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Sample records for corms

  1. Spatial and temporal gene expression patterns occur during corm development.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L A; Carneiro, M; Neshich, D de C; de Paiva, G R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated gene expression patterns that occur during taro corm development. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified several different prevalent proteins that accumulate during corm development. Microsequencing studies indicated that some of these proteins are related to taste-modifying proteins, such as curculin and miraculin, and proteins found in other storage organs, such as sporamin and the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. A curculin-encoding cDNA clone, designated as TC1, was identified that corresponds to a highly prevalent 1-kb corm mRNA. The TC1 mRNA accumulates during corm development, is more prevalent in corm apical than basal regions, and is either absent, or present at low concentrations, in other vegetative organs such as the leaf and root. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the TC1 mRNA is highly concentrated in corm storage parenchyma cells and is absent, or present in reduced concentrations, in other corm cells and tissues. Our results show that corm development is associated with the differentiation of specialized cells and tissues, and that these differentiation events are coupled with the temporal and spatial expression of corm-specific genes. PMID:1467653

  2. NIST Response to the 6th CORM Report: Pressing Problems and Projected National Needs in Optical Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, A. C.; Fraser, G. T.; Lykke, K. R.

    2001-11-01

    The Council for Optical Radiation Measurements (CORM) issues periodic reports relevant to the mission of the Optical Technology Division of the Physics Laboratory. The present document summarizes NIST's response to the CORM Sixth Report issued in 1995 and is timed to be contemporary with the CORM Seventh Report to be issued in 2001.

  3. CORM-EDE1: A Highly Water-Soluble and Nontoxic Manganese-Based photoCORM with a Biogenic Ligand Sphere.

    PubMed

    Mede, Ralf; Klein, Moritz; Claus, Ralf A; Krieck, Sven; Quickert, Stefanie; Görls, Helmar; Neugebauer, Ute; Schmitt, Michael; Gessner, Guido; Heinemann, Stefan H; Popp, Jürgen; Bauer, Michael; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    [Mn(CO)5Br] reacts with cysteamine and 4-amino-thiophenyl with a ratio of 2:3 in refluxing tetrahydrofuran to the complexes of the type [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SCH2CH2NH3)3]Br2 (1, CORM-EDE1) and [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)3]Br2 (2, CORM-EDE2). Compound 2 precipitates during refluxing of the tetrahydrofuran solution as a yellow solid whereas 1 forms a red oil that slowly solidifies. Recrystallization of 2 from water yields the HBr-free complex [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-S-C6H4-4-NH2)2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)] (3). The n-propylthiolate ligand (which is isoelectronic to the bridging thiolate of 1) leads to the formation of the di- and tetranuclear complexes [(OC)4Mn(μ-S-nPr)2]2 and [(OC)3Mn(μ-S-nPr)]4. CORM-EDE1 possesses ideal properties to administer carbon monoxide to biological and medicinal tissues upon irradiation (photoCORM). Isolated crystalline CORM-EDE1 can be handled at ambient and aerobic conditions. This complex is nontoxic, highly soluble in water, and indefinitely stable therein in the absence of air and phosphate buffer. CORM-EDE1 is stable as frozen stock in aqueous solution without any limitations, and these stock solutions maintain their CO release properties. The reducing dithionite does not interact with CORM-EDE1, and therefore, the myoglobin assay represents a valuable tool to study the release kinetics of this photoCORM. After CO liberation, the formation of MnHPO4 in aqueous buffer solution can be verified.

  4. CORM-EDE1: A Highly Water-Soluble and Nontoxic Manganese-Based photoCORM with a Biogenic Ligand Sphere.

    PubMed

    Mede, Ralf; Klein, Moritz; Claus, Ralf A; Krieck, Sven; Quickert, Stefanie; Görls, Helmar; Neugebauer, Ute; Schmitt, Michael; Gessner, Guido; Heinemann, Stefan H; Popp, Jürgen; Bauer, Michael; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    [Mn(CO)5Br] reacts with cysteamine and 4-amino-thiophenyl with a ratio of 2:3 in refluxing tetrahydrofuran to the complexes of the type [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SCH2CH2NH3)3]Br2 (1, CORM-EDE1) and [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)3]Br2 (2, CORM-EDE2). Compound 2 precipitates during refluxing of the tetrahydrofuran solution as a yellow solid whereas 1 forms a red oil that slowly solidifies. Recrystallization of 2 from water yields the HBr-free complex [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-S-C6H4-4-NH2)2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)] (3). The n-propylthiolate ligand (which is isoelectronic to the bridging thiolate of 1) leads to the formation of the di- and tetranuclear complexes [(OC)4Mn(μ-S-nPr)2]2 and [(OC)3Mn(μ-S-nPr)]4. CORM-EDE1 possesses ideal properties to administer carbon monoxide to biological and medicinal tissues upon irradiation (photoCORM). Isolated crystalline CORM-EDE1 can be handled at ambient and aerobic conditions. This complex is nontoxic, highly soluble in water, and indefinitely stable therein in the absence of air and phosphate buffer. CORM-EDE1 is stable as frozen stock in aqueous solution without any limitations, and these stock solutions maintain their CO release properties. The reducing dithionite does not interact with CORM-EDE1, and therefore, the myoglobin assay represents a valuable tool to study the release kinetics of this photoCORM. After CO liberation, the formation of MnHPO4 in aqueous buffer solution can be verified. PMID:26672620

  5. Vasoactive properties of CORM-3, a novel water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Hammad, Jehad; Clark, James E; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Friebe, Andreas; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    1 Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the end products of heme catabolism by heme oxygenase, possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory characteristics. We have recently discovered that certain transition metal carbonyls are capable of releasing CO in biological fluids and modulate physiological functions via the delivery of CO. Because the initial compounds identified were not water soluble, we have synthesized new CO-releasing molecules that are chemically modified to allow solubility in water. The aim of this study was to assess the vasoactive properties of tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) in vitro and in vivo. 2 CORM-3 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in vessels precontracted with phenylephrine, exerting significant vasodilatation starting at concentrations of 25-50 microm. Inactive CORM-3, which does not release CO, did not affect vascular tone. 3 Blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (glibenclamide) or guanylate cyclase activity (ODQ) considerably reduced CORM-3-dependent relaxation, confirming that potassium channels activation and cGMP partly mediate the vasoactive properties of CO. In fact, increased levels of cGMP were detected in aortas following CORM-3 stimulation. 4 The in vitro and in vivo vasorelaxant activities of CORM-3 were further enhanced in the presence of YC-1, a benzylindazole derivative which is known to sensitize guanylate cyclase to activation by CO. Interestingly, inhibiting nitric oxide production or removing the endothelium significantly decreased vasodilatation by CORM-3, suggesting that factors produced by the endothelium influence CORM-3 vascular activities. 5 These results, together with our previous findings on the cardioprotective functions of CORM-3, indicate that this molecule is an excellent prototype of water-soluble CO carriers for studying the pharmacological and biological features of CO. PMID:15148243

  6. Enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs): evaluation of biological activity in relation to their structure.

    PubMed

    Romanski, S; Stamellou, E; Jaraba, J T; Storz, D; Krämer, B K; Hafner, M; Amslinger, S; Schmalz, H G; Yard, B A

    2013-12-01

    Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) and can deliver CO intracellularly via esterase-mediated hydrolysis. The protective properties of structurally different ET-CORMs on hypothermic preservation damage and their ability to inhibit VCAM-1 expression were tested on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) using a structure-activity approach. Cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs, protection against hypothermic preservation damage, and inhibition of VCAM-1 expression were assessed. Cytotoxicity of 2-cyclohexenone and 1,3-cyclohexanedione-derived ET-CORMs was more pronounced in HUVEC compared to PTEC and was dependent on the position and type of the ester (acyloxy) substituent(s) (acetate>pivalate>palmitate). Protection against hypothermic preservation injury was only observed for 2-cyclohexenone-derived ET-CORMs and was not mediated by the ET-CORM decomposition product 2-cyclohexenone itself. Structural requirements for protection by these ET-CORMs were different for HUVEC and PTEC. Protection was affected by the nature of the ester functionality in both cell lines. VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by both 2-cyclohexenone- and 1,3-cyclohexanedione-derived ET-CORMs. 2-Cyclohexenone, but not 1,3-cyclohexanedione, also inhibited VCAM-1 expression. We demonstrate that structural alterations of ET-CORMs significantly affect their biological activity. Our data also indicate that different ET-CORMs behave differently in various cell types (epithelial vs endothelial). These findings warrant further studies not only to elucidate the structure-activity relation of ET-CORMs in mechanistic terms but also to assess if structural optimization will yield ET-CORMs with restricted cell specificity.

  7. The Interaction of CORM-2 with Block Copolymers Containing Poly(4-vinylpyridine): Macromolecular Scaffolds for Carbon Monoxide Delivery in Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Oliver, Susan; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-05-01

    CORM-2, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (Ru2 Cl4 (CO)6 ), is a common carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) studied both in vitro and in vivo, but this compound possesses poor water solubility and a short half-life, which hinders its clinical development. Herein, for the first time the conjugation of CORM-2 is reported with a copolymer containing poly(4-vinylpyridine) to yield water-soluble CO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles. CORM-2 is rapidly conjugated to copolymers through pyridine groups as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In comparison with free CORM-2, the copolymers functionalized with CORM-2 display better water solubility and the CO release from the polymer-based CORM is slow and sustained. This study paves the way for the potential use of a copolymer encapsulating CORM-2 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26945898

  8. Live-fibroblast IR imaging of a cytoprotective PhotoCORM Activated with Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Zobi, Fabio; Quaroni, Luca; Santoro, Giuseppe; Zlateva, Theodora; Blacque, Olivier; Sarafimov, Blagoj; Schaub, Marcus C; Bogdanova, Anna Yu

    2013-09-12

    Carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) are an emerging class of pharmaceutical compounds currently evaluated in several preclinical disease models. There is general consensus that the therapeutic effects elicited by the molecules may be directly ascribed to the biological function of the released CO. It remains unclear, however, if cellular internalization of CORMs is a critical event in their therapeutic action. To address the problem of cellular delivery, we have devised a general strategy which entails conjugation of a CO-releasing molecule (here a photoactivated CORM) to the 5'-OH ribose group of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin (B12) functions as the biocompatible water-soluble scaffold which actively transports the CORM against a concentration gradient into the cells. The uptake and cellular distribution of this B12-photoCORM conjugate is demonstrated via synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy measurements on living cells. Intracellular photoinduced CO release prevents fibroblasts from dying under conditions of hypoxia and metabolic depletion, conditions that may occur in vivo during insufficient blood supply to oxygen-sensitive tissues such as the heart or brain.

  9. Low temperature maximizes growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Maria; Hurry, Vaughan; Lapointe, Line

    2009-01-01

    In Crocus vernus, a spring bulbous species, prolonged growth at low temperatures results in the development of larger perennial organs and delayed foliar senescence. Because corm growth is known to stop before the first visual sign of leaf senescence, it is clear that factors other than leaf duration alone determine final corm size. The aim of this study was to determine whether reduced growth at higher temperatures was due to decreased carbon import to the corm or to changes in the partitioning of this carbon once it had reached the corm. Plants were grown under two temperature regimes and the amount of carbon fixed, transported, and converted into a storable form in the corm, as well as the partitioning into soluble carbohydrates, starch, and the cell wall, were monitored during the growth cycle. The reduced growth at higher temperature could not be explained by a restriction in carbon supply or by a reduced ability to convert the carbon into starch. However, under the higher temperature regime, the plant allocated more carbon to cell wall material, and the amount of glucose within the corm declined earlier in the season. Hexose to sucrose ratios might control the duration of corm growth in C. vernus by influencing the timing of the cell division, elongation, and maturation phases. It is suggested that it is this shift in carbon partitioning, not limited carbon supply or leaf duration, which is responsible for the smaller final biomass of the corm at higher temperatures. PMID:19403850

  10. Elucidation of the CO-Release Kinetics of CORM-A1 by Means of Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Moritz; Neugebauer, Ute; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are developed for investigations of the interaction between the signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO) and cells or tissue. Prior to their application these molecules must be fully characterized with respect to their CO-release mechanism. One widely used CORM for biological application is sodium boranocarbonate (CORM-A1), which shows pH-dependent CO liberation. The complete reaction mechanism of CORM-A1 is not fully understood yet. Therefore, in this contribution time-resolved gas-phase IR spectroscopy is used to monitor the headspace above decaying CORM-A1 solutions at four different pH values (5.8 to 7.4). Borane carbonyl is found as an intermediate in the gas phase, which is formed during CORM degradation and further decays to CO. Concentration profiles of a pseudoconsecutive first-order reaction are successfully fitted to specific band areas of the measured gas-phase spectra, and the rate constants are obtained. The production of borane carbonyl is strongly pH dependent (half-lives between 5 and 106 min), whereas the decay of borane carbonyl in the gas phase is nearly constant with a half-life of about 33 min. The ratio of liberated CO molecules per CORM-A1 is determined to be 0.91±0.09, and boric acid is identified as further end product. PMID:26699153

  11. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people.

  12. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people. PMID:25172708

  13. Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control. PMID:19557652

  14. Investigation into the mechanism(s) of antithrombotic effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3).

    PubMed

    Soni, Hitesh; Jain, Mukul; Mehta, Anita A

    2011-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide (NO) has been recognized as activator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) in many physiological functions. Studies, which demonstrate the mechanisms by which CO inhibits platelet aggregation in in vivo models, are few. Here we investigated the possible involvement of sGC, NO, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and p38 MAP Kinase in antithrombotic effects of CO released by a novel, water-soluble, CO releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) using rat. The effects of CORM-3 on in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by thrombin as well as in in vivo thrombosis models were studied. When added to rat washed platelets in in vitro study, CORM-3 (100 and 200 μM) inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Similarly, antiplatelet effect was also observed when 3mg/kg i.v. infusion of CORM-3 administered for 10 minutes in ex vivo study using rat. Interestingly, in presence of inhibitor of sGC (ODQ, 10mg/kg,i.p.) and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME, 30 mg/kg,i.p.), inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation by CORM-3 was significantly blocked. Notably, in presence of inhibitor of K(ATP) channel (glibenclamide, 10mg/kg,i.p.) and p38 MAP Kinase (SCIO-469, 1mg/kg, i.p.), inhibition of aggregation by CORM-3 was not blocked. In in vivo studies using animal models of thrombosis, we found that CORM-3-mediated antithrombotic effect was dependent on activation of sGC, NO and suppression of PAI-1 in arterial thrombosis and Arterio-Venous (A-V) shunt models. Therefore, we concluded that antithrombotic activity of CORM-3 may be mediated by activation of sGC, NO and inhibition of PAI-1.

  15. Novel lead structures and activation mechanisms for CO-releasing molecules (CORMs)

    PubMed Central

    Schatzschneider, U

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous small signalling molecule in the human body, produced by the action of haem oxygenase on haem. Since it is very difficult to apply safely as a gas, solid storage and delivery forms for CO are now explored. Most of these CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are based on the inactivation of the CO by coordinating it to a transition metal centre in a prodrug approach. After a brief look at the potential cellular target structures of CO, an overview of the design principles and activation mechanisms for CO release from a metal coordination sphere is given. Endogenous and exogenous triggers discussed include ligand exchange reactions with medium, enzymatically-induced CO release and photoactivated liberation of CO. Furthermore, the attachment of CORMs to hard and soft nanomaterials to confer additional target specificity to such systems is critically assessed. A survey of analytical methods for the study of the stoichiometry and kinetics of CO release, as well as the tracking of CO in living systems by using fluorescent probes, concludes this review. CORMs are very valuable tools for studying CO bioactivity and might lead to new drug candidates; however, in the design of future generations of CORMs, particular attention has to be paid to their drug-likeness and the tuning of the peripheral ‘drug sphere’ for specific biomedical applications. Further progress in this field will thus critically depend on a close interaction between synthetic chemists and researchers exploring the physiological effects and therapeutic applications of CO. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24628281

  16. Uterolytic effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Hypoxidaceae) corm [;African Potato'] aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Nyinawumuntu, Agatha; Awe, Emmanuel O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-01

    Extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea corm (African potato) are commonly used by some traditional health practitioners in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa as natural antenatal remedy to prevent threatening or premature abortion and miscarriage, and to ensure successful confinement. In this study, we investigated the uterolytic activity of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract on spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of uterine horns taken from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs, as well as on spasmogen-provoked contractions of stilboesterol-primed, oestrogen-dominated, non-pregnant rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns. Relatively low to high concentrations of H. hemerocallidea corm aqueous extract (APE, 25-400 mg/ml) inhibited the amplitude of the spontaneous, rhythmic contractions of, and relaxed, uterine horns isolated from pregnant rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-related manner. Furthermore, relatively low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) relaxed basal tones of uterine horns taken from non-pregnant, oestrogen-dominated rats and guinea-pigs in a concentration-dependent manner. The same moderately low to high concentrations of APE (25-400 mg/ml) inhibited acetylcholine-, oxytocin-, bradykinin-, and potassium chloride (K(+))-induced contractions of oestrogen-dominated rat and guinea-pig isolated uterine horns in a concentration-related manner. Although the mechanism of uterolytic action of APE could not be established, the results of the present study lend pharmacological credence to the folkloric, ethnomedical uses of APE as a natural antenatal remedy for threatening or premature abortion, and suggest that the uterolytic action of the corm's extract is unlikely to be mediated via beta(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation, but probably mediated through a non-specific spasmolytic mechanism. PMID:19122381

  17. In vitro study on regeneration of Gladiolus grandiflorus corm calli as affected by plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Torabi-Giglou, Mousa; Hajieghrari, Behzad

    2008-04-15

    In this study, in vitro organogenesis of Gladiolus grandiflorus cultivar pink corm segments were evaluated by culturing corm calli in modified MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar with different concentration of BAP (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg L(-1) medium) and NAA (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg L(-1) medium) in factorial experiment of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). In order to obtain Gladiolus calli, corm segments (Aprox. 5 x 5 x 1 mm in size) were kept in modified MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) that was supplemented with 1 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D, 3% sucrose and 0.7% agar. The results showed that increasing the concentration of BAP from 0 to 2 mg L(-1) medium simulated plantlet regeneration but no significantly effect was obtained on shoot and cormel organogenesis between 2 and 4 mg L(-1) BAP concentration in medium. Increasing of NAA content in media without BAP developed rootlet significantly. Interaction results showed that increasing BAP content against decreasing of NAA concentration stimulates the shoot and cormel proliferation.

  18. Analysis of the Bacterial Response to Ru(CO)3Cl(Glycinate) (CORM-3) and the Inactivated Compound Identifies the Role Played by the Ruthenium Compound and Reveals Sulfur-Containing Species as a Major Target of CORM-3 Action

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Ronald; Jesse, Helen E.; Mann, Brian E.; Sanguinetti, Guido; Poole, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are being developed with the ultimate goal of safely utilizing the therapeutic potential of CO clinically. One such application is antimicrobial activity; therefore, we aimed to characterize and compare the effects of the CO-RM, CORM-3, and its inactivated counterpart, where all labile CO has been removed, at the transcriptomic and cellular level. Results: We found that both compounds are able to penetrate the cell, but the inactive form is not inhibitory to bacterial growth under conditions where CORM-3 is. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the bacterial response to inactivated CORM-3 (iCORM-3) is much lower than to the active compound and that a wide range of processes appear to be affected by CORM-3 and to a lesser extent iCORM-3, including energy metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and the metabolism of many sulfur-containing species, including cysteine and methionine. Innovation: This work has demonstrated that both CORM-3 and its inactivated counterpart react with cellular functions to yield a complex response at the transcriptomic level. A full understanding of the actions of both compounds is vital to understand the toxic effects of CO-RMs. Conclusion: This work has furthered our understanding of how CORM-3 behaves at the cellular level and identifies the responses that occur when the host is exposed to the Ru compound as well as those that result from the released CO. This is a vital step in laying the groundwork for future development of optimized CO-RMs for eventual use in antimicrobial therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1999–2012. PMID:23472713

  19. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) improves clinical signs of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in rats.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Mangano, Katia; Mammana, Santa; Cavalli, Eugenio; Di Marco, Roberto; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2015-04-01

    Uveitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory disease of the eye which represents the third leading cause of blindness in the developed countries. The conventional pharmacological treatment includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, which are limited by their side effects. New therapeutic strategies are thus strongly needed. Exogenously-administered carbon monoxide (CO) may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are a novel group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO. Among CORMs, CORM-A1 represents the first example of water soluble CO releaser. We show here that CORM-A1 under a late prophylactic regime is able to significantly ameliorate the natural course of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, a rodent model of immunoinflammatory posterior uveitis. The present study strongly supports the development of CORM-A1 as a potential new drug for treatment of patients with non-infectious posterior uveitis.

  20. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Released from Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) Dimer (CORM-2) in Gastroprotection against Experimental Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage.

