Lamarche, Yoan; Cartier, Raymond; Denault, André Y; Basmadjian, Arsène; Berry, Colin; Laborde, Jean-Claude; Bonan, Raoul
Surgical aortic valve replacement is the only recommended treatment for significant aortic valve stenosis. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement appears to be a novel option for high-risk patients. We report the implantation of the ReValving system (CoreValve, Paris, France) in a 64-year-old woman who was refused aortic valve replacement surgery for critical aortic stenosis and left ventricular dysfunction because of severe pulmonary fibrosis. After anesthesia, the patient was put on femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass, and underwent a balloon valvuloplasty with subsequent retrograde aortic valve replacement by the ReValving system. Transesophageal echocardiographic monitoring of the patient's hemodynamics showed immediate improvements of the valvular area and left ventricular ejection fraction and only traces of paravalvular leaks. The patient was easily weaned from ventilation and resumed activity soon after the surgery. A multidisciplinary approach is presently necessary to offer a reliable and safe procedure.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; De Marco, Federico; Oreglia, Jacopo; Colombo, Paola; Fratto, Pasquale; Lullo, Francesca; Paino, Roberto; Frigerio, Maria; Martinelli, Luigi; Klugmann, Silvio
Concerns exist in the field of transcatheter aortic valve implantation regarding the treatment of patients with mechanical mitral valve for possible interference between the percutaneous aortic valve and the mechanical mitral prosthesis. We report our experience with percutaneous aortic valve implantation in 4 patients with severe aortic stenosis, previously operated on for mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. All patients underwent uneventful percutaneous retrograde CoreValve implantation (CoreValve Inc, Irvine, CA). No deformation of the nitinol tubing of the prostheses (ie, neither distortion nor malfunction of the mechanical valve in the mitral position) occurred in any of the patients. All patients are alive and asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 171 days.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; Botta, Luca; De Marco, Federico; Colombo, Paola; Nonini, Sandra; Klugmann, Silvio; Martinelli, Luigi
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the Medtronic CoreValve is a well-established procedure. Although previously carried out only through the common femoral artery, today it is possible to perform the procedure through different arterial alternative access sites. A direct aortic approach through the ascending aorta could be carried out via a right anterior mini-thoracotomy in the second intercostal space. The pericardium is opened to expose the aorta. Two purse-string sutures are then placed on the ascending aorta and a standard retrograde CoreValve implantation is performed with the standard delivery system. Advantages, contraindications, surgical technique and results are discussed.
Asgar, Anita W; Bonan, Raoul
The field of transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been rapidly evolving. The Medtronic CoreValve first emerged on the landscape in 2004 with initial first human studies, and it is currently being studied in the Pivotal US trial. This article details the current experience with the self-expanding aortic valve with a focus on clinical results and ongoing challenges. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; DeMarco, Federico; Oreglia, Jacopo; Colombo, Paola; Fratto, Pasquale; Lullo, Francesca; Paino, Roberto; Martinelli, Luigi; Klugmann, Silvio
In recent years percutaneous aortic valve implantation has emerged as an alternative therapy to treat patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis considered to be high-risk surgical candidates. We report our experience of a percutaneous retrograde CoreValve implantation in a 77-year-old female with aortic bioprosthesis structural degeneration. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis in 1999 with the implantation of a 23 mm Carpentier-Edwards; her last echocardiography showed a severe bioprosthesis stenosis. After evaluation by cardiac surgeons and cardiologist, considering the high risk re-do surgical procedure (Logistic Euroscore 30%) and severe comorbidities (severe pulmonary hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma and severe osteoporosis), a percutaneous aortic valve-in-valve replacement was preferred. A successful percutaneous 26 mm CoreValve prosthesis implantation was performed with the patient awake with local anesthesia and mild sedation. The patient was discharged after 10 days of hospitalization and she is in NYHA functional class I at follow-up. Our experience, characterized by a multidisciplinary approach, necessary to offer the safest conditions and care for patients, demonstrates the feasibility of a new, promising indication for the use of a transcatheter valve implantation: percutaneous treatment of a degenerated aortic bioprosthesis.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; De Marco, Federico; Modine, Thomas; Botta, Luca; Colombo, Paola; Mauri, Silvia; Cannata, Aldo; Fratto, Pasquale; Klugmann, Silvio
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is used to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered extremely high-risk surgical candidates. The safety and effectiveness of TAVI have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The self-expanding CoreValve bioprosthesis (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) was the first transcatheter aortic valve to be granted the Conformité Européene (CE) mark in May 2007 for retrograde transfemoral implantation. However, TAVI patients are also often affected by severe iliofemoral arteriopathy. In these patients, the retrograde transfemoral approach carries a high risk of vascular injury, making this approach unusable. Alternative arterial access sites, such as the subclavian artery, the ascending aorta, and the carotid artery, have been used for retrograde implantation of the CoreValve bioprosthesis. In the present report, we present the procedural considerations, risks, and benefits of the different types of arterial access used to implant the CoreValve bioprosthesis.
Gotzmann, Michael; Czauderna, Anna; Hehnen, Tobias; Aweimer, Assem; Lind, Alexander; Kloppe, Axel; Bösche, Leif; Mügge, Andreas; Ewers, Aydan
There is little known about the long-term results of the CoreValve prosthesis. The aim of this study was to assess the 3-year clinical and hemodynamic outcomes of the CoreValve prosthesis. One hundred fifty consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis successfully underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the CoreValve prosthesis. The primary study end point was death from any cause after TAVI. The secondary end points were defined as (1) cardiovascular death and (2) prosthesis-related mortality and morbidity. At 1 to 3 years, all-cause mortality rates were 25%, 32%, and 41%, respectively, and cardiovascular mortality rates were 14%, 21%, and 27%, respectively. Before TAVI, 95% of patients were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. Of the surviving patients, rates of New York Heart Association class III or IV at 1 to 3 years were 33%, 39%, and 38%, respectively. There was an annual decrease of the valve area of approximately 0.1 cm². Aortic restenosis occurred in 2 patients. Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) occurred in 15% of patients immediately after TAVI. Twenty patients (13%) had a slight worsening of AR within 3 years. New severe AR did not occur. The incidence of prosthesis-related endocarditis was 0.66% per year. Overall, 7 patients (incidence of 1.5% per year) had a clinically relevant problem of the prosthesis. In conclusion, TAVI with the CoreValve prosthesis had favorable effects on symptoms and outcomes even after 3 years. These results are clouded by side effects, such as AR and prosthesis-related mortality and morbidity.
Forrest, John K; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Reardon, Michael J; Deeb, G Michael; Yakubov, Steven J; Hermiller, James B; Huang, Jian; Skelding, Kimberly A; Lansky, Alexandra
Treatment for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis has changed significantly in recent years due to advances in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recent studies with the CoreValve prosthesis have demonstrated superior results compared with surgical aortic valve replacement in patients at increased risk for surgery, but there are limited data on gender-related differences in patient characteristics and outcomes with this device. We compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes in women and men undergoing TAVR with the CoreValve prosthesis. A total of 3,687 patients (1,708 women and 1,979 men) were included. At baseline, women tended to be slightly older and to have increased frailty, but they had fewer cardiac co-morbidities, higher left ventricular systolic function, less coronary artery disease, and fewer previous strokes. All-cause mortality was 5.9% for women and 5.8% for men at 30 days (p = 0.87) and 24.1% and 21.3%, respectively, at 1 year (p = 0.08). The incidence of stroke was 5.7% in women and 4.0% in men at 30 days (p = 0.02) and 9.3% and 7.7%, respectively, at 1 year (p = 0.05). Women had a higher incidence of bleeding, including more life-threatening bleeds, and a greater incidence of major vascular complications than men at 30 days. Device success was achieved in 86.9% of women and 86.1% of men (p = 0.50). In conclusion, although there were significant baseline differences and procedure-related complications between women and men undergoing TAVR with the CoreValve prosthesis, this analysis found no significant difference in 30-day or 1-year mortality.
Barbanti, Marco; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Ettori, Federica; Latib, Azeem; Bedogni, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Poli, Arnaldo; Boschetti, Carla; De Carlo, Marco; Fiorina, Claudia; Colombo, Antonio; Brambilla, Nedy; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Martina, Paola; Pandolfi, Claudia; Giannini, Cristina; Curello, Salvatore; Sgroi, Carmelo; Gulino, Simona; Patanè, Martina; Ohno, Yohei; Tamburino, Claudia; Attizzani, Guilherme F; Immè, Sebastiano; Gentili, Alessandra; Tamburino, Corrado
The purpose of this analysis was to assess 5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using the current technology of the self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota). There is a paucity of evidence on long-term durability of currently available transcatheter heart valves. Starting in June 2007, all consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI with the third-generation 18-F CoreValve device in 8 Italian centers were prospectively included in the ClinicalService Project. For the purposes of this study, we included only consecutive patients with 5-year follow-up data available (n = 353) treated from June 2007 to August 2009. All outcomes were reported according to VARC (Valve Academic Research Consortium)-1 criteria. All-cause mortality rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 21%, 29%, 38%, 48%, and 55.0%, respectively. Cardiovascular mortality rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 10%, 14%, 19%, 23%, and 28.0%, respectively. The overall neurological event rate at 5 years was 7.5%, of which more than two-thirds occurred early after the procedure. During follow-up, there were 241 rehospitalizations for cardiovascular reasons in 164 (46%) patients. Among all rehospitalizations, acute heart failure was the most frequently reported (42.7%), followed by requirement of permanent pacemaker implantation (17.4%). On echocardiography, mean transaortic gradients decreased from 55.6 ± 16.8 mm Hg (pre-TAVI) to 12.8 ± 10.9 mm Hg (5-year post-TAVI) (p < 0.001). Late prosthesis failure occurred in 5 cases (1.4%); among these, redo TAVI was successfully carried out in 2 patients (0.6%) presenting with symptomatic prosthesis restenosis. The remaining 3 cases of prosthesis failure did not undergo further invasive interventions. Ten patients (2.8%) showed late mild stenosis with a mean transaortic gradient ranging from 20 to 40 mm Hg. No other cases of structural or nonstructural valvular deterioration were
López-Aguilera, José; Segura Saint-Gerons, José María; Mazuelos Bellido, Francisco; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Ojeda Pineda, Soledad; Pan Álvarez-Ossorio, Manuel; Romero Moreno, Miguel Ángel; Pavlovic, Djordje; Espejo Pérez, Simona; Suárez de Lezo, José
Conduction disturbances often occur after CoreValve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The aim was to analyze which cardiac conduction changes occur in patients with aortic stenosis treated with this type of prosthesis. A total of 181 patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with this prosthesis and studied by electrocardiography between April 2008 and December 2013 were selected. A subgroup of 137 (75.7%) consecutive patients was studied by intracardiac electrocardiogram before and after prosthesis implantation. The primary endpoint of the study was the need for a permanent pacemaker within 72 hours after prosthesis implantation. Numerous variables to predict this possibility were analyzed. Following implantation, PR and QRS intervals were increased from 173±47 ms to 190±52ms (P < .01) and from 98±22ms to 129±24 ms (P < .01), whereas the A-H and H-V intervals were prolonged from 95±39ms to 108±41ms (P < .01) and from 54±10ms to 66±23ms (P < .01). A total of 89 (49%) patients had new-onset left bundle-branch block, and 33 (25%) required a pacemaker within the first 72hours. The independent predictors for a pacemaker were baseline right bundle-branch block and prosthetic depth. Intracardiac intervals had no predictive value. In addition, 13 patients required a pacemaker after 72 hours. CoreValve prosthesis implantation has a high incidence of conduction disturbance, with left bundle-branch block being the most common. A total of 25% of patients required a permanent pacemaker. The need for a pacemaker was related to baseline right bundle-branch block and prosthetic depth. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Spargias, Konstantinos; Bouboulis, Nikolaos; Halapas, Antonios; Chrissoheris, Michael; Skardoutsos, Spyridon; Nikolaou, Joulia; Tsolakis, Apostolos; Mourmouris, Christos; Pattakos, Stratis
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now an established treatment for certain patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). However, as the number of patients screened for TAVR increases, many are found to have absolutely no option for peripheral artery access. Transaortic valve replacement (TAoVR) has been proposed as a new alternative route in patients deemed unsuitable for conventional approaches. We present our first series of TAoVR cases using the Edwards Sapien-XT and the Medtronic CoreValve prostheses. Twenty-five (25) symptomatic patients (mean age 78 ± 8 years, mean logistic EuroSCORE I 25 ± 11%) with severe AS underwent TAoVR using the Sapien-XT valve (10 patients) or the CoreValve (15 patients). The mean fluoroscopy time was 15.6 ± 4.2 minutes, the mean time in the intensive care unit was 1.9 ± 1.0 days, and the mean hospital stay was 6.4 ± 1.6 days. The mean effective aortic valve area increased (from 0.68 ± 0.15 cm(2) to 1.82 ± 0.34 cm(2), p<0.001) and the mean transvalvular pressure gradient declined (from 48 ± 15 mmHg to 9 ± 5 mmHg, p<0.05) post implantation. The procedural mortality was 0% and the in-hospital mortality was 4% (one death at day 3 due to cardiogenic shock). The mean NYHA functional class improved from 3.2 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.9 at 30 days. Our initial experience with the TAoVR approach using both the Edwards Sapien-XT and the Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis demonstrated that it could be performed safely, resulting in substantial acute echocardiographic and early clinical improvement.
Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Piazza, Nicolo; Apostolos, Tzikas; Ligthart, Jurgen; Schultz, Carl; de Jaegere, Peter P; Serruys, Patrick W
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) requires large bore catheters. Access site complications, therefore, can be a concern. The aim of this study is to present the 30-day incidence of major and minor vascular complications in patients treated with the third generation 18 Fr Medtronic CoreValve System. We prospectively evaluated the vascular complications occurring in all patients treated with the 18 Fr Medtronic CoreValve System between October 2006 and October 2009 in the Thoraxcenter using various proposed definitions. Ninety-nine consecutive patients were treated with TAVI using the 18 Fr Medtronic CoreValve System. Vascular events were encountered in 13 patients (13%), seven of these cases (54%) were related to incomplete arteriotomy closure with the Prostar device which is the default access closure technique in our centre. Depending on how major vascular complications were defined, the incidence varied from 4 to 13%. Blood transfusions in combination with surgical or percutaneous intervention were required in eight cases. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the 18 Fr Medtronic CoreValve System(R) has a 4 to 13% vascular complications' rate. More than half of the vascular events were due to incomplete Prostar arteriotomy closure, despite its use by experienced operators. Current percutaneous closure devices for these large arteriotomies seems suboptimal. Uniformity in how to define TAVI related vascular complications is needed.
Jilaihawi, Hasan; Chin, Derek; Spyt, Tomasz; Jeilan, Mohamed; Vasa-Nicotera, Mariuca; Mohamed, Noor; Bence, Johan; Logtens, Elaine; Kovac, Jan
We sought to determine the significance of incomplete stent frame expansion after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Medtronic-CoreValve device. Incomplete coronary stent expansion is a well-described phenomenon. Transcatheter valves are mounted on stents; however, the incidence of incomplete stent expansion after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, its sequelae and predictors are poorly elucidated. The 18Fr CoreValve revalving system was used to treat anatomically and clinically suitable patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. The postdeployment stent dimensions were measured on fluoroscopic images at multiple levels of the stent frame. Incomplete expansion at each was defined as <100% expected and complete expansion as ≥100%. These parameters were correlated to the hemodynamic and clinical end points. A total of 50 consecutive patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Medtronic-CoreValve at a single center from January 2007 to December 2008. For the inflow portion, incomplete expansion was seen in 54% of patients and was unrelated to the aortic valve area, peak or mean aortic valve gradients, or measures of aortic regurgitation, although it was paradoxically associated with a lower incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch. Incomplete expansion of the constrained portion was seen in 62% of the patients and displayed a trend toward a greater incidence of aortic regurgitation grade 2 or greater, although this was rare. Incomplete expansion of the Medtronic CoreValve stent frame is common. For the most part, valvular hemodynamic function was satisfactory, regardless of the degree of expansion of the stent frame that carries it and a strategy of reluctant postdilation in the context of incomplete stent frame expansion was supported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and large aortic annulus, using the self-expanding 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis: first clinical experience.
Nijhoff, Freek; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Amrane, Hafid; Latib, Azeem; Testa, Luca; Oreglia, Jacopo A; De Marco, Federico; Samim, Mariam; Bedogni, Francesco; Maisano, Francesco; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Antonio; Van Boven, Ad J; Stella, Pieter R
With the introduction of the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis, patients with large aortic annulus have become eligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and large aortic annulus. Five institutions in the Netherlands and Italy participated in a retrospective multicenter registry. Clinical, procedural, and imaging data of patients treated with the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve were retrospectively collected in accordance with the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Between August 2011 and November 2012, 47 patients (44 men, mean age 77.6 ± 8.9 years) received the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis for severe aortic stenosis. Device success (correct positioning of a single valve with intended performance and no all-cause 30-day mortality) was achieved in 31 patients (66.0%). Reasons for failing the device success criteria were significant prosthetic aortic regurgitation in 3 patients (6.4%), second valve implantation in 10 patients (21.2%) (8 cases of malpositioning with high-grade aortic regurgitation, 1 acute valve dislocation, and 1 delayed valve dislocation), 1 of whom died intrahospital, and in-hospital mortality in a further 3 patients (6.4%). Peak and mean transaortic gradients decreased significantly (P < .01). The rate of new pacemaker implantations was 41.7%. In this retrospective multicenter registry, transcatheter treatment of severe aortic valve stenosis with the 31-mm Medtronic CoreValve seemed to be challenging, even in experienced hands. If the prosthesis is properly implanted, it offers adequate valve hemodynamics and proper functioning. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Collas, Valérie M; Dubois, Christophe; Legrand, Victor; Kefer, Joëlle; De Bruyne, Bernard; Dens, Jo; Rodrigus, Inez E; Herijgers, Paul; Bosmans, Johan M
To assess midterm (3 years) clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Belgium using the Edwards SAPIEN valve or the Medtronic CoreValve transcatheter heart valve (THV). Medium and long term follow-up data of both THVs are still relatively scarce, although of great clinical relevance for a relatively new but rapidly expanding treatment modality. Therefore, reporting mid- and long term clinical outcome data, coming from large "real world" national registries, remains contributive. Between December 2007 and March 2012, 861 "real world" patients who were not candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement as decided by the local heart teams, underwent TAVI at 23 sites. Eleven sites exclusively used SAPIEN THV (n = 460), while 12 exclusively used CoreValve THV (n = 401). Differences in clinical outcomes by valve system were assessed, according to access route and baseline EuroSCORE risk profile (<10%: low, 10-20%: intermediate and >20%: high risk). Overall cumulative survival at 3 years was 51% for SAPIEN vs. 60% for CoreValve (P = 0.021). In transfemorally treated patients, SAPIEN and CoreValve had similar survival at 3 years for each of the baseline EuroSCORE cohorts (low risk: 72% vs. 76%, P = 0.45; intermediate risk: 62% vs. 59%, P = 0.94; high risk: 48% vs. 53%, P = 0.65). Cumulative midterm 3 year survival after transfemoral TAVI in "real world" patients refused for surgery with similar baseline EuroSCORE risk profile is not different between SAPIEN or CoreValve. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lenders, Guy D; Collas, Valérie; Hernandez, José Maria; Legrand, Victor; Danenberg, Haim D; den Heijer, Peter; Rodrigus, Inez E; Paelinck, Bernard P; Vrints, Christiaan J; Bosmans, Johan M
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is now considered an indispensable treatment strategy in high operative risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis. However, conduction disturbances and the need for Permanent Pacemaker (PPM) implantation after TAVI with the CoreValve prosthesis still remain frequent. We aimed to evaluate the implantation depth, the incidence and predictors of new conduction disturbances, and the need for PPM implantation within the first month after TAVI, using the new Accutrak CoreValve delivery system (ACV), compared to the previous generation CoreValve (non-ACV). In 5 experienced TAVI-centers, a total of 120 consecutive non-ACV and 112 consecutive ACV patients were included (n=232). The mean depth of valve implantation (DVI) was 8.4±4.0 mm in the non-ACV group and 7.1±4.0 mm in the ACV group (p=0.034). The combined incidence of new PPM implantation and new LBBB was 71.2% in the non-ACV group compared to 50.5% in the ACV group (p=0.014). DVI (p=0.002), first degree AV block (p=0.018) and RBBB (p<0.001) were independent predictors of PPM implantation. DVI (p<0.001) and pre-existing first degree AV-block (p=0.021) were identified as significant predictors of new LBBB. DVI is an independent predictor of TAVI-related conduction disturbances and can be reduced by using the newer CoreValve Accutrak delivery system, resulting in a significantly lower incidence of new LBBB and new PPM implantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maluenda, Gabriel; Caorsi, Carlos; Baeza, Cristian
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement remains challenge in patients with ball-cage-type mechanical valve in mitral position. Potential under-expansion of the percutaneous valve and interaction between the mitral ball-cage mechanical valve tilted towards the left ventricular outflow tract and the percutaneous valve adds risk during and after implantation. We report a successful implantation of the novel CoreValve Evolut-R self-expanding in a patient with severe aortic stenosis and a mitral Starr-Edwards mechanical valve implanted 28years ago.
Optimal Implantation Depth and Adherence to Guidelines on Permanent Pacing to Improve the Results of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the Medtronic CoreValve System: The CoreValve Prospective, International, Post-Market ADVANCE-II Study.
Petronio, Anna S; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Van Mieghem, Nicolas; Zucchelli, Giulio; Nickenig, Georg; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Bosmans, Johan; Bedogni, Francesco; Branny, Marian; Stangl, Karl; Kovac, Jan; Schiltgen, Molly; Kraus, Stacia; de Jaegere, Peter
The aim of the CoreValve prospective, international, post-market ADVANCE-II study was to define the rates of conduction disturbances and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the Medtronic CoreValve System (Minneapolis, Minnesota) using optimized implantation techniques and application of international guidelines on cardiac pacing. Conduction disturbances are a frequent complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The rates of PPI in the published reports vary according to bioprosthesis type and the indications for PPI. The primary endpoint was the 30-day incidence of PPI with Class I/II indications when the Medtronic CoreValve System was implanted at an optimal depth (≤6 mm below the aortic annulus). The timing and resolution of all new-onset conduction disturbances were analyzed. A total of 194 patients were treated. The overall rate of PPI for Class I/II indications was 18.2%. An optimal depth was reached in 43.2% of patients, with a nonsignificantly lower incidence of PPI in patients with depths ≤6 mm, compared with those with deeper implants (13.3% vs. 21.1%; p = 0.14). In a paired analysis, new-onset left bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block occurred in 45.4% and 39.0% of patients, respectively, and resolved spontaneously within 30 days in 43.2% and 73.9%, respectively. In patients with new PPI, the rate of intrinsic sinus rhythm increased from 25.9% at 7 days to 59.3% at 30 days (p = 0.004). Optimal Medtronic CoreValve System deployment and adherence to international guidelines on cardiac pacing are associated with a lower rate of new PPI after transcatheter aortic valve replacement, compared with results reported in previous studies. (CoreValve Advance-II Study: Prospective International Post-Market Study [ADVANCE II]; NCT01624870). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Olivares, Ramón; El Faquir, Nahid; Rahhab, Zouhair; Geeve, Patrick; Maugenest, Anne-Marie; van Weenen, Sander; Ren, Ben; Galema, Tjebbe; Geleijnse, Marcel; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; van Domburg, Ron; Bruining, Nico; Schultz, Carl; Lauritsch, Guenter; de Jaegere, Peter P T
Aortic regurgitation (AR) after Medtronic CoreValve System (MCS) implantation may be explained by patient-, operator- and procedure-related factors. We sought to explore if frame geometry, as a result of a specific device-host interaction, contributes to AR. Using rotational angiography with dedicated motion compensation, we assessed valve frame geometry in 84 patients who underwent TAVI with the MCS. Aortic regurgitation was assessed by angiography (n=84, Sellers) and echocardiography at discharge (n=72, VARC-2). Twenty-two patients (26%) had AR grade ≥2 using contrast angiography, and 17 (24%) by echocardiography. Balloon predilatation and sizing and depth of implantation did not differ between the two groups. Despite more frequent balloon post-dilatation in patients with AR (40.9 vs. 9.7%, p=0.001), the frame was more elliptical at its nadir relative to the patient's annulus (6±13 vs. -1±11%, p=0.046) and occurred in a larger proportion of patients (61.9 vs. 26.8%, p=0.004). Although the Agatston score and the eccentricity of the MCS frame relative to the annulus were independent determinants of AR (odds ratio: 1.635 [1.151-2.324], p=0.006, and 4.204 [1.237-14.290], p=0.021), there was a weak association between the Agatston score and the adjusted eccentricity (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient =-0.24, p=0.046). These findings indicate that AR can be explained by a specific device-host interaction which can only partially be explained by the calcium load of the aortic root.
Kleiman, Neal S; Maini, Brijeshwar J; Reardon, Michael J; Conte, John; Katz, Stanley; Rajagopal, Vivek; Kauten, James; Hartman, Alan; McKay, Raymond; Hagberg, Robert; Huang, Jian; Popma, Jeffrey
The risk for stroke after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an important concern. Identification of predictors for stroke is likely to be a critical factor aiding patient selection and management as TAVR use becomes widespread. Patients enrolled in the CoreValve US Extreme Risk and High Risk Pivotal Trials or Continued Access Study treated with the self-expanding CoreValve bioprosthesis were included in this analysis. The 1-year stroke rate after TAVR was 8.4%. Analysis of the stroke hazard rate identified an early phase (0-10 days; 4.1% of strokes) and a late phase (11-365 days; 4.3% of strokes). Baseline predictors of early stroke included National Institutes of Health stroke scale score >0, prior stroke, prior transient ischemic attack, peripheral vascular disease, absence of prior coronary artery bypass surgery, angina, low body mass index (<21 kg/m(2)), and falls within the past 6 months. Significant procedural predictors were total time in the catheterization laboratory or operating room, delivery catheter in the body time, rapid pacing used during valvuloplasty, and repositioning of the prosthesis. Predictors of stroke between 11 and 365 days were small body surface area, severe aortic calcification, and falls within the past 6 months. There were no significant imaging predictors of early or late stroke. Predictors of early stroke after TAVR included clinical and procedural factors; predictors of later stroke were limited to patient but not anatomic characteristics. These findings indicate that further refinement of imaging to identify anatomic factors predisposing to embolization may help improve stroke prediction in patients undergoing TAVR. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01240902, NCT01531374. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Berfield, Kathleen K S; Sweet, Matthew P; McCabe, James M; Reisman, Mark; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Mokadam, Nahush A; Dean, Larry S; Smith, Jason W
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is being used with increasing frequency in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are otherwise deemed to be at high surgical risk. Aortic dissection is a rare complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and poses a unique management dilemma. We describe the treatment of an acute Stanford type A aortic dissection after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with a modified thoracic endovascular stent graft in a 95-year-old woman. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Magalhaes, Marco A; Koifman, Edward; Didier, Romain; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Baker, Nevin C; Negi, Smita I; Minha, Sa'ar; Torguson, Rebecca; Jiaxiang, Gai; Asch, Federico M; Wang, Zuyue; Okubagzi, Petros; Gaglia, Michael A; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron
The incidence of aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a self-expanding and a balloon-expandable system is controversial. This study aimed to examine the incidence and severity of post-TAVR AR with the CoreValve (CV) versus the Edwards XT Valve (XT). Baseline, procedural, and postprocedural inhospital outcomes were compared. The primary end point was the incidence of post-TAVR AR of any severity, assessed with a transthoracic echocardiogram, in the CV versus XT groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was completed to evaluate for correlates of the primary end point. The secondary end points included the change in severity of AR at 30-day and 1-year follow-up. A total of 223 consecutive patients (53% men, mean age 82 years) who had transfemoral TAVR with either a CV (n = 119) or XT (n = 104) were evaluated. The rates of post-TAVR AR in the groups were similar, and there was no evidence of more-than-moderate AR in either group. There were significant differences in the rates of intraprocedural balloon postdilation with the CV (17.1%) versus XT valve (5.8%; p = 0.009) and in the rates of intraprocedural implantation of a second valve-in-valve prosthesis with the CV (9.9%) versus XT valve (2.2%; p = 0.036). There were no significant differences in inhospital safety outcomes between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the incidence of post-TAVR AR is similar between the CV and the XT valve when performed by experienced operators using optimal intraprocedural strategies, as deemed appropriate, to mitigate the severity of AR.
Perrin, Nils; Roffi, Marco; Frei, Angela; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Ellenberger, Christoph; Müller, Hajo; Cikirikcioglu, Mustafa; Licker, Marc; Noble, Stephane
There are scarce clinical outcomes data on the new generation recapturable and repositionable CoreValve Evolut R. Data on all-comer patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the Evolut R for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis at a single center were prospectively collected between February 2015 and April 2016. Clinical endpoints were independently adjudicated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Primary outcomes consisted of early safety composite endpoints and 30-day device success. The incidence of new permanent pacemaker implantation was recorded. Among the 83 patients undergoing TAVI during this period, 71 (85.5% of the population; median age, 83.0 [interquartile range, 80.0-87.0] years; Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores, 4.8±3.5%) were suitable for Evolut R implantation and were included in the analysis. Repositioning was performed in 26.8% of the procedures. The early safety composite endpoint was observed in 11.3% of patients at 30 days, with 2.8% all-cause mortality. Device success was documented in 90.1% of patients. Paravalvular leakage was less than grade II in 98.4% of patients. The mean transvalvular aortic gradient was reduced from 42.5±14.5mmHg at baseline to 7.7±4.0mmHg at discharge (P<.0001 vs baseline). New permanent pacemaker implantation was required in 23.9% of patients. The new generation Evolut R is suitable for most patients and shows high device success and acceptable mortality in an unbiased, consecutive, all-comer population at a single center performing TAVI exclusively with Medtronic valves. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Berry, Colin; Oukerraj, Latifa; Asgar, Anita; Lamarche, Yoan; Marcheix, Bertrand; Denault, André Y; Laborde, Jean-Claude; Cartier, Raymond; Ducharme, Anique; Bonan, Raoul; Basmadjian, Arsène J
Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (PAVR) is an emerging therapy for nonsurgical patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). We examined the role of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in PAVR. TEE was used initially to assess the native valve and aortic root, and served as a guide during PAVR. Following prosthetic valve deployment, TEE was used to assess valve function. Eleven patients aged 82 +/- 10 years with NYHA III-IV underwent PAVR. Periprocedural TEE gave immediate information on prosthetic position and function, LV function, mitral regurgitation, pericardium, and thoracic aorta anatomy. There was excellent visual agreement between fluoroscopic and TEE images of prosthetic positioning and deployment. TEE facilitated the detection and management of procedure-related complications. Compared with pre-PAVR, AV area (0.56 +/- 0.19 cm(2) vs. 1.3 +/- 0.4 cm(2); P < 0.001) and LVEF (49 +/- 17% vs. 56 +/- 11%; P < 0.001) increased. TEE provides key anatomical and functional information, and serves as a diagnostic guide for complications, which may arise during PAVR.
Steinvil, Arie; Aviram, Galit; Konigstein, Maayan; Abramowitz, Yigal; Halkin, Amir; Arbel, Yaron; Ben-Gal, Yanai; Keren, Gad; Banai, Shmuel; Finkelstein, Ariel
The relative radiation dose (RD) of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with either the Edwards Sapien XT (ESX) or the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) prostheses has not been studied in depth. Our aim was to quantify RD in uncomplicated transfemoral TAVI with either prosthesis. We analyzed 248 consecutive patients undergoing uncomplicated transfemoral TAVI between March 2009 and September 2012, at a single tertiary care facility. Total air Kerma, cumulated dose area product (DAP), and fluoroscopy time were determined in each case. The ESX and MCV prostheses were implanted in 44 and 204 patients, respectively. Though mean fluoroscopy time was higher during ESX valve implantation, overall RD per total air Kerma and DAP was significantly higher during MCV implantation (P < 0.05 for both comparisons). By multivariate regression analyses, prosthesis type was an independent predictor of RD according to both total air Kerma and DAP (r(2) = 0. 498; P < 0.01 and r(2) = 0.363; P < 0.01, respectively). In uncomplicated transfemoral TAVI, RD is greater during MCV implantation than during ESX implantation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van der Boon, Robert M A; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Theuns, Dominic A; Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Nauta, Sjoerd T; Serruys, Patrick W; Jordaens, Luc; van Domburg, Ron T; de Jaegere, Peter P T
To determine pacemaker (PM) dependency at follow-up visit in patients who underwent new permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Single center prospective observational study including 167 patients without previous PM implantation who underwent TAVI with the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve System (MCS) between November 2005 and February 2011. PM dependency was defined by the presence of a high degree atrioventricular block (HDAVB; second [AV2] and third degree [AV3B]), or a slow (<30 bpm) or absent ventricular escape rhythm during follow-up PM interrogation. A total of 36 patients (21.6%) received a new PM following TAVI. The indication for PM was AV2B (n=2, 5.6%), AV3B (n=28, 77.8%), postoperative symptomatic bradycardia (n=3, 8.3%), brady-tachy syndrome (n=1, 2.8%), atrial fibrilation with slow response (n=1, 2.8%) and left bundle branch block (n=1, 2.8%). Long term follow-up was complete for all patients and ranged from 1 to 40 months (median (IQR): 11.5 (5.0-18.0 months). Of those patients with a HDAVB, 16 out of the 30 patients (53.3%) were PM independent at follow-up visit (complete or partial resolution of the AV conduction abnormality). Overall, 20 out of the 36 patients (55.6%) who received a new PM following TAVI were PM independent at follow-up. Partial and even complete resolution of peri-operative AV conduction abnormalities after MCS valve implantation occurred in more than half of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muñoz-García, Antonio J; del Valle, Raquel; Trillo-Nouche, Ramiro; Elízaga, Jaime; Gimeno, Federico; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Teles, Rui; de Gama Ribeiro, Vasco; Molina, Eduardo; Cequier, Angel; Urbano-Carrillo, Cristóbal; Cruz-González, Ignacio; Payaslian, Miguel; Patricio, Lino; Sztejfman, Matías; Iñiguez, Andrés; Rodríguez, Víctor; Scuteri, Antonio; Caorsi, Carlos; López-Otero, Diego; Avanzas, Pablo; Alonso-Briales, Juan H; Hernández-García, José M; Morís, César
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the recommended therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery. The aim of this study was to describe early experience and long-term follow-up with the CoreValve self-expanding aortic prosthesis at 42 Ibero-American hospitals. Multiple centre observational study including 1220 consecutive patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery and underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve System between December 2007 and May 2012. The registry included 1220 consecutive patients with a mean age of 80.8 ± 6.3 years and a mean logistic euroSCORE of 17.8% ± 13%. The procedural success rate was 96.1%. Hospital mortality was 7.3% and combined end-point was 21.3%. Aortic regurgitation after TAVI was present in 24.5% (Sellers grade ≥ 2). The estimated 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 82.1% and 73.4% respectively. The following issues were significant independent risk factors for hospital mortality: acute kidney failure (odds ratio 3.55); stroke (odds ratio 5.72); major bleeding (odds ratio 2.64) and euroSCORE (odds ratio 1.02). Long-term predictors of mortality were diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.31), severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.85-2.88), and functional classes NYHA III-IV (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.70). Transcatheter aortic valve implantation constitutes a safe and viable therapeutic option for high operative risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Long-term prognosis is conditioned by associate comorbidities. © 2013.
Baan, Jan; Yong, Ze Yie; Koch, Karel T; Henriques, José P S; Bouma, Berto J; Vis, Marije M; Cocchieri, Riccardo; Piek, Jan J; de Mol, Bas A J M
Cardiac conduction disorders and requirement for permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) are not uncommon after surgical aortic valve replacement and have important clinical implications. We aimed to investigate the incidence of cardiac conduction disorders after percutaneous aortic valve implantation (PAVI) and to identify possible clinical factors associated with their development. We studied 34 patients (mean age 80 +/- 8 years, 18 male) who underwent PAVI with the CoreValve bioprosthesis (Corevalve Inc, Irvine, CA). Electrocardiographic evaluation was performed pre- and postprocedurally, and at 1-week and 1-month follow-up. Other clinical variables were obtained from the medical history, echocardiography, and angiography. After PAVI, 7 patients required PPI, all of whom developed total atrioventricular block within 3 days postprocedurally. A smaller left ventricular outflow tract diameter (20.3 +/- 0.5 vs 21.6 +/- 1.8 cm, P = .01), more left-sided heart axis (-20 degrees +/- 29 degrees vs 19 degrees +/- 36 degrees , P = .02), more mitral annular calcification (10 +/- 1 vs 5 +/- 4 mm, P = .008), and a smaller postimplantation indexed effective orifice area (0.86 +/- 0.20 vs 1.10 +/- 0.26 cm(2)/m(2), P = .04) were associated with PPI. The incidence of new left bundle-branch block (LBBB) was 65% and was associated with a deeper implantation of the prosthesis: 10.2 +/- 2.3 mm in the new-LBBB group versus 7.7 +/- 3.1 mm in the non-LBBB group (P = .02). Percutaneous aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve prosthesis results in a high incidence of total atrioventricular block requiring PPI and new-onset LBBB. Preexisting disturbance of cardiac conduction, a narrow left ventricular outflow tract, and the severity of mitral annular calcification predict the need for permanent pacing, whereas the only factor shown to be predictive for new-onset LBBB is the depth of prosthesis implantation.
Rationale and design of the Edwards SAPIEN-3 periprosthetic leakage evaluation versus Medtronic CoreValve in transfemoral aortic valve implantation (ELECT) trial : A randomised comparison of balloon-expandable versus self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve prostheses.
Abawi, M; Agostoni, P; Kooistra, N H M; Samim, M; Nijhoff, F; Voskuil, M; Nathoe, H; Doevendans, P A; Chamuleau, S A; Urgel, K; Hendrikse, J; Leiner, T; Abrahams, A C; van der Worp, B; Stella, P R
Periprosthetic aortic regurgitation (PPR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains an important issue associated with impaired long-term outcomes. The current randomised study aims to evaluate potential differences between the balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN-3 and the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve system with the main focus on post-TAVI PPR by means of novel imaging endpoints, and an additional focus on other clinical endpoints. The primary endpoint of this study is quantitative assessment of the severity of post-procedural PPR using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Several other novel imaging modalities (X-ray contrast angiography, echocardiography) are used as secondary imaging modalities for the assessment of PPR following TAVI. Secondary objectives of the study include clinical outcomes such as cerebral and kidney injury related to TAVI, and quality of life. The ELECT study is a single-centre, prospective, two-armed randomised controlled trial. For the purpose of this study, 108 consecutive adult patients suitable for transfemoral TAVI will be randomly allocated to receive the SAPIEN-3 (n = 54) or the CoreValve system (n = 54). The ELECT trial is the first randomised controlled trial to quantitatively compare the extent of post-TAVI PPR between the SAPIEN-3 and CoreValve. Furthermore, it will evaluate potential differences between the two prostheses with regard to mid-term clinical outcome and quality of life.
Arnold, Suzanne V.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Suzanne J.; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M.; Reardon, Michael J.; Tadros, Peter N.; Zorn, George L.; Maini, Brij; Mumtaz, Mubashir A.; Brown, John M.; Kipperman, Robert M.; Adams, David H.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, David J.
Background In patients at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is associated with improved 1-year survival compared with AVR. However, elderly patients may be just as concerned with quality of life improvement as with prolonged survival as a goal of treatment. Objectives To compare the health status outcomes for patients treated with either self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 795 patients with severe aortic stenosis at increased surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or AVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), SF-12, and EQ-5D; growth curve models were used to examine changes over time. Results Over the 1-year follow-up period, disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially for both treatment groups. At 1-month, there was a significant interaction between the benefit of TAVR over AVR and access site. Among surviving patients eligible for iliofemoral (IF) access, there was a clinically relevant early benefit with TAVR across all disease-specific and generic health status measures. Among the non-IF cohort; however, most health status measures were similar for TAVR and AVR, although there was a trend toward early benefit with TAVR on the SF-12 physical health scale. There were no consistent differences in health status between TAVR and AVR at the later time points. Conclusions Health status improved substantially in surviving patients with increased surgical risk who were treated with either self-expanding TAVR or AVR. TAVR via the IF route was associated with better early health status compared with AVR, but there was no early health status benefit with non-IF TAVR compared with AVR. PMID:26292584
Arnold, Suzanne V; Reynolds, Matthew R; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Baron, Suzanne J; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Reardon, Michael J; Tadros, Peter N; Zorn, George L; Maini, Brij; Mumtaz, Mubashir A; Brown, John M; Kipperman, Robert M; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Cohen, David J
This study sought to compare the health status outcomes for patients treated with either self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). In patients at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is associated with improved 1-year survival compared with AVR. However, elderly patients may be just as concerned with quality-of-life improvement as with prolonged survival as a goal of treatment. Between 2011 and 2012, 795 patients with severe aortic stenosis at increased surgical risk were randomized to TAVR or AVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Trial. Health status was assessed at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 12 Questionnaire, and EuroQOL 5-dimension questionnaire; growth curve models were used to examine changes over time. Over the 1-year follow-up period, disease-specific and generic health status improved substantially for both treatment groups. At 1 month, there was a significant interaction between the benefit of TAVR over AVR and access site. Among surviving patients eligible for iliofemoral (IF) access, there was a clinically relevant early benefit with TAVR across all disease-specific and generic health status measures. Among the non-IF cohort, however, most health status measures were similar for TAVR and AVR, although there was a trend toward early benefit with TAVR on the Short-Form 12 Questionnaire's physical health scale. There were no consistent differences in health status between TAVR and AVR at the later time points. Health status improved substantially in surviving patients with increased surgical risk who were treated with either self-expanding TAVR or AVR. TAVR via the IF route was associated with better early health status compared with AVR, but there was no early health status benefit with non-IF TAVR compared with AVR. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve
Guetta, Victor; Goldenberg, Gustavo; Segev, Amit; Dvir, Danny; Kornowski, Ran; Finckelstein, Arik; Hay, Ilan; Goldenberg, Ilan; Glikson, Michael
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel treatment for high risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. However, significant atrioventricular (AV) conduction system abnormalities requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation might complicate this procedure. We used best subsets logistic regression analysis to identify the independent predictors for the development of high-degree AV block (HDAVB) among 70 patients who underwent TAVI at 3 referral centers in Israel from 2008 to 2010. The mean age of the study patients was 83 ± 4.6 years. Of the 70 patients, 28 (40%) developed AV conduction abnormalities requiring PPM implantation within 14 days (median 2) of the procedure. The indications for PPM implantation were HDAVB (n = 25), new-onset left bundle branch block with PR prolongation (n = 2), and slow atrial fibrillation (n = 1). Best subsets logistic regression analysis showed that, among the 15 prespecified clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic candidate risk factors, only right bundle branch block at baseline (odds ratio 43; p = 0.002) and deep valve implantation (<6 mm from the lower edge of the noncoronary cusp to the ventricular end of the prosthesis, odds ratio 22; p <0.001) were independently associated with the development of periprocedural HDAVB. At 3 months of follow-up, HDAVB was still present in 40% of the patients who received PPM implantation for this indication. In conclusion, 40% of the patients who undergo CoreValve TAVI require PPM implantation after the procedure, with most cases (36%) associated with the development of postprocedural HDAVB. Baseline conduction abnormalities (right bundle branch block) and deep valve implantation (>6 mm) independently predicted the development of HDAVB and the need for PPM implantation after CoreValve TAVI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benito-González, Tomás; Gualis, Javier; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Cuellas, Carlos; Fernandez-Vazquez, Felipe
Significant periprosthetic aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become a major concern of this technique given its association with impaired survival. We report the successful closure of such defect using a vascular occlusion device with the creation of an arterio-arterial loop to gain enough support to advance the delivery sheath into de the left ventricle. PMID:28275491
Liang, Michael; Devlin, Gerard; Pasupati, Sanjeevan
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed at Waikato Hospital for high-risk severe symptomatic aortic stenosis patients who are considered unsuitable for conventional cardiac surgery for the last 3 years. The Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) is a self-expandable device, while the Edwards SAPIEN valve (EV) requires the use of a balloon to expand the device. This observational study reports and compares the incidence of heart block in both Medtronic and Edwards transcatheter valves. All patients who underwent TAVI between the periods of 28 August 2008 and 27 July 2011 were included in this study. Preprocedure and daily postprocedure until discharge electrocardiograms (ECG) were obtained prospectively. New onsets of significant atrioventricular (AV) and bundle branch blocks were recorded. Patients with existing pacemaker and those who did not survive the procedure were excluded. Sixty patients underwent TAVI during the study period, of whom 40 (67%) and 20 (33%) patients had MCV and EV implanted, respectively. Seven patients were excluded from the analysis; 38 MCV and 15 EV patients fulfilled the criteria for analysis. Mean age was 80 ± 7 years, 57% were male. Five patients (9%) required permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation, which occurred exclusively post MCV TAVI (MCV vs EV: 13% vs 0%, respectively; P=.02). The indications of PPM were complete heart block in 3 patients (60%), Mobitz II second-degree heart block in 1 patient (20%), and symptomatic sick sinus syndrome in 1 patient (20%). The incidence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) was increased after the TAVI procedure and was more significant with MCV implants (MCV vs EV: 42% vs 8%, respectively; P<.01). Of note, 2 of the 5 patients (40%) with pre-existing right bundle branch block (RBBB) who underwent TAVI required PPM (P=.01). MCV implantation is associated with a higher incidence of significant AV block requiring PPM implantation and LBBB compared to EV. The overall rate of PPM requirement
Thomopoulou, Sofia; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Karyofyllis, Panagiotis; Kariori, Maria; Karavolias, George; Balanika, Marina; Smyrli, Anna; Stefopoulos, Christos; Sbarouni, Eftihia; Moldovan, Carmen; Khoury, Mazen; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Voudris, Vassilis
transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for patients with severe aortic stenosis considered inoperable or at high operative risk, but the long-term outcome remains unknown. we assessed the 4-year clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of patients undergoing TAVI with the self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis. sixty-three patients (mean age 80 ± 6 years) with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (Logistic EuroSCORE 28.8 ± 10.9%) were included in this study. all-cause cumulative mortality at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years was 14.3, 25.4, 28.6 and 36.5%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of documented major stroke at 4 years was 6.3%. In survivors, there was a significant improvement in functional status at 4 years. Paravalvular leak (trivial/mild to moderate) was observed in the majority of patients post-TAVI with no case of progression to severe regurgitation at 4-year follow-up. In multivariate analysis, independent predictor for increased all-cause mortality was left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (HR: 5.347, 95% CI: 1.126-25.381, P = 0.035). our study demonstrated favourable long-term (4 years) outcomes after successful TAVI using the third-generation Medtronic CoreValve device. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hildebrandt, H A; Erbel, R; Kahlert, P
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a viable treatment option for high- and prohibitive-risk patients with severe, calcified pure or predominant aortic valve stenosis, but not for pure aortic valve regurgitation. In fact, the use of TAVI for this indication is even considered unlikely due to the lack of calcium which appears essential for anchoring the stent-valve and prevents dislocation. We report a case of a patient with severe, symptomatic pure aortic regurgitation, and a history of two previous open-heart surgeries who was successfully treated by compassionate use implantation of an oversized Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis as an ultima ratio treatment option. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Greif, Martin; Lange, Philipp; Näbauer, Michael; Schwarz, Florian; Becker, Christoph; Schmitz, Christoph; Pohl, Tilmann; D'Anastasi, Melvin; Boekstegers, Peter; Massberg, Steffen; Kupatt, Christian
To assess the feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI; Medtronic CoreValve and Edwards SAPIEN XT) under local anaesthesia with only mild analgesic medication and fluoroscopic guidance. 461 patients underwent TAVI under local anaesthesia with lidocaine. The procedure was performed successfully in 459 of the cases. All patients were also treated with piritramide, metoclopramide hydrochloride and 62 mg dimenhydrinate. Monitoring consisted of a six-electrode, virtual 12-lead ECG, pulse oximetry, and invasive arterial pressure measurement. There was no continuous surveillance by an anaesthesiologist. There was no need for conversion to general anaesthesia except in four patients who required cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conscious sedation with intravenous administration of midazolam for agitation or inotropic medication for prolonged hypotension was necessary in only seven of the 461 patients. The combined safety end point according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium consensus document was reached in 12.6%. Our results show that TAVI performed under local anaesthesia with only mild analgesic medication and under fluoroscopic guidance is feasible, with good outcome comparable to published data.
Kasel, Albert Markus; Cassese, Salvatore; Ischinger, Thomas; Leber, Alexander; Antoni, Diethmar; Riess, Gotthard; Vogel, Jayshree; Kastrati, Adnan; Eichinger, Walter; Hoffmann, Ellen
Objectives: Few data is available comparing Edwards SAPIEN XT - SXT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) with Medtronic CoreValve - CoV (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Methods: We selected consecutive patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR with SXT or CoV at our Institution. Main outcomes were Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-combined safety endpoints. Results: A total of 100 patients (SXT, n=50 versus CoV, n=50) were analyzed. Both SXT and CoV showed good device success rates (98% versus 90%, p=0.20). SXT versus CoV reduced the occurrence of paravalvular regurgitation after TAVR (26% versus 90%, p<0.0001) though not affecting the rate of moderate/severe regurgitation (p=0.20). SXT versus CoV required less frequently a permanent pacemaker after TAVR (8% versus 38%, p<0.0001). In-hospital major vascular complications (8% versus 4%, p>0.99), life-threatening bleedings (2% versus 4%, p>0.99), stroke (4% versus 6%, p>0.99) and death (6% versus 2%, p>0.99) did not differ between SXT and CoV. However, safety endpoints favored SXT (17% versus 34.6%, p=0.01), due to a numerically higher incidence of ischemic stroke and Acute Kidney Injury Stage 3 after CoV. At multivariate analysis, TAVR with SXT (odds ratio=0.21, 95% confidence intervals [0.05-0.84], p=0.03) was predictive of fewer adverse events. Conclusions: Transcatheter valve implantation with Edwards SAPIEN XT was associated with lower VARC-combined safety endpoints as compared with Medtronic CoreValve. More extensive cohorts are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25006536
Gonska, Birgid; Seeger, Julia; Baarts, Justus; Rodewald, Christoph; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen
Residual paravalvular moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) has been an independent risk factor for mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The design of the third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valve was optimized with an outer skirt to address the issue of paravalvular AR. We compared 100 consecutive patients treated with the ES3 for severe aortic stenosis with 100 patients treated with the Medtronic CoreValve (CV; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) (Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02162069). We evaluated post-procedural AR, rate of permanent pacemaker implantation, device success, and 30-day clinical outcome according to the criteria of the Second Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). Frequency of post-procedural moderate or severe AR was significantly lower with ES3 compared to CV (0% vs. 20%, p<0.01), none or trace AR significantly higher with ES3 (69% vs. 38%, p<0.01) as well as device success (97% vs. 73%, p<0.01). There was a significantly lower need for permanent pacemaker implantation with ES3 compared with CV (14% vs. 31%, p<0.01). Cardiovascular mortality at 30 days was significantly lower with ES3 (0% vs. 6%, p=0.01), and the combined endpoint "early safety" was met significantly less with ES3 (10% vs. 21% with CV, p=0.03). Transfemoral TAVI with the ES3 compared with the CV was associated with a significantly lower rate of moderate or severe AR, significantly lower need for pacemaker implantation, and a significantly higher rate of device success according to VARC-2. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Czerwińska, Katarzyna; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Oręziak, Artur; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Michałowska, Ilona; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin; Stępińska, Janina; Orłowska Baranowska, Ewa; Rużyłło, Witold
The rate of significant conduction disturbances requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) following surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) is 2-8%. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative management approach in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not considered candidates for AVR. The TAVI using the CoreValve (CV) bioprosthesis is associated with a nearly 30% rate of conduction disturbances requiring postprocedural PPI. To provide an initial evaluation of the rate of conduction disturbances and the need for PPI, and to analyse factors that increase the risk of this complication in patients undergoing TAVI using CV bioprosthesis. In addition, we evaluated the rate of permanent conduction disturbances in patients who underwent PPI at one year after TAVI. We studies 22 initial patients in a single centre who underwent CV bioprosthesis implantation in 2009-2010. After exclusion of 6 patients with preprocedural PPI, we ultimately evaluated 16 patients. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed using χ(2), Fisher, and Wilcoxon tests, and logistic regression analysis was performed using the SAS software. Overall, 8 (50%) patients in our study group required PPI after TAVI (TAVI + PPI), and the remaining 8 patients did not require PPI (TAVI). The most common indication for PPI was complete heart block. The decision to implant a pacemaker was made on average at 9 ± 7 days following TAVI (range 3 to 22 days). When we analysed risk factors for PPI that were unrelated to the TAVI procedure, we found that the TAVI + PPI group was characterised (vs the TAVI group) by a significantly larger diameter of the native aortic valve (p = 0.03) and a larger left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) dimension in the frontal (p = 0.02) and the corresponding frontal dimension in the transverse view (p = 0.01) by computed tomography angiography. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of PPI increased more than 2.5 times for each increase
Corcione, Nicola; Ferraro, Paolo; Polimeno, Michele; Messina, Stefano; de Rosa, Vincenzo; Giordano, Arturo
The association between aortic valve disease and coronary atherosclerosis is common. In the recent era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation there is little experience with coronary artery intervention after valve implantation. We report a case of a 80-year-old male who underwent successful coronary artery intervention few months after a Medtronic CoreValve System percutaneous implantation for severe aortic valve stenosis. Verification of the position of the used wires (crossing from inside the self expanding frame) is of utmost importance before proceeding to coronary intervention. In this case, crossing the aortic valve, coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention were successfully performed. In conclusion, percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with previous Medtronic CoreValve System implantation is feasible and safe.
