires on Silicon with Photoluminescence Emission at 1.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanaboina, Pavan Kumar; Ojha, Sai Krishna; Sami, Shifat Us; Lewis Reynolds, C.; Liu, Yang; Iyer, Shanthi

    2016-04-01

    GaAs/GaAsSb nanowire (NW) arrays are ideally suited to meet the demands of the next generation infrared (IR) photodetectors with potential for improving detection. NWs in a core-shell geometry have the advantage of providing axial direction for a long optical path for enhanced optical absorption and a short radial path for charge diffusion and collection. For the Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of vertical, dense and uniform GaAs core NWs on Si (111), the effects of substrate surface preparation in combination with growth parameter variation were examined. On the epiready substrate without any surface preparation, both initial Ga shutter opening duration and V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio play a vital role in achieving almost all vertical NWs with moderate density ~107 cm-2. Also the spatial uniformity of the NWs was poor. Substrate surface preparation by chemical cleaning followed by oxidation in air led to highly vertical and uniform NWs with high density (8 × 108 cm-2). The GaAsSb shell was then successfully grown around the highly dense and vertical core GaAs NWs at growth temperatures ranging from 550°C to 590°C. It was found that growth temperature has a strong influence on Sb incorporation in the NWs and, hence, the NW morphology and 4K photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The presence of x-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to (111) reflection only and its higher-order reflections attest to the vertical alignment of NWs. Strain in the NWs as estimated using the Williamson-Hall isotropic strain model increases with Sb incorporation, which results in bending of the NWs with increasing Sb. Structural properties of these NWs using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are also presented. The temperature dependence PL of the NWs exhibited "S-curve" behavior, which is a well-known signature of localized excitons and a room temperature band edge PL emission occurring at ~1.3 μm.

  2. Synthesis of AlNiCo core/shell nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, A. M.; Akdeniz, M. V.; Ozturk, T.; Kalay, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic core/shell nanostructures have been recently received much interest owing to their utmost potential in permanent magnetic applications. In the present work, AlNiCo permanent magnet powders were synthesized by ball milling and a core/shell nanostructure was obtained using RF induced plasma. The effects of particle size and nanoshell structure on the magnetic properties were investigated in details. The coercivity of AlNiCo powders was found to increase with decreasing particle size, exclusively nanopowders encapsulated with Fe3O4 shell showed the highest coercivity values. The shell structure produced during plasma reaction was found to form a resistant layer against oxidation of metallic nanoparticles.

  3. Nanocrystalline p-hydroxyacetanilide (paracetamol) and gold core-shell structure as a model drug deliverable organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhojit; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2013-09-01

    We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell particles with a solution comprising NaCl and HCl (pH < 3), the Au shell could be dissolved, subsequently releasing pHA molecules. The dissolution of Au shell was marked by a gradual diminishing of its SPR band, while the release of pHA molecules in the solution was confirmed from TEM and FTIR studies. The findings suggest that the core-shell NP could be hypothesized to be a model for encapsulating drug molecules, in their crystalline forms, for slow as well as targeted release.We report on the generation of core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) having an organic nanocrystal (NC) core coated with an inorganic metallic shell, being dispersed in aqueous medium. First, NCs of p-hydroxyacetanilide (pHA)--known also as paracetamol--were generated in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the formation of pHA NCs and of their crystalline nature. The NCs were then coated with Au to form pHA@Au core-shell NPs, where the thickness of the Au shell was on the order of nanometers. The formation of Au nanoshell--surrounding pHA NC--was confirmed from its surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in the UV/Vis spectrum and by TEM measurements. Further, on treatment of the core-shell

  4. Core-size-dependent catalytic properties of bimetallic Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2014-12-24

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials because of their potential applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and photonics etc. Here, we have synthesized Au/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with varying the core diameter. The red-shifting of the both plasmonic peaks of Ag and Au confirms the core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, line scan EDS measurement and UV-vis study confirm the formation of core-shell nanoparticles. We have examined the catalytic activity of these core-shell nanostructures in the reaction between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and NaBH4 to form 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and the efficiency of the catalytic reaction is found to be increased with increasing the core size of Au/Ag core-shell nanocrystals. The catalytic efficiency varies from 41.8 to 96.5% with varying core size from 10 to 100 nm of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the Au100/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle is found to be 12-fold more active than that of the pure Au nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter. Thus, the catalytic properties of the metal nanoparticles are significantly enhanced because of the Au/Ag core-shell structure, and the rate is dependent on the size of the core of the nanoparticles.