    PubMed

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Adamski, Juliusz; Surmiak, Marcin; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The physiological gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide (CO) becomes a subject of extensive investigation due to its vasoactive activity throughout the body but its role in gastroprotection has been little investigated. We determined the mechanism of CO released from its donor tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) in protection of gastric mucosa against 75% ethanol-induced injury. Rats were pretreated with CORM-2 30 min prior to 75% ethanol with or without 1) non-selective (indomethacin) or selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) and COX-2 (celecoxib) inhibitors, 2) nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NNA, 3) ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, hemin, a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inductor or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity. The CO content in gastric mucosa and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level in blood was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gastric mucosal mRNA expression for HO-1, COX-1, COX-2, iNOS, IL-4, IL-1β was analyzed by real-time PCR while HO-1, HO-2 and Nrf2 protein expression was determined by Western Blot. Pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.5-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced lesions and raised gastric blood flow (GBF) but large dose of 100 mg/kg was ineffective. CORM-2 (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg i.g.) significantly increased gastric mucosal CO content and whole blood COHb level. CORM-2-induced protection was reversed by indomethacin, SC-560 and significantly attenuated by celecoxib, ODQ and L-NNA. Hemin significantly reduced ethanol damage and raised GBF while ZnPPIX which exacerbated ethanol-induced injury inhibited CORM-2- and hemin-induced gastroprotection and the accompanying rise in GBF. CORM-2 significantly increased gastric mucosal HO-1 mRNA expression and decreased mRNA expression for iNOS, IL-1β, COX-1 and COX-2 but failed to affect HO-1 and Nrf2 protein expression decreased by ethanol. We conclude that CORM-2 released CO exerts gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric lesions

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Released from Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) Dimer (CORM-2) in Gastroprotection against Experimental Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage

    PubMed Central

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Adamski, Juliusz; Surmiak, Marcin; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The physiological gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide (CO) becomes a subject of extensive investigation due to its vasoactive activity throughout the body but its role in gastroprotection has been little investigated. We determined the mechanism of CO released from its donor tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) in protection of gastric mucosa against 75% ethanol-induced injury. Rats were pretreated with CORM-2 30 min prior to 75% ethanol with or without 1) non-selective (indomethacin) or selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) and COX-2 (celecoxib) inhibitors, 2) nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NNA, 3) ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, hemin, a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inductor or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity. The CO content in gastric mucosa and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level in blood was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gastric mucosal mRNA expression for HO-1, COX-1, COX-2, iNOS, IL-4, IL-1β was analyzed by real-time PCR while HO-1, HO-2 and Nrf2 protein expression was determined by Western Blot. Pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.5–10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced lesions and raised gastric blood flow (GBF) but large dose of 100 mg/kg was ineffective. CORM-2 (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg i.g.) significantly increased gastric mucosal CO content and whole blood COHb level. CORM-2-induced protection was reversed by indomethacin, SC-560 and significantly attenuated by celecoxib, ODQ and L-NNA. Hemin significantly reduced ethanol damage and raised GBF while ZnPPIX which exacerbated ethanol-induced injury inhibited CORM-2- and hemin-induced gastroprotection and the accompanying rise in GBF. CORM-2 significantly increased gastric mucosal HO-1 mRNA expression and decreased mRNA expression for iNOS, IL-1β, COX-1 and COX-2 but failed to affect HO-1 and Nrf2 protein expression decreased by ethanol. We conclude that CORM-2 released CO exerts gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric

  2. Isolation and characterization of a heteropolysaccharide from the corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus.

    PubMed

    Das, Debsankar; Mondal, Subhas; Roy, Sadhan K; Maiti, Debabrata; Bhunia, Bibhas; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-12-14

    A water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of the corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus was found to contain D-galactose, D-glucose, 4-O-acyl-D-methyl galacturonate, and l-arabinose in a molar ratio 2:1:1:1. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: This molecule showed splenocyte activation. PMID:19889399

  3. Synthesis of oxime-based CO-releasing molecules, CORMs and their immobilization on maghemite nanoparticles for magnetic-field induced CO release.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hajo; Brenner, Markus; Höfert, Simon-P; Knedel, Tim-O; Kunz, Peter C; Schmidt, Annette M; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Janiak, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Oxime-based CO-releasing molecules (oximeCORMs) were immobilized with a catechol-modified backbone on maghemite iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to give oximeCORM@IONP. The CO release from the free and immobilized oximeCORMs was measured using the standard myoglobin assay. The oximeCORM-nanoparticles were coated with dextran for improved water solubility and confined into an alginate shell for protection and separation from the surrounding myoglobin assay to allow for CO release studies by UV/Vis absorption without interference from highly-absorptive oximeCORM@IONP. Half-lifes of the oxime-based polymer-confined alginate@dextran@oximeCORM@IONPs were estimated at 20 °C to 814 ± 23 min, at 37 °C to 346 ± 83 min and at 50 °C to 73 ± 1 min. The alginate@dextran@oximeCORM@IONP composite showed a further decrease of the half-life of CO release to 153 ± 27 min at 37 °C through local magnetic heating of the susceptible iron oxide nanoparticles with application of an external alternating magnetic field (31.7 kA m(-1), 247 kHz, 39.9 mTesla). The activation energy for the CO release from molecular dicarbonylchlorido(imidazole-2-carbaldehydeoxime)(alkoxycarbonyl)ruthenium(ii) complexes is determined to be ∼100 kJ mol(-1) for five different imidazole-oxime derivatives. PMID:27048982

  4. Next generation PhotoCORMs: polynuclear tricarbonylmanganese(I)-functionalized polypyridyl metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Govender, Preshendren; Pai, Sandesh; Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Smith, Gregory S

    2013-05-01

    The first CO-releasing metallodendrimers, based on polypyridyl dendritic scaffolds functionalized with Mn(CO)3 moieties, of the general formula [DAB-PPI-{MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═N))(CO)3}n], where DAB = 1,4-diaminobutane, PPI = poly(propyleneimine), bpy = bipyridyl, and n = 4 for first- or n = 8 for second-generation dendrimers, were synthesized and comprehensively characterized by analytical (HR-ESI mass spectrometry and elemental analysis) and spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}-NMR, infrared, and UV/vis spectroscopy) methods. The CO-release properties of these compounds were investigated in pure buffer and using the myoglobin assay. Both metallodendrimer generations are stable in the dark in aqueous buffer for up to 16 h but show photoactivated CO release upon excitation at 410 nm, representing a novel class of macromolecular photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). No scaling effects were observed since both metallodendrimers release ∼65% of the total number of CO ligands per molecule, regardless of the generation number. In addition, the mononuclear model complex [MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═NCH2CH2CH3))(CO)3] was prepared and comprehensively studied, including DFT/TDDFT calculations. These metallodendrimer-based PhotoCORMs afford new methods of targeted delivery of large amounts of carbon monoxide to cellular systems.

  5. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  6. Beneficial effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in mice: Role of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Hitesh; Pandya, Gaurav; Patel, Praful; Acharya, Aviseka; Jain, Mukul; Mehta, Anita A.

    2011-05-15

    Doxorubicin (DXR) has been used in variety of human malignancies for decades. Despite its efficacy in cancer, clinical usage is limited because of its cardiotoxicity, which has been associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been shown to reduce the oxidative damage and apoptosis. The present study investigated the effects of CORM-2, a fast CO-releaser, against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using biochemical, histopathological and gene expression approaches. CORM-2 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days and terminated the study on day 11. DXR (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected before 72 h of termination. Mice treated with DXR showed cardiotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3 and decrease the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in heart tissues. Pre- and post-treatment with CORM-2 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited significant improvement in CK, LDH, MDA, caspase-3 and TAS levels. Histopathological studies showed that cardiac damage with DXR has been reversed with CORM-2 + DXR treatment. There was dramatic decrease in hematological count in DXR-treated mice, which has been improved with CORM-2. Furthermore, there was also elevation of mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease in inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression upon treatment with CORM-2 that might be linked to cardioprotection. These data suggest that CORM-2 treatment provides cardioprotection against acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and this effect may be attributed to CORM-2-mediated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

  7. Carbon monoxide released by CORM-401 uncouples mitochondrial respiration and inhibits glycolysis in endothelial cells: A role for mitoBKCa channels.

    PubMed

    Kaczara, Patrycja; Motterlini, Roberto; Rosen, Gerald M; Augustynek, Bartlomiej; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Szewczyk, Adam; Foresti, Roberta; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a product of heme degradation by heme oxygenases, plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria are among a number of molecular targets that mediate the cellular actions of CO. In the present study we characterized the effects of CO released from CORM-401 on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in intact human endothelial cells using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry and the Seahorse XF technology. We found that CORM-401 (10-100μM) induced a persistent increase in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied by inhibition of glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate, ECAR) and a decrease in ATP-turnover. Furthermore, CORM-401 increased proton leak, diminished mitochondrial reserve capacity and enhanced non-mitochondrial respiration. Inactive CORM-401 (iCORM-401) neither induced mitochondrial uncoupling nor inhibited glycolysis, supporting a direct role of CO in the endothelial metabolic response induced by CORM-401. Interestingly, blockade of mitochondrial large-conductance calcium-regulated potassium ion channels (mitoBKCa) with paxilline abolished the increase in OCR promoted by CORM-401 without affecting ECAR; patch-clamp experiments confirmed that CO derived from CORM-401 activated mitoBKCa channels present in mitochondria. Conversely, stabilization of glycolysis by MG132 prevented CORM-401-mediated decrease in ECAR but did not modify the OCR response. In summary, we demonstrated in intact endothelial cells that CO induces a two-component metabolic response: uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration dependent on the activation of mitoBKCa channels and inhibition of glycolysis independent of mitoBKCa channels.

  8. Cytochrome bd-I in Escherichia coli is less sensitive than cytochromes bd-II or bo′' to inhibition by the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, CORM-3☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Helen E.; Nye, Tacita L.; McLean, Samantha; Green, Jeffrey; Mann, Brian E.; Poole, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are potential therapeutic agents, able to deliver CO – a critical gasotransmitter – in biological environments. CO-RMs are also effective antimicrobial agents; although the mechanisms of action are poorly defined, haem-containing terminal oxidases are primary targets. Nevertheless, it is clear from several studies that the effects of CO-RMs on biological systems are frequently not adequately explained by the release of CO: CO-RMs are generally more potent inhibitors than is CO gas and other effects of the molecules are evident. Methods: Because sensitivity to CO-RMs cannot be predicted by sensitivity to CO gas, we assess the differential susceptibilities of strains, each expressing only one of the three terminal oxidases of E. coli — cytochrome bd-I, cytochrome bd-II and cytochrome bo′, to inhibition by CORM-3. We present the first sensitive measurement of the oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd-II (Km 0.24 μM) employing globin deoxygenation. Finally, we investigate the way(s) in which thiol compounds abolish the inhibitory effects of CORM-2 and CORM-3 on respiration, growth and viability, a phenomenon that is well documented, but poorly understood. Results: We show that a strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3 in its growth and respiration of both intact cells and membranes. Growth studies show that cytochrome bd-II has similar CORM-3 sensitivity to cytochrome bo′. Cytochromes bo′ and bd-II also have considerably lower affinities for oxygen than bd-I. We show that the ability of N-acetylcysteine to abrogate the toxic effects of CO-RMs is not attributable to its antioxidant effects, or prevention of CO targeting to the oxidases, but may be largely due to the inhibition of CO-RM uptake by bacterial cells. Conclusions: A strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole terminal oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3. N-acetylcysteine is a

  9. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 CORM-2 represses global protein synthesis by inhibition of eukaryotic elongation factor eEF2.

    PubMed

    Schwer, Christian Ingo; Stoll, Patrick; Rospert, Sabine; Fitzke, Edith; Schallner, Nils; Bürkle, Hartmut; Schmidt, Rene; Humar, Matjaz

    2013-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous transmitter that exerts antiproliferative effects in many cell types, but effects of CO on the translational machinery are not described. We examined the effects of the carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on critical steps in translational signaling and global protein synthesis in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), the most prominent collagen-producing cells in the pancreas, whose activation is associated with pancreatic fibrosis. PSCs were isolated from rat pancreatic tissue and incubated with CORM-2. CORM-2 prevented the decrease in the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) caused by serum. By contrast, the activation dependent phosphorylation of initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) was inhibited by CORM-2 treatment. The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were not affected by CORM-2 treatment. In consequence, CORM-2 mediated eEF2 phosphorylation and inactivation of 4E-BP1 suppressed global protein synthesis. These observations were associated with inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling and increased intracellular calcium and cAMP levels. The CORM-2 mediated inhibition of protein synthesis resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, a subsequent decline in the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) and cell growth arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase checkpoint of the cell cycle. Our results suggest the therapeutic application of CO releasing molecules such as CORM-2 for the treatment of fibrosis, inflammation, cancer, or other pathologic states associated with excessive protein synthesis or hyperproliferation. However, prolonged exogenous application of CO might also have negative effects on cellular protein homeostasis.

  10. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  11. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation. PMID:24556117

  12. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn). PMID:25306315

  13. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn).

  14. CO-Releasing Molecules Have Nonheme Targets in Bacteria: Transcriptomic, Mathematical Modeling and Biochemical Analyses of CORM-3 [Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)] Actions on a Heme-Deficient Mutant of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jayne Louise; Wareham, Lauren K.; McLean, Samantha; Begg, Ronald; Greaves, Sarah; Mann, Brian E.; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are being developed with the ultimate goal of safely utilizing the therapeutic potential of CO clinically, including applications in antimicrobial therapy. Hemes are generally considered the prime targets of CO and CORMs, so we tested this hypothesis using heme-deficient bacteria, applying cellular, transcriptomic, and biochemical tools. Results: CORM-3 [Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)] readily penetrated Escherichia coli hemA bacteria and was inhibitory to these and Lactococcus lactis, even though they lack all detectable hemes. Transcriptomic analyses, coupled with mathematical modeling of transcription factor activities, revealed that the response to CORM-3 in hemA bacteria is multifaceted but characterized by markedly elevated expression of iron acquisition and utilization mechanisms, global stress responses, and zinc management processes. Cell membranes are disturbed by CORM-3. Innovation: This work has demonstrated for the first time that CORM-3 (and to a lesser extent its inactivated counterpart) has multiple cellular targets other than hemes. A full understanding of the actions of CORMs is vital to understand their toxic effects. Conclusion: This work has furthered our understanding of the key targets of CORM-3 in bacteria and raises the possibility that the widely reported antimicrobial effects cannot be attributed to classical biochemical targets of CO. This is a vital step in exploiting the potential, already demonstrated, for using optimized CORMs in antimicrobial therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 148–162. PMID:25811604

  15. Sapal: a traditional fermented taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm and coconut cream mixture from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gubag, R; Omoloso, D A; Owens, J D

    1996-01-01

    Sapal is a traditional fermented food made by mixing cooked, grated taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm with coconut cream and allowing it to ferment at ambient temperature. The fermentation was primarily due to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which reached 10(10) cfu/ml. Seven out of 10 isolated bacterial strains were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuc. paramesenteroides. The initial microbial flora was derived from the coconut cream. Yeasts grew on the surface of the sapal in the later stages of the fermentation. Overnight storage of the grated taro corm resulted in the glucose concentration increasing from 1.1 to about 5 g/l. During the fermentation the glucose concentration decreased to undetectable levels. The pH value fell from an initial value of 6.1 to 4.1 after 24 h.

  16. Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A

    2014-01-01

    Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms.

  17. Anti-diabetic actions of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM)-A1: Immunomodulation and regeneration of islet beta cells.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Ivana; Saksida, Tamara; Vujicic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM)-A1 prevents type 1 diabetes induced in C57BL/6 mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) by shifting the Th1/Th17/M1 balance towards a Th2/M2 response. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that CORM-A1 might influence regulatory arm of the immune response, as well as beta cell regeneration. CORM-A1 (2 mg/kg/day) was administered for 10 days to mice induced with MLDS and/or depleted of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY)-sensitive FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Besides monitoring hyperglycaemia, ex vivo analysis of spleen, pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) and pancreas was performed at the end of treatment. In CORM-A1-treated MLDS-induced mice the improvement of hyperglycaemia was observed only without depletion of CY-sensitive FoxP3+ Treg cells. This was accompanied by decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2 and early activation marker CD25 in the spleen and PLN and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, resulting in reduced lymphocyte proliferation in both organs. In parallel, decreased transcript levels of IL-2, but increased mRNA expression of TGF-β, accompanied with up-regulation of Ki-67 protein expression was observed within pancreas. Together, the data suggested that besides the immunomodulatory potential, CORM-A1 probably induces beta cell regeneration.

  18. Interaction of the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: in situ measurements of carbon monoxide binding by integrating cavity dual-beam spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rana, Namrata; McLean, Samantha; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that binds to haems, but also plays critical signalling and cytoprotective roles in mammalian systems; despite problems associated with systemic delivery by inhalation of the gas, it may be employed therapeutically. CO delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas; CO-RMs are also attractive candidates as novel antimicrobial agents. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans. Recent studies have implicated haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the protein that catalyses the degradation of haem into biliverdin, free iron and CO, in the host immune response to Salmonella infection. In several studies, CO administration via CO-RMs elicited many of the protective roles of HO-1 induction and so we investigated the effects of a well-characterized water-soluble CO-RM, Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3), on Salmonella. CORM-3 exhibits toxic effects at concentrations significantly lower than those reported to cause toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated here, through oxyhaemoglobin assays, that CORM-3 did not release CO spontaneously in phosphate buffer, buffered minimal medium or very rich medium. CORM-3 was, however, accumulated to high levels intracellularly (as shown by inductively coupled plasma MS) and released CO inside cells. Using growing Salmonella cultures without prior concentration, we showed for the first time that sensitive dual-beam integrating cavity absorption spectrophotometry can detect directly the CO released from CORM-3 binding in real-time to haems of the bacterial electron transport chain. The toxic effects of CO-RMs suggested potential applications as adjuvants to antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy. PMID:25085864

  19. Interaction of the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: in situ measurements of carbon monoxide binding by integrating cavity dual-beam spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rana, Namrata; McLean, Samantha; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that binds to haems, but also plays critical signalling and cytoprotective roles in mammalian systems; despite problems associated with systemic delivery by inhalation of the gas, it may be employed therapeutically. CO delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas; CO-RMs are also attractive candidates as novel antimicrobial agents. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans. Recent studies have implicated haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the protein that catalyses the degradation of haem into biliverdin, free iron and CO, in the host immune response to Salmonella infection. In several studies, CO administration via CO-RMs elicited many of the protective roles of HO-1 induction and so we investigated the effects of a well-characterized water-soluble CO-RM, Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3), on Salmonella. CORM-3 exhibits toxic effects at concentrations significantly lower than those reported to cause toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated here, through oxyhaemoglobin assays, that CORM-3 did not release CO spontaneously in phosphate buffer, buffered minimal medium or very rich medium. CORM-3 was, however, accumulated to high levels intracellularly (as shown by inductively coupled plasma MS) and released CO inside cells. Using growing Salmonella cultures without prior concentration, we showed for the first time that sensitive dual-beam integrating cavity absorption spectrophotometry can detect directly the CO released from CORM-3 binding in real-time to haems of the bacterial electron transport chain. The toxic effects of CO-RMs suggested potential applications as adjuvants to antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Styrene-maleic acid copolymer-encapsulated CORM2, a water-soluble carbon monoxide (CO) donor with a constant CO-releasing property, exhibits therapeutic potential for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongzhuan; Fang, Jun; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2014-08-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO), the physiological product of heme oxygenase during catabolic breakdown of heme, has versatile functions and fulfills major anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in cell systems. Administration of CO is thus thought to be a reasonable therapeutic approach in diseases-such as inflammatory bowel disease-that are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (CORM2) is a commonly used CO donor, but it has poor aqueous solubility and a very short CO-releasing half-life (t1/2). In the present study, we prepared micelles consisting of water-soluble styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) encapsulating CORM2 (SMA/CORM2) that had a hydrodynamic size of 165.3nm. Compared with free CORM2, SMA/CORM2 demonstrated better water solubility (>50mg/ml in a physiological water solution). Moreover, because of micelle formation in an aqueous environment, the CO release rate was slow and sustained. These properties resulted in much longer in vivo bioactivity of SMA/CORM2 compared with that of free CORM2, i.e. the t1/2 in blood of SMA/CORM2 in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection was about 35 times longer than that of free CORM2. We then evaluated the therapeutic potential of SMA/CORM2 in a murine model of inflammatory colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Administration (either i.v. or oral) of SMA/CORM2 once at the beginning of colitis, 3days after DSS treatment, significantly improved colitis symptoms-loss of body weight, diarrhea, and hematochezia-as well as histopathological colonic changes-shortening of the colon and necrosis or ulcers in the colonic mucosa. Up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in this DSS-induced colitis was significantly suppressed in SMA/CORM2-treated mice. SMA/CORM2 may thus be a superior CO donor and may be a candidate drug, which involves cytokine suppression, for ROS-related diseases including

  1. Styrene-maleic acid copolymer-encapsulated CORM2, a water-soluble carbon monoxide (CO) donor with a constant CO-releasing property, exhibits therapeutic potential for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongzhuan; Fang, Jun; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2014-08-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO), the physiological product of heme oxygenase during catabolic breakdown of heme, has versatile functions and fulfills major anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in cell systems. Administration of CO is thus thought to be a reasonable therapeutic approach in diseases-such as inflammatory bowel disease-that are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (CORM2) is a commonly used CO donor, but it has poor aqueous solubility and a very short CO-releasing half-life (t1/2). In the present study, we prepared micelles consisting of water-soluble styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) encapsulating CORM2 (SMA/CORM2) that had a hydrodynamic size of 165.3nm. Compared with free CORM2, SMA/CORM2 demonstrated better water solubility (>50mg/ml in a physiological water solution). Moreover, because of micelle formation in an aqueous environment, the CO release rate was slow and sustained. These properties resulted in much longer in vivo bioactivity of SMA/CORM2 compared with that of free CORM2, i.e. the t1/2 in blood of SMA/CORM2 in mice after intravenous (i.v.) injection was about 35 times longer than that of free CORM2. We then evaluated the therapeutic potential of SMA/CORM2 in a murine model of inflammatory colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Administration (either i.v. or oral) of SMA/CORM2 once at the beginning of colitis, 3days after DSS treatment, significantly improved colitis symptoms-loss of body weight, diarrhea, and hematochezia-as well as histopathological colonic changes-shortening of the colon and necrosis or ulcers in the colonic mucosa. Up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in this DSS-induced colitis was significantly suppressed in SMA/CORM2-treated mice. SMA/CORM2 may thus be a superior CO donor and may be a candidate drug, which involves cytokine suppression, for ROS-related diseases including

  2. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  3. Physical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Okafor, Chidinma A

    2015-06-01

    Physical, functional and physicochemical properties of flours of five cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) cultivars were evaluated. Colour (L*a*b*) parameters of corms and flours, pasting and functional properties of the flours were determined. Xanthosoma spp showed significantly higher length (95.16-151.46), width (75.29-78.03) and weight (179.20-605.94) than the Colocasia spp., but the parameters did not vary significantly within either Xanthosoma and Colocasia spp. Generally, colour of peeled corms [L* (72.08-78.93); a* (+1.06 - +3.5); b* (+17.65 - +35.80)] was lighter than the flours [L* (69.35-84.97); a* (+0.30 - + 4.76); b* (+4.44 - +23.48)]. The NXs001 showed significantly higher peak (201.71RVU), trough (186.75 RVU), final (289.75 RVU) and setback (103 RVU) viscosities that the other cultivars. Pasting profiles of the cocoyam flours showed similar trend with the NXs001 showing a steeper curve. Pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 87.33 to 92.53 °C and 5.17-6.34 min, respectively. Water absorption capacity, gelling point, pH, foam capacity, bulk density and swelling power varied from 32-69 %, 6.56-7.59, 58.5-72.5 °C, 7.19-14.72 %, 0.94-1.01 g/mL and 3.18-7.36, respectively.