Jilaihawi, Hasan; Asgar, Anita; Bonan, Raoul
An 80-year old nun with severe calcific aortic stenosis and a bicuspid aortic valve was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. She was declined for conventional surgery on the basis of poor left ventricular function, frailty, and a logistic EuroSCORE of 29.66. A 29-mm Medtronic-Corevalve bioprosthesis was implanted by transfemoral route. The inflow portion of the stent frame was grossly underexpanded. However, aortic valve area at 1.3 cm(2) was more than satisfactory for a body surface area of 1.29 m(2) (indexed area 1.0 cm(2)/m(2), peak gradient 23, and mean 16 mmHg). There was an early sustained improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) status, and there was no change in valvular function at 2 year follow-up. This case highlights that gross underexpansion of the Medtronic-Corevalve stent frame is compatible with good bioprosthetic function and excellent symptomatic recovery. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Godino, Cosmo; Maisano, Francesco; Montorfano, Matteo; Latib, Azeem; Chieffo, Alaide; Michev, Iassen; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Bande, Marta; Mussardo, Marco; Arioli, Francesco; Ielasi, Alfonso; Cioni, Micaela; Taramasso, Maurizio; Arendar, Irina; Grimaldi, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pietro; Zangrillo, Alberto; La Canna, Giovanni; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio
Our aim was to assess clinical outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) performed with the 2 commercially available valves with 3 delivery approaches selected in a stepwise fashion. Limited data exist on the results of a comprehensive TAVI program using different valves with transfemoral, transapical, and transaxillary approaches for treatment of severe aortic stenosis. We report 30-day and 6-month outcomes of high-risk patients consecutively treated in a single center with either the Medtronic-CoreValve (MCV) (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) or Edwards-SAPIEN valve (ESV) (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) delivered via the transfemoral or transaxillary approaches and ESV via the transapical approach. A total of 137 patients underwent TAVI: 107 via transfemoral (46 MCV and 61 ESV), 15 via transaxillary (12 MCV and 3 ESV), and 15 via transapical approach. After the transfemoral approach, the procedural success rate was 93.5%, and major vascular complication rate was 20.6%. No intra-procedural deaths occurred. The procedural success rates of transapical and transaxillary approaches were 86.6% and 93.3%, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.9% in transfemoral group and 13.3% in transapical, and no deaths occurred after transaxillary access. Cumulative death rate at 6 months was 12.2% in transfemoral, 26.6% in transapical, and 18.2% in transaxillary groups. At multivariable analysis, logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, body surface area, and history of cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Routine TAVI using both MCV and ESV with a selection of approaches is feasible and allows treatment of a wide range of patients with good overall procedural success rates and 30-day and 6-month outcomes. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sedaghat, Alexander; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Utzenrath, Marc; Ghalati, Pejman Farhadi; Schmitz, Christoph; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Grube, Eberhard; Ensminger, Stephan; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Kuetting, Maximilian
Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is becoming a valuable option with promising clinical results in failed bioprosthetic heart valves. Sizing recommendations are based on size compatibility rather than on broad clinical data, in vitro measurements, or biomechanical evidence. The hemodynamic performance of transcatheter heart valves within degenerated surgical heart valves is unknown. We evaluated the in vitro hydrodynamic performance of two commercially available transcatheter heart valves (Medtronic CoreValve [Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN] and Edwards SAPIEN XT [Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA]) in two different bioprosthetic aortic valves (Edwards Perimount [Edwards Lifesciences] and St. Jude Trifecta [St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN]). Within the Edwards Perimount (23 mm) prosthesis, pressure gradients were higher for the SAPIEN XT compared with the CoreValve (11.2 ± 0.1 mm Hg versus 10.1 ± 0.1 mm Hg, p < 0.01), whereas effective orifice area (1.99 ± 0.01 cm(2) versus 1.80 ± 0.01 cm(2), p < 0.01) and total paravalvular leakage (9.0% ± 1.0% versus 5.4% ± 1.3%, p < 0.01) were increased when using the CoreValve. Similarly, measurements in the St. Jude Trifecta revealed higher transvalvular pressure gradients (13.0 ± 0.2 mm Hg versus 10.9 ± 0.3 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and lower effective orifice area for the SAPIEN XT compared with the CoreValve. However, total relative regurgitation was higher with SAPIEN XT as compared with the CoreValve in St. Jude Trifecta prostheses (11.2% ± 1.4% versus 8.3% ± 0.9%, p < 0.01). Both transcatheter heart valve prostheses performed well in the described valve-in-valve settings. Hydrodynamic results were in line with the International Organization for Standardization standards for all configurations. The observed differences indicate a necessity for preclinical valve-in-valve tests in addition to clinical long-term data about longevity. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by
Alsancak, Yakup; Bilge, Mehmet; Ali, Sina; Duran, Mustafa; Saatci Yasar, Ayse
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new and hopefully therapeutic option in patients with symptomatic severe calcific aortic valve stenosis and multiple comorbidities who are not eligible for open-heart surgery due to unacceptable conventional surgical risks. Herein is reported the case of a patient who underwent TAVI in whom an unusual CoreValve bioprosthesis embolization occurred into the abdominal aorta. While attempting to retrieve the whole system, the conical tip of the catheter delivery system also became embolized into the right iliac artery. Importantly, this case demonstrated a rare complication of CoreValve bioprosthesis embolization which was managed without surgical intervention. Video 1: Peripheral angiography demonstrating the embolized CoreValve bioprosthesis. Video 2: Fluoroscopy demonstrating completely opened CoreValve bioprosthesis at a level above the iliac artery bifurcation and the mobile conical tip in the valve system. Video 3: Peripheral angiography demonstrating prosthetic valve without any flow limitation and embolized conical tip into the right internal iliac artery. Video 4: Peripheral angiography demonstrating prosthetic valve without any flow limitation and embolized conical tip into the right internal iliac artery. Video 5: Aortography demonstrating the successfully implanted second CoreValve bioprosthesis in an optimal aortic position, with no paravalvular leak. Video 6: Peripheral angiography demonstrating the embolized conical tip into the right iliac artery with a normal external iliac artery flow. Video 7: Peripheral angiography demonstrating the embolized conical tip into the right iliac artery with a normal external iliac artery flow.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Edwards SAPIEN versus the Medtronic CoreValve Revalving system devices: a multicenter collaborative study: the PRAGMATIC Plus Initiative (Pooled-RotterdAm-Milano-Toulouse In Collaboration).
Chieffo, Alaide; Buchanan, Gill Louise; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Tchetche, Didier; Dumonteil, Nicolas; Latib, Azeem; van der Boon, Robert M A; Vahdat, Olivier; Marcheix, Bertrand; Farah, Bruno; Serruys, Patrick W; Fajadet, Jean; Carrié, Didier; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Colombo, Antonio
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV) versus the Edwards SAPIEN/SAPIEN XT transcatheter heart valve (ESV) for severe aortic stenosis. No large matched comparison study has been conducted so far evaluating both commercially available devices. The data from databases of 4 experienced European centers were pooled and analyzed. Due to differences in baseline clinical characteristics, propensity score matching was performed. Study objectives were Valve Academic Research Consortium outcomes at 30 days and 1 year. In total, 793 patients were included: 453 (57.1%) treated with the MCV and 340 (42.9%) with the ESV. After propensity matching, 204 patients were identified in each group. At 30 days, there were no differences in all-cause mortality (MCV, 8.8% vs. ESV, 6.4%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.422; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.677 to 2.984; p = 0.352), cardiovascular mortality (MCV, 6.9% vs. ESV, 6.4%; HR: 1.083; 95% CI: 0.496 to 2.364; p = 0.842), myocardial infarction (MCV, 0.5% vs. ESV, 1.5%; HR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.034 to 3.200; p = 0.339), stroke (MCV, 2.9% vs. ESV, 1.0%; HR: 3.061; 95% CI: 0.610 to 15.346; p = 0.174), or device success (MCV, 95.6% vs. ESV, 96.6%; HR: 0.770; 95% CI: 0.281 to 2.108; p = 0.611). Additionally, there were no differences in major vascular complications (MCV, 9.3% vs. ESV, 12.3%; HR: 0.735; 95% CI: 0.391 to 1.382; p = 0.340) or life-threatening bleeding (MCV, 13.7% vs. ESV, 8.8%; HR: 1.644; 95% CI: 0.878 to 3.077; p = 0.120). MCV was associated with more permanent pacemakers (22.5% vs. 5.9%; HR: 4.634; 95% CI: 2.373 to 9.050; p < 0.001). At 1 year, there were no differences in all-cause (MCV, 16.2% vs. ESV, 12.3%; HR: 1.374; 95% CI: 0.785 to 2.407; p = 0.266) or cardiovascular (MCV, 8.3% vs. ESV, 7.4%; HR: 1.145; 95% CI: 0.556 to 12.361; p = 0.713) mortality. No differences between the 2 commercially available transfemoral transcatheter aortic
... valve. Also, a narrowing of the aortic valve (aortic stenosis) can be associated with leaking. High blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure may stretch the root of the aorta where the aortic valve sits. The valve flaps ( ...
Predictors of paravalvular aortic regurgitation following self-expanding Medtronic CoreValve implantation: the role of annulus size, degree of calcification, and balloon size during pre-implantation valvuloplasty and implant depth.
Ali, O F; Schultz, C; Jabbour, A; Rubens, M; Mittal, T; Mohiaddin, R; Davies, S; Di Mario, C; Van der Boon, R; Ahmad, A S; Amrani, M; Moat, N; De Jaegere, P P T; Dalby, M
We sought to investigate the role of balloon size during pre-implantation valvuloplasty in predicting AR and optimal Medtronic CoreValve (MCS) implantation depth. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (AR) is common following MCS implantation. A number of anatomical and procedural variables have been proposed as determinants of AR including degree of valve calcification, valve undersizing and implantation depth. We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of 282 patients who had undergone MCS implantation with prior cardiac CT annular sizing between 2007 and 2011. Native valve minimum (Dmin), maximum (Dmax) and arithmetic mean (Dmean) annulus diameters as well as agatston calcium score were recorded. Nominal and achieved balloon size was also recorded. AR was assessed using contrast angiography at the end of each procedure. Implant depth was measured as the mean distance from the nadir of the non- and left coronary sinuses to the distal valve frame angiographically. 29 mm and 26 mm MCS were implanted in 60% and 39% of patients respectively. The majority of patients (N=165) developed AR <2 following MCS implantation. AR ≥3 was observed in 16% of the study population. High agatston calcium score and Dmean were found to be independent predictors of AR ≥3 in multivariate analysis (P<0.0001). Nominal balloon diameter and the number of balloon inflations did not influence AR. However a small achieved balloon diameter-to-Dmean ratio (≤0.85) showed modest correlation with AR ≥3 (P=0.04). This observation was made irrespective of the degree of valve calcification. A small MCS size-to-Dmean ratio is also associated with AR ≥3 (P=0.001). A mean implantation depth of ≥8+2mm was also associated with AR ≥3. Implantation depth of ≥12 mm was associated with small MCS diameter-to-Dmean ratio and increased 30-day mortality. CT measured aortic annulus diameter and agatston calcium score remain important predictors of significant AR. Other procedural predictors
Gopalamurugan, A B; Murali, K; Jyotsana, B; Jacob, A; Bashi, V V
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a well-described treatment for symptomatic calcific severe aortic stenosis. However, TAVI technology is being increasingly used around the world to treat selected cases of severe aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the main limitations of using TAVI technology for AR is the lack of calcification, which is common in such cases. This makes anchoring of a TAVI prosthesis to the aortic annulus difficult and risks displacement or embolization. However, with the availability of recapturable and repositionable TAVI technologies, these limitations have been overcome to a large extent. This is the first Corevalve Evolut R device that was used in India and the first TAVI to treat AR in India.
Kaple, Ryan K; Salemi, Arash; Wong, S Chiu
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an approved treatment for select patients with severe aortic stenosis. A rare complication of self-expanding transcatheter heart valves (THVs) is infolding of the valve stent frame, which results in a malopposed segment, perivalvular aortic insufficiency, and possibly leaflet dysfunction. We report here a successful case of balloon valvuloplasty treatment for severe infolding of a self-expandable THV in the aortic position, restoring stent frame geometry and leaflet function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nowell, Justin L; Dewhurst, Alex; van Besouw, Jean-Pierre; Jahangiri, Marjan
We describe a bailout procedure when surgical aortic-valve replacement was not possible due to severe calcification of the ascending aorta and the root and a very small annulus. A 21-mm CoreValve Revalving prosthesis was inserted via the aortotomy in the presence of a mitral prosthesis.
... pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and close once ... valve consists of three tightly fitting, triangular-shaped flaps of tissue called cusps. Some children are born ...
Piazza, Nicolo; Grube, Eberhard; Gerckens, Ulrich; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; den Heijer, Peter; Kovacs, Jan; Spyt, Tom; Laborde, Jean-Claude; Morel, Marie-Angele; Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; de Jaegere, Peter; Serruys, Patrick W
The optimal clinical protocol to detect fractures of transcatheter aortic valves is unknown. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published reports describing stent or frame fractures following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to determine the optimal fluoroscopic protocol to identify potential fractures of the Medtronic CoreValve frame; and (2) to implement this protocol in the analysis of the fluoroscopic films of patients implanted with the CoreValve device with 1-year minimum follow-up. Considering the resolution of fluoroscopy (approximately 0.2 mm), we used a 0.2 mm diamond-cutter to create a single fracture in a single strut of two CoreValve frames. An intact CoreValve prosthesis was used as control. These prostheses were subsequently implanted in post-mortem heart specimens. A protocol involving still frames and rotational (left-right and cranial-caudal) fluoroscopic imaging was then applied to the heart specimens. The experimentally induced fractures were detectable on the rotational cine runs (left-right and cranial-caudal); in some of the fixed acquisition sequences, however, the fractures were undetectable. The fluoroscopic protocol was retrospectively applied to the films of 58 patients who underwent implantation with the CoreValve System between October 2005 and August 2008 and had at least 1-year follow-up. The mean and median follow-up times were 22 months and 24 months, respectively (range 12 to 36 months). Rotational cine films (only left-right lateral) were available in 39 patients (60%). No frame fractures of the CoreValve frame were identified. Rotational cine runs in the left-right and cranial-caudal directions should be mandatory in the clinical assessment of the structural integrity of the CoreValve frame. No frame fractures were identified in 58 patients implanted with the Medtronic CoreValve device with 2-year mean follow-up.
Palermo, Christopher; Degnan, Meredith; Candiotti, Keith; Salerno, Tomas; de Marchena, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Blanco, Yiliam
To compare monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and general anesthesia (GA) for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Retrospective, case-control study. A large university-affiliated hospital system. The study comprised patients who underwent TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) between 2011 and 2015. None. MAC (n = 44) and GA (n = 21) were compared in 65 patients who underwent TAVI. Baseline characteristics/demographics, hospital stay, intraoperative conditions, and intensive care unit (ICU)/hospital stays were compared using the chi-square test, unpaired t-test, or binomial regression where appropriate. There were no significant differences between patient populations with regard to 30-day mortality, ICU/hospital stay, and complication rates. The GA group used more blood product. The rate of ICU readmission was greater in the GA group but did not reach statistical significance. GA provides no significant advantages over MAC during TAVI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oliemy, Ahmed; Al-Attar, Nawwar
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was developed to offer a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacement. The improvement in transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes is still of concern in the areas of stroke, vascular injury, heart block, paravalvular regurgitation and valve durability. Concomitantly, the progress, both technical and in terms of material advances of transcatheter valve systems, as well as in patient selection, renders transcatheter aortic valve implantation an increasingly viable treatment for more and more patients with structural heart disease.
Zajarias, Alan; Cribier, Alain G
The concept of transcatheter aortic valve replacement was developed with the goal of offering a therapeutic solution to patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not considered good candidates for surgical valve replacement. Initial attempts were complicated by vascular access problems and lack of appropriate tools. With time and experience, early problems were solved and the concepts of valve sizing, valve positioning, and patient selection were defined. Technological improvements allowed the use of smaller arterial sheaths to decrease vascular trauma, special catheters to facilitate valve delivery, and treatments on the valve prostheses that would ensure longer durability. After 5 years, the number of transcatheter aortic valve replacements has grown significantly, and will likely continue as this technology becomes increasingly available. Currently, 2 valve models, the Edwards SAPIEN valve (Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, California) and the CoreValve ReValving system (CoreValve Inc., Irvine, California), have been used in over 4,000 cases worldwide for the treatment of symptomatic aortic stenosis. Midterm follow-up shows no evidence of restenosis or prosthetic valve dysfunction. Transfemoral and transapical delivery routes can be selected depending on the quality of vascular access and the type of prosthesis used. Randomized trials that are currently underway will confirm procedural safety and guide the applicability of this technology.
Noble, Stephane; Stortecky, Stefan; Heg, Dik; Tueller, David; Jeger, Raban; Toggweiler, Stefan; Ferrari, Enrico; Nietlispach, Fabian; Taramasso, Maurizio; Maisano, Francesco; Grünenfelder, Jürg; Jüni, Peter; Huber, Christoph; Carrel, Thierry; Windecker, Stephan; Wenaweser, Peter; Roffi, Marco
Data on procedural and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with the new-generation self-expanding Medtronic Evolut R prosthesis in comparison with its predecessor, the Medtronic CoreValve, are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the Evolut R device compared with the former-generation CoreValve. In a nationwide, prospective, multicentre cohort study, outcomes of consecutive transfemoral TAVI patients treated with the new-generation Medtronic Evolut R (September 2014 - February 2016) and the Medtronic CoreValve (February 2011 - February 2016) were investigated. Events were reported according to VARC-2 and adjudicated by a clinical events committee. During the study period, 317 and 678 consecutive patients underwent TAVI with the Evolut R and the CoreValve bioprosthesis, respectively. Baseline clinical characteristics between the groups were comparable, although Evolut R patients were lower risk according to the STS score (4.8±3.4% vs. 6.9±5.0%, p<0.001) and logistic EuroSCORE (17.3±13% vs. 20.1±13%, p=0.009). Implantation of the Evolut R was associated with a lower use of predilatation (48.1% vs. 72.4%, p<0.001), a shorter procedure time (67.9±36 min vs. 76.7±42 min, p=0.002), and less contrast dye use during the procedure (155.2±98 ml vs. 208.0±117 ml, p<0.001). Post-procedural mean gradient was comparable (7.4±4.7 mmHg vs. 7.5±5.0 mmHg), as were the 30-day rates of moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (8.5% vs. 10.5%), major vascular (9.8% vs. 10.3%) and life-threatening bleeding complications (5.4% vs. 5.3%), disabling stroke (1.9% vs. 1.6%), all-cause mortality (3.2% vs. 3.4%) as well as permanent pacemaker implantation (22.1% vs. 23.4%). Thirty-day clinical outcomes were favourable and comparable between the Evolut R and the CoreValve bioprosthesis.
Misenheimer, Jacob A.; Ramaraj, Radhakrishnan
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the developed world. About 7% of the population over age 65 years suffers from degenerative aortic stenosis. The prognosis of patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis is dismal without valve replacement. Even though the American College of Cardiology recommends aortic valve replacement to treat this condition as a class I recommendation, approximately one third of these patients over the age of 75 years are not referred for surgery. Typically, this is from concern about prohibitive surgical risk associated with patient frailty, comorbidities, age, and severe left ventricular dysfunction. The advent in France of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has raised the hope in the United States for an alternative, less invasive treatment for aortic stenosis. Two recent trials—the Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valve Trial Edwards SAPIEN Transcatheter Heart Valve (Partner) and the CoreValve US Pivotal—have established transcatheter aortic valve replacement as the preferred approach in patients who are at high or prohibitive surgical risk. The more recently published Partner 2 trial has shown the feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in intermediate-surgical-risk patients as well. With a profile that promises easier use and better valve performance and delivery, newer-generation valves have shown their potential for further improvement in safety profile and overall outcomes. We review the history and status of this topic. PMID:28265210
Lotfi, Shahram; Dohmen, Guido; Götzenich, Andreas; Haushofer, Marcus; Spillner, Jan Wilhelm; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Hoffmann, Rainer
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a therapeutic option for high-risk or nonoperable patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. The best known and most frequently implanted prostheses are the CoreValve and SAPIEN prostheses. We report our experiences and analyze the results of our TAVI program. A total of 357 patients underwent transfemoral (TF) and transapical (TA) TAVI in our center between January 2008 and October 2012. The procedure was performed in 190 patients with CoreValve, in 155 patients with SAPIEN, and in 12 patients with ACURATE TA prostheses. Transfemoral access was used in 190 patients. In 167 patients, TA access was used. The mean age was 80.2 ± 6.4 years. All patients were nonoperable or had a high risk for a conventional aortic valve replacement. The mean logistic EuroSCORE I was 25.92 ± 14.51%. The TF/CoreValve (190 patients) and TA/SAPIEN (155 patients) groups showed significant difference in the patients' mean age (81.7 ± 6.3 years vs. 79.5 ± 6.6 years, P = 0.002) and in mean logistic EuroSCORE I (22.16 ± 13.05% vs. 31.04 ± 16.40, P < 0.001). The overall 30-day mortality (357 patients) was 9.80% (TF, 8.42%; TA, 11.37%); overall 1-year mortality (275 patients), 21.45% (TF, 23.74%; TA, 19.12%); overall 2-year mortality (199 patients), 29.15% (TF, 35.96%; TA, 23.64%); overall 3-year mortality (133 patients), 37.59% (TF, 43.86%; TA, 32.89%); and overall 4-year mortality (38 patients), 39.47% (TF, 45%; TA, 33.33%). The rate of pacemaker implantation after TAVI was significantly higher in the CoreValve group than in the SAPIEN group: 44.74% (85/190 patients) versus 6.45% (10/155 patients), P < 0.001. Stroke rate was higher in the TF-CoreValve group than in the TA-SAPIEN group: 4.21% versus 0.64%, P = 0.045. Outcomes after TAVI were, in our population of nonoperable and high-risk patients, encouraging. The differences in midterm outcomes between the TF-CoreValve TAVI and the TA-SAPIEN TAVI were not significant.
... fully will restrict blood flow. This is called aortic stenosis. If there is also a leak, it is ... TAVR is used for people with severe aortic stenosis who aren't ... valve . In adults, aortic stenosis usually occurs due to calcium ...
Schnell E, Wollenek G, Maurer G, Baumgartner H, Lang IM. Mechanisms underlying aortic dilatation in congenital aortic valve malformation . Circulation...1999; 99(16):2138-2143. 10. Roberts CS, Roberts WC. Dissection of the aorta associated with congenital malformation of the aortic valve. J Am Coll... congenital heart defect, often diagnosed incidentally or as a consequence of an associated condition. Patients with this anomaly are at increased risk
Forrest, John K
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a new technology that recently has been shown to improve survival and quality of life in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not surgical candidates. The development and design of transcatheter valves has been ongoing for the past 20 years, and TAVR has now been approved by the FDA as a treatment for aortic stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates. In the United States, there are currently two transcatheter valves available: the Edwards Sapien Valve and the Medtronic CoreValve. While similar in some design elements, they also have characteristic differences that affect both the mechanism of delivery as well as performance in patients. This review aims to take a closer look at the development of this new technology, review the published clinical results, and look toward the future of transcatheter valve therapeutics and the challenges therein.
... of the heart is reduced. This is called aortic stenosis. The aortic valve can be replaced using: Minimally ... RN, Wang A. Percutaneous heart valve replacement for aortic stenosis: state of the evidence. Ann Intern Med . 2010; ...
Pal, Jay D; McCabe, James M; Dardas, Todd; Aldea, Gabriel S; Mokadam, Nahush A
The development of new aortic insufficiency after a period of support with a left ventricular assist device can result in progressive heart failure symptoms. Transcatheter aortic valve repair can be an effective treatment in selected patients, but the lack of aortic valve calcification can result in unstable prostheses or paravalvular leak. We describe a technique of deploying a self-expanding CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) into the aortic annulus, followed by a balloon-expandable SAPIEN-3 (Edwards, Irvine, CA, USA).
The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807
Devlin, A B; Goldstraw, P; Caves, P K
Rheumatoid aortic valve disease is uncommon. and there are few reports of valve replacement in this condition. Aortic valve replacement and partial pericardiectomy was performed in a patient with acute rheumatoid aortitis and aortic incompetence. Previous reports suggest that any patient with rheumatoid arthritis who develops cardiac symptoms should be carefully assessed for surgically treatable involvement of the pericardium or heart valves. Images PMID:725829
Zahn, Ralf; Schiele, Rudolf; Kilkowski, Caroline; Klein, Bärbel; Zeymer, Uwe; Werling, Christiane; Lehmann, Andreas; Gerckens, Ulrich; Saggau, Werner
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been introduced for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients not suitable for surgical valve replacement. However, a potential problem of TAVI is the development of severe aortic insufficiency after valve implantation due to a too-low implantation of the valve. Since August 2008, a total of 33 TAVI procedures using the 18 Fr Medtronic CoreValve ReValving system has been performed at the authors' institution. Severe post-implantation aortic regurgitation occurred in three patients (9%), due to a too-low implantation. Two of these patients underwent a catheter-based repositioning of the valve using a standard snare; the third patient declined any further intervention. Both repositioning procedures were uneventful, with no significant residual regurgitation. Severe aortic regurgitation after TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve system is not uncommon. If the valve is implanted too low, a catheter-based valve repositioning may be the method of choice to resolve the problem.
Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence
Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Skripochnik, Edvard; Salemi, Arash; Girardi, Leonard
The most widely used heart valve worldwide is the Edwards Sapien, which currently has 60% of the worldwide transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) market. The CoreValve is next in line in popularity, encompassing 35% of the worldwide TAVI market. Although these two valves dominate the TAVI market, a number of newer transcatheter valves have been introduced and others are in early clinical evaluation. The new valves are designed to reduce catheter delivery diameter, improve ease of positioning and sealing, and facilitate repositioning or removal. The most recent transcatheter valves for transapical use include Acurate TA (Symetis), Engager (Medtronic), and JenaValve the Portico (St Jude), Sadra Lotus Medical (Boston Scientific), and the Direct Flow Medical. These new inventions may introduce more effective treatment options for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Improvements in transcatheter valves and the developing variability among them may allow for more tailored approaches with respect to patient's anatomy, while giving operators the opportunity to choose devices they feel more comfortable with. Moreover, introducing new devices to the market will create a competitive environment among producers that will reduce high prices and expand availability. The present review article includes a discussion of recent patents related to Transcatheter Aortic Valves.
Michler, Robert E.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged for treating aortic stenosis in patients who are poor candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement. Currently, the balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien valve—which is usually implanted via a transfemoral or transapical approach—and the self-expanding CoreValve ReValving system—which is designed for retrograde application—are the most widely implanted valves worldwide. Although a promising approach for high-risk patients, the indication may be expanded to intermediate- and eventually low-risk patients in the future; however, doing so will require a better understanding of potential complications, risk factors for these complications, and strategies to individualize each patient to a different access route and a specific valve. This paper reviews the most relevant complications that may occur in patients who undergo catheter-based aortic valve implantation. PMID:23844292
Muñoz-García, Antonio J; Hernández-García, José M; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel F; Alonso-Briales, Juan H; Domínguez-Franco, Antonio J; Fernández-Pastor, Julia; Peña Hernández, Jose; Barrera Cordero, Alberto; Alzueta Rodríguez, Javier; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for a permanent pacemaker after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve prosthesis (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) using the new Accutrak delivery system (Medtronic, Inc.). The need for a permanent pacemaker is a recognized complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the CoreValve prosthesis. Between April 23, 2008 and May 31, 2011, 195 consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis. In 124 patients, the traditional delivery system was used, and in 71 patients, the Accutrak delivery system was used. There were no significant differences in baseline electrocardiographic characteristics between the traditional system and the Accutrak patients: PR interval: 153 ± 46 mm versus 165 ± 30 mm, p = 0.12; left bundle branch block: 22 (20.2%) versus 8 (12.7%), p = 0.21; right bundle branch block: 21 (19.3%) versus 8 (12.7%), p = 0.26. The depth of the prosthesis in the left ventricular outflow tract was greater with the traditional system than with the Accutrak system (9.6 ± 3.2 mm vs. 6.4 ± 3 mm, p < 0.001) and the need for a permanent pacemaker was higher with traditional system than with Accutrak (35.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.003). The predictors of the need for a pacemaker were the depth of the prosthesis in the left ventricular outflow tract (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.34, p < 0.001), pre-existing right bundle branch block (HR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.68 to 7.29, p = 0.001), and use of the traditional system (HR: 27, 95% CI: 2.81 to 257, p = 0.004). The new Accutrak delivery system was associated with less deep prosthesis implantation in the left ventricular outflow tract, which could be related to the lower rate of permanent pacemaker requirement. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Wang, Kaijun; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja; Vilain, Katherine A; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Galper, Benjamin Z; Meduri, Christopher U; Arnold, Suzanne V; Baron, Suzanne J; Reardon, Michael J; Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Cohen, David J
Previous studies of the cost-effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have been based primarily on a single balloon-expandable system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. We performed a formal economic analysis on the basis of individual, patient-level data from the CoreValve U.S. High Risk Pivotal Trial. Empirical data regarding survival and quality of life over 2 years, and medical resource use and hospital costs through 12 months were used to project life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime medical costs in order to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of TAVR versus SAVR from a U.S. Relative to SAVR, TAVR reduced initial length of stay an average of 4.4 days, decreased the need for rehabilitation services at discharge, and resulted in superior 1-month quality of life. Index admission and projected lifetime costs were higher with TAVR than with SAVR (differences $11,260 and $17,849 per patient, respectively), whereas TAVR was projected to provide a lifetime gain of 0.32 quality-adjusted life-years ([QALY]; 0.41 LY) with 3% discounting. Lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $55,090 per QALY gained and $43,114 per LY gained. Sensitivity analyses indicated that a reduction in the initial cost of TAVR by ∼$1,650 would lead to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/QALY gained. In a high-risk clinical trial population, TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis provided meaningful clinical benefits compared with SAVR, with incremental costs considered acceptable by current U.S. With expected modest reductions in the cost of index TAVR admissions, the value of TAVR compared with SAVR in this patient population would become high. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve System in the Treatment of
Aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a potentially life-threatening disease. Mortality and incidence of infective endocarditis have been reduced in the past 30 years. Medical treatment of aortic PVE may be successful in patients who have a prompt response after antibiotic treatment and who do not have prosthetic dysfunction. In advanced stages, antibiotic therapy alone is insufficient to control the disease, and surgical intervention is necessary. Surgical treatment may be lifesaving, but it is still associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of surgery is to perform a radical excision of all infected and necrotic tissue, reconstruction of the left ventricle outflow tract, and replacement of the aortic valve. There is no unanimous consensus on which is the optimal prosthesis to implant in this context, and several surgical techniques have been suggested. We aim to analyze the efficacy of the surgical treatment and discuss the issue of valve selection in patients with aortic valve endocarditis. PMID:27785132
Spargias, Konstantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chrissoheris, Michael; Synetos, Andreas; Halapas, Antonis; Paizis, Ioannis; Latsios, Georgios; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Stathogianni, Konstantinos; Papametzelopoulos, Spyridon; Zanos, Stavros; Pavlides, Gregory; Zacharoulis, Achileas; Antoniades, Aias; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a documented treatment for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at very high or prohibitive operative risk. We sought to investigate the outcomes of transfemoral procedures with the newer generation valves in four TAVR centres in Athens, Greece. The ATHENS TAVR Registry included all patients who underwent transfemoral implantation of the newer generation valves in 4 Athens TAVR centres (self-expanding valve 67 patients, balloon-expandable valve 59 patients). We present the procedural and echocardiographic data and the 30-day clinical outcomes according to valve type. A total of 126 patients underwent 126 procedures (67 CoreValve, Medtronic; 59 SAPIEN XT, Edwards Lifesciences). The mean age and logistic EuroSCORE were 80 ± 8 years and 25 ± 13%. The procedural and device success rates were 100% and 98%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 1% (n=1), the major vascular event rates 9% (similar for both valve types), and a new permanent pacemaker was implanted more often during the same hospitalisation after CoreValve (33% vs. 9%, p=0.001). The mean effective aortic valve area increased and the mean transvalvular pressure gradient declined post implantation (from 0.66 ± 0.15 cm(2) to 1.61 ± 0.43 cm(2), p<0.001; from 51 ± 14 mm Hg to 10 ± 3 mm Hg, p<0.001). The mean grade of aortic insufficiency increased after CoreValve (from 1.2 ± 0.6 to 1.5 ± 0.7, p=0.03) but remained stable after SAPIEN XT (1.0 ± 0.8 and 1.0 ± 0.6, p=0.88) implantation. TAVR outcomes with both the newer generation transfemoral valves in the ATHENS Registry were excellent. We observed a greater need for a new permanent pacemaker and a greater degree of aortic valve insufficiency after CoreValve implantation.
Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil
Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764
Sahiner, Levent; Asil, Serkan; Kaya, Ergün Baris; Ozer, Necla; Aytemir, Kudret
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown favorable outcomes in patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who are at high surgical risk or inappropriate for open heart surgery. However, concerns exist over treating patients who have porcelain aorta and familial hypercholesterolemia, due to the potential complications of aortic root and aortic annulus. In this case report, we present a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, previous coronary artery bypass grafting and porcelain aorta, who was successfully treated with TAVI using a CoreValve.
Cockburn, James; Dooley, Maureen; Parker, Jessica; Hill, Andrew; Hutchinson, Nevil; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David
Redo surgery for degenerative bioprosthetic aortic valves is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Report results of valve-in-valve therapy (ViV-TAVI) in failed supra-annular stentless Freedom Solo (FS) bioprostheses, which are the highest risk for coronary occlusion. Six patients with FS valves (mean age 78.5 years, 50% males). Five had valvular restenosis (peak gradient 87.2 mm Hg, valve area 0.63 cm(2) ), one had severe regurgitation (AR). Median time to failure was 7 years. Patients were high risk (mean STS/Logistic EuroScore 10.6 15.8, respectively). FS valves ranged from 21 to 25 mm. Successful ViV-TAVI was achieved in 4/6 patients (67%). Of the unsuccessful cases, (patient 1 and 2 of series) patient 1 underwent BAV with simultaneous aortography which revealed left main stem occlusion. The procedure was stopped and the patient went forward for repeat surgery. Patient 2 underwent successful ViV-TAVI with a 26-mm CoreValve with a guide catheter in the left main, but on removal coronary obstruction occurred, necessitating valve snaring into the aorta. Among the successful cases, (patients 3, 4, 5, 6) the TAVIs used were CoreValve Evolut R 23 mm (n = 3), and Lotus 23 mm (n = 1). In the successful cases the peak gradient fell from 83.0 to 38.3 mm Hg. No patient was left with >1+ AR. One patient had a stroke on Day 2, with full neurological recovery. Two patients underwent semi-elective pacing for LBBB and PR >280 ms. ViV-TAVI in stentless Freedom Solo valves is high risk. The risk of coronary occlusion is high. The smallest possible prosthesis (1:1 sizing) should be used, and strategies to protect the coronary vessels must be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cemri, M; Cengel, A; Timurkaynak, T
Congenital aortic valve anomalies are quite a rare finding in echocardiographic examinations. A case of a 19 year old man with a pentacuspid aortic valve without aortic stenosis and regurgitation, detected by transoesophageal echocardiography, is presented. Keywords: pentacuspid aortic valve; echocardiography PMID:10995427
Schramm, René; Kupatt, Christian; Becker, Christoph; Bombien, René; Reichart, Bruno; Sodian, Ralf; Schmitz, Christoph
A 77-year-old male patient was scheduled for transcatheter aortic valve implantation for symptomatic and severe aortic valve stenosis. Severe multidirectional kinking of the aorta based on aortic coarctation did not allow for the transfemoral, but only for the transapical approach. The procedure was complicated because of the technically challenging retrograde passage of the transfemorally inserted pig-tail catheter required for intraoperative angiography of the aortic root. Correct positioning of the pig-tail catheter into the ascending aorta was accomplished by use of a loop snare, which was advanced into the descending aorta via the antegrade route, passing the cardiac apex, the stenotic aortic valve, and the coarctation-associated kinking. The pig-tail catheter tip was manipulated into the loop snare, pulled traverse the coarctation, and released within the proximal ascending aorta. Subsequent procedures were uneventful and followed the standardized protocol. A 29 mm Edwards Lifescience transcatheter Sapien bioprosthesis was successfully implanted. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Winkler, Bernhard Michael; Heinisch, Paul Philipp; Wirz, Jessica; Carrel, Thierry; Obrist, Dominik
In this study, the influence of aortic root distensibility on the haemodynamic parameters and valve kinematics of a bioprosthetic aortic valve was investigated in a controlled in vitro experiment. An Edwards INTUITY Elite 21 mm sutureless aortic valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was inserted in three transparent aortic root phantoms with different wall thicknesses (0.55, 0.85 and 1.50 mm) mimicking different physiological distensibilities. Haemodynamic measurements were performed in an in vitro flow loop at heart rates of 60, 80 and 100 bpm with corresponding cardiac outputs of 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 l/min and aortic pressures of 100/60, 120/90 and 145/110 mmHg, respectively. Aortic valve kinematics were assessed using a high-speed camera. The geometric orifice area (GOA) was measured by counting pixels in the lumen of the open aortic valve. The effective orifice area (EOA) was calculated from the root-mean-square value of the systolic aortic valve flow rate and the mean systolic trans-valvular pressure gradient. The tested aortic root phantoms reproduce physiological distensibilities of healthy individuals in age groups ranging from 40 to 70 years (±10 years). The haemodynamic results show only minor differences between the aortic root phantoms: the trans-valvular pressure gradient tends to increase for stiffer aortic roots, whereas the systolic aortic valve flow rate remains constant. As a consequence, the EOA decreased slightly for less distensible aortic roots. The GOA and the aortic valve opening and closing velocities increase significantly with reduced distensibility for all haemodynamic measurements. The resulting mean systolic flow velocity in the aortic valve orifice is lower for the stiffer aortic root. Aortic root distensibility may influence GOA and aortic valve kinematics, which affects the mechanical load on the aortic valve cusps. Whether these changes have a significant effect on the onset of structural valve deterioration of bioprosthetic
Ussia, Gian Paolo; Barbanti, Marco; Immè, Sebastiano; Scarabelli, Marilena; Mulè, Massimiliano; Cammalleri, Valeria; Aruta, Patrizia; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Capodanno, Davide; Deste, Wanda; Di Pasqua, Maria Concetta; Tamburino, Corrado
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging alternative to palliative medical therapy for nonsurgical patients with severe aortic stenosis. There is a paucity of detailed data on the management and outcome of complications related to the sub-optimal deployment of the prosthesis. We appraised the incidence and management of early implant failure occurring during TAVI. Of 110 patients who underwent TAVI using the third generation 18-French CoreValve ReValving System (Medtronic, MN) in our Institution between June 2007 and January 2010, we identified those experiencing early implant failure and reported on their management and clinical outcome. The primary endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) at 30 days and mid-term follow up. Early implant failure occurred in 18 of 110 patients (16.3%). The most common cause was prosthesis under-expansion conditioning moderate to severe peri-valvular leak (44.4%). Prosthesis deployment too low or too high with respect to the aortic annulus leading to severe peri-valvular leak occurred in 22.2% and 5.5% of patients, respectively. Need of valve retrieve after the first attempt of deployment occurred in four cases (22.2%). Prosthesis embolization in the ascending aorta occurred in 5.5% of patients who experienced early implant failure. All implant failure cases were managed percutaneously with gain in aortic valve area from 0.44 ± 0.17 to 1.28 ± 0.27 cm(2) (P < 0.001), decrease of mean transaortic gradient from 55.00 ± 19.51 to 11.58 ± 5.91 mmHg (P < 0.001) and no MACCE at 30 days. After 11 ± 6 months, MACCE occurred cumulatively in two patients (11.1%). Early implant failure can complicate the TAVI procedure with the CoreValve system, but it can be managed safely and effectively with bailout transcatheter techniques, avoiding surgery, with good early and mid-term clinical and echocardiographic results.
Yoon, Sung-Han; Lefèvre, Thierry; Ahn, Jung-Ming; Perlman, Gidon Y; Dvir, Danny; Latib, Azeem; Barbanti, Marco; Deuschl, Florian; De Backer, Ole; Blanke, Philipp; Modine, Thomas; Pache, Gregor; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Ruile, Philipp; Arai, Takahide; Ohno, Yohei; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Tay, Edgar; Schofer, Niklas; Holy, Erik W; Luk, Ngai H V; Yong, Gerald; Lu, Qingsheng; Kong, William K F; Hon, Jimmy; Kao, Hsien-Li; Lee, Michael; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Butter, Christian; Khalique, Omar K; Schaefer, Ulrich; Nietlispach, Fabian; Kodali, Susheel K; Leon, Martin B; Ye, Jian; Chevalier, Bernard; Leipsic, Jonathon; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Tamburino, Corrado; Colombo, Antonio; Søndergaard, Lars; Webb, John G; Park, Seung-Jung
Few studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (AS). Particularly, limited data exist comparing the results of TAVR with new-generation devices versus early-generation devices. This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TAVR for bicuspid AS with early- and new-generation devices. The Bicuspid TAVR Registry is an international multicenter study enrolling consecutive patients with bicuspid AS undergoing TAVR between April 2005 and May 2015. Of 301 patients, 199 patients (71.1%) were treated with early-generation devices (Sapien XT [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, California]: n = 87; CoreValve [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota]: n = 112) and 102 with new-generation devices (Sapien 3 [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation]: n = 91; Lotus [Boston Scientific Corporation, Marlborough, Massachusetts]: n = 11). The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 4.7 ± 5.2 without significant differences between groups (4.6 ± 5.1 vs. 4.9 ± 5.4; p = 0.57). Overall, all-cause mortality rates were 4.3% at 30 days and 14.4% at 1 year. Moderate or severe paravalvular leak was absent and significantly less frequent with new-generation compared to early-generation devices (0.0% vs. 8.5%; p = 0.002), which resulted in a higher device success rate (92.2% vs. 80.9%; p = 0.01). There were no differences between early- and new-generation devices in stroke (2.5% vs. 2.0%; p > 0.99), life-threatening bleeding (3.5% vs. 2.9%; p > 0.99), major vascular complication (4.5% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.76), stage 2 to 3 acute kidney injury (2.5% vs. 2.9%; p > 0.99), early safety endpoints (15.1% vs. 10.8%; p = 0.30), and 30-day all-cause mortality (4.5% vs. 3.9%; p > 0.99). The clinical outcomes of TAVR in patients with bicuspid AS were favorable. New-generation devices were associated with less paravalvular leak and, hence, a higher device success rate than early
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and transcatheter mitral valve repair (MitraClip) procedures have been performed worldwide. In this paper, we review the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional transesophageal echo for guiding transcatheter aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair. PMID:23019387
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Schultz, Carl; Rodriguez-Olivares, Ramon; Bosmans, Johan; Lefèvre, Thierry; De Santis, Gianluca; Bruining, Nico; Collas, Valérie; Dezutter, Tim; Bosmans, Bart; Rahhab, Zouhair; El Faquir, Nahid; Watanabe, Yusuke; Segers, Patrick; Verhegghe, Benedict; Chevalier, Bernard; van Mieghem, Nicolas; De Beule, Matthieu; Mortier, Peter; de Jaegere, Peter
Our aim was to validate patient-specific software integrating baseline anatomy and biomechanical properties of both the aortic root and valve for the prediction of valve morphology and aortic leaflet calcium displacement after TAVI. Finite element computer modelling was performed in 39 patients treated with a Medtronic CoreValve System (MCS; n=33) or an Edwards SAPIEN XT (ESV; n=6). Quantitative axial frame morphology at inflow (MCS, ESV) and nadir, coaptation and commissures (MCS) was compared between multislice computed tomography (MSCT) post TAVI and a computer model as well as displacement of the aortic leaflet calcifications, quantified by the distance between the coronary ostium and the closest calcium nodule. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a strong correlation between the observed (MSCT) and predicted frame dimensions, although small differences were detected for, e.g., Dmin at the inflow (mean±SD MSCT vs. 21.6±2.4 mm vs. 22.0±2.4 mm; difference±SD: -0.4±1.3 mm, p<0.05) and Dmax (25.6±2.7 mm vs. 26.2±2.7 mm; difference±SD: -0.6±1.0 mm, p<0.01). The observed and predicted calcium displacements were highly correlated for the left and right coronary ostia (R2=0.67 and R2=0.71, respectively p<0.001). Dedicated software allows accurate prediction of frame morphology and calcium displacement after valve implantation, which may help to improve outcome.
Bernardi, Fernando L M; Ribeiro, Henrique B; Carvalho, Luiz A; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio; Mangione, José A; Lemos, Pedro A; Abizaid, Alexandre; Grube, Eberhard; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; de Brito, Fábio S
Direct transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is regarded as having potential advantages over TAVR with balloon aortic valve predilatation (BAVP) in reducing procedural complications, but there are few data to support this approach. Patients included in the Brazilian TAVR registry with CoreValve and Sapien-XT prosthesis were compared according to the implantation technique, with or without BAVP. Clinical and echocardiographic data were analyzed in overall population and after propensity score matching. A total of 761 consecutive patients (BAVP=372; direct-TAVR=389) were included. Direct-TAVR was possible in 99% of patients, whereas device success was similar between groups (BAVP=81.2% versus direct-TAVR=78.1%; P=0.3). No differences in clinical outcomes at 30 days and 1 year were observed, including all-cause mortality (7.6% versus 10%; P=0.25 and 18.1% versus 24.5%; P=0.07, respectively) and stroke (2.8% versus 3.8%; P=0.85 and 5.5% versus 6.8%; P=0.56, respectively). Nonetheless, TAVR with BAVP was associated with a higher rate of new onset persistent left bundle branch block with the CoreValve (47.7% versus 35.1%; P=0.01 at 1 year). Mean gradient and incidence of moderate/severe aortic regurgitation were similar in both groups at 1 year (11% versus 13.3%; P=0.57 and 9.8±5.5 versus 8.7±4.3; P=0.09, respectively). After propensity score matching analysis, all-cause mortality and stroke remained similar. By multivariable analysis, BAVP and the use of CoreValve were independent predictors of new onset persistent left bundle branch block. The 2 TAVR strategies, with or without BAVP, provided similar clinical and echocardiographic outcomes over a midterm follow-up although BAVP was associated with a higher rate of new onset persistent left bundle branch block, particularly in patients receiving a CoreValve. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.
... evaluation of aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 29, 2014. Mohty D, ... Valvular heart disease in elderly adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 2, 2014. Bonow RO, ...
Kerner, Arthur; Abadi, Sobhi; Dotan, Roy; Javitt, Marcia; Aronson, Doron; Lessick, Jonathan
A comparison was made between the accuracy of and time saved by using novel automated software for pre-procedural computed tomography (CT) planning before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and manual methods. Preprocedural CT to assess aortic annulus dimensions and predict the optimal C-arm implant angle before TAVI can reduce complications related to incorrect prosthesis sizing and positioning. A total of 61 consecutive patients underwent TAVI using either the SAPIEN XT or CoreValve prosthesis. Pre-procedural CT scans were analysed using three methods: automatic; semi-automatic; and manual. For each method, annular dimensions were measured and the optimal implantation angle was predicted. After TAVI the actual post-deployment angle orthogonal to the prosthesis was determined using aortic fluoroscopy. The difference between the predicted angle by CT and the measured post-deployment angle was calculated for each method. For all methods the mean angular difference with the actual post-deployment angle was similar at ~9 ± 7°. There was a significant difference between the SAPIEN XT (6.6 ± 5.8°) and CoreValve (11.5 ± 6.9°, p <0.001) prostheses due to a consistently greater left anterior oblique and caudal angulation for the CoreValve. Although the annular area correlated well among all methods, 'automatic' results were consistently larger than 'manual' results. Interobserver variability was low for all measures. The fully automatic method saved 98 s, and the semiautomatic method 40 s per case. The use of automatic software enabled a rapid and accurate prediction of implantation angles, though results differed for specific manufacturers. Annular areas were overestimated by the automatic method, and thus required manual adjustments.
Renewed interest for aortic valve disease has evolved in recent years. Aortic valve replacement has become the second most frequent cause of cardiac surgery, following coronary bypass surgery. In addition, the etiologic and physiopathologic knowledge of this disorder has improved. In the present paper we analyze three aspects of the disease which are, at present, the subject of study and controversy: first, we discuss the possible relationship between degenerative aortic stenosis and atherosclerosis; second, the involvement of the aortic root in cases of bicuspid aortic valve; and third, the surgical indications in asymptomatic patients with either aortic stenosis or regurgitation.
Dohmen, Pascal M.; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Borger, Michael A.; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W.
Patient: Female, 61 Final Diagnosis: Tissue degeneration Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Redo valve replacement Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: We present a unique case of a 61-year-old female patient with homograft deterioration after redo surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis with root abscess. Case Report: The first operation was performed for type A dissection with root, arch, and elephant trunk replacement of the thoracic aorta. The present re-redo surgery was performed as valve-in-valve with a sutureless aortic biopros-thesis. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on day 6. Conclusions: The current case report demonstrates that sutureless bioprostheses are an attractive option for surgical valve-in-valve procedures, which can reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27694795
Paton, B C; Pine, M B
De Bakey prostheses were inserted in 29 patients with aortic valve disease between October, 1970, and May, 1972. Ten patients have died, but all but one of the remaining 19 have beel followed for a minimum of 19 months. Evaluation of the results in these subjects indicates that the function of the De Bakey valve compares favorably with that of other aortic valve prostheses.
Pasic, Miralem; Dreysse, Stephan; Drews, Thorsten; Buz, Semih; Unbehaun, Axel; Kukucka, Marian; Mladenow, Alexandar; Hetzer, Roland
Transapical aortic valve implantation carries some degree of uncertainty regarding the definitive valve position. We added angiographic visualization of the aortic root while the prosthetic valve is being slowly deployed. It enables easy correction of the position of the valve so that perfect alignment can be achieved of the relationships between the prosthetic valve, aortic valve annulus, aortic cusps, and the coronary arteries.
Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Michalis
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM) post aortic valve replacement (AVR) is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR) and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI). PMID:28028424
Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Okada, Kenji; Okita, Yutaka
A 67-year old man with ascending aortic aneurysm was referred because of a quadricuspid aortic valve. He underwent aortic root replacement with a valve-sparing technique. Under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, replacement of the ascending aorta was successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful without recurrence of aortic regurgitation.
Piazza, Nicolo; Wenaweser, Peter; van Gameren, Menno; Pilgrim, Thomas; Tzikas, Apostolos; Tsikas, Apostolos; Otten, Amber; Nuis, Rutger; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cheng, Jin Ming; Kappetein, A Pieter; Boersma, Eric; Juni, Peter; de Jaegere, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W
Surgical risk scores, such as the logistic EuroSCORE (LES) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS) score, are commonly used to identify high-risk or "inoperable" patients for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In Europe, the LES plays an important role in selecting patients for implantation with the Medtronic CoreValve System. What is less clear, however, is the role of the STS score of these patients and the relationship between the LES and STS. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between LES and STS scores and their performance characteristics in high-risk surgical patients implanted with the Medtronic CoreValve System. All consecutive patients (n = 168) in whom a CoreValve bioprosthesis was implanted between November 2005 and June 2009 at 2 centers (Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland, and Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands) were included for analysis. Patient demographics were recorded in a prospective database. Logistic EuroSCORE and STS scores were calculated on a prospective and retrospective basis, respectively. Observed mortality was 11.1%. The mean LES was 3 times higher than the mean STS score (LES 20.2% +/- 13.9% vs STS 6.7% +/- 5.8%). Based on the various LES and STS cutoff values used in previous and ongoing TAVI trials, 53% of patients had an LES > or =15%, 16% had an STS > or =10%, and 40% had an LES > or =20% or STS > or =10%. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a reasonable (moderate) linear relationship between the LES and STS scores, r = 0.58, P < .001. Although the STS score outperformed the LES, both models had suboptimal discriminatory power (c-statistic, 0.49 for LES and 0.69 for STS) and calibration. Clinical judgment and the Heart Team concept should play a key role in selecting patients for TAVI, whereas currently available surgical risk score algorithms should be used to guide clinical decision making. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights
Yates, A. K.
The promising qualities of autologous fascia lata in heart valve replacement have resulted in a search for improved methods of fascial heart valve manufacture. This paper describes a simply made and inserted and reliably competent unsupported fascial valve for aortic valve replacement. Images PMID:5576536
Arnold, Suzanne V; Afilalo, Jonathan; Spertus, John A; Tang, Yuanyuan; Baron, Suzanne J; Jones, Philip G; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Adams, David H; Cohen, David J
A series of models have been developed to identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to help guide treatment choices, offer patients realistic expectations of long-term outcomes, and support decision making. This study examined the performance of the previously developed TAVR Poor Outcome risk models in an external dataset and explored the incremental contribution of geriatric domains to model performance. Poor outcome after TAVR was defined as death, poor quality of life (QOL), or decline in QOL, as assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We tested 4 TAVR Poor Outcome risk models: 6-month and 1-year full and clinical (reduced) models. We examined each model's discrimination and calibration in the CoreValve trial dataset, and then tested the incremental contribution of frailty and disability markers to the model's discrimination using the incremental discrimination index. Among 2,830 patients who underwent TAVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Extreme and High Risk trials and associated continued access registries, 31.2% experienced a poor outcome at 6 months following TAVR (death, 17.6%; very poor QOL, 11.6%; QOL decline, 2.0%) and 50.8% experienced a poor outcome at 1 year (death, 30.2%; poor QOL, 19.6%; QOL, decline 1.0%). The models demonstrated similar discrimination as in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves Trial cohorts (c-indexes, 0.637 to 0.665) and excellent calibration. Adding frailty as a syndrome increased the c-indexes by 0.000 to 0.004 (incremental discrimination index, p < 0.01 for all except the 1-year clinical model), with the most important individual components being disability and unintentional weight loss. Although discrimination of the TAVR Poor Outcome risk models was generally moderate, calibration was excellent among patients with different risk profiles and treated with a different TAVR device. These findings demonstrated the value of these models for
Gunning, A. J.; Meade, J. B.
Heterologous aortic valves are used in many clinics as replacements for diseased human aortic and mitral valves. These valves possess all the advantages of homologous aortic valves and are more easily available to the surgeon. The heterologous valve also provides a greater choice of valve size than does the homograft; this can be of importance when replacing the mitral valve. Heterograft valves, like homografts, are usually preserved for periods ranging from a few days to a few months before insertion into a patient. Four methods of preservation, described, are currently in use. This study compares the effects of these four methods of preservation when pig valves are transplanted into the dog's aorta. Images PMID:5576535
Olivieri, Laura J; Baba, Ridhwan Y; Arai, Andrew E; Bandettini, W Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A
Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm, and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome. Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with Turner syndrome and to determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular MRI in 208 subjects with Turner syndrome in an institutional review board-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve, 64% (n=133); partially fused aortic valve, 12% (n=25); bicuspid aortic valve, 23% (n=47); and unicuspid aortic valve, 1% (n=3). Age and body surface area were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, toward larger body surface area-indexed ascending aortic diameters with increasing valve fusion. Ascending aortic diameters were (mean±SD) 16.9±3.3, 18.3±3.3, and 19.8±3.9 mm/m(2) (P<0.0001) for tricuspid aortic valve, partially fused aortic valve, and bicuspid aortic valve+unicuspid aortic valve, respectively. Partially fused aortic valve, bicuspid aortic valve, and unicuspid aortic valve were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Aortic valve abnormalities in Turner syndrome occur with a spectrum of severity and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased ascending aortic diameters.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Paola; Nava, Stefano; Musca, Francesco; Merlanti, Bruno; Belli, Oriana; Soriano, Francesco; Botta, Luca; De Caria, Danile; Giannattasio, Cristina; Russo, Claudio F
Transcatheter aortic valves have been designed to treat high-risk surgical candidates affected by severe aortic stenosis, but little is known about the use of transcatheter valves in patients with severe pure aortic regurgitation. We describe the implantation of Medtronic CoreValve Evolut R (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) to treat an 82-year-old patient affected by severe pure aortic regurgitation who underwent prior mitral valve replacement with a biological valve protruding into the left ventricular outflow tract.
Durand, Eric; Tron, Christophe; Eltchaninoff, Hélène
We report the case of a 78-year-old woman admitted for cardiogenic shock related to acute and early failure (severe aortic regurgitation) of a Perceval sutureless aortic bioprosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). Clinical stability was achieved using rescue transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation with an Edwards SAPIEN 3 prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). To our knowledge, we report herein the first case of successful valve-in-valve implantation using a SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve in a sutureless bioprosthetic aortic valve with acute and early deterioration.