  5. Core-shell cellulose nanofibers for biocomposites - nanostructural effects in hydrated state.

    PubMed

    Prakobna, Kasinee; Terenzi, Camilla; Zhou, Qi; Furó, István; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-07-10

    Core-shell wood cellulose nanofibers (CNF) coated by an XG hemicellulose polymer are prepared and used to make biocomposites. CNF/XG biocomposites have interest as packaging materials and as hydrated CNF/XG plant cell wall analogues. Structure and properties are compared between Core-shell CNF/XG and more inhomogeneous CNF/XG. Experiments include XG sorption, dynamic light scattering of CNF nanoparticle suspensions, FE-SEM of nanostructure, moisture sorption, tensile testing in moist conditions and dynamic mechanical analysis. (2)H NMR relaxometry is performed on materials containing sorbed (2)H2O2 in order to assess water molecular dynamics in different materials. The results clarify the roles of CNF, XG and the CNF/XG interface in the biocomposites, both in terms of moisture sorption mechanisms and mechanical properties in moist state. The concept of core-shell nanofiber network biocomposites, prepared by filtering of colloids, provides improved control of polymer matrix distribution and interface structure. Also, present mechanical properties are much superior to comparable plant fiber biocomposites.

  6. Preparation of core-shell ZnO-SiO2 nanowires-nanotubes for immobilization of the alkaline protease enzyme.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, M S; Farhadyar, N; Zare, K

    2011-10-01

    The main goal of enzyme immobilization is industrial re-use of enzymes for many reaction cycles. In this purpose, simplicity and improvement of the enzyme properties have to be strongly associated with the design of protocols of enzyme immobilization. In the last decade, nanosized materials have been widely used as a support for enzyme immobilization, for instance, silica nanotubes, phospholipid bilayers, self-assembled monolayers Langmuir_Blodgett films, polymer matrices, galleries of alpha-zirconium, phosphate, mesoporous silicates such as MCM-41, silica nanoparticles. In this work, we report synthesis of core shell ZnO/SiO2 nanowires and used them as a support for immobilization of the alkaline protease. Characterization of this assembled systems was carried out by, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biocatalytic activity of the alkaline protease in this bioconjugate system was examined and the results showed an increase of biocatalytic activity, in comparison with the free enzyme in solution.

  7. Core-shell hybrid liposomal vesicles loaded with panax notoginsenoside: preparation, characterization and protective effects on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and acute myocardial ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Han, Xizhen; Li, Xiang; Luo, Yun; Zhao, Haiping; Yang, Ming; Ni, Bin; Liao, Zhenggen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Novel panax notoginsenoside-loaded core-shell hybrid liposomal vesicles (PNS-HLV) were developed to resolve the restricted bioavailability of PNS and to enhance its protective effects in vivo on oral administration. Methods: Physicochemical characterizations of PNS-HLV included assessment of morphology, particle size and zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE%), stability and in vitro release study. In addition, to evaluate its oral treatment potential, we compared the effect of PNS-HLV on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and acute myocardial ischemia injury with those of PNS solution, conventional PNS-loaded nanoparticles, and liposomes. Results: In comparison with PNS solution, conventional PNS-loaded nanoparticles and liposomes, PNS-HLV was stable for at least 12 months at 4°C. Satisfactory improvements in the EE% of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were shown with the differences in EE% shortened and the greater controlled drug release profiles were exhibited from PNS-HLV. The improvements in the physicochemical properties of HLV contributed to the results that PNS-HLV was able to significantly inhibit the edema of brain and reduce the infarct volume, while it could markedly inhibit H2O2, modified Dixon agar, and serum lactate dehydrogenase, and increase superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study imply that HLV has promising prospects for improving free drug bioactivity on oral administration. PMID:22915851

  8. Homogeneous, core-shell, and hollow-shell ZnS colloid-based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Ian D; Liddell, Chekesha M

    2007-02-27

    Ordered ZnS-based colloidal crystals from homogeneous, core-shell, and hollow building blocks were prepared via electrosteric colloid stabilization combined with a convective assembly technique. The polyelectrolyte stabilized colloids assembled into face-centered cubic arrays with the (111) face perpendicular to the substrate. Structure-property correlations were made using scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and UV/visible/near-IR spectroscopy. Multilayer film growth, with film thickness of several micrometers, was achieved. Optical spectra showed (111) stopgaps along with pronounced higher order peaks. The spectral position of the photonic stopgap can be predicted using a volume average refractive index and the Maxwell-Garnett formula for the homogeneous and core-shell particles, respectively. This work holds the promise of harnessing ZnS for optical property engineering and enhanced photonic band gap materials.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of conductive core-shell polyacrylonitrile-polypyrrole nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tae-Sun; Nguyen, Tuan-Anh; Jung, Yongju; Kim, Yong Shin

    2012-07-01

    Nonwoven polyacrylonitrile-polypyrrole (PAN-PPy) core-shell nanofiber mats were prepared through the growth of PPy layers on electrospun PAN nanofibers via a two-step vapor-phase polymerization, i.e., the wet-coating of ferric tosylate (FeTos) oxidants on PAN nanofibers followed by exposure to pyrrole monomers in the gas phase. Under the conditions ([FeTos] = 10 wt%, reaction time = 15 min, temperature = 15 degrees C), the PPy polymerization procedure led to both a uniform coating over the PAN surface with an average thickness of 18 nm and cross-linkages among the nanofibers without a noticeable change in the highly porous nanofibrous structures. The oxidant concentration and polymerization time were found to be key parameters for achieving a good nanostructured core-shell fiber mat. FT-IR, XPS, XRD and conductivity measurements confirmed the synthesis of Tos-doped PPy with some degree of crystallinity and a high conductivity.