  4. Physical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Okafor, Chidinma A

    2015-06-01

    Physical, functional and physicochemical properties of flours of five cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) cultivars were evaluated. Colour (L*a*b*) parameters of corms and flours, pasting and functional properties of the flours were determined. Xanthosoma spp showed significantly higher length (95.16-151.46), width (75.29-78.03) and weight (179.20-605.94) than the Colocasia spp., but the parameters did not vary significantly within either Xanthosoma and Colocasia spp. Generally, colour of peeled corms [L* (72.08-78.93); a* (+1.06 - +3.5); b* (+17.65 - +35.80)] was lighter than the flours [L* (69.35-84.97); a* (+0.30 - + 4.76); b* (+4.44 - +23.48)]. The NXs001 showed significantly higher peak (201.71RVU), trough (186.75 RVU), final (289.75 RVU) and setback (103 RVU) viscosities that the other cultivars. Pasting profiles of the cocoyam flours showed similar trend with the NXs001 showing a steeper curve. Pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 87.33 to 92.53 °C and 5.17-6.34 min, respectively. Water absorption capacity, gelling point, pH, foam capacity, bulk density and swelling power varied from 32-69 %, 6.56-7.59, 58.5-72.5 °C, 7.19-14.72 %, 0.94-1.01 g/mL and 3.18-7.36, respectively. PMID:26028725

  5. Antioxidant potential of CORM-A1 and resveratrol during TNF-α/cycloheximide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in murine intestinal epithelial MODE-K cells.

    PubMed

    Babu, Dinesh; Leclercq, Georges; Goossens, Vera; Remijsen, Quinten; Vandenabeele, Peter; Motterlini, Roberto; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2015-10-15

    Targeting excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent oxidative stress-associated gastrointestinal inflammation. NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondrial complexes (I and II) are the major sources of ROS production contributing to TNF-α/cycloheximide (CHX)-induced apoptosis in the mouse intestinal epithelial cell line, MODE-K. In the current study, the influence of a polyphenolic compound (resveratrol) and a water-soluble carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule (CORM-A1) on the different sources of TNF-α/CHX-induced ROS production in MODE-K cells was assessed. This was compared with H2O2-, rotenone- or antimycin-A-induced ROS-generating systems. Intracellular total ROS, mitochondrial-derived ROS and mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2(-)) production levels were assessed. Additionally, the influence on TNF-α/CHX-induced changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and mitochondrial function was studied. In basal conditions, CORM-A1 did not affect intracellular total or mitochondrial ROS levels, while resveratrol increased intracellular total ROS but reduced mitochondrial ROS production. TNF-α/CHX- and H2O2-mediated increase in intracellular total ROS production was reduced by both resveratrol and CORM-A1, whereas only resveratrol attenuated the increase in mitochondrial ROS triggered by TNF-α/CHX. CORM-A1 decreased antimycin-A-induced mitochondrial O2(-) production without any influence on TNF-α/CHX- and rotenone-induced mitochondrial O2(-) levels, while resveratrol abolished all three effects. Finally, resveratrol greatly reduced and abolished TNF-α/CHX-induced mitochondrial depolarization and mitochondrial dysfunction, while CORM-A1 only mildly affected these parameters. These data indicate that the cytoprotective effect of resveratrol is predominantly due to mitigation of mitochondrial ROS, while CORM-A1 acts solely on NOX-derived ROS to protect MODE-K cells from TNF-α/CHX-induced cell death

  6. CuAAC click functionalization of azide-modified nanodiamond with a photoactivatable CO-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM) based on [Mn(CO)3(tpm)]+.

    PubMed

    Dördelmann, G; Meinhardt, Thomas; Sowik, Thomas; Krueger, Anke; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    The copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) was used for the first time to attach a biologically active carbon monoxide delivery agent to modified nanodiamond (ND) as a highly biocompatible carrier. The [Mn(CO)(3)(tpm)](+) photoactivatable CO-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM) on the surface retained the carbon monoxide release properties of the parent compound as shown with the myoglobin assay.

  7. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems.

  8. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  9. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691

  10. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. PMID:26826388

  11. Design strategies to improve the sensitivity of photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs) to visible light and their potential as CO-donors to biological targets.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha J; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2014-08-19

    The recent surprising discovery of the beneficial effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in mammalian physiology has drawn attention toward site-specific delivery of CO to biological targets. To avoid difficulties in handling of this noxious gas in hospital settings, researchers have focused their attention on metal carbonyl complexes as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs). Because further control of such CO delivery through light-triggering can be achieved with photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs), we and other groups have attempted to isolate such complexes in the past few years. Typical metal carbonyl complexes release CO when exposed to UV light, a fact that often deters their use in biological systems. From the very beginning, our effort therefore was directed toward identifying design principles that could lead to photoCORMs that release CO upon illumination with low-power (5-15 mW/cm(2)) visible and near-IR light. In our work, we have utilized Mn(I), Re(I), and Ru(II) centers (all d(6) ground state configuration) to ensure overall stability of the carbonyl complexes. We also hypothesized that transfer of electron density from the electron-rich metal centers to π* MOs of the ligand frame via strong metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible/near-IR region would weaken metal-CO back-bonding and promote rapid CO photorelease. This expectation has been realized in a series of carbonyl complexes derived from a variety of designed ligands and smart choice of ligand/coligand combinations. Several principles have emerged from our systematic approach to the design of principal ligands and the choice of auxiliary ligands (in addition to the number of CO) in synthesizing these photoCORMs. In each case, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) study afforded insight into the dependence of the CO photorelease from a particular photoCORM on the wavelength of light. Results of these theoretical studies indicate that extended

  12. The CORM ALF-186 Mediates Anti-Apoptotic Signaling via an Activation of the p38 MAPK after Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai B.; Meske, Alexander; Lagrèze, Wolf A.; Augustynik, Michael; Buerkle, Hartmut; Ramao, Carlos C.; Biermann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemia and reperfusion injury may induce apoptosis and lead to sustained tissue damage and loss of function, especially in neuronal organs. While carbon monoxide is known to exert protective effects after various harmful events, the mechanism of carbon monoxide releasing molecules in neuronal tissue has not been investigated yet. We hypothesize that the carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186, administered after neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), counteracts retinal apoptosis and its involved signaling pathways and consecutively reduces neuronal tissue damage. Methods IRI was performed in rat´s retinae for 1 hour. The water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via a tail vein after reperfusion. After 24 and 48 hours, retinal tissue was harvested to analyze mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Densities of fluorogold pre-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGC) were analyzed 7 days after IRI. Immunohistochemistry was performed on retinal cross sections. Results ALF-186 significantly reduced IRI mediated loss of RGC. ALF-186 treatment differentially affected mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation: ALF-186 activated p38 and suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while JNK remained unchanged. Furthermore, ALF-186 treatment affected mitochondrial apoptosis, decreasing pro-apoptotic Bax and Caspase-3-cleavage, but increasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Inhibition of p38-MAPK using SB203580 reduced ALF-186 mediated anti-apoptotic effects. Conclusion In this study, ALF-186 mediated substantial neuroprotection, affecting intracellular apoptotic signaling, mainly via MAPK p38. CORMs may thus represent a promising therapeutic alternative treating neuronal IRI. PMID:27764224

  13. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  14. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  15. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  16. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets. PMID:26031004

  17. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332

  18. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively.

  19. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO)

    PubMed Central

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO. PMID:27023525

  20. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-24

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1-10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl₃ (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1-10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl₃ was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO's hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  1. New modular manganese(I) tricarbonyl complexes as PhotoCORMs: in vitro detection of photoinduced carbon monoxide release using COP-1 as a fluorogenic switch-on probe.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sandesh; Hafftlang, Maryam; Atongo, George; Nagel, Christoph; Niesel, Johanna; Botov, Svetlana; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Yard, Benito; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2014-06-21

    Five manganese(i) tricarbonyl complexes of the general formulae [Mn(bpea(N=CHC6H4R))(CO)3]PF6 and [Mn(bpea(NHCH2C6H4R))(CO)3]PF6 based on the tridentate bis(pyrazolyl)ethylamine (bpea) ligand, each containing a pendant 4-substituted phenyl group with R = H, I, and C≡C-H, were synthesized and fully characterized, including X-ray structure analysis for three compounds. All complexes are stable in the dark in aqueous buffer for an extended period of time. However, CO-release could be triggered by illumination at 365 nm, establishing these compounds as novel photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). The influence of the imine vs. amine group in the ligands on the electronic structure and the photophysical behavior was investigated with the aid of DFT and TDDFT calculations. Solution IR studies on selected compounds allowed identification of intermediates resulting from the photoreaction. Finally, light-induced CO release from a model compound was demonstrated both in PBS buffer and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using COP-1 as a fluorescent switch-on probe.

  2. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  3. In vitro digestibility and some physicochemical properties of starch from wild and cultivated amadumbe corms.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, K; Amonsou, E O; Oyeyinka, S A

    2015-07-10

    Amadumbe, commonly known as taro, is an indigenous underutilised tuber to Southern Africa. In this study, starch functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of processed products from wild and cultivated amadumbe were determined. Starch extracts from both amadumbe types had similar contents of total starch (approx. 95%). Wild and cultivated amadumbe starch granules were polygonal and very small in size (2.7 ± 0.9 μm). Amylose content of wild amadumbe (20%) was about double that of cultivated (12%). By DSC, the peak gelatinisation temperatures of wild and cultivated amadumbe starches were 81 and 85°C, respectively. The slowly digestible starch (SDS); 20% and resistant starch (RS); 64% contents of wild amadumbe appeared slightly higher than those of cultivated. Processing amadumbe into boiled and baked products did not substantially affect SDS and RS contents. Estimated glycaemic index of processed products ranged from 40 to 44%. Thus, amadumbe, both wild and cultivated, present some potential in the formulation of products for diabetics and weight management. PMID:25857954

  4. CO and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) in acute gastrointestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D; Motterlini, R; Lefebvre, R A

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is enzymatically generated in mammalian cells alongside the liberation of iron and the production of biliverdin and bilirubin. This occurs during the degradation of haem by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, a class of ubiquitous proteins consisting of constitutive and inducible isoforms. The constitutive HO2 is present in the gastrointestinal tract in neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal and CO released from these cells might contribute to intestinal inhibitory neurotransmission and/or to the control of intestinal smooth muscle cell membrane potential. On the other hand, increased expression of the inducible HO1 is now recognized as a beneficial response to oxidative stress and inflammation. Among the products of haem metabolism, CO appears to contribute primarily to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the HO1 pathway explaining the studies conducted to exploit CO as a possible therapeutic agent. This article reviews the effects and, as far as known today, the mechanism(s) of action of CO administered either as CO gas or via CO-releasing molecules in acute gastrointestinal inflammation. We provide here a comprehensive overview on the effect of CO in experimental in vivo models of post-operative ileus, intestinal injury during sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In addition, we will analyse the in vitro data obtained so far on the effect of CO on intestinal epithelial cell lines exposed to cytokines, considering the important role of the intestinal mucosa in the pathology of gastrointestinal inflammation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24641722

  5. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable. PMID:24803696

  6. In vitro digestibility and some physicochemical properties of starch from wild and cultivated amadumbe corms.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, K; Amonsou, E O; Oyeyinka, S A

    2015-07-10

    Amadumbe, commonly known as taro, is an indigenous underutilised tuber to Southern Africa. In this study, starch functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of processed products from wild and cultivated amadumbe were determined. Starch extracts from both amadumbe types had similar contents of total starch (approx. 95%). Wild and cultivated amadumbe starch granules were polygonal and very small in size (2.7 ± 0.9 μm). Amylose content of wild amadumbe (20%) was about double that of cultivated (12%). By DSC, the peak gelatinisation temperatures of wild and cultivated amadumbe starches were 81 and 85°C, respectively. The slowly digestible starch (SDS); 20% and resistant starch (RS); 64% contents of wild amadumbe appeared slightly higher than those of cultivated. Processing amadumbe into boiled and baked products did not substantially affect SDS and RS contents. Estimated glycaemic index of processed products ranged from 40 to 44%. Thus, amadumbe, both wild and cultivated, present some potential in the formulation of products for diabetics and weight management.

  7. Characterization of a versatile organometallic pro-drug (CORM) for experimental CO based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, João D.; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Otterbein, Leo E; Gallo, David J.; Rodrigues, Sandra S.; Guerreiro, Bruno H.; Gonçalves, Ana M. L.; Penacho, Nuno; Marques, Ana R.; Coelho, Ana C.; Reis, Patrícia M.; Romão, Maria J.; Romão, Carlos C.

    2013-01-01

    The complex fac-[Mo(CO)3(histidinate)]Na has been reported to be an effective CO− Releasing Molecule in vivo, eliciting therapeutic effects in several animal models of disease. The CO releasing profile of this complex in different settings both in vitro and in vivo reveals that the compound can readily liberate all of its three CO equivalents under biological conditions. The compound has low toxicity and cytoxicity and is not hemolytic. CO release is accompanied by a decrease in arterial blood pressure following administration in vivo. We studied its behavior in solution and upon the interaction with proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to air and polyoxomolybdate formation in soaks with lysozyme crystals were observed as processes ensuing from the decomposition of the complex and the release of CO. PMID:23223860

  8. Production of amylolytic enzymes in culture by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Sclerotium rolfsii associated with the corm rots of Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Nwufo, M I; Fajola, A O

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular amylase was detected in culture filtrates of Botryodiplodia theobromae and Sclerotium rolfsii. During 10 days incubation S. rolfsii produced more amylase than B. theobromae. B. theobromae produced the greatest amount of amylase at 25 degrees C, while S. rolfsii at 30 degrees C. Both organism exerted the highest amylase activity at pH 6-7. In starch-free medium extracellular amylase was in very low quantities. There was a positive correlation between increase in starch concentration and production of extracellular amylolytic enzymes.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of the Manganese Photoactivated Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+ Against a Pathogenic Escherichia coli that Causes Urinary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Rana, Namrata; Nagel, Christoph; Jesse, Helen E.; Smith, Thomas W.; Wareham, Lauren K.; Hippler, Michael; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We set out to investigate the antibacterial activity of a new Mn-based photoactivated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM, [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+) against an antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic strain (EC958) of Escherichia coli. Results: Activated PhotoCORM inhibits growth and decreases viability of E. coli EC958, but non-illuminated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) is without effect. NADH-supported respiration rates are significantly decreased by activated PhotoCORM, mimicking the effect of dissolved CO gas. CO from the PhotoCORM binds to intracellular targets, namely respiratory oxidases in strain EC958 and a bacterial globin heterologously expressed in strain K-12. However, unlike previously characterized CORMs, the PhotoCORM is not significantly accumulated in cells, as deduced from the cellular manganese content. Activated PhotoCORM reacts avidly with hydrogen peroxide producing hydroxyl radicals; the observed peroxide-enhanced toxicity of the PhotoCORM is ameliorated by thiourea. The PhotoCORM also potentiates the effect of the antibiotic, doxycycline. Innovation: The present work investigates for the first time the antimicrobial activity of a light-activated PhotoCORM against an antibiotic-resistant pathogen. A comprehensive study of the effects of the PhotoCORM and its derivative molecules upon illumination is performed and mechanisms of toxicity of the activated PhotoCORM are investigated. Conclusion: The PhotoCORM allows a site-specific and time-controlled release of CO in bacterial cultures and has the potential to provide much needed information on the generality of CORM activities in biology. Understanding the mechanism(s) of activated PhotoCORM toxicity will be key in exploring the potential of this and similar compounds as antimicrobial agents, perhaps in combinatorial therapies with other agents. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 765–780. PMID:26842766

  10. 75 FR 31785 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... fruits, rye, soybean, stone fruits, succulent shelled peas and beans, sugar beet, tuberous and corm... fruits, rye, soybean, stone fruits, succulent shelled peas and beans, sugar beet, tuberous and corm...), peanut, rye, soybean, sugar beet, tuberous and corm vegetables, (including potato), wheat, and...

  11. Chronic treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule reverses dietary induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, low level treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CO-RM), CORM-A1, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic, low level treatment with this CO-RM can reverse established obesity via a mechanism independent of food intake. Dietary induced obese mice were treated with CORM-A1, the inactive compound iCORM-A1, or saline every 48 hours for 30 weeks while maintained on a high fat (60%) diet. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 resulted in a 33% decrease from initial body weight over the 30 week treatment period while treatment with iCORM and saline were associated with 18 and 25% gain in initial body weight over the same time frame. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 did not affect food intake or activity but resulted in a significant increase in metabolism. CORM-A1 treatment also resulted in lower fasting blood glucose, improvement in insulin sensitivity and decreased heptatic steatosis. Chronic treatment with CO releasing molecules can reverse dietary induced obesity and normalize insulin resistance independent of changes in food intake or activity. These findings are likely though a mechanism which increases metabolism. PMID:27144091

  12. Chronic treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule reverses dietary induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-01-01

    Chronic, low level treatment with a carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CO-RM), CORM-A1, has been shown to prevent the development of obesity in response to a high fat diet. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic, low level treatment with this CO-RM can reverse established obesity via a mechanism independent of food intake. Dietary induced obese mice were treated with CORM-A1, the inactive compound iCORM-A1, or saline every 48 hours for 30 weeks while maintained on a high fat (60%) diet. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 resulted in a 33% decrease from initial body weight over the 30 week treatment period while treatment with iCORM and saline were associated with 18 and 25% gain in initial body weight over the same time frame. Chronic treatment with CORM-A1 did not affect food intake or activity but resulted in a significant increase in metabolism. CORM-A1 treatment also resulted in lower fasting blood glucose, improvement in insulin sensitivity and decreased heptatic steatosis. Chronic treatment with CO releasing molecules can reverse dietary induced obesity and normalize insulin resistance independent of changes in food intake or activity. These findings are likely though a mechanism which increases metabolism.