Luo, Wenzong; Wang, Xinxin; Li, Jing; Mu, Yun; Ni, Yiming
Abstract Background: Intermittent stuck valve after mechanical valve replacement surgery is a very rare and severe complication. Case summary: We present 1 case of a 53-year-old woman after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic valve stenosis combined with hypertrophy septum. She was diagnosed with intermittent stuck valve only 1 day after surgery by clinical symptoms, intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiogram, and intraoperative findings. Conclusions: Although indications for concomitant myectomy during aortic valve replacement are not clear, we recommend myectomy to prevent stuck valve after St Jude Medical Regent prosthesis replacement for severe aortic valve stenosis combined with hypertrophy septum. PMID:28248877
Popma, Jeffrey J; Adams, David H; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Kleiman, Neal S; Heimansohn, David; Hermiller, James; Hughes, G Chad; Harrison, J Kevin; Coselli, Joseph; Diez, Jose; Kafi, Ali; Schreiber, Theodore; Gleason, Thomas G; Conte, John; Buchbinder, Maurice; Deeb, G Michael; Carabello, Blasé; Serruys, Patrick W; Chenoweth, Sharla; Oh, Jae K
This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the CoreValve transcatheter heart valve (THV) for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at extreme risk for surgery. Untreated severe aortic stenosis is a progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a self-expanding bioprosthesis is a potentially effective therapy. We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized investigation evaluating the safety and efficacy of self-expanding TAVR in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis with prohibitive risks for surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 12 months, which was compared with a pre-specified objective performance goal (OPG). A total of 41 sites in the United States recruited 506 patients, of whom 489 underwent attempted treatment with the CoreValve THV. The rate of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 12 months was 26.0% (upper 2-sided 95% confidence bound: 29.9%) versus 43.0% with the OPG (p < 0.0001). Individual 30-day and 12-month events included all-cause mortality (8.4% and 24.3%, respectively) and major stroke (2.3% and 4.3%, respectively). Procedural events at 30 days included life-threatening/disabling bleeding (12.7%), major vascular complications (8.2%), and need for permanent pacemaker placement (21.6%). The frequency of moderate or severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation was lower 12 months after self-expanding TAVR (4.2%) than at discharge (10.7%; p = 0.004 for paired analysis). TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis was safe and effective in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at prohibitive risk for surgical valve replacement. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve System in the Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis in High Risk and Very High Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement; NCT01240902). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by
Iwata, Shinichi; Walker, Marcella Donovan; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Hyodo, Eiichi; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Sacco, Ralph L.; Homma, Shunichi
Context: It is unclear whether cardiovascular disease is present in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Objective: Aortic valve structure and function were compared in PHPT patients and population-based controls. Design: This is a case-control study. Setting: The study was conducted in a university hospital metabolic bone disease unit. Participants: We studied 51 patients with PHPT and 49 controls. Outcome Measures: We measured the aortic valve calcification area and the transaortic pressure gradient. Results: Aortic valve calcification area was significantly higher in PHPT (0.24 ± 0.02 vs. 0.17 ± 0.02 cm2, p<0.01), although there was no difference in the peak transaortic pressure gradient, a functional measure of valvular calcification (5.6 ± 0.3 vs. 6.0 ± 0.3 mm Hg, P = 0.39). Aortic valve calcification area was positively associated with PTH (r = 0.34; P < 0.05) but not with serum calcium, phosphorus, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels or with calcium-phosphate product. Serum PTH level remained an independent predictor of aortic valve calcification area after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, history of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Mild PHPT is associated with subclinical aortic valve calcification. PTH, but not serum calcium concentration, predicted aortic valve calcification. PTH was a more important predictor of aortic valve calcification than well-accepted cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:22031523
Kim, Dae-Hee; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Levine, Robert A.; Sun, Byung Joo; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Jae-Kwan
Background The 3-dimensional relationship between aortic root and cusp is essential to understand the mechanism of aortic regurgitation (AR) because of aortic root dilatation (ARD). We sought to test the hypothesis that the stretched cusps in ARD enlarge to compensate for ARD. Methods and Results Computed tomography imaged 92 patients (57 with ARD, 29 with moderate to severe AR, 28 without significant AR) and 35 normal controls. Specialized 3-dimensional software measured individual cusp surface areas relative to maximal mid-sinus cross-sectional area and minimal 3-dimensional annular area, coaptation area fraction, and asymmetry of sinus volumes and intercommissural distances. Total open cusp surface area increased (P<0.001) from 7.6±1.4 cm2/m2 in normals to 12.9±2.2 cm2/m2 in AR-negative and 15.2±3.3 cm2/m2 in AR-positive patients. However, the ratio of closed cusp surface area to maximal mid-sinus area, reflecting cusp adaptation, decreased from normals to AR-negative to AR-positive patients (1.38±0.20, 1.15±0.15, 0.88±0.15; P<0.001), creating the lowest coaptation area fraction. Cusp distensibility (closed diastolic versus open area) decreased from 20% in controls and AR-negative patients to 5% in AR-positive patients (P<0.001). Multivariate determinants of AR and coaptation area fraction reflected both sinus size and cusp-to-annular adaptation. ARD was also progressively asymmetrical with root size, and individual cusp surface areas failed to match this asymmetry. Conclusions Aortic cusp enlargement occurs in ARD, but cusp adaptation and distensibility become limited in prominent, asymmetrical ARD, leading to AR. Optimal AR repair tailored to individual patient anatomy can benefit from appreciating valve adaptation and 3-dimensional relationships; understanding cusp adaptation mechanisms may ultimately provide therapeutic opportunities to improve such compensation. PMID:25051951
Leopold, Jane A.
Acquired aortic valve disease and valvular calcification is highly prevalent in adult populations worldwide and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no medical therapies that will prevent or regress aortic valve calcification or stenosis and surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement remain the only effective therapies for treating this disease. In the setting of valve injury as a result of exposure to biochemical mediators or hemodynamic forces, normal homeostatic processes are disrupted resulting in extracellular matrix degradation, aberrant matrix deposition and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, lipid accumulation, and neoangiogenesis of the valve tissue and, ultimately, calcification of the valve. Calcification of the aortic valve is now understood to be an active process that involves the coordinated actions of resident valve endothelial and interstitial cells, circulating inflammatory and immune cells, and bone marrow-derived cells. These cells may undergo a phenotype transition to become osteoblast-like cells and elaborate bone matrix, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and form matrix vesicles that serve as a nidus for microcalcifications. Each of these mechanisms has been shown to contribute to aortic valve calcification suggesting that strategies that target these cellular events may lead to novel therapeutic interventions to halt the progression or reverse aortic valve calcification. PMID:22896576
Koizumi, Shigeki; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Nishiya, Kenta; Koyama, Tadaaki
Late transcatheter heart valve embolization is a rare but life-threatening complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Surgical intervention is performed for most cases, but some cases were treated by valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We describe a patient in whom a 29-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve migrated into the left ventricular outflow tract 41 days after the initial implantation. We tried to perform valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation using a transfemoral approach. As soon as the second transcatheter heart valve touched the first implanted valve, it fell into the left ventricle. Immediate surgical intervention was required. The first valve was removed, and surgical aortic valve replacement was successfully performed. In conclusion, we should choose surgical aortic valve replacement for late transcatheter heart valve embolization. Even if we need to treat by catheter intervention, transapical approach may be better.
Pizzighini, S; Finet, G; Obadia, J-F; Revel, D; Bresson, D; Rioufol, G
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a therapeutic option for high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and with cardiac symptoms. This procedure requires the preliminary evaluation by a "heart team" and presents some contraindications. We report the case of a 58-year-old man with severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and cardiogenic shock. In spite of contraindications and because of the failure of balloon aortic valvuloplasty, transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed in emergency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Antunes, M J
The favorable results of mitral valvuloplasty when compared with valve replacement have renewed the interest of many surgeons in aortic valve repair. However, these efforts have, for the most part, been unsuccessful. Also, the results of aortic valve replacement are usually better than those of mitral valve replacement. Yet, some patients appear to derive benefit from a conservative aortic valve procedure. The best examples are mild or moderate aortic valve disease associated with mitral valve or coronary artery disease, which constitute the primary indication for operation, where "prophylactic" aortic valve replacement does not appear justifiable. Other possible indications for aortic valvuloplasty includes patient's lack of compliance or contraindication to anticoagulation in young patients. Senile aortic stenosis, in very old patients with a small annulus, preserved leaflet morphology and nonsignificant commissural fusion should be considered for repair. However, since the procedure is not easily reproducible and the results not uniformly predictable, it cannot be recommended for generalized use. Nonetheless, experienced surgeons should be encouraged to continue these efforts.
Sousa, Maria João; Alves, Vasco; Cabral, Sofia; Antunes, Nuno; Pereira, Luís Sousa; Oliveira, Filomena; Silveira, João; Torres, Severo
Mitral valve aneurysms are rare and occur most commonly in association with aortic valve endocarditis. Transesophageal echocardiography is the most sensitive imaging modality for the diagnosis of this entity and its potential complications, such as leaflet rupture and mitral regurgitation, which mandate prompt surgical intervention. We present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with aortic valve endocarditis complicated with a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet and associated severe mitral regurgitation, diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography, with impressive images. We hypothesized that the aneurysm developed through direct extension of infection from the aortic valve or from a prolapsing aortic vegetation, with abscess formation and subsequent rupture and drainage. This case highlights the importance of appropriate imaging for early detection and timely surgical intervention (repair or replacement) to prevent fatal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Anger, Thomas; Bauer, Verena; Plachtzik, Claudia; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Oberhoff, Martin; Höher, Martin
The long-term success of CoreValve® stent prosthesis (Medtronic) implantation for severe aortic valve stenosis is limited by postprocedural paravalvular regurgitation (PVR). We have retrospectively investigated preinterventional cardiac 256-slice computed tomography (CT) scans and aortography to define predictors for mild, moderate, or severe PVR, in a blinded fashion. We investigated 100 consecutive patients with a mean aortic valve area (AVA) of 0.69 cm(2) and a mean age of 79.4 years. PVR was defined by echocardiography as mild (63), moderate (18), or severe (19). We found no differences according to AVA, left ventricular function, deployed stent size, calcification rate of the aortic valve, and stent position. Anatomically, the annular size and the angle between the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the ascending aorta demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) differences in the severity of the PVR: an LVOT: ascending aorta angle >12.6°, annulus area >8.9 cm(2) , and annulus diameter difference >3.9 mm. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that deviation angle, difference of aortic annulus (longitudinal-orthogonal), and CoreValve size were independent predictors of PVR. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of cardiac CT to evaluate predictors of PVR post-CoreValve placement. We support the aortic annulus (the area as well as the diameter differences) and the deviation of the linear slope from LVOT to ascending aorta as predictors of severe paravalvular regurgitations poststent implantation. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Córdoba-Soriano, Juan G; Puri, Rishi; Amat-Santos, Ignacio; Ribeiro, Henrique B; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; del Trigo, María; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Eric; Urena, Marina; Rodés-Cabau, Josep
Despite the rapid global uptake of transcatheter aortic valve implantation, valve trombosis has yet to be systematically evaluated in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria, and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with valve thrombosis following transcatheter aortic valve implantation through a systematic review of published data. Literature published between 2002 and 2012 on valve thrombosis as a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation was identified through a systematic electronic search. A total of 11 publications were identified, describing 16 patients (mean age, 80  years, 65% men). All but 1 patient (94%) received a balloon-expandable valve. All patients received dual antiplatelet therapy immediately following the procedure and continued to take either mono- or dual antiplatelet therapy at the time of valve thrombosis diagnosis. Valve thrombosis was diagnosed at a median of 6 months post-procedure, with progressive dyspnea being the most common symptom. A significant increase in transvalvular gradient (from 10  to 40  mmHg) was the most common echocardiographic feature, in addition to leaflet thickening. Thrombus was not directly visualized with echocardiography. Three patients underwent valve explantation, and the remaining received warfarin, which effectively restored the mean transvalvular gradient to baseline within 2 months. Systemic embolism was not a feature of valve thrombosis post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Although a rare, yet likely under-reported complication of post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation, progressive dyspnea coupled with an increasing transvalvular gradient on echocardiography within the months following the intervention likely signifies valve thrombosis. While direct thrombus visualization appears difficult, prompt initiation of oral anticoagulation therapy effectively restores baseline valve function. Copyright © 2014
Karara, H. M.
Photogrammetric measurements of the surface topography of the aortic valves obtained from silicon rubber molds of freshly excised human aortic valves are presented. The data are part of an investigation into the design of a new prosthetic valve which will be a central-flow device, like the real valve and unlike previous central-occluding prostheses. Since the maximum stress on the heart valve is induced when the valve is closed and subject to diastolic back-pressure, it was decided to determine the valve geometry during diastole. That is, the molds were formed by pouring the rubber down the excised aortas, causing the valves to close. The molds were made under different pressures (20-120 torr); photogrammetry served as a vehicle for the assessment of the mold topography through the following outputs: digital models, surface profiles, and contour maps.
Karara, H. M.
Photogrammetric measurements of the surface topography of the aortic valves obtained from silicon rubber molds of freshly excised human aortic valves are presented. The data are part of an investigation into the design of a new prosthetic valve which will be a central-flow device, like the real valve and unlike previous central-occluding prostheses. Since the maximum stress on the heart valve is induced when the valve is closed and subject to diastolic back-pressure, it was decided to determine the valve geometry during diastole. That is, the molds were formed by pouring the rubber down the excised aortas, causing the valves to close. The molds were made under different pressures (20-120 torr); photogrammetry served as a vehicle for the assessment of the mold topography through the following outputs: digital models, surface profiles, and contour maps.
Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N
Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.
Santini, F; Borghetti, V; Amalfitano, G; Mazzucco, A
A 73-year old man developed an acute prosthetic aortic valve dehiscence for which emergent operation was undertaken. The intraoperative evidence of an aortic annular disruption and of a subannular abscess led to the hypothesis that an endocarditis process was involved. The aortic valve was replaced with a stentless porcine bioprosthesis. Cultures taken intraoperatively from the aortic area had a pure growth of aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The patient responded to specific antibiotic therapy with no relapse at a 20-month follow-up. The potentiality of B. licheniformis as a pathogen should be reconsidered. PMID:8576381
Yip, Cindy Ying Yin; Simmons, Craig A
In calcific aortic valve disease, fibrotic and calcific lesions form focally in the fibrosa layer of the valve leaflets. Layer-specific pathosusceptibility suggests that the fibrosa microenvironment is permissive to pathological development. The cellular microenvironment in the aortic valve is defined by a variety of biomechanical-, biochemical-, and extracellular-mediated factors, some of which are unique to the fibrosa. Growing evidence supports the role of these microenvironmental cues in the local regulation of side-specific valve cell phenotypes and focal pathological alterations, revealing new insights into the cellular and molecular processes that contribute to calcific aortic valve disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gensas, Caroline S; Caixeta, Adriano; Siqueira, Dimytri; Carvalho, Luiz A; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Mangione, José A; Lemos, Pedro A; Colafranceschi, Alexandre S; Caramori, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Abizaid, Alexandre; Brito, Fábio S
The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictors of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation after TAVI. Between January 2008 and February 2012, 418 patients with severe aortic stenosis underwent TAVI and were enrolled in a Brazilian multicenter registry. After excluding patients who died during the procedure and those with a previous PPM, 353 patients were included in the analysis. At 30 days, the overall incidence of PPM implantation was 25.2%. Patients requiring PPM were more likely to be older (82.73 vs. 81.10 years, p=0.07), have pre-dilation (68.42% vs. 60.07%, p=0.15), receive CoreValve (93.68% vs. 82.55%, p=0.008), and have baseline right bundle branch block (RBBB, 25.26% vs. 6.58%, p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, CoreValve vs. Sapien XT (OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.56-11.49; p=0.005), baseline RBBB (OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.20-8.82; p<0.001), and balloon pre-dilatation (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02; p=0.04) were independent predictors of PPM implantation. PPM implantation occurred in approximately one-fourth of cases. Pre-existing RBBB, balloon pre-dilatation, and CoreValve use were independent predictors of PPM after TAVI. The type of prosthesis used and pre-balloon dilatation should be considered in TAVI candidates with baseline RBBB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shadden, Shawn C.; Astorino, Matteo; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric
In this work we employ a coupled FSI scheme using an immersed boundary method to simulate flow through a realistic deformable, 3D aortic valve model. This data was used to compute Lagrangian coherent structures, which revealed flow separation from the valve leaflets during systole, and correspondingly, the boundary between the jet of ejected fluid and the regions of separated, recirculating flow. Advantages of computing LCS in multi-dimensional FSI models of the aortic valve are twofold. For one, the quality and effectiveness of existing clinical indices used to measure aortic jet size can be tested by taking advantage of the accurate measure of the jet area derived from LCS. Secondly, as an ultimate goal, a reliable computational framework for the assessment of the aortic valve stenosis could be developed.
Linke, Axel; Wenaweser, Peter; Gerckens, Ulrich; Tamburino, Corrado; Bosmans, Johan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Blackman, Daniel; Schäfer, Ulrich; Müller, Ralf; Sievert, Horst; Søndergaard, Lars; Klugmann, Silvio; Hoffmann, Rainer; Tchétché, Didier; Colombo, Antonio; Legrand, Victor M; Bedogni, Francesco; lePrince, Pascal; Schuler, Gerhard; Mazzitelli, Domenico; Eftychiou, Christos; Frerker, Christian; Boekstegers, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Woitek, Felix; Lange, Rüdiger; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brecker, Stephen
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following implantation of a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve system in a fully monitored, multi-centre 'real-world' patient population in highly experienced centres. Patients with severe aortic stenosis at a higher surgical risk in whom implantation of the CoreValve System was decided by the Heart Team were included. Endpoints were a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reintervention) and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Endpoint-related events were independently adjudicated based on Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. A total of 1015 patients [mean logistic EuroSCORE 19.4 ± 12.3% [median (Q1,Q3), 16.0% (10.3, 25.3%)], age 81 ± 6 years] were enrolled. Implantation of the CoreValve System led to a significant improvement in haemodynamics and an increase in the effective aortic valve orifice area. At 30 days, the MACCE rate was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3-9.7%), all-cause mortality was 4.5% (3.2-5.8%), cardiovascular mortality was 3.4% (2.3-4.6%), and the rate of stroke was 3.0% (2.0-4.1%). The life-threatening or disabling bleeding rate was 4.0% (2.8-6.3%). The 12-month rates of MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke were 21.2% (18.4-24.1%), 17.9% (15.2-20.5%), 11.7% (9.4-14.1%), and 4.5% (2.9-6.1%), respectively. The 12-month rates of all-cause mortality were 11.1, 16.5, and 23.6% among patients with a logistic EuroSCORE ≤10%, EuroSCORE 10-20%, and EuroSCORE >20% (P< 0.05), respectively. The ADVANCE study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the CoreValve System with low mortality and stroke rates in higher risk real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved
Al-Adhami, Ahmed; Al-Attar, Nawwar
Aortic valve replacement is no longer an operation that is approached solely through a median sternotomy. Recent advances in the fields of transcatheter valves have expanded the proportion of patients eligible for intervention. Comparisons between transcatheter valves and conventional surgery have shown non-inferiority of transcatheter valve implants in patients with a high or intermediate pre-operative predictive risk. With advances in our understanding of sutureless valves and their applicability to minimally invasive surgery, the invasiveness and trauma of surgery can be reduced with potential improvements in outcome. The strategy of care has radically changed over the last decade. PMID:27803800
Background Degenerative aortic valve (AV) stenosis is the most prevalent heart valve disease in the western world. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has until recently been the standard of treatment for patients with severe AV stenosis. Whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can be offered with improved safety and similar effectiveness in a population including low-risk patients has yet to be examined in a randomised setting. Methods/Design This randomised clinical trial will evaluate the benefits and risks of TAVI using the transarterial CoreValve System (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) (intervention group) compared with SAVR (control group) in patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Randomisation ratio is 1:1, enrolling a total of 280 patients aged 70 years or older without significant coronary artery disease and with a low, moderate, or high surgical risk profile. Trial outcomes include a primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality within the first year after intervention (expected rates 5% for TAVI, 15% for SAVR). Exploratory safety outcomes include procedure complications, valve re-intervention, and cardiovascular death, as well as cardiac, cerebral, pulmonary, renal, and vascular complications. Exploratory efficacy outcomes include New York Heart Association functional status, quality of life, and valve prosthesis and cardiac performance. Enrolment began in December 2009, and 269 patients have been enrolled up to December 2012. Discussion The trial is designed to evaluate the performance of TAVI in comparison with SAVR. The trial results may influence the choice of treatment modality for patients with severe degenerative AV stenosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01057173 PMID:23302232
Hamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Taira; Kodama, Hiroshi
We describe a new technique of prosthesis-preserving aortic root replacement for patients who have previously undergone aortic valve replacement. With preservation of the mechanical prosthesis, we implant a Gelweave Valsalva graft using double suture lines. The first suture line is made between the sewing cuff of the mechanical valve and the graft, with mattress sutures of 2/0 braided polyester with pledgets. After the first sutures are tied, the second suture line is created between the graft collar and the aortic root remnant with continuous 4/0 polypropylene sutures.
Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan
Catheter-based aortic valve implantation is increasingly being performed in high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. For successful planning of the procedure, CT has been shown to provide crucial information concerning the aortic root as well as the peripheral access vessels. This article illustrates the increasing role of CT before transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
Kleiman, Neal S.; Reardon, Michael J.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is becoming widely used for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. Data from The PARTNER Trial (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) and the Medtronic CoreValve® U.S. Pivotal Investigational Device Exemption trial indicate that survival for extreme-risk patients is superior to best medical therapy and equivalent or superior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), although long-term durability remains unknown. Paravalvular leak remains higher in TAVR than SAVR, as does permanent pacemaker implantation in self-expanding valves. New-generation valves are addressing these issues, especially for paravalvular leak. There is strong evidence that TAVR is appropriate for both extreme-risk and high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, and the continued development of new valves are making implantation more reliable. This review discusses the studies supporting the use of TAVR and explores current advances in the field. PMID:27127560
Adams, David H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Coselli, Joseph S; Deeb, G Michael; Gleason, Thomas G; Buchbinder, Maurice; Hermiller, James; Kleiman, Neal S; Chetcuti, Stan; Heiser, John; Merhi, William; Zorn, George; Tadros, Peter; Robinson, Newell; Petrossian, George; Hughes, G Chad; Harrison, J Kevin; Conte, John; Maini, Brijeshwar; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Chenoweth, Sharla; Oh, Jae K
We compared transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR), using a self-expanding transcatheter aortic-valve bioprosthesis, with surgical aortic-valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and an increased risk of death during surgery. We recruited patients with severe aortic stenosis who were at increased surgical risk as determined by the heart team at each study center. Risk assessment included the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predictor Risk of Mortality estimate and consideration of other key risk factors. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to TAVR with the self-expanding transcatheter valve (TAVR group) or to surgical aortic-valve replacement (surgical group). The primary end point was the rate of death from any cause at 1 year, evaluated with the use of both noninferiority and superiority testing. A total of 795 patients underwent randomization at 45 centers in the United States. In the as-treated analysis, the rate of death from any cause at 1 year was significantly lower in the TAVR group than in the surgical group (14.2% vs. 19.1%), with an absolute reduction in risk of 4.9 percentage points (upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval, -0.4; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.04 for superiority). The results were similar in the intention-to-treat analysis. In a hierarchical testing procedure, TAVR was noninferior with respect to echocardiographic indexes of valve stenosis, functional status, and quality of life. Exploratory analyses suggested a reduction in the rate of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and no increase in the risk of stroke. In patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at increased surgical risk, TAVR with a self-expanding transcatheter aortic-valve bioprosthesis was associated with a significantly higher rate of survival at 1 year than surgical aortic-valve replacement. (Funded by Medtronic; U.S. CoreValve High Risk Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01240902.).
Ren, Xinshuang; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Kun; Hou, Zhihui; Gao, Yang; Yin, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhennan; Lu, Bin
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart disease. Our study was to analyze clinical features of BAV and evaluate whether aortic valve calcium score (AVCS) was a reliable marker for aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with BAV. 101 patients with BAV who both underwent echocardiology and cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan in our institution were included. Basic clinical data, haemodynamic feature, aortic valve and coronary calcium score were collected and compared among patients with different valve function and different degree of AS. Risk factors related to severe AS were evaluated by logistic regression, and a receiver operative characteristic curve was used to determine the cutoff calcium score greater than which the diagnosis of severe AS was optimized. Patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) were younger and demonstrated larger aortic annulus and sinus compared with patients with other valve dysfunction. Aortic valve calcium score was higher in patients with AS than with AR. For patients with different degree of AS, there were statistical significances in the value of age, aortic valve calcium score and coronary calcium score. AVCS was positively related to severe AS with an odd ratio of 1.286 (95% CI 1.099-1.504) by every 300 points increase. AVCS was also a strong predictor for severe AS with area under the curve 0.855 with a cutoff value of 897 (sensitivity 86.7%, specificity 72.2%). Conclusively, aortic calcium score calculated by quantitative CT is a reliable marker in evaluating severity of AS.
Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Chen, Chien-Chang; Hsu, Wei-Pang; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Tsai, Han-Lin; Hsiao, Ping-Gune; Wu, Jiann-Der; Guo, How-Ran
Abstract Background: Avulsion of the aortic valve commissure as a cause of acute aortic valve regurgitation is mostly due to trauma, infective endocarditis, or ascending aortic dissection. Nontraumatic avulsion of the aortic valve commissure is very rare. We reviewed the literature and analyzed potential risk factors of nontraumatic avulsion. Case presentation: An 80-year-old male with hypertension was seen in the emergency department with acute onset dyspnea. Echocardiogram revealed left ventricular hypertrophy with adequate systolic function, prolapse of the noncoronary cusp, and incomplete coaptation of the right coronary and noncoronary cusps with severe aortic valve regurgitation. Surgery revealed an avulsion between the left coronary and noncoronary cusps. Histopathology examination of the aortic valve showed myxoid degeneration, fibrosis, and calcification. Examination of the ascending aorta revealed myxoid degeneration and fragmentation of elastic fibers. Aortic valve replacement was performed, and the patient was alive and well 4 years after surgery. A review of the literature showed that more than three-fourths of the similar cases occurred in males, and about half in patients with hypertension and those 60 years of age or older. Conclusions: In the case of acute aortic regurgitation without a history of trauma, infection, or valvotomy, when 2 prolapsed aortic cusps are observed by echocardiography in the absence of an intimal tear of the ascending aorta, an avulsion of the aortic commissure should be suspected, especially in males with hypertension who are 60 years of age or older. PMID:27749570
Rozeik, Mm; Wheatley, Dj; Gourlay, T
The aortic valve operates in a complex haemodynamic environment, opening and closing over 100,000 times a day. When complications arise, such as aortic stenosis, prognosis can be very poor, leading to death within the first few years. Surgical valve replacement is currently the standard treatment for aortic stenosis. A thorough understanding of the anatomy and function of the native valve is imperative when developing a prosthetic replacement that can withstand the complex demands of the heart. This review focuses on the anatomy, structure and disease of the aortic valve and the implications for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Current complications with TAVR, such as major vascular bleeding, conduction disturbances and patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM), can be overcome by reducing the delivery profile and through the use of more accurate imaging technologies to work towards a fully functional and durable prosthesis. © The Author(s) 2014.
Matsuzaki, Kanji; Unno, Hideya; Konishi, Taisuke; Shigeta, Osamu
We report a rare case of left coronary ostial obstruction after aortic valve replacement with a Top Hat supra-annular aortic valve, which was diagnosed with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and successfully treated with an unplanned coronary bypass. The patient was a 76-year-old woman (height 143 cm, weight 44 kg) with aortic stenosis and regurgitation. A 19-mm Top Hat valve was implanted in the supra-annular position because of a small aortic annulus. There was a possibility that the high profile of this prosthesis might block the left coronary ostium. There may be a problem with the use of this prosthesis in patients with small and rigid aortic roots with little compliance. Although the Top Hat valve has a great advantage for small aortic annuli, care in its use should be taken due to possible interference with the coronary ostia.
Puga, Andrés Enríquez; Rodríguez, Sara Castaño; Pañero, Blanca Mateos; Moreira, Beatriz Castaño; López Almodóvar, Luis Fernando
We describe the case of a 61-year-old male with a giant aortic root aneurysm associated with chronic aortic Type A dissection. The patient had been operated on 16 years before due to aortic annuloectasia with mechanical valve replacement. The patient underwent revision aortic surgery with a Bentall-De Bono operation with Svensson modification, using a #21 On-X Valsalva mechanical valve conduit. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:28097190
We report a prospective comparison between transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI, n = 13) and surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR, n = 10) in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and previous coronary bypass surgery (CABG). All patients had at least bilateral patent internal thoracic arteries bypass without indication of repeat revascularization. After a similar post-procedure outcome, despite one early death in TAVI group, the 1-year survival was 100% in surgical group and in transfemoral TAVI group, and 73% in transapical TAVI group. When previous CABG is the lone surgical risk factor, indications for a TAVI procedure have to be cautious, specially if transfemoral approach is not possible. PMID:22642844
Abeyratne, L R; Kingston, J E; Onadim, Z; Dubrey, S W
Heritable retinoblastoma is associated with a germline mutation in the tumour suppressor gene RBI. The Rb protein (pRb) arises from the RB1 gene, which was the first demonstrated cancer susceptibility gene in humans. 1 Second primary malignancies are recognised complications of retinoblastoma. Furthermore, pRb is implicated in valve remodelling in calcific aortic valve disease. 2 3 We report a family with hereditary retinoblastoma and associated secondary primary malignancies. There are two interesting aspects to this family. The first is the concept of ‘cancer susceptibility genes’; the RBI gene being the first reported in humans. A further feature of note is that two family members also have bicuspid aortic valves. We discuss a potential association between the gene defect responsible for retinoblastoma (with its associated propensity for further malignancies) and accelerated deterioration of the bicuspid aortic valve in the proband carrying this gene defect. PMID:23595191
Nishida, Hidefumi; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Shimamoto, Takeshi
The Medtronic freestyle aortic root bioprosthesis (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) is a stentless valve with an effective orifice area that is larger than that observed on other bioprostheses. However, there have been sporadic reports of structural valve deterioration (SVD), such as aortic root wall rupture, leaflet tearing, and pseudoaneurysm formation. We report five cases of SVD of freestyle aortic root bioprostheses. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cardiac Surgery Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo; Lázaro-Castillo, José Luis; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; Macías-Miranda, Enriqueta; Dosta-Herrera, Juan José; Galván Díaz, José
Aortic stenosis is a frequent disease in the elderly, and is associated with other systemic pathologies that may contraindicate the surgical procedure. Another option for these patients is percutaneous aortic valve implantation, which is less invasive. We present our initial experience with this procedure. Patients with aortic stenosis were included once selection criteria were accomplished. Under general anaesthesia and echocardiographic and fluosocopic control, a transcatheter aortic valve was implanted following s valvuloplasty. Once concluded the procedure, angiographic and pressure control was realized in order to confirm the valve function. Between November 2014 and May 2015, 6 patients were treated (4 males and 2 females), with a mean age of 78.83±5.66 years-old. The preoperative transvalvular gradient was 90.16±28.53mmHg and posterior to valve implant was 3.33±2.92mmHg (P<.05). Two patients had concomitant coronary artery disease which had been treated previously. One patient presented with acute right coronary artery occlusion which was immediately treated. However due to previous renal failure, postoperative sepsis and respiratory failure, the patient died one month later. It was concluded that our preliminary results showed that in selected patients percutaneous aortic valve implantation is a safe procedure with clinical improvement for treated patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Kawashima, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken
The patient was a 91-year-old woman presenting with severe aortic valve stenosis. Pre-procedural computed tomography scan revealed a 45-mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TF-TAVI) was performed after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of the AAA. The 23-mm Edwards Sapien XT system passed through the aortic stent graft smoothly. This is the first case report showing that successful TF-TAVI can be performed through a prior abdominal aortic stent graft. TF-TAVI after EVAR of AAA is a feasible option for patients with extremely poor access.
Kron, Irving L.
Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM. PMID:27867654
Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L
Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM.
Yakub, M A; Pau, K K; Awang, Y
A minimally invasive approach to aortic valve surgery through a transverse incision ("pocket incision") at the right second intercostal space was examined. Sixteen patients with a mean age of 30 years underwent this approach. The third costal cartilage was either excised (n = 5) or dislocated (n = 11). The right internal mammary artery was preserved. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established with aortic-right atrial cannulation in all except the first case. Aortic valve replacements (AVR) were performed in 15 patients and one had aortic valve repair with concomitant ventricular septal defect closure. There was no mortality and no major complications. The aortic cross-clamp, CPB and operative times were 72 +/- 19 mins, 105 +/- 26 mins and 3 hrs 00 min +/- 29 mins respectively. The mean time to extubation was 5.7 +/- 4.0 hrs, ICU stay of 27 +/- 9 hrs and postoperative hospital stay of 5.1 +/- 1.2 days. Minimally invasive "pocket incision" aortic valve surgery is technically feasible and safe. It has the advantages of central cannulation for CPB, preservation of the internal mammary artery and avoiding sternotomy. This approach is cosmetically acceptable and allows rapid patient recovery.
Reynolds, Matthew R.; Lei, Yang; Wang, Kaijun; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja; Vilain, Katherine A.; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Galper, Benjamin Z.; Meduri, Christopher U.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Baron, Suzanne J.; Reardon, Michael J.; Adams, David H.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Cohen, David J.
Background Prior studies of the cost-effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have been based primarily on a single balloon-expandable system. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Methods We performed a formal economic analysis on the basis of individual, patient-level data from the CoreValve U.S. High Risk pivotal trial. Empirical data regarding survival and quality of life (QOL) over 2 years, and medical resource use and hospital costs through 12 months were used to project life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and lifetime medical costs in order to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of TAVR versus SAVR from a U.S. perspective. Results Relative to SAVR, TAVR reduced initial length of stay an average of 4.4 days, decreased the need for rehabilitation services at discharge, and resulted in superior 1-month QOL. Index admission and projected lifetime costs were higher with TAVR than with SAVR (differences $11,260 and $17,849 per patient, respectively), whereas TAVR was projected to provide a lifetime gain of 0.32 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 0.41 life-years [LYs]) with 3% discounting. Lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were $55,090 per QALY gained and $43,114 per LY gained. Sensitivity analyses indicated that a reduction in the initial cost of TAVR by ~$1,650 would lead to an ICER <$50,000/QALY gained. Conclusions In a high-risk clinical trial population, TAVR with a self-expanding prosthesis provided meaningful clinical benefits compared with SAVR, with incremental costs considered acceptable by current U.S. standards. With expected modest reductions in the cost of index TAVR admissions, the value of TAVR compared with SAVR in this patient population would become high. PMID:26764063
Raval, Amish N; Menkis, Alan H; Boughner, Derek R
Mitral valve aneurysms are rare complications occurring most commonly in association with aortic valve infective endocarditis. [Decroly 1989, Chua 1990, Northridge 1991, Karalis 1992, Roguin 1996, Mollod 1997, Vilacosta 1997, Cai 1999, Vilacosta 1999, Teskey 1999, Chan 2000, Goh 2000, Marcos- Alberca 2000] While the mechanism of the development of this lesion is unclear, complications such as perforation can occur and lead to significant mitral regurgitation. [Decroly 1989, Karalis 1992, Teskey 1999, Vilacosta 1999]; The case of a 69-year-old male with Streptococcus Sanguis aortic valve endocarditis and associated anterior mitral leaflet aneurysm is presented. Following surgery, tissue pathology of the excised lesion revealed myxomatous degeneration and no active endocarditis or inflammatory cells. This may add support to the hypothesis that physical stress due to severe aortic insufficiency and structural weakening, without infection of the anterior mitral leaflet, can lead to the development of this lesion.
Oshima, H; Usui, A; Akita, T; Ueda, Y
Aortic valve surgery for the small aortic annulus is still challenging for surgeons. Recently, the new types of high performance prosthesis have been developed and the chance of an aortic root enlargement (ARE) is decreasing. In this study, we propose the ideal strategy of the aortic surgery for the small aortic annulus. We analyzed the clinical records of 158 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement from August 1999 to October 2005 in our institution. The small aortic annulus was observed in 38 patients (24%). Fourteen patients of this group underwent ARE. Patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) was less frequently observed in patients with ARE compared to those without ARE. The additional time required for ARE was not considerable, and neither ischemic time nor cardiopulmonary bypass time was significantly prolonged by ARE. In conclusion, we have to select a prosthesis with sufficient orifice area to avoid PPM, otherwise we should choose an option of ARE. For this consideration, we definitely need the chart that demonstrates the relationship between the nominal size of various types of prostheses and the size of a patient's annulus that those prostheses actually fit.
Fishbein, Gregory A; Schoen, Frederick J; Fishbein, Michael C
Calcific aortic valve disease of the elderly is the most prevalent hemodynamically-significant valvular disease, and the most common lesion requiring valve replacement in industrialized countries. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a less invasive alternative to classical aortic valve replacement that can provide a therapeutic option for high-risk or inoperable patients with aortic stenosis. These devices must be biocompatible, have excellent hemodynamic performance, be easy to insert, be securely anchored without sutures, and be durable, without increased risk of thrombosis or infection. To date, complications are related to the site of entry for insertion, the site of implantation (aorta, coronary ostia, base of left ventricle), and to the structure and design of the inserted device. However, as with any novel technology unanticipated complications will develop. Goals for future development will be to make the devices more effective, more durable, safer, and easier to implant, so as to further improve outcome for patients with severe aortic stenosis. The pathologist participating in research and development, and examination of excised devices will have a critical role in improving outcome for these patients.
Pagnesi, Matteo; Jabbour, Richard J; Latib, Azeem; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Akihito; Regazzoli, Damiano; Mangieri, Antonio; Montalto, Claudio; Ancona, Marco B; Giannini, Francesco; Chieffo, Alaide; Montorfano, Matteo; Monaco, Fabrizio; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio
Balloon predilation is historically considered a requirement before performing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). As the procedure has evolved, it has been questioned whether it is actually needed, but data are lacking on mid-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of balloon predilation before TAVI. A total of 517 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI from November 2007 to October 2015 were analyzed. The devices implanted included the Medtronic CoreValve (n = 216), Medtronic Evolut R (n = 30), Edwards SAPIEN XT (n = 210), and Edwards SAPIEN 3 (n = 61). Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether pre-implantation balloon aortic valvuloplasty (pre-BAV) was performed (n = 326) or not (n = 191). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were primarily evaluated. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and potential confounders (n = 113 pairs). In the overall cohort, patients without pre-BAV had a significantly higher MACCE rate at 30 days, driven by a higher incidence of stroke (0.3% pre-BAV vs 3.7% no-pre-BAV, p <0.01). MACCE and mortality at 1 year were, however, similar in both groups. Independent predictors of MACCE at 1 year included serum creatinine, NYHA class 3 to 4, logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, and postdilation. Of note, the postdilation rate was higher in the no-pre-BAV group (21.5% pre-BAV vs 35.6% no-pre-BAV, p <0.001). After propensity score matching, there were no differences in MACCE between the 2 groups. In conclusion, this study showed that, in selected patients and with specific transcatheter valves, TAVI without pre-BAV appears to be associated with similar mid-term outcomes compared with TAVI with pre-BAV, but it may increase the need for postdilation.
Venardos, Neil; Nadlonek, Nicole A.; Zhan, Qiong; Weyant, Michael J.; Reece, T. Brett; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A.
Background While calcific aortic stenosis is common, calcification of the other three heart valves is not. The aortic valve interstitial cell (VIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. Pro-inflammatory stimulation of aortic VICs induces an osteogenic and inflammatory phenotypic change. We hypothesized that the VICs of the other heart valves do not undergo these changes. Using isolated human VICs from normal aortic, mitral, pulmonary and tricuspid valves, our purpose was to compare the osteogenic response to pro-inflammatory stimulation via TLR-4. Materials And Methods Aortic, pulmonic, mitral, and tricuspid (n=4 for each valve type) VICs were isolated from hearts valves explanted from patients undergoing cardiac transplantation. Cells were cultured and grown to confluence in passage 2-6 before treatment with LPS (100-200ng/mL) for 24 or 48 hours. Cells were characterized by immunofluorescent staining. TLR-4 expression was analyzed (immunoblotting, flow cytometry). BMP-2 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) production were determined (immunoblotting). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were determined by ELISA. Statistics were by Mann-Whitney U test. Results TLR-4 stimulation induced BMP-2 production only in aortic VICs (p<0.05). ICAM-1 production and MCP-1 secretion increased in a similar fashion among TLR4-stimulated VICs from all four valves. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory stimulation induces an osteogenic phenotype in aortic VICs but not mitral, pulmonic, or tricuspid VICs. We conclude that this differential osteogenic response of aortic VICs contributes to the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis. PMID:24746950
Schaefer, Andreas; Treede, Hendrik; Seiffert, Moritz; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schneeberger, Yvonne; Blankenberg, Stefan; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schaefer, Ulrich; Conradi, Lenard
Paravalvular leakage (PVL) is a known complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and is associated with poor outcome. Besides balloon-post-dilatation, valve-in-valve (ViV) procedures can be taken into consideration to control this complication. Herein we present initial experience with use of the latest generation balloon-expandable Edwards Sapien 3® (S3) transcatheter heart valve (THV) for treatment of failing THVs. Between 01/2014 and 12/2014 three patients (two male, age: 71-80 y, log EUROScore I: 11.89 - 32.63) with failing THVs were refered to our institution for further treatment. THV approach with secondary implantation of an S3 was chosen after mutual agreement of the local interdisciplinary heart team at an interval of 533-1119 days from the index procedure. The performed procedures consisted of: S3 in Sapien XT, JenaValve and CoreValve. Successful transfemoral implantation with significant reduction of PVL was achieved in all cases. No intraprocedural complications occurred regarding placement of the S3 with a postprocedural effective orifice area (EOA) of 1.5-2.5 cm(2) and pressure gradients of max/mean 14/6-36/16 mmHg. 30-day mortality was 0%. At the latest follow-up of 90-530 days, all patients are alive and well with satisfactory THV function. Regarding VARC-2 criteria one major bleeding and one TIA was reported. In the instance of moderate or severe aortic regurgitation after TAVI, S3 ViV deployment is an excellent option to reduce residual regurgitation to none or mild. For further assertions concerning functional outcomes long-term results have to be awaited.
Berretta, Paolo; Di Eusanio, Marco
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common valve disease in the western world. Over the past few years the number of aortic valve replacement (AVR) interventions has increased with outcomes that have been improved despite increasing age of patients and increasing burden of comorbidities. However, despite such excellent results and its well-established position, conventional AVR has undergone great development over the previous two decades. Such progress, by way of less invasive incisions and use of new technologies, including transcatheter aortic valve implantation and sutureless valve prostheses, is intended to reduce the traumatic impact of the surgical procedure, thus fulfilling lower risk patients' expectations on the one hand, and extending the operability toward increasingly high-risk patients on the other. Sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valves are biological, pericardial prostheses that anchor within the aortic annulus with no more than three sutures. The sutureless prostheses, by avoiding the passage and the tying of the sutures, significantly reduce operative times and may improve outcomes. However, there is still a paucity of robust, evidence-based data on the role and performance of sutureless AVR. Therefore, strongest long-term data, randomized studies and registry data are required to adequately assess the durability and long-term outcomes of sutureless aortic valve replacement. PMID:27582765
Roy, James; Manganas, Con; Youssef, George; Rees, David
Valve complications following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions are rare. We report a case of an aortic valve laceration following cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention, which required surgical valve replacement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bapat, Vinnie N; Attia, Rizwan Q; Condemi, Fortunata; Visagan, Ravi; Guthrie, Maya; Sunni, Shelina; Thomas, Martyn
This study sought to provide a guide to the fluoroscopic appearances of various valve-in-valve (VIV) combinations by deploying a transcatheter heart valve (THV) within a degenerated surgical heart valve (SHV) in an ideal position. VIV procedures are being increasingly performed with substantial experience acquired in treating degenerated SHV in the aortic position with Sapien/Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences Ltd., Irvine, California) and CoreValve/Evolute (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) valves. Although less invasive than conventional surgery, securing the THV in an optimal position within the SHV determines the success of this novel treatment. For VIV implantation, we selected appropriate Sapien XT and CoreValve/Evolute sizes depending on the internal diameter of the SHV. Implantation was performed in vitro. In case of the Sapien XT valve, it was deployed 4 to 5 mm below the sewing ring of the SHV, whereas the CoreValve/Evolute was deployed 5 mm below the level of the sewing ring. Photographs and fluoroscopic images of the various VIV combinations were obtained in side profile to study the ideal position and end-on profile to study the circularity of the THV. Fluoroscopic images obtained in side profile highlighted the differences in various VIV combinations, as all SHV are unique in their fluoroscopic appearances. Also, all THV implants in various VIV combinations achieved a nearly circular shape. To achieve an optimal result when considering VIV, it is important to be familiar with the structure and fluoroscopic appearances of the failed SHV, the THV used, and their combination. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Tamer, Sadallah; de Kerchove, Laurent; El Khoury, Gebrine
Aortic valve-sparing procedures are alternative options to aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic root aneurysm and/or severe aortic regurgitation reducing the risk of prosthesis-related complications, such as thromboembolism, and have no need for long-term oral anticoagulation. However, these techniques are technically demanding and long-term results are highly dependent on perfect intraoperative restoration of valve function. We describe a systematic approach to aortic valve-sparing aortic root replacement with the reimplantation technique the way it is currently performed in our institution.
Matsuzaki, Kanji; Kudo, Yohei; Ikeda, Akihiko; Konishi, Taisuke; Jikuya, Tomoaki
We adopted an anterior longitudinal aortotomy in some cases of aortic valve replacement (AVR), and report them here. The potential of this method is also discussed. We analyzed the data on 24 patients (75.5 ± 7.8 years of age) who had undergone AVR through anterior longitudinal aortotomy. The indications for surgery were prosthetic valve complication in 5 patients, aortic stenosis (AS) with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis (LVOTS) in 16 patients, and aortic regurgitation with moderately dilated ascending aorta in 3 patients. The Konno procedure was performed in 6 cases with small aortic annuli. A longitudinal aortotomy was made at the aortic root along the left side of the right coronary ostium, and extended beyond the right coronary annulus to the interventricular septum as needed. Bioprostheses (21.1 ± 1.7 mm) were used in 23 patients and a 21-mm mechanical valve for one (a 59-year-old man). One high-risk patient died of low output syndrome, leading to a mortality rate of 4.2 %. All other patients recovered well, though atrioventricular block occurred in 2 cases. Anterior longitudinal aortotomy provides a good field of vision at the aortic annulus and the flexibility to develop into anterior annular enlargement. Major indications for this approach are small sino-tubular junction and very small aortic annulus. This approach could be an attractive option in AVR for cases of AS with small aortic annuli and LVOTS. It could also be useful for AVR cases with moderately dilated ascending aorta requiring aortoplasty.
Schroeter, T; Subramanian, S; Lehmann, S; Kempfert, J; Misfeld, M; Mohr, F W; Borger, M A
In recent years, catheter-based aortic valve interventions have become established procedures for the treatment of high-risk and advanced age patients with aortic valve pathologies. One of the limitations of the widespread applicability of this procedure is the annulus size. Until recently, no prosthesis was available to treat patients with a large annulus. We report on a patient with high-grade aortic stenosis (AS) and a 27-mm annulus, who underwent transapical implantation (TAP) of an Edwards SAPIEN® 29-mm prosthesis (Edwards LifeScience, Irvine, CA, USA). Due to insufficient dilation of his heavily calcified, functionally bicuspid aortic valve leaflets during balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), the TAP prosthesis did not anchor adequately. This was determined during follow-up as he developed progressive aortic insufficiency and orthopnea, and an echocardiography revealed that the valve had been displaced into the LVOT. A conventional aortic valve replacement and ascending aorta replacement were performed, at which time the TAP prosthesis was removed. The patient recovered uneventfully, and was discharged with a well-functioning aortic bioprosthetic valve and in good general condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schmitz, Christoph; Sodian, Ralf; Witt, Thomas N; Juchem, Gerd; Lang, Nora; Bruegger, Christian; Kowalski, Christian; Reichart, Bruno
Iatrogenic nerve lesions affecting the long thoracic nerve are very rare after a median sternotomy. Here we report on a patient who developed clinical signs of a so-called "winged scapula" after an uneventful aortic valve replacement for infective endocarditis.
Gaede, Luise; Möllmann, Helge
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved as the treatment modality of choice for elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for surgery. More than 10,000 TAVI procedures were undertaken in Germany during 2014.A mortality benefit has been shown for TAVI compared with conservative treatment in patients deemed inoperable, and the procedure was proven to be at least non-inferior to surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. Through improvements in preprocedural imaging and in valve technology as well as increasing operator and surgical team experience, TAVI has developed rapidly in the past few years. Complication rates declinded considerably and the latest study results even suggest a superiority of TAVI to surgical valve replacement in patients at intermediate operative risk. Nevertheless, the challenge to avoid procedure-specific complications influencing the outcome still remains. Therefore, making an individual decision about the approach and the valve prosthesis in an interdisciplinary heart team consisting of a cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon is indispensable for guaranteeing the best therapy for the patient.Considering the rapid developments and procedural improvements in this field, randomized trials are required to assess whether the indication for TAVI may be extended to patients at lower perioperative risk in the future.
Mehta, Sachin; Wilson, Gibbs; Suarez, Keith; Chiles, Christopher D
Blunt chest trauma has seldom been reported as a cause of rupture of an aortic valve cusp. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who had a motor vehicle collision resulting in transection of the descending thoracic aorta, splenic pseudoaneurysm, and rupture of an aortic valve cusp causing severe aortic regurgitation. Despite replacement of the aortic valve, he died of multiorgan failure.
Wilson, Gibbs; Suarez, Keith; Chiles, Christopher D.
Blunt chest trauma has seldom been reported as a cause of rupture of an aortic valve cusp. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who had a motor vehicle collision resulting in transection of the descending thoracic aorta, splenic pseudoaneurysm, and rupture of an aortic valve cusp causing severe aortic regurgitation. Despite replacement of the aortic valve, he died of multiorgan failure. PMID:28670065
O'Hair, Daniel P; Bajwa, Tanvir K; Chetcuti, Stanley J; Deeb, G Michael; Stoler, Robert C; Hebeler, Robert F; Maini, Brijeshwar; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Kleiman, Neal S; Reardon, Michael J; Li, Shuzhen; Adams, David H; Watson, Daniel R; Yakubov, Steven J; Popma, Jeffrey J; Petrossian, George
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) poses unique challenges in the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis. Although surgical valve replacement in ESRD patients has been associated with increased mortality, the outcomes from transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are not clearly defined. The CoreValve US Expanded Use Study is a prospective, nonrandomized study of TAVR in extreme-risk patients with comorbidities excluding them from the Pivotal Trial. We report on patients with ESRD. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 1 year. Ninety-six patients with ESRD underwent TAVR with the CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) and have reached 1-year follow-up. Mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality score was 16.2% ± 8.4%. The rate of all-cause mortality or major stroke at 1 year was 30.3%. The all-cause mortality rate was 5.3% at 30 days and 30.3% at 1 year. The rate at 1 year of any stroke or transient ischemic attack was 2.1%; major vascular injury was 5.2%; and new permanent pacemaker was 26.8%. Valve performance improved postprocedure and remained improved at 1 year (effective orifice area 1.71 cm(2), mean gradient 9.33 mm Hg) CONCLUSIONS: Early mortality in patients with ESRD is comparable to previously published data on extreme-risk patients without ESRD, but our data suggest a higher mortality rate at 1 year for ESRD patients, likely due to comorbid conditions. Stroke and major vascular injury are infrequent, and improved valve hemodynamics are maintained at 1 year. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mathieu, Patrick; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder. There is no medical treatment to prevent and/or promote the regression of CAVD. Hence, it is of foremost importance to delineate and understand the key basic underlying mechanisms involved in CAVD. In the past decade our comprehension of the underpinning processes leading to CAVD has expanded at a fast pace. Hence, our understanding of the basic pathobiological processes implicated in CAVD might lead eventually to the development of novel pharmaceutical therapies for CAVD. In this review, we discuss molecular processes that are implicated in fibrosis and mineralization of the aortic valve. Specifically, we address the role of lipid retention, inflammation, phosphate signalling and osteogenic transition in the development of CAVD. Interplays between these different processes and the key regulation pathways are discussed along with their clinical relevance.
Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.
Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624
Hatori, Kyohei; Ohki, Satoshi; Obayashi, Tamiyuki; Koyano, Tetsuya; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Hirai, Hanako
We describe the case of an 82-year-old woman who had undergone aortic mechanical valve replacement for aortic stenosis with a small annulus, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Four years after the operation, she began to experience hemolysis. Prosthetic valve obstruction was observed but there was no paravalvular leakage or aortic regurgitation through the mechanical valve. We elected to perform apicoaortic bypass in this patient with severe hemolytic anemia secondary to a mechanical valve malfunction.
Sabaté, Manel; Cánovas, Sergio; García, Eulogio; Hernández Antolín, Rosana; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, José María; Alonso Briales, Juan H; Muñoz García, Antonio J; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Rodríguez-Roda, Jorge
The treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis has been revolutionized by the technique of transcatheter valve replacement. The purpose of this study was to present the outcomes and predictors of mortality in patients enrolled between 2010 and 2011 in the Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement National Registry. We collected 131 preprocedural, 31 periprocedural, and 76 follow-up variables, and analyzed the immediate implant success rate, the 30-day safety endpoint, and all-cause 30-day and mid-term (mean follow-up, 244 days) mortality. From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 1416 patients were included: 806 with Edwards valves and 610 with CoreValves. The implant success and 30-day mortality rates were 94% and 8%, respectively, without differences between types of valves and approaches. The 30-day safety endpoint and mid-term mortality rates were 14% and 16%, respectively, which were also similar between groups. The presence of comorbidities (renal failure, peripheral vascular disease, ejection fraction, and atrial fibrillation), the need for conversion to surgery, and at least moderate aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation were identified as independent predictors of in-hospital and mid-term mortality. The prognosis of valve implant patients could be improved by including comorbidities in patient selection and by minimizing the degree of residual aortic regurgitation to optimize the results of the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Chhatriwalla, Adnan K; Allen, Keith B; Saxon, John T; Cohen, David J; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Hart, Anthony J; Baron, Suzanne J; Dvir, Danny; Borkon, A Michael
Valve-in-valve (VIV) transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) may be less effective in small surgical valves because of patient/prosthesis mismatch. Bioprosthetic valve fracture (BVF) using a high-pressure balloon can be performed to facilitate VIV TAVR. We report data from 20 consecutive clinical cases in which BVF was successfully performed before or after VIV TAVR by inflation of a high-pressure balloon positioned across the valve ring during rapid ventricular pacing. Hemodynamic measurements and calculation of the valve effective orifice area were performed at baseline, immediately after VIV TAVR, and after BVF. BVF was successfully performed in 20 patients undergoing VIV TAVR with balloon-expandable (n=8) or self-expanding (n=12) transcatheter valves in Mitroflow, Carpentier-Edwards Perimount, Magna and Magna Ease, Biocor Epic and Biocor Epic Supra, and Mosaic surgical valves. Successful fracture was noted fluoroscopically when the waist of the balloon released and by a sudden drop in inflation pressure, often accompanied by an audible snap. BVF resulted in a reduction in the mean transvalvular gradient (from 20.5±7.4 to 6.7±3.7 mm Hg, P<0.001) and an increase in valve effective orifice area (from 1.0±0.4 to 1.8±0.6 cm(2), P<0.001). No procedural complications were reported. BVF can be performed safely in small surgical valves to facilitate VIV TAVR with either balloon-expandable or self-expanding transcatheter valves and results in reduced residual transvalvular gradients and increased valve effective orifice area. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Itagaki, Shinobu; Chikwe, Joanna P; Chiang, Yuting P; Egorova, Natalia N; Adams, David H
Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with valve dysfunction, ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection. Management of the ascending aorta at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients is controversial and has been extrapolated from experience with Marfan syndrome, despite the absence of comparative long-term outcome data. This study sought to assess whether the natural history of thoracic aortopathy after AVR in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease is substantially different from that seen in patients with Marfan syndrome. In this retrospective comparison, outcomes of 13,205 adults (2,079 with bicuspid aortic valves, 73 with Marfan syndrome, and 11,053 control patients with acquired aortic valve disease) who underwent primary AVR without replacement of the ascending aorta in New York State between 1995 and 2010 were compared. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years. The long-term incidence of thoracic aortic dissection was significantly higher in patients with Marfan syndrome (5.5 ± 2.7%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (0.55 ± 0.21%) and control group patients (0.41 ± 0.08%, p < 0.001). Thoracic aortic aneurysms were significantly more likely to be diagnosed in late follow-up in patients with Marfan syndrome (10.8 ± 4.4%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (4.8 ± 0.8%) and control group patients (1.4 ± 0.2%) (p < 0.001). Patients with Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to undergo thoracic aortic surgery in late follow-up (10.4 ± 4.3%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (2.5 ± 0.6%) and control group patients (0.50 ± 0.09%) (p < 0.001). The much higher long-term rates of aortic complications after AVR observed in patients with Marfan syndrome compared with those with bicuspid aortic valves confirm that operative management of patients with bicuspid aortic valves should not be extrapolated from Marfan syndrome and support discrete treatment algorithms for these different clinical entities
Bombien Quaden, René; Leester-Schaedel, Monika; Lozonschi, Lucian; Lutter, Georg
The resection of pulmonary valves has already been demonstrated in an experimental beating-heart model. The aim of this study was to analyse the transapical laser-assisted resection of aortic valves in an in vivo porcine model in a non-beating heart. The resection was performed in a porcine model (n = 10) using a Thullium:YAG laser. After establishing a standard extracorporeal circulatory support, the aortic valve isolation chamber (AVIC) system was inserted transapically. The resection of the aortic leaflets was carried out step-by-step in the arrested heart. The AVIC implantation, the resection process, and the gross anatomy of intracardiac lesions were analysed. The procedure for installing the AVIC took 5.8 ± 1.5 min. A sealed chamber was achieved in 9/10 cases. The resection of the valves was performed in 8/10 and completed in 7/10 cases. The resection took, on average, 7.4 ± 2.7 min/cusp. In 9/10 cases, the sealing was sufficient. Gross anatomy and histological analysis demonstrated only superficial damage to the surrounding tissue. In this study, the in vivo on-pump isolation of the left ventricular outflow tract and the laser resection of the native aortic valve could be demonstrated successfully. Nevertheless, this model is the next step towards a beating-heart resection of the aortic valve using the isolation chamber.
Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) constitute a heterogeneous population with variable clinical presentation and complications. More than 50% of the patients who require aortic valve replacement have a BAV, a condition that may be associated with dilation of ascending aorta and aortic insufficiency caused by cusp disease or aortic root pathology. Of the potential BAV-related complications, dilation of the aortic root and ascending aorta are among the most serious. The dilation of ascending aorta and aortic root have been the subject of controversy. Whereas some surgeons believe that the dilation of the aorta is caused by the hemodynamic properties of the BAV, others believe that the dilation of the aortic root is secondary to genetic defects associated with the BAV. Management of a BAV should be tailored to each patient's clinical condition. The surgical approach varies from aortic valve replacement to combined aortic valve and root replacement to aortic-valve-sparing root replacement.
Gorczynski, A; Trenkner, M; Anisimowicz, L; Gutkowski, R; Drapella, A; Kwiatkowska, E; Dobke, M
Pulmonary autograft valve replacement has been simulated by implanting the pulmonary valve into the aortic position of the same cadaver heart from both human and porcine sources. The forces acting on the pulmonary valve leaflets have been calculated on the basis of a triaxial ellipsoid mathematical model. These forces on the pulmonary autograft valve were shown to be essentially similar to those previously reported for aortic valve leaflets. Biomechanical measurements have been made on the simulated autograft valves and on the isolated pulmonary valve cusps. The tensile strengths of the pulmonary valve cusps in both circumferential and radial directions were roughly three times greater than those of aortic valve cusps. This indicated the ability of the pulmonary valves to accept, ab initio, aortic valve closing pressures. Pressure-induced changes in dimension, calculated on the basis of diameters of the simulated pulmonary autograft root, also indicated that the distensibility of the autograft valve was limited. It reached a maximum at 30 mm Hg (4 kPa) without any suggestion of further distension to the point of distortion and incompetence. The combination of the calculated forces acting on the valve and the biomechanical measurements have shown that pulmonary valves used as autograft aortic valve replacements are able to tolerate aortic pressures from the time of implantation. These experimental results from simulated autografts support the clinical use of this valve over the past 13 years. PMID:7135295
Van Mieghem, N M; de Jaegere, P P
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) implies the introduction, positioning, and deployment of a stented bioprosthesis in the (calcified) native aortic valve. We report an at first glance uneventful TAVI with the Medtronic Corevalve System, which was followed by transient electrocardiographic changes suggesting acute left main stem disease. The diagnosis of acute left main stem dissection extending from the left coronary cusp was firmly established by intravascular ultrasound. The ostium of the left main stem was successfully treated with intravascular ultrasound-guided placement of a drug eluting stent. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Salem, B I; Pechacek, L W; Leachman, R D
A 21-year-old man had acute aortic insufficiency three months after insertion of an aortic valve prosthesis. Chest roentgenography demonstrated abnormal orientation of the prosthesis. M-mode echocardiography showed dense, linear echoes from the prosthetic valve between the interventricular septum and the mitral valve, along with loss of normal poppet motion within the aortic root. At surgery, the prosthesis was found to be extensively disrupted, resulting in prolapse into the left ventricular outflow tract. Another valve replacement was performed with patient survival. Echocardiography appears to be a useful adjunct to established roentgenographic procedures in the diagnosis of major dehiscence of prosthetic aortic valves.
Acharya, Asha; Hans, Chetan P; Koenig, Sara N; Nichols, Haley A; Galindo, Cristi L; Garner, Harold R; Merrill, Walter H; Hinton, Robert B; Garg, Vidu
Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.
Mohammadi, Hadi; Mequanint, Kibret
Although heart valve replacement is among the most common cardiovascular surgical procedures, their outcome is often difficult to predict. One of the reasons is the design and choice of the materials used for the fabrication of the prostheses. This review paper describes the use of modeling techniques in prosthetic heart valve (HV) design and aims at the justification and development of a polymer based trileaflet mechanical heart valve (MHV). The closing/opening phase behavior of the bileaflet MHV was investigated. The potential problem of valve failure due to crack propagation in the brittle pyrolytic carbon leaflet was also discussed. These studies suggest that although bileaflet MHV performs satisfactorily, there are justifications for improvement. Since the native aortic HV is trileaflet and made of anisotropic and hyperelastic tissue, one possible approach to a better MHV design is based on our ability to closely mimic the natural geometry and biomaterial properties.
Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y
An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.
Chain, Sergio; Luciardi, Hector; Feldman, Gabriela; Berman, Sofia; Estrella, Cristina
Nocardia endocarditis in native valve is an uncommon infection that usually arises in immunodepressed patients. We report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as having Nocardia endocarditis in aortic and tricuspid native valves, which received antimicrobial therapy and required aortic valve replacement. In 6 month follow up the patient remained asymptomatic with good clinical evolution.
Makkar, Raj R; Fontana, Gregory P; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Kapadia, Samir; Pichard, Augusto D; Douglas, Pamela S; Thourani, Vinod H; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Webb, John G; Herrmann, Howard C; Bavaria, Joseph E; Kodali, Susheel; Brown, David L; Bowers, Bruce; Dewey, Todd M; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, Murat; Moses, Jeffrey W; Williams, Matthew R; Siegel, Robert J; Akin, Jodi J; Anderson, William N; Pocock, Stuart; Smith, Craig R; Leon, Martin B
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is the recommended therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery. The outcomes beyond 1 year in such patients are not known. We randomly assigned patients to transfemoral TAVR or to standard therapy (which often included balloon aortic valvuloplasty). Data on 2-year outcomes were analyzed. A total of 358 patients underwent randomization at 21 centers. The rates of death at 2 years were 43.3% in the TAVR group and 68.0% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001), and the corresponding rates of cardiac death were 31.0% and 62.4% (P<0.001). The survival advantage associated with TAVR that was seen at 1 year remained significant among patients who survived beyond the first year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.92; P=0.02 with the use of the log-rank test). The rate of stroke was higher after TAVR than with standard therapy (13.8% vs. 5.5%, P=0.01), owing, in the first 30 days, to the occurrence of more ischemic events in the TAVR group (6.7% vs. 1.7%, P=0.02) and, beyond 30 days, to the occurrence of more hemorrhagic strokes in the TAVR group (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.16). At 2 years, the rate of rehospitalization was 35.0% in the TAVR group and 72.5% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001). TAVR, as compared with standard therapy, was also associated with improved functional status (P<0.001). The data suggest that the mortality benefit after TAVR may be limited to patients who do not have extensive coexisting conditions. Echocardiographic analysis showed a sustained increase in aortic-valve area and a decrease in aortic-valve gradient, with no worsening of paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Among appropriately selected patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVR reduced the rates of death and hospitalization, with a decrease in symptoms and an improvement in valve hemodynamics that were sustained at 2 years of
Sievers, Hans H
At first glance the aortic valve is a relative simple valve mechanism connecting the left ventricle and the ascending aorta. Detailed analysis of the different components of the aortic valve including the leaflets and sinuses revealed a complex motion of each part leading to a perfect durable valve mechanism at rest and during exercise. Theoretically, the reconstruction or imitation of these structures in patients with aortic valve disease should lead to optimal results. Prerequisite is the exact knowledge of the important functional characteristics of the aortic valve. The dynamic behavior of the aortic root closely harmonizing with the leaflets not only warrants stress minimizing and valve durability, but also optimizes coronary flow, left ventricular function and aortic impedance. The newly discovered contractile capacity of the leaflets and the root components are important for tuning the dynamics. Isolated reconstruction of the aortic valve such as decalcification, commissurotomy, plication of ring or leaflets of a tricuspid aortic valve and cusp extension are seldom indicated in contrast to the reconstruction of the bicuspid insufficient valve. Proper indication and skilled techniques lead to excellent hemodynamic and clinical intermediate-term result up to 7 years after reconstruction. Latest follow-up revealed a mean aortic insufficiency of 0.7, maximal pressure gradient of 11.4 +/- 8.5 mm Hg with zero hospital or late mortality, reoperation or thromboembolic events in 22 patients. The reconstructive techniques for aortic root aneurysm and/or type A dissection according to David or Yacoub have become routine procedures in the last 10 years. The hemodynamic and clinical results are excellent with low reoperation rate and very low risk of thromboembolism. Generally, a maximal diameter of the root of 5 cm is indicative for performing the operation. In patients with Marfan's syndrome the reconstruction should be advanced even with smaller diameters especially
Pine, M; Hahn, G; Paton, B; Pappas, G; Davies, H; Steele, P; Pryor, R; Blount, S G
Homograft aortic valve replacement was done in 103 patients and prosthetic aortic valve replacement in 106 between January 1962 and December 1973. Patients who received homograft and prosthetic valves were compared with respect to age, sex, preoperative functional impairment, infection, dyspnea, angina, hemodynamics, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, associated operations, early and late mortality, and valve failure. Combined total mortality was 28% (12% operative, 8% first postoperative year, 8% late). Ten percent of valve required replacement. One year after operation, 70% of survivors were asymptomatic, 27% were improved, and 3% were unchanged or between homograft and prosthetic valve replacement. Valve-related failure and infections were more common after homograft aortic valve replacement. Emboli, hemorrhage, and hemolysis were commoner after prosthetic valve replacement. Fungal infections occurred in five homograft patients but in no patient with a prosthetic aortic valve. Severe properative symptoms or recent endocarditis was associated with greater mortality and valve failure in both the homograft and the prosthetic series. Increased mortality and failure was also seen in patients with either preoperative aortic regurgitation with high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and low cardiac index, or aortic stenosis with cardiomegaly or roentgenographic evidence of congestive heart failure. Therefore, in two series of patients at equal risk, mortality and valve failure were similar for homograft and prosthetic aortic valve replacement.
di Summa, Michele; Iezzi, Federica
Fibroelastomas account for less than 10% of all cardiac tumours, representing the most common valvular and the second most common cardiac benign tumour, following myxomas. Fibroelastomas are histologically benign; they can result in life-threatening complications such as stroke, acute valvular dysfunction, embolism, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. Surgical resection should be offered to all patients who have symptoms and to asymptomatic patients who have pedunculated lesions or tumors larger than 1 cm in diameter. Valve-sparing excision produces good long-term results in most instances. We report our surgical experience of a giant fibroelastoma in the aortic valve.
Kostina, Aleksandra S; Uspensky, Vladimir Е; Irtyuga, Olga B; Ignatieva, Elena V; Freylikhman, Olga; Gavriliuk, Natalia D; Moiseeva, Olga M; Zhuk, Sergey; Tomilin, Alexey; Kostareva, Аnna А; Malashicheva, Anna B
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart malformation and the reasons for the aortopathies associated with bicuspid aortic valve remain unclear. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with bicuspid aortic valve and have been found in individuals with various left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. Notch is a key signaling during cardiac valve formation that promotes the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We address the role of Notch signaling in human aortic endothelial cells from patients with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic aneurysm. Aortic endothelial cells were isolated from tissue fragments of bicuspid aortic valve-associated thoracic aortic aneurysm patients and from healthy donors. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition was induced by activation of Notch signaling. Effectiveness of the transition was estimated by loss of endothelial and gain of mesenchymal markers by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. We show that aortic endothelial cells from the patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve have down regulated Notch signaling and fail to activate Notch-dependent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to its stimulation by different Notch ligands. Our findings support the idea that bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic aneurysm is associated with dysregulation of the entire Notch signaling pathway independently on the specific gene mutation.
Linke, Axel; Walther, Thomas; Schuler, Gerhard
Treatment of aortic stenosis remains challenging in older individuals, as their perioperative mortality for open heart surgery is increased due to comorbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the CoreValve ReValving System (Medtronic, Minneapolis, USA) and the Edwards SAPIEN transcatheter heart valve (THV; Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, California, USA) represents an alternative to conventional valve replacement in elderly patients that have a high risk for conventional surgery. This article summarizes the evidence-base from recent clinical trials. The early results of these landmark studies suggest that transcatheter aortic valve implantation with either one of the prosthesis is feasible, safe, improves hemodynamics and, therefore, might be an alternative to conventional aortic valve replacement in very high-risk patients. However, all of the available transcatheter heart valves have certain disadvantages, limiting their use in daily clinical practice. The process of decision making, which valve to use and which access route to choose is illustrated in this article through clinical case scenarios. Additionally, the lessons learned thus far from the European perspective and the potential impact on the future use in the US are discussed. Despite of the progress in this field, we are still lacking an optimal transcatheter heart valve. Once it is available, we can take the plunge to compare transcatheter valve implantation with convention surgery in severe aortic stenosis!
Kunitomo, Ryuji; Okamoto, Ken; Moriyama, Shuji; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Tazume, Hirokazu; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Kawasuji, Michio
The damage to the intervalvular fibrous trigone (IVFT) by infective endocarditis makes combined aortic and mitral valve replacement difficult. We performed Manouguian's double valve replacement for such a case and obtained a good result. A 81-year-old male underwent emergency operation due to active prosthetic valve endocarditis. He had a history of receiving combined aortic and mitral valve replacement because of active infective endocarditis at the age of 74 and redo aortic valve replacement 3 years after that. The infectious lesion extended from the mitral annulus to the IVFT and the aortic annulus, and it caused the prosthetic valve detachment from the aortic annulus. Manouguian's double valve replacement was required for radical resection and reconstruction of the IVFT. No recurrent infection or paravalvular leakage was observed during 49months follow up period. Manouguian's procedure is useful for complete resection of the infected IVFT and makes combined aortic and mitral valve replacement safer.
Pascual, Isaac; Carro, Amelia; Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Díaz, Rocío; Rozado, Jose; Lorca, Rebeca; Martín, María; Silva, Jacobo; Morís, César
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a rapidly evolving therapeutic modality currently available for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) that are unsuitable for surgery because of technical/anatomical issues or high-estimated surgical risk. Transfemoral approach is the preferred TAVI delivery route when possible. Alternative non-transfemoral access options include transaortic, trans-subclavian and transapical access. Other approaches are also feasible (transcarotid, transcaval, and antegrade aortic) but are restricted to operators and hospitals with experience. The peculiarities of each of the vascular approaches designed for TAVI delivery make it necessary to carefully assess patient’s atherosclerotic load and location, arterial size and tortuosity, and presence of mural thrombus. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing and in the near future the indications for these approaches will likely be better defined and extended to a broader spectrum of TAVI candidates. PMID:28616344
Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M
A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome.
Purpose: Over the past 30 years there have been experimental efforts at catheter-based management of aortic valve regurgitation with the idea of extending treatment to nonsurgical candidates. A new catheter-based aortic valve design is described.Methods: The new catheter-delivered valve consists of a stent-based valve cage with locking mechanism and a prosthetic flexible tilting valve disc. The valve cage is delivered first followed by deployment and locking of the disc. In acute experiments, valve implantation was done in four dogs.Results: Valve implantation was successful in all four animals. The implanted valve functioned well for the duration of the experiments (up to 3 hr).Conclusion: The study showed the implantation feasibility and short-term function of the tested catheter-based aortic disc valve. Further experimental studies are warranted.
Gould, Sarah T; Srigunapalan, Suthan; Simmons, Craig A; Anseth, Kristi S
This review highlights aspects of calcific aortic valve disease that encompass the entire range of aortic valve disease progression from initial cellular changes to aortic valve sclerosis and stenosis, which can be initiated by changes in blood flow (hemodynamics) and pressure across the aortic valve. Appropriate hemodynamics is important for normal valve function and maintenance, but pathological blood velocities and pressure can have profound consequences at the macroscopic to microscopic scales. At the macroscopic scale, hemodynamic forces impart shear stresses on the surface of the valve leaflets and cause deformation of the leaflet tissue. As discussed in this review, these macroscale forces are transduced to the microscale, where they influence the functions of the valvular endothelial cells that line the leaflet surface and the valvular interstitial cells that populate the valve extracellular matrix. For example, pathological changes in blood flow-induced shear stress can cause dysfunction, impairing their homeostatic functions, and pathological stretching of valve tissue caused by elevated transvalvular pressure can activate valvular interstitial cells and latent paracrine signaling cytokines (eg, transforming growth factor-β1) to promote maladaptive tissue remodeling. Collectively, these coordinated and complex interactions adversely impact bulk valve tissue properties, feeding back to further deteriorate valve function and propagate valve cell pathological responses. Here, we review the role of hemodynamic forces in calcific aortic valve disease initiation and progression, with focus on cellular responses and how they feed back to exacerbate aortic valve dysfunction.
Sanchez, Pedro L; Mazzone, Anna Maria
Aortic Valve Disease, includes a range of disorder severity from mild leaflet thickening without valve obstruction, "aortic sclerosis", to severe calcified aortic stenosis. It is a slowly progressive active process of valve modification similar atherosclerosis for cardiovascular risk factors, lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and calcification. Systemic signs of inflammation, as wall and serum CRP, similar to those found in atherosclerosis, are present in patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis and may be expression of a common disease, useful in monitoring of stenosis progression. PMID:17042945
Bradley, Scott M
The contents of this article were presented in the session "Aortic insufficiency in the teenager" at the congenital parallel symposium of the 2013 Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) annual meeting. The accompanying articles detail the approaches of aortic valve repair and the Ross procedure.(1,2) The current article focuses on prosthetic valve replacement. For many young patients requiring aortic valve surgery, either aortic valve repair or a Ross procedure provides a good option. The advantages include avoidance of anticoagulation and potential for growth. In other patients, a prosthetic valve is an appropriate alternative. This article discusses the current state of knowledge regarding mechanical and bioprosthetic valve prostheses and their specific advantages relative to valve repair or a Ross procedure. In current practice, young patients requiring aortic valve surgery frequently undergo valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. In STS adult cardiac database, among patients ≤30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 34% had placement of a mechanical valve, 51% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 9% had aortic valve repair, and 2% had a Ross procedure. In the STS congenital database, among patients 12 to 30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 21% had placement of a mechanical valve, 18% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 30% had aortic valve repair, and 24% had a Ross procedure. In the future, the balance among these options may be altered by design improvements in prosthetic valves, alternatives to warfarin, the development of new patch materials for valve repair, and techniques to avoid Ross autograft failure.
Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Paola; Botta, Luca; Nava, Stefano; Merlanti, Bruno; Belli, Oriana; Musca, Francesco; Soriano, Francesco; Russo, Claudio F; Oliva, Fabrizio
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been designed to treat older patients affected by severe aortic stenosis who are considered high-risk surgical candidates because of multiple comorbidities. The least invasive approach for transcatheter aortic valves implantation should be considered the transfemoral retrograde route, because it is minimally invasive and is feasible with local anesthesia and mild sedation. Despite significant technical improvements in recent years, the transfemoral approach is contraindicated in cases of severe peripheral artery disease. We describe the first case of a Portico transcatheter aortic valve implantation system (St. Jude Medical, Minneapolis, MN) made through the distal axillary artery in a 90-year-old patient affected by severe aortic stenosis.
Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Deville, Claude; Nashef, Samer
Valve-sparing aortic root replacement (ARR) is the procedure of choice in young patients with aortic root aneurysm and preserved aortic valve leaflets; however, coronary ostial anastomoses remain an issue. Troublesome bleeding sometimes occurs during surgery, and in the long term, there is a risk of aneurysmal formation in the residual aortic wall of the ostial "button." We describe a technique of valve-sparing ARR wherein each coronary button along with its flange of aortic tissue is implanted within the prosthetic graft used for ARR, thereby eliminating the risk of both immediate surgical bleeding and late coronary button aneurysms.
Auffret, Vincent; Lefevre, Thierry; Van Belle, Eric; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Iung, Bernard; Koning, René; Motreff, Pascal; Leprince, Pascal; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Manigold, Thibaut; Souteyrand, Geraud; Boulmier, Dominique; Joly, Patrick; Pinaud, Frédéric; Himbert, Dominique; Collet, Jean Philippe; Rioufol, Gilles; Ghostine, Said; Bar, Olivier; Dibie, Alain; Champagnac, Didier; Leroux, Lionel; Collet, Frédéric; Teiger, Emmanuel; Darremont, Olivier; Folliguet, Thierry; Leclercq, Florence; Lhermusier, Thibault; Olhmann, Patrick; Huret, Bruno; Lorgis, Luc; Drogoul, Laurent; Bertrand, Bernard; Spaulding, Christian; Quilliet, Laurent; Cuisset, Thomas; Delomez, Maxence; Beygui, Farzin; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Hepp, Alain; Jegou, Arnaud; Gommeaux, Antoine; Mirode, Anfani; Christiaens, Luc; Christophe, Charles; Cassat, Claude; Metz, Damien; Mangin, Lionel; Isaaz, Karl; Jacquemin, Laurent; Guyon, Philippe; Pouillot, Christophe; Makowski, Serge; Bataille, Vincent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is standard therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high surgical risk. However, national data regarding procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes over time are limited. The aim of this study was to assess nationwide performance trends and clinical outcomes of TAVR during a 6-year period. TAVRs performed in 48 centers across France between January 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included in the FRANCE TAVI (French Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Findings were further compared with those reported from the FRANCE 2 (French Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards 2) registry, which captured all TAVRs performed from January 2010 to January 2012 across 34 centers. A total of 12,804 patients from FRANCE TAVI and 4,165 patients from FRANCE 2 were included in this analysis. The median age of patients was 84.6 years, and 49.7% were men. FRANCE TAVI participants were older but at lower surgical risk (median logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation [EuroSCORE]: 15.0% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.001). More than 80% of patients in FRANCE TAVI underwent transfemoral TAVR. Transesophageal echocardiography guidance decreased from 60.7% to 32.3% of cases, whereas more recent procedures were increasingly performed in hybrid operating rooms (15.8% vs. 35.7%). Rates of Valve Academic Research Consortium-defined device success increased from 95.3% in FRANCE 2 to 96.8% in FRANCE TAVI (p < 0.001). In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were 4.4% and 5.4%, respectively, in FRANCE TAVI compared with 8.2% and 10.1%, respectively, in FRANCE 2 (p < 0.001 for both). Stroke and potentially life-threatening complications, such as annulus rupture or aortic dissection, remained stable over time, whereas rates of cardiac tamponade and pacemaker implantation significantly increased. The FRANCE TAVI registry provided reassuring data regarding trends in TAVR performance in an all
Ussia, Gian Paolo; Barbanti, Marco; Cammalleri, Valeria; Scarabelli, Marilena; Mulè, Massimiliano; Aruta, Patrizia; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Immè, Sebastiano; Capodanno, Davide; Sarkar, Kunal; Gulino, Simona; Tamburino, Corrado
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging alternative to medical therapy reserved to a limited population with severe aortic stenosis. Quality-of-life (QoL) is a critical measure of effectiveness of TAVI in this patient population. In this prospective study, we sought to assess one year changes in QoL in patients who underwent TAVI. From June 2007 to July 2010, 149 consecutive patients underwent TAVI using the 18 Fr CoreValve (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) or the Edwards SAPIEN XT heart valve (Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA, USA) at our institution. Of these, 143 patients with successful prosthesis implantation comprised the study population. The SF-12v2 Health-Survey questionnaire provides scales for physical (physical component summary [PCS]) and mental (mental component summary [MCS]) health. Among patients included in the present analysis, device success was obtained in 138 patients (96.5%). Mean preprocedural SF-12v2 scores showed an important upgrading after TAVI: PCS improved from 28.3 to 44.0 at five months and 42.4 at 12 months (p<0.001). MCS increased from 38.0 to 47.3 at five months and 48.2 at 12 months (p<0.001). Both the physical and mental score summaries at follow-up of these post-TAVI patients were not significantly different from the anticipated thresholds of the general Italian population over the age of 75 years. NYHA functional class improvement was reported in all patients. Our results showed a marked mid-term improvement in functional status and physical and mental health in patients who underwent TAVI.
Kiyota, Yuka; Della Corte, Alessandro; Montiero Vieira, Vanessa; Habchi, Karam; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Della Ratta, Ester E; Sundt, Thoralf M; Shekar, Prem; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D; Body, Simon C
Objective Patients with structural abnormalities of cardiac valves, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), are said to be at higher risk of infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to determine the risk of IE of the BAV compared with the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and to determine the risk of aortic valve replacement and mortality after IE. Methods From medical records of two US and one Italian hospitals, patients with their first episode of IE of any native valve were identified. In the US cohort 42 patients with BAV and 393 patients with TAV with IE occurring between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2014 were identified. In the Italian cohort 48 patients with BAV and 341 patients with TAV with IE underwent valve replacement surgery between 1 January 2000 and1 November 2015. The risk of IE for BAV and TAV and subsequent outcomes were determined after matching to patients without IE. Results After adjustment for risk factors, the risk of IE in the US cohort was 23.1 (95% CI 8.1 to 100, p <0.0001) times greater for BAV than TAV. Patients with BAV with IE were more likely to have an aortic root abscess. Within the subsequent 5 years, BAV patients with IE were more likely to undergo valve replacement (85%) than TAV patients with IE (46%). Patients with IE were at increased risk of death. The findings were similar in the Italian cohort. Conclusions Patients with BAV are at markedly increased risk of IE and aortic root abscess than patients with TAV. Increased risk of IE in patients with BAV indicates they may be a candidate group for long-term trials of antibiotic prophylaxis of IE. PMID:28674620
Swinkels, B M; Jaarsma, W; Wely, L Relik-van; van Swieten, H A; Ernst, J M P G; Plokker, H W M
This case report describes a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis who was initially considered inoperable because of a very poor left ventricular function and severe pulmonary hypertension. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty, the clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient improved to such an extent that subsequent aortic valve replacement was considered possible and eventually proved to be successful. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has value as a potential bridge to aortic valve replacement when the risks for surgery are considered to be too high.
Wilbring, Manuel; Tugtekin, Sems Malte; Matschke, Klaus; Kappert, Utz
We report the clinical course of a patient with a history of transapical aortic "valve-in-valve" transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), actually suffering from prosthetic valve endocarditis. The patient now underwent cardiac surgery as a salvage procedure. The procedure itself was uneventful, but the patient died several days postoperative due to persisting sepsis. The present case raises the question, how to deal with high-risk patients, once considered unsuitable for cardiac surgery in presence of prosthetic valve infection? Up to now, there exists only insufficient knowledge about incidence, clinical course, and effectiveness of treatment strategies for prosthetic valve endocarditis after TAVI. A review of the available literature is given. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Julien, Maureen B; Desai, Nimesh; Brozena, Susan; Herrmann, Howard C
Despite the widespread use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for moderate and high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis, it is utilized less frequently in patients with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV). Orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) donors tend to be younger and may have undiagnosed BAV. We present a case of successful TAVR in a patient with BAV thirteen years after OHT.
van Rensburg, Annari; Doubell, Anton
The therapeutic implications of bicuspid aortic valve associations have come under scrutiny in the transcatheter aortic valve implantation era. We evaluate the spectrum of mitral valve disease in patients with bicuspid aortic valves to determine the need for closer echocardiographic scrutiny/follow-up of the mitral valve. A retrospective analysis of echocardiograms done at a referral hospital over five years was conducted in patients with bicuspid aortic valves with special attention to congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve. One hundred and forty patients with a bicuspid aortic valve were included. A congenital mitral valve abnormality was present in eight (5.7%, P = 0.01) with a parachute mitral valve in four (2.8%), an accessory mitral valve leaflet in one (0.7%), mitral valve prolapse in one, a cleft in one and the novel finding of a trileaflet mitral valve in one. Minor abnormalities included an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet (P < 0.001), the increased incidence of physiological mitral regurgitation (P < 0.001), abnormal papillary muscles (P = 0.002) and an additional chord or tendon in the left ventricle cavity (P = 0.007). Mitral valve abnormalities occur more commonly in patients with bicuspid aortic valves than matched healthy individuals. The study confirms that abnormalities in these patients extend beyond the aorta. These abnormalities did not have a significant functional effect. PMID:28515127
Seth, Ashok; Rastogi, Vishal; Kumar, Vijay; Maqbool, Syed; Mustaqueem, Arif; Sekar, V. Ravi
The prevalence of aortic stenosis is increasing with aging population. However with multiple co-morbidities and prior procedures in this aging population, more and more patients are being declared unfit for the ‘Gold Standard’ treatment i.e. surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Among the patients who are unfit or high risk for aortic valve replacement (AVR) by open heart surgery, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proven to be a valuable alternative improving survival and quality of life. We report first Indian experience of Core Valve (Medtronic Inc.) implantation in three high surgical risk patients performed on 22nd and 23rd February 2012. PMID:23993000
Orvin, Katia; Dvir, Danny; Weiss, Avraham; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Shapira, Yaron; Gazit, Osnat; Sagie, Alex; Kornowski, Ran
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is occasionally associated with stroke and silent cerebral ischemia, which may affect cognitive and functional performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in cognitive performance and functional status following TAVI. We performed a comprehensive prospective functional, cognitive and quality of life (QOL) evaluation in consecutive patients who underwent TAVI using the CoreValve device (Medtronic Inc.). The evaluation was performed at baseline and 1 month after the procedure and included the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey for QOL assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), quantitative clock drawing test (Rouleau), color trails test, Cognistat evaluation, Barthel Index and Duke Activity Status Index. A total of 36 patients completed the full pre- and post-TAVI evaluation. Mean age was 82.2 ± 4.2 years (52.8% men); 94.5% of patients had low functional class (New York Heart Association III/IV), and 13.9% had prior stroke. After the procedure, all patients had improved functional status and valve hemodynamics. At 1 month, there was a significant improvement in the MMSE and Cognistat evaluations (from 25.9 ± 3.3 to 27.6 ± 2.4, p < 0.001, and from 5 ± 1 to 5.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.001, respectively). Our preliminary results of a comprehensive assessment of patients undergoing TAVI indicate favorable results for both functional performance and cognitive function early after the procedure.
Aboelkassem, Yasser; Savic, Dragana; Campbell, Stuart G
We have derived a mathematical model describing aortic valve dynamics and blood flow during systole. The model presents a realistic coupling between aortic valve dynamics, sinus vortex local pressure, and variations in the systemic vascular resistance. The coupling is introduced by using Hill׳s classical semi-spherical vortex model and an aortic pressure-area compliance constitutive relationship. The effects of introducing aortic sinus eddy vortices and variable systemic vascular resistance on overall valve opening-closing dynamics, left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, blood flow rate, and aortic orifice area are examined. In addition, the strength of the sinus vortex is coupled explicitly to the valve opening angle, and implicitly to the aortic orifice area in order to predict how vortex strength varies during the four descriptive phases of aortic valve motion (fast-opening, fully-opening, slow-closing, and fast-closing). Our results compare favorably with experimental observations and the model reproduces well-known phenomena corresponding to aortic valve function such as the dicrotic notch and retrograde flow at end systole. By invoking a more complete set of physical phenomena, this new model will enable representation of pathophysiological conditions such as aortic valve stenosis or insufficiency, making it possible to predict their integrated effects on cardiac load and systemic hemodynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yu, Zipu; Wu, Shengjun; Li, Chengchen; Zou, Yu; Ma, Liang
To validate ascending aorta-lower abdominal aorta bypass grafting treatment for patients with descending aortic coarctation and an aortic valve disease. The three patients in whom a descending atypical aortic coarctation was associated with an aortic valve disease were treated with one stage surgical treatment with aortic bypass grafting through the diaphragm and aortic valve replacement in our heart center. Operative technique consisted of performing ascending aorta-lower abdominal aorta bypass grafting through diaphragm muscle and implementing aortic valve replacement. The mean time for extracorporeal circulation and occluding clamp of aorta was recorded. Blood pressure data for pre- and post-operation was measured in the limbs. Computer-enhanced transvenous angiograms of pre- and post-operation were applied for detection of aortic stenosis. The other adverse events were noticed in outpatient service during a follow-up period. The mean extracorporeal circulation time was 54 ± 11 min. The mean time for occluding clamp of aorta was 34 ± 6 min. An arterial pressure gradient was totally corrected after surgical treatment. Post-operation computer-enhanced transvenous angiograms showed the grafts to be open with a fluent flow. The patients had no gastrointestinal tract complications. No adverse event was noticed during a follow-up period in outpatient service. Treatment of ascending aorta-lower abdominal aorta bypass is advisable for patients with descending aortic coarctation and an aortic valve disease.
Naci, Huseyin; Pender, Sarah; Kuehne, Titus; Kelm, Marcus
Aortic valve repair is still emerging, and its role in the treatment of bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAVD) is not yet fully understood. Our objective is to synthesise available evidence on outcomes after surgical aortic valve repair in patients with BAVD. We conducted a systematic review of clinical studies using prespecified methods for searching, identifying and selecting eligible studies in 4 databases, and synthesising results (PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014415). 2 researchers independently reviewed full-text articles and extracted data. The results of included studies were quantitatively synthesised in frequentist meta-analyses. We included 11 aortic valve repair studies or study arms with a total of 2010 participants. Pooled estimates for the proportion of patients surviving at 30 days, 1 year, 5 years and 10 years were 0.995 (95% CI 0.991 to 0.995), 0.994 (0.989 to 0.999), 0.945 (0.898 to 0.993) and 0.912 (0.845 to 0.979), respectively. The pooled proportion of late deaths from valve-related causes was 0.008 (0.000 to 0.019) at a mean follow-up of 3.5 years. Proportion of patients with valve-related reinterventions was 0.075 (0.037 to 0.113) at a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, and the linearised reintervention rate was 1.3 (0.7 to 1.9) per 100 patient-years. Outcome reporting was insufficient to pool the results for a number of predefined outcomes. In conclusion, existing evidence on aortic valve repair in BAVD is limited to mostly small case series, case–control and small retrospective cohort studies. Despite the low quality, available evidence suggests favourable survival outcomes after aortic valve repair in selected patients with BAVD. Valve-related reinterventions at follow-up are common in all patients undergoing repair surgery. PMID:28008357
Gilard, Martine; Eltchaninoff, Hélène; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Chevreul, Karine; Fajadet, Jean; Leprince, Pascal; Leguerrier, Alain; Lievre, Michel; Prat, Alain; Teiger, Emmanuel; Lefevre, Thierry; Tchetche, Didier; Carrié, Didier; Himbert, Dominique; Albat, Bernard; Cribier, Alain; Sudre, Arnaud; Blanchard, Didier; Rioufol, Gilles; Collet, Frederic; Houel, Remi; Dos Santos, Pierre; Meneveau, Nicolas; Ghostine, Said; Manigold, Thibaut; Guyon, Philippe; Grisoli, Dominique; Le Breton, Herve; Delpine, Stephane; Didier, Romain; Favereau, Xavier; Souteyrand, Geraud; Ohlmann, Patrick; Doisy, Vincent; Grollier, Gilles; Gommeaux, Antoine; Claudel, Jean-Philippe; Bourlon, Francois; Bertrand, Bernard; Laskar, Marc; Iung, Bernard
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has revolutionized management of high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, survival and the incidence of severe complications have been assessed in relatively small populations and/or with limited follow-up. This report details late clinical outcome and its determinants in the FRANCE-2 (FRench Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards) registry. The FRANCE-2 registry prospectively included all TAVRs performed in France. Follow-up was scheduled at 30 days, at 6 months, and annually from 1 to 5 years. Standardized VARC (Valve Academic Research Consortium) outcome definitions were used. A total of 4,201 patients were enrolled between January 2010 and January 2012 in 34 centers. Approaches were transarterial (transfemoral 73%, transapical 18%, subclavian 6%, and transaortic or transcarotid 3%) or, in 18% of patients, transapical. Median follow-up was 3.8 years. Vital status was available for 97.2% of patients at 3 years. The 3-year all-cause mortality was 42.0% and cardiovascular mortality was 17.5%. In a multivariate model, predictors of 3-year all-cause mortality were male sex (p < 0.001), low body mass index, (p < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (p < 0.001), dialysis (p < 0.001), New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (p < 0.001), higher logistic EuroSCORE (p < 0.001), transapical or subclavian approach (p < 0.001 for both vs. transfemoral approach), need for permanent pacemaker implantation (p = 0.02), and post-implant periprosthetic aortic regurgitation grade ≥2 of 4 (p < 0.001). Severe events according to VARC criteria occurred mainly during the first month and subsequently in <2% of patients/year. Mean gradient, valve area, and residual aortic regurgitation were stable during follow-up. The FRANCE-2 registry represents the largest database available on late results of TAVR. Late mortality is largely related to noncardiac causes. Incidence rates of severe events are low after the
Mathew, Verghese; Greason, Kevin L; Suri, Rakesh M; Leon, Martin B; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Mack, Michael J; Rihal, Charanjit S; Holmes, David R
Surgical aortic valve replacement had been the only definitive treatment of severe aortic stenosis before the availability of transcatheter valve technology. Historically, many patients with severe aortic stenosis had not been offered surgery, largely related to professional and patient perception regarding the risks of operation relative to anticipated benefits. Such patients have been labeled as "high risk" or "inoperable" with respect to their suitability for surgery. The availability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement affords a new treatment option for patients previously not felt to be optimal candidates for surgical valve replacement and allows for the opportunity to reexamine the methods for assessing operative risk in the context of more than 1 available treatment. Standardized risk assessment can be challenging because of both the imprecision of current risk scoring methods and the variability in ascertaining risk related to operator experience as well as local factors and practice patterns at treating facilities. Operative risk in actuality is not an absolute but represents a spectrum from very low to extreme, and the conventional labels of high risk and inoperable are incomplete with respect to their utility in clinical decision making. Moving forward, the emphasis should be on developing an individual assessment that takes into account procedure risk as well as long-term outcomes evaluated in a multidisciplinary fashion, and incorporating patient preferences and goals in a model of shared decision making.
Jones, Brandon M; Tuzcu, E Murat; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Popovic, Zoran; Mick, Stephanie; Roselli, Eric E; Gul, Sajjad; Devgun, Jasneet; Mistry, Sohi; Jaber, Wael A; Svensson, Lars G; Kapadia, Samir R
Moderate to severe aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with worse outcomes. The impact of mild aortic regurgitation has been less clear, possibly because of the broad categories that have been used in clinical trials, but holds increasing importance in the study of next-generation devices in low- and intermediate-risk cohorts. A more granular scheme, which is common in clinical practice and proposed for future trials, may add prognostic value. We evaluated all patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement at the Cleveland Clinic from 2006 to 2012. The degree of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement was reported from the echocardiography database based on a clinical, transthoracic echocardiogram performed within 30 days of the procedure. Aortic regurgitation was finely discriminated on the basis of a multiwindow, multiparametric, integrative approach using our usual clinical scale: none, trivial to 1+, 1+, 1 to 2+, 2+, 2 to 3+, 3+, 3 to 4+, or 4+. There were 237 patients included in the analysis. By controlling for age, gender, Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, baseline ejection fraction, and aortic regurgitation before transcatheter aortic valve replacement, there was a significant increase in mortality for each half grade of aortic regurgitation compared with the complete absence of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. The unit hazard ratio for each 1+ increase in aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement was 2.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-3.43; P < .001) considering aortic regurgitation as a continuous variable. Other clinical variables did not significantly affect mortality. Even mild aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is associated with worse long-term mortality. There may be prognostic value in reporting milder categories of aortic regurgitation with more granular
Hata, T; Fujiwara, K; Furukawa, H; Tsushima, Y; Yoshitaka, H; Kuinose, M; Minami, H; Ishida, A; Tamura, K; Totsugawa, T; Kanemitsu, H; Ozawa, M
Recent reports have shown that aortic valve replacement in elderly patients over 65 years with atherosclerotic aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus is possible by using a small sized bioprosthesis (Carpentier-Edwards pericardial valve). Here we present out surgical technique. Firstly, the native calcified aortic valve was removed completely to gain total exposure of the surrounding aortic root and sinus of Valsalva like Bentall procedure. Secondly, a small sized bioprosthesis was implanted with intermittent noneverting mattress 2-0 sutures with spaghetti and small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt. Aortic annulus is the dilated by inserting Hegar dilator sizing from 25 to 27 mm. Therefore, aortic valve replacement for small aortic annulus in intra- or supra-annular position should be easily accomplished. Good surgical results and hemodynamic state were achieved in 25 consecutive cases using this technique.
Wirrig, Elaine E.; Yutzey, Katherine E.
There is increasing evidence for activation of developmental transcriptional regulatory pathways in heart valve disease. Here we review molecular regulatory mechanisms involved in heart valve progenitor development, leaflet morphogenesis, and extracellular matrix organization that also are active in diseased aortic valves. These include regulators of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transitions, such as the Notch pathway effector RBPJ, and the valve progenitor markers Twist1, Msx1/2, and Sox9. Little is known of the potential reparative or pathological functions of these developmental mechanisms in adult aortic valves, but it is tempting to speculate that valve progenitor cells could contribute to repair in the context of disease. Likewise, loss of either RBPJ or Sox9 leads to aortic valve calcification in mice, supporting a potential therapeutic role in prevention of disease. During aortic valve calcification, transcriptional regulators of osteogenic development are activated in addition to valve progenitor regulatory programs. Specifically, the transcription factor Runx2 and its downstream target genes are induced in calcified valves. Runx2 and osteogenic genes also are induced with vascular calcification, but activation of valve progenitor markers and the cellular context of expression are likely to be different for valve and vascular calcification. Additional research is necessary to determine if developmental mechanisms contribute to valve repair or if these pathways can be harnessed for new treatments of heart valve disease. PMID:24665126
Jain, Rakesh; Kader, Muneer; Sajeev, C.G.; Krishnan, M.N.
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, affecting 1%–2% of the population. Among various complications, incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in the bicuspid aortic valve population is high with higher rate of periannular extension resulting in conduction disturbances. Here we are reporting a rare case of infective endocarditis of bicuspid aortic valve presented with alternating bundle branch block. PMID:26138186
Evangelista, Arturo; Gallego, Pastora; Calvo-Iglesias, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier; Robledo-Carmona, Juan; Sánchez, Violeta; Saura, Daniel; Arnold, Roman; Carro, Amelia; Maldonado, Giuliana; Sao-Avilés, Augusto; Teixidó, Gisela; Galian, Laura; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; García-Dorado, David
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with early valvular dysfunction and proximal aorta dilation with high heterogeneity. This study aimed to assess the determinants of these complications. Eight hundred and fifty-two consecutive adults diagnosed of BAV referred from cardiac outpatient clinics to eight echocardiographic laboratories of tertiary hospitals were prospectively recruited. Exclusion criteria were aortic coarctation, other congenital disorders or intervention. BAV morphotype, significant valve dysfunction and aorta dilation (≥2 Z-score) at sinuses and ascending aorta were established. Three BAV morphotypes were identified: right-left coronary cusp fusion (RL) in 72.9%, right-non-coronary (RN) in 24.1% and left-non-coronary (LN) in 3.0%. BAV without raphe was observed in 18.3%. Multivariate analysis showed aortic regurgitation (23%) to be related to male sex (OR: 2.80, p<0.0001) and valve prolapse (OR: 5.16, p<0.0001), and aortic stenosis (22%) to BAV-RN (OR: 2.09, p<0.001), the presence of raphe (OR: 2.75, p<0.001), age (OR: 1.03; p<0.001), dyslipidaemia (OR: 1.77, p<0.01) and smoking (OR: 1.63, p<0.05). Ascending aorta was dilated in 76% without differences among morphotypes and associated with significant valvular dysfunction. By contrast, aortic root was dilated in 34% and related to male sex and aortic regurgitation but was less frequent in aortic stenosis and BAV-RN. Normofunctional valves are more prevalent in BAV without raphe. Aortic stenosis is more frequent in BAV-RN and associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, whereas aortic regurgitation (AR) is associated with male sex and sigmoid prolapse. Although ascending aorta is the most commonly dilated segment, aortic root dilation is present in one-third of patients and associated with AR. Remarkably, BAV-RL increases the risk for dilation of the proximal aorta, whereas BAV-RN spares this area. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the
Rashid, Hashrul N Z; Gooley, Robert; McCormick, Liam; Zaman, Sarah; Ramkumar, Satish; Jackson, Damon; Amiruddin, Ameera; Nasis, Arthur; Cameron, James; Meredith, Ian T
To determine the safety and efficacy of valve repositioning following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Lotus Valve System (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA). TAVR is a well-established treatment for severe aortic stenosis. The Lotus Valve System is fully repositionable and retrievable. Valve repositioning has the potential to minimize TAVR-related complications caused by valve malposition; however, the effect on adverse event rates such as stroke is unknown. Consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with the Lotus Valve System (n=125) were prospectively recruited. Patients who did not require valve repositioning (Group A) were compared to patients who required one or more valve repositions (Group B). The primary end-point was 30-day occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Secondary end-points included each component of the primary end-point, new pacemaker insertion, and procedural or 30-day major adverse events, defined according to VARC-2 definitions. Valve repositioning was utilized in 60.8% (76/125) of patients including 17.1% (13/76) who required full valve resheathing. The most frequent indications for valve repositioning were altering the depth and angulation of initial implantation (69.7%), reducing paravalvular regurgitation (13.2%), and attempt to correct new or worsened heart block (7.9%). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The primary end-point occurred in 12.2% and 6.6% of Group A and B, respectively (p=0.10). Thirty-day new pacemaker implantation was 34.1% and 18.8% in Group A and B, respectively (p=0.06). The secondary end-point measures were not significantly different between the groups. Repositioning facilitated correct anatomical positioning of all devices leading to optimal prosthesis hemodynamics and a trend to lower pacemaker rate without increased risk of MACCE. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Shehatha, Jaffar S; Taha, Abdulsalam Y
A 66-year-old Australian man underwent elective replacement of a severely stenotic aortic valve with a 22-mm Medtronic-Hall valve. Six weeks later, he was readmitted with worsening dyspnea, fever, and mild anemia. Investigations confirmed pulmonary edema and moderate periprosthetic aortic regurgitation. The pulmonary edema was managed conservatively, and a second 22-mm Medtronic-Hall valve was implanted. Infective endocarditis was suspected in the aortic annulus below the orifice of the right coronary artery. A bacteriological study revealed a rare bacteria of Streptomyces species. The patient received intensive antibiotic therapy over a 6-week period of hospitalization, and the aortic regurgitation disappeared one week postoperatively.
Kwon, Hee-Jin; Kim, Song Soo; Sun, Byung Joo; Jin, Sun Ah; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Siwan; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Seong, In-Whan
Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is an extremely rare form of congenital aortic valvular abnormality. Although UAV shows similar clinical characteristics to bicuspid aortic valve, the clinical symptoms develop at earlier age and progress at a faster pace in UAV. In this report, we are presenting a 42-year-old male with severe aortic stenosis associated with unicommissural UAV. The patients underwent a successful Bentall operation. PMID:27721957
Minami, Keisuke; Yoneyama, Kihei; Izumo, Masaki; Suzuki, Kengo; Ogawa, Yasuyoshi; Chikaraishi, Kousuke; Ogawa, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Furukawa, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Akashi, Yoshihiro J
Computed tomography is the best noninvasive imaging modality for evaluating valve leaflet calcification. To evaluate the association of aortic valve leaflet calcification with instantaneous valve opening and closing using dynamic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We retrospectively evaluated 58 consecutive patients who underwent dynamic MDCT imaging. Aortic valve calcification (AVC) was quantified using the Agatston method. The aortic valve area (AVA) tracking curves were derived by planimetry during the cardiac cycle using all 20 phases (5% reconstruction). da/dt in cm(2)/s was calculated as the rate of change of AVA during opening (positive) or closing (negative). Patients were divided into 3 three groups according to Agatston score quartile: no AVC (Q2, Score 0, n = 18), mild AVC (Q3, Score 1-2254, n = 24), and severe AVC (Q4 Score >2254, n = 14). In multivariable linear regression, compared to the non AVC group, the mild and severe AVC groups had lower maximum AVA (by -1.71 cm(2) and -2.25 cm(2), respectively), lower peak positive da/dt (by -21.88 cm(2)/s and -26.65 cm(2)/s, respectively), and higher peak negative da/dt (by 13.78 cm(2)/s and 18.11 cm(2)/s, respectively) (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). AVA and its opening and closing were influenced by leaflet calcification. The present study demonstrates the ability of dynamic MDCT imaging to assess quantitative aortic valve motion in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gatti, Giuseppe; Benussi, Bernardo; Camerini, Fulvio; Pappalardo, Aniello
Four patients referred for surgical treatment of aortic stenosis presented an unexpected extremely calcified (porcelain) ascending aorta at the intraoperative epiaortic ultrasonography scanning. In each patient, replacement of the aortic valve was successfully performed using a sutureless implantable bioprosthesis during a short period of hypothermic circulatory arrest. In the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures, the sutureless valve may be a valuable option for surgical units that do not dispose of transcatheter technology or a hybrid operative theatre.
Tzamtzis, S; Viquerat, J; Yap, J; Mullen, M J; Burriesci, G
A better understanding of the mechanisms producing the radial force in transcatheter heart valves is essential in order to reduce the reported cases of migration and atrio-ventricular block and improve the effectiveness of the treatment. This paper presents a numerical study of the different mechanisms responsible for the radial force exerted on the aortic annulus by self-expanding and balloon-expandable prostheses. The behavior of the Medtronic CoreValve (self-expanding) and the Edwards SAPIEN (balloon-expandable) devices, both of size 26, has been simulated and compared. The results indicate that, for both prostheses, the radial force may vary considerably within the recommended functional range for the valve implantation and is substantially higher at the smallest annular sizes. In particular, in the case of the self-expanding valve the radial force is essentially dependent on the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract, while for the balloon-expandable valve the radial force produced is influenced by both the geometry and stiffness of the host tissue. The outcomes of this study provide a better insight into the phenomenon and useful information that could support the development of improved solutions. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Rekha Mankad, M.D. References AskMayoExpert. Valvular disease – aortic stenosis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/aortic-stenosis/expert-answers/aortic-valve-calcification/FAQ-20058525 . Mayo ...
Singh, Vikas; Macon, Conrad J; Scot Shaw, Eric; Londoño, Juan C; Martinez, Claudia A
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as an alternative option for inoperable or very high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis-however, there are serious complications associated with the procedure, such as patient mortality, stroke, conduction disturbances, paravalvular regurgitation, and vascular concerns. Our review focuses on the most common complications related to transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedures and potential bailout strategies and techniques.
Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel
Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.
Szymański, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Sorysz, Danuta; Kochman, Janusz; Jastrzębski, Jan; Kukulski, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian
Objective To analyse the impact of postprocedural mitral regurgitation (MR), in an interaction with aortic regurgitation (AR), on mortality following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods To assess the interaction between MR and AR, we compared the survival rate of patients (i) without both significant MR and AR versus (ii) those with either significant MR or significant AR versus (iii) with significant MR and AR, all postprocedure. 381 participants of the Polish Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry (166 males (43.6%) and 215 females (56.4%), age 78.8±7.4 years) were analysed. Follow-up was 94.1±96.5 days. Results Inhospital and midterm mortality were 6.6% and 10.2%, respectively. Significant MR and AR were present in 16% and 8.1% patients, including 3.1% patients with both significant MR and AR. Patients with significant versus insignificant AR differed with respect to mortality (log rank p=0.009). This difference was not apparent in a subgroup of patients without significant MR (log rank p=0.80). In a subgroup of patients without significant AR, there were no significant differences in mortality between individuals with versus without significant MR (log rank p=0.44). Significant MR and AR had a significant impact on mortality only when associated with each other (log rank p<0.0001). At multivariate Cox regression modelling concomitant significant MR and AR were independently associated with mortality (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.71, p=0.002). Conclusions Significant MR or AR postprocedure, when isolated, had no impact on survival. Combined MR and AR had a significant impact on a patient's prognosis. PMID:26908096
Ostrovsky, Yury; Spirydonau, Siarhei; Shchatsinka, Mikalai; Shket, Aliaksandr
Surgical treatment of infective and prosthetic endocarditis using allografts gives good results. Aortic allograft implantation is a common technique, while tricuspid valve replacement with a mitral allograft is very rare. Multiple valve disease in case of infective endocarditis is a surgical challenge as such patients are usually in a grave condition and results of surgical treatment are often unsatisfactory. In this article we describe a clinical case of successful surgical treatment in a patient with active infective endocarditis of aortic and tricuspid valve, complicated by an aortic-right ventricular fistula. The aortic valve and ascending aorta were replaced with a cryopreserved aortic allograft; the tricuspid valve was replaced with a cryopreserved mitral allograft. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fábio Sandoli
Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089
Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A A; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A; Brito, Fábio Sandoli de
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Evaluate this complication in Brazil. We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication.
Tomsic, Anton; Li, Wilson W L; van Paridon, Marieke; Bindraban, Navin R; de Mol, Bas A J M
Mitral valve leaflet aneurysm is a rare and potentially devastating complication of aortic valve endocarditis. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had endocarditis of the native aortic valve and a concomitant aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred after the aneurysm perforated. The patient showed no signs of heart failure and completed a 6-week regimen of antibiotic therapy before undergoing successful aortic and mitral valve replacement. In addition to the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature.
Shrestha, Malakh; Maeding, Ilona; Höffler, Klaus; Koigeldiyev, Nurbol; Marsch, Georg; Siemeni, Thierry; Fleissner, Felix; Haverich, Axel
OBJECTIVES Aortic valve replacement (AVR) in geriatric patients (>75 years) with small aortic roots is a challenge. Patient–prosthesis mismatch and the long cross-clamp time necessary for stentless valves or root enlargement are matters of concern. We compared the results of AVR with sutureless valves (Sorin Perceval), against those with conventional biological valves. METHODS Between April 2007 and December 2012, 120 isolated AVRs were performed in patients with a small annulus (<22 mm) at our centre. In 70 patients (68 females, age 77.4 ± 5.5 years), conventional valves (C group) and in 50 patients (47 females, age 79.8 ± 4.5 years), sutureless valves (P group) were implanted. The Logistic EuroSCORE of the C group was 16.7 ± 10.4 and that of the P group 20.4 ± 10.7, (P = 0.054). Minimal-access surgery was performed in 4.3% (3/70) patients in the C group and 72% (36/50) patients in the P group. RESULTS The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross-clamp times of the C group were 75.3 ± 23 and 50.3 ± 14.2 min vs 58.7 ± 20.9 and 30.1 ± 9 min in the P group, (P < 0.001). In the C group, two annulus enlargements were performed. Thirty-day mortality was 4.3% (n = 3) in the C group and 0 in the P group, (n.s.). At follow-up (up to 5 years), mortalities were 17.4% (n = 12) in the C group and 14% (n = 7) in the P group, (n.s.). CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the advantages of sutureless valves for geriatric patients with small aortic roots reflected by shorter cross-clamp and CPB times, even though most of these patients were operated on via a minimally invasive access. Moreover, due to the absence of a sewing ring, these valves are also almost stentless, with greater effective orifice area (EOA) for any given size. This may potentially result in better haemodynamics even without the root enlargement. This is of advantage, as several studies have shown that aortic root enlargement can significantly increase the risks of AVR. Moreover, as seen in this series
Shrestha, Malakh; Maeding, Ilona; Höffler, Klaus; Koigeldiyev, Nurbol; Marsch, Georg; Siemeni, Thierry; Fleissner, Felix; Haverich, Axel
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) in geriatric patients (>75 years) with small aortic roots is a challenge. Patient-prosthesis mismatch and the long cross-clamp time necessary for stentless valves or root enlargement are matters of concern. We compared the results of AVR with sutureless valves (Sorin Perceval), against those with conventional biological valves. Between April 2007 and December 2012, 120 isolated AVRs were performed in patients with a small annulus (<22 mm) at our centre. In 70 patients (68 females, age 77.4 ± 5.5 years), conventional valves (C group) and in 50 patients (47 females, age 79.8 ± 4.5 years), sutureless valves (P group) were implanted. The Logistic EuroSCORE of the C group was 16.7 ± 10.4 and that of the P group 20.4 ± 10.7, (P = 0.054). Minimal-access surgery was performed in 4.3% (3/70) patients in the C group and 72% (36/50) patients in the P group. The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cross-clamp times of the C group were 75.3 ± 23 and 50.3 ± 14.2 min vs 58.7 ± 20.9 and 30.1 ± 9 min in the P group, (P < 0.001). In the C group, two annulus enlargements were performed. Thirty-day mortality was 4.3% (n = 3) in the C group and 0 in the P group, (n.s.). At follow-up (up to 5 years), mortalities were 17.4% (n = 12) in the C group and 14% (n = 7) in the P group, (n.s.). This study highlights the advantages of sutureless valves for geriatric patients with small aortic roots reflected by shorter cross-clamp and CPB times, even though most of these patients were operated on via a minimally invasive access. Moreover, due to the absence of a sewing ring, these valves are also almost stentless, with greater effective orifice area (EOA) for any given size. This may potentially result in better haemodynamics even without the root enlargement. This is of advantage, as several studies have shown that aortic root enlargement can significantly increase the risks of AVR. Moreover, as seen in this series, these valves may also enable a broader
Mathieu, Patrick; Bouchareb, Rihab
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder. CAVD is a chronic process characterized by a pathologic mineralization of valve leaflets. Ectopic mineralization of the aortic valve involves complex relationships with immunity. Studies have highlighted that both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in the development of CAVD. In this regard, accumulating evidence indicates that fibrocalcific remodelling of the aortic valve is associated with activation of the NF-κB pathway. The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 is increased in human mineralized aortic valves and promotes an osteogenic program as well as the mineralization of valve interstitial cells (VICs), the main cellular component of the aortic valve. Different factors, including oxidized lipid species, activate the innate immune response through the Toll-like receptors. Moreover, VICs express 5-lipoxygenase and therefore produce leukotrienes, which may amplify the inflammatory response in the aortic valve. More recently, studies have emphasized that an adaptive immune response is triggered during CAVD. Herein, we are reviewing the link between the immune response and the development of CAVD and we have tried, whenever possible, to keep a translational approach. PMID:26065007
Mathieu, Patrick; Bouchareb, Rihab; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder. CAVD is a chronic process characterized by a pathologic mineralization of valve leaflets. Ectopic mineralization of the aortic valve involves complex relationships with immunity. Studies have highlighted that both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in the development of CAVD. In this regard, accumulating evidence indicates that fibrocalcific remodelling of the aortic valve is associated with activation of the NF-κB pathway. The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 is increased in human mineralized aortic valves and promotes an osteogenic program as well as the mineralization of valve interstitial cells (VICs), the main cellular component of the aortic valve. Different factors, including oxidized lipid species, activate the innate immune response through the Toll-like receptors. Moreover, VICs express 5-lipoxygenase and therefore produce leukotrienes, which may amplify the inflammatory response in the aortic valve. More recently, studies have emphasized that an adaptive immune response is triggered during CAVD. Herein, we are reviewing the link between the immune response and the development of CAVD and we have tried, whenever possible, to keep a translational approach.