  10. Synthesis of AG@AgCl Core-Shell Structure Nanowires and Its Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenic (III) Under Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanyan; Cui, Yanping; Tian, Zhen; Wu, Yangling; Li, Yilian

    2017-12-01

    Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl3, which exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for As(III) oxidation under visible light. It was proved that the photocatalytic oxidation efficiency was significantly dependent on the mole ratio of Ag:AgCl. The oxidation rate of As(III) over Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires first increased with the decrease of Ag(0) percentage, up until the optimized synthesis mole ratio of Ag nanowires:FeCl3 was 2.32:2.20, with 0.023 mg L(-1) min(-1) As(III) oxidation rate; subsequently, the oxidation rate dropped with the further decrease of Ag(0) percentage. Effects of the pH, ionic strength, and concentration of humic acid on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability were also studied. Trapping experiments using radical scavengers confirmed that h(+) and ·O2(-) acted as the main active species during the visible-light-driven photocatalytic process for As(III) oxidation. The recycling experiments validated that Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were a kind of efficient and stable photocatalyst for As(III) oxidation under visible-light irradiation.

  11. Synthesis of AG@AgCl Core-Shell Structure Nanowires and Its Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenic (III) Under Visible Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yanyan; Cui, Yanping; Tian, Zhen; Wu, Yangling; Li, Yilian

    2017-04-01

    Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl3, which exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for As(III) oxidation under visible light. It was proved that the photocatalytic oxidation efficiency was significantly dependent on the mole ratio of Ag:AgCl. The oxidation rate of As(III) over Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires first increased with the decrease of Ag0 percentage, up until the optimized synthesis mole ratio of Ag nanowires:FeCl3 was 2.32:2.20, with 0.023 mg L-1 min-1 As(III) oxidation rate; subsequently, the oxidation rate dropped with the further decrease of Ag0 percentage. Effects of the pH, ionic strength, and concentration of humic acid on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability were also studied. Trapping experiments using radical scavengers confirmed that h+ and ·O2 - acted as the main active species during the visible-light-driven photocatalytic process for As(III) oxidation. The recycling experiments validated that Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were a kind of efficient and stable photocatalyst for As(III) oxidation under visible-light irradiation.

  12. Dexamethasone loaded core-shell SF/PEO nanofibers via green electrospinning reduced endothelial cells inflammatory damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Ei-Shanshory, Ahmed; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Ei-Hamshary, Hany A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)/PEO nanofibers prepared by green electrospinning is safe, non-toxic and environment friendly, it is a potential drug delivery carrier for tissue engineering. In this study, a core-shell nanofibers named as Dex@SF/PEO were obtained by green electrospinning with SF/PEO as the shell and dexamethasone (Dex) in the core. The nanofiber morphology and core-shell structure were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The Dex release behavior from the nanofibers was tested by High Performance liquid (HPLC) method. The protective effect of drug loaded nanofibers mats on Porcine hip artery endothelial cells (PIECs) against LPS-induced inflammatory damage were determined by MTT assay. TEM result showed the distinct core-shell structure of nanofibers. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that dexamethasone can sustain release over 192 h and core-shell nanofibers showed more slow release of Dex compared with the blending electrospinning nanofibers. Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro showed that released Dex can reduce the PIECs inflammatory damage and apoptosis which induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dex@SF/PEO nanofibers are safe and non-toxic because of no harmful organic solvents used in the preparation, it is a promising environment friendly drug carrier for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of polymer-silica nanocomposite particles with core-shell morphologies using Monte Carlo simulations and small angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Jennifer A; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Schmid, Andreas; Armes, Steven P; Fairclough, J Patrick A; Ryan, Anthony J

    2011-07-05

    A two-population model based on standard small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) equations is verified for the analysis of core-shell structures comprising spherical colloidal particles with particulate shells. First, Monte Carlo simulations of core-shell structures are performed to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Three possible shell packings are considered: ordered silica shells due to either charge-dependent repulsive or size-dependent Lennard-Jones interactions or randomly arranged silica particles. In most cases, the two-population model produces an excellent fit to calculated SAXS patterns for the simulated core-shell structures, together with a good correlation between the fitting parameters and structural parameters used for the simulation. The limits of application are discussed, and then, this two-population model is applied to the analysis of well-defined core-shell vinyl polymer/silica nanocomposite particles, where the shell comprises a monolayer of spherical silica nanoparticles. Comprehensive SAXS analysis of a series of poly(styrene-co-n-butyl acrylate)/silica colloidal nanocomposite particles (prepared by the in situ emulsion copolymerization of styrene and n-butyl acrylate in the presence of a glycerol-functionalized silica sol) allows the overall core-shell particle diameter, the copolymer latex core diameter and polydispersity, the mean silica shell thickness, the mean silica diameter and polydispersity, the vol