  13. Effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on pulmonary vasoreactivity in isolated perfused lungs.

    PubMed

    Pak, Oleg; Bakr, Adel G; Gierhardt, Mareike; Albus, Julia; Strielkov, Ievgen; Kroschel, Florian; Hoeres, Timm; Hecker, Matthias; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2016-01-15

    In addition to its renowned poisonous effects, carbon monoxide (CO) is being recognized for its beneficial actions on inflammatory and vasoregulatory pathways, particularly when applied at low concentrations via CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs). In the lung, CO gas and CO-RMs are suggested to decrease pulmonary vascular tone and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, the direct effect of CO-RMs on the pulmonary vasoreactivity in isolated lungs has not yet been investigated. We assessed the effect of CORM-2 and CORM-3 on the pulmonary vasculature during normoxia and acute hypoxia (1% oxygen for 10 min) in isolated ventilated and perfused mouse lungs. The effects were compared with those of inhaled CO gas (10%). The interaction of CORM-2 or CO with cytochrome P-450 (CYP) was measured simultaneously by tissue spectrophotometry. Inhaled CO decreased HPV and vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 but did not alter KCl-induced vasoconstriction. In contrast, concentrations of CORM-2 and CORM-3 used to elicit beneficial effects on the systemic circulation did not affect pulmonary vascular tone. High concentration of CO-RMs or long-term application induced a continuous increase in normoxic pressure. Inhaled CO showed spectral alterations correlating with the inhibition of CYP. In contrast, during application of CORM-2 spectrophotometric signs of interaction with CYP could not be detected. Application of CO-RMs in therapeutic doses in isolated lungs neither decreases pulmonary vascular tone and HPV nor does it induce spectral alterations that are characteristic of CO-inhibited CYP. High doses, however, may cause pulmonary vasoconstriction. PMID:26586910

  14. Effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on pulmonary vasoreactivity in isolated perfused lungs.

    PubMed

    Pak, Oleg; Bakr, Adel G; Gierhardt, Mareike; Albus, Julia; Strielkov, Ievgen; Kroschel, Florian; Hoeres, Timm; Hecker, Matthias; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Seeger, Werner; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2016-01-15

    In addition to its renowned poisonous effects, carbon monoxide (CO) is being recognized for its beneficial actions on inflammatory and vasoregulatory pathways, particularly when applied at low concentrations via CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs). In the lung, CO gas and CO-RMs are suggested to decrease pulmonary vascular tone and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, the direct effect of CO-RMs on the pulmonary vasoreactivity in isolated lungs has not yet been investigated. We assessed the effect of CORM-2 and CORM-3 on the pulmonary vasculature during normoxia and acute hypoxia (1% oxygen for 10 min) in isolated ventilated and perfused mouse lungs. The effects were compared with those of inhaled CO gas (10%). The interaction of CORM-2 or CO with cytochrome P-450 (CYP) was measured simultaneously by tissue spectrophotometry. Inhaled CO decreased HPV and vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 but did not alter KCl-induced vasoconstriction. In contrast, concentrations of CORM-2 and CORM-3 used to elicit beneficial effects on the systemic circulation did not affect pulmonary vascular tone. High concentration of CO-RMs or long-term application induced a continuous increase in normoxic pressure. Inhaled CO showed spectral alterations correlating with the inhibition of CYP. In contrast, during application of CORM-2 spectrophotometric signs of interaction with CYP could not be detected. Application of CO-RMs in therapeutic doses in isolated lungs neither decreases pulmonary vascular tone and HPV nor does it induce spectral alterations that are characteristic of CO-inhibited CYP. High doses, however, may cause pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  15. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  16. Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Decreases Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Jian; Li, Yi; Chang, Ruiming; Wu, Haidong; Lin, Jiali; Huang, Zitong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has shown various physiological effects including anti-inflammatory activity in several diseases, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CO on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported as of yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of exogenous CO on sepsis-induced AKI and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in rats. Male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis and AKI. Exogenous CO delivered from CO-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) was used intraperitoneally as intervention after CLP surgery. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on sepsis-induced AKI were assessed by measuring serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney histology scores, apoptotic cell scores, oxidative stress, levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. CORM-2 treatment protected against the sepsis-induced AKI as evidenced by reducing serum Scr/BUN levels, apoptotic cells scores, increasing survival rates, and decreasing renal histology scores. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels and oxidative stress. Moreover, CORM-2 treatment significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome protein expressions. Our study provided evidence that CORM-2 treatment protected against sepsis-induced AKI and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and suggested that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for treating sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:26334271

  17. Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Decreases Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Jian; Li, Yi; Chang, Ruiming; Wu, Haidong; Lin, Jiali; Huang, Zitong

    2015-08-31

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has shown various physiological effects including anti-inflammatory activity in several diseases, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of CO on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported as of yet. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of exogenous CO on sepsis-induced AKI and nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in rats. Male rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis and AKI. Exogenous CO delivered from CO-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) was used intraperitoneally as intervention after CLP surgery. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on sepsis-induced AKI were assessed by measuring serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney histology scores, apoptotic cell scores, oxidative stress, levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, and NLRP3 inflammasome expression. CORM-2 treatment protected against the sepsis-induced AKI as evidenced by reducing serum Scr/BUN levels, apoptotic cells scores, increasing survival rates, and decreasing renal histology scores. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1β levels and oxidative stress. Moreover, CORM-2 treatment significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome protein expressions. Our study provided evidence that CORM-2 treatment protected against sepsis-induced AKI and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and suggested that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic candidate for treating sepsis-induced AKI.

  18. Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Tight-Junction Damage and Mortality in Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qiankun; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Shoutao; Wang, Guozheng; Ji, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Objective Damage to intestinal epithelial tight junctions plays an important role in sepsis. Recently we found that Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2) is able to protect LPS-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage and in this study we will investigate if CORM-2 could protect intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Materials and Methods The CLP model was generated using male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats according to standard procedure and treated with CORM-2 or inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2), 8 mg/kg, i.v. immediately after CLP induction and euthanized after 24h or 72h (for mortality rate only). Morphological changes were investigated using both transmission electron and confocal microscopy. The levels of important TJ proteins and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were examined using Western blotting. Cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kits. The overall intestinal epithelial permeability was evaluated using FD-4 as a marker. Results CORM-2, but not iCORM-2, significantly reduced sepsis-induced damage of intestinal mucosa (including TJ disruption), TJ protein reduction (including zonula occludens-l (ZO-1), claudin-1 and occludin), MLC phosphorylation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The overall outcomes showed that CORM-2 suppressed sepsis-induced intestinal epithelial permeability changes and reduced mortality rate of those septic rats. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic reagent for sepsis by suppressing inflammation, restoring intestinal epithelial barrier and reducing mortality. PMID:26720630

  19. CO-releasing Metal Carbonyl Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents in the Post-antibiotic Era*

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Lauren K.; Poole, Robert K.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of a “post-antibiotic era” in the 21st century, in which common infections may kill, has prompted research into radically new antimicrobials. CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), mostly metal carbonyl compounds, originally developed for therapeutic CO delivery in animals, are potent antimicrobial agents. Certain CORMs inhibit growth and respiration, reduce viability, and release CO to intracellular hemes, as predicted, but their actions are more complex, as revealed by transcriptomic datasets and modeling. Progress is hindered by difficulties in detecting CO release intracellularly, limited understanding of the biological chemistry of CO reactions with non-heme targets, and the cytotoxicity of some CORMs to mammalian cells. PMID:26055702

  20. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica... 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01...

  1. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica... 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01...

  2. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica... 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01...

  3. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica... 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01...

  4. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  5. Changes in polyamine pattern are involved in floral initiation and development in Polianthes tuberosa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Chang, Bao-Su; Wang, Kuo-Cheng; Her, Sheng-Jou; Chen, Tian-Wen; Chen, Yun-An; Cho, Chung-Lung; Liao, Li-Jen; Huang, Kuang-Liang; Chen, Wen-Shaw; Liu, Zin-Huang

    2004-06-01

    In the day-neutral plant Polianthes tuberosa (cv. Double) putrescine and spermine in corms at the early floral initiation stage decreased by 26 and 36%, respectively, compared with that in the vegetative stage. In contrast, a sharp increase in spermidine and cadaverine titers in corms was recorded at the early floral initiation stage. However, cadaverine in corms disappeared at the flower development stage. Polyamines in the roots were generally lower than those in the leaves and corms. In no case was the change in endogenous polyamine titers in the roots and leaves associated with floral initiation and flower development in P. tuberosa. Exogenous application of spermidine at 5, 25 or 150 microg per plant at the vegetative stage did not affect flower primordium counts. However, addition of a spermidine synthase inhibitor, cyclohexylamine, at 150 or 250 microg per plant (each dose was applied two times in total at an interval of 4 days) significantly reduced flower primordium counts, indicating that spermidine is involved in floral initiation and floral development in P. tuberosa. In P. tuberosa corms at the vegetative stage arginine decarboxylase activity rises and decreases at the early floral initiation stage. In contrast, ornithine decarboxylase activity reaches the highest level at the early floral initiation stage and declines significantly at the vegetative stage. Results indicate that an increase in spermidine and a transient increase in cadaverine titers in the corms seem characteristic of early floral initiation in P. tuberosa. It is also suggested that a significant reduction in putrescine and spermine in the corms is involved in the early floral initiation in P. tuberosa.

  6. Exogenous carbon monoxide inhibits neutrophil infiltration in LPS-induced sepsis by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Yisen; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-06-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration in vital organs is life-threatening to patients who suffer from sepsis. We identified a critical role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. CO delivered from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) dramatically increased the survival rate of C57BL/6 mice subjected to LPS in vivo. CORM-2 significantly suppressed neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung as well as markers of inflammatory responses. Affymetrix GeneChip array analysis revealed that the increased expression of chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) may contribute to the excessive neutrophil infiltration. The under agarose migration assay demonstrated that LPS stimulation promoted migration to the ligand of FPR1, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) but that CORM-2 treatment inhibited this promotion. Further studies demonstrated that CORM-2 internalized FPR1 by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which may explain the inhibitory effect of CORM-2 on LPS-stimulated neutrophils. In summary, our study demonstrates that exogenous CO inhibits sepsis-induced neutrophil infiltration by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2.

  7. Exogenous carbon monoxide inhibits neutrophil infiltration in LPS-induced sepsis by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Yisen; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration in vital organs is life-threatening to patients who suffer from sepsis. We identified a critical role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. CO delivered from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) dramatically increased the survival rate of C57BL/6 mice subjected to LPS in vivo. CORM-2 significantly suppressed neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung as well as markers of inflammatory responses. Affymetrix GeneChip array analysis revealed that the increased expression of chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) may contribute to the excessive neutrophil infiltration. The under agarose migration assay demonstrated that LPS stimulation promoted migration to the ligand of FPR1, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) but that CORM-2 treatment inhibited this promotion. Further studies demonstrated that CORM-2 internalized FPR1 by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which may explain the inhibitory effect of CORM-2 on LPS-stimulated neutrophils. In summary, our study demonstrates that exogenous CO inhibits sepsis-induced neutrophil infiltration by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2. PMID:27144520

  8. Design, synthesis, and functional evaluation of CO-releasing molecules triggered by Penicillin G amidase as a model protease.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, Nikolay S; Li, Yingchun; Zhang, Danfeng; Yard, Benito; Schmalz, Hans-Günther

    2015-10-12

    Protease-triggered CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) were developed. The viability of the approach was demonstrated through the synthesis of compounds consisting of an η(4) -oxydiene-Fe(CO)3 moiety connected to a penicillin G amidase (PGA)-cleavable unit through a self-immolative linker. The rate of PGA-induced hydrolysis was investigated by HPLC analysis and the subsequent CO release was quantitatively assessed through headspace gas chromatography. In an in vitro assay with human endothelial cells, typical biological effects of CO, that is, inhibition of the inflammatory response and the induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression, were observed only upon co-administration of the CORM and PGA. This work forms a promising basis for the future development of protease-specific CORMs for potential medicinal applications.

  9. Sonogashira and "Click" reactions for the N-terminal and side-chain functionalization of peptides with [Mn(CO)3(tpm)]+-based CO releasing molecules (tpm = tris(pyrazolyl)methane).

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Hendrik; Rojas, Alfonso; Niesel, Johanna; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2009-06-14

    A recently identified photoactivatable CO releasing molecule (CORM) based on [Mn(CO)(3)(tpm)](+) was conjugated to functionalized amino acids and model peptides using the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling and the alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition ("Click reaction"). Both were found to be fully compatible with all functional groups present. The CORM-peptide conjugates were isolated in reasonable yield and high purity, as indicated by IR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry and RP-HPLC. The myoglobin assay was used to demonstrate that they have CO release properties identical those of the parent compound. This work thus opens the way for a targeted delivery of CORMs to cellular systems.

  10. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

  11. Stabilizing Alginate Confinement and Polymer Coating of CO-Releasing Molecules Supported on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles To Trigger the CO Release by Magnetic Heating.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hajo; Winkler, Felix; Kunz, Peter; Schmidt, Annette M; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Janiak, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Maghemite (Fe2O3) iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized, modified with covalent surface-bound CO-releasing molecules of a tri(carbonyl)-chlorido-phenylalaninato-ruthenium(II) complex (CORM), and coated with a dextran polymer. The time- and temperature-dependent CO release from this CORM-3 analogue was followed by a myoglobin assay. A new measurement method for the myoglobin assay was developed, based on confining "water-soluble" polymer-coated Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles in hollow spheres of nontoxic and easily prepared calcium alginate. Dropping a mixture of Dextran500k@CORM@IONP and sodium alginate into a CaCl2 solution leads to stable hollow spheres of Ca(2+) cross-linked alginate which contain the Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles. This "alginate-method" (i) protects CORM-3 analogues from rapid CO-displacement reactions with a protein, (ii) enables a spatial separation of the CORM from its surrounding myoglobin assay with the alginate acting as a CO-permeable membrane, and (iii) allows the use of substances with high absorptivity (such as iron oxide nanoparticles) in the myoglobin assay without interference in the optical path of the UV cell. Embedding the CORM@IONP nanoparticles in the alginate vessel represents a compartmentation of the reactive component and allows for close contact with, yet facile separation from, the surrounding myoglobin assay. The half-life of the CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles surrounded by alginate was determined to be 890 ± 70 min at 20 °C. An acceleration of the CO release occurs at higher temperature with a half-life of 172 ± 27 min at 37 °C and 45 ± 7 min at 50 °C. The CO release can be triggered in an alternating current magnetic field (31.7 kA m(-1), 247 kHz, 39.9 mT) through local magnetic heating of the susceptible iron oxide nanoparticles. With magnetic heating at 20 °C in the bulk solution, the half-life of CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles decreased to 155 ± 18 min

  12. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effective traits to improve saffron yield, a split plot design based on RBCD was done in Mashhad region in Iran for three years (2012-2014). The results showed that all traits except number of daughter corm, fresh weight of daughter corm and dry leaf weight had low general heritability. Results of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and genetic advance demonstrated that the majority of traits had a low diversity and the selection did not have any effect in improving the traits. As a result, the best way to increase saffron yield is improvement of farm management. It was also found that saffron yield had the highest phenotypic and genotypic correlations with fresh and dry weight of daughter corm and dry and fresh flower weight. Therefore, the efforts to improve these traits will increase saffron yield. According to the present study 5-Jun to 5-Jul was found to be the best sowing date for planting saffron. Also, the Mashhad and Torbat ecotypes were the best ecotypes in this study. Phenotypic and genotypic path analysis showed that in the first step three traits number of daughter corm, fresh flower weight and flower number and in the second step traits fresh weight of daughter corm, dry flower weight and dry leaf weight interred to the regression model and had the highest positive direct and indirect effects on saffron yield. Mainly, it can be derived that the implementation of correct farm management including appropriate sowing date, saffron ecotypes, proper density, bigger and higher quality saffron corm can play an important role in improving yield components and subsequently increasing saffron yield. PMID:27186029

  13. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effective traits to improve saffron yield, a split plot design based on RBCD was done in Mashhad region in Iran for three years (2012-2014). The results showed that all traits except number of daughter corm, fresh weight of daughter corm and dry leaf weight had low general heritability. Results of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and genetic advance demonstrated that the majority of traits had a low diversity and the selection did not have any effect in improving the traits. As a result, the best way to increase saffron yield is improvement of farm management. It was also found that saffron yield had the highest phenotypic and genotypic correlations with fresh and dry weight of daughter corm and dry and fresh flower weight. Therefore, the efforts to improve these traits will increase saffron yield. According to the present study 5-Jun to 5-Jul was found to be the best sowing date for planting saffron. Also, the Mashhad and Torbat ecotypes were the best ecotypes in this study. Phenotypic and genotypic path analysis showed that in the first step three traits number of daughter corm, fresh flower weight and flower number and in the second step traits fresh weight of daughter corm, dry flower weight and dry leaf weight interred to the regression model and had the highest positive direct and indirect effects on saffron yield. Mainly, it can be derived that the implementation of correct farm management including appropriate sowing date, saffron ecotypes, proper density, bigger and higher quality saffron corm can play an important role in improving yield components and subsequently increasing saffron yield.

  14. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Alpizar, D; Fallas, M; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M

    2012-03-01

    Mass trapping Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-baited pitfall trap and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-sugarcane-baited open gallon trap was conducted in commercial banana. Four traps for each insect per hectare were placed in each of two 5-hectare plots of banana. Two additional 5-hectare plots were designated as controls and treated according to the plantation protocol. Capture rates of C. sordidus and M. hemipterus declined by >75 % over 10-12 months. In the banana growing region studied, corm damage was due primarily to C. sordidus, while only a minor amount of damage was attributable to M. hemipterus. Corm damage reduction in trapping plots was, thus, attributed primarily to C. sordidus trapping. In trapping plots, corm damage decreased by 61-64 % during the experiment. Banana bunch weights increased 23 % relative to control plots after 11-12 months of trapping. Fruit diameter did not vary between bunches harvested from trapping plots vs. control plots. Plant vigor, however, as determined by stem circumference at one meter above ground increased in plots with traps compared to control plots. Trapping for C. sordidus in two plantations of over 200 hectares each, reduced corm damage 62-86 % relative to pre-trapping levels. Insecticide control measures in place when the experiment commenced resulted in about 20-30 % corm damage, while use of pheromone trapping to manage C. sordidus lowered corm damage to 10 % or less. It is estimated that the increase in value of increased yield obtained in this trial (23 %) is about $4,240 USD per year per hectare, while the cost of pheromone trapping is approximately $185 USD per year per hectare. The trapping program becomes revenue neutral if bunch weights increase by an average of 1 % per year of trapping. Approximately 10 % of all plantation area in Costa Rica use the pheromone trapping system described here. The system also is used in Martinique

  15. Apical dominance in saffron and the involvement of the branching enzymes CCD7 and CCD8 in the control of bud sprouting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In saffron (Crocus sativus), new corms develop at the base of every shoot developed from the maternal corm, a globular underground storage stem. Since the degree of bud sprouts influences the number and size of new corms, and strigolactones (SLs) suppress growth of pre-formed axillary bud, it was considered appropriate to investigate SL involvement in physiology and molecular biology in saffron. We focused on two of the genes within the SL pathway, CCD7 and CCD8, encoding carotenoid cleavage enzymes required for the production of SLs. Results The CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 genes are the first ones isolated and characterized from a non-grass monocotyledonous plant. CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 expression showed some overlapping, although they were not identical. CsCCD8 was highly expressed in quiescent axillary buds and decapitation dramatically reduced its expression levels, suggesting its involvement in the suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed also the involvement of auxin, cytokinin and jasmonic acid on the sprouting of axillary buds from corms in which the apical bud was removed. In addition, CsCCD8 expression, but not CsCCD7, was higher in the newly developed vascular tissue of axillary buds compared to the vascular tissue of the apical bud. Conclusions We showed that production and transport of auxin in saffron corms could act synergistically with SLs to arrest the outgrowth of the axillary buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching. In addition, jasmonic acid seems to play a prominent role in bud dormancy in saffron. While cytokinins from roots promote bud outgrowth. In addition the expression results of CsCCD8 suggest that SLs could positively regulate procambial activity and the development of new vascular tissues connecting leaves with the mother corm. PMID:24947472

  16. Carbon monoxide in biology and microbiology: surprising roles for the "Detroit perfume".

    PubMed

    Davidge, Kelly S; Motterlini, Roberto; Mann, Brian E; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas with a reputation for being an anthropogenic poison; there is extensive documentation of the modes of human exposure, toxicokinetics, and health effects. However, CO is also generated endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) in mammals and microbes, and its extraordinary biological activities are now recognized and increasingly utilized in medicine and physiology. This review introduces recent advances in CO biology and chemistry and illustrates the exciting possibilities that exist for a deeper understanding of its biological consequences. However, the microbiological literature is scant and is currently restricted to: 1) CO-metabolizing bacteria, CO oxidation by CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and the CO-sensing mechanisms that enable CO oxidation; 2) the use of CO as a heme ligand in microbial biochemistry; and 3) very limited information on how microbes respond to CO toxicity. We demonstrate how our horizons in CO biology have been extended by intense research activity in recent years in mammalian and human physiology and biochemistry. CO is one of several "new" small gas molecules that are increasingly recognized for their profound and often beneficial biological activities, the others being nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The chemistry of CO and other heme ligands (oxygen, NO, H2S and cyanide) and the implications for biological interactions are briefly presented. An important advance in recent years has been the development of CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) for aiding experimental administration of CO as an alternative to the use of CO gas. The chemical principles of CO-RM design and mechanisms of CO release from CO-RMs (dissociation, association, reduction and oxidation, photolysis, and acidification) are reviewed and we present a survey of the most commonly used CO-RMs. Amongst the most important new applications of CO in mammalian physiology and medicine are its vasoactive properties and the

  17. Determination of colchicine content in Colchicum hierosolymitanum and Colchicum tunicatum under cultivation.

    PubMed

    Al-Fayyad, M; Alali, F; Alkofahi, Ahmad; Tell, Abdelmajeed

    2002-12-01

    Corms of Colchicum hierosolymitanum and Colchicum tunicatum were collected, identified and planted under field condition. We report here and for the first time the presence of colchicine in an appreciable amount in both species. The effect of different NPK fertilizer levels on colchicine content of the two Colchicum species at different growth stages were evaluated by HPLC. Results indicated that increasing NPK fertilizer levels significantly improve colchicine content in different plant parts and stages. The highest colchicine content observed in corms was at maturity stage 0.766 mg/g and 0.688 mg/g dry weight with C. hierosolimitanum and C. tunicatum, respectively. PMID:12462344

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sevindik, Basar; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important species in Crocus genus because of its effective usage. It is not only a very expensive spice, but it has also a big ornamental plant potential. Crocus species are propagated by corm and seed, and male sterility is the most important problem of this species. Hence, somatic embryogenesis can be regarded as a strategic tool for the multiplication of saffron plants. In this chapter, the production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described.