Mossad, S B; Tomford, J W; Stewart, R; Ratliff, N B; Hall, G S
We describe the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to a Streptomyces sp. The patient presented with fever, cutaneous embolic lesions, and bacteremia 3 months after aortic valve replacement. Treatment required valve replacement and a long course of parenteral imipenem. PMID:8586732
Krishnamurthy, Varun K.; Guilak, Farshid; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.
Site-specific biomechanical properties of the aortic valve play an important role in native valve function, and alterations in these properties may reflect mechanisms of degeneration and disease. Small animals such as targeted mutagenesis mice provide a powerful approach to model human valve disease pathogenesis; however, physical mechanical testing in small animals is limited by valve tissue size. Aortic valves are comprised of highly organized extracellular matrix compartmentalized in cusp and annulus regions, which have different functions. The objective of this study was to measure regional mechanical properties of mouse aortic valve tissue using a modified micropipette aspiration technique. Aortic valves were isolated from juvenile, adult and aged adult C57BL/6 wild type mice. Tissue tensile stiffness was determined for annulus and cusp regions using a half-space punch model. Stiffness for the annulus region was significantly higher compared to the cusp region at all stages. Further, aged adult valve tissue had decreased stiffness in both the cusp and annulus. Quantitative histochemical analysis revealed a collagen-rich annulus and a proteoglycan-rich cusp at all stages. In aged adult valves, there was proteoglycan infiltration of the annulus hinge, consistent with observed mechanical differences over time. These findings indicate that valve tissue biomechanical properties vary in wild type mice in a region-specific and age-related manner. The micropipette aspiration technique provides a promising approach for studies of valve structure and function in small animal models, such as transgenic mouse models of valve disease. PMID:20863504
Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Maftoon, Nima
Aortic valve stenosis, which causes considerable constriction of the flow passage, is one of the most frequent cardiovascular diseases and is the most common cause of the valvular replacements which take place for around 100,000 per year in North America. Furthermore, it is considered as the most frequent cardiac disease after arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model considering the coupling effect between fluid flow and elastic deformation with reasonable boundary conditions to describe the effect of AS on the left ventricle and the aorta. The pulsatile and Newtonian blood flow through aortic stenosis with vascular wall deformability is analyzed and its effects are discussed in terms of flow parameters such as velocity, resistance to flow, shear stress distribution and pressure loss. Meanwhile we developed analytical expressions to improve the comprehension of the transvalvular hemodynamics and the aortic stenosis hemodynamics which is of great interest because of one main reason. To medical scientists, an accurate knowledge of the mechanical properties of whole blood flow in the aorta can suggest a new diagnostic tool.
Niemelä, K; Ikäheimo, M; Takkunen, J
Preoperative and sequential postoperative bicycle exercise tests were compared with clinical and catheterization data in assessment of the functional outcome of uncomplicated aortic valve replacement (AVR) in 33 patients. The operation was done because of aortic stenosis (AS) in 14 patients and aortic regurgitation (AR) in 19. Both groups of patients showed improved NYHA functional class and peak achieved workload after AVR, but the results in these respects did not correlate. Nor did the regression in left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dilatation after AVR that was seen in both patient groups correlate with the changes measured in exercise tolerance. Preoperative exercise capacity was not predictive of the postoperative performance. In the AR patients, however, preoperative ability to raise the systolic blood pressure during exercise appeared to predict which patients were likely to show enhanced resting LV systolic pump function after AVR. It is concluded that objective tests of exercise tolerance alone permit reliable evaluation of the functional outcome of uncomplicated AVR. Indices of resting LV performance, though helpful in observation of the changes resulting from removal of the untoward LV burden after AVR, are likely to be less useful for evaluating changes in the LV exercise reserve. The response of the systolic blood pressure to exercise may be an additional predictive factor for postoperative resting LV performance in patients with AR.
Maluenda, Gabriel; Araya, Mario; Ibañez-Arenas, Rodrigo
Although transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been accepted as an attractive alternative for high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), patients with congenital bicuspid AS has been typically disqualified for this indication due to an implied risk of device dislocation, distortion, or device malfunctioning. Nonetheless, bicuspid AS is not uncommon and frequently missed by transthoracic echocardiography. We reported an interesting case of a high-risk patient with severe symptomatic bicuspid AS who underwent successful TAVR and discussed the anatomic requirements for a safe implant in patients with bicuspid AS considered candidates for TAVR. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kawaguchi, Akira T; D'Allessandro, Cosimo; Collet, Jean Philippe; Cluzel, Philippe; Makri, Ralouka; Leprince, Pascal
Patients with aortic stenosis tend to develop ventricular conduction problems, which are known adverse events following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Changes in ventricular conduction status after TAVI were analyzed in 195 consecutive patients from a single institute registered in FRANCE2 between February 2010 and June 2012. Among the 195 patients, 29 had a prior pacemaker implantation (+PM) and 6 had acute catastrophic hemodynamics that made a full electrocardiogram (ECG) unavailable. Among the remaining 160, PM was newly required in 28 (17.5%, PM+) but not in 132 (PM-), which included 21 (13.1%) who developed new left bundle branch block (BBB), 12 (7.5%) had right BBB, and 99 (61.9%) had no change. While PM requirement had no correlation with preoperative factors, there was significant association with the development of right BBB with Edwards Sapien/XT (P = 0.003), and new left BBB (P = 0.012) and complete heart block requiring PM with CoreValve (22.6% vs. Edwards Sapien/XT, 7.4%, P = 0.016). Whereas postoperative survival regarding PM status (+PM, PM+, PM-), vascular access, valve size or type showed no difference, delayed heart block (n = 12, Day 2 or later) was associated with poor survival (P = 0.038) compared with the remaining PM+ patients with earlier onset (n = 16, Day 0 or 1). As a result, PM+ patients (n = 28) had significantly longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospitalization than PM- or +PM patients. The results suggest that ventricular conduction problems requiring PM occurred more frequently after TAVI (17.5%) than with usual surgical replacement. Nonetheless, conduction problems failed to influence postoperative survival for up to 3 years on average with use of PM, but therefore did increase medical costs. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Urban, Marian; Pirk, Jan; Szarszoi, Ondrej; Skalsky, Ivo; Maly, Jiri; Netuka, Ivan
BACKGROUND: Double valve replacement for concomitant aortic and mitral valve disease is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Excellent results with valve repair in isolated mitral valve lesions have been reported; therefore, whether its potential benefits would translate into better outcomes in patients with combined mitral-aortic disease was investigated. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed involving 341 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with either mitral valve repair (n=42) or double valve replacement (n=299). Data were analyzed for early mortality, late valve-related complications and survival. RESULTS: The early mortality rate was 11.9% for valve repair and 11.0% for replacement (P=0.797). Survival (± SD) was 67±11% in mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 81±3% in double valve replacement at five years of follow-up (P=0.187). The percentage of patients who did not experience major adverse valve-related events at five years of follow-up was 83±9% in those who underwent mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 89±2% in patients who underwent double valve replacement (P=0.412). Age >70 years (HR 2.4 [95% CI 1.1 to 4.9]; P=0.023) and renal dysfunction (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2 to 3.7]; P=0.01) were independent predictors of decreased survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with double valve disease, both mitral valve repair and replacement provided comparable early outcomes. There were no significant differences in valve-related reoperations, anticoagulation-related complications or prosthetic valve endocarditis. Patient-related factors appear to be the major determinant of late survival, irrespective of the type of operation. PMID:24294032
Marshall, D A; Jackson, R; Rae, A P; Capell, H A
Aortic regurgitation associated with relapsing polychondritis usually occurs late in the disease as a result of aortic root dilatation. A case where aortic regurgitation occurred early and was due to cusp rupture with a normal aortic root is reported. The patient required urgent aortic valve replacement within six weeks of developing a murmur despite apparent control of inflammation with immunosuppressive treatment. The possibility of cusp rupture with sudden haemodynamic deterioration should be considered in patients with relapsing polychondritis who develop aortic regurgitation. Images PMID:1575597
Bonow, Robert O; Leon, Martin B; Doshi, Darshan; Moat, Neil
The management of aortic valve disease has been improved by accurate diagnosis and assessment of severity by echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, efforts to elicit symptoms or objective markers of disease severity and progression, and consideration of optimum timing of aortic valve replacement, even in elderly patients. Prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis is growing in ageing populations. Conventional surgery remains the most appropriate option for most patients who require aortic valve replacement, but the transcatheter approach is established for high-risk patients or poor candidates for surgery. The rapid growth of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been fuelled by improved technology, evidence-based clinical research, and setting up of multidisciplinary heart teams. Aortic regurgitation can be difficult to diagnose and quantify. Left ventricular dysfunction often precedes symptoms, needing active surveillance by echocardiography to determine the optimum time for aortic valve replacement. Development of transcatheter approaches for aortic regurgitation is challenging, owing to the absence of valvular calcification and distortion of aortic root anatomy in many patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muretti, Mirko; Massi, Francesco; Coradduzza, Enrico; Portoghese, Michele
Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited disorder with incidences of approximately 1:500 and 1:1,000,000 in heterozygous and homozygous form respectively. Affected patients usually show early coronary artery disease and severe aortic root calcification, despite optimization of therapy. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia which presented dyspnea and anginal symptoms due to a severely calcified aortic root causing valve stenosis and narrowed sinotubular junction. Aortic valve replacement and aortic root enlargement were performed using the Manougian procedure. Even for experiences surgeons, this surgery could prove challenging for this group of patients due to aggressive degenerative tissue calcification of the aortic root, which often presents an extremely calcified aortic valve with a small annulus associated to a narrowed sinotubular junction.
Koos, Ralf; Mahnken, Andreas Horst; Dohmen, Guido; Brehmer, Kathrin; Günther, Rolf W; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Marx, Nikolaus; Hoffmann, Rainer
This study sought to examine a possible relationship between the severity of aortic valve calcification (AVC), the distribution of AVC and the degree of aortic valve regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS). 57 patients (22 men, 81 ± 5 years) with symptomatic AS and with a logistic EuroSCORE of 24 ± 12 were included. 38 patients (67%) received a third (18F)-generation CoreValve® aortic valve prosthesis, in 19 patients (33%) an Edwards SAPIEN™ prosthesis was implanted. Prior to TAVI dual-source computed tomography for assessment of AVC was performed. To determine the distribution of AVC the percentage of the calcium load of the most severely calcified cusp was calculated. After TAVI the degree of AR was determined by angiography and echocardiography. The severity of AR after TAVI was related to the severity and distribution of AVC. There was no association between the distribution of AVC and the degree of paravalvular AR after TAVI as assessed by angiography (r = -0.02, p = 0.88). Agatston AVC scores were significantly higher in patients with AR grade ≥ 3 (5055 ± 1753, n = 3) than in patients with AR grade < 3 (1723 ± 967, p = 0.03, n = 54). Agatston AVC scores > 3000 were associated with a relevant paravalvular AR and showed a trend for increased need for second manoeuvres. There was a significant correlation between the severity of AVC and the degree of AR after AVR (r = 0.50, p < 0.001). Patients with severe AVC have an increased risk for a relevant AR after TAVI as well as a trend for increased need for additional procedures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Collas, Valérie M.; Van De Heyning, Caroline M.; Paelinck, Bernard P.; Rodrigus, Inez E.; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Bosmans, Johan M.
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to validate recently proposed risk scores for the prediction of mortality up to 1 year after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), using a self-expandable valve (CoreValve). METHODS In this single-centre study, 225 consecutive patients with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis, who underwent TAVI between December 2007 and January 2015, were included. Conventional surgical risk scores (logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and STS score) were calculated as well as newly proposed TAVI risk scores (TAVI2-SCORe, STT Score and OBSERVANT score). Medium-term survival of the patients was assessed up to 1 year after TAVI. RESULTS The median age was 82 (77–86) years and 45.3% were male. Patients were categorized into ‘non-high risk’ or ‘high risk’ according to logistic EuroSCORE >20%, EuroSCORE II >8%, STS score >10%, TAVI2-SCORe >2, STT score >12% and OBSERVANT score >6. Thirty-day and 1-year survival rates were significantly different between ‘non-high-risk’ and ‘high-risk’ patients according to the STS score (1 year: low: 84.4% vs high: 67.0%, P = 0.010) and according to OBSERVANT score (1 year: low: 85.2% vs high: 68.4%, P = 0.005). In contrast, TAVI2-SCORe and STT score did not discriminate ‘non-high-risk’ and ‘high-risk’ patients. This was confirmed by Cox regression analysis [STS score >10%: hazard ratio: 2.484 (1.206–5.115), P = 0.014; OBSERVANT score >6: hazard ratio: 2.532 (1.295–4.952), P = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS In this single-centre study, OBSERVANT and STS score most accurately predicted early and mid-term survival in patients undergoing TAVI, using a self-expandable valve (CoreValve). PMID:26689444
Auffret, Vincent; Bedossa, Marc; Boulmier, Dominique; Verhoye, Jean Philippe; Ruggieri, Vito Giovanni; Koning, René; Laskar, Marc; Van Belle, Éric; Leprince, Pascal; Collet, Jean Philippe; Iung, Bernard; Lefèvre, Thierry; Eltchaninoff, Helene; Gilard, Martine; Le Breton, Hervé
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not suitable for surgery or should be considered when there is a high surgical risk as assessed by a heart team. There is a decrease in mean logistic EuroSCORE since January 2010, which translates a gradual evolution in patients' selection. Expertise of geriatricians to further assess frailty is a key step in the risk stratification process of this elderly population (mean age: 83.4±7.3 years). Femoral access is used in 80% of cases with a procedural success rate higher than 95%. In-hospital mortality rate is 5.9%. The main complications of the procedure are aortic annulus rupture (0.9% in FRANCE TAVI), tamponade (2.3%), stroke (2.2%), severe paravalvular leak (1.3%) and permanent pacemaker implantation (15%). The awaited results of PARTNER II and SURTAVI may lead to expand the indications to lower-risk patients if it is shown that TAVI is non-inferior to surgery in this population which has been suggested by the recent randomized NOTION Trial while the CoreValve Pivotal Trial even points in the direction of a possible superiority of the percutaneous technique over surgery.
Attia, Rizwan Q.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Bridgewater, Ben; Roxburgh, James C.; Kumar, Pankaj; Ridley, Paul; Bhabra, Moninder; Millner, Russell W. J.; Athanasiou, Thanos; Casula, Roberto; Chukwuemka, Andrew; Pillay, Thasee; Young, Christopher P.
Objective Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has been demonstrated as a safe and effective option but remains underused. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of isolated MIAVR compared with conventional aortic valve replacement (CAVR). Methods Data from The National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) were analyzed at seven volunteer centers (2006–2012). Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and midterm survival. Secondary outcomes were postoperative length of stay as well as cumulative bypass and cross-clamp times. Propensity modeling with matched cohort analysis was used. Results Of 307 consecutive MIAVR patients, 151 (49%) were performed during the last 2 years of study with a continued increase in numbers. The 307 MIAVR patients were matched on a 1:1 ratio. In the matched CAVR group, there was no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality [MIAVR, 4/307,(1.3%); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%–3.4% vs CAVR, 6/307 (2.0%); 95% CI, 0.8%–4.3%; P = 0.752]. One-year survival rates in the MIAVR and CAVR groups were 94.4% and 94.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in midterm survival (P = 0.677; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56–1.46). Median postoperative length of stay was lower in the MIAVR patients by 1 day (P = 0.009). The mean cumulative bypass time (94.8 vs 91.3 minutes; P = 0.333) and cross-clamp time (74.6 vs 68.4 minutes; P = 0.006) were longer in the MIAVR group; however, this was significant only in the cross-clamp time comparison. Conclusions Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is a safe alternative to CAVR with respect to operative and 1-year mortality and is associated with a shorter postoperative stay. Further studies are required in high-risk (logistic EuroSCORE > 10) patients to define the role of MIAVR. PMID:26926521
Kim, Yong Han; Kim, Ji Seong; Choi, Jae-Woong; Chang, Hyoung Woo; Na, Kwon Joong; Kim, Jun Sung; Kim, Kyung-Hwan
Background Although unique aortic pathology related to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been previously reported, clinical implications of BAV to aortopathy risk have yet to be investigated. We looked for potential differences in matrix protein expressions in the aortic wall in BAV patients. Methods Aorta specimens were obtained from 31 patients: BAV group (n=27), tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) group (n=4). The BAV group was categorized into three subgroups: left coronary sinus-right coronary sinus (R+L group; n=13, 42%), right coronary sinus-non-coronary sinus (R+N group; n=8, 26%), and anteroposterior (AP group; n=6, 19%). We analyzed the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. Results Based on the mean value of the control group, BAV group showed decreased expression of eNOS in 72.7% of patients, increased MMP-9 in 82.3%, and decreased TIMP in 79.2%. There was a higher tendency for aortopathy in the BAV group: eNOS (BAV:TAV)= 53%±7%:57%±11%, MMP-9 (BAV:TAV)=48%±10%:38%±1%. The AP group showed lower expression of eNOS than the fusion (R+L, R+N) group did; 48%±5% vs. 55%±7% (p=0.081). Conclusion Not all patients with BAV had expression of aortopathy; however, for patients who had a suspicious form of bicuspid valve, aortic wall biopsy could be valuable to signify the presence of aortopathy. PMID:27965921
Lio, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Ferrarini, Matteo; Glauber, Mattia
Little experience exists in minimally invasive treatment of double-valve disease. In this report, we present a minimally invasive approach for mitral and aortic valve disease through a minithoracotomy in the 3rd intercostal space with a sutureless aortic prosthesis implantation. © The Author 2016. Published by MMCTS on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Kanamori, Taro; Ichihara, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Hidehito; Inoue, Takehiko
Aorto-left ventricular continuity destruction due to prosthetic valve endocarditis is rare, but it is one of the fatal complications after aortic root operation. We report a case of surgical treatment for prosthetic valve endocarditis after aortic root replacement. A 47-year-old man, who had undergone aortic root replacement with a composite graft was transferred to our hospital with sudden chest pain and high fever. Enhanced computed tomography showed a large space with contrast enhancement suggesting perivalvular leakage around the artificial composite graft. Emergency operation including aortic root re-replacement and reconstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract was performed successfully. We focused on its technical aspect.
Elkharbotly, Ali; Delago, Augustin; El-Hajjar, Mohammad
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is well established for patients who cannot undergo surgery (Leon et al., N Engl J Med 2010;363:1597) or are high risk for surgery (Smith et al., N Engl J Med 2011;364:2187-2198). Experience with the TAVR procedure has led to recent reports of successful transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures (Cheung et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:1814; Seiffert et al., J Am Coll Cardiol Interv 2012;5:341-349) separately or simultaneously with the TAVR. However, these reports were of simultaneous valve-in-valve procedures (Cheung Anson, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:1759-1766). A recent report from Portugal also reported simultaneous transpical implantation of an inverted transcatheter aortic valve-in-ring in the mitral position and transcatheter aortic valve (Hasan et al., Circulation 2013;128:e74-e76). There has been an experience of TMVR only in native mitral valve for mitral valve stenosis, but none in both aortic and mitral valves. We report the first in human case of simultaneous transapical TAVR and TMVR in native valves secondary to valvular stenosis. Our patient was not a candidate for percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty secondary to a high Wilkins Score. Sizing of the aortic valve was based on the transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), whereas sizing of the mitral valve was based on TEE measurements and balloon inflation during left ventriculography. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Debry, Nicolas; Sudre, Arnaud; Elquodeimat, Ibrahim; Delhaye, Cédric; Schurtz, Guillaume; Bical, Antoine; Koussa, Mohamad; Fattouch, Khalil; Modine, Thomas
Background Postprocedural aortic regurgitations following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures remain an issue. Benefit of oversizing strategies to prevent them isn't well established. We compared different level of oversizing in our cohort of consecutive patients to address if severe oversizing compared to normal sizing had an impact on post-procedural outcomes. Methods From January 2010 to August 2013, consecutive patients were referred for TAVI with preoperative Multislice-CT (MSCT) and the procedures were achieved using Edwards Sapien® or Corevalve devices®. Retrospectively, according to pre-procedural MSCT and the valve size, patients were classified into three groups: normal, moderate and severe oversizing; depending on the ratio between the prosthesis area and the annulus area indexed and measured on MSCT. Main endpoint was mid-term mortality and secondary endpoints were the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2) endpoints. Results Two hundred and sixty eight patients had a MSCT and underwent TAVI procedure, with mainly Corevalve®. While all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were similar in all groups, post-procedural new pacemaker (PM) implantation rate was significantly higher in the severe oversizing group (P = 0.03), while we observed more in-hospital congestive heart-failure (P = 0.02) in the normal sizing group. There was a trend toward more moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) in the normal sizing group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Despite a higher rate of PM implantation, oversizing based on this ratio reduces aortic leak with lower rates of post-procedural complications and a similar mid-term survival. PMID:27582762
Sogawa, M; Kasuya, S; Yamamoto, K; Koshika, M; Oguma, F; Hayashi, J
Werner's syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by premature aging and scleroderma-like involvement of the skin. We report a case of aortic valve replacement for severely calcified aortic valve stenosis with a small annulus in a patient suffering from Werner's syndrome and liver cirrhosis
Sehatzadeh, Shayan; Tu, Hong-Anh; Holubowich, Corinne; Higgins, Caroline
Background Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the gold standard for treating aortic valve stenosis. It is a major operation that requires sternotomy and the use of a heart-lung bypass machine, but in appropriately selected patients with symptomatic, severe aortic valve stenosis, the benefits of SAVR usually outweigh the harms. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a less invasive procedure that allows an artificial valve to be implanted over the poorly functioning valve. Methods We identified and analyzed randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of TAVI compared with SAVR or balloon aortic valvuloplasty and were published before September 2015. The quality of the body of evidence for each outcome was examined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. The overall quality was determined to be high, moderate, low, or very low using a step-wise, structural methodology. We also developed a Markov decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of TAVI compared with SAVR over a 5-year time horizon, and we conducted a 5-year budget impact analysis. Results Rates of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were similar for the TAVI and SAVR groups in all studies except one, which reported significantly lower all-cause mortality in the TAVI group and a higher rate of stroke in the SAVR group. Trials of high-risk patients who were not suitable candidates for SAVR showed significantly better survival with TAVI than with balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Median survival in the TAVI group was 31 months, compared with 11.7 months in the balloon aortic valvuloplasty group. Compared with SAVR, TAVI was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke, major vascular complications, paravalvular aortic regurgitation, and the need for a permanent pacemaker. SAVR was associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Transapical TAVI was associated with higher
Kubota, Takehiro; Wakasa, Satoru; Shingu, Yasushige; Matsui, Yoshiro
Unicuspid aortic valve in an adult is extremely rare. In addition, 90% of the patients with aortic coarctation are reported to die before the age 50. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination of exertional dyspnea which had begun one year before. She had been under medical treatment for hypertension since early thirties, and had been also diagnosed with moderate aortic stenosis at 50 years of age. She was at 1st diagnosed with aortic coarctation combined with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The aortic valve was then found unicuspid and was replaced under cardiopulmonary bypass with perfusion to both the ascending aorta and the femoral artery. Repair of aortic coarctation was performed 3 months later through left thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation due to the rich collateral circulation. She had no postoperative complications, and hypertension as well as ankle-brachial index improved to the normal levels.
Vola, Marco; Fuzellier, Jean-Francois; Kasra, Azarnoush; Morel, Jérôme; Campisi, Salvatore; Ruggeri, Gianvito; Favre, Jean Pierre
The case is reported of a surgical aortic valvular stenosis with a severely calcified ascending aortic root in a 76-year-old woman. The morphology and size of the aortic annulus were unsuitable for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI); thus, surgery was scheduled. Aortic calcifications allowed a transverse aortotomy 4 cm superior to the sinotubular junction, with a remote endoaortic view of the valve. A Medtronic 3f Enable sutureless bioprosthesis was then implanted after aortic annular decalcification. Sutureless bioprostheses are new tools that promise to reduce technical difficulties and cross-clamp times in minimally invasive aortic valve replacement surgery. In addition, sutureless techniques may have other possible advantages in special circumstances requiring full sternotomy access, such as in the present case.
Bashar, Abul Hasan Muhammad; Kazui, Teruhisa; Washiyama, Naoki; Yamashita, Katsushi; Terada, Hitoshi; Ohkura, Kazuhiro
Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a relatively rare condition associated with high mortality. Endocarditis affecting 2 successive mechanical valves at the aortic position has not, to the best of our knowledge, been described. We reported such a patient whose condition was further complicated by mitral regurgitation, pulmonary hypertension, worsening heart failure, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Considering the failure of 2 previous mechanical valves, we conducted a homograft replacement of the aortic root with coronary reattachment. Mitral regurgitation was treated by annuloplasty. The patient's early postoperative course was uneventful and he was doing well 16 months after surgery. We discuss the overall treatment strategy for recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and potential homograft advantages.
Nistri, S; Sorbo, M; Marin, M; Palisi, M; Scognamiglio, R; Thiene, G
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the dimensions of the aortic root in a selected population of young males with isolated normally functioning bicuspid aortic valve. DESIGN AND SETTING—Echocardiographic and Doppler evaluation of conscripts with bicuspid aortic valve at the time of military pre-enrolment screening in two military hospitals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS—66 consecutive young men with a normally functioning bicuspid aortic valve were studied to assess aortic size at four aortic levels: annulus, sinuses of Valsalva, supra-aortic ridge, and proximal ascending aorta; 70 consecutive normal young subjects, matched for age and body surface area, were used as controls. RESULTS—In men with a bicuspid aortic valve, the diameter of the aortic root was significantly larger than in controls at the sinuses (3.16 (0.37) v 2.87 (0.31) cm, p < 0.001), at the supra-aortic ridge (2.64 (0.46) v 2.47 (0.28) cm, p = 0.01), and at the level of the proximal ascending aorta (3.12 (0.48) v 2.69 (0.28) cm, p < 0.001). The prevalence of aortic root dilatation was 7.5% at the annulus (5/66), 19.6% at the sinuses (13/66), 15% at the supra-aortic ridge (10/66), and 43.9% at the ascending aorta (29/66); 32 subjects (48%) had aortic root dimensions comparable with controls, while 34 (52%) had definitely abnormal aortic root dimensions. CONCLUSIONS—Aortic root enlargement in people with a bicuspid aortic valve occurs independently of haemodynamic abnormalities, age, and body size. However, there appear to be different subgroups of young adults with bicuspid aortic valves, one of which is characterised by aortic dilatation, possibly caused by a congenital abnormality of the aortic wall. Keywords: bicuspid aortic valve; aortic root dilatation PMID:10377302
Leung Wai Sang, Stephane; Bavaria, Joseph E; Giri, Jay S; Wickramasinghe, Rasi; Desai, Nimesh
The presence of thoracic aortic aneurysms, particularly in the ascending aorta and arch, presents a challenge to transcatheter aortic valve replacement. We present a case of TAVR in the presence of a chronic ascending aortic aneurysm. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12724 (J Card Surg 2016;31:318-320).
Minol, Jan-Philipp; Veulemans, Verena; Zeus, Tobias; Blehm, Alexander
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emerging treatment for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. Aortic regurgitation is considered to be a relative contraindication for transcatheter procedures, as a non-calcified aortic annulus poses the risk of an insufficient anchoring of the transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis. Herein is described the case of a patient who suffered from recurrent aortic valve regurgitation after valve-sparing repair, and which was successfully treated by the transcatheter implantation of an Edwards SAPIEN 3™ prosthesis. This case report demonstrated the suitability of this prosthesis to treat pure aortic valve regurgitation, without excessive oversizing of the valve.
Grbic, Saša; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Zäuner, Dominik; Zheng, Yefeng; Georgescu, Bogdan; Comaniciu, Dorin
Aortic valve disorders are the most frequent form of valvular heart disorders (VHD) affecting nearly 3% of the global population. A large fraction among them are aortic root diseases, such as aortic root aneurysm, often requiring surgical procedures (valve-sparing) as a treatment. Visual non-invasive assessment techniques could assist during pre-selection of adequate patients, planning procedures and afterward evaluation of the same. However state of the art approaches try to model a rather short part of the aortic root, insufficient to assist the physician during intervention planning. In this paper we propose a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of both the aortic valve and the ascending aortic root. A novel physiological shape model is introduced, consisting of the aortic valve root, leaflets and the ascending aortic root. The model parameters are hierarchically estimated using robust and fast learning-based methods. Experiments performed on 63 CT sequences (630 Volumes) and 20 single phase CT volumes demonstrated an accuracy of 1.45mm and an performance of 30 seconds (3D+t) for this approach. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a complete model of the aortic valve (including leaflets) and the ascending aortic root, estimated from CT, has been proposed.
Ranney, David N.; Williams, Judson B.; Wang, Andrew; Gaca, Jeffrey G.
Background Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) procedures are an alternative to standard surgical valve replacement in high risk patients. Methods Cases in which a commercially approved transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) device was used for a non-aortic VIV procedure between November 2013 and September 2015 are reviewed. Clinical, echocardiographic, and procedural details, patient survival, and symptom severity by NYHA class at follow-up were assessed. Results All patients were heart-team determined high-risk for conventional redo surgery (mean STS PROM = 6.8 ± 2.2%). Five patients underwent VIV replacement in the non-aortic position, 4 for bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction and one for bioprosthetic tricuspid valve dysfunction. Bioprosthetic failure was due to stenosis in 3 patients and regurgitation in 2 others. A balloon-expandable device was used for all patients (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). Transcatheter VIV replacement was accomplished by the transapical (mitral) and transfemoral venous (tricuspid) approaches. Median post-operative length of stay was 5 days (range 3-12). No deaths occurred at a mean follow-up of 21 months. NYHA class at follow-up decreased from class IV at baseline to class I or II for all patients. No paravalvular leaks greater than trivial were encountered. Median mean gradient following mitral replacement was 6.5 mmHg (range 6-13 mmHg), and following tricuspid replacement was 4 mmHg. Post-operative complications included hematuria, epistaxis, acute kidney injury, and atrial fibrillation. Conclusions Transcatheter VIV implantation in the non-aortic position for dysfunctional bioprostheses can be performed safely with favorable clinical outcomes using a balloon expandable TAVR device. PMID:27059552
Swinkels, B.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Wely, L. Relik-van; van Swieten, H.A.; Ernst, J.M.P.G.; Plokker, H.W.M.
This case report describes a patient with severe calcific aortic stenosis who was initially considered inoperable because of a very poor left ventricular function and severe pulmonary hypertension. After balloon aortic valvuloplasty, the clinical and haemodynamic status of the patient improved to such an extent that subsequent aortic valve replacement was considered possible and eventually proved to be successful. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty has value as a potential bridge to aortic valve replacement when the risks for surgery are considered to be too high. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696195
Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H
Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881
Klaaborg, Kaj Erik; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Jensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Terp, Kim Allan; Andersen, Gratien; Hvitfeldt, Steen; Andersen, Henning Rud
Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is a potential life threatening complication. Better understanding of the incidence, predictors, clinical presentation, diagnostic measures, complications and management of PVE may help improve TAVI long-term outcome. We report a case of TAVI-PVE in an 80-year-old high risk patient in whom SAVR was successfully performed. We have reviewed literature regarding TAVI-PVE. PMID:27867590
Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi
Limited data exis t on clinical relevance of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC), although with similar pathophysiologic basis. We sought to reveal the prevalence of MAC and its clinical features in the patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AVS. We reviewed 106 consecutive patients who underwent isolated AVR from 2004 to 2010. Before AVR, CT scans were performed to identify MAC, whose severity was graded on a scale of 0-4, with grade 0 denoting no MAC and grade 4 indicating severe MAC. Echocardiography was performed before AVR and at follow-up over 2 years after AVR. MAC was identified in 56 patients with grade 1 (30 %), 2 (39 %), 3 (18 %), and 4 (13 %), respectively. Patients with MAC presented older age (72 ± 8 versus 66 ± 11 years), higher rate of dialysis-dependent renal failure (43 versus 4 %), and less frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (9 versus 36 %), when compared to those without MAC. No significant differences were seen in short- and mid-term mortality after AVR between the groups. In patients with MAC, progression of neither mitral regurgitation nor stenosis was observed at follow-up of 53 ± 23 months for 102 survivors, although the transmitral flow velocities were higher than in those without MAC. In conclusion, MAC represented 53 % of the patients undergoing isolated AVR for AVS, usually appeared in dialysis-dependent elder patients with tricuspid AVS. MAC does not affect adversely upon the survival, without progression of mitral valve disease, at least within 2 years after AVR.
Pierard, Luc A; Dulgheru, Raluca
Aortic valve disease and especially aortic stenosis (AS) is a growing cardiac pathology. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is still the only treatment with proven benefit on survival in symptomatic patients and in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%. The benefit of prophylactic AVR in asymptomatic patients is still unproven. Once symptoms develop, the prognosis worsens. Exercise testing has emerged as a tool to unmask the "pseudo-asymptomatic" patients with AS (those without self-reporting symptoms), to link "exercise induced dyspnea" more confidently and more objectively to aortic valve disease and to allow for a safe "watchful waiting strategy" in "pseudo-symptomatic" patients (those with dyspnea unrelated to aortic valve disease). In cases in which exercise testing is unable to link dyspnea to aortic valve disease, exercise stress echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be helpful. Whatever the results of exercise testing with regard to symptom development, an increase in mean aortic valve pressure gradient >18-20 mmHg was associated with an increased risk of cardiac related events in severe AS patients (class IIb indication for AVR in the ESC guidelines). The decrease in LVEF during exercise as well as the development of exercise induced pulmonary hypertension, as revealed by exercise stress echocardiography, may be also useful in the risk stratification of these asymptomatic patients with severe AS. Data on the role of exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic severe aortic regurgitation patients is still scarce and further studies are needed. It seems that an exercise induced decrease in LVEF by 5% may be a better predictor of LV systolic dysfunction after AVR in asymptomatic patients or in patients with minimal symptoms. Exercise testing and exercise echocardiography are safe in the asymptomatic patients with aortic disease, provide useful clinical information that may help in risk assessment of these complicated
Chester, Adrian H.; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Latif, Najma; Bertazzo, Sergio; Yacoub, Magdi H.
The aortic valve lies in a unique hemodynamic environment, one characterized by a range of stresses (shear stress, bending forces, loading forces and strain) that vary in intensity and direction throughout the cardiac cycle. Yet, despite its changing environment, the aortic valve opens and closes over 100,000 times a day and, in the majority of human beings, will function normally over a lifespan of 70–90 years. Until relatively recently heart valves were considered passive structures that play no active role in the functioning of a valve, or in the maintenance of its integrity and durability. However, through clinical experience and basic research the aortic valve can now be characterized as a living, dynamic organ with the capacity to adapt to its complex mechanical and biomechanical environment through active and passive communication between its constituent parts. The clinical relevance of a living valve substitute in patients requiring aortic valve replacement has been confirmed. This highlights the importance of using tissue engineering to develop heart valve substitutes containing living cells which have the ability to assume the complex functioning of the native valve. PMID:25054122
Gasparović, Hrvoje; Zupancic-Salek, Silva; Brida, Vojtjeh; Dulić, Grgur; Jelić, Ivan
Hemophilia A is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by factor VIII deficiency. The basis for insufficient hemostasis lies within inadequate amplification of factor Xa production with the undersupplied factor VIII. We report on a young patient with critical aortic stenosis bearing all the clinical stigmata of severe hemophilia, in whom aortic valve replacement was performed with a tissue valve in order to avoid the need for long term anticoagulation.
Ottervanger, J.P.; Thomas, K.; Sie, T.H.; Haalebos, M.M.P.; Zijlstra, F.
Background Because of a high prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve disease, coronary angiography is recommended before aortic valve replacement. However, during the last three decades, a decline in mortality due to coronary heart disease has been observed in the general population in both Western Europe and the United States. It is unknown whether preoperative angiography is still mandatory in all patients. Aim To assess the prevalence of angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve replacement and trends during a ten-year period. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement between 1988 and 1998 in our institution. Patients with a history of coronary artery disease and patients younger than 25 years were excluded. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as one or more coronary artery luminal stenosis of 50% or more on preoperative coronary angiography. Results During the study period 1339 patients had aortic valve replacement in our institution, data on 1322 (98%) were available for analysis. Previous coronary artery disease was documented in 124 patients (10%). After exclusion of 17 patients (no angiography), data on a total of 1181 patients were analysed. Coronary atherosclerosis was present in 472 patients (40%) on preoperative coronary angiography. Several well-known risk factors of ischaemic heart disease were associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The prevalence of angiographically defined coronary atherosclerosis varied between 30% and 50% per year. There was, however, no significant trend during the study period. Multivariate analyses, to adjust for potential differences in risk factors during the observation period, did not change this conclusion. Conclusions The prevalence of angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients scheduled for aortic valve replacement is still high. From 1988 to 1998, no significant change
Yosefy, Chaim; Berman, Michael; Beeri, Ronen
A 28 year old woman underwent echocardiography following an incidental finding of a diastolic murmur. She has been taking phentermine for weight reduction for 8 months. Trans-esophageal echocardiography revealed a tear of the posterior cusp of the aortic valve causing severe regurgitation. Phentermine is known to cause valvular disease with prolonged use, but aortic valve rupture was not previously reported as a complication of phentermine valvulopathy.
Nader, Joseph; Labont, Béatris Alina; Houpe, David; Caus, Thierry
Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right coronary sinus is rarely diagnosed in elderly patients. We report such an anomaly in a 75-year-old lady presenting with chest pain and syncope. Preoperative screening revealed that her aortic valve was moderately stenotic. The patient underwent a successful unroofing procedure combined with aortic valve replacement. The outcome was uncomplicated and the patient remained asymptomatic at one year postoperatively. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sitges, M.; Kapadia, S.; Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.; Tuzcu, M. E.; Lever, H. M.
When left ventricular outflow tract obstruction develops after aortic valve replacement, few treatment choices have been available until now. We present a patient with prior aortic valve replacement who developed left ventricle outflow tract obstruction that was successfully treated with a percutaneous transcoronary myocardial septal alcohol ablation. This technique is a useful tool for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, especially in those patients with prior heart surgery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sitges, M.; Kapadia, S.; Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.; Tuzcu, M. E.; Lever, H. M.
When left ventricular outflow tract obstruction develops after aortic valve replacement, few treatment choices have been available until now. We present a patient with prior aortic valve replacement who developed left ventricle outflow tract obstruction that was successfully treated with a percutaneous transcoronary myocardial septal alcohol ablation. This technique is a useful tool for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, especially in those patients with prior heart surgery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
David, Tirone E; David, Carolyn M; Manlhiot, Cedric; Colman, Jack; Crean, Andrew M; Bradley, Timothy
In many cardiac units, aortic valve-sparing operations have become the preferred surgical procedure to treat aortic root aneurysm in patients with Marfan syndrome, based on relatively short-term outcomes. This study examined the long-term outcomes of aortic valve-sparing operations in patients with Marfan syndrome. All patients with Marfan syndrome operated on for aortic root aneurysm from 1988 through 2012 were followed prospectively for a median of 10 years. Follow-up was 100% complete. Time-to-event analyses were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test for comparisons. A total of 146 patients with Marfan syndrome had aortic valve-sparing operations. Reimplantation of the aortic valve was performed in 121 and remodeling of the aortic root was performed in 25 patients. Mean age was 35.7 ± 11.4 years and two-thirds were men. Nine patients had acute, 2 had chronic type A, and 3 had chronic type B aortic dissections before surgery. There were 1 operative and 6 late deaths, 5 caused by complications of dissections. Mortality rate at 15 years was 6.8 ± 2.9%, higher than the general population matched for age and sex. Five patients required reoperation on the aortic valve: 2 for endocarditis and 3 for aortic insufficiency. Three patients developed severe, 4 moderate, and 3 mild-to-moderate aortic insufficiency. Rate of aortic insufficiency at 15 years was 7.9 ± 3.3%, lower after reimplantation than remodeling. Nine patients developed new distal aortic dissections during follow-up. Rate of dissection at 15 years was 16.5 ± 3.4%. Aortic valve-sparing operations in patients with Marfan syndrome were associated with low rates of valve-related complications in long-term follow-up. Residual and new aortic dissections were the leading cause of death. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weisburst, M R; Singh, A K; Riley, R S
A case of aortic ball valve prosthesis malfunction is described in which the poppet became alternately stuck in the open and closed position. The patient experienced chest pain followed by pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest. Malfunction of prosthetic valve was diagnosed on echocardiogram and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was carried out until a Bjork-Shiley valve could be inserted in place of the faulty prosthesis. At the time of the operation, poppet migration had occurred and the poppet could not be found. Subsequent Bjork-Shiley aortic valve prosthesis dysfunction was suggested by variation in the intensity of the aortic opening sound and in the duration of the systolic ejection period. Fluoroscopy revealed the missing poppet in the left ventricle. Following surgical removal of the poppet, "normal" Bjork-Shiley valve function was restored.
Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Tsymbal, Alexey; Vitanovski, Dime; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Navab, Nassir; Comaniciu, Dorin
Disorders of the aortic valve represent a common cardiovascular disease and an important public-health problem worldwide. Pathological valves are currently determined from 2D images through elaborate qualitative evalu- ations and complex measurements, potentially inaccurate and tedious to acquire. This paper presents a novel diagnostic method, which identies diseased valves based on 3D geometrical models constructed from volumetric data. A parametric model, which includes relevant anatomic landmarks as well as the aortic root and lea ets, represents the morphology of the aortic valve. Recently developed robust segmentation methods are applied to estimate the patient specic model parameters from end-diastolic cardiac CT volumes. A discriminative distance function, learned from equivalence constraints in the product space of shape coordinates, determines the corresponding pathology class based on the shape information encoded by the model. Experiments on a heterogeneous set of 63 patients aected by various diseases demonstrated the performance of our method with 94% correctly classied valves.
Brown, John W; Boyd, Jack H; Patel, Parth M; Baker, Mary L; Syed, Amjad; Ladowski, Joe; Corvera, Joel
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is currently offered to patients who are high-risk candidates for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. For the past 37 years, off-pump aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been used in elderly patients at our center for this similarly high-risk group. Although TAVR and AVB were offered to similar patients at our center, comparisons of clinical outcomes and hospital economics for each strategy were not reported. We reviewed the clinical and financial records of 53 consecutive AVB procedures performed since 2008 with the records of 51 consecutive TAVR procedures performed since 2012. Data included demographics, hemodynamics, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score, extent of coronary disease, and ventricular function. Follow-up was 100% in both groups. Hospital financial information for both cohorts was obtained. Mean risk score for the TAVR group was 10.1% versus 17.6% for AVB group (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier hospital rates of 3- and 6-month survival and of 1-year survival were 88%, 86%, 81%, and 61% and 89%, 83%, 83%, and 70% for the TAVR and AVB groups, respectively (p = 0.781). Two patients who had undergone TAVR had a procedure-related stroke. The one stroke in an AVB recipient was late and not procedure related. At discharge, mild and moderate perivalvular and central aortic insufficiency were present in 31% and 16% of TAVR recipients, respectively; no AVB valve leaked. Transvalvular gradients were reduced to less than 10 mm Hg in both groups. The average hospital length of stay for the AVB-treated patients was 13 days, and it was 9 days for the TAVR-treated patients. Median hospital charges were $253,000 for TAVR and $158,000 for AVB. Mean payment to the hospital was $65,000 (TAVR) versus $64,000 (AVB), and the mean positive contribution margin (profit) to the hospital was $14,000 for TAVR versus $29,000 for AVB. TAVR and AVB relieve aortic stenosis and have similar and acceptable procedural mortality
Nascimbene, Angelo; Azpurua, Federico; Livesay, James J.; Fish, R. David
We describe transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient who had severe peripheral artery disease. The patient's vascular condition required additional preliminary peripheral intervention to enable adequate vascular access. A 78-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis, substantial comorbidities, and severe heart failure symptoms was referred for aortic valve replacement. The patient's 20-mm aortic annulus necessitated the use of a 23-mm Edwards Sapien valve inserted through a 22F sheath, which itself needed a vessel diameter of at least 7 mm for percutaneous delivery. The left common femoral artery was selected for valve delivery. The left iliac artery and infrarenal aorta underwent extensive intervention to achieve an intraluminal diameter larger than 7 mm. After aortic valvuloplasty, valve deployment was successful, and the transaortic gradient decreased from 40 mmHg to less than 5 mmHg. The patient was discharged from the hospital 4 days postoperatively. We conclude that transcatheter aortic valve implantation can be successfully performed in patients with obstructed vascular access, including stenosis of the infrarenal aorta and the subclavian and coronary arteries. PMID:25873826
Bossé, Yohan; Huggins, Gordon S; Corte, Alessandro Della; Pibarot, Philippe; Michelena, Hector I.; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Boulanger, Marie‐Chloé; Evangelista, Arturo; Bédard, Elisabeth; Citro, Rodolfo; Body, Simon C; Nemer, Mona; Schoen, Frederick J
Abstract Bicuspid aortic valve is the most prevalent cardiac valvular malformation. It is associated with a high rate of long‐term morbidity including development of calcific aortic valve disease, aortic regurgitation and concomitant thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Recently, basic and translational studies have identified some key processes involved in the development of bicuspid aortic valve and its morbidity. The development of aortic valve disease and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection is the result of complex interactions between genotypes, environmental risk factors and specific haemodynamic conditions created by bicuspid aortic valve anatomy. Herein, we review the pathobiology of bicuspid aortic valve with a special emphasis on translational aspects of these basic findings. Important but unresolved problems in the pathology of bicuspid aortic valve and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are discussed, along with the molecular processes involved. PMID:27499904
Choudhury, Arindam; Magoon, Rohan; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Rajashekar, P.
Aortic root surgical anatomy and knowledge of the various homograft implantation techniques is of paramount importance to the attending anesthesiologist for echocardiographic correlation, estimation and accurately predicting aortic annular dimensions for the valve replacement in a case of diseased homograft. PMID:27716714
Mokhles, M Mostafa; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Bekkers, Jos A; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Blackstone, Eugene H
This study describes echocardiographic allograft valve function over time in a cohort of patients who were prospectively followed after allograft aortic valve or root replacement, illustrating the use of longitudinal data analysis for assessing valve function over time. Serial, standardized echocardiographic measurements of aortic regurgitation, aortic gradient, annulus diameter, left ventricular outflow tract diameter, and aortic diameter in 301 hospital survivors (mean age, 46 years; range, 16-83 years) after allograft aortic valve (N=77) or root (N=224) replacement were analyzed using nonlinear longitudinal models. Aortic regurgitation increased over time. At 15 years, 41% of patients had at least moderate aortic regurgitation. Younger patient age and subcoronary implantation technique were associated with increased aortic regurgitation. Aortic gradient increased over time (from 9.4 mm Hg at 6 months to 21.3 mm Hg at 15 years); both initial and increase in aortic gradient were greater in younger patients and after subcoronary implantation technique. Annulus diameter slightly increased (from 21.9 mm at 6 months to 22.4 mm at 15 years), whereas aortic diameter slightly decreased over time (from 34.3 mm at 6 months to 32.7 mm at 15 years). Left ventricular outflow tract diameter remained constant at 22 mm. Younger patients in the subcoronary implantation group had a larger annulus diameter. Both aortic regurgitation and stenosis increase over time after allograft aortic valve or root replacement. Younger patient age and use of the subcoronary implantation technique are associated with increased regurgitation and stenosis. The use of nonlinear longitudinal models allows for an insightful analysis of allograft valve function over time. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mokráček, Aleš; Kurfirst, Vojtěch
Sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) was developed as an alternative treatment option to conventional open-heart surgery and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for “gray zone” patients. The need for concurrent mitral valve surgery is generally viewed as a contraindication to sutureless AVR. The purpose of this brief paper is to report our experiences with sutureless valves in patients after previous cardiac procedures with degenerated aortic bioprostheses and concomitant mitral valve disease. PMID:28096837
Yao, Qingzhou; Song, Rui; Ao, Lihua; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a leading cardiovascular disorder in the elderly. Diseased aortic valves are characterized by sclerosis (fibrosis) and nodular calcification. Sclerosis, an early pathological change, is caused by aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, the mechanism of aortic valve sclerosis remains unclear. Recently, we observed that diseased human aortic valves overexpress growth factor neurotrophin 3 (NT3). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NT3 is a profibrogenic factor to human AVICs. AVICs isolated from normal human aortic valves were cultured in M199 growth medium and treated with recombinant human NT3 (0.10 µg/ml). An exposure to NT3 induced AVIC proliferation, upregulated the production of collagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and augmented collagen deposition. These changes were abolished by inhibition of the Trk receptors. NT3 induced Akt phosphorylation and increased cyclin D1 protein levels in a Trk receptor-dependent fashion. Inhibition of Akt abrogated the effect of NT3 on cyclin D1 production. Furthermore, inhibition of either Akt or cyclin D1 suppressed NT3-induced cellular proliferation and MMP-9 and collagen production, as well as collagen deposition. Thus, NT3 upregulates cellular proliferation, ECM protein production, and collagen deposition in human AVICs. It exerts these effects through the Trk-Akt-cyclin D1 cascade. NT3 is a profibrogenic mediator in human aortic valve, and overproduction of NT3 by aortic valve tissue may contribute to the mechanism of valvular sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Buellesfeld, Lutz; Gerckens, Ulrich; Grube, Eberhard
Percutaneous aortic valve replacement is a new less-invasive alternative for high-risk surgical candidates with aortic stenosis. However, the clinical experience is still limited, and the currently available 'first-generation devices' revealed technical shortcomings, such as lack of repositionability and presence of paravalvular leakages. We report the first-in-man experience with the new self-expanding Lotus Valve prosthesis composed of a nitinol frame with implemented bovine pericardial leaflets which is designed to address these issues, being repositionable and covered by a flexible membrane to seal paravalvular gaps. We implanted this prosthesis in a 93-year old patient presenting with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (valve area: 0.6 cm(2)). Surgical valve replacement had been declined due to comorbidities. We used a retrograde approach for insertion of the 21-French Lotus catheter loaded with the valve prosthesis via surgical cut-down to the external iliac artery. Positioning of the valve was guided by transesophageal echo and supra-aortic angiograms. The prosthesis was successfully inserted and deployed within the calcified native valve. Echocardiography immediately after device deployment showed a significant reduction of the transaortic mean pressure gradient (32 to 9 mmHg; final valve area 1.7 cm(2)) without evidence of residual aortic regurgitation. The postprocedural clinical status improved from NYHA-IV to NYHA-II. These results remained unchanged up to the 3 month follow-up. Successful percutaneous aortic valve replacement can be performed using the new self-expanding and repositionable Lotus valve for treatment of high-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis. Further studies are mandatory to assess device safety and efficacy in larger patient populations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Eldar, M; Motro, M; Rath, S; Schy, N; Neufeld, H N
Systolic closure of the aortic valve was found in 10 of 36 patients who underwent mitral valve replacement. Eight patients had early systolic closure, and two had mid-systolic closure. The left ventricular outflow tract dimension on M-mode and two dimensional echocardiograms, left ventricular posterior wall and septal thickness, left ventricular dimensions in systole and diastole, aortic valve opening, and mitral to aortic valve distance were not significantly different between patients with and without systolic closure of the aortic valve. Two of the 10 patients with systolic aortic valve closure were catheterised and in neither was there a gradient between the left ventricle and the aorta. The two patients with mid-systolic closure, however, were the patients who had the narrowest left ventricular outflow tract which could cause significant distortion of blood flow. Systolic closure of the aortic valve in patients with mitral valve replacement is probably not caused by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, though abnormalities in laminar flow from the left ventricular outflow tract may be involved. Images PMID:7082513
Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio
A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation.
Hinton, Robert B.; Adelman-Brown, Jennifer; Witt, Sandra; Krishnamurthy, Varun K.; Osinska, Hanna; Sakthivel, Bhuvaneswari; James, Jeanne F.; Li, Dean Y.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Mecham, Robert P.; Benson, D. Woodrow
Rationale Elastin is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is highly organized in heart valves and arteries. Because elastic fiber abnormalities are a central feature of degenerative valve disease, we hypothesized that elastin deficient mice would manifest viable heart valve disease. Objective To analyze valve structure and function in elastin insufficient mice (Eln+/−) at neonatal, juvenile, adult and aged adult stages. Methods and Results At birth, histochemical analysis demonstrated normal ECM organization in contrast to the aorta. However, at juvenile and adult stages thin elongated valves with ECM disorganization, including elastin fragment infiltration of the annulus, were observed. The valve phenotype worsened by the aged adult stage with overgrowth and proteoglycan replacement of the valve annulus. The progressive nature of elastin insufficiency was also shown by aortic mechanical testing that demonstrated incrementally abnormal tensile stiffness from juvenile to adult stages. Eln+/− mice demonstrated increased valve interstitial cell (VIC) proliferation at the neonatal stage and varied VIC activation at early and late stages. Gene expression profile analysis identified decreased TGF-β mediated fibrogenesis signaling in Eln+/− valve tissue. Juvenile Eln+/− mice demonstrated normal valve function, but progressive valve disease (predominantly aortic regurgitation) was identified in 17% of adult and 70% of aged adult Eln+/− mice by echocardiography. Conclusions These results identify the Eln+/− mouse as a model of latent aortic valve disease and establish a role for elastin dysregulation in valve pathogenesis. PMID:20576933
Petit, Christopher J; Gao, Kevin; Goldstein, Bryan H; Lang, Sean M; Gillespie, Scott E; Kim, Sung-In H; Sachdeva, Ritu
Aortic valve morphology has been invoked as intrinsic to outcomes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic valve stenosis. We sought to use aortic valve morphologic features to discriminate between valves that respond favorably or unfavorably to BAV, using aortic insufficiency (AI) as the primary outcome. All patients who underwent BAV at 2 large-volume pediatric centers from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Morphologic features assessed on pre-BAV echo included valve pattern (unicuspid, functional bicuspid, and true bicuspid), leaflet fusion length, leaflet excursion angle, and aortic valve opening area and on post-BAV echo included leaflet versus commissural tear. Primary end point was increase in AI (AI+) of ≥2°. Eighty-nine patients (median age 0.2 years) were included in the study (39 unicuspid, 41 functional bicuspid, and 9 true bicuspid valves). Unicuspid valves had a lower opening area (p <0.01) and greater fusion length (p = 0.01) compared with functional and true bicuspid valves. Valve gradient pre-BAV and post-BAV were not different among valve patterns. Of the 16 patients (18%) with AI+, 14 had leaflet tears (odds ratio 13.9, 3.8 to 50). True bicuspid valves had the highest rate (33%) of AI+. On multivariate analysis, leaflet tears were associated with AI+, with larger opening area pre-BAV and lower fusion length pre-BAV. AI+ was associated with larger pre-BAV opening area. Gradient relief was associated with reduced angle of excursion. Valve morphology influences outcomes after BAV. Valves with lesser fusion and larger valve openings have higher rates of leaflet tears which in turn are associated with AI.
Finn, Matthew; Green, Philip
In recent years, experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation has led to improved outcomes in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who may not have previously been considered for intervention. These patients are often frail with significant comorbid conditions. As the prevalence of AS increases, there is a need for improved assessment parameters to determine the patients most likely to benefit from this novel procedure. This review discusses the diagnostic criteria for severe AS and the trials available to aid in the decision to refer for aortic valve procedures in the elderly. PMID:25216621
Merk, Denis R; Karar, Mohamed Esmail; Chalopin, Claire; Holzhey, David; Falk, Volkmar; Mohr, Friedrich W; Burgert, Oliver
Aortic valve stenosis is one of the most frequently acquired valvular heart diseases, accounting for almost 70% of valvular cardiac surgery. Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation has recently become a suitable minimally invasive technique for high-risk and elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. In this article, we aim to automatically define a target area of valve implantation, namely, the area between the coronary ostia and the lowest points of two aortic valve cusps. Therefore, we present a new image-based tracking method of these aortic landmarks to assist in the placement of aortic valve prosthesis under live 2D fluoroscopy guidance. We propose a rigid intensity-based image registration technique for tracking valve landmarks in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences, based on a real-time alignment of a contrast image including the initialized manual valve landmarks to each image of sequence. The contrast image is automatically detected to visualize aortic valve features when the aortic root is filled with a contrast agent. Our registration-based tracking method has been retrospectively applied to 10 fluoroscopic image sequences from routine transapical aortic valve implantation procedures. Most of all tested fluoroscopic images showed a successful tracking of valve landmarks, especially for the images without contrast agent injections. A new intraoperative image-based method has been developed for tracking aortic valve landmarks in live 2D fluoroscopic images to assist transapical aortic valve implantations and to increase the overall safety of surgery as well.
Bharucha, Tara; Fernandes, Fernanda; Slorach, Cameron; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark Kevin
Pressure gradient is used for timing of balloon aortic valvuloplasty for aortic stenosis (AS) in children, but does not correlate well with outcome and is limited if ventricular function is poor. In adults, effective orifice area (EOA) is used to assess AS severity, but EOA by continuity equation or 2D echo is unreliable in children. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) may reliably assess EOA but has not been studied in children. We assessed measurement of aortic valve EOA by 3DE in children with AS before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty and compared results with change in aortic valve gradient. 3DE was performed at time of catheterization before and after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Using 3DE multiplanar review mode, valve annulus diameter, area, and EOA were measured and compared with change in aortic gradient and degree of aortic insufficiency. Twenty-four 3DE studies in 12 children (mean age 4.4 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. EOA was measurable in all. Catheter peak gradient decreased from 45 ± 10 to 26 ± 17 mmHg (P = 0.0018). 3DE EOA increased after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (0.59 ± 0.52 cm(2) vs 0.80 ± 0.70 cm(2) ; P = 0.03), without change in valve diameter. EOA change correlated with change in peak (r = 0.77; P = 0.005) and mean (r = 0.60; P = 0.03) aortic valve gradient post balloon aortic valvuloplasty. 3DE facilitates EOA measurement in pediatric AS and correlates with change in aortic valve gradient after balloon valvuloplasty. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Raffa, Hassan; Al-Ibrahim, K.; Sorefan, A. Aniff; Narayanan, Lakshmi
During reoperation for replacement of a regurgitant aortic bioprosthesis (a 23-mm bovine pericardial valve), it was judged that total removal of the valve would be difficult, and hazardous to the patient. Therefore, its leaflets were excised and its sewing ring left in situ. A 21-mm Carbomedics bileaflet mechanical valve was sutured to the bioprosthetic sewing ring and implanted in the orifice of the bioprosthesis, resulting in excellent hemodynamic performance. We report this new technique to illustrate its feasibility, safety, and efficiency, as an alternative to complete removal of defective prostheses in the aortic position. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:199-201) Images PMID:15227480
Chiam, P T; Koh, T H; Chao, V T; Lee, C Y; See Tho, V Y; Tan, S Y; Lim, S T; Hwang, N C; Sin, Y K; Chua, Y L
Surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the standard of care for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS), providing relief of symptoms and prolonging survival. However, many patients are either denied or not offered surgery due to high surgical risk or non-operability for open AVR. The technology of percutaneous aortic valve implantation emerged in 2002, and has since evolved rapidly with satisfactory results. Currently, almost all the procedures are performed predominantly in Europe and North America. The first-in-Asia percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation via the transfemoral route is described. A 77-year-old man with symptomatic severe AS and at high surgical risk was successfully treated, with sustained clinical improvement and satisfactory haemodynamic results at 30-day follow-up.
Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yap, Choon-Hwai; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
Bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve with two fused leaflets, affecting about 1-2% of the population. BAV patients have much higher incidence of valve calcification & aortic dilatation, which may be related to altered mechanical forces from BAV hemodynamics. This study aims to characterize BAV hemodynamics using Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). BAV models are constructed from normal explanted porcine aortic valves by suturing two leaflets together. The valves are mounted in an acrylic chamber with two sinuses & tested in a pulsatile flow loop at physiological conditions. 2D PIV is performed to obtain flow fields in three planes downstream of the valve. The stenosed BAV causes an eccentric jet, resulting in a very strong vortex in the normal sinus. The bicuspid sinus vortex appears much weaker, but more unstable. Unsteady oscillatory shear stresses are also observed, which have been associated with adverse biological response; characterization of the hemodynamics of BAVs will provide the first step to understanding these processes better. Results from multiple BAV models of varying levels of stenosis will be presented & higher stenosis corresponded to stronger jets & increased aortic wall shear stresses.
Vora, Amit N; Gehrig, Thomas; Bashore, Thomas M; Kiefer, Todd L
A 75-year old woman with a history of coronary disease status post 3-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) 8 years ago and a repeat one-vessel CABG 2 years ago in the setting of aortic valve replacement with a #19 mm St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valve for severe aortic stenosis presented with two to three weeks of progressive dyspnea and increasing substernal chest discomfort. Echocardiography revealed a gradient to 31 mmHg across her aortic valve, increased from a baseline of 13 mmHg five months previously. Fluoroscopy revealed thrombosis of her mechanical aortic valve. She was not a candidate for surgery given her multiple comorbidities, and fibrinolysis was contraindicated given a recent subdural hematoma 1 year prior to presentation. She was treated with heparin and eptifibatide and subsequently demonstrated resolution of her aortic valve thrombosis. We report the first described successful use of eptifibatide in addition to unfractionated heparin for the management of subacute valve thrombosis in a patient at high risk for repeat surgery or fibrinolysis.
Marasovic-Krstulovic, Daniela; Jurisic, Zrinka; Perkovic, Dijana; Aljinovic, Jure; Martinovic-Kaliterna, Dusanka
We present a case of fulminant diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc) developed after the aortic valve replacement followed by fatal congestive heart failure within the 6 months from the initial symptoms. A 61-year-old male developed rapidly progressive diffuse systemic sclerosis following aortic valve replacement due to stenosis of bicuspid aortic valve. He presented with diarrhoea, weight loss, mialgia and arthralgia after cardiac surgery. Heart failure, due to myocardial fibrosis, was noted as a cause of death. We hypothesize that artificial materials like the ones used in mechanical valves or silicon materials in breast implants may induce fulminant course of pre-existing systemic sclerosis or create a new onset in predisposed individual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chamandi, Chekrallah; Puri, Rishi; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Rodés-Cabau, Josep
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a well-established treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at high or prohibitive surgical risk. More recently, TAVR has emerged as a valid alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for treating intermediate-risk patients, and several studies are currently evaluating the role of TAVR in low-risk patients. Transcatheter heart valve (THV) technologies have evolved considerably over time, and important iterations have been implemented in many of the latest-generation devices to (1) reduce the size and improve delivery system properties; (2) improve valve deployment, repositioning, and retrievability; and (3) reduce paravalvular leaks. This article reviews the main characteristics of, and clinical results associated with, the newer-generation THVs while providing an overview of novel TAVR indications. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sehatzadeh, S; Doble, B; Xie, F; Blackhouse, G; Campbell, K; Kaulback, K; Chandra, K; Goeree, R
Background One-year mortality outcomes in the PARTNER trial showed that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was noninferior to surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) in patients who were eligible for sAVR (cohort A), and superior to standard treatment in patients who were ineligible for sAVR (cohort B). Objective To update a previous report on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of TAVI, published in 2012. Data Sources A literature search was performed on September 11, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2011, until September 11, 2012. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials investigating TAVI in comparison to sAVR or standard treatment were included for analysis. Results were summarized descriptively. Results At 2-year follow-up, mortality in cohort A was similar between the TAVI and sAVR groups. Rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack, major vascular complications, and moderate/severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation were significantly higher in the TAVI group, but rate of major bleeding was significantly higher in the sAVR group. Mortality in cohort B was significantly lower with transfemoral (TF) TAVI than with standard treatment, but rate of stroke was significantly higher with TF TAVI. TF TAVI resulted in a more rapid improvement in quality of life scores than sAVR, but this difference was not sustained at 6 and 12 months. Patients who underwent transapical TAVI did not have a greater early improvement in quality of life compared to sAVR patients. Compared to standard treatment, TF TAVI resulted in a greater improvement in quality of life scores at all time points. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were in favour of TAVI for inoperable patients in the base-case analysis
Neethling, W M; Papadimitriou, J M; Swarts, E; Hodge, A J
Valve related factors and patient related factors are responsible for calcification of valvular bioprostheses. Recent studies showed different donor and recipient species have different influences on the total calcification rate of bioprostheses. This study was performed to evaluate and compare Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets with porcine aortic valve leaflets. Experimental design. Prospective study. Setting. Cardio-thoracic experimental research of a university department. Glutaraldehyde-fixed Kangaroo and porcine valve leaflets were evaluated in vitro according to valve geometry (internal diameter and leaflet thickness), morphology (light and electron microscopy) and tensile strength. In vivo evaluation consisted of implantation in a rat model for 8 weeks, Von Kossa stain for calcium and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total extractable calcium content. Kangaroo valves indicated a smaller internal valve diameter as well as a thinner valve leaflet (p<0.01, ANOVA) at corresponding body weight, less proteoglycan spicules in the fibrosa, increased elasticity (p<0.05) and low calcification potential (p<0.01, confidence interval 95%). Kangaroo aortic valve leaflets have different valvular qualities compared to porcine valve tissue. Kangaroo valve leaflets are significantly superior to porcine valve leaflets as far as calcification is concerned. These results are encouraging and suggest further in vivo evaluation in a larger animal model before clinical application can be considered.
Venardos, Neil; Bennett, Daine; Weyant, Michael J; Reece, Thomas Brett; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A
The aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis. In response to proinflammatory stimulation, the AVIC undergoes a phenotypic change from that of a myofibroblast phenotype to that of osteoblast-like cell. Matrix Gla-protein (MGP) has been identified as an important inhibitor of vascular calcification. We therefore hypothesized that MGP expression is reduced in diseased AVICs, and loss of this protective protein contributes to calcification of the aortic valve. Our purpose was to compare MGP expression in normal versus diseased AVICs. Human AVICs were isolated from normal aortic valves from explanted hearts (n = 6) at the time of heart transplantation. AVICs were also isolated from calcified, diseased valves of patients (n = 6) undergoing aortic valve replacement. AVICs were grown in culture until they reached passages 2-6 before experimentation. Immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to compare levels of MGP in normal and diseased AVICs. Statistics were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). MGP expression was significantly decreased in diseased AVICs relative to normal AVICs by immunofluorescent staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An important anti-calcification defense mechanism is deficient in calcified aortic valves. MGP expression is significantly lower in diseased relative to normal AVICs. Lack of this important "anti-calcification" protein may contribute to calcification of the aortic valve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Judith C.
Beta-propiolactone sterilized, freeze-dried aortic valve homografts offer a dead framework which is accepted by the host and is capable of immediate and full function. The survival time of such grafts as fully functional units may be limited by physical and chemical alterations produced in the tissues by sterilization and freeze-drying. The organizing reaction of the host in covering the grafts or using them as a scaffolding may also be affected by these processes. It is possible that better long-term results may be achieved by using fresh grafts. There is no difference in host cellular response to fresh and sterilized and/or freeze-dried grafts. There is a possibility that heterogeneous reactions to polypeptides in the graft may occur in some individuals. Organization and covering of the graft by host tissue occurs from host tissues contiguous to the graft. Cells circulating in the bloodstream play no part in this by seeding on the surface. Thrombosis, in the absence of infection, is a rare complication. (Anticoagulants were not used in these patients.) Calcification occurs as only a late complication in persisting `dead' tissue. Unsuspected, and often extensive, myocardial ischaemia occurs frequently under bypass conditions with coronary artery perfusion and substantially contributes to immediate post-operative mortality and morbidity. Images PMID:6033379
Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Sung; Kim, Myung-A
Preservation of the subvalvular apparatus has the merits of postoperative outcomes during mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. We performed mitral valve replacement with anterior and posterior leaflet chordal preservation in a 65-year-old woman. On the 2nd postoperative day, routine postoperative trans-thoracic echocardiography showed an unknown aortic subvalvular mobile mass. We report a case of a remnant mitral subvalvular apparatus detected by echocardiography after chordal preserving mitral valve replacement which was confused with postoperative aortic valve vegetation. PMID:22509443
Hwang, You Mi; Kim, Jun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Minsu; Hwang, Jongmin; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Nam, Gi Byoung; Choi, Kee Joon; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, You Ho
Conduction disturbances are common in patients with aortic stenosis. We investigated the incidence, reversibility, and prognosis of conduction disorders requiring permanent pacemaker implantation in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis after isolated aortic valve replacement. This was a retrospective study conducted at a tertiary care center. We evaluated the incidence of conduction disturbances in patients who underwent isolated surgical aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis between January 2005 and May 2015. Relevant clinical information was obtained from the patients' medical records. We reviewed results of 663 patients with pathologically proven degenerative aortic stenosis (bicuspid aortic valve, n = 285 [43.0%]) who underwent isolated aortic valve replacement (mechanical valve, n = 310 [46.8%]). Patients' mean age was 67.1 ± 8.1 years, and 362 were male (54.6%). Immediate postoperative intraventricular conduction disorders occurred in 56 patients (8.4%), and atrioventricular block occurred in 68 patients (10.3%). Ten patients with symptomatic second-degree or third-degree atrioventricular block underwent permanent pacemaker implantation within 30 days of aortic valve replacement. During the mean follow-up period of 1288 ± 1122 days, 64 patients (9.7%) developed irreversible conduction disorders (bundle branch block n = 24 and first-degree atrioventricular block n = 42). Of the 10 patients requiring permanent pacemakers, 4 remained depend on the permanent pacemaker during follow-up. Beyond 30 days after aortic valve replacement, 1 patient underwent permanent pacemaker implantation for de novo conduction disturbance 44 months postoperatively. After isolated aortic valve replacement, permanent pacemaker implantation for conduction disturbance is rare (n = 10/663, 1.5%). Isolated aortic valve replacement for degenerative aortic stenosis has a low risk of conduction disturbances during long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2017 The
Iwahashi, M; Nishimura, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Komori, S; Shibata, M; Yuzaki, M; Okamura, Y
We performed aortic valve replacement in 24 patients aged over 70 with small calcified valves. The surgical management of such patients remains controversial as the extensive calcification compromises implantation. Hence, we used an ultrasonic debridement instrument to remove calcium and selected a small prosthesis with the largest possible orifice without enlargement of the aortic annulus. Echocardiography showed significant reductions in left ventricular mass index compared with preoperative values. Early and mid-term prognosis has been relatively good.
Kunstadt, D; Adeyemo, A; Clauss, R H
A bizarre mechanism of aortic valve incompetence was observed when the occluder of a Braunwald-Cutter aortic valve prosthesis decreased in diameter, volume, and weight, and from time to time fell into the left ventricle. The patient's symptoms were palpitation, coughing, chocking sensations, and fright. An operation disclosed a small, smooth ball with disrupted cloth on all the struts. The residual torn mesh was removed, and the ball was replaced.
Neves, Paulo C; Paulo, Nelson Santos; Gama, Vasco; Vouga, Luís
Transcatheter valve implantation offers a new treatment modality to those patients whose general condition makes conventional surgery very risky. However, the transcatheter option has only been available for the aortic valve. We describe a case of a successful implantation of two Edwards SAPIEN(®) 26 and 29 mm transapical valves, respectively, in aortic and mitral positions, on a 74-year-old patient with severe aortic and mitral stenosis. The procedure progressed uneventfully. Predischarge echocardiogram showed a peak aortic gradient of 20 mmHg, mild periprosthetic regurgitation, peak and mean mitral gradients of 12 and 4, respectively, and moderate (II/IV) periprosthetic regurgitation. Indications for transapical valve implantation will rapidly increase in the near future. It is essential to individualize the treatment be applied for each patient, in order to optimize the success of the procedure.
Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A
This paper reports our work on developing a robotic surgical system for transapical beating heart aortic valve replacement (AVR) under interactive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) guidance. Our system integrates a real-time MRI system, a compound MRI robot, as well as an interface for the surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. The compound robot consists of a positioning module and a valve delivery module. A 5-DOF Innomotion positioning arm provides and maintains direct access to the native aortic valve. A newly developed 3-DOF robotic valve delivery module allows the surgeon to remotely control bioprosthetic valve delivery with MRI guidance. Preliminary evaluation of the parameters of the robotic system demonstrates it can provide sufficient capability to successfully assist the surgeon.
DiSesa, V J; Lachman, P; Collins, J J; Cohn, L H
Improved assessment of valve area is essential to understanding the performance of prosthetic valves. The authors studied six patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using mechanical (ME) or porcine (PO) prostheses. Instantaneous cardiac output (CO) (L/min) was measured in the aorta using an ultrasonic flow probe. Left ventricular and aortic pressures (mmHg) were measured using Millar catheters. Data were analyzed using an IBM PC-AT. Valve area (cm2) was determined using Gorlin's formula (AG) and a new formula for instantaneous area derived mathematically and using a theoretic constant. AG, mean (AI) and peak (Apk) instantaneous areas were compared to geometric measures of area (Aactual) in vitro. Peak instantaneous area correlates best with measured area. Intraoperative assessment using the ultrasonic flow probe and computer analysis is helpful in understanding the dynamic properties of prosthetic valves in vivo.
Darabant, Sergiu; Oberton, Shelby B; Roldan, Luis P; Roldan, Carlos A
Aortic valve infective endocarditis (IE) can be complicated with severe aortic regurgitation (AR) jet-related lesions such as vegetations, pseudoaneurysms, aneurysms or perforations on the anterior mitral leaflet. Herein is reported the case of a 69-year-old male with culture-negative aortic valve endocarditis complicated with aortic valve perforations resulting in severe and eccentric AR and an AR jet-related ventricular septal defect (VSD). Neither transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) nor two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE) were unable to clearly discriminate an aorto-right ventricular fistula from a VSD. By contrast, three-dimensional TEE (3D-TEE) demonstrated multiple aortic valve vegetations, aortic valve perforations, severe AR, and an AR jet-related VSD. The 3D-TEE findings were confirmed at surgery, the aortic valve was replaced with a bioprosthetic valve, and the VSD was repaired with a pericardial patch. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a VSD resulting from an AR jet lesion to be detected and characterized using 3D-TEE. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and characterization of the VSD with 3D-TEE contributed to successful surgery and the patient's short- and long-term survival. Video 1A: This four-chamber transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) view with color Doppler shows a color-Doppler jet traversing the basal interventricular septum (IVS) into the right ventricle, predominantly during systole. However, the origin of the jet resulting from an aortic-right ventricular fistula cannot be determined. A mild to moderate degree of tricuspid regurgitation is also noted. Video 1B: Close-up view of the basal IVS demonstrates a color Doppler jet traversing the IVS, predominantly during systole and apparently originating in the left ventricular outflow tract side, as illustrated by a color Doppler acceleration zone. However, and as in Fig. 1A, the origin of the jet resulting from an aortic-right ventricular fistula cannot
Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
Yarbrough, William M; Mukherjee, Rupak; Ikonomidis, John S; Zile, Michael R; Spinale, Francis G
Aortic valve stenosis is a common cause of left ventricular pressure overload, a pathologic process that elicits myocyte hypertrophy and alterations in extracellular matrix composition, both of which contribute to increases in left ventricular stiffness. However, clinical and animal studies suggest that increased myocardial extracellular matrix fibrillar collagen content occurs later in the time course of left ventricular pressure overload at a time coincident with severe abnormalities in diastolic function followed by the development of symptomatic heart failure. Aortic valve replacement remains the most effective treatment for elimination of chronic pressure overload secondary to aortic stenosis but has traditionally been recommended only after the onset of clinical symptoms. Long-term follow-up of patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis after aortic valve replacement suggests that valve replacement may not result in complete reversal of the maladaptive changes that occur within the myocardial extracellular matrix secondary to the pressure overload state. To the contrary, residual left ventricular extracellular matrix abnormalities such as these are likely responsible for persistent abnormalities in diastolic function and increased morbidity and mortality after aortic valve replacement. Defining the mechanisms and pathways responsible for regulating the myocardial extracellular matrix during the natural history of aortic stenosis may provide a means by which to detect crucial structural milestones and thereby permit more precise identification of the development of maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Kim, Kyung Hwa; Choi, Jong Bum; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sam Youn
Valve replacement is typically the most appropriate option for treating aortic valve stenotic insufficiency. However, neither mechanical nor bioprosthetic replacement components preserve the circumferential expansion and contraction of a native aortic annulus during the cardiac cycle, because the prosthetic ring is affixed to the annulus. A 64-year-old man presented with a bicuspid and stenotic aortic valve, and the native annulus was too small to accommodate a porcine replacement valve. We fashioned new aortic leaflets from bovine pericardium with use of a template, and we affixed the sinotubular junction with use of inner and outer stabilization rings. Postoperative echocardiograms revealed coaptation of the 3 new leaflets with no regurgitation. At the patient's 5.5-year follow-up examination, echocardiograms showed flexible leaflet movement with a coaptation height of 7 mm, and expansion and contraction of the aortic annulus similar to that of a normal native annulus. The transvalvular pressure gradient was insignificant. If long-term durability of the new leaflets is confirmed, this method of leaflet replacement and fixation of the sinotubular junction might serve as an acceptable alternative to valve replacement in the treatment of aortic valve stenosis. We describe the patient's case and present our methods and observations.
Kim, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Min Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sam Youn
Valve replacement is typically the most appropriate option for treating aortic valve stenotic insufficiency. However, neither mechanical nor bioprosthetic replacement components preserve the circumferential expansion and contraction of a native aortic annulus during the cardiac cycle, because the prosthetic ring is affixed to the annulus. A 64-year-old man presented with a bicuspid and stenotic aortic valve, and the native annulus was too small to accommodate a porcine replacement valve. We fashioned new aortic leaflets from bovine pericardium with use of a template, and we affixed the sinotubular junction with use of inner and outer stabilization rings. Postoperative echocardiograms revealed coaptation of the 3 new leaflets with no regurgitation. At the patient's 5.5-year follow-up examination, echocardiograms showed flexible leaflet movement with a coaptation height of 7 mm, and expansion and contraction of the aortic annulus similar to that of a normal native annulus. The transvalvular pressure gradient was insignificant. If long-term durability of the new leaflets is confirmed, this method of leaflet replacement and fixation of the sinotubular junction might serve as an acceptable alternative to valve replacement in the treatment of aortic valve stenosis. We describe the patient's case and present our methods and observations. PMID:24512414
Baron, Suzanne J.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Herrmann, Howard C.; Holmes, David; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Allen, Keith B.; Chhatriwalla, Adnan K.; Vemulapali, Sreekaanth; O’Brien, Sean; Dai, Dadi; Cohen, David J.
Background In patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), prior studies have suggested that reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and low aortic valve gradient (AVG) are associated with worse long-term outcomes. Since these conditions commonly coexist, the extent to which they are independently associated with outcomes after TAVR is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the impact of LVEF and AVG on clinical outcomes after TAVR and to determine whether the effect of AVG on outcomes is modified by LVEF. Methods Using data from 11,292 patients who underwent TAVR as part of the TVT Registry, we examined rates of 1-year mortality and recurrent heart failure in patients with varying levels of LV dysfunction (LVEF < 30% vs. 30–50% vs. > 50%) and AVG (< 40mmHg vs. ≥ 40mmHg). Multivariable models were used to estimate the independent effect of AVG and LVEF on outcomes. Results Over the first year of follow-up after TAVR, patients with LV dysfunction and low AVG had higher rates of death and recurrent heart failure. After adjustment for other clinical factors, only low AVG was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11–1.32; p < 0.001) and higher rates of heart failure (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.36–1.69; p < 0.001), whereas the effect of LVEF was no longer significant. There was no evidence of effect modification between AVG and LVEF with respect to either endpoint. Conclusion In this large series of real world patients undergoing TAVR, low AVG, but not LV dysfunction, was associated with higher rates of mortality and recurrent heart failure. Although these findings suggest that AVG should be considered when evaluating the risks and benefits of TAVR for individual patients, neither severe LV dysfunction nor low AVG alone or in combination provide sufficient prognostic discrimination to preclude treatment with TAVR. PMID:27199058
Gessat, Michael; Merk, Denis R.; Falk, Volkmar; Walther, Thomas; Jacobs, Stefan; Nöttling, Alois; Burgert, Oliver
Stenosis of the aortic valve is a common cardiac disease. It is usually corrected surgically by replacing the valve with a mechanical or biological prosthesis. Transapical aortic valve implantation is an experimental minimally invasive surgical technique that is applied to patients with high operative risk to avoid pulmonary arrest. A stented biological prosthesis is mounted on a catheter. Through small incisions in the fifth intercostal space and the apex of the heart, the catheter is positioned under flouroscopy in the aortic root. The stent is expanded and unfolds the valve which is thereby implanted into the aortic root. Exact targeting is crucial, since major complications can arise from a misplaced valve. Planning software for the perioperative use is presented that allows for selection of the best fitting implant and calculation of the safe target area for that implant. The software uses contrast enhanced perioperative DynaCT images acquired under rapid pacing. In a semiautomatic process, a surface segmentation of the aortic root is created. User selected anatomical landmarks are used to calculate the geometric constraints for the size and position of the implant. The software is integrated into a PACS network based on DICOM communication to query and receive the images and implants templates from a PACS server. The planning results can be exported to the same server and from there can be rertieved by an intraoperative catheter guidance device.
Spaziani, Gaia; Ballo, Piercarlo; Favilli, Silvia; Fibbi, Veronica; Buonincontri, Lorenzo; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico
The aim of this study was to explore the medium-term clinical outcome and the risk of progression of aortic valve disease and aortic dilation in pediatric patients with isolated bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). 179 pediatric patients with isolated BAV were prospectively followed from January 1995 to December 2010. Patients with severe valve dysfunction at baseline were excluded. Clinical outcome included cardiac death, infective endocarditis, aortic complications, cardiac surgery and percutaneous valvuloplasty. Echocardiographic endpoints were: progression of aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR) and progressive aortic enlargement at different levels of the aortic root, evaluated as z-score. The median age at diagnosis was 7.8 [2.7-12.0] years. After a median followup of 5.4 [2.3-9.2] years, all patients were alive. The clinical endpoint occurred in 4 (2.2 %) patients (0.41 events per 100 patient-years). A progression of AS and AR was observed in 9 (5.0 %) and 29 (16.2 %) patients, respectively. The z-scores at the end of follow-up were not significantly different from baseline at the annulus, Valsalva sinuses and sinotubular junction, whereas a slight increase was observed at the level of the ascending aorta (1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.046). Significant progressive aortic dilation occurred in a minority of patients (10.6, 5.6, 9.5, and 19.0 % respectively). The clinical outcome in pediatric patients with isolated BAV is favourable and the progression of aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dilation is relatively slow. These findings may be taken into account to better guide risk assessment and clinical follow-up in these patients.
Webb, John G; Munt, Bradley; Makkar, Raj R; Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Dang, Ninh
The objective of this study was to develop a prosthetic cardiac valve designed for percutaneous transcatheter implantation. Percutaneous catheter-based therapies play a limited role in the management of cardiac valve disease. Surgical implantation of prosthetic valves usually requires thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. The stent-valve is constructed of a rolled sheet of heat-treated nitinol. Although malleable when cooled, once released from a restraining sheath at body temperature the stent unrolls, becomes rigid, and assumes its predetermined cylindrical conformation. A ratcheting lock-out mechanism prevents recoil and external protrusions facilitate anchoring. Valve leaflets are constructed of bovine pericardium. The feasibility of catheter implantation, prosthetic valve function, and survival were investigated in an animal model. In vitro and pulse duplicator testing documented valve durability. Endovascular delivery of the prototype stent-valve to the aortic or pulmonary position was feasible. Accurate positioning was required to ensure exclusion of the native valve leaflets and, in the case of the aortic valve, to avoid compromise of the coronary ostia or mitral apparatus. Oversizing of the stent in relation to the valve annulus was desirable to facilitate anchoring and prevent paravalvular insufficiency. Stent-valve implantation proved feasible and compatible with survival in an animal model. Transcatheter implantation of prosthetic valves is possible. Further evolution of this technology will involve lower-profile devices with design features that facilitate vascular delivery, visualization, positioning, deployment, and valvular function.
Chu, Yi; Lund, Donald D; Doshi, Hardik; Keen, Henry L; Knudtson, Kevin L; Funk, Nathan D; Shao, Jian Q; Cheng, Justine; Hajj, Georges P; Zimmerman, Kathy A; Davis, Melissa K; Brooks, Robert M; Chapleau, Mark W; Sigmund, Curt D; Weiss, Robert M; Heistad, Donald D
Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) in humans. We have examined aortic valve function, structure, and gene expression in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. Control, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic (Apoe(-/-)), and hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice were studied. Severe aortic stenosis (echocardiography) occurred only in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. There was minimal calcification of the aortic valve. Several structural changes were identified at the base of the valve. The intercusp raphe (or seam between leaflets) was longer in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice than in other mice, and collagen fibers at the base of the leaflets were reoriented to form a mesh. In hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice, the cusps were asymmetrical, which may contribute to changes that produce AVS. RNA sequencing was used to identify molecular targets during the developmental phase of stenosis. Genes related to the structure of the valve were identified, which differentially expressed before fibrotic AVS developed. Both RNA and protein of a profibrotic molecule, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, were increased greatly in hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice. Hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice are the first model of fibrotic AVS. Hypercholesterolemic/hypertensive mice develop severe AVS in the absence of significant calcification, a feature that resembles AVS in children and some adults. Structural changes at the base of the valve leaflets include lengthening of the raphe, remodeling of collagen, and asymmetry of the leaflets. Genes were identified that may contribute to the development of fibrotic AVS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Straneo, Pablo; Parma, Gabriel; Lluberas, Natalia; Marichal, Alvaro; Soca, Gerardo; Cura, Leandro; Paganini, Juan J; Brusich, Daniel; Florio, Lucia; Dayan, Victor
Background Bicuspid aortic valve patients have an increased risk of aortic dilatation. A deficit of nitric oxide synthase has been proposed as the causative factor. No correlation between flow-mediated dilation and aortic diameter has been performed in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and normal aortic diameters. Being a hereditary disease, we compared echocardiographic features and endothelial function in these patients and their first-degree relatives. Methods Comprehensive physical examinations, routine laboratory tests, transthoracic echocardiography, and measurements of endothelium-dependent and non-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were performed in 18 bicuspid aortic valve patients (14 type 1 and 4 type 2) and 19 of their first-degree relatives. Results The first-degree relatives were younger (36.7 ± 18.8 vs. 50.5 ± 13.9 years, p = 0.019) with higher ejection fractions (64.6% ± 1.7% vs. 58.4% ± 9.5%, p = 0.015). Aortic diameters indexed to body surface area were similar in both groups, the except the tubular aorta which was larger in bicuspid aortic valve patients (19.3 ± 2.7 vs. 17.4 ± 2.2 mm·m(-2), p = 0.033). Flow-dependent vasodilation was similar in both groups. A significant inverse correlation was found between non-flow-dependent vasodilation and aortic root diameter in patients with bicuspid aortic valve ( R = -0.57, p = 0.05). Conclusions Bicuspid aortic valve patients without aortopathy have larger ascending aortic diameters than their first-degree relatives. Endothelial function is similar in both groups, and there is no correlation with ascending aorta diameter. Nonetheless, an inverse correlation exists between non-endothelial-dependent dilation and aortic root diameter in bicuspid aortic valve patients.
Von Oppell, U O; Stemmet, F; Levetan, B; Heijke, S A; Brink, J
Short-term results of the bioprosthetic Biocor No-React composite porcine stentless aortic valve (Biocor Industria e Pesquisas LTDA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) implanted in patients in whom anticoagulation was thought to be contraindicated or expected to be non-compliant. Retrospective review of 52 consecutive prospective patients in whom this valve was implanted, between September 1994 and May 1998. Average age was 44 +/- 17 years; 75% of patients were operated on for rheumatic heart disease and combined procedures were done in 40% of cases. Early mortality was 5.8%, and related to pre-operative ejection fraction ( P < 0.03), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P < 0.01), and bacterial endocarditis (P < 0.04). On discharge, 84% of survivors were in NYHA class I and 16% in class II. The average postoperative prosthetic valve peak gradient on echocardiography was 19.9 +/- 11 mmHg and was related to pre-operative ejection fraction and smaller valve sizes. Postoperative residual trivial or mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 19 patients (36.6%), resolved on follow-up in 10 cases, and did not correlate with structural deterioration, re-operation, mortality, or widening of the non-coronary sinus. The non-coronary aortic sinus was widened on closure, because of perceived crowding of the adjacent stentless valve commisures, in 52% of cases. This was thought to be related to the use of an oblique as opposed to transverse aortotomy. Patient survival, inclusive of operative deaths, was 88.5%, and event-free survival was 80.0% at 4 years. The short-term results of this stentless aortic valve in a young predominantly third-world population group are acceptable, and appear to be superior to the results for mechanical valves in a similar patient group. We would recommend a transverse aortotomy above the sinotubular ridge to be the more appropriate aortotomy incision when using stentless aortic valves.
Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Sánchez-Recalde, Ángel; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; Galeote, Guillermo; López-Fernández, Teresa; Ramírez, Ulises; Riera, Luis; Plaza, Ignacio; Moreno, Isidro; Mesa, José María; López-Sendón, José Luis
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is used as an alternative to surgical valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered high-surgical-risk or inoperable. Two of the main areas of uncertainty in this field are valve durability and long-term survival. This prospective single-center registry study from a tertiary hospital included all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous aortic valve implantation between 2008 and 2012. Clinical follow-up lasted a minimum of 2.5 years and a maximum of 6.5 years. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used. Seventy-nine patients were included, with an immediate success rate of 94.9%. The median survival was 47.6 months (95% confidence intervals, 37.4-57.9 months), ie, 4 years. One quarter of deaths occurred in the first month, and most were of cardiovascular cause. After the first month, most deaths were due to noncardiovascular causes. The mean values of valve gradients did not increase during follow-up. The cumulative rate of prosthetic valve dysfunction was 15.3%, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Half of the patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation were alive 4 years after the procedure. There was a 15.3% prosthetic valve dysfunction rate in cumulative follow-up, with no cases of repeat valve replacement. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Faletti, Riccardo; Gatti, Marco; Salizzoni, Stefano; Bergamasco, Laura; Bonamini, Rodolfo; Garabello, Domenica; Marra, Walter Grosso; La Torre, Michele; Morello, Mara; Veglia, Simona; Fonio, Paolo; Rinaldi, Mauro
To assess the accuracy and reproducibly of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the measurement of the aortic annulus and in process of valve sizing as compared to intra-operative sizing, cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Retrospective study on 42 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement from September 2010 to September 2015, with available records of pre surgery annulus assessment by CMR, CCT and TEE and of peri-operative assessment. In CCT and CMR, the annular plane was considered a virtual ring formed by the lowest hinge points of the valvular attachments to the aorta. In TEE the annulus was measured at the base of leaflet insertion in the mid-esophageal long-axis view using the X-plane technique. Two double-blinded operators performed the assessments for each imaging technique. Intra-operative evaluation was performed using Hegar dilators. Continuous variables were studied with within-subject ANOVA, Bland-Altman (BA) plots, Wilcoxon's and Friedman's tests; trends were explored with scatter plots. Categorical variables were studied with Fisher's exact test. The intra- and inter-operator reliability was satisfying. There were no significant differences between the annulus dimensions measured by CMR and either one of the three references. Valve sizing for CoreValve by CMR had the same good agreement with CCT and TEE, with a 78 % match rate; for SAPIEN XT the agreement was slightly better (82 %) for CCT than for TEE (66 %). MR performs well when compared to the surgical reference of intra-operative sizing and stands up to the level of the most used imaging references (CCT and TEE).
Zhou, Hua-song; Gu, Chun-hu; Chen, Wen-sheng; Zhao, Jin-chao; Wang, Yun-ya; Tan, Hong-mei; Yi, Ding-hua
To prepare a porcine aortic valve (PAV) free of the cellular components. The cellular components of porcine PAV were completely removed using trypsin and Triton X-100, and the acellular PAV was examined microscopically with HE staining with its physical and chemical properties assessed. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the integrity of the collagen and elastin and the DNA contents in the PAV was detected to confirm the total removal of the cellular components. With the fresh PAV as the control, small pieces of the acellular PAV were implanted into the subcutaneous tissues of 4 rabbits, and 4 weeks after the implantation, the implants were harvested for microscopic observation. The cellular components were effectively removed from the cusps and roots of the PAV by trypsin and TritonX-100, with marked soluble protein loss [(0.24-/+0.04)% vs (0.48-/+0.12)%] and significantly increased water content [(92.2-/+1.5)% vs (89.2-/+1.6)%]. The acellular PAV still maintained good fibrous scaffold structure and the shrinkage temperature and tension at fracture underwent no significantly changes [(67.9-/+1.0) degrees celsius; vs (68.8-/+0.8) degrees celsius; and (489.3-/+19.0) g/mm2 vs (540.7-/+19.5) g/mm2, respectively]. The PAVs implanted in rabbits showed only mild tissue reaction with a few infiltrating neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasmocytes observed 4 weeks later. The accelular PAV caused obviously milder inflammatory reactions than fresh PAV. The acellular PAV prepared by treatment with trypsin and Triton X-100 retains good fibrous scaffold structure and mechanical strength with low antigenicity.
van Kesteren, F; Wiegerinck, E M A; Rizzo, S; Baan, J; Planken, R N; von der Thüsen, J H; Niessen, H W M; van Oosterhout, M F M; Pucci, A; Thiene, G; Basso, C; Sheppard, M N; Wassilew, K; van der Wal, A C
Autopsy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new field of interest in cardiovascular pathology. To identify the cause of death, it is important to be familiar with specific findings related to the time interval between the procedure and death. We aimed to provide an overview of the autopsy findings in patients with TAVI in their medical history divided by the timing of death with specific interest in the added value of autopsy over a solely clinically determined cause of death. In 8 European centres, 72 cases with autopsy reports were available. Autopsies were divided according to the time interval of death and reports were analysed. In 32 patients who died ≤72 h postprocedure, mortality resulted from cardiogenic or haemorrhagic shock in 62.5 and 34.4%, respectively. In 31 patients with mortality >72 h to ≤30 days, cardiogenic shock was the cause of death in 51.6% followed by sepsis (22.6%) and respiratory failure (9.7%). Of the nine patients with death >30 days, 88.9% died of sepsis, caused by infective endocarditis in half of them. At total of 12 patients revealed cerebrovascular complications. Autopsy revealed unexpected findings in 61.1% and resulted in a partly or completely different cause of death as was clinically determined. Autopsy on patients who underwent TAVI reveals specific patterns of cardiovascular pathology that clearly relate to the time interval between TAVI and death and significantly adds to the clinical diagnosis. Our data support the role of autopsy including investigation of the cerebrum in the quickly evolving era of cardiac device technology.
Wöhrle, Jochen; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Seeger, Julia; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang
Aims The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California) system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications. Methods and Results 235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77), 26mm (N = 91) or 29mm (N = 67) valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6%) and stroke (2.1%) were low. Conclusions In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069 PMID:27003573
Watanabe, Yusuke; Morice, Marie-Claude; Bouvier, Erik; Leong, Tora; Hayashida, Kentaro; Lefèvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Romano, Mauro; Chevalier, Bernard; Donzeau-Gouge, Patrick; Farge, Arnaud; Cormier, Bertrand; Garot, Philippe
This study sought to evaluate the accuracy, reproducibility, and predictive value for post-procedural aortic regurgitation (AR) of an automated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) post-processing imaging software, 3mensio Valves (version 5.1.sp1, 3mensio Medical Imaging BV, the Netherlands), in the assessment of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Accurate pre-operative aortic annulus measurements are crucial for patients undergoing TAVI. One hundred five patients undergoing MDCT screening before TAVI were evaluated. Aortic annular measurement was compared between automated 3mensio Valves software and manual data post-processing software on a dedicated workstation; we analyzed the discrimination value of annulus measurement for post-procedural AR in 44 recipients of a self-expanding valve. The automated 3mensio Valves software showed good concordance with manual MDCT measurements as demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis. The automated software provided equally good reproducibility as manual measurement, especially for measurement of aortic annulus area (intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients 0.98 vs. 0.97, interobserver 0.98 vs. 0.95). In 44 patients after implantation of a self-expanding valve, the valve diameter/CT-measured geometric mean annulus diameter ratio by automated 3mensio Valves software showed moderate and better discrimination ability in predicting post-procedural AR compared with manual measurement (p = 0.12, area under the curve 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.91, area under the curve 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.50 to 0.86, respectively). The automated 3mensio Valves software demonstrated reliable, reproducible aortic annulus measurement and better predictive value for post-procedural AR, suggesting important clinical implications for pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing TAVI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is less traumatic and therefore leads to quicker recovery. With the assistance of engineering technologies on devices, imaging, and robotics, in conjunction with surgical technique, minimally invasive cardiac surgery will improve clinical outcomes and expand the cohort of patients that can be treated. We used transapical aortic valve implantation as an example to demonstrate that minimally invasive cardiac surgery can be implemented with the integration of surgical techniques and engineering technologies. Feasibility studies and long-term evaluation results prove that transapical aortic valve implantation under MRI guidance is feasible and practical. We are investigating an MRI compatible robotic surgical system to further assist the surgeon to precisely deliver aortic valve prostheses via a transapical approach. Ex vivo experimentation results indicate that a robotic system can also be employed in in vivo models. PMID:23125924
Bombien, René; Lesche, Claudia; Lozonschi, Lucian; Feucker, Max; Brinkmann, Ralf; Dahmen, Christian; Schünke, Michael; Cremer, Jochen; Lutter, Georg
: The feasibility of endovascular resection of highly calcified aortic valves has already been demonstrated by our group. Different endovascular and intracardiac tractability methods were applied. In this study, these technologies were analyzed comparing the tractability, the resection time, and the lesions in the surrounding tissue. : All aortic valve resections (seven human hearts and 21 porcine hearts) were performed using a Thulium:YAG laser (continuous wave, wavelength of 2.01 μm, 20 watts power rating). In the first resection system, the laser fiber was controlled by a free in-lying flexible endoscope (Ø 2.5 mm, length of 600 mm). The distal part of the endoscope (40 mm) was moved in one plane by proximal manual control (three degrees of freedom). The resection system was separated into defined rooms assigning one room for one tool. The fiber was controlled by the above-mentioned endoscope (*) (three degrees of freedom). The third resection system was a mechanical microactuator carrying the laser fiber (three degrees of freedom). The fourth resection system contains a rotatable inlay with defined rooms and a newly designed nitinol (NiTi) microactuator that controlled the laser fiber (four degrees of freedom). The resection time per leaflet was measured in minutes. Gross anatomy and histology in the surrounding tissue were evaluated. : The resection time in approaches 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 5.5 ± 2.3 minutes, 7.4 ± 2.7 minutes, ± 6.6 minutes, and2.3 ± 1.2 minutes, respectively. The gross anatomy and histology of collateral damages revealed only superficial lesions of the surrounding tissue. The amount of lesions and the resection time were lower in the fourth approach with four degrees of freedom. : This analysis demonstrated that a precise tractability with four degrees of freedom is necessary for a faster and safer endovascular resection of the aortic valve. The analysis will help to optimize the ongoing development of the endovascular and intracardiac
Atkins, Samantha K; Sucosky, Philippe
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common form of inheritable cardiac defect. Although this abnormality may still achieve normal valvular function, it is often associated with secondary valvular and aortic complications such as calcific aortic valve disease and aortic dilation. The clinical significance and economic burden of BAV disease justify the need for improved clinical guidelines and more robust therapeutic modalities, which address the root-cause of those pathologies. Unfortunately, the etiology of BAV valvulopathy and aortopathy is still a debated issue. While the BAV anatomy and its secondary complications have been linked historically to a common genetic root, recent advances in medical imaging have demonstrated the existence of altered hemodynamics near BAV leaflets prone to calcification and BAV aortic regions vulnerable to dilation. The abnormal mechanical stresses imposed by the BAV on its leaflets and on the aortic wall could be transduced into cell-mediated processes, leading ultimately to valvular calcification and aortic medial degeneration. Despite increasing evidence for this hemodynamic etiology, the demonstration of the involvement of mechanical abnormalities in the pathogenesis of BAV disease requires the investigation of causality between the blood flow environment imposed on the leaflets and the aortic wall and the local biology, which has been lacking to date. This editorial discusses the different hypothetical etiologies of BAV disease with a particular focus on the most recent advances in cardiovascular imaging, flow characterization techniques and tissue culture methodologies that have provided new evidence in support of the hemodynamic theory.
Decroly, P; Vandenbossche, J L; Englert, M
We report a case of mitral valve aneurysm formation and perforation, secondary to Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis of the aortic valve. Aneurysm formation was documented by cross-sectional echocardiography and its perforation was established by Doppler colour flow mapping, and subsequently confirmed at surgery.
Chiam, Paul T L; Ewe, See Hooi
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), also known as transcatheter aortic valve replacement, is increasingly performed worldwide and is a technology that is here to stay. It has become the treatment of choice for inoperable patients and an alternative option for patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis. Early results of TAVI in intermediate-risk patients appear promising although larger randomized trial results are awaited before the widespread adoption of this technology in this big pool of patients. In patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis and degenerated surgical bioprostheses, TAVI has been shown to be feasible and relatively safe, though certain important considerations remain. Indications for TAVI are likely to grow as newer generation and improved devices and delivery systems become available.
Kawase, Isamu; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Uchida, Shin; Nozawa, Yukinari; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Takatoh, Mikio; Hagiwara, So
This study aimed to report on original aortic valve reconstruction for patients on dialysis. Aortic valve reconstruction has been performed on 404 cases from April 2007 through September 2011. Among them, 54 cases on haemodialysis were retrospectively studied. Forty-seven patients had aortic stenosis, 5 had aortic regurgitation (AR), and 2 had infective endocarditis. Mean age was 70.2 ± 8.5 years. There were 35 males and 19 females. There were 27 primary aortic valve reconstructions, 11 with CABG, 6 with ascending aortic replacement, 5 with mitral valve repair and 4 with maze. First, in the procedure, harvested pericardium was treated with 0.6% glutaraldehyde solution. After resecting the cusps, we measured the distance between commissures with original sizing instrument. Then, the pericardium was trimmed with the original template. Three cusps were sutured to each annulus. Peak pressure gradient averaged to 66.0 ± 28.2 mmHg preoperatively, and decreased to 23.4 ± 10.7, 13.8 ± 5.5 and 13.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, 1 week, 1 year, and 3 years after the operation, respectively. No calcification was detected with echocardiographic follow-up. Recurrence of AR was not recorded with the mean follow-up of 847 days except for 1 case reoperated on for infective endocarditis 2.5 years after the operation. Three hospital deaths were recorded due to non-cardiac causes. Other patients were in good condition. There was no thromboembolic event. Medium-term results are excellent. Since warfarin for dialysis patients becomes problematic, a postoperative warfarin-free status is desirable. Aortic valve reconstruction can provide patients with a better quality of life without warfarin.
Kawase, Isamu; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Uchida, Shin; Nozawa, Yukinari; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Takatoh, Mikio; Hagiwara, So
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to report on original aortic valve reconstruction for patients on dialysis. METHODS Aortic valve reconstruction has been performed on 404 cases from April 2007 through September 2011. Among them, 54 cases on haemodialysis were retrospectively studied. Forty-seven patients had aortic stenosis, 5 had aortic regurgitation (AR), and 2 had infective endocarditis. Mean age was 70.2 ± 8.5 years. There were 35 males and 19 females. There were 27 primary aortic valve reconstructions, 11 with CABG, 6 with ascending aortic replacement, 5 with mitral valve repair and 4 with maze. First, in the procedure, harvested pericardium was treated with 0.6% glutaraldehyde solution. After resecting the cusps, we measured the distance between commissures with original sizing instrument. Then, the pericardium was trimmed with the original template. Three cusps were sutured to each annulus. RESULTS Peak pressure gradient averaged to 66.0 ± 28.2 mmHg preoperatively, and decreased to 23.4 ± 10.7, 13.8 ± 5.5 and 13.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, 1 week, 1 year, and 3 years after the operation, respectively. No calcification was detected with echocardiographic follow-up. Recurrence of AR was not recorded with the mean follow-up of 847 days except for 1 case reoperated on for infective endocarditis 2.5 years after the operation. Three hospital deaths were recorded due to non-cardiac causes. Other patients were in good condition. There was no thromboembolic event. CONCLUSIONS Medium-term results are excellent. Since warfarin for dialysis patients becomes problematic, a postoperative warfarin-free status is desirable. Aortic valve reconstruction can provide patients with a better quality of life without warfarin. PMID:23427312
Ohno, Y; Tamburino, C; Barbanti, M
Based on randomized trials with first generation devices, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) has been included into the treatment strategy for high-risk and inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis. Procedural complications remain a concern with TAVI, including stroke, vascular complications, paravalvular leak (PVL) and conduction disturbances. Addressing these limitations will support TAVI use in lower risk populations. This review discussed features and most recent clinical evidence of the new balloon-expandable THV (SAPIEN 3, Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA, USA).
Webb, Rachel H; Culliford-Semmens, Nicola; Sidhu, Karishma; Wilson, Nigel J
Objective We aimed to define the normal range of aortic and mitral valve thickness in healthy schoolchildren from a high prevalence rheumatic heart disease (RHD) region, using a standardised protocol for imaging and measurement. Methods Measurements were performed in 288 children without RHD. Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) thickness measurements were performed at the midpoint and tip of the leaflet in the parasternal long axis (PSLA) in diastole, when the AMVL was approximately parallel to the ventricular septum. Thickness of the aortic valve was measured from PSLA imaging in systole when the leaflets were at maximum excursion. The right coronary and non-coronary closure lines of the aortic valve were measured in diastole in parasternal short axis (PSSA) imaging. Results were compared with 51 children with RHD classified by World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. Results In normal children, median AMVL tip thickness was 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4) and median AMVL midpoint thickness 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4). The median aortic valve thickness was 1.5 mm (IQR 1.3–1.6) in the PSLA view and 1.4 mm (IQR 1.2–1.6) in the PSSA view. The interclass correlation coefficient for the AMVL tip was 0.85 (0.71 to 0.92) and for the AMVL midpoint was 0.77 (0.54 to 0.87). Conclusions We have described a standardised method for mitral and aortic valve measurement in children which is objective and reproducible. Normal ranges of left heart valve thickness in a high prevalence RHD population are established. These results provide a reference range for school-age children in high prevalence RHD regions undergoing echocardiographic screening. PMID:28405228
Webb, John; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Fremes, Stephen; Pibarot, Philippe; Ruel, Marc; Ibrahim, Reda; Welsh, Robert; Feindel, Christopher; Lichtenstein, Samuel
Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis have a poor prognosis with medical management alone, and balloon aortic valvuloplasty has failed to provide durable clinical benefit. Open surgical replacement of the aortic valve can improve symptoms and survival. Recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been demonstrated to improve survival, quality of life, and functional status in nonoperable patients and to be a viable option for patients in whom the risk of open surgical morbidity or mortality is high. This Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement represents the consensus of a representative group of cardiologists and cardiac surgeons as to the current, but evolving, role of this less-invasive new therapy. Specific recommendations are provided for selection of patients for TAVI vs surgical aortic valve replacement for native valves and for bioprostheses, approaches to patient evaluation for TAVI, appropriate constitution of multidisciplinary teams involved in performing TAVI, essential facilities that are needed to perform TAVI safely and effectively, and training/qualifications for TAVI operators. Cost considerations, complication rates, and the quality of the available evidence are also discussed. It is hoped that this consensus document will prove to be a useful resource for health professionals, institutions, departments, and decision-making bodies dealing with this important and rapidly evolving therapy.
Szeto, Kai; Nguyen, Tran; Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan
Previous studies have shown that congentially bicuspid aortic valves develop degenerative diseases earlier than the standard trileaflet, but the causes are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical flow patterns and turbulence found in the bileaflet valves together with abnormally high levels of strain may result in an early thickening and eventually calcification and stenosis. Central to this hypothesis is the need for a precise quantification of the differences in the strain rate levels between bileaflets and trileaflet valves. We present here some in-vitro dynamic measurements of the spatial variation of the strain rate in pig aortic vales conducted in a left ventricular heart flow simulator device. We measure the strain rate of each leaflet during the whole cardiac cycle using phase-locked stereoscopic three-dimensional image surface reconstruction techniques. The bicuspid case is simulated by surgically stitching two of the leaflets in a normal valve.
Baikoussis, Nikolaos G.; Argiriou, Michalis; Argiriou, Orestis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis
Despite cardiovascular disease in patients with dwarfism is not rare; there is a lack of reports referring to cardiac interventions in such patients. Dwarfism may be due to achondroplasia or hormonal growth disorders. We present a 58-year-old woman with episodes of dyspnea for several months. She underwent on transthoracic echocardiography, and she diagnosed with severe aortic valve stenosis. She referred to our department for surgical treatment of this finding. In accordance of her anthropometric characteristics and her very small aortic annulus, we had the dilemma of prosthesis selection. We decided to implant a stentless valve to optimize her effective orifice area. Our aim is to present the successful Perceval S valve implantation and the descriptions of the problems coming across in operating on these special patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case patient in which a Perceval S valve is implanted according to the international bibliography. PMID:26750695
Keeble, Thomas R; Khokhar, Arif; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Mathur, Anthony; Weerackody, Roshan; Kennon, Simon
The role of percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) in the management of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis has come under the spotlight following the development of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique. Previous indications for BAV were limited to symptom palliation and as a bridge to definitive therapy for patients undergoing conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). In the TAVI era, BAV may also be undertaken to assess the ‘therapeutic response’ of a reduction in aortic gradient in borderline patients often with multiple comorbidities, to assess symptomatic improvement prior to consideration of definitive TAVI intervention. This narrative review aims to update the reader on the current indications and practical techniques involved in undertaking a BAV procedure. In addition, a summary of the haemodynamic and clinical outcomes, as well as the frequently encountered procedural complications is presented for BAV procedures conducted during both the pre-TAVI and post-TAVI era. PMID:28008354
Keeble, Thomas R; Khokhar, Arif; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Mathur, Anthony; Weerackody, Roshan; Kennon, Simon
The role of percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) in the management of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis has come under the spotlight following the development of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) technique. Previous indications for BAV were limited to symptom palliation and as a bridge to definitive therapy for patients undergoing conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). In the TAVI era, BAV may also be undertaken to assess the 'therapeutic response' of a reduction in aortic gradient in borderline patients often with multiple comorbidities, to assess symptomatic improvement prior to consideration of definitive TAVI intervention. This narrative review aims to update the reader on the current indications and practical techniques involved in undertaking a BAV procedure. In addition, a summary of the haemodynamic and clinical outcomes, as well as the frequently encountered procedural complications is presented for BAV procedures conducted during both the pre-TAVI and post-TAVI era.