  19. Expression of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, D4E1, in Gladiolus plants for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main pathogen of Gladiolus plants is Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne fungus that infects roots and corms and kills the plant. Purified D4E1, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, was found to effectively inhibit 100% of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli germinated spores from forming a mycelial mass in ...

  20. 40 CFR 180.482 - Tebufenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../05 Sweet potato, roots 0.25 12/31/05 (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. (d) Indirect or..., roots 0.3 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0... affecting § 180.482, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4...

  2. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4...

  3. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4...

  4. First report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in Amaryllis in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental flower bulbs (including true bulbs, bulbils, corms, tubers and rhizomes) are increasingly important floriculture crops. Amaryllis is a small genus of flowering bulbs, with two species. The South African native, Amaryllis belladonna, also known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady,...

  5. Ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) modulation of ultraviolet B (290-320 nm)-induced immune suppression is mediated by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Allanson, Munif; Reeve, Vivienne E

    2005-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that suberythemogenic ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) exposure protects against the immunosuppressive effect of ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation or its epidermal photoproduct, cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA). In skin, UVA photoimmunoprotection is mediated by the inducible antioxidant stress enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which degrades heme into carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin (reduced to bilirubin), and is important for cell survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The identity of the HO enzymatic product(s) that provide the immunoprotection is unknown. Here we examine the potential of CO to fulfill this role in hairless mouse skin, utilizing a novel CO-releasing molecule (CO-RM) to deliver CO to the skin topically. The CO-RM released CO gradually from the lotion vehicle during 3 h following its preparation, and between 50 and 500 microM, concentration-dependently protected mice against the suppression of contact hypersensitivity by either solar-simulated UV radiation (SSUVR) or cis-UCA, whereas aged CO-depleted CO-RM was inactive. Thus, the CO-RM treatment mimicked UVA-photoimmunoprotection, and identified HO-released CO as the protective mediator, providing evidence that the murine cutaneous immune system is modulated by this gaseous messenger. Preliminary evidence for involvement of guanylyl cyclase was obtained by treatment of the mouse with its specific inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo-(4,3-1)quinoxaline-1-one, which abrogated UVA photoimmunoprotection.

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other..., bulbil, bulblet, corm, cormel, rhizome, tuber, or pip, and including fleshy roots or other underground..., except field, vegetable, and flower seeds, bedding plants, and other herbaceous plants, bulbs, and...

  7. 7 CFR 319.37-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Nursery Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other..., bulbil, bulblet, corm, cormel, rhizome, tuber, or pip, and including fleshy roots or other underground..., except field, vegetable, and flower seeds, bedding plants, and other herbaceous plants, bulbs, and...

  8. 40 CFR 180.658 - Penthiopyrad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Barley, milled byproducts 0.90 Barley, straw 1.0 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.5 Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 Berry... sugar beet 3.0 Vegetable, tuber and corm, subgroup 1C 0.06 Wheat, forage 40 Wheat, grain 0.15 Wheat,...

  9. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Apple, wet pomace 7.0 Artichoke, globe 3.0 Avocado 0.6 Bean, dry, seed 0.24 Beet, sugar, roots 0.50... sugar beet, Subgroup 1B 0.90 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu...

  10. 40 CFR 180.658 - Penthiopyrad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Barley, milled byproducts 0.90 Barley, straw 1.0 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.5 Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 Berry... sugar beet 3.0 Vegetable, tuber and corm, subgroup 1C 0.06 Wheat, forage 40 Wheat, grain 0.15 Wheat,...

  11. 40 CFR 180.658 - Penthiopyrad; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Barley, milled byproducts 0.90 Barley, straw 1.0 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 1.5 Beet, sugar, roots 0.5 Berry... sugar beet 3.0 Vegetable, tuber and corm, subgroup 1C 0.06 Wheat, forage 40 Wheat, grain 0.15 Wheat,...

  12. 40 CFR 180.586 - Clothianidin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... per million Almond, hulls 1.5 Beet, sugar, dried pulp 0.03 Beet, sugar, molasses 0.05 Beet, sugar... 4 3.0 Vegetable, root, except sugar beet, subgroup 1B 0.8 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C... the following table: Commodity Parts per million Expiration/revocation date Beet, sugar, roots 0.02...

  13. A novel strategy for antimicrobial agent: role of exogenous carbon monoxide on suppressing Escherichia coli vitality and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Shen, Weichang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Sun, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response mostly caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. The rates of mortality in sepsis patients remain high. To date little is known about whether exogenous carbon monoxide can directly or indirectly inhibit or even kill gram negative bacteria. In our study, wedemonstrate a critical role of CO-releasing molecules in the suppressive effects on bacterial vitality and toxicity. We found the bacterial growth and colony forming were markedly suppressed in the presence of CORM-2 with significant cell damage, decreased or disappeared pili and flagella. In contrast, qRT-PCR showed the expression of fliA was downregulated, while dnaKandwaaQ were upregulated in E. coli+CORM-2. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the mouse survival in the CORM-2 intervened-E.coli injectiontended to improve with 60%-100% survival rates, and colony distribution in major organs were significantly decreased with attenuated histological damage. In parallel, cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase accumulation in livers and lungs decreased significantly compared with E. coli group.These data provide the first evidence and a potential strategy that exogenous carbon monoxide can significantly suppress bacterial vitality and toxicity. This may be associated with the regulatory functions of CORM-2 on the expression of essential genes (fliA, dnaKand waaQ) in E. coli.

  14. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... tolerances in or on vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C and potato, processed waste. In addition, this... Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and...? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food...

  15. 40 CFR 180.556 - Pymetrozine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Commodity Parts per million Asparagus 0.04 Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 0.5 Brassica, leafy greens..., execpt brassica, group 4 0.6 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.02 (b) Section 18...

  16. Uncoupling Charge Movement from Channel Opening in Voltage-gated Potassium Channels by Ruthenium Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A.; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2011-01-01

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K+-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K+-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling. PMID:21454671

  17. Comparison of Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Starch Among 3 Arrowhead Varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Yunhong; Zhang, Yongji; Yu, Xurun; Xiong, Fei; Zhou, Rumei; Zhang, Yongtai

    2016-05-01

    Arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis) is a source of starch worldwide, but arrowhead starch has been rarely studied. In this work, starch was separated from arrowhead corm. The morphology and physicochemical properties of starch were then investigated and compared among 3 different arrowhead varieties (Purple-corm, Hongta, and Japanese). Results showed that starches from the 3 varieties similarly featured an oval shape containing a visible polarization cross, a CA -type crystalline structure, and an ordered structure in the external granule region. However, starch content, granule size, crystal characteristics, and pasting properties differed among the 3 varieties. Japanese arrowhead exhibited the highest starch content and degree of ordered structure in the external granule region, as well as onset, peak, and final gelatinization temperature. Purple-corm arrowhead starch demonstrated the highest amylose content and relative degree of crystallinity, smallest granule size, and lowest swelling power and solubility. Purple-corm arrowhead starch also showed the highest gelatinization enthalpy, as well as peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities. This starch further presented the lowest breakdown viscosity and degree of hydrolysis by HCl and porcine pancreatic α-amylase. These findings can provide useful references for arrowhead variety selection in food and nonfood industries. PMID:27082515

  18. Saffron: Its Phytochemistry, Developmental Processes, and Biotechnological Prospects.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Nebauer, Sergio G; Molina, Rosa Victoria; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-10-14

    The present state of knowledge concerning developmental processes and the secondary metabolism of saffron, Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), along with the genes involved in these processes so far known, is reviewed. Flowers and corms constitute the most valuable parts of saffron. Corm and flower development are two key aspects to be studied in saffron to increase the yield and quality of the spice, to raise its reproductive rate, and to implement new production systems. Important knowledge about the physiology of flowering and vegetative growth has been acquired in recent years, but there is still only limited information on molecular mechanisms controlling these processes. Although some genes involved in flower formation and meristem transition in other species have been isolated in saffron, the role of these genes in this species awaits further progress. Also, genes related with the synthesis pathway of abscisic acid and strigolactones, growth regulators related with bud endodormancy and apical dominance (paradormancy), have been isolated. However, the in-depth understanding of these processes as well as of corm development is far from being achieved. By contrast, saffron phytochemicals have been widely studied. The different flower tissues and the corm have been proved to be an important source of phytochemicals with pharmacological properties. The biotechnological prospects for saffron are here reviewed on the basis of the discovery of the enzymes involved in key aspects of saffron secondary metabolism, and we also analyze the possibility of transferring current knowledge about flowering and vegetative propagation in model species to the Crocus genus.

  19. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  20. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  1. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Gas Is Not Inert, but Global, in Its Consequences for Bacterial Gene Expression, Iron Acquisition, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Lauren K.; Begg, Ronald; Jesse, Helen E.; van Beilen, Johan W.A.; Ali, Salar; Svistunenko, Dimitri; McLean, Samantha; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide is a respiratory poison and gaseous signaling molecule. Although CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) deliver CO with temporal and spatial specificity in mammals, and are proven antimicrobial agents, we do not understand the modes of CO toxicity. Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas per se, without intervention of CORMs, on bacterial physiology and gene expression. Results: We used tightly controlled chemostat conditions and integrated transcriptomic datasets with statistical modeling to reveal the global effects of CO. CO is known to inhibit bacterial respiration, and we found expression of genes encoding energy-transducing pathways to be significantly affected via the global regulators, Fnr, Arc, and PdhR. Aerobically, ArcA—the response regulator—is transiently phosphorylated and pyruvate accumulates, mimicking anaerobiosis. Genes implicated in iron acquisition, and the metabolism of sulfur amino acids and arginine, are all perturbed. The global iron-related changes, confirmed by modulation of activity of the transcription factor Fur, may underlie enhanced siderophore excretion, diminished intracellular iron pools, and the sensitivity of CO-challenged bacteria to metal chelators. Although CO gas (unlike H2S and NO) offers little protection from antibiotics, a ruthenium CORM is a potent adjuvant of antibiotic activity. Innovation: This is the first detailed exploration of global bacterial responses to CO, revealing unexpected targets with implications for employing CORMs therapeutically. Conclusion: This work reveals the complexity of bacterial responses to CO and provides a basis for understanding the impacts of CO from CORMs, heme oxygenase activity, or environmental sources. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1013–1028. PMID:26907100

  3. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a novel inhibitor of connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    León-Paravic, Carmen G; Figueroa, Vania A; Guzmán, Diego J; Valderrama, Carlos F; Vallejos, Antonio A; Fiori, Mariana C; Altenberg, Guillermo A; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2014-12-26

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or "free HCs" at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    PubMed Central

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut. PMID:27716802

  6. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beet, garden beet, radish, and turnip 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 1No US..., nongrass, group 18, hay, except alfalfa 2.0 Animal feed, nongrass, group 18, seed 0.05 Beet, garden, roots 0.1 Beet, sugar, roots 0.1 Cotton, gin byproducts 0.30 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Cowpea, seed...

  7. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  8. Oxylipins from Dracontium loretense.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Angelyne; Napolitano, Assunta; Bassarello, Carla; Carbone, Virginia; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Malfitano, Annamaria; Saggese, Paola; Bifulco, Maurizio; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-05-22

    Four novel oxylipins (1-4) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of the corms of Dracontium loretense. Their structures were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) data. Relative configurations were assigned on the basis of combined analysis of homonuclear and heteronuclear (2,3)J couplings, along with ROE data. Oxylipin 2 exhibited an immunostimulatory effect on human PBMC proliferation.

  9. An N-Acetyl Cysteine Ruthenium Tricarbonyl Conjugate Enables Simultaneous Release of CO and Ablation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, João D; Chaves-Ferreira, Miguel; Montes-Grajales, Diana; Gonçalves, Ana M; Marques, Ana R; Saraiva, Lígia M; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Romão, Carlos C; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and synthesised a [Ru(CO)3Cl2(NAC)] pro-drug that features an N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) ligand. This NAC carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) conjugate is able to simultaneously release biologically active CO and to ablate the concurrent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Complexes of the general formulae [Ru(CO)3(L)3]2+, including [Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)] (CORM-3), have been shown to produce ROS through a water–gas shift reaction, which contributes significantly, for example, to their antibacterial activity. In contrast, NAC-CORM conjugates do not produce ROS or possess antibacterial activity. In addition, we demonstrate the synergistic effect of CO and NAC both for the inhibition of nitric oxide (formation) and in the expression of tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This work highlights the advantages of combining a CO-releasing scaffold with the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drug NAC in a unique pro-drug. PMID:26316066

  10. Identification of bacteria associated with underground parts of Crocus sativus by 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Sangwan, Naseer; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P; Lal, Rup; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2014-10-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L), an autumn-flowering perennial sterile plant, reproduces vegetatively by underground corms. Saffron has biannual corm-root cycle that makes it an interesting candidate to study microbial dynamics in its rhizosphere and cormosphere (area under influence of corm). Culture independent 16S rRNA gene metagenomic study of rhizosphere and cormosphere of Saffron during flowering stage revealed presence of 22 genera but none of the genus was common in all the three samples. Bulk soil bacterial community was represented by 13 genera with Acidobacteria being dominant. In rhizosphere, out of eight different genera identified, Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus. Cormosphere bacteria comprised of six different genera, dominated by the genus Pantoea. This study revealed that the bacterial composition of all the three samples is significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. This is the first report on the identification of bacteria associated with rhizosphere, cormosphere and bulk soil of Saffron, using cultivation independent 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

  11. Regulation of vascular tone in rabbit ophthalmic artery: cross talk of endogenous and exogenous gas mediators.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Salvatore; Foresti, Roberta; Villari, Ambra; Giurdanella, Giovanni; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) modulate vascular tone. In view of their therapeutic potential for ocular diseases, we examined the effect of exogenous CO and H2S on tone of isolated rabbit ophthalmic artery and their interaction with endogenous and exogenous NO. Ophthalmic artery segments mounted on a wire myograph were challenged with cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE) in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) to inhibit production of NO, the CO-releasing molecules CORMs or the H2S-donor GYY4137. The maximal vasoconstriction elicited by PE reached 20-30% of that induced by KCl but was dramatically increased by incubation with LNNA. GYY4137 significantly raised PE-mediated vasoconstriction, but it did not change the response to PE in the presence of LNNA or the relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CORMs concentration-dependently inhibited PE-induced constriction, an effect that was synergistic with endogenous NO (reduced by LNNA), but insensitive to blockade of guanylyl cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). In vascular tissues cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels seemed reduced by GYY4137 (not significantly), but were not changed by CORM. These data indicate that CO is able per se to relax isolated ophthalmic artery and to synergize with NO, while H2S counteracts the effect of endogenous NO. CO does not stimulate cGMP production in our system, while H2S may reduce cGMP production stimulated by endogenous NO. These findings provide new insights into the complexities of gas interactions in the control of ophthalmic vascular tone, highlighting potential pharmacological targets for ocular diseases.

  12. YS 51, 1-(beta-naphtylmethyl)-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydroisoquinoline, protects endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury via carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Heo, Ja Myung; Kim, Hye Jung; Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Min Kyu; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook; Chang, Ki Churl

    2007-11-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, and great attention has been placed on the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) for vasculature against oxidant-induced injury. We tested whether the protective effects of YS 51, 1-(beta-naphtyl-methyl)-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydroisoquinoline, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury is associated with HO-1 activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). YS 51 increased HO-1 expression and activity in concentration-dependent manners (10-100 microM) and time-dependent manners (1, 3, 6, 18 h), which were correlated well with its protective effect against H2O2-induced injury. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX), a HO inhibitor, significantly inhibited the effect of YS 51 (50 microM). In contrast, [Ru(CO)3(Cl)2]2 (CORM-2, a CO releasing molecule) but not bilirubin protected against H2O2-induced injury. Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) used as a CO scavenger significantly inhibited the protective effect of both YS 51 and CORM-2. Furthermore, both YS 51 and CORM-2 significantly reduced H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; however, this was counteracted by ZnPP IX, HbO2 and deferoxamine. We found evidence for the involvement of PI3/Akt kinase and ERK1/2 pathways in HO-1 induction by YS-51. Taken together, we conclude that CO is, at least, responsible for the YS 51-mediated protective action of endothelial cells against oxidant stress via HO-1 gene induction, involving the activation of the PI3/Akt and ERK1/2 kinase pathways. Thus, YS 51 may be useful in oxidative stress-induced vascular disorders.

  13. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  14. In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Parray, Javid A; Kamili, Azra N; Hamid, Rehana; Husaini, Amjad M

    2012-01-01

    A complete protocol for the saffron cormlet production under in vitro conditions and subsequent flowering under greenhouse conditions is described. Highest number of cormlets (70.0 ± 0.30) per corm slice (explant) could be regenerated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) half strength medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) (20 µM), Indole acetic acid (IAA) (10 µM), and sucrose (40 g/l). Maximum germination (90%) of these cormlets could be achieved on MS medium containing 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (20 µM) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (15 µM). In order to increase the size of the in vitro raised cormlets, these were cultured on MS medium containing TDZ (15 µM) and IAA in the range of 1.5-30 µM. Maximum increase in cormlet size could be attained on TDZ (15 µM) + IAA (12.5 µM) + sucrose (30 g/l), and the average size of cormlets was 2.5g. In another experiment, apical vegetative buds of actively growing corms were cultured for cormlet development, and corms of size 2.5g could be developed on MS medium with NAA (15 µM), BAP (20 µM), and sucrose (30 g/l). The in vitro developed cormlets were dried under shade at 25 ± 2°C for 7 d. These were then planted in small cups containing clay loam soil and kept in green house at 20 ± 2°C. In vitro developed cormlets with mean weight 2.5 g showed maximum flowering (25%) as well as vegetative growth (55%), while only 19% cormlets of 2.0 g flowered. To our knowledge this is the first report on successful flowering from in vitro raised cormlets under greenhouse.

  15. Gas mediators involved in modulating duodenal HCO3(-) secretion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Aihara, E; Kimura, M; Dogishi, K; Hara, T; Hayashi, S

    2012-01-01

    The secretion of HCO3(-) in the duodenum is increased by mucosal acidification, and this process is modulated by gas mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon monoxide (CO), in addition to prostaglandins (PGs). The secretion is increased by NOR3 (NO donor), NaHS (H2S donor), and CORM-2 (CO donor). The HCO3(-) responses to NOR3 and CORM-2 are attenuated by indomethacin, while that to NaHS is mitigated by indomethacin and L-NAME as well as sensory deafferentation. NOR3 and CORM-2 increase mucosal PGE2 production, while H2S increases mucosal PGE2 content and luminal NO release. The HCO3(-) response to mucosal acidification is attenuated by indomethacin, propargylglycine, and SnPP, each inhibiting PG, H2S and CO production, respectively. The acid-induced duodenal damage is worsened when either PG, H2S or CO is lacking. These findings suggest that 1) NO, H2S, and CO, generated endogenously or exogenously, stimulate HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum; 2) the stimulatory action of NO and CO is mediated, at least partly, by endogenous PGs, while that of H2S is mediated by PGs and NO as well as sensory neurons; 3) these gas mediators are involved in the local regulation of acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion, in addition to endogenous PGs; 4) the acid-induced duodenal damage is worsened by agents inhibiting the endogenous production of NO, H2S or CO. It is assumed that these gas mediators play a role in maintaining the integrity of the duodenal mucosa by modulating the secretion of HCO3(-).

  16. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  17. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines. PMID:25523085

  19. Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition activities, and fatty acids of Crocus mathewii - A forgotten endemic angiosperm of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildiztekin, Fatma; Nadeem, Said; Erol, Ebru; Yildiztekin, Mahmut; Tuna, Atilla L; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All fractions were subjected to β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·), ABTS(·)(+), CUPRAC, metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Hexane fractions were submitted to GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate fractions showed excellent IC50 values in DPPH(·) (aerial 36.21 ± 0.76 and corm 33.87 ± 0.02 mg/L) and ABTS(·)(+) (aerial 33.01 ± 0.79 and bulb 27.87 ± 0.33 mg/L); higher than the IC50 of the standard α-tocopherol (DPPH 116.25 ± 1.97; ABTS 52.64 ± 0.37 mg/L), higher than BHA in DPPH (57.31 ± 0.25 mg/L), but slightly lower in ABTS (19.86 ± 2.73 mg/L). Methanol extract of aerial parts also showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in DPPH (85.56 ± 11.51 mg/L) but slightly less (72.90 ± 3.66 mg/L) than both the standards in ABTS. Linoleic (aerial 53.9%, corm 43.9%) and palmitic (aerial 22.2%, corm 18%) were found as the major fatty acids. Discussion and conclusion Some fractions of C. mathewii showed higher antioxidant activities than the standards. There is a need to explore more about this plant.

  20. Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition activities, and fatty acids of Crocus mathewii - A forgotten endemic angiosperm of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildiztekin, Fatma; Nadeem, Said; Erol, Ebru; Yildiztekin, Mahmut; Tuna, Atilla L; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All fractions were subjected to β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·), ABTS(·)(+), CUPRAC, metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Hexane fractions were submitted to GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate fractions showed excellent IC50 values in DPPH(·) (aerial 36.21 ± 0.76 and corm 33.87 ± 0.02 mg/L) and ABTS(·)(+) (aerial 33.01 ± 0.79 and bulb 27.87 ± 0.33 mg/L); higher than the IC50 of the standard α-tocopherol (DPPH 116.25 ± 1.97; ABTS 52.64 ± 0.37 mg/L), higher than BHA in DPPH (57.31 ± 0.25 mg/L), but slightly lower in ABTS (19.86 ± 2.73 mg/L). Methanol extract of aerial parts also showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in DPPH (85.56 ± 11.51 mg/L) but slightly less (72.90 ± 3.66 mg/L) than both the standards in ABTS. Linoleic (aerial 53.9%, corm 43.9%) and palmitic (aerial 22.2%, corm 18%) were found as the major fatty acids. Discussion and conclusion Some fractions of C. mathewii showed higher antioxidant activities than the standards. There is a need to explore more about this plant. PMID:26810584

  1. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  2. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  3. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  4. Photoactivity of mono- and dicarbonyl complexes of ruthenium(II) bearing an N,N,S-donor ligand: role of ancillary ligands on the capacity of CO photorelease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Margarita A; Carrington, Samantha J; Chakraborty, Indranil; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2013-10-01

    One monocarbonyl and one dicarbonyl complex of ruthenium(II), namely, [Ru(Cl)(CO)(qmtpm)(PPh3)]BF4 (2) and [Ru(Cl)(CO)2(qmtpm)]ClO4 (3), derived from the tridentate ligand 2-quinoline-N-(2'-methylthiophenyl)methyleneimine (qmtpm) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The qmtpm ligand binds in a meridional fashion in these carbonyl complexes, and in 3, the two carbon monoxide (CO) ligands are cis to each other. Solutions of 2 in ethanol, chloroform, or acetonitrile rapidly release CO upon illumination with low-power (3-15 mW) light in the 300-450 nm range. Loss of CO from 2 brings about a dramatic color change from yellow to magenta because of the formation of [Ru(Cl)(MeCN)(qmtpm)(PPh3)]BF4 (4). In acetonitrile, photorelease of CO from 3 under 360 nm light occurs in two steps, and the violet photoproduct [Ru(Cl)(MeCN)2(qmtpm)](+) upon reaction with Ag(+) and PPh3 affords red [Ru(MeCN)2(qmtpm)(PPh3)](ClO4)2 (5). The structure of 5 has also been determined by X-ray crystallography. Reduced myoglobin assay confirms that 2 and 3 act as photoactive CO-releasing molecules (photoCORMs) that deliver 1 and 2 equiv of CO, respectively. The results of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT studies confirm that electronic transitions from molecular orbitals with predominantly Ru-CO character to ligand-based π* orbitals facilitate CO release from these two photoCORMs. Complexes 2-5 have provided an additional opportunity to analyze the roles of the ancillary ligands, namely, PPh3, Cl(-), and MeCN, in shifting the positions of the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands and the associated sensitivity of the two photoCORMs to different wavelengths of light. Collectively, the results provide helpful hints toward the future design of photoCORMs that release CO upon exposure to visible light.

  5. Bactericidal Effect of a Photoresponsive Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Nonwoven against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Klinger-Strobel, Mareike; Gläser, Steve; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Wyrwa, Ralf; Weisser, Jürgen; Pletz, Mathias W; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in skin and skin structure infections, including surgical and traumatic infections that are associated with biofilm formation. Because biofilm formation is accompanied by high phenotypic resistance of the embedded bacteria, they are almost impossible to eradicate by conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are of high interest. We generated nanostructured hybrid nonwovens via the electrospinning of a photoresponsive carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule [CORM-1, Mn2(CO)10] and the polymer polylactide. This nonwoven showed a CO-induced antimicrobial activity that was sufficient to reduce the biofilm-embedded bacteria by 70% after photostimulation at 405 nm. The released CO increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the biofilms, suggesting that in addition to inhibiting the electron transport chain, ROS might play a role in the antimicrobial activity of CORMs on S. aureus The nonwoven showed increased cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells after longer exposure, most probably due to the released lactic acid, that might be acceptable for local and short-time treatments. Therefore, CO-releasing nonwovens might be a promising local antimicrobial therapy against biofilm-associated skin wound infections.

  6. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-01

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  7. Bactericidal Effect of a Photoresponsive Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Nonwoven against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Klinger-Strobel, Mareike; Gläser, Steve; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Wyrwa, Ralf; Weisser, Jürgen; Pletz, Mathias W; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in skin and skin structure infections, including surgical and traumatic infections that are associated with biofilm formation. Because biofilm formation is accompanied by high phenotypic resistance of the embedded bacteria, they are almost impossible to eradicate by conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are of high interest. We generated nanostructured hybrid nonwovens via the electrospinning of a photoresponsive carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule [CORM-1, Mn2(CO)10] and the polymer polylactide. This nonwoven showed a CO-induced antimicrobial activity that was sufficient to reduce the biofilm-embedded bacteria by 70% after photostimulation at 405 nm. The released CO increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the biofilms, suggesting that in addition to inhibiting the electron transport chain, ROS might play a role in the antimicrobial activity of CORMs on S. aureus The nonwoven showed increased cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells after longer exposure, most probably due to the released lactic acid, that might be acceptable for local and short-time treatments. Therefore, CO-releasing nonwovens might be a promising local antimicrobial therapy against biofilm-associated skin wound infections. PMID:27114272

  8. Spontaneous CO Release from RuII(CO)2–Protein Complexes in Aqueous Solution, Cells, and Mice**

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Ferreira, Miguel; Albuquerque, Inês S; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Coelho, Ana C; Carvalho, Sandra M; Saraiva, Lígia M; Romão, Carlos C; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that RuII(CO)2–protein complexes, formed by the reaction of the hydrolytic decomposition products of [fac-RuCl(κ2-H2NCH2CO2)(CO)3] (CORM-3) with histidine residues exposed on the surface of proteins, spontaneously release CO in aqueous solution, cells, and mice. CO release was detected by mass spectrometry (MS) and confocal microscopy using a CO-responsive turn-on fluorescent probe. These findings support our hypothesis that plasma proteins act as CO carriers after in vivo administration of CORM-3. CO released from a synthetic bovine serum albumin (BSA)–RuII(CO)2 complex leads to downregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in cancer cells. Finally, administration of BSA–RuII(CO)2 in mice bearing a colon carcinoma tumor results in enhanced CO accumulation at the tumor. Our data suggest the use of RuII(CO)2–protein complexes as viable alternatives for the safe and spatially controlled delivery of therapeutic CO in vivo. PMID:25477186

  9. Cation Exchange Strategy for the Encapsulation of a Photoactive CO-Releasing Organometallic Molecule into Anionic Porous Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Francisco J; Rojas, Sara; Sánchez, Purificación; Jeremias, Hélia; Marques, Ana R; Romão, Carlos C; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Navarro, Jorge A R; Maldonado, Carmen R; Barea, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    The encapsulation of the photoactive, nontoxic, water-soluble, and air-stable cationic CORM [Mn(tacn)(CO)3]Br (tacn = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane) in different inorganic porous matrixes, namely, the metalorganic framework bio-MOF-1, (NH2(CH3)2)2[Zn8(adeninate)4(BPDC)6]·8DMF·11H2O (BPDC = 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate), and the functionalized mesoporous silicas MCM-41-SO3H and SBA-15-SO3H, is achieved by a cation exchange strategy. The CO release from these loaded materials, under simulated physiological conditions, is triggered by visible light. The results show that the silica matrixes, which are unaltered under physiological conditions, slow the kinetics of CO release, allowing a more controlled CO supply. In contrast, bio-MOF-1 instability leads to the complete leaching of the CORM. Nevertheless, the degradation of the MOF matrix gives rise to an enhanced CO release rate, which is related to the presence of free adenine in the solution.

  10. Comparatve uric acid lowering studies of allopurinol with an indigenous medicinal plant in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Imran Shair; Latif, Sana; Yar, Muhammad; Nasar, Faiza; Ahmad, Irshad; Naeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to carry out a comparative study of lowering of uric acid by the use of dried powder of Colchicum luteum and allopathic drug (allopurinol) in rabbits, to determine whether herbal drugs can be used by patients instead of allopathic drugs. The herbal medicine, dried corm powder of Colchicum luteum 2.5 mg/kg/day and dried powder of allopurinol 2 mg/kg/day an allopathic medicine, was used in the study. The results of these medicines were observed in animal model, using 12 adult rabbits, which were divided into three groups A, B and C, respectively, where group C was taken as control. The SPSS version 17 was used for statistical analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing the data in different groups and the level of significance was 5%. It was resulted that dried corm of Colchicum luteum significantly reduced the uric acid in adult rabbits as reduced by allopathic medicine--allopurinol. In the light of present research we concluded that the herbal medicines can be used in lieu of allopathic drugs. Thus, the risk of side effects that are associated with the prolonged use of allopathic drugs can be minimized.

  11. An Efficient In Vitro Propagation Protocol of Cocoyam [Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Anne E.; Hughes, Harrison G.; Abbas, Mohamed S.; Shahba, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Sprouted corm sections of “South Dade” white cocoyam were potted and maintained in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Shoot tips of 3–5 mm comprising the apical meristem with 4–6 leaf primordial, and approximately 0.5 mm of corm tissue at the base. These explants were treated to be used into the culture medium. A modified Gamborg's B5 mineral salts supplemented with 0.05 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used throughout the study. Thidiazuron (TDZ) solution containing 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. Erlenmeyer flasks and test tubes were used for growing cultures. The effect of different media substrate, thidiazuron, and the interaction between TDZ and Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on cocoyam culture were tested. Results indicated that cocoyam can be successfully micropropagated in vitro through various procedures. All concentrations tested (5–20 μM BAP and 1–4 μM TDZ) produced more axillary shoots per shoot tip than the control without cytokinins. Greater proliferation rates were obtained through the use of 20 μM BAP and 2 μM TDZ, respectively, 12 weeks from initiation. Shoots produced with BAP were larger and more normal in appearance than those produced with TDZ, which were small, compressed, and stunted. The use of stationary liquid media is recommended for economic reasons. PMID:22666109

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min-Young; Park, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule Erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon the production of intracellular iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not other metals. However, key regulators remain unknown. The heme oxygenase (HO) is a major intracellular source of iron. In this study, the role of heme oxygenase in Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death has been investigated. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, prevented Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death. Furthermore, Erastin induced the protein and mRNA levels of HO-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. HO-1+/+ and HO-1−/− fibroblast, HO-1 overexpression, and chycloheximide-treated experiments revealed that the expression of HO-1 has a decisive effects in Erastin-triggered cell death. Hemin and CO-releasing molecules (CORM) promote Erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death, not by biliverdin and bilirubin. In addition, hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death. PMID:26405158

  13. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Gowda, Malali; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb) during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm) but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%). At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%). This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and cormosphere dormant

  14. Carbon Monoxide Abrogates Ischemic Insult to Neuronal Cells via the Soluble Guanylate Cyclase-cGMP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schallner, Nils; Romão, Carlos C.; Biermann, Julia; Lagrèze, Wolf A.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Buerkle, Hartmut; Loop, Torsten; Goebel, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Carbon monoxide (CO) is an accepted cytoprotective molecule. The extent and mechanisms of protection in neuronal systems have not been well studied. We hypothesized that delivery of CO via a novel releasing molecule (CORM) would impart neuroprotection in vivo against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and in vitro of neuronal SH-SY5Y-cells via activation of soluble guanylate-cyclase (sGC). Methods To mimic ischemic respiratory arrest, SH-SY5Y-cells were incubated with rotenone (100 nmol/L, 4 h) ± CORM ALF186 (10–100 µmol/L) or inactivated ALF186 lacking the potential of releasing CO. Apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were analyzed using flow-cytometry (Annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential, CM-H2DCFDA) and Western blot (Caspase-3). The impact of ALF186± respiratory arrest on cell signaling was assessed by measuring expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylate-cyclase (sGC) and by analyzing cellular cGMP levels. The effect of ALF186 (10 mg/kg iv) on retinal IRI in Sprague-Dawley rats was assessed by measuring densities of fluorogold-labeled RGC after IRI and by analysis of apoptosis-related genes in retinal tissue. Results ALF186 but not inactivated ALF186 inhibited rotenone-induced apoptosis (Annexin V positive cells: 25±2% rotenone vs. 14±1% ALF186+rotenone, p<0.001; relative mitochondrial membrane potential: 17±4% rotenone vs. 55±3% ALF186+rotenone, p<0.05). ALF186 increased cellular cGMP levels (33±5 nmol/L vs. 23±3 nmol/L; p<0.05) and sGC expression. sGC-inhibition attenuated ALF186-mediated protection (relative mitochondrial membrane potential: 55±3% ALF186+rotenone vs. 20±1% ODQ+ALF186+rotenone, p<0.05). ALF186 protected RGC in vivo (IRI 1255±327 RGC/mm2 vs. ALF186+IRI 2036±83; p<0.05) while sGC inhibition abolished the protective effects of ALF186 (ALF186+IRI 2036±83 RGC/mm2 vs. NS-2028+ALF186+IRI 1263±170, p<0.05). Conclusions The CORM ALF

  15. N-Nitrosamine-{cis-Re[CO]2}(2+) cobalamin conjugates as mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Ruben; Kottelat, Emmanuel; Blacque, Olivier; Bogdanova, Anna Yu; Zobi, Fabio

    2016-01-28

    Mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules were prepared by conjugation of the 17-electron rhenium dicarbonyl cis-[Re(CO)2Br4](2-) complex to N-nitrosamine modified cyanocobalamin (B12) bio-vectors. The species were fully characterized by standard analytical techniques, including X-ray crystallography for cyanocobalamin-5'-O-pyrazine and () and its N-pyrazine nitrosylated derivative (). The N-nitrosamine B12 derivatives are able to liberate low NO doses in buffer solutions and appear to be "activated" towards NO release if in contact with cultured cells. Coordination of the cis-[Re(CO)2Br4](2-) complex on the axial cyanide of B12 allows for the combined loss of CO and NO from the conjugates. The mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules show cytoprotection in an ischemia-reperfusion model but no significant enhanced synergistic effects over the relative NORMs and CORMs building constituents. PMID:26681365

  16. Structural and functional properties of C-type starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Zhou, Weidong; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-30

    This study investigated the structural and functional properties of C-type starches from pea seeds, faba bean seeds, yam rhizomes and water chestnut corms. These starches were mostly oval in shape with significantly different sizes and contents of amylose, damaged starch and phosphorus. Pea, faba bean and water chestnut starches had central hila, and yam starch had eccentric hilum. Water chestnut and yam starches had higher amylopectin short and long chain, respectively. Water chestnut and faba bean starches showed CA-type crystallinities, and pea and yam starches had C-type crystallinities. Water chestnut starch had the highest swelling power, granule swelling and pasting viscosity, lowest gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Faba bean starch had the lowest pasting viscosity, whereas yam starch had the highest gelatinization temperatures. Water chestnut and yam starches possessed significantly higher and lower susceptibility to acid and enzyme hydrolysis, the highest and lowest RDS contents, and the lowest and highest RS contents, respectively.

  17. Dual Effects of Ethylene on Potato Dormancy and Sprout Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Rylski, Irena; Rappaport, Lawrence; Pratt, Harlan K.

    1974-01-01

    Dormant potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) of two cultivars were treated with various concentrations of ethylene gas for various exposure periods. As has been shown by others, ethylene caused a rapid but transient increase in respiration rate, which appeared to be independent of any effects on dormancy. All concentrations tested caused accelerated sprouting, 2 microliters per liter being the most effective. Ethylene exerts a dual effect on potato tubers: it markedly shortens the duration of rest, but it inhibits elongation of the sprouts during extended treatment. Comparing these results with published work on seeds, bulbs, and corms suggests that ethylene must have a significant but as yet unexplained role in rest and dormancy. However, since the most effective ethylene treatment did not equal the response elicited by treatment with ethylene chlorhydrin, other factors must also contribute to termination of rest. PMID:16658762

  18. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

  19. Life-history differentiation and the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Dorken, Marcel E; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2003-09-01

    The existence of monoecious and dioecious populations within plant species is rare. This limits opportunities to investigate the ecological mechanisms responsible for the evolution and maintenance of these contrasting sexual systems. In Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic flowering plant, monoecious and dioecious populations exist in close geographic proximity but occupy distinct wetland habitats differing in the relative importance of disturbance and competition, respectively. Life-history theory predicts contrasting evolutionary responses to these environmental conditions. We propose that the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in S. latifolia is governed by ecological selection of divergent life-history strategies in contrasting habitats. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by comparing components of growth and reproduction between monoecious and dioecious populations under four conditions: natural populations, a uniform glasshouse environment, a common garden in which monoecious and dioecious populations and their F1 progeny were compared, and a transplant experiment using shaded and unshaded plots in a freshwater marsh. Plants from dioecious populations were larger in size and produced heavier corms in comparison with monoecious populations. Monoecious populations flowered earlier and produced more flowers, clonal ramets, and corms than dioecious populations. The life-history differences between the sexual systems were shown to have a quantitative genetic basis, with F1 progeny generally exhibiting intermediate trait values. Survival was highest for each sexual system in field plots that most closely resembled the habitats in which monoecious (unshaded) and dioecious (shaded) populations grow. These results demonstrate that monoecious and dioecious populations exhibit contrasting patterns of investment in traits involved with growth and reproduction. Selection for divergent life histories between monoecious and dioecious populations of S. latifolia appears to be the

  20. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    PubMed

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  1. Regulation of electrical activity and neuronal excitability in Helisoma trivolvis by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Estes, S; Zhong, L R; Artinian, L; Rehder, V

    2015-12-17

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like other gaseous neuromodulators, has a dual nature as both a toxic gas and a physiologically relevant signaling molecule. In the nervous system, high concentrations of CO can lead to neuronal injury while lower concentrations are found to be neuroprotective. The number of cellular targets affected by physiological concentrations of CO is rapidly growing and includes ion channels in various cell types. The modulation of ion channels by CO in neurons, however, and the effect it has on neural activity are incompletely understood. Here, the well-characterized buccal neurons, B5 and B19, of the freshwater snail, Helisoma trivolvis, were used to investigate the role that CO plays in regulating spontaneous firing activity and neuronal excitability. Neurons were studied in single-cell culture, thereby removing other signals normally present in the intact nervous system and allowing for the optimal characterization of physiological effects of CO. We found that the CO donor molecule, carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential of B5 neurons and silenced their spontaneous firing activity. These effects were mediated through the inhibition of a persistent sodium current. CORM-2 also inhibited neuronal excitability. This effect was mediated by the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels by CO. The general findings of CO acting as a hyperpolarizing signal and an inhibitor of neuronal excitability extended to B19 neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that CO is a potent modulator of ion channels with broad implications for the modulation of neural activity in a wide range of neuron-types. PMID:26546470

  2. In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mir, Javid Iqbal; Ahmed, Nazeer; Wani, Shabir H; Rashid, Rizwan; Mir, Hidayatullah; Sheikh, Muneer A

    2010-12-01

    Saffron is an important spice derived from the stigmas of Crocus sativus, a species belonging to the family Iridaceae. Due to its triploid nature it is sterile and is not able to set seeds, so it is propagated only by corms. The natural propagation rate of most geophytes including saffron is relatively low. An in vitro multiplication technique like micropropagation has been used for the propagation of saffron. In the present study, various explants were cultured on different nutrient media supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators to standardize the best media combination for obtaining optimum response with respect to corm production and development of Stigma Like Structures (SLS). Highest response (60 %) was observed with half ovaries on G-5 media supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 55 % on LS media with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. Maximum size (1.3 g) of microcorms were obtained from apical buds on the LS media supplemented with 21.6 μM NAA and 22.2 μM. Stigma Like Structures were developed from half ovary explants both directly and indirectly. Maximum number (120 indirectly and 20 directly) and size (5.2 cm) of SLS were obtained in G-5 medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 100 indirectly and 20 directly and 4.5 cm long on LS medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. PMID:23572987

  3. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    PubMed

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  4. Carbon monoxide release properties and molecular structures of phenylthiolatomanganese(I) carbonyl complexes of the type [(OC)4Mn(μ-S-aryl)]2.