Benedik, Jaroslav; Pilarczyk, Kevin; Wendt, Daniel; Indruch, Jiri; Flek, Radek; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Alaeddine, Savvas; Jakob, Heinz
Objectives. Bicuspid aortic valve (AV) represents the most common form of congenital AV malformation, which is frequently associated with pathologies of the ascending aorta. We compared the mechanical properties of the aortic wall between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid AV using a new custom-made device mimicking transversal aortic wall shear stress. Methods. Between 03/2010 and 07/2011, 190 consecutive patients undergoing open aortic valve replacement at our institution were prospectively enrolled, presenting either with a bicuspid (group 1, n = 44) or a tricuspid (group 2, n = 146) AV. Aortic wall specimen were examined with the "dissectometer" resulting in nine specific aortic-wall parameters derived from tensile strength curves (TSC). Results. Patients with a bicuspid AV showed significantly more calcified valves (43.2% versus 15.8%, P < 0.001), and a significantly thinner aortic wall (2.04 ± 0.42 mm versus 2.24 ± 0.41 mm, P = 0.008). Transesophageal echocardiography diameters (annulus, aortic sinuses, and sinotubular junction) were significantly larger in the bicuspid group (P = 0.003, P = 0.02, P = 0.01). We found no difference in the aortic wall cohesion between both groups as revealed by shear stress testing (P = 0.72, P = 0.40, P = 0.41). Conclusion. We observed no differences of TSC in patients presenting with tricuspid or bicuspid AVs. These results may allow us to assume that the morphology of the AV and the pathology of the ascending aorta are independent.
Guyton, Robert A; Block, Peter C; Thourani, Vinod H; Lerakis, Stamatios; Babaliaros, Vasilis
We report three patients who had successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) via carotid artery access. None were candidates for thoracotomy (including minimal access incisions) and had no other vascular access sites that would accommodate the transcatheter valve sheath. Antegrade carotid perfusion and retrograde insertion of the delivery sheath maintained cerebral blood flow without sequelae. Carotid access for TAVR is an option for unusual patients without other access.
Rodriguez-Ospina, Luis; Garcia-Morell, Juan; Rodriguez-Monserrate, Carla P; Valentin-Nieves, Julio
Valve replacement is the standard surgical treatment of diseased valves that cannot be repaired. The main goal of replacement is to exchange the diseased valve with one that has the engineering and hemodynamics as close as possible to the disease free native valve. However due to mechanical and fluid dynamic constraints all prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) are smaller than normal and thus are inherently stenotic. This represents a challenge when it comes time to replace a valve. The correct valve with the correct and matching profile has to be selected before the procedure to avoid possible complications. It is well recognized that patients are also prone to patient-prosthesis mismatch at long term which could have consequences in the clinical outcomes (1). The evaluation of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) has not been sufficiently emphasized in common practice. Failure to recognize this fact may lead to significant hemodynamic impairment and worsening of the clinical status over the time. Making efforts to identifying patients at risk may decrease the prevalence of PPM, the economic impact to our health system, the morbidity and mortality involved in these cases as well as creates efforts to standardized pre-operative protocols to minimized risk of PPM. We present a case of a 78 years old male patient who underwent aortic valve replacement due severe aortic stenosis, afterwards his clinical course got complicated with several admissions for shortness of breath and decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF).
Simard, Louis; Côté, Nancy; Dagenais, François; Mathieu, Patrick; Couture, Christian; Trahan, Sylvain; Bossé, Yohan; Mohammadi, Siamak; Pagé, Sylvain; Joubert, Philippe; Clavel, Marie-Annick
Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is characterized by calcium deposition in valve leaflets. However, women present lower aortic valve calcification loads than men for the same AS hemodynamic severity. We, thus, aimed to assess sex differences in aortic valve fibrocalcific remodeling. One hundred and twenty-five patients underwent Doppler echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography within 3 months before aortic valve replacement. Explanted stenotic tricuspid aortic valves were weighed, and fibrosis degree was determined. Sixty-four men and 39 women were frequency matched for age, body mass index, hypertension, renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and AS severity. Mean age (75±9 years), mean gradient (41±18 mm Hg), and indexed aortic valve area (0.41±0.12 cm(2)/m(2)) were similar between men and women (all P≥0.18). Median aortic valve calcification (1973 [1124-3490] Agatston units) and mean valve weight (2.36±0.99 g) were lower in women compared with men (both P<0.0001). Aortic valve calcification density correlated better with valve weight in men (r(2)=0.57; P<0.0001) than in women (r(2)=0.26; P=0.0008). After adjustment for age, body mass index, aortic valve calcification density, and aortic annulus diameter, female sex was an independent risk factor for higher fibrosis score in AS valves (P=0.003). Picrosirius red staining of explanted valves showed greater amount of collagen fibers (P=0.01), and Masson trichrome staining revealed a greater proportion of dense connective tissue (P=0.02) in women compared with men. In this series of patients with tricuspid aortic valve and similar AS severity, women have less valvular calcification but more fibrosis compared with men. These findings suggest that the pathophysiology of AS and thus potential targets for drug development may be different according to sex. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Chiu, Peter; Fearon, William F; Raleigh, Lindsay A; Burdon, Grayson; Rao, Vidya; Boyd, Jack H; Yeung, Alan C; Miller, David Craig; Fischbein, Michael P
We describe a patient who presented in profound cardiogenic shock due to bioprosthetic aortic valve stenosis requiring salvage Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation followed by a "bridge" valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12750 (J Card Surg 2016;31:403-405).
Johansen, Peter; Travis, Brandon R; Smerup, Morten; Decker Christensen, Thomas; Funder, Jonas; Nyboe, Camilla; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J Michael
When implanting a mechanical aortic valve the annulus orientation is important with respect to turbulence. However, the effect on cavitation has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate how cavitation is influenced hereof in vivo. Three pigs were included in the study. An Omnicarbon 21mm valve equipped with a rotating mechanism enabling controlled rotation of the valve was implanted in aortic position. Under stable hemodynamic conditions, measurements were performed using a hydrophone positioned at the aortic root. The valve was rotated from 0-360° in increments of 30°. From the pressure fluctuations recorded by the hydrophone the root mean square of the 50 kHz high pass filtered signal as well as the non-deterministic signal energy was calculated as indirect measures of cavitation. Various degrees of cavitation were measured but no relationship was found between either of the two cavitation measures and the valve orientation. Hemodynamics varied during the experiments for all pigs (3.9-5.7 l/min; 5.0-7.2 l/min; 3.1-7.5 l/min). Changes in cavitation quantities seemed to be caused by changes in hemodynamics rather than valve angular position. In conclusion, these results do not favor any position over another in terms of cavitation potential.
Nicolini, Francesco; Beghi, Cesare; Gherli, Tiziano
The KBG syndrome is a very rare condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature, distinct facial dysmorphism, macrodontia of the upper central incisors and skeletal abnormalities. Associated congenital heart defects have been described in 9% of patients. Herein is described a case of aortic root dilatation with significant regurgitation in a young patient affected by KBG syndrome. Surgical inspection showed a dilated aortic annulus, slightly dilated aortic sinuses, a tricuspid valvb with slightly thickened cuspal margins and central regurgitation. Histological examination showed a fibrous hyaline involution of the valvular leaflets. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of KBG syndrome affected by aortic root dilatation with severe regurgitation. Morphology of the aortic valve leaflets was relatively normal, but the annulus was dilated in the absence of any history of rheumatic fever, hypertension, connective tissue or rheumatic systemic diseases. The unusual findings in this young patient raised questions regarding the as-yet unexplained etiopathogenesis of the KBG syndrome.
Hashmi, Maria; Dar, Mudasser Iqbal; Khan, Asad Ullah; Khan, Farhan; Khan, Abdul Bari
A case of Debakey type-II (Stanford type-A) dissecting aortic aneurysm, after aortic valve replacement and reduction aortoplasty, is reported. The patient was 35 years male who was diagnosed of severe aortic regurgitation along with aortic root dilatation of 7 cm. He underwent aortic valve replacement with 27-ASt Jude's mechanical aortic valve along with reduction aortoplasty. Nine months later, he was admitted to our hospital with complaint of severe sudden anterior chest pain. Computed tomography with aortic enhancement showed dilatation and dissection of ascending aorta. Successful operation of aortic root replacement with composite graft was performed and patient was discharged without any postoperative complication. The aortic diameter at the time of aortic valve replacement is an independent risk factor for the late aortic dissection.
Rogers, Toby; Steinvil, Arie; Buchanan, Kyle; Alraies, M Chadi; Koifman, Edward; Gai, Jiaxiang; Torguson, Rebecca; Okubagzi, Petros; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Pichard, Augusto; Satler, Lowell; Waksman, Ron
To evaluate balloon-expandable and self-expanding third-generation transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) devices according to patient selection criteria and outcomes. Two competing third-generation TAVR technologies are currently commercially available in the US. There are no published head-to-head comparisons of the relative performance of these two devices. 257 consecutive patients undergoing TAVR with a third-generation balloon-expandable (Edwards Sapien 3) or self-expanding device (Medtronic CoreValve Evolut R) at a single US medical center were included. Choice of TAVR device was at the discretion of the multidisciplinary Heart Team. Baseline clinical characteristics, echocardiographic and CT imaging, procedural and 30-day outcomes were prospectively collected. 74 patients received a self-expanding valve (SEV) and 183 received a balloon-expandable valve (BEV). Patients selected for SEV were more frequently women, with lower body surface area and smaller calcified iliofemoral arteries. Three SEV patients required implantation of a second valve to successfully treat paravalvular leak. Only one BEV patient had moderate paravalvular regurgitation. There was no difference in the rate of stroke, major vascular complication or bleeding. Permanent pacemaker implantation rate was significantly higher with SEV (12.7% vs 4.7%, P = 0.49) and hospital length of stay was longer (8.3% vs 6.5%, P = 0.043), but 30-day mortality was comparable (1.4% vs 1.6%, P = 1.00). Short-term outcomes were equivalent between the two technologies. Clinically significant paravalvular regurgitation was rare. SEV were more frequently selected in women and patients with challenging transfemoral access, but were associated with higher permanent pacemaker implantation rate and longer hospital length of stay. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dolmatova, Elena; Moazzami, Kasra; Cocke, Thomas P; Elmann, Elie; Vaidya, Pranay; Ng, Arthur F; Satya, Kumar; Narayan, Rajeev L
Background Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement can experience severe perioperative complications leading to hemodynamic instability and death. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used to provide cardiorespiratory support during this time. Methods From 2012 to 2015, of 247 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement, 6 (2.42%) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Their mean age was 82 ± 7.4 years, mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 9.4 ± 6.6, and mean aortic gradient was 28.3 ± 12 mm Hg. Rescue extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required for hemodynamic instability due to ventricular fibrillation ( n = 1), respiratory failure ( n = 1), left ventricular wall rupture ( n = 2), and aortic annulus rupture ( n = 1). In one patient, prophylactic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required due to advanced heart failure. Additional procedures included valve-in-valve implantation ( n = 1), conversion to an open procedure ( n = 3), and intraaortic balloon pump insertion ( n = 1). Results The median hospital stay was 20 days. There were 2 hospital deaths in patients whose hospital course was complicated by left ventricular wall rupture or aortic annulus rupture with resulting tamponade. Among the 4 survivors, one required continuous ventilator support following discharge, and 3 experienced no major complications during the first month after discharge. Conclusions Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be considered a viable option for high-risk patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement and those who develop cardiac complications following this procedure and require cardiorespiratory support.
Takahara, Shingo; Fukasawa, Manabu; Kawahara, Yu; Suzuki, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Yuriko
Congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is one of the most common congenital heart diseases, with a high incidence of associated valvular lesions and aortic abnormalities including aortic stenosis( AS), aortic regurgitation, aortic dilatation, and aortic dissection. Patients with BAV and AS often have a small aortic annulus. We encountered a case of BAV in which a 51-year-old woman with severe AS having a small aortic annulus and a dilated ascending aorta required surgical intervention. We performed the surgery using new technique that involved concomitant replacement of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta with enlargement of the aortic annulus using a single uniquely-shaped graft to avoid prosthesis patient mismatch. We trimmed the proximal end of the straight graft in shape of 2 teardrops hanging on it to fit the cut annulus. It requires only a single suture line to replace the ascending aorta and enlarge the aortic annulus, which entails a decreased risk of bleeding during surgery. We believe that it could be applicable to many cases requiring concomitant surgery.
Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; Galeote, Guillermo; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; López, Teresa; Plaza, Ignacio; González-Davia, Rosa; Ramírez, Ulises; Mesa, Jose Maria; Moreno-Gomez, Isidro; López-Sendón, José-Luis
A permanent pacemaker is frequently needed after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but the available data are mainly on the CoreValve system. To evaluate the need for new permanent pacemaker after implantation of the Edwards Sapien device, as well as related factors. We included the first 100 patients treated with the Edwards Sapien device at our institution. Of these, 12 had a permanent pacemaker before the procedure, and thus our study population was the remaining 88 patients. A permanent pacemaker was indicated in eight patients (9.1%) during hospitalization or at 30 days. After discharge, another four patients needed a pacemaker (at 42 days and three, 18, and 30 months). Two variables were associated with the need for pacemaker during hospitalization: previous dialysis (13% vs. 1%, p=0.042) and complete right bundle branch block before the procedure (25% vs. 5%, p=0.032). More than one month after the procedure, the characteristics associated with the need for pacemaker were plasma creatinine level (2.5±1.7 vs. 1.3±0.6 mg/dl, p=0.001) and previous myocardial infarction (50% vs. 10%, p=0.013). The rate of pacemaker implantation with the Edwards Sapien device was 9.1%. Right bundle branch block and dialysis were associated with this complication.
Ranga, Adrian; Bouchot, Olivier; Mongrain, Rosaire; Ugolini, Patricia; Cartier, Raymond
The goal of this study has been to develop a numerical model of the aortic valve, to validate it with in-vivo data and to computationally evaluate the effect of two types of aortic valve-sparing reconstructions on valve dynamics and hemodynamics. A model of the native aortic valve and two models of the valve after surgical reconstruction (reimplantation with a straight conduit and remodeling with a shaped conduit) were created. These models were transferred to a finite element analysis software where the interaction between valve structures and blood was taken into account in a dynamic manner. Leaflet and blood dynamics, as well as tissue compliance and stresses were evaluated. Leaflet dynamics and blood velocities were also assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy volunteers. Computational results in the native valve model correlated closely with the in-vivo imaging data. The creation of neo-sinuses was shown to restore leaflet opening and closing dynamics. Loss of compliance at the commissures led to altered stress distribution patterns. Preservation of sinus geometry was an important factor in end systolic vortex formation. This is the first study to have incorporated the effect of blood flow in the numerical evaluation of aortic reconstructions using a computational model validated by in-vivo data. Differences in valve dynamics after surgical reconstruction reported in this computational study match trends previously reported in other in-vivo studies. Numerical models such as this one can serve as increasingly sophisticated tools in the study of aortic valve pathologies and in the optimization of new surgical reconstruction techniques.
Isoda, Susumu; Osako, Motohiko; Kimura, Tamizo; Nishimura, Kenji; Yamanaka, Nozomu; Nakamura, Shingo; Maehara, Tadaaki
A 62-year-old man was referred for an aortic-valve surgery because of severe aortic stenosis. Thirty years ago, he had undergone a mitral valve commissurotomy and after 9 years, the valve had been replaced by a mechanical valve. He had been undergoing hemodialysis for the past 8 years. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest and abdomen showed a dense circumferential calcification in the wall of the entire thoracic and abdominal aorta, pulmonary artery, and left and right atrium. A conventional aortic-valve replacement was performed. To avoid an embolic event, a "stepwise aortic clamp" procedure was attempted and involved the following: (1) brief circulatory arrest and aortotomy during moderate hypothermia; (2) balloon occlusion at the ascending aorta during low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (3) endoarterectomy by using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator to enable aortic cross-clamping; and (4) a cross-clamp reinforced with felt and full-flow CPB. The patient recovered without any thromboembolic events. Using this procedure to treat a porcelain aorta seemed to reduce the time limit and reduced the risk of brain injury during cardiac surgery.
Arai, Takahide; Lefèvre, Thierry; Hovasse, Thomas; Hayashida, Kentaro; Watanabe, Yusuke; O'Connor, Stephen A; Benamer, Hakim; Garot, Philippe; Cormier, Bertrand; Bouvier, Erik; Morice, Marie-Claude; Chevalier, Bernard
The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve in performing transfemoral TAVI (TF-TAVI). Between October 2006 and October 2013, 312 consecutive TF-TAVI cases performed by 6 interventional cardiologists, using the Edwards Sapien valve and 104 using the CoreValve, were included in the present analysis. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) failure analysis of combined 30-day safety endpoint was used to evaluate learning curves. The CUSUM analysis revealed a learning curve regarding the occurrence of 30-day adverse events with an improvement after the initial 86 cases using the Edwards valve and 40 cases using the CoreValve. We divided the Edwards valve cases into two groups (early experience: Cases 1 to 86; late experience: Cases 87 to 312). The rate of 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality significantly decreased in the late experience group (17% to 7%, p=0.019; 34% to 21%, p=0.035, respectively). We divided the CoreValve cases into two groups (early experience: Cases 1 to 40; late experience: Cases 41 to 104). The rate of 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality significantly decreased in the late experience group (20% to 6%, p=0.033; 38% to 15%, p=0.040, respectively). The groups including both valves were also analyzed after propensity-matching (early [n=52] vs late [n=52]). This model also showed that 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower in the late experience group (13% to 1%, p=0.028; 34% to 20%, p=0.042, respectively). An appropriate level of experience is needed to reduce the complication rate and mortality in TF-TAVI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Culture-negative endocarditis due to Tropheryma whipplei is a rare disease. Mostly the diagnosis is made by histologic examination of resected heart valve tissue. Case presentation In this case report, we described a patient with a classical Whipple’s disease. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed a vegetation on noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve. Whipple’s disease was confirmed by positive Tropheryma whipplei polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in EDTA blood and a duodenal biopsy with positive periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS) macrophages. Conclusion Due to timely diagnosis, our patient was treated with antibiotics without valve replacement. PMID:23110725
Hammer, Peter E.; del Nido, Pedro J.
Surgical repair of the aortic valve using leaflet grafts made from pericardium has been shown to be a viable option, particularly in children, in whom valve replacement has strong disadvantages. We present guidelines for sizing treated autologous pericardium to fabricate a leaflet graft for single leaflet replacement. Both our clinical experience and experimental evidence indicate that effective repairs are best achieved using a semicircular graft with diameter 10–15% greater than the sinotubular junction diameter in diastole. We also provide a simple formula to allow adjusting these guidelines to account for variation in valve geometry and tissue properties. PMID:23816114
Izzat, Mohammad Bashar
Based on the natural mathematical relationships between the components of the human tri-leaflet aortic valve, new calibrated cusp sizers were developed in order to facilitate aortic valve assessment in the operating room and enhance the chance for a perfect restoration of aortic valve competence. These sizers were used clinically to guide the implementation of established aortic valve repair techniques in 10 consecutive patients with severe aortic valve regurgitation. Valve repair was successful in all cases, and at a median follow-up was 5.5 months, aortic valve function remained stable, with aortic regurgitation ≤1+ in every patient and no significant gradient across the aortic valves. This preliminary clinical experience indicates that the calibrated cusp sizers can provide reliable insight into the mechanism of aortic valve insufficiency, and can guide aortic valve repair techniques successfully. We hope that the simplicity and reproducibility of this method would assist in its dissemination and further increase the percentage of aortic valves that are repaired when compared with current practice. PMID:22159260
Hammer, Peter E.; Chen, Peter C.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Howe, Robert D.
Aortic valve reconstruction using leaflet grafts made from autologous pericardium is an effective surgical treatment for some forms of aortic regurgitation. Despite favorable outcomes in the hands of skilled surgeons, the procedure is underutilized because of the difficulty of sizing grafts to effectively seal with the native leaflets. Difficulty is largely due to the complex geometry and function of the valve and the lower distensibility of the graft material relative to native leaflet tissue. We used a structural finite element model to explore how a pericardial leaflet graft of various sizes interacts with two native leaflets when the valve is closed and loaded. Native leaflets and pericardium are described by anisotropic, hyperelastic constitutive laws, and we model all three leaflets explicitly and resolve leaflet contact in order to simulate repair strategies that are asymmetrical with respect to valve geometry and leaflet properties. We ran simulations with pericardial leaflet grafts of various widths (increase of 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% and 27%) and heights (increase of 0%, 13%, 27% and 40%) relative to the native leaflets. Effectiveness of valve closure was quantified based on the overlap between coapting leaflets. Results showed that graft width and height must both be increased to achieve proper valve closure, and that a graft 21% wider and 27% higher than the native leaflet creates a seal similar to a valve with three normal leaflets. Experimental validation in excised porcine aortas (n=9) corroborates the results of simulations. PMID:22341628
López-García, Alejandro; Carmen Fernández, M; Durán, Ana Carmen; Sans-Coma, Valentín; Fernández, Borja
Occurrence of quadricuspid aortic valves has been reported in humans, in nine dogs and in a greater white-toothed shrew. Moreover, two cases of developing aortic valves with four anticipated leaflets have been described in Syrian hamster embryos. Currently, however, no case of quadricuspid aortic valve in adult hamsters has been recorded. The aim here is to present four adults of this rodent species, two of them with unequivocally quadricuspid aortic valves and the other two with quadricuspid-like aortic valves. The four anomalous aortic valves were detected among 4,190 Syrian hamsters examined in our laboratory, representing an incidence of 0.09%. None of the affected hamsters showed apparent signs of disease. The present findings are considered on the light of current empirical knowledge about the morphogenesis of quadricuspid and bicuspid aortic and pulmonary valves. Quadricuspid aortic valves result from the partition of one of the normal mesenchymal cushions which normally give rise to normal (tricuspid) valves, while quadricuspid-like valves might be the product of a combined mechanism of fusion and partition of the cushions at the onset of the valvulogenesis. The presence of aortic valves with four leaflets in ancient mammalian lineages such as insectivors and rodents suggest that quadricuspid aortic valves, although showing almost certainly a low incidence, may be widespread among the different groups of mammals, including domestic animals.
Chapman, J H; Menapace, F J; Howell, R R
A case of traumatic rupture of the aortic valve as a complication of the Heimlich maneuver is presented. Conformation was made by comparative echocardiographic studies available from three months before and immediately following the incident. The patient refused surgical intervention and died one month later with severe congestive heart failure despite vigorous medical therapy.
Chandra, Santanu; Seaman, Clara; Sucosky, Philippe
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve forms with two leaflets instead of three. While calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) also develops in the normal tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), its progression in the BAV is more rapid. Although studies have suggested a mechano-potential root for the disease, the native BAV hemodynamics remains largely unknown. This study aimed at characterizing BAV hemodynamics and quantifying the degree of wall-shear stress (WSS) abnormality on BAV leaflets. Fluid-structure interaction models validated with particle-image velocimetry were designed to predict the flow and leaflet dynamics in idealized TAV and BAV anatomies. Valvular function was quantified in terms of the effective orifice area. The regional leaflet WSS was characterized in terms of oscillatory shear index, temporal shear magnitude and temporal shear gradient. The predictions indicate the intrinsic degree of stenosis of the BAV anatomy, reveal drastic differences in shear stress magnitude and pulsatility on BAV and TAV leaflets and confirm the side- and site-specificity of the leaflet WSS. Given the ability of abnormal fluid shear stress to trigger valvular inflammation, these results support the existence of a mechano-etiology of CAVD in the BAV.
Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard
Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
Freeman, Melanie; Barbanti, Marco; Wood, David A; Ye, Jian; Webb, John G
Stroke has emerged as one of the most concerning complications following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), associated with high morbidity and mortality. We discuss the potential mechanisms of stroke following TAVR, as well as the newly developed embolic protection devices aimed to reduce the risk of stroke.
Schoenhagen, Paul; Kapadia, Samir R; Halliburton, Sandra S; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, E Murat
For patients with severe aortic stenosis, open-heart surgical valve replacement remains the current clinical standard with documented, excellent long-term outcome. Over the past few years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has developed into a treatment alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Because transcatheter valvular procedures are characterized by lack of exposure of the operative field, image guidance is critical. This Pictorial Essay describes the role of 3-dimensional imaging with multidetector row computed tomography for detailed reconstructions of the aortic valve, aortic root, and iliac arteries in the context of TAVI.
Itagaki, Shinobu; Chiang, Yuting; Tang, Gilbert H L
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is, by far, the most common congenital cardiovascular defect encountered by cardiovascular specialists. In the United States, the number of subjects alive is estimated to be 3 million, with an approximate 1% prevalence, more than 10 times higher than the second most common congenital lesion, ventricular septal defect. BAV is subjected to early degeneration and valve dysfunction, requiring surgical intervention in the course of a lifetime for most patients. BAV is also associated with ascending aortic dilatation, also known as BAV aortopathy. Surgical indications for a dysfunctional BAV are relatively straightforward and well established; the same as those for tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), usually triggered by symptoms or ventricular dysfunction. On the other hand, while sharing the same ultimate goal of preventing life-threatening consequences, such as aortic dissection and rupture, surgical thresholds for a dilated ascending aorta are different in the setting of BAV versus TAV; generally lower in BAV. Recently, the incidence of aortic dissection was reported to be much lower than believed, and the idea of more aggressive preemptive intervention on BAV aortopathy has become controversial. Instead, the importance of a more individualized approach is being highlighted. This article will provide a comprehensive review of (1) the typical clinical course of patients with BAV under contemporary management, (2) new risk-stratifying parameters proposed to make an individualized approach possible, and (3) practical challenges all cardiovascular specialists need to know when implementing and interpreting future BAV-related studies.
Park, Sang Min; Jeong, Haemin; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Christopher
Abstract Background: In a patient underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) due to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) insufficiency without marked dilation of ascending aorta, the development of delayed-typed aneurysmal complication of ascending aorta has been often reported because the dilated aorta tends to grow insidiously with age. Case summary: A 58-year-old man who underwent AVR with mechanical valve due to severe aortic regurgitation secondary to BAV 7 years previously presented with exertional chest discomfort for 1 year. An echocardiography showed a well-functioning mechanical aortic valve without any significant abnormal findings. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) revealed a huge saccular aortic root aneurysm (79.7 mm × 72.8 mm in size) compressing the proximal right coronary artery resulting in ∼90% eccentric diffuse luminal narrowing. The patient subsequently underwent open-heart surgery with resection of the ascending aortic aneurysmal sac and consecutive ascending aorta and hemi-arch replacement using a graft. Conclusion: After successful AVR in the patient with BAV insufficiency and mildly dilated ascending aorta, a regular aortic imaging such as cardiac MDCT with aortography would be helpful to monitor the morphology and size of ascending aorta and related complications to guide future management. PMID:27749539
Freeze, Samantha L; Landis, Benjamin J; Ware, Stephanie M; Helm, Benjamin M
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect and falls in the spectrum of left-sided heart defects, also known as left ventricular outflow tract obstructive (LVOTO) defects. BAV is often identified in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals, but it is associated with serious long term health risks including progressive aortic valve disease (stenosis or regurgitation) and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. BAV and other LVOTO defects have high heritability. Although recommendations for cardiac screening of BAV in at-risk relatives exist, there are no standard guidelines for providing genetic counseling to patients and families with BAV. This review describes current knowledge of BAV and associated aortopathy and provides guidance to genetic counselors involved in the care of patients and families with these malformations. The heritability of BAV and recommendations for screening are highlighted. While this review focuses specifically on BAV, the principles are applicable to counseling needs for other LVOTO defects.
Freeze, Samantha L.; Ware, Stephanie M.; Helm, Benjamin M.
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect and falls in the spectrum of left-sided heart defects, also known as left ventricular outflow tract obstructive (LVOTO) defects. BAV is often identified in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals, but it is associated with serious long term health risks including progressive aortic valve disease (stenosis or regurgitation) and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. BAV and other LVOTO defects have high heritability. Although recommendations for cardiac screening of BAV in at-risk relatives exist, there are no standard guidelines for providing genetic counseling to patients and families with BAV. This review describes current knowledge of BAV and associated aortopathy and provides guidance to genetic counselors involved in the care of patients and families with these malformations. The heritability of BAV and recommendations for screening are highlighted. While this review focuses specifically on BAV, the principles are applicable to counseling needs for other LVOTO defects. PMID:27550231
Ramlawi, Basel; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Reardon, Michael J
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has proven to be a viable tool for the high-surgical-risk population with severe aortic valve stenosis. Vascular access complications are not uncommon with TAVR and may increase early and late mortality. Avoiding these serious complications is the goal. With experience and careful screening, we are now able to risk-stratify patients who may be at increased risk of vascular complications. While the traditional iliofemoral access site remains the most common for TAVR, alternate access sites that have proven to be viable and safe alternatives include the transapical, direct-aortic, and subclavian techniques. TAVR teams should be familiar and comfortable with these approaches as each of them has its own advantages and weaknesses. The best option is usually one in which the procedure is tailored to the patient. The present review examines our current access planning and strategies for TAVR.
Fernández Esmerats, Joan; Heath, Jack; Jo, Hanjoong
Currently, calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is only treatable through surgical intervention because the specific mechanisms leading to the disease remain unclear. In this review, we explore the forces and structure of the valve, as well as the mechanosensors and downstream signaling in the valve endothelium known to contribute to inflammation and valve dysfunction. While the valvular structure enables adaptation to dynamic hemodynamic forces, these are impaired during CAVD, resulting in pathological systemic changes. Mechanosensing mechanisms-proteins, sugars, and membrane structures-at the surface of the valve endothelial cell relay mechanical signals to the nucleus. As a result, a large number of mechanosensitive genes are transcribed to alter cellular phenotype and, ultimately, induce inflammation and CAVD. Transforming growth factor-β signaling and Wnt/β-catenin have been widely studied in this context. Importantly, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species signaling has increasingly been recognized to play a key role in the cellular response to mechanical stimuli. In addition, a number of valvular microRNAs are mechanosensitive and may regulate the progression of CAVD. While numerous pathways have been described in the pathology of CAVD, no treatment options are available to avoid surgery for advanced stenosis and calcification of the aortic valve. More work must be focused on this issue to lead to successful therapies for the disease. Ultimately, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms within the aortic valve endothelium will lead us to future therapies important for treatment of CAVD without the risks involved with valve replacement or repair. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 401-414.
Wirrig, Elaine E.; Gomez, M. Victoria; Hinton, Robert B.; Yutzey, Katherine E.
Objective Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, which affects approximately 1% of the US population and is characterized by calcific nodule formation and stenosis of the valve. Klotho-deficient mice were used to study the molecular mechanisms of CAVD as they develop robust aortic valve (AoV) calcification. Through microarray analysis of AoV tissues from klotho-deficient and wild type mice, increased expression of the gene encoding cyclooxygenase 2/COX2 (Ptgs2) was found. COX2 activity contributes to bone differentiation and homeostasis, thus the contribution of COX2 activity to AoV calcification was assessed. Approach and Results In klotho-deficient mice, COX2 expression is increased throughout regions of valve calcification and is induced in the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) prior to calcification formation. Similarly, COX2 expression is increased in human diseased AoVs. Treatment of cultured porcine aortic VICs with osteogenic media induces bone marker gene expression and calcification in vitro, which is blocked by inhibition of COX2 activity. In vivo, genetic loss of function of COX2 cyclooxygenase activity partially rescues AoV calcification in klotho-deficient mice. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of COX2 activity in klotho-deficient mice via celecoxib-containing diet reduces AoV calcification and blocks osteogenic gene expression. Conclusions COX2 expression is upregulated in CAVD and its activity contributes to osteogenic gene induction and valve calcification in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25722432
Korteland, Nelleke M; Bras, Frans J; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Kluin, Jolanda; Klautz, Robert J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M
Objective Current clinical practice guidelines advocate shared decision-making (SDM) in prosthetic valve selection. This study assesses among adult patients accepted for aortic valve replacement (AVR): (1) experience with current clinical decision-making regarding prosthetic valve selection, (2) preferences for SDM and risk presentation and (3) prosthetic valve knowledge and numeracy. Methods In a prospective multicentre cohort study, AVR patients were surveyed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results 132 patients (89 males/43 females; mean age 67 years (range 23–86)) responded preoperatively. Decisional conflict was observed in 56% of patients, and in 25% to such an extent that it made them feel unsure about the decision. 68% wanted to be involved in decision-making, whereas 53% agreed that they actually were. 69% were able to answer three basic knowledge questions concerning prosthetic valves correctly. 56% were able to answer three basic numeracy questions correctly. Three months postsurgery, 90% (n=110) were satisfied with their aortic valve prosthesis, with no difference between mechanical and bioprosthetic valve recipients. Conclusions In current clinical practice, many AVR patients experience decisional conflict and suboptimal involvement in prosthetic valve selection, and exhibit impaired knowledge concerning prosthetic valves and numeracy. Given the broad support for SDM among AVR patients and the obvious need for understandable information, to-be-developed tools to support SDM in the setting of prosthetic valve selection will help to improve quality of decision-making, better inform and actively involve patients, and reduce decisional conflict. Trial registration number NTR3618. PMID:25893105
Ferrari, Enrico; Franciosi, Giorgio; Clivio, Sara; Faletra, Francesco; Moccetti, Marco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Demertzis, Stefanos
The goal was to show the technical details, feasibility and clinical results of balloon-expandable stent valve implantation in the aortic position during conventional redo open-heart surgery in selected obese patients with a small aortic prosthesis and severe patient-prosthesis mismatch. Two symptomatic overweight patients (body mass index of 31 and 38), each with a small aortic prosthesis (a 4-year-old, 21-mm Hancock II biological valve and a 29-year-old, 23-mm Duromedic mechanical valve), increased transvalvular gradients (59/31 and 74/44 mmHg) and a reduced indexed effective orifice area (0.50 and 0.43 cm 2 /m 2 ) underwent implantation of two 26-mm balloon-expandable Sapien 3 valves during standard on-pump redo valve surgery. Using full re-sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest, the two balloon-expandable stent valves were implanted under direct view using a standard aortotomy, after prosthesis removal and without annulus enlargement. Aortic cross-clamp times were 162 and 126 min; cardiopulmonary bypass times were 178 and 180 min; total surgical times were 360 and 318 min. At discharge, echocardiograms showed transvalvular peak and mean gradients of 13/9 and 23/13 mmHg and indexed effective orifice areas of 0.64 and 1.08 cm 2 /m 2 . The 3-month echocardiographic follow-up showed transvalvular peak and mean gradients of 18/9 and 19/11 mmHg and indexed effective orifice areas of 0.78 cm 2 /m 2 and 0.84 cm 2 /m 2 , with improved symptoms (New York Heart Association class 1). Implantation of a balloon-expandable stent valve during redo aortic valve surgery is feasible in selected cases and prevents patient-prosthesis mismatch in obese patients without need for aortic annulus enlargement. Moreover, in the case of stent valve degeneration, this approach permits additional valve-in-valve procedures with large stent valves and prevents re-redo surgery.
Abedat, Suzan; Beeri, Ronen; Valitsky, Michael; Daher, Sameh; Kott-Gutkowski, Miriam; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Sosna, Jacob; Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Lotan, Chaim
Renal failure is associated with aortic valve calcification. Using our rat model of uremia-induced reversible aortic valve calcification, we assessed the role of apoptosis and survival pathways in that disease. We also explored the effects of raloxifene, an estrogen receptor modulator, on valvular calcification. Gene array analysis was performed in aortic valves obtained from three groups of rats (n = 7 rats/group): calcified valves obtained from rats fed with uremic diet, valves after calcification resolution following diet cessation, and control. In addition, four groups of rats (n = 10 rats/group) were used to evaluate the effect of raloxifene in aortic valve calcification: three groups as mentioned above and a fourth group fed with the uremic diet that also received daily raloxifene. Evaluation included imaging, histology, and antigen expression analysis. Gene array results showed that the majority of the altered expressed genes were in diet group valves. Most apoptosis-related genes were changed in a proapoptotic direction in calcified valves. Apoptosis and decreases in several survival pathways were confirmed in calcified valves. Resolution of aortic valve calcification was accompanied by decreased apoptosis and upregulation of survival pathways. Imaging and histology demonstrated that raloxifene significantly decreased aortic valve calcification. In conclusion, downregulation of several survival pathways and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of aortic valve calcification. The beneficial effect of raloxifene in valve calcification is related to apoptosis modulation. This novel observation is important for developing remedies for aortic valve calcification in patients with renal failure. PMID:21335463
Pirundini, Paul A; Balaguer, Jorge M; Lilly, Kevin J; Gorsuch, William Brian; Taft, Margaret Byrne; Cohn, Lawrence H; Rizzo, Robert J
Quadricuspid aortic valves are rarely encountered by the cardiac surgeon during aortic valve replacement. The most common location for the supranumerary cusp is between the noncoronary and the right coronary cusp, located over the membranous septum, which can potentially increase the risk of complete heart block after valve replacement. We present three quadricuspid aortic valve replacements, one of which was complicated by complete heart block postoperatively. We suggest a strategy to possibly avoid this complication.
Rampat, Rajiv; Khawaja, M Zeeshan; Byrne, Jonathan; MacCarthy, Philip; Blackman, Daniel J; Krishnamurthy, Arvindra; Gunarathne, Ashan; Kovac, Jan; Banning, Adrian; Kharbanda, Raj; Firoozi, Sami; Brecker, Stephen; Redwood, Simon; Bapat, Vinayak; Mullen, Michael; Aggarwal, Suneil; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S; Khogali, Saib; Dooley, Maureen; Cockburn, James; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David
This study sought to present the U.K. experience to date with the second-generation LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts). First-generation transcatheter aortic valves have limitations. Second-generation repositionable valves may improve on some of those limitations. Prospectively collected data relating to procedural and in-hospital outcome was analyzed from 10 implantation centers in the United Kingdom. Implants in 228 patients age 81.4 ± 7.6 years were studied; 53.5% were male. Mean logistic EuroScore was 17.5 ± 12.4. One hundred eighty-seven (82.0%) were undertaken for aortic stenosis, 7 (3.1%) for aortic regurgitation, and 34 (14.9%) for mixed aortic valve disease. A total of 67.1% of cases were done under local anesthetic and/or sedation with transfemoral access in 94.7% and transaortic in 5.3%. Three device sizes were used: 23 mm (n = 66, 28.9%), 25 mm (n = 39, 17.1%), and 27 mm (n = 123, 53.9%). The valve was successfully deployed in 99.1% of procedures. After implantation, the mean aortic gradient was 11.4 ± 5.4 mm Hg and aortic valve area 1.6 ± 0.5 cm(2). In-hospital mortality was 1.8% (n = 4). Complications included cardiac tamponade (1.8%), conversion to sternotomy (1.3%), stroke (3.9%), vascular access-related (7.0%), and acute kidney injury (7.9%). The incidence of moderate/severe aortic regurgitation was 0.8% (n = 2). A total of 31.8% of patients required new permanent pacemaker implantation. This analysis represents the largest published series on use of the LOTUS valve. Outcomes using this valve are excellent. In-hospital mortality is very low. Complication rates are low, and the LOTUS valve improves on first-generation valves, particularly with regard to residual aortic regurgitation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Oakley, Luke; Love, Kathleen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Boswell, Gilbert; Nayak, Keshav
Aortic insufficiency from iatrogenic valve perforation from nonaortic valve operations is rarely reported despite the prevalence of these procedures. Rapid diagnosis of these defects is essential to prevent deterioration of cardiac function. In this paper, we describe a young man who reported to our institution after two open cardiac surgeries with new aortic regurgitation found to be due to an iatrogenic perforation of his noncoronary aortic valve cusp. This defect was not appreciated by previous intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and was inadequately visualized on follow-up transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. In contrast, cardiac gated computed tomography clearly visualized the defect and its surrounding structures. This case highlights the utility of cardiac gated computed tomography for cases of suspected valvular perforation when echocardiography is not readily available or inadequate imaging is obtained.
Love, Kathleen; Ramirez, Alfredo; Boswell, Gilbert; Nayak, Keshav
Aortic insufficiency from iatrogenic valve perforation from nonaortic valve operations is rarely reported despite the prevalence of these procedures. Rapid diagnosis of these defects is essential to prevent deterioration of cardiac function. In this paper, we describe a young man who reported to our institution after two open cardiac surgeries with new aortic regurgitation found to be due to an iatrogenic perforation of his noncoronary aortic valve cusp. This defect was not appreciated by previous intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and was inadequately visualized on follow-up transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. In contrast, cardiac gated computed tomography clearly visualized the defect and its surrounding structures. This case highlights the utility of cardiac gated computed tomography for cases of suspected valvular perforation when echocardiography is not readily available or inadequate imaging is obtained. PMID:24826290
Aggarwal, Shivani R; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Cueff, Caroline; Malouf, Joseph; Araoz, Philip A; Mankad, Rekha; Michelena, Hector; Vahanian, Alec; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice
Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is the intrinsic mechanism of valvular obstruction leading to aortic stenosis (AS) and is measurable by multidetector computed tomography. The link between sex and AS is controversial and that with AVC is unknown. We prospectively performed multidetector computed tomography in 665 patients with AS (aortic valve area, 1.05±0.35 cm(2); mean gradient, 39±19 mm Hg) to measure AVC and to assess the impact of sex on the AVC-AS severity link in men and women. AS severity was comparable between women and men (peak aortic jet velocity: 4.05±0.99 versus 3.93±0.91 m/s, P=0.11; aortic valve area index: 0.55±0.20 versus 0.56±0.18 cm(2)/m(2); P=0.46). Conversely, AVC load was lower in women versus men (1703±1321 versus 2694±1628 arbitrary units; P<0.0001) even after adjustment for their smaller body surface area or aortic annular area (both P<0.0001). Thus, odds of high-AVC load were much greater in men than in women (odds ratio, 5.07; P<0.0001). Although AVC showed good associations with hemodynamic AS severity in men and women (all r>0.67; P<0.0001), for any level of AS severity measured by peak aortic jet velocity or aortic valve area index, AVC load, absolute or indexed, was higher in men versus women (all P≤0.01). In this large AS population, women incurred similar AS severity than men for lower AVC loads, even after indexing for their smaller body size. Hence, the relationship between valvular calcification process and AS severity differs in women and men, warranting further pathophysiological inquiry. For AS severity diagnostic purposes, interpretation of AVC load should be different in men and in women.
Sundt, Thoralf M
Despite more than a decade of intense investigation, controversy persists regarding appropriate triggers for aortic replacement in the setting of bicuspid aortic valve. The difficulty is that the data are inescapably imperfect. Although we can count individuals with bicuspid valve who suffer dissection, we have an insufficient understanding of the true denominator of individuals at risk to calculate the probability of dissection for an individual patient. In addition, our own decision-making process is subject to "denominator neglect" or focus on the fact of the occurrence of the event rather than on the risk of the occurrence. Furthermore, the data are inherently incomplete given the asymmetric nature of outcomes information. Specifically, although we can see those who did or did not dissect among the patients not undergoing surgery, the converse is not true; the tragedy of prophylactic surgery is that one cannot distinguish those who have benefited through prevention of dissection from those who paid the price of surgery but in whom dissection would never have occurred. Finally, we have data for only some of the critical determinants of dissection. Structural failure occurs when stresses exceed strengths. Aortic diameter gives us some insight into stress but we have little information on the material strength of the aorta. Early indications that patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for bicuspid valve had a significant risk of aortic dissection were followed by laboratory data showing histologic, biochemical, and mechanical abnormalities supporting an aggressive approach to resection; however, more recent clinical studies call this into question.
Asano, Ryota; Nakano, Kiyoharu; Kodera, Kojiro; Sato, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Go; Tatsuishi, Wataru; Kubota, Sayaka; Namiki, Shigetaka; Suzuki, Seiya
A 53-year-old woman was developed congestive heart failure. She was diagnosed as having aortic coarctation, incompetent bicuspid aortic valve and an aberrant right subclavian artery by using echocardiography and enhanced computed tomography. Ankle brachial pressure index(ABI)in the right was 0.71 and 0.69 in the left. Blood pressure of the right arm was 60 mmHg lower than that of the left arm. To avoid perioperative adverse cardiac events due to a 2-staged operation, we performed ascending-descending aortic bypass and aortic valve replacement simultaneously through a median sternotomy. The heart was retracted cranially, and a vascular prosthesis was anastomosed to the descending aorta just above the diaphragm in an end-to-side manner. Then the graft was placed curvilinearly around the right atrium and was anastomosed to the ascending aorta. After the operation, the right and left ABI increased to 0.90 and 0.98 respectively. There was no pressure difference between the arms. The postoperative course was uneventful.
Loftus, Patrick D; Erickson, Lance K; Everitt, Melanie D; Kaza, Aditya K
We present the unusual case of a "disappearing" aortic valve in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (mitral and aortic stenosis) that underwent Norwood palliation at birth and subsequently a Glenn operation. Angiographic images at the time of operation showed no apparent insufficiency of the native aortic valve. Over the course of 14 months following operation, the patient developed significant cardiomegaly with a workup revealing severe native aortic valve insufficiency. Following orthotopic heart transplantation, examination of the explanted heart revealed a complete absence of native aortic valve leaflets.
Pham, T; Martin, C; Elefteriades, J; Sun, W
Studies have shown that patients harboring bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bovine aortic arch (BAA) are more likely than the general population to develop ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA). A thorough quantification of the AsAA tissue properties for these patient groups may offer insights into the underlying mechanisms of AsAA development. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of aortic tissues from AsAA patients with and without concomitant BAV or BAA. AsAA (n=20), BAV (n=20) and BAA (n=15) human tissues were obtained from patients who underwent elective AsAA surgery. Planar biaxial and uniaxial failure tests were used to characterize the mechanical and failure properties of the tissues, respectively. Histological analysis was performed to detect medial degenerative characteristics of aortic aneurysm. Individual layer thickness and composition were quantified for each patient group. The circumferential stress-strain response of the BAV samples was stiffer than both AsAA (p=0.473) and BAA (p=0.152) tissues at a low load. The BAV samples were nearly isotropic, while AsAA and BAA samples were anisotropic. The areal strain of BAV samples was significantly less than that of AsAA (p=0.041) and BAA (p=0.004) samples at a low load. The BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples in both mechanical and failure properties. On the microstructural level, all samples displayed moderate medial degeneration, characterized by elastin fragmentation, cell loss, mucoid accumulation and fibrosis. The ultimate tensile strength of BAV and BAA sampleswere also found to decrease with age. Overall, the BAV samples were stiffer than both AsAA and BAA samples, and the BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples. The BAV samples were thinnest, with less elastin than AsAA and BAA samples, which may be attributed to the loss of extensibility of these tissues at a low load. No apparent difference in failure mechanics among
Szeto, Kai; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Pastuszko, Peter; Nigam, Vishal; Lasheras, Juan C.
It has been shown in clinical studies that patients with congenital bicuspid aortic valves (CBAVs) develop degenerative calcification of the leaflets at young ages compared to patients with the normal tricuspid aortic valves (TAVs). It has been hypothesized that the asymmetrical geometry of the leaflets in CBAVs, flow shear stresses (SS), disturbed flow, and excessive strain rate levels are possible causes for the early calcification and stenosis. Central to the validation of this hypothesis is the need to quantify the differences in strain rate levels between the BAVs and TAVs. We simulate the CBAVs by surgically stitching two of the leaflets of a porcine aortic valve together. To quantify strain differences, we performed in-vitro experiments in both trileaflet and bileaflet valves by tracking the motion of small ink dots marked on each leaflet surface. We then used phase-locked stereo photogrammetry to reconstruct at each instant of time the 3D surface of the leaflets and measure the strain rates in both radial and circumferential directions during the whole cardiac cycle. Our results indicate that the total strain rate of the simulated BAVs is about 15 to 20% higher than the normal leaflets of TAVs at systole. In the BAVs' case, the fused leaflet stretches radially up to 25% higher than the reference length. The excessive stretching in both directions in the fused leaflet results in large changes in the flow patterns and associated wall SS.
Ciolina, F; Sedati, P; Zaccagna, F; Galea, N; Noce, V; Miraldi, F; Cavarretta, E; Francone, M; Carbone, I
In patients affected by aortic valve stenosis (AS) it is mandatory to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of retrospectively ECG-gated 64-slice CT angiography (64-SCTA) was assessed in patients with AS referred for surgical valve replacement. Forty-two patients with AS underwent ECG-gated 64-SCTA of thoracic aorta, including the heart and coronary arteries, before surgical valve replacement. Images were evaluated by two independent readers and compared with surgical findings in terms of aortic valve calcification grading, valvular morphology, aortic valve annulus and sino-tubular junction diameters, and valvular area planimetry. Quantitative evaluation of cusps opening was also performed. Finally, the presence of CAD, thoracic aortic aneurysm and left ventricle hypertrophy were assessed. Visualization of the aortic valve without motion artefacts was possible in 38 patients (90.5%). Valvular morphology was correctly assessed in all cases (100%). 64-SCTA correctly determined aortic valve calcification grading and the aortic valve annulus and sinotubular junction diameters in 100% of cases. The aortic valve planimetric area was assessed in 38 cases (90.5%). Ascending aortic aneurysms requiring surgical replacement were detected in 12 patients (28.6%). Significant left ventricle hypertrophy was found in 30 patients (71%). Preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing surgical replacement for AS with 64-SCTA is feasible. 64-SCTA can rule out CAD and evaluate the status of the aortic valve and thoracic aorta in the same examination, obtaining relevant information for surgical planning.
Karataş, Zehra; Karataş, Ahmet; Özlü, Tülay; Goksugur, Sevil B.; Varan, Birgül
The use of antiepileptic drugs increases the risk of major congenital malformations during pregnancy. Here, we report an infant who had a history of in-utero carbamazepine exposure and who was born with a cardiac malformation. The infant was born at 39 weeks of gestation vaginally to an epileptic mother who had been treated with carbamazepine throughout her pregnancy. He was referred due to cardiac murmur in the second week of his life. The mother had not received folic acid supplementation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed bicuspid aortic valve, mild aortic stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale and the renal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis. Follow-up echocardiography performed 14 weeks later showed increased severity of aortic stenosis and percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed. To our knowledge, there is only one case report in the literature mentioning the association of a bicuspid aortic valve and aortic stenosis with oxcarbazepine exposure, which is a structural derivative of carbamazepine. However, there are no reports for association with carbamazepine itself. Bicuspid aorta and aortic stenosis may be among the cardiac malformations that result from the teratogenic effect of carbamazepine. PMID:25584038
Bernard, Y.; Meneveau, N.; Vuillemenot, A.; Magnin, D.; Anguenot, T.; Schiele, F.; Bassand, J. P.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of aortic valve area planimetry by multiplane transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in aortic stenosis. DESIGN: Study of the diagnostic value of aortic valve area planimetry using multiplane TOE, compared with catheterisation and the continuity equation, both being considered as criterion standards. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 49 consecutive patients (29 male, 20 female, aged 44 to 82 years, average 66.6 (SD 8.5)), referred for haemodynamic evaluation of an aortic stenosis, were enrolled in a prospective study. From this sample, 37 patients were eligible for the final analysis. METHODS: Transthoracic and multiplane transoesophageal echocardiograms were performed within 24 hours before catheterisation. At transthoracic echo, aortic valve area was calculated by the continuity equation. At TOE, the image of the aortic valve opening was obtained with a 30-65 degrees rotation of the transducer. Numerical dynamic images were stored on optical discs for off-line analysis and were reviewed by two blinded observers. Catheterisation was performed in all cases and aortic valve area was calculated by the Gorlin formula. RESULTS: Feasibility of the method was 92% (48/52). The agreement between aortic valve area measured at TOE (mean 0.88 (SD 0.35) cm2) and at catheterisation (0.79 (0.24) cm2) was very poor. The same discrepancies were found between TOE and the continuity equation (0.72 (0.26) cm2). TOE planimetry overestimated aortic valve area determined by the two other methods. Predictive positive and negative values of planimetry to detect aortic valve area < 0.75 cm2 were 62% (10/16) and 43% (9/21) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Planimetry of aortic valve area by TOE is difficult and less accurate than the continuity equation for assessing the severity of aortic stenosis. Images PMID:9290405
Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda; Gerdts, Eva; Boman, Kurt; Chambers, John B; Egstrup, Kenneth; Nienaber, Christoph A; Pedersen, Terje R; Ray, Simon; Rossebø, Anne B; Willenheimer, Ronnie; Kienzle, Rolf-Peter; Wachtell, Kristian; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Minners, Jan
To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are <1.0 cm2 for AVA and <0.6 cm2/m2 for AVAindex. To investigate the influence of indexation on the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis and on the predictive accuracy regarding clinical outcome. Echocardiographic and anthropometric data from a retrospective cohort of 2843 patients with aortic stenosis (jet velocity >2.5 m/s) and from 1525 patients prospectively followed in the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis (SEAS) trial were analysed. The prevalence of severe stenosis increased with the AVAindex criterion compared to AVA from 71% to 80% in the retrospective cohort, and from 29% to 44% in SEAS (both p<0.001). Overall, the predictive accuracy for aortic valve events was virtually identical for AVA and AVAindex in the SEAS population (mean follow-up of 46 months; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) vs. 0.68 (CI 0.65 to 0.71) (NS). However, 213 patients additionally categorised as severe by AVAindex experienced significantly less valve related events than those fulfilling only the AVA criterion (p<0.001). Indexing AVA by BSA (AVAindex) significantly increases the prevalence of patients with criteria for severe stenosis by including patients with a milder degree of the disease without improving the predictive accuracy for aortic valve related events.
Grubitzsch, Herko; Tarar, Waharat; Claus, Benjamin; Gabbieri, Davide; Falk, Volkmar; Christ, Torsten
Prosthetic valve endocarditis is the most severe form of infective endocarditis. This study assessed the risks and challenges of surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. In total, 116 consecutive patients (98 males, age 65.2±12.7years), who underwent redo-surgery for active aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis between 2000 and 2014, were reviewed. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors for aortic root destructions as well as for morbidity and mortality. Median follow-up was 3.8 years (0-13.9 years). Aortic root destructions (42 limited and 29 multiple lesions) were associated with early prosthetic valve endocarditis and delayed diagnosis (≥14 d), but not with mortality. There were 16 (13.8%) early (≤30 d) and 32 (27.6%) late (>30 days) deaths. Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 72±4.3%, 56±5.4%, and 46±6.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of death, reinfection, and reoperation was 19.0% at 30days and 36.2% at 1year. Delayed diagnosis, concomitant procedures, and EuroSCORE II >20% were predictors for early mortality and need for mechanical circulatory support, age >70years, and critical preoperative state were predictors for late mortality. In their absence, survival at 10 years was 70±8.4%. Reinfections and reoperations occurred more frequently if ≥1 risk factor for endocarditis and aortic root destructions were present. At 10 years, freedom from reinfection and reoperation was 89±4.2% and 91±4.0%. The risks of death, reinfection, and reoperation are significant within the first year after surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Early diagnosis and aortic root destructions are the most important challenges, but advanced age, critical preoperative state, and the need for mechanical circulatory support determine long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B
Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Post, Allison D.; Laucirica, Daniel R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane
At birth, the mechanical environment of valves changes radically as fetal shunts close and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances change. Given that valves are reported to be mechanosensitive, we investigated remodeling induced by perinatal changes by examining compositional and structural differences of aortic and mitral valves (AVs, MVs) between 2-day-old and 3rd fetal trimester porcine valves using immunohistochemistry and Movat pentachrome staining. Aortic valve composition changed more with birth than the MV, consistent with a greater change in AV hemodynamics. At 2 days, AV demonstrated a trend of greater versican and elastin (P = 0.055), as well as greater hyaluronan turnover (hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis, P = 0.049) compared with the 3rd-trimester samples. The AVs also demonstrated decreases in proteins related to collagen synthesis and fibrillogenesis with birth, including procollagen I, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, biglycan (all P ≤ 0.005), and decorin (P = 0.059, trend). Both AVs and MVs demonstrated greater delineation between the leaflet layers in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples, and AVs demonstrated greater saffron-staining collagen intensity, suggesting more mature collagen in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples (each P < 0.05). The proportion of saffron-staining collagen also increased in AV with birth (P < 0.05). The compositional and structural changes that occur with birth, as noted in this study, likely are important to proper neonatal valve function. Furthermore, normal perinatal changes in hemodynamics often do not occur in congenital valve disease; the corresponding perinatal matrix maturation may also be lacking and could contribute to poor function of congenitally malformed valves. PMID:20536360
Ali, Omar; Salinger, Michael H; Levisay, Justin P; Feldman, Ted
Aortic insufficiency (AI) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is difficult to manage when associated with congestive heart failure. AI after balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) may be catastrophic, especially in patients who are not candidates for TAVR. We describe the use of urgent temporary pacing, followed by permanent pacing, to increase the heart rate to diminish diastolic filling time for the short term management of AI after BAV or TAVR. The strategy is particularly useful in patients who already have permanent pacemakers, which are common in this population.