    PubMed

    Mede, Ralf; Lorett-Velásquez, Vaneza Paola; Klein, Moritz; Görls, Helmar; Schmitt, Michael; Gessner, Guido; Heinemann, Stefan H; Popp, Jürgen; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2015-02-21

    Several phenylthiolatomanganese carbonyl complexes of the type [(OC)4Mn(μ-SR)]2 (R = Ph (), C6H4-4-CH3 (), C6H4-4-CF3 (), C6H4-4-F (), C6H4-4-Cl (), C6H4-4-OMe (), C6F5 (), and CH2C6H4-4-Cl ()) have been prepared via the reaction of Mn2(CO)10 with diaryldisulfane or via the reaction of [(OC)5MnBr] with arylthiols. These complexes lose two carbon monoxide molecules quite easily yielding tetranuclear [(OC)3Mn(μ3-SR)]4 (). Derivatives with fluoro-substituted aryl groups commonly form mixtures of dinuclear and tetranuclear which can quantitatively be converted to by heating of the corresponding reaction mixtures. A unique trinuclear structure is found for the mesityl derivative [(OC)4Mn(μ-SMes)]3 () which is maintained in solution as verified by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Traces of an already known dinuclear by-product of the type [(OC)3Mn(μ-SC6H3(-4-Me)-2-SC6H4-4-Me)]2 () have been structurally characterized. The suitability of [(OC)4Mn(μ-SPh)]2 () as a CO releasing molecule (CORM) for the administration of carbon monoxide has been studied. Two CO molecules are released upon dissolving in strongly Lewis basic solvents L, yielding [(OC)3Mn(L)(μ-SPh)]2, which liberates all the remaining CO molecules upon irradiation (photoCORM behavior). PMID:25569035

  5. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; van Dalen, Stephanie C. M.; Schelbergen, Rik F.; van Lent, Peter L. E. M.; Szarek, Walter A.; Regan, Raymond F.; Carels, Carine E.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO) generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from wild type (WT) and HO-2 knockout (KO) mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2) significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy. PMID:25299695

  6. Interaction between the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide pathways in the locus coeruleus during fever.

    PubMed

    Soriano, R N; Kwiatkoski, M; Batalhao, M E; Branco, L G; Carnio, E C

    2012-03-29

    We have documented that the locus coeruleus (LC), the main noradrenergic nucleus in the brain, is part of a thermoeffector neuronal pathway in fever induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following this pioneering study, we have investigated the role of the LC carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) pathways in fever. Interestingly, despite both CO and NO are capable of activating the same intracellular target, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), our data have shown that LC CO is an antipyretic molecule, whereas LC NO is propyretic. Thus, aiming at further exploring the mechanisms underlying their anti- and propyretic properties, we investigated the putative interplay between the LC CO and NO pathways. Male Wistar rats were implanted with a guide cannula in the fourth ventricle (4V) and a temperature datalogger capsule in the peritoneal cavity. The animals were microinjected into the 4V with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) (ZnDPBG [zinc(II)deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis ethylene glycol]), or a CO donor (CORM-2 [tricarbonyldichlororuthenium-(II)-dimer]), or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (l-NMMA [N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate]), or an NO donor (NOC12 [3-ethyl-3-(ethylaminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene]), and injected with LPS (100 μg/kg i.p.). Two hours later, the rats were decapitated, and the brains were frozen and cut in a cryostat. LC punches were processed to assess LC bilirubin and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels. Microinjection of ZnDPBG reduced LC bilirubin and increased LC NOx, whereas l-NMMA diminished LC NOx and reduced LC bilirubin. Furthermore, NOC12 caused an increase in LC bilirubin, whereas CORM-2 caused a reduction in LC NOx. These findings are consistent with the notion that in the LC during LPS fever the CO pathway downmodulates NOS activity and the NO pathway upmodulates HO activity, and, together with previous data, allow us to conjecture that LC CO blunts fever by downmodulating NOS (antipyretic property), LC NO upmodulates

  7. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  8. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  9. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  10. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  11. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Zheng, Min; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 hepatoma cells, and in vivo, through stimulation of PGC-1α. NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required cGMP, and was mimicked by the cGMP analogue (8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate [8-Br-cGMP]). Activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by SNAP required HO-1, as it could be reversed by genetic interference of HO-1; and by treatment with the HO inhibitor tin-protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP) in vitro and in vivo. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-IX, an HO-1 inducing agent, stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, which could be reversed by the CO scavenger hemoglobin. Application of CO, using the CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3), stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a cGMP-dependent manner. Both CoPP and CORM-3-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation and phosphorylation of Akt. The natural antioxidant resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a manner dependent on NO biosynthesis, cGMP synthesis, Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation, and endogenous CO production. Furthermore, resveratrol preserved mitochondrial biogenesis during lipopolysaccharides-induced hepatic inflammation in vivo. Innovation and Conclusions: The complex interplay between endogenous NO and CO production may underlie the mechanism by which natural antioxidants induce mitochondrial biogenesis. Strategies aimed at improving mitochondrial biogenesis may be used as therapeutics

  12. Involvement of the Heme-Oxygenase Pathway in the Antiallodynic and Antihyperalgesic Activity of Harpagophytum procumbens in Rats.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Carmela; Aricò, Giuseppina; Chiechio, Santina; Di Benedetto, Giulia; Parenti, Rosalba; Scoto, Giovanna M

    2015-01-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (H. procumbens), also known as Devil's Claw, has been used to treat a wide range of pathological conditions, including pain, arthritis and inflammation. Inflammatory mediators, released at the site of injury, can sensitize nociceptive terminals and are responsible for allodynia and hyperalgesia. Carbon monoxide (CO), produced in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), may play a role in nociceptive processing and has also been recognized to act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the nervous system. This study was designed to investigate whether the HO/CO pathway is involved in the analgesic response of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by using von Frey filaments and the plantar test, respectively. The results of our experiments showed that pretreatment with the HO inhibitor ZnPP IX significantly decreased the antihyperalgesic effect produced by H. procumbens (800 mg/kg, i.p.) in carrageenan-injected rats. Consistently, the pretreatment with hemin, a HO-1 substrate, or CORM-3, a CO releasing molecule, before a low dose of H. procumbens (300 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a clear antiallodynic response in carrageenan injected rats. These results suggest the involvement of HO-1/CO system in the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effect of H. procumbens in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. PMID:26389871

  13. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant.

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species.

  15. Rapid and sensitive detection of Phytophthora colocasiae responsible for the taro leaf blight using conventional and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Nath, Vishnu S; Hegde, Vinayaka M; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi L; Misra, Raj S; Veena, Syamala S; Raj, Mithun; Unnikrishnan, Suresh K; Darveekaran, Sree S

    2014-03-01

    Conventional and real-time PCR assays were developed for sensitive and specific detection of Phytophthora colocasiae, an oomycete pathogen that causes leaf blight and corm rot of taro. A set of three primer pairs was designed from regions of the RAS-related protein (Ypt1), G protein alpha-subunit (GPA1) and phospho-ribosylanthranilate isomerase (TRP1) genes. In conventional PCR, the lower limit of detection was 50 pg DNA, whereas in real-time PCR, the detection limit was 12.5 fg for the primer based on Ypt1 gene. The cycle threshold values were linearly correlated with the concentration of the target DNA (range of R(2) = 0.911-0.999). All the primer sets were successful in detecting P. colocasie from naturally infected leaves and tubers of taro. Phytophthora colocasiae was detected from artificially infested samples after 18 and 15 h of postinoculation in conventional and real-time PCR assay, respectively. The developed PCR assay proved to be a robust and reliable technique to detect P. colocasiae in taro planting material and for assessing the distribution of pathogen within fields, thus aid in mitigating taro leaf blight.

  16. Role of Hydroxytyrosol-dependent Regulation of HO-1 Expression in Promoting Wound Healing of Vascular Endothelial Cells via Nrf2 De Novo Synthesis and Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zrelli, Houda; Kusunoki, Miki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HT), an olive plant (Olea europaea L.) polyphenol, has proven atheroprotective effects. We previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in the HT dependent prevention of dysfunction induced by oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Here, we further investigated the signaling pathway of HT-dependent HO-1 expression in VECs. HT dose- and time-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels through the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D inhibited both increases, suggesting that HT-triggered HO-1 induction is transcriptionally regulated and that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for this HT effect. HT stimulated nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). This Nrf2 accumulation was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide whereas HT in combination with the 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 enhanced the accumulation. HT also extended the half-life of Nrf2 proteins by decelerating its turnover. Moreover, HO-1 inhibitor, ZnppIX and CO scavenger, hemoglobin impaired HT-dependent wound healing while CORM-2, a CO generator, accelerated wound closure. Together, these data demonstrate that HT upregulates HO-1 expression by stimulating the nuclear accumulation and stabilization of Nrf2, leading to the wound repair of VECs crucial in the prevention of atherosclerosis.

  17. Improvement of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (VCG 0124/5) through induced mutagenesis: Determination of LD50 specific to mutagen, explants, toxins and in vitro and in vivo screening for Fusarium wilt resistance.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, M S; Kannan, G; Uma, S; Thangavelu, R; Backiyarani, S

    2016-05-01

    Shoot tips and in vitro grown proliferating buds of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) were treated with various concentrations and durations of chemical mutagens viz., EMS, NaN3 and DES. LD50 for shoot tips based on 50% reduction in fresh weight was determined as 2% for 3 h, 0.02% for 5 h and 0.15% for 5 h, while for proliferating buds, they were 0.6% for 30 min, 0.01% for 2 h and 0.06% for 2 h for the mutagens EMS, NaN3 and DES, respectively. Subsequently, the mutated explants were screened in vitro against fusarium wilt using selection agents like fusaric acid and culture filtrate. LD50 for in vitro selection agents calculated based on 50% survival of explants was 0.050 mM and 7% for fusaric acid and culture filtrate, respectively and beyond which a rapid decline in growth was observed. This was followed by pot screening which led to the identification of three putative resistant mutants with an internal disease score of 1 (corm completely clean, no vascular discolouration). The putative mutants identified in the present study have also been mass multiplied in vitro.

  18. Remote-controlled delivery of CO via photoactive CO-releasing materials on a fiber optical device.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Steve; Mede, Ralf; Görls, Helmar; Seupel, Susanne; Bohlender, Carmen; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schirmer, Sina; Dochow, Sebastian; Reddy, Gandra Upendar; Popp, Jürgen; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) delivery materials (CORMAs) have been generated, remote-controlled delivery with light-activated CORMAs at a local site has not been achieved. In this work, a fiber optic-based CO delivery system is described in which the photoactive and water insoluble CO releasing molecule (CORM) manganese(i) tricarbonyl [(OC)3Mn(μ3-SR)]4 (R = nPr, 1) has been non-covalently embedded into poly(l-lactide-co-d/l-lactide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) non-woven fabrics via the electrospinning technique. SEM images of the hybrid materials show a porous fiber morphology for both polymer supports. The polylactide non-woven fabric was attached to a fiber optical device. In combination with a laser irradiation source, remote-controlled and light-triggered CO release at 405 nm excitation wavelength was achieved. The device enabled a high flexibility of the spatially and timely defined application of CO with the biocompatible hybrid fabric in aqueous media. The rates of liberated CO were adjusted with the light intensity of the laser. CO release was confirmed via ATR-IR spectroscopy, a portable electrochemical CO sensor and a heterogeneous myoglobin assay.

  19. Fourier transform infrared analysis of Tamra Bhasma at different levels: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Rajput, Dhirajsingh S.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tamra Bhasma, one among the herbo-metallic preparations is extensively used in Ayurveda for different conditions. To make it safe to use, Tamra has to pass through a set of classical pharmaceutical procedures including a series of quenching in prescribed liquids, followed by incineration with black sulfide of mercury and herbal juice of Citrus jambhiri Lush. and corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus Linn. FTIR profiles of Tamra Bhasma at different levels is not available. Aim: To evaluate the chemical changes in Tamra Bhasma at different steps by following Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: In current study, raw Tamra, intermediate samples obtained during purification, incineration and Amritikarana were analyzed using FTIR. Results: It was observed that Shodhana procedure leads in the formation of bonds between surface particles of Tamra and Shodhana media. These formed bonds on the surface of Shodhita Tamra samples gave various sharp peaks representing presence of many functional groups. Conclusion: The FTIR spectra revealed that both Bhasma samples contained organic compounds probably in the form of a complex with common functional groups like alkyl, methyl, etc., which need further studies for exact characterization of the complexes. PMID:26730144

  20. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits. PMID:23777527

  1. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence.

  2. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  3. Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1).

    PubMed

    Yang, A H; Yeh, K W

    2005-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV sequence for phytocystatin. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/SDS-PAGE. These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Investigation of its antifungal activity clearly revealed a toxic effect on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. etc., at a concentration of 80 microg recombinant CeCPI/ ml. Moreover, mycelium growth was completely inhibited and the sclerotia lysed at a concentration of 150-200 microg/ml. Further studies have demonstrated that recombinant CeCPI is capable of acting against the endogenous cysteine proteinase in the fungal mycelium.

  4. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of {eta}{omicron}-1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyoung Chul; Kim, Hee Sun; Lee, Kwang Youn; Chang, Ki Churl Kang, Young Jin

    2008-11-28

    We investigated whether NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, induces HO-1 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). NS-398 reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} without modulation of expression of COX-2 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, but inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. Furthermore, SnPPIX, a HO-1 inhibitor, reversed the effects of NS-398 on PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting that COX-2 activity can be affected by HO-1. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} and proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, but not bilirubin inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC in a HbO{sub 2}-sensitive manner. In conclusion, NS-398 inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC by HO-1-derived CO. Thus, NS-398 may facilitate the healing process of vessels in vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis.

  5. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.

  6. Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yanjie; Xu, Daokun; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-06-01

    Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences.

  7. Age and Individual Foraging Behavior Predict Tooth Wear in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Altmann, Jeanne; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Alberts, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    Teeth represent an essential component of the foraging apparatus for any mammal, and tooth wear can have significant implications for survival and reproduction. This study focuses on tooth wear in wild baboons in Amboseli, southern Kenya. We obtained mandibular and maxillary tooth impressions from 95 baboons and analyzed digital images of replicas made from these impressions. We measured tooth wear as the percent dentine exposure (PDE, the percent of the occlusal surface on which dentine was exposed), and we examined the relationship of PDE to age, behavior, and life history variables. We found that PDE increased significantly with age for both sexes in all three molar types. In females, we also tested the hypotheses that long-term patterns of feeding behavior, social dominance rank, and one measure of maternal investment (the cumulative number of months that a female had dependent infants during her lifetime) would predict tooth wear when we controlled for age. The hypothesis that feeding behavior predicted tooth wear was supported. The percent of feeding time spent consuming grass corms predicted PDE when controlling for age. However, PDE was not associated with social dominance rank or maternal investment. Am J Phys Anthropol 000:000–000, 2010. PMID:20721946

  8. Characterization of tyrosinase and accompanying laccase from Amorphophallus campanulatus.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Pallavi S; Karve, Meena S; Padhye, Subhash B

    2003-02-01

    Tyrosinase and laccase activities were detected in the corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus after extraction with ethanol followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (20-60%) and dialysis against 10 mM Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.0. Tyrosinase was found to be the predominant enzyme exhibiting mono- and di-phenolase activities, specificity for L-DOPA as substrate, optimum pH being 6.0, optimum temperature at 40 degrees C and Km at 1.05 mM. Laccase showed substrate specificity for p-phenylenediamine (p-PD), Km at 2.7 mM, optimum pH being 5.0 and was inactivated above 40 degrees C. Three isoforms of tyrosinase were detected on SDS-PAGE with apparent molecular mass approximately 127, 31 and 27 kDa respectively. On staining sections of A. campanulatus with L-DOPA as substrate and 3-methyl benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) for colour development, tyrosinase was detected in the intercellular spaces of the plant tissue. The cytosolic region did not show any colour indicating the absence of the enzyme. PMID:22900290

  9. Interaction of carbon monoxide with transition metals: evolutionary insights into drug target discovery.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    The perception that carbon monoxide (CO) is poisonous and life-threatening for mammalian organisms stems from its intrinsic propensity to bind iron in hemoglobin, a reaction that ultimately leads to impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. From evolutionary and chemical perspectives, however, CO is one of the most essential molecules in the formation of biological components and its interaction with transition metals is at the origin of primordial cell signaling. Not surprisingly, mammals have gradually evolved systems to finely control the synthesis and the sensing of this gaseous molecule. Cells are indeed continuously exposed to small quantities of CO produced endogenously during the degradation of heme by constitutive and inducible heme oxygenase enzymes. We have gradually learnt that heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide (CO) serves as a ubiquitous signaling mediator which could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The development of transition metal carbonyls as prototypic carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) represents a novel stratagem for a safer delivery of CO-based pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various pathological disorders. This review will look back at evolution to analyze and argue that a dynamic interaction of CO with specific intracellular metal centers is the common denominator for the diversified beneficial effects mediated by this gaseous molecule. PMID:20704543

  10. COBRAS/SAMBA: the ESA Medium Size Mission for measurements of CBR anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Bersanelli, M.; Cesarsky, C.; Danese, L.; Efstathiou, G.; Griffin, M.; Lamarre, J. M.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pace, O.; Puget, J. L.; Raisanen, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Tauber, J.; Volonte, S.

    1995-02-01

    The COBRAS/SAMBA mission is designed for extensive, accurate mapping of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation. with angular sensitivity from scales of a few arcminutes up to and overlapping with the > 7° COBE-DMR resolution. This will allow a full identification of the primordial density perturbations which grew to Corm the large-scale structures observed in the present universe. The COBRAS/SAMBA maps will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early universe and the origin of cosmic structure. One of the main diffuse foreground emissions will be from interstellar dust, and the mission will provide relevant information on its components and emission properties. A combination of bolometric and radiometric detection techniques will ensure the sensitivity and wide spectral coverage required for accurate foreground discrimination. A far-Earth orbit has been selected to minimize the unwanted emission from the Earth as a source of contamination. The project is currently undergoing a feasibility study within the European Space Agency M3 programme.

  11. Remote-controlled delivery of CO via photoactive CO-releasing materials on a fiber optical device.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Steve; Mede, Ralf; Görls, Helmar; Seupel, Susanne; Bohlender, Carmen; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schirmer, Sina; Dochow, Sebastian; Reddy, Gandra Upendar; Popp, Jürgen; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) delivery materials (CORMAs) have been generated, remote-controlled delivery with light-activated CORMAs at a local site has not been achieved. In this work, a fiber optic-based CO delivery system is described in which the photoactive and water insoluble CO releasing molecule (CORM) manganese(i) tricarbonyl [(OC)3Mn(μ3-SR)]4 (R = nPr, 1) has been non-covalently embedded into poly(l-lactide-co-d/l-lactide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) non-woven fabrics via the electrospinning technique. SEM images of the hybrid materials show a porous fiber morphology for both polymer supports. The polylactide non-woven fabric was attached to a fiber optical device. In combination with a laser irradiation source, remote-controlled and light-triggered CO release at 405 nm excitation wavelength was achieved. The device enabled a high flexibility of the spatially and timely defined application of CO with the biocompatible hybrid fabric in aqueous media. The rates of liberated CO were adjusted with the light intensity of the laser. CO release was confirmed via ATR-IR spectroscopy, a portable electrochemical CO sensor and a heterogeneous myoglobin assay. PMID:27431097

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species. PMID:26309277

  13. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  14. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth.

  15. Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Xu, Daokun; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences. PMID:22419743

  16. Effects of Tidal Action on Pollination and Reproductive Allocation in an Estuarine Emergent Wetland Plant–Sagittaria graminea (Alismataceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lihui; Zhao, Xingnan; Huang, Shengjun; Zhao, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    In estuarine wetlands, the daily periodic tidal activity has a profound effect on plant growth and reproduction. We studied the effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation of Sagittaria graminea. Results showed that the species had very different reproductive allocation in tidal and non-tidal habitats. In the tidal area, seed production was only 9.7% of that in non-tidal habitat, however, plants produced more male flowers and nearly twice the corms compared to those in non-tidal habitat. An experiment showed that the time available for effective pollination determined the pollination rate and pollen deposition in the tidal area. A control experiment suggested that low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency is not the main cause of very low seed sets or seed production in this plant in tidal habitat. The negative effects of tides (water) on pollen germination may surpass the influence of low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency. The length of time from pollen deposition to flower being submerged by water affected pollen germination rate on stigmas; more than three hours is necessary to allow pollen germination and complete fertilization to eliminate the risk of pollen grains being washed away by tidal water. PMID:24244393

  17. Improvement of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (VCG 0124/5) through induced mutagenesis: Determination of LD50 specific to mutagen, explants, toxins and in vitro and in vivo screening for Fusarium wilt resistance.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, M S; Kannan, G; Uma, S; Thangavelu, R; Backiyarani, S

    2016-05-01

    Shoot tips and in vitro grown proliferating buds of banana cv. Rasthali (Silk, AAB) were treated with various concentrations and durations of chemical mutagens viz., EMS, NaN3 and DES. LD50 for shoot tips based on 50% reduction in fresh weight was determined as 2% for 3 h, 0.02% for 5 h and 0.15% for 5 h, while for proliferating buds, they were 0.6% for 30 min, 0.01% for 2 h and 0.06% for 2 h for the mutagens EMS, NaN3 and DES, respectively. Subsequently, the mutated explants were screened in vitro against fusarium wilt using selection agents like fusaric acid and culture filtrate. LD50 for in vitro selection agents calculated based on 50% survival of explants was 0.050 mM and 7% for fusaric acid and culture filtrate, respectively and beyond which a rapid decline in growth was observed. This was followed by pot screening which led to the identification of three putative resistant mutants with an internal disease score of 1 (corm completely clean, no vascular discolouration). The putative mutants identified in the present study have also been mass multiplied in vitro. PMID:27319054

  18. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  19. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops. PMID:21190423

  20. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence. PMID:21806061

  1. Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1).