Thaden, Jeremy J; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Suri, Rakesh M; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Soderberg, Daniel J; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Pislaru, Sorin V; Malouf, Joseph F; Foley, Thomas A; Oh, Jae K; Miller, Jordan D; Edwards, William D; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice
Calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) is purportedly associated with less calcium burden in women than in men. We sought to examine sex-related differences and correlates of surgically excised aortic valve weight (AVW) in pure AS. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of 888 consecutive patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for severe AS were correlated to AVW, and in 126 patients, AVW was also correlated to computed tomography aortic valve calcium (AVC) score. Women and men had similar indexed valve area (0.42 ± 0.09 vs. 0.42 ± 0.07 cm (2)/m(2), P = 0.95) and mean systolic gradient (53 ± 15 vs. 52 ± 13 mmHg, P = 0.11), but women had higher New York Heart Association class (2.63 ± 0.70 vs. 2.50 ± 0.70, P = 0.01) and less prevalent coronary artery disease (38 vs. 52%, P < 0.0001). Aortic valve weight was lower in women (1.94 ± 0.88 vs. 3.08 ± 1.32 g, P < 0.0001) even when indexed to body surface area (1.09 ± 0.48 vs. 1.48 ± 0.62 g/m(2), P < 0.0001) or left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) area (0.54 ± 0.23 vs. 0.71 ± 0.29 g/cm(2), P < 0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, male sex (P < 0.0001), bicuspid valve (P < 0.0001), and larger LVOT area (P < 0.0001) were the major determinants of increased AVW, along with current cigarette smoking (P = 0.007). Diabetes (P = 0.004) and hypertension (P = 0.03) were independently associated with lower AVW. Aortic valve calcium correlated well with AVW (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001) and was lower in women than in men (2520 ± 1199 vs. 3606 ± 1632 arbitrary units, P < 0.0001). Despite the same degree of AS severity, women have less AVC and lower AVW compared with men, irrespective of valve morphology. Aortic valve calcium is correlated to excised AVW. Hypertension, diabetes, and current cigarette smoking were independently associated with AVW. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: email@example.com.
Drolet, Marie-Claude; Couet, Jaques; Arsenault, Marie
Aortic valve sclerosis is fairly common and is currently seen as a marker of systemic atherosclerosis. For unclear reasons only a minority of those sclerotic valves will evolve to become stenotic suggesting that atherogenic factors alone are insufficient to explain the development of valve stenosis. We had reported in a model of cholesterol fed rabbits that a combination of high cholesterol with vitamin D supplementation was necessary to induce valve stenosis and significant calcium deposition whereas high cholesterol alone only induced a sclerosis of the valve. In this study, we further evaluated the role of vitamin D treatment in the development of aortic valve disease (sclerosis or stenosis) in this rabbit model. Rabbits were divided in 4 groups followed for 12 weeks: 1) no treatment; 2) cholesterol-enriched diet, 3) cholesterol-enriched diet + vitamin D2 (VD; 50000IU, daily) 4) VD alone for 12 weeks. Echocardiographic assessment of the aortic valve was done at baseline, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Aortic valve area, maximal and mean transvalvular gradients were recorded and compared over time. Immunohistological study of the valves of AS rabbits was also realized for several classical atherosclerosis markers. Vitamin D2 treated animal did not develop any stenosis of the valve despite increased echogenicity due to diffuse calcium deposits on the leaflets without any atherosclerotic lesions. Only the combination of high cholesterol with VD resulted in a decrease of aortic valve area. Immunohistological analysis of aortic valves from VD rabbits showed the presence of calcium deposits, T-cell infiltration in addition to positive labeling for alpha-smooth muscle cell actin. We did not observe macrophage infiltration in aortic valve leaflets of VD rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia or vitamin D supplements alone could not induce aortic valve stenosis in our animal model whereas the combination resulted in a decreased aortic valve area. These findings support the
Speiser, Bernadette; Dutra-Brice, Cynthia
Aortic valve disease, especially aortic stenosis, becomes progressively debilitating and carries a high mortality risk if it is categorized as severe and symptomatic (J Thorac Cardiovas Surg. 2012;144(3):e29-e84). In the past, the only treatment for aortic stenosis was surgical aortic valve replacement. Surgical treatment may require several hours of cardioplegia, and if the patient has comorbidities, such as renal failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, their operative mortality percentage increases.In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure for patients who were deemed high risk or inoperative for the routine surgical aortic valve replacement surgery. More than 20, 000 TAVRs have been performed in patients worldwide since 2002 when Dr Alain Cribier performed the first-in-man TAVR (Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;105(3):145-152). The Edwards Lifesciences SAPIEN XT valve and the Medtronic CoreValve are commercially available.The clinical findings and economic statistic have supported the expansion of the TAVR procedure. However, there has been considerable controversy over where the procedure is to occur and who is directly responsible for directing the TAVR care. This debate has identified barriers to the implementation of a TAVR program. The operating rooms and a cardiac catheterization laboratory are underprepared for the hybrid valve replacement therapy. Because of the barriers identified, the Department of Veterans Affairs determined a need for a systematic approach to review the programs that applied for this structural heart disease program. A centralized team was developed to ensure room readiness and staff competency. The use of the Health Failure Mode and Effects Analysis can define high-risk clinical processes and conduct a hazard analysis. Worksheets can show potential failure modes and their probabilities, along with actions and outcome measures, team collaboration
Wang, Qian; Kodali, Susheel; Primiano, Charles; Sun, Wei
Objectives Aortic root rupture is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The mechanism of this adverse event remains mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanical interaction between the tissue and stent for patients with a high risk of aortic rupture. Methods We simulated the stent deployment process of three TAVI patients with high aortic rupture risk using finite element method. The first case was a retrospective analysis of an aortic rupture case, while the other two cases were prospective studies, which ended with one cancelled procedure and one successful TAVI. Simulation results were evaluated for the risk of aortic root rupture, as well as coronary artery occlusion, and paravalvular leak. Results For Case 1, the simulated aortic rupture location was the same as clinical observations. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the large calcified spot on the interior of the left coronary sinus between coronary ostium and the aortic annulus was pushed by the stent, causing the aortic rupture. For Case 2 and Case 3, predicated results from the simulations were presented to the clinicians at pre-procedure meetings; and they were in agreement with clinician’s observations and decisions. Conclusions Our results indicated that the engineering analysis could provide additional information to help clinicians evaluate complicated, high risk aortic rupture cases. Since a systematic study of a large patient cohort of aortic rupture is currently not available (due to the low occurrence rate) to clearly understand underlying rupture mechanisms, case by case engineering analysis is recommended for evaluating patient-specific aortic rupture risk. PMID:24736808
Di Gioacchino, Lorena; Balestrini, Fabrizio
Enterococci are common organisms associated with endocarditis, but infection by Enterococcus durans is very rare. To our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the medical literature, and all 3 have involved native valves. Here we publish the first reported case (to our knowledge) of E. durans endocarditis in association with a bioprosthetic aortic valve. After the organism and its antibiotic susceptibility were identified, the 74-year-old male patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin and gentamicin, over a course of 6 weeks. PMID:27127436
VeDepo, Mitchell C; Buse, Eric E; Quinn, Rachael W; Williams, Todd D; Detamore, Michael S; Hopkins, Richard A; Converse, Gabriel L
Decellularized heart valves have great potential as a stand-alone valve replacement or as a scaffold for tissue engineering heart valves. Before decellularized valves can be widely used clinically, regulatory standards require pre-clinical testing in an animal model, often sheep. Numerous decellularization protocols have been applied to both human and ovine valves; however, the ways in which a specific process may affect valves of these species differently have not been reported. In the current study, the comparative effects of decellularization were evaluated for human and ovine aortic valves by measuring mechanical and biochemical properties. Cell removal was equally effective for both species. The initial cell density of the ovine valve leaflets (2036±673cells/mm(2)) was almost triple the cell density of human leaflets (760±386cells/mm(2); p<0.001). Interestingly, post-decellularization ovine leaflets exhibited significant increases in biaxial areal strain (p<0.001) and circumferential peak stretch (p<0.001); however, this effect was not observed in the human counterparts (p>0.10). This species-dependent difference in the effect of decellularization was likely due to the higher initial cellularity in ovine valves, as well as a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking following the decellularization of ovine leaflets that was not observed in the human leaflet. Decellularization also caused a significant decrease in the circumferential relaxation of ovine leaflets (p<0.05), but not human leaflets (p>0.30), which was credited to a greater reduction of glycosaminoglycans in the ovine tissue post-decellularization. These results indicate that an identical decellularization process can have differing species-specific effects on heart valves.
Sharma, Munish; Mascarenhas, Daniel A.N.
Aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains the cornerstone of treatment for symptomatic critical aortic stenosis (AS). It is a Class I indication that symptomatic patients with critical AS undergo either surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We present a patient with critical AS and new angina that was managed successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the Right coronary artery. Physicians should consider that not all patients with critical AS and angina necessarily require AVR. Concomitant pathology leading to the symptoms should be carefully ruled out. This leads to a less invasive, cost effective care plan especially in patients with advanced age and comorbidities for which any type of surgical valvular intervention may pose high risk. PMID:27994841
Shackelford, Anthony G.; Relle, Margaret A.; Lombardi, Sarah A.
Abstract: In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2–9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287
Shackelford, Anthony G; Relle, Margaret A; Lombardi, Sarah A
In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2-9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass.
Sarı, Cenk; Durmaz, Tahir; Karaduman, Bilge Duran; Keleş, Telat; Bayram, Hüseyin; Baştuğ, Serdal; Özen, Mehmet Burak; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Bilen, Emine; Ayhan, Hüseyin; Kasapkara, Hacı Ahmet; Bozkurt, Engin
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced as an alternative treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis for whom surgery would be high-risk. Prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis is a serious complication of surgical AVR (SAVR) with high morbidity and mortality. According to recent cases, post-TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) seems to occur very rarely. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman who underwent TAVI (Edwards Saphien XT) with an uneventful postoperative stay. She was diagnosed with endocarditis using three dimensional (3D) echocardiography on the TAVI device 7 months later and she subsequently underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. Little experience of the interpretation of transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the clinical course and effectiveness of treatment strategies in post-TAVI endocarditis exists. We report a case of PVE in a TAVI patient which was diagnosed with three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE). Copyright © 2016 Hellenic Cardiological Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keeling, W Brent; Leshnower, Bradley G; Binongo, Jose; Lasanajak, Yi; McPherson, LaRonica; Chen, Edward P
The David V valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSRR) is an established and durable method of root reconstruction for varying pathologies. However, the impact of the severity of preoperative aortic regurgitation (AR) on long-term durability remains unclear. The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of the degree of preoperative AR on midterm durability following VSRR. A retrospective review of the adult cardiac surgical database at a single academic center was undertaken from 2005 to 2015 for 223 adult patients who underwent VSRR. Patients were followed annually with echocardiograms, and a prospectively maintained database kept track of patient data. Follow-up was 97.7% complete, and the median echocardiographic follow-up was 25.5 months (range, 1 to 123 months). Patients with preoperative AR less than or equal to 2 were compared with patients with AR greater than 2 to determine the impact of preoperative AR upon valve repair durability. There were 223 patients who underwent VSRR during the study period, including 114 (51.1%) who required concomitant cusp repair. The operative mortality was 5 (2.2%). Ninety-seven patients (43.5%) had preoperative AR greater than 2. A total of 213 patients (95.5%) were available for long-term follow-up; of these patients, 7 (3.3%) had AR greater than 2. Fifty-two patients had a bicuspid aortic valve (22 AR ≤2 and 30 AR >2; p = 0.02). Patients with preoperative AR greater than 2 experienced greater reverse left ventricular remodeling and increases in left ventricular ejection fraction than did patients with preoperative AR less than or equal to 2 (p < 0.01). The midterm freedom from AR greater than 2 was similar for both preoperative AR groups (p = 0.57). The 8-year freedom from AR greater than 2 was 89.1% (95% confidence interval, 55.3% to 97.8%) for patients with preoperative AR less than or equal to 2 and 92.7% (95% confidence interval, 78.8% to 97.6%) for preoperative AR greater than 2. Five patients (2
Lambrechts, David L.; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A.; De Geest, Raf
We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:65–7) PMID:12638675
Woo, Y Joseph; Grand, Todd J; Weiss, Stuart J
Robotic technology has been applied to multiple cardiac surgical procedures. Purported benefits include decreased tissue trauma, reduced postoperative bleeding, fewer blood product transfusions, and shorter lengths of stay. We describe the case of a 50-year-old man with an incidentally discovered 1-cm mobile mass on the edge of the aortic valve noncoronary leaflet. The patient underwent robotic minimally invasive resection. The pathologic examination revealed papillary fibroelastoma.
Hopf, Raoul; Sündermann, Simon H; Born, Silvia; Ruiz, Carlos E; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; de Jaegere, Peter P; Maisano, Francesco; Falk, Volkmar; Mazza, Edoardo
The analysis is based on a finite element procedure to extract the contact forces between an implanted Nitinol stent and the surrounding host tissue using postoperative CT images. The methodology was applied for patients (N=46) which have undergone a TAVI procedure with the Medtronic CoreValve Revalving System (MCRS) to obtain corresponding deformation and force maps. The postoperative CT data were recorded for each patient in both systolic and diastolic phase of the heart cycle. Scalar parameters were defined, which map deformed geometry and contact force field to mechanically relevant quantities: radial dilatation, radial shape distortion, non-convex points, mean force, a force deviation measure and a pressure equivalent. The latter demonstrates that in the area of the aortic root, the added circumferential loading is of the same order as the baseline average blood pressure, thus leading to a doubling of the local mechanical load. Generally the force distribution along the stent is non-homogeneous. A comparison of systolic and diastolic data revealed slightly higher contact forces during the diastole, indicating that the stent has to carry more load in this phase. The geometrical and mechanical parameters were compared for two types of clinical complication: para-valvular leakage (PVL) and permanent pacemaker requirement (PPM). It was found that an increase in mean force can be associated with both complications; significantly for PVL and as a trend for PPM.
Zeng, Qingchun; Song, Rui; Fullerton, David A.; Ao, Lihua; Zhai, Yufeng; Li, Suzhao; Ballak, Dov B.; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Reece, T. Brett; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Xu, Dingli; Dinarello, Charles A.; Meng, Xianzhong
Calcific aortic valve disease is a chronic inflammatory process, and aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) from diseased aortic valves express greater levels of osteogenic factors in response to proinflammatory stimulation. Here, we report that lower cellular levels of IL-37 in AVICs of diseased human aortic valves likely account for augmented expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) following stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or 4. Treatment of diseased AVICs with recombinant human IL-37 suppresses the levels of BMP-2 and ALP as well as calcium deposit formation. In mice, aortic valve thickening is observed when exposed to a TLR4 agonist or a high fat diet for a prolonged period; however, mice expressing human IL-37 exhibit significantly lower BMP-2 levels and less aortic valve thickening when subjected to the same regimens. A high fat diet in mice results in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) deposition in aortic valve leaflets. Moreover, the osteogenic responses in human AVICs induced by oxLDL are suppressed by recombinant IL-37. Mechanistically, reduced osteogenic responses to oxLDL in human AVICs are associated with the ability of IL-37 to inhibit NF-κB and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that augmented expression of osteogenic factors in AVICs of diseased aortic valves from humans is at least partly due to a relative IL-37 deficiency. Because recombinant IL-37 suppresses the osteogenic responses in human AVICs and alleviates aortic valve lesions in mice exposed to high fat diet or a proinflammatory stimulus, IL-37 has therapeutic potential for progressive calcific aortic valve disease. PMID:28137840
Blackstone, E H; Kirklin, J W; Pluth, J R; Turner, M E; Parr, G V
Four hundred seventy-five patients underwent aortic valve replacement with the Braunwald-Cutter ball-valve prosthesis at two institutions. The early (30-day) hospital mortality was 4.7% for those with isolated aortic valve replacement and 6.9% for the entire group. For the former, 5-year actuarial survival of the hospital survivors was 72 +/- 5.7%; for the latter group it was 71 +/- 4.4%. Eleven patients (5 since the date of follow-up inquiry) have suffered poppet escape, 9 of whom died. The actuarial incidence of known poppet escape is 4 +/- 2.6% at 47 months; when the 5 patients suffering poppet escape since the date of follow-up inquiry are included, with certain assumptions, the incidence is 3.7 +/- 1.14%. The projected probability of poppet escape using all 11 patients is 12.2% at 5 years; the 70% confidence bands of projected probability of poppet escape separate from those of the risk of re-replacement at 61 months. This and other analyses indicate that in general, patients with the Braunwald-Cutter aortic prosthesis should have it replaced 4 1/2 to 5 years after its insertion.
Shemin, R J; Guadiani, V A; Conkle, D M; Morrow, A G
During a 15-year period from January 1962 through December 1976, 42 patients who had undergone a previous aortic valve replacement underwent reoperation. The mean interval between operations was 4.4 years. The indications for reoperation were aortic regurgitation resulting from mechanical malfunction (12 patients), ball variance (15 patients), perivalvular leaks (five patients), prosthetic stenosis (eight patients), anemia (one patient), and recurrent emboli (one patient). The indications were characteristic of a specific valve series. The most common reoperation was aortic valve replacement (29/42), which had a 10.3% operative mortality. Poppet change (10/42) carried a 10% operative mortality and no operative deaths followed suture closure of perivalvular leaks. Eighty-eight percent of patients alive six months after reoperation were New York Heart Association functional class 1 or 2. At last follow-up, 95% of surviving patients were still functional class 1 or 2, with a mean cumulative survival of 4.7 years after reoperation. This experience demonstrates that those patients surviving long enough to undergo reoperation can expect a reasonable operative risk, long-term survival, and excellent clinical improvement.
Nijenhuis, Vincent J; Bennaghmouch, Naoual; van Kuijk, Jan-Peter; Capodanno, Davide; ten Berg, Jurriën M
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment option for symptomatic patients with severe aortic valvular disease who are not suitable for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. Despite improving experience and techniques, ischaemic and bleeding complications after TAVI remain prevalent and impair survival in this generally old and comorbid-rich population. Due to changing aetiology of complications over time, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy after TAVI should be carefully balanced. Empirically, a dual antiplatelet strategy is generally used after TAVI for patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC; e. g. atrial fibrillation, mechanical mitral valve prosthesis), including aspirin and a thienopyridine. For patients on OAC, a combination of OAC and aspirin or thienopyridine is generally used. This review shows that current registries are unfit to directly compare antithrombotic regimens. Small exploring studies suggest that additional clopidogrel after TAVI only affects bleeding and not ischemic complications. However, these studies are lack in quality in terms of Cochrane criteria. Currently, three randomised controlled trials are recruiting to gather more knowledge about the effects of clopidogrel after TAVI.
Benevento, Emilia; Djebbari, Abdelghani; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Cecere, Renzo; Kadem, Lyes
Aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been shown to be a viable solution for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Under this circumstance, the left ventricle (LV) has a double outlet. The objective was to develop a mathematical model capable of evaluating the hemodynamic performance following the AVB surgery. A mathematical model that captures the interaction between LV, AS, arterial system, and AVB was developed. This model uses a limited number of parameters that all can be non-invasively measured using patient data. The model was validated using in vivo data from the literature. The model was used to determine the effect of different AVB and AS configurations on flow proportion and pressure of the aortic valve and the AVB. Results showed that the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradient. The percentage of flow through the AVB can range from 55.47% to 69.43% following AVB with a severe AS. LV stroke work was also significantly reduced following the AVB surgery and reached a value of around 1.2 J for several AS severities. Findings of this study suggest: 1) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradients; 2) flow distribution between the AS and the AVB is significantly affected by the conduit valve size; 3) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in LV stroke work; and 4) hemodynamic performance variations can be estimated using the model. PMID:25881082
Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Baştuğ, Serdal; Kasapkara, Hacı Ahmet; Ayhan, Hüseyin; Süygün, Hakan; Keleş, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Bilen, Emine; Bozkurt, Engin
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has shown promising results in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) at high risk for open heart surgery. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of patients who underwent TAVI with Edwards SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve (S3), a second-generation TAVI device. Between November 2014 and June 2016, 31 high-risk patients received balloon-expandable S3 valve at Atatürk Training and Research Hospital that has the largest case series in Turkey. Mean age of the patients was 76.1±12.6 years. Mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores were 7.8%±3.1 and 31.4%±17.6, respectively. S3 valve was implanted in 27 patients via transfemoral approach and via trans-subclavian approach in 4 patients under local (n=29) or general (n=2) anesthesia. Procedural success rate was 100% (23 mm, n=7; 26 mm, n=16; 29 mm, n=8). Paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR) was absent or trivial in 29 (93.6%) patients and mild in 2 (6.4%) patients. Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) was required in 2 (6.4%) patients during the procedure, and in-hospital mortality occurred in 1 (3.2%) of those 2 patients. S3 valve is associated with higher rate of device success and lower incidence of PAR, peripheral vascular complications, and need for new PPI.
Berdajs, Denis; Mosbahi, Selim; Ferrari, Enrico; Charbonnier, Dominique; von Segesser, Ludwig K
In this study, the effect of aortic valve (AV) pathology on local hemodynamic conditions was evaluated as a potential trigger for the onset of acute type A and B aortic dissection. A time- and pressure-related four-dimensional (4-D) computed fluid dynamic model of the aorta was established. In an experimental setup, AV stenosis and AV insufficiency were created. 4-D pressure-related geometry of the aortic root (AR) with valve insufficiency and valve stenosis were determined by high-fidelity (200 Hz) microsonometric crystals. Flow and pressure were obtained at the left ventricle, ascending aorta, and aortic arch. Expansion of the AR in AV insufficiency was higher with expansion in AV stenosis, at peak ejection, and at the end of systole. In AV insufficiency, there was low shear stress (0 to 0.6 Pa), turbulent flow, and high pressure (80 to 95 mm Hg) at the anterior wall of the ascending aorta, at the proximal aortic arch, and at the aortic isthmus. In stenosis, high shear stress (>2 Pa) and high pressure (>95 mm Hg) were found at the ascending aorta and at the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic trunk. In AV insufficiency, low shear stresses and turbulent flow regions were documented at the traditional levels of entry tears for acute type A and B dissection. In AV stenosis, high shear stress with elevated pressure at the ascending aorta may be a trigger element for vessel dilatation, aneurysm formation, and intimal tear, which is typical for type A aortic dissection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Shujie; Yu, Xianguan; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Dinghui; Wang, Min; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Xiaoxian
Tsutsugamushi disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi in which humans are accidental hosts. Infective endocarditis associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamushi disease presenting with aortic valve endocarditis. The clinical data of a 67-year-old female with O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Treatment of O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis with chloramphenicol is recommended. PMID:28078179
Lai, Ka Sing Paris; Herrmann, Nathan; Saleem, Mahwesh; Lanctôt, Krista L.
Severe aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly in the Western world and contributes to a large proportion of all deaths over the age of 70. Severe aortic stenosis is conventionally treated with surgical aortic valve replacement; however, the less invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is suggested for those at high surgical risk. While TAVI has been associated with improved survival and favourable outcomes, there is a higher incidence of cerebral microembolisms in TAVI patients. This finding is of concern given mechanistic links with cognitive decline, a symptom highly prevalent in those with cardiovascular disease. This paper reviews the literature assessing the possible link between TAVI and cognitive changes. Studies to date have shown that global cognition improves or remains unchanged over 3 months following TAVI while individual cognitive domains remain preserved over time. However, the association between TAVI and cognition remains unclear due to methodological limitations. Furthermore, while these studies have largely focused on memory, cognitive impairment in this population may be predominantly of vascular origin. Therefore, cognitive assessment focusing on domains important in vascular cognitive impairment, such as executive dysfunction, may be more helpful in elucidating the association between TAVI and cognition in the long term. PMID:25785192
[Dehiscence of the Pericardial Patch, after Surgical Treatment of Active Infective Aortic Valve Endocarditis with Reconstruction of the Aortic Annulus Using a Glutaraldehyde-treated Autologous Pericardium].
Yoshida, Kazufumi; Fukunaga, Naoto; Koizumi, Shigeki; Nishiya, Kenta; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Ishigami, Masanosuke; Nagasawa, Atsushi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Koyama, Tadaaki
A 50-year-old man was admitted with fever and chill sensation 6 months ago. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed left and right coronary cusp prolapses and a thickened tissue of the aortic curtain. Congestive heart failure due to active infective aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed, and he underwent aortic valve replacement. The aortic annulus was reconstructed using a glutaraldehydetreated autologous pericardium. Six months after surgery, TTE showed severe aortic regurgitation and saccular change in the aortic annulus. Transesophageal echocargiography showed some echo free space from left to noncoronary cusp and abnormal movement of the prosthetic valve annulus. Intraoperative examination showed dehiscence of the pericardial patch from the aortic wall, but no finding of infection. Aortic valve rereplacement was performed with reconstruction of the aortic annulus using a bovine pericardium. To prevent the dehiscence of the pericardial patch from the aortic wall, sutures fixing the prosthetic valve were passed from outside of the aortic wall.
Karimi, Ashkan; Pourafshar, Negiin; Park, Ki E; Choi, Calvin Y; Mogali, Kiran; Stinson, Wade W; Manning, Eddie W; Bavry, Anthony A
A 79-year-old man underwent trans-catheter aortic valve replacement for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis with a 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN XT valve. Immediately after valve deployment there was moderate amount of paravalvular leak. Post-dilation was performed with an additional 2 cc of volume, and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. Nine months later, trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed moderate to severe paravalvular leak and possible aortic migration of the valve. The patient was brought back for the treatment of the paravalvular leak which was suspected to be due to valve migration. However, fluoroscopy and trans-esophageal echocardiography showed good valve position. Measurement of late valve recoil in the Coplanar view using cine-angiographic analysis software showed that the lower third of the valve had the greatest late recoil (-1.74 mm, 6.55%), which presumably accounted for the progression of the paravalvular leak. Valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve replacement was performed with a 26-mm SAPIEN 3 valve and the paravalvular leak was reduced to trace. This case displays late recoil as a likely mechanism for development of paravalvular leak after SAPIEN XT valve implantation. Our case illustrates that late recoil needs to be systematically evaluated in future studies, especially when trans-catheter aortic valve replacement is being expanded to lower risk and younger patients for whom the longevity and long-term performance of these valves is of critical importance.
Yutzey, Katherine E; Demer, Linda L; Body, Simon C; Huggins, Gordon S; Towler, Dwight A; Giachelli, Cecilia M; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A; Mortlock, Douglas P; Rogers, Melissa B; Sadeghi, Mehran M; Aikawa, Elena
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tsai, Yi-Chin; Niles, Natasha; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.; Phan, Kevin
Background With improving technologies and an increasingly elderly populations, there have been an increasing number of therapeutic options available for patients requiring aortic valve replacement. Recent evidence suggests that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is one suitable option for high risk inoperable patients, as well as high risk operable patients. Sutureless valve technology has also been developed concurrently, with facilitates surgical aortic valve replacement (SUAVR) by allow resection and replacement of the native aortic valve with minimal sutures and prosthesis anchoring required. For patients amenable for both TAVI and SUAVR, the evidence is unclear with regards to the benefits and risks of either approach. The objectives are to compare the perioperative outcomes and intermediate-term survival rates of TAVI and SUAVR in matched or propensity score matched studies. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to include all matched or propensity score matched studies comparing SUAVR versus TAVI for severe aortic stenosis. A meta-analysis with odds ratios (OR) and mean differences were performed to compare key outcomes including paravalvular regurgitation and short and intermediate term mortality. Results Six studies met our inclusion criteria giving a total of 741 patients in both the SUAVR and TAVI arm of the study. Compared to TAVI, SUAVR had a lower incidence of paravalvular leak (OR =0.06; 95% CI: 0.03–0.12, P<0.01). There was no difference in perioperative mortality, however SUAVR patients had significantly better survival rates at 1 (OR =2.40; 95% CI: 1.40–4.11, P<0.01) and 2 years (OR =4.62; 95% CI: 2.62–8.12, P<0.01). Conclusions The present study supports the use of minimally invasive SUAVR as an alternative to TAVI in high risk patients requiring aortic replacement. The presented results require further validation in prospective, randomized controlled studies. PMID:28066608
Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Prappa, Efstathia; Argiriou, Michalis
We would like to present in this paper a patient with severe aortic valve stenosis referred to our department for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this patient, it was intraoperatively detected an unexpected heavily calcified porcelain ascending aorta. We present the treatment options in this situation, the difficulties affronted intraoperatively, the significance of the preoperative chest computed tomography scan and the use of the Perceval S aortic valve as ideal bioprosthesis implantation. This is a self-expanding, self-anchoring, and sutureless valve with a wide indication in all patients requiring aortic bioprosthesis.
Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Prappa, Efstathia; Argiriou, Michalis
We would like to present in this paper a patient with severe aortic valve stenosis referred to our department for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this patient, it was intraoperatively detected an unexpected heavily calcified porcelain ascending aorta. We present the treatment options in this situation, the difficulties affronted intraoperatively, the significance of the preoperative chest computed tomography scan and the use of the Perceval S aortic valve as ideal bioprosthesis implantation. This is a self-expanding, self-anchoring, and sutureless valve with a wide indication in all patients requiring aortic bioprosthesis. PMID:28074827
Spartalis, Michael; Tzatzaki, Eleni; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Damaskos, Christos; Moris, Demetrios; Tsiapras, Dimitrios; Voudris, Vassilis
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital aortic valve abnormality. It is less common as compared to bicuspid or unicuspid aortic valve abnormality. QAV causes aortic regurgitation usually in the fifth to sixth decade of life. We present a rare case of a female patient with cryptogenic stroke due to a QAV and a patent foramen ovale (PFO). The patient underwent transcatheter closure of PFO, as there was no clear indication for surgery for her valve. Surgical removal remains the method of choice for the treatment of the QAV before left ventricular decompensation occurs.
The presence of patent vein grafts on the proximal aorta may cause technical difficulties during reoperations for aortic valve replacement after previous coronary artery bypass surgery. A 65-year-old man underwent reoperation for aortic valve replacement two years after his first open heart surgery (valve-sparing aortic root replacement and aorta-right coronary artery saphenous vein graft). The aortotomy incision was started approximately 2 cm above the proximal anastomosis and continued down at both sides until the prosthetic graft. The reverse U aortotomy prevents unnecessary and risky manipulations of proximal anastomoses, provides perfect exposure, and can be used securely during reoperative aortic valve surgery.
Von Der Emde, Jürgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jürgen
From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2½ years. Larger valves (≥ A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175
Leon, Martin B; Gada, Hemal; Fontana, Gregory P
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a novel less-invasive therapy for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Despite the impressive clinical growth of TAVR, there are many challenges as well as future opportunities. The heart valve team serves as the central vehicle for determining appropriate case selection. Considerations which impact clinical therapy decisions include frailty assessments and defining clinical "futility". There are many controversial procedural issues; choice of vascular access site, valve sizing, adjunctive imaging, and post-dilatation strategies. Complications associated with TAVR (strokes, vascular and bleeding events, para-valvular regurgitation, and conduction abnormalities) must be improved and will require procedural and/or technology enhancements. TAVR site training mandates a rigorous commitment to established society and sponsor guidelines. In the future, TAVR clinical indications should extend to bioprosthetic valve failure, intermediate risk patients, and other clinical scenarios, based upon well conducted clinical trials. New TAVR systems have been developed which should further optimize clinical outcomes, by reducing device profile, providing retrievable features, and preventing para-valvular regurgitation. Other accessory devices, such as cerebral protection to prevent strokes, are also being developed and evaluated in clinical studies. TAVR is a worthwhile addition to the armamentarium of therapies for patients with AS. Current limitations are important to recognize and future opportunities to improve clinical outcomes are being explored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harolds, Jay A
Initially, the transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedure was approved only for patients with aortic stenosis that was both severe and symptomatic who either also had too high a risk of aortic valve replacement surgery to have the surgery or who had a high risk for the surgery. Between the years 2012 and 2015, the death rate at 30 days declined from an initial rate of 7.5% to 4.6%. There has also been more use of the transfemoral approach over the years. In 2016, the transcatheter aortic valve replacement was approved for patients with aortic stenosis at intermediate risk of surgery.
Kamal, Muhammad Umar; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Smith, M Cristy
Summary In intravenous drug abusers, infective endocarditis usually involves right-sided valves, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common etiologic agent. We present a patient who is an intravenous drug abuser with left-sided (aortic valve) endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis who subsequently developed an anterior mitral valve aneurysm, which is an exceedingly rare complication. A systematic literature search was conducted which identified only five reported cases in the literature of mitral valve aneurysmal rupture in the setting of E. faecalis endocarditis. Real-time 3D-transesophageal echocardiography was critical in making an accurate diagnosis leading to timely intervention. Learning objectives Early recognition of a mitral valve aneurysm (MVA) is important because it may rupture and produce catastrophic mitral regurgitation (MR) in an already seriously ill patient requiring emergency surgery, or it may be overlooked at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR). Real-time 3D-transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) is much more advanced and accurate than transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis and management of MVA. PMID:27249815
Sullivan, M F; Roberts, W C
Clinical and morphologic observations are described in 12 patients who underwent simultaneous replacement of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. All 12 patients had mitral stenosis, 10 aortic valve stenosis and 2 pure aortic valve regurgitation; 5 had tricuspid valve stenosis and 7 pure tricuspid valve regurgitation. Of the 10 patients who died within 60 days of triple valve replacement, 7 had the low cardiac output syndrome, which in 4, and possibly 5, of the 7 was attributed to prosthetic aortic valve stenosis. In none of the 12 patients was the ascending aorta dilated, and in the 4 (possibly 5) patients with low cardiac output, the space between the surface of the caged poppet (4 patients) or margins of the tilting disc (1 patient) in the aortic valve position and the aortic endothelium appeared inadequate to allow unobstructed flow despite small-sized prostheses in all but 1 patient. Thus, aortic valve replacement in the setting of triple valve dysfunction is hazardous or potentially so. The relative small sizes of the hearts in these patients also make valve replacement more difficult (and hazardous) compared to hearts with larger ventricles and aortas.
Langer, Nathaniel B; Hamid, Nadira B; Nazif, Tamim M; Khalique, Omar K; Vahl, Torsten P; White, Jonathon; Terre, Juan; Hastings, Ramin; Leung, Diana; Hahn, Rebecca T; Leon, Martin; Kodali, Susheel; George, Isaac
The experience with transcatheter aortic valve replacement is increasing worldwide; however, the incidence of potentially catastrophic cardiac or aortic complications has not decreased. In most cases, significant injuries to the aorta, aortic valve annulus, and left ventricle require open surgical repair. However, the transcatheter aortic valve replacement patient presents a unique challenge as many patients are at high or prohibitive surgical risk and, therefore, an open surgical procedure may not be feasible or appropriate. Consequently, prevention of these potentially catastrophic injuries is vital, and practitioners need to understand when open surgical repair is required and when alternative management strategies can be used. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of current management and prevention strategies for major complications involving the aorta, aortic valve annulus, and left ventricle.
Danielecki, Cezary; Bugajski, Paweł; Olszewski, Roman; Greberski, Krzysztof; Kalawski, Ryszard
The patient was admitted to the Department of Cardiac Surgery of the J. Struś City Hospital in Poznan due to infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves. Implantation of three biological valve prostheses proceeded without complications. Starting on day 23, the patient's general condition deteriorated, with high fever. Despite postoperative antibiotic therapy, transesophageal echocardiography revealed the presence of vegetation on the bioprosthetic aortic valve. On the 46(th) day after the initial surgery, the patient required replacement of the aortic bioprosthesis, which exhibited the presence of numerous vegetations. The bioprosthetic mitral and tricuspid valves were not affected by the degenerative process. On the 12(th) day after the reimplantation of the bioprosthetic aortic valve, the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition.
Bugajski, Paweł; Olszewski, Roman; Greberski, Krzysztof; Kalawski, Ryszard
The patient was admitted to the Department of Cardiac Surgery of the J. Struś City Hospital in Poznan due to infective endocarditis involving the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves. Implantation of three biological valve prostheses proceeded without complications. Starting on day 23, the patient's general condition deteriorated, with high fever. Despite postoperative antibiotic therapy, transesophageal echocardiography revealed the presence of vegetation on the bioprosthetic aortic valve. On the 46th day after the initial surgery, the patient required replacement of the aortic bioprosthesis, which exhibited the presence of numerous vegetations. The bioprosthetic mitral and tricuspid valves were not affected by the degenerative process. On the 12th day after the reimplantation of the bioprosthetic aortic valve, the patient was discharged from the hospital in good general condition. PMID:27785140
Seitz, W; Oppenheimer, L; McIlroy, M; Nelson, D; Operschall, J
An orifice equation is derived relating the effective aortic valve area, A, the average aortic valve pressure gradient, dP, the stroke volume, SV, and the heart frequency, FH, through considerations of momentum conservation across the aortic valve. This leads to a formula consistent with Newton's second law of motion. The form of the new equation is A = (7.5 X 10(-5)) SV FH2/Pd, where A, VS, FH and Pd are expressed in cm2, ml, s-1 and mmHg, respectively. Aortic valve areas computed with the new orifice equation are found to correlate with those computed by the Gorlin formula in conditions of resting haemodynamic states at a level of r = 0.86, SE = 0.25 cm2, N = 120. The results suggest that the new formula may be considered as an independent orifice equation having a similar domain of validity as the Gorlin formula. The new equation offers the possibility of deriving additional useful haemodynamic relationships through combination with established cardiological formulas and applying it in a noninvasive Doppler ultrasonic or echocardiographic context.
Collins, Jeremy D; Semaan, Edouard; Barker, Alex; McCarthy, Patrick; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael; Malaisrie, S. Chris
Background The purpose is to compare aortic hemodynamics and blood flow patterns using in-vivo 4D flow MRI in patients following valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) and aortic root replacement with bio-prosthetic valves (BIO-ARR). Methods In-vivo 4D flow MRI was performed in 11 patients after VSARR (47±18 years, 6 BAV, 5 TAV), 16 patients after BIO-ARR (52±14 years), and 10 healthy controls (47±16 years). Analysis included 3D blood flow visualization and grading of helix flow in the ascending aorta (AAo) and arch. Peak systolic velocity was quantified in 9 analysis planes in the AAo, aortic arch, and descending aorta. Flow profile uniformity was evaluated in the aortic root and ascending aorta. Results Peak systolic velocity (2.0–2.5m/s) in the aortic root and AAo in both VSARR and BIO-ARR were elevated compared to controls (1.1–1.3m/s, p < 0.005). Flow asymmetry in BIO-ARR was increased compared to VSARR, evidenced by more AAo outflow jets (9 of 16 BIO-ARR, 0 of 11 in VSARR). BIO-ARR exhibited significantly (p<0.001) increased helix flow in the AAo as a measure of increased flow derangement. Finally, peak systolic velocities were elevated at the aortic root for BIO-ARR (2.5 vs 2.0m/s, p < 0.05) but lower in the distal AAo when compared to VSARR.. Conclusion VSARR results in improved hemodynamic outcomes when compared with BIO-ARR as indicated by reduced peak velocities in the aortic root and less helix flow in the AAo by 4D flow MRI. Longitudinal research assessing the clinical impact of these differences in hemodynamic outcomes is warranted. PMID:26212514
Bortolotti, Uberto; Celiento, Michele; Milano, Aldo D
The main goal of aortic valve replacement (AVR) is to obtain relief from the fixed left ventricular (LV) obstruction by replacing the aortic valve with a prosthesis, either mechanical or biological, of adequate size. Most currently available prostheses provide satisfactory hemodynamic performance, but small-sized prostheses may be associated with high transvalvular gradients and suboptimal effective orifice area that result in prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM), and thus are far from ideal for use in young, active patients. The avoidance of PPM is advisable as it has been repeatedly associated with increased mortality, decreased exercise tolerance and an impaired regression of LV hypertrophy after AVR for severe aortic stenosis. Enlargement of the aortic annulus (EAA) has proved to be a valuable method to prevent PPM in the presence of a diminutive aortic root. This review outlines the various techniques described for EAA, presenting technical details, long-term results and major procedure-related complications, and discussing the current role of EAA in patients requiring AVR.
Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Phillippi, Julie A; Cleary, Deborah A; Chew, Douglas W; Hempel, John; Vorp, David A; Gleason, Thomas G
Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) predisposes patients to aortic dissection and has been associated with diminished tensile strength and disruption of collagen. Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms arising in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) develop earlier than in those with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV) and have a different risk of dissection. The purpose of this study was to compare aortic wall tensile strength between BAV and TAV ATAAs and determine whether the collagen content of the ATAA wall is associated with tensile strength and valve phenotype. Longitudinally and circumferentially oriented strips of ATAA tissue obtained during elective surgery were stretched to failure, and collagen content was estimated by hydroxyproline assay. Experimental stress-strain data were analyzed for failure strength and elastic mechanical variables: α, β, and maximal tangential stiffness. The circumferential and longitudinal tensile strengths were higher for BAV ATAAs when compared with TAV ATAAs. The α and β were lower for BAV ATAAs when compared with TAV ATAAs. The maximal tangential stiffness was higher for circumferential when compared with longitudinal orientation in both BAV and TAV ATAAs. The amount of hydroxyproline was equivalent in BAV and TAV ATAA specimens. Although there was a moderate correlation between the collagen content and tensile strength for TAV, this correlation is not present in BAV. The increased tensile strength and decreased values of α and β in BAV ATAAs despite uniform collagen content between groups indicate that microstructural changes in collagen contribute to BAV-associated aortopathy. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kirmani, Bilal H; Jones, Sion G; Malaisrie, S C; Chung, Darryl A; Williams, Richard Jnn
Aortic valve disease is a common condition that is easily treatable with cardiac surgery. This is conventionally performed by opening the sternum longitudinally down the centre ("median sternotomy") and replacing the valve under cardiopulmonary bypass. Median sternotomy is generally well tolerated, but as less invasive options have become available, the efficacy of limited incisions has been called into question. In particular, the effects of reducing the visibility and surgical access has raised safety concerns with regards to the placement of cannulae, venting of the heart, epicardial wire placement, and de-airing of the heart at the end of the procedure. These difficulties may increase operating times, affecting outcome. The benefits of smaller incisions are thought to include decreased pain; improved respiratory mechanics; reductions in wound infections, bleeding, and need for transfusion; shorter intensive care stay; better cosmesis; and a quicker return to normal activity. To assess the effects of minimally invasive aortic valve replacement via a limited sternotomy versus conventional aortic valve replacement via median sternotomy in people with aortic valve disease requiring surgical replacement. We performed searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, clinical trials registries, and manufacturers' websites from inception to July 2016, with no language limitations. We reviewed references of identified papers to identify any further studies of relevance. Randomised controlled trials comparing aortic valve replacement via a median sternotomy versus aortic valve replacement via a limited sternotomy. We excluded trials that performed other minimally invasive incisions such as mini-thoracotomies, port access, trans-apical, trans-femoral or robotic procedures. Although some well-conducted prospective and retrospective case-control and cohort studies exist, these were not included in this review. Two review authors independently assessed trial papers to extract data
Bianchi, Matteo; Ghosh, Ram P; Marom, Gil; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a cardiovascular condition that causes the progressive narrowing of the aortic valve (AV) opening, due to the growth of bone-like deposits all over the aortic root (AR). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a minimally invasive procedure, has recently become the only lifesaving solution for patients that cannot tolerate the standard surgical valve replacement. However, adverse effects, such as AR injury or paravalvular leakage (PVL), may occur as a consequence of a sub-optimal procedure, due to the presence of calcifications in situ. Additionally, the crimping required for delivering the valve via stenting may damage the valve. The aim of the present study is to comparatively assess the crimping mechanics of the commercialized Edwards SAPIEN valve and an alternative polymeric valve (Polynova, Inc) and to evaluate the effect of different TAVR deployment positions using patient-specific numerical models. The optimal deployment location for achieving better patient outcomes was calculated and based on the interactions between the TAVR stent and the native AR. Results demonstrated that the Polynova valve withstands the crimping process better than the SAPIEN valve. Furthermore, deployment simulations showed the role that calcifications deposits may play in the TAVR sub-optimal valve anchoring to the AV wall, leading to the presence of gaps that result in PVL.
Okamoto, Y; Sakakibara, K; Inoue, H; Suzuki, S; Shindo, S; Matsumoto, M
We report a case of aortic valve replacement and hemiarch replacement with reconstruction of the brachiocephalic artery in a patient with a porcelain aorta. A 65-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for aortic stenosis. Computed tomography demonstrated severe aortic calcification and extensive calcification covering a wide area of the aorta. The echocardiography showed a highly calcified aortic valve and a pressure gradient of 109 mmHg across the aortic valve. At surgery, calcification of the ascending aorta was severe and involved its entire circumference. Therefore, 2 cannulae were inserted to the right axillary and right femoral arteries for extracorporeal circulation. We performed replacement of the ascending aorta and hemiarch with reconstruction of the brachiocephalic artery under circulatory arrest and antegrade cerebral perfusion, as well as aortic valve replacement with a 21 mm St. Jude Medical mechanical valve. He had no major cardiac complications during the postoperative course, and was discharged on postoperative day 33.
Albes, Johannes M; Stock, Ulrich A; Hartrumpf, Martin
Restitution strategies of the insufficient aortic valve belong to the clinical armamentarium. To date, the accumulated body of evidence comprises 126 articles dealing with restitution strategies on the insufficient aortic valve with concomitant aortic surgery. In a cumulative analysis an almost identical number of reimplantation (506) and remodeling (489) procedures were found in the literature, whereas 357 patients underwent aortic valve resuspension. The cumulative results tend to favor the reimplantation technique in terms of longevity of the reconstruction, particularly in congenital degenerative disorders of the aortic wall, whereas remodeling appears to exhibit a more physiologic behavior of the reconstructed valve and re-suspension serves as a simplified approach particularly in acute type A dissection. Although restitution of the native aortic valve has its place in current treatment options, the accumulated worldwide numbers indicate that it is not yet routinely implemented in the vast majority of cardiac institutions.
Carlson, Misty; Airhart, Nathan; Lopez, Leo; Silberbach, Michael
Girls and women with Turner syndrome are at risk for aortic dissection and rupture. However, the size of the aorta and the clinical characteristics among those with Turner syndrome and dissection have received little attention. We obtained medical records from 20 individuals who voluntarily participated in the International Turner Syndrome Aortic Dissection Registry. Type A dissections occurred in 17 of 20 (85%) cases, and type B occurred in 3 cases of which 1 occurred after coarctation stent placement. Of those with spontaneous aortic dissections, 18 of 19 (95%) had an associated cardiac malformation that included a bicuspid aortic valve. In 1 individual there was no predisposing finding other than the presence of Turner syndrome. Associated pregnancy was documented in 1 of 19 (5%). More than half (13/19, 68%) came to medical attention >24 hours after the onset of symptoms. For those with type A dissections, the mean ascending aortic size index was 2.7±0.6 cm/m(2) (n=9). Aortic dissection in Turner syndrome occurs in young individuals at smaller aortic diameters than in the general population or other forms of genetically triggered aortopathy. The absence of aortic valve or other cardiac malformations appears to markedly reduce the risk of aortic dissection However, aortic dissection can occur in Turner syndrome without cardiac malformations or hypertension. Individuals with Turner syndrome who are >18 years of age with an ascending aortic size index >2.5 cm/m(2) should be considered for an aortic operation to prevent aortic dissection.
Alkhouli, Mohamad; Melito, Betsy; Ling, Frederick S
The development of de novo aortic insufficiency (AI) is a significant complication of long-term LVAD support, which can lead to ineffective support, decreased device durability, end organ malperfusion, and increased mortality. Surgical aortic valve (AV) closure has been the standard treatment for symptomatic patients, but is associated with high mortality and recurrence of AI. Percutaneous AV closure using the Amplatzer cribriform device is a feasible and may be the preferable option to treat LVAD-associated severe AI in high-surgical risk patients. Certain technical issues with this procedure should be taken into consideration to achieve optimal results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leon, Martin B; Smith, Craig R; Mack, Michael; Miller, D Craig; Moses, Jeffrey W; Svensson, Lars G; Tuzcu, E Murat; Webb, John G; Fontana, Gregory P; Makkar, Raj R; Brown, David L; Block, Peter C; Guyton, Robert A; Pichard, Augusto D; Bavaria, Joseph E; Herrmann, Howard C; Douglas, Pamela S; Petersen, John L; Akin, Jodi J; Anderson, William N; Wang, Duolao; Pocock, Stuart
Many patients with severe aortic stenosis and coexisting conditions are not candidates for surgical replacement of the aortic valve. Recently, transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) has been suggested as a less invasive treatment for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. We randomly assigned patients with severe aortic stenosis, whom surgeons considered not to be suitable candidates for surgery, to standard therapy (including balloon aortic valvuloplasty) or transfemoral transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial valve. The primary end point was the rate of death from any cause. A total of 358 patients with aortic stenosis who were not considered to be suitable candidates for surgery underwent randomization at 21 centers (17 in the United States). At 1 year, the rate of death from any cause (Kaplan–Meier analysis) was 30.7% with TAVI, as compared with 50.7% with standard therapy (hazard ratio with TAVI, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.74; P<0.001). The rate of the composite end point of death from any cause or repeat hospitalization was 42.5% with TAVI as compared with 71.6% with standard therapy (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.59; P<0.001). Among survivors at 1 year, the rate of cardiac symptoms (New York Heart Association class III or IV) was lower among patients who had undergone TAVI than among those who had received standard therapy (25.2% vs. 58.0%, P<0.001). At 30 days, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, was associated with a higher incidence of major strokes (5.0% vs. 1.1%, P=0.06) and major vascular complications (16.2% vs. 1.1%, P<0.001). In the year after TAVI, there was no deterioration in the functioning of the bioprosthetic valve, as assessed by evidence of stenosis or regurgitation on an echocardiogram. In patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVI, as compared with standard therapy, significantly reduced the rates of death from any cause
De Palma, Rodney; Saleh, Nawsad; Ruck, Andreas; Settergren, Magnus
Percutaneous valve implantation is a recognized therapy for calcific aortic stenosis in those patients who are inoperable or at high surgical risk. The transfemoral approach is the most frequently used method for device delivery, but a tortuous calcific aorta and the inflexibility of large-caliber endovascular equipment can impede progress or even cause the procedure to be abandoned. Herein, the use of a technique employing a snare to safely overcome device obstruction in the aortic arch of an elderly female patient is described. The technique may be of practical value whenever any large-caliber device is obstructed in the circulation.
Ferreira, Renata Tosoni Rodrigues; Silva, Roberto Rocha e; Marchi, Evaldo
Objective To compare the results of aortic valve replacement with access by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records of 37 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach, with emphasis on the comparison of time of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping, volume of surgical bleeding, time of mechanical ventilation, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge, short-term mortality and presence of surgical wound infection. Results Sternotomy was used in 22 patients and minimally invasive surgery in 15 patients. The minimally invasive approach had significantly higher time values of cardiopulmonary bypass (114.3±23.9 versus 86.7±19.8min.; P=0.003), aortic clamping (87.4±19.2 versus 61.4±12.9 min.; P<0.001) and mechanical ventilation (287.3±138.9 versus 153.9±118.6 min.; P=0.003). No difference was found in outcomes surgical bleeding volume, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit and time of hospital discharge. No cases of short-term mortality or surgical wound infection were documented. Conclusion The less invasive approach presented with longer times of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping and mechanical ventilation than sternotomy, however without prejudice to the length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge and morbidity. PMID:28076618
Mueller, X M; Tevaearai, H T; Genton, C Y; Hurni, M; Ruchat, P; Fischer, A P; Stumpe, F; von Segesser, L K
Aortoplasty has been advocated for moderate dilatation of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease. We report our results with this conservative approach. Seventeen consecutive patients with unsupported aortoplasty were reviewed. Twelve patients had aortic valve regurgitation and 5 had stenosis. The aortic wall was analyzed histologically in 14 patients. Follow-up was complete, with a mean time of 6 years (range, 2.3 to 10.5 years). Two patients among the 15 hospital survivors died during follow-up of causes unrelated to aortic pathology. Survival at 7 years was 86.7% (+/- 8.8%). Recurring aortic aneurysms developed in 4 patients after a mean time of 63 months, with an event-free survival at 7 years of 41% (+/- 21%). All of these 4 patients had aortic valve regurgitation and cystic medial necrosis. The recurrence rate of aneurysms after unsupported aortoplasty and aortic valve replacement is high in patients with aortic regurgitation. This strongly suggests that in these patients, the aortic dilatation is related to an underlying wall deficiency, associated with the aortic valve pathology, rather than to the hemodynamic stress imposed by the aortic valve disease.
Jung, Yochun; Ahn, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyo Seon; Jeong, In Seok; Kim, Kye Hun; Na, Kook Joo; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Oh, Sang Gi
Prosthetic valve dehiscence after aortic valve surgery in Behçet's disease patients is common. We aimed to validate the usefulness of our new technique 'subannular endomyocardial implantation of valve prosthesis' designed to prevent prosthetic valve dehiscence. Subannular endomyocardial implantation of valve prosthesis involves suturing the sewing cuff of the valve prosthesis in the endomyocardium below the aortic annulus, which is based on the idea that annular tissue should be excluded from the suture line in Behçet's disease patients. Medical records of 7 patients in whom the new technique was performed between 2002 and 2014 were reviewed. Five men and two women were included (median age, 44 years). Aortic root replacement was performed in 6 cases, and aortic valve replacement in 1. No operative mortality occurred. Postoperatively, complete atrioventricular block developed in 3 cases, and permanent pacemakers were implanted in 2. No reoperation was performed for prosthetic valve dehiscence during the median 7.8-year follow-up. One late death occurred due to sudden cardiac arrest 8.4 years after surgery. One additional permanent pacemaker was implanted for complete atrioventricular block, which developed at 4.2 years postoperatively. The last echocardiography (median, 6.7 years after surgery) revealed no paravalvular leakages. Subannular endomyocardial implantation of valve prosthesis seems useful for preventing prosthetic valve dehiscence after aortic valve surgery for Behçet's disease. It poses a risk of complete atrioventricular block, but considering the high reoperation rate and mortality due to prosthetic valve dehiscence after conventional aortic valve surgery, this risk seems reasonable.
Akpinar, B; Sanisoğlu, I; Konuralp, C; Akay, H; Güden, M; Sönmez, B
Over the years, many surgical methods have evolved for the treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm in combination with aortic valve regurgitation; however, precise guidelines for optimal surgical techniques for varying presentations have not been defined. We describe the use of a stentless porcine bioprosthesis (Medtronic Freestyle) in a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic regurgitation. We used the complete root replacement method, and anastomosed a Dacron graft (Hemashield) between the bioprosthetic valve and the native aorta to replace the distal part of the aneurysm. Images PMID:10524742
Barnhart, Glenn R.; Shrestha, Malakh Lal
Abstract Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. It is caused primarily by age-related degeneration and progressive calcification typically detected in patients 65 years and older. In patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, the average survival rate is only 2 years without appropriate treatment. Approximately one half of all patients die within the first 2 to 3 years of symptom onset. In addition, the age of the patients presenting for aortic valve replacement (AVR) is increased along with the demographic changes. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database shows that the number of patients older than 80 years has increased from 12% to 24% during the past 20 years. At the same time, the percentage of candidates requiring AVR as well as concomitant coronary bypass surgery has increased from 5% to 25%. Surgical AVR continues to be the criterion standard for treatment of aortic stenosis, improving survival and quality of life. Recent advances in prosthetic valve technology, such as transcatheter AVR, have expanded the indication for AVR to the extreme high-risk population, and the most recent surgical innovation, rapid deployment AVR, provides an additional tool to the surgeons’ armamentarium. PMID:26918310
Arsalan, Mani; Walther, Thomas
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for inoperable patients, and the preferred treatment option for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Given that this therapy was intended for elderly patients with limited life expectancy, long-term durability has not been in the focus. Now that TAVI is increasingly being used in patients with intermediate-risk and lower-risk profiles, device durability has gained importance. The available mid-term results for TAVI are promising; however, little is known about the fate of TAVI devices beyond 5 years. The experience with long-term durability of surgical valves shows that ≥10-year follow-up is required to ensure reliable durability data. In this Review