    PubMed

    Yang, A H; Yeh, K W

    2005-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV sequence for phytocystatin. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/SDS-PAGE. These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Investigation of its antifungal activity clearly revealed a toxic effect on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. etc., at a concentration of 80 microg recombinant CeCPI/ ml. Moreover, mycelium growth was completely inhibited and the sclerotia lysed at a concentration of 150-200 microg/ml. Further studies have demonstrated that recombinant CeCPI is capable of acting against the endogenous cysteine proteinase in the fungal mycelium. PMID:15647900

  2. Effects of light and soil water availability on leaf photosynthesis and growth of Arisaema heterophyllum, a riparian forest understorey plant.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Tang, Yanhong; Koizumi, Hiroshi; Washitani, Izumi

    2002-12-01

    The effects of soil-water availability on leaf light acclimation and whole-plant carbon gain were examined in Arisaema heterophyllum Blume, a riparian deciduous forest understorey plant. Photosynthesis, above-ground morphology and ramet biomass accumulation (relative growth rate: RGR of a corm for a full leaf life-span) were measured on plants raised under three light treatments combined with two soil water conditions. The two higher light treatments during growth (high: max. 550 micro mol photons m(-2) s(-1); medium: 150 micro mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) resulted in a twofold increase in RGRs, 30% higher photosynthetic capacities and 20% less photosynthetic low-light use efficiency than those under a low light condition (50 micro mol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Leaf area was the smallest and leaf mass area ratio was the largest under the high light treatment. Water stress decreased both photosynthetic rate and leaf area and, hence, RGR in all the light regimes. However, water stress did not alter the general patterns of physiological and morphological responses to different light regimes. We estimated that higher photosynthetic low-light use efficiency and larger leaf area in the low light leaf would lead to a threefold carbon gain as compared with the high light leaf under simulated low light conditions. Both experimental and simulation results suggest that the physiological and morphological acclimations tend to be beneficial to carbon gain when light availability is low, whereas they favor increased water use efficiency when light availability is sufficiently high.

  3. Diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of saffron in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tanwi; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a medicinally important plant. The Kashmir valley (J&K, India) emblematizes one of the major and quality saffron producing areas in the world. Nonetheless, the area has been experiencing a declining trend in the production of saffron during the last decade. Poor disease management is one of the major reasons for declining saffron production in the area. Endophytes are known to offer control against many diseases of host plant. During the present study, culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from saffron plant, identified and assessed for plant growth promoting activities. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis grouped the fifty-four bacterial isolates into eleven different taxa, viz. Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. humi, B. pumilus, Paenibacillus elgii, B. safensis, Brevibacillus sp., Pseudomonas putida, Staphylococcus hominis and Enterobacter cloacae. The results were also supported with the identification based on BIOLOG system. B. licheniformis was the dominant endophyte in both leaves and corms of saffron. 81 % isolates showed lipase activity, 57 % cellulase, 48 % protease, 38 % amylase, 33 % chitinase and 29 % showed pectinase activity. 24 % of the isolates were phosphate solublizers, 86 % showed siderophore production and 80 % phytohormone production potential. The present repository of well characterized bacterial endophytes of saffron, have plant growth promoting potential which can be explored further for their respective roles in the biology of the saffron plant. PMID:26558164

  4. H2 Treatment Attenuated Pain Behavior and Cytokine Release Through the HO-1/CO Pathway in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yajun; Chen, Hongguang; Xie, Keliang; Liu, Lingling; Li, Yuan; Yu, Yonghao; Wang, Guolin

    2015-10-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is characterized by persistent pain, tactile allodynia, or hyperalgesia. Peripheral nerve injury contributes to rapid progress of inflammatory response and simultaneously generates neuropathic pain. Hydrogen (H2) has anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-oxidative stress effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2 treatment could alleviate allodynic and hyperalgesic behaviors and the release of inflammatory factors in rats with neuropathic pain. Peripheral neuropathic pain was established by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats. H2 was given twice through intraperitoneal injection at a daily dose of 10 mL/kg during days 1-7 after the operation. Hyperalgesia and allodynia were tested, pro-inflammatory factors of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal cord were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) during days 1-14 after the operation, and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression and activities were measured at day 14 after sciatic nerve injury in rats. After Sn (IV) protoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride (SnPP)-IX, hemin, and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM)-2 had been given for chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats, the above indicators were assessed. We found that H2 clearly inhibited hyperalgesia and allodynia in neuropathic pain and also attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1. H2 improved HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and activities in the process of pain. SnPP-IX reversed the inhibitory effect of H2 on hyperalgesia and allodynia and on pro-inflammatory cytokines in DRG and the spinal cord. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of H2 were involved in the activation of HO-1/CO signaling during neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:25820467

  5. Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: a review emphasizing fossorial animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    Roots, bulbs, corms, and other below-ground organs are almost universally present in communities containing vascular plants. A large and taxonomically diverse group of herbivores uses these below-ground plant parts as its sole or primary source of food. Important within this group are plant-parasitic nematodes and several fossorial taxa that affect plants through their soil-disturbing activities as well as by consuming plant tissue. The fossorial taxa are probably best exemplified by fossorial rodents, which are distributed on all continents except Australia. All other fossorial herbivores are insects. The impact of below-groud herbivory on individual plant fitness will depend upon the extent to which, and under what circumstances, the consumption of plant tissue disrupts one or more of the six functions of below-ground plant parts. Below-ground herbivory is probably more often chronic than acute. Indirect evidence suggests that plants have responded evolutionarily to herbivory by enhancing the functional capacities of below-ground organs, thus developing a degree of tolerance, and by producing compounds that serve as feeding deterrents. Many plant species respond to the removal of root tissues by increasing the growth rate of the remaining roots and initiating new roots. Soil movement and mixing by fossorial rodents infleuce the environment of other below-ground herbivores as well as that of plants and plant propagules. The relationships among the various groups of below-ground herbivores, and between below-ground herbivores and plants, are at best poorly known, yet they appear to have major roles in determining the structure and regulating the functioning of natural communities.

  6. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. PMID:26615479

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  8. Adsorption of a hydrophobic mutagen to dietary fiber from taro (Colocasia esculenta), an important food plant of the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; McKenzie, R J; Watson, M E; Harris, P J

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer is lower in Polynesian populations of the South Pacific than in European populations. This difference in incidence of the disease may be, at least partly, related to diet. Dietary fiber is believed to protect against colorectal cancer, and one of the ways it may act is by adsorbing mutagens that are carcinogenic. Very little is known about the chemical composition or the ability to adsorb mutagens of these dietary fibers from South Pacific food plants. In contrast to European food plants, which are mostly dicotyledons, South Pacific food plants are mainly monocotyledons. We isolated cell walls (dietary fiber) from the three edible parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta), which is a monocotyledon and a major South Pacific food plant. The ability of these three unlignified cell-wall preparations to adsorb the hydrophobic environmental mutagen 1,8-dinitropyrene was studied. The greatest adsorption occurred with walls from leaf blade, followed by petiole and corm walls, although the differences were not major. The amount of adsorption was intermediate between the low adsorption previously found with unlignified dicotyledon walls (from the flesh of potato tubers and immature cabbage leaves) and the much higher adsorption found with unlignified walls from monocotyledons of the grass and cereal family (Poaceae) (from leaves of seedling Italian ryegrass). These data are consistent with the monosaccharide compositions of the taro wall preparations, which were more similar to those of unlignified walls of dicotyledons than to unlignified walls of the Poaceae. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of the dietary fiber determines its adsorptive properties and that there may be important differences between the major dietary fibers of South Pacific and European food plants.

  9. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4˚C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector‑to‑target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I.

  10. The anti-cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In vitro.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy C; Reitzenstein, Jonathan E; Liu, Jessie; Jadus, Martin R

    2005-09-01

    Hawaiians tend to have lower incidence rates of colorectal cancer and it was hypothesized that this may be due to ethnic differences in diet, specifically, their consumption of poi, a starchy paste made from the taro (Colocasia esulenta L.) plant corm. Soluble extracts of poi were incubated at 100 mg/mL in vitro for antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. (3)H-thymidine incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the poi inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When poi was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic changes as evidenced by a positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) stain. Poi enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells, suggesting that poi is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive immunostimulatory role. By flow cytometry, T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) were predominantly activated by the poi. Although numerous factors can contribute to the risk of colon cancer, perhaps poi consumption may contribute to the lower colon cancer rates among Hawaiians by two distinct mechanisms. First, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; second, by non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which in turn can lyse cancerous cells. Our results suggest for the first time that poi may have novel tumor specific anti-cancer activities and future research is suggested with animal studies and human clinical trials.

  11. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  12. Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury across Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its

  13. Factors modulating cottongrass seedling growth stimulation to enhanced nitrogen and carbon dioxide: compensatory tradeoffs in leaf dynamics and allocation to meet potassium-limited growth.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Andy; Buttler, Alexandre; Grosvernier, Philippe; Gobat, Jean-Michel; Nilsson, Mats B; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2013-02-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a characteristic species of northern peatlands and a keystone plant for cutover bog restoration. Understanding the factors affecting E. vaginatum seedling establishment (i.e. growth dynamics and allocation) under global change has practical implications for the management of abandoned mined bogs and restoration of their C-sequestration function. We studied the responses of leaf dynamics, above- and belowground biomass production of establishing seedlings to elevated CO(2) and N. We hypothesised that nutrient factors such as limitation shifts or dilutions would modulate growth stimulation. Elevated CO(2) did not affect biomass, but increased the number of young leaves in spring (+400 %), and the plant vitality (i.e. number of green leaves/total number of leaves) (+3 %), both of which were negatively correlated to [K(+)] in surface porewater, suggesting a K-limited production of young leaves. Nutrient ratios in green leaves indicated either N and K co-limitation or K limitation. N addition enhanced the number of tillers (+38 %), green leaves (+18 %), aboveground and belowground biomass (+99, +61 %), leaf mass-to-length ratio (+28 %), and reduced the leaf turnover (-32 %). N addition enhanced N availability and decreased [K(+)] in spring surface porewater. Increased tiller and leaf production in July were associated with a doubling in [K(+)] in surface porewater suggesting that under enhanced N production is K driven. Both experiments illustrate the importance of tradeoffs in E. vaginatum growth between: (1) producing tillers and generating new leaves, (2) maintaining adult leaves and initiating new ones, and (3) investing in basal parts (corms) for storage or in root growth for greater K uptake. The K concentration in surface porewater is thus the single most important factor controlling the growth of E. vaginatum seedlings in the regeneration of selected cutover bogs.

  14. Investigating the effect of cadmium and aluminium on growth and stress-induced responses in the micropropagated medicinal plant Hypoxis hemerocallidea.

    PubMed

    Okem, A; Moyo, M; Stirk, W A; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a highly utilized medicinal plant in South Africa. Its cultivation has received considerable attention in order to meet the high demand. High levels of cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) in H. hemerocallidea plants sold in traditional medicinal markets was previously reported. The present study used an in vitro propagation model to investigate the uptake of Cd and Al by H. hemerocallidea and their effect on plant growth, elemental uptake and some stress-induced responses such as pigment, malondialdehyde (MDA), proline content and ultrastructural changes. Shoot and root growth of plantlets exposed to Cd, Cd:Al and high concentrations of Al was significantly reduced. Highest concentrations of Cd accumulated in the corms of Cd-treated plantlets while highest Al concentrations occurred in the leaves and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd and Al when applied singularly compared to the Cd:Al combination treatments. Cd and Al also reduced accumulation of trace elements in micropropagted H. hemerocallidea with lowest concentrations in the Cd:Al combination treatments. Exposure to Cd, Al and Cd:Al significantly reduced the level of chlorophyll but increased the levels of carotenoids, MDA and proline. Ultrastructural changes were also observed in H. hemerocallidea exposed to Cd and Al. All these factors contributed to the inhibition of plant growth and could potentially affect the ability of this important medicinal plant to synthesize bioactive compounds. It is thus necessary to understand heavy metal stress-induced responses in this highly valued medicinal plant to ensure a high quality product for the consumer. PMID:27307203

  15. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  16. Isolation of a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 homolog in saffron (Crocus sativus L.): characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Kalivas, Apostolos; Michailidou, Sofia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2012-08-01

    Genes in the phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family are instrumental in regulating the fate of meristems and flowering time. To investigate the role of these genes in the monocotyledonous plant Crocus (Crocus sativus L), an industrially important crop cultivated for its nutritional and medicinal properties, we have cloned and characterized a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (CEN/TFL1) like gene, named CsatCEN/TFL1-like, the first reported CEN/TFL1 gene characterized from such a perennial geophyte. Sequence analysis revealed that CsatCEN/TFL1 shows high similarity to its homologous PEBP family genes CEN/TFL1, FT and MFT from a variety of plant species and maintains the same exon/intron organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the CsatCEN/TFL1 amino acid sequence confirmed that the isolated sequences belong to the CEN/TFL1 clade of the PEBP family. CsatCEN/TFL1 transcripts could be detected in corms, flower and flower organs but not in leaves. An alternative spliced transcript was also detected in the flower. Comparison of expression levels of CsatCEN/TFL1 and its alternative spliced transcript in wild type flower and a double flower mutant showed no significant differences. Overexpression of CsatCEN/TFL1 transcript in Arabidopsis tfl1 plants reversed the phenotype of early flowering and terminal flowering of the tfl1 plants to a normal one. Computational analysis of the obtained promoter sequences revealed, next to common binding motifs in CEN/TFL1-like genes as well as other flowering gene promoters, the presence of two CArG binding sites indicative of control of CEN/TFL1 by MADS-box transcription factors involved in crocus flowering and flower organ formation.

  17. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils.

  18. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  19. Effect of Iron and Carbon Monoxide on Fibrinogenase-like Degradation of Plasmatic Coagulation by Venoms of Six Agkistrodon Species.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Redford, Daniel T; Boyle, Patrick K

    2016-05-01

    Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snakebite, often from defibrinogenating species. It has been demonstrated that iron and carbon monoxide change the ultrastructure of plasma thrombi and improve coagulation kinetics. Thus, this investigation sought to determine whether pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from Agkistrodon species with fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pre-treated with ferric chloride (0-10 μM) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 0-100 μM) prior to exposure to 0.5-11 μg/ml of six different Agkistrodon species' venom. The amount of venom used for experimentation needed to decrease coagulation function of one or more kinetic parameters by at least 50% of normal values for (e.g. half the normal speed of clot formation). Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All six snake venoms degraded plasmatic coagulation kinetics to a significant extent, especially prolonging the onset to clot formation and diminishing the speed of clot growth. Pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide attenuated these venom-mediated coagulation kinetic changes in a species-specific manner, with some venom effects markedly abrogated while others were only mildly decreased. Further in vitro investigation of other pit viper venoms that possess fibrinogenolytic activity is indicated to identify species amenable to or resistant to iron and carbon monoxide-mediated attenuation of venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen. Lastly, future pre-clinical investigation with animal models (e.g. rabbit ear-bleed model) is planned to determine whether iron and carbon monoxide can be used therapeutically after envenomation.

  20. Effect of Iron and Carbon Monoxide on Fibrinogenase-like Degradation of Plasmatic Coagulation by Venoms of Six Agkistrodon Species.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Redford, Daniel T; Boyle, Patrick K

    2016-05-01

    Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snakebite, often from defibrinogenating species. It has been demonstrated that iron and carbon monoxide change the ultrastructure of plasma thrombi and improve coagulation kinetics. Thus, this investigation sought to determine whether pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from Agkistrodon species with fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pre-treated with ferric chloride (0-10 μM) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 0-100 μM) prior to exposure to 0.5-11 μg/ml of six different Agkistrodon species' venom. The amount of venom used for experimentation needed to decrease coagulation function of one or more kinetic parameters by at least 50% of normal values for (e.g. half the normal speed of clot formation). Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All six snake venoms degraded plasmatic coagulation kinetics to a significant extent, especially prolonging the onset to clot formation and diminishing the speed of clot growth. Pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide attenuated these venom-mediated coagulation kinetic changes in a species-specific manner, with some venom effects markedly abrogated while others were only mildly decreased. Further in vitro investigation of other pit viper venoms that possess fibrinogenolytic activity is indicated to identify species amenable to or resistant to iron and carbon monoxide-mediated attenuation of venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen. Lastly, future pre-clinical investigation with animal models (e.g. rabbit ear-bleed model) is planned to determine whether iron and carbon monoxide can be used therapeutically after envenomation. PMID:26467642

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 protects against Alzheimer's amyloid-β(1-42)-induced toxicity via carbon monoxide production.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, N; Dallas, M; Al-Owais, M; Griffiths, H; Hooper, N; Scragg, J; Boyle, J; Peers, C

    2014-12-11

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible enzyme up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease, catabolises heme to biliverdin, Fe2+ and carbon monoxide (CO). CO can protect neurones from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Kv2.1 channels, which mediates cellular K+ efflux as an early step in the apoptotic cascade. Since apoptosis contributes to the neuronal loss associated with amyloid β peptide (Aβ) toxicity in AD, we investigated the protective effects of HO-1 and CO against Aβ(1-42) toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, employing cells stably transfected with empty vector or expressing the cellular prion protein, PrP(c), and rat primary hippocampal neurons. Aβ(1-42) (containing protofibrils) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability, attributable at least in part to induction of apoptosis, with the PrP(c)-expressing cells showing greater susceptibility to Aβ(1-42) toxicity. Pharmacological induction or genetic over-expression of HO-1 significantly ameliorated the effects of Aβ(1-42). The CO-donor CORM-2 protected cells against Aβ(1-42) toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Electrophysiological studies revealed no differences in the outward current pre- and post-Aβ(1-42) treatment suggesting that K+ channel activity is unaffected in these cells. Instead, Aβ toxicity was reduced by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and by the CaMKKII inhibitor, STO-609. Aβ also activated the downstream kinase, AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). CO prevented this activation of AMPK. Our findings indicate that HO-1 protects against Aβ toxicity via production of CO. Protection does not arise from inhibition of apoptosis-associated K+ efflux, but rather by inhibition of AMPK activation, which has been recently implicated in the toxic effects of Aβ. These data provide a novel, beneficial effect of CO which adds to its growing potential as a therapeutic agent.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 protects corexit 9500A-induced respiratory epithelial injury across species.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu Jun; Duggal, Ryan N; Oliva, Octavio M; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its

  3. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4˚C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector‑to‑target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I. PMID:23292184

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 protects against Alzheimer's amyloid-β1-42-induced toxicity via carbon monoxide production

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, N; Dallas, M; Al-Owais, M; Griffiths, H; Hooper, N; Scragg, J; Boyle, J; Peers, C

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible enzyme up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease, catabolises heme to biliverdin, Fe2+ and carbon monoxide (CO). CO can protect neurones from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting Kv2.1 channels, which mediates cellular K+ efflux as an early step in the apoptotic cascade. Since apoptosis contributes to the neuronal loss associated with amyloid β peptide (Aβ) toxicity in AD, we investigated the protective effects of HO-1 and CO against Aβ1-42 toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, employing cells stably transfected with empty vector or expressing the cellular prion protein, PrPc, and rat primary hippocampal neurons. Aβ1-42 (containing protofibrils) caused a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability, attributable at least in part to induction of apoptosis, with the PrPc-expressing cells showing greater susceptibility to Aβ1-42 toxicity. Pharmacological induction or genetic over-expression of HO-1 significantly ameliorated the effects of Aβ1-42. The CO-donor CORM-2 protected cells against Aβ1-42 toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Electrophysiological studies revealed no differences in the outward current pre- and post-Aβ1-42 treatment suggesting that K+ channel activity is unaffected in these cells. Instead, Aβ toxicity was reduced by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and by the CaMKKII inhibitor, STO-609. Aβ also activated the downstream kinase, AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). CO prevented this activation of AMPK. Our findings indicate that HO-1 protects against Aβ toxicity via production of CO. Protection does not arise from inhibition of apoptosis-associated K+ efflux, but rather by inhibition of AMPK activation, which has been recently implicated in the toxic effects of Aβ. These data provide a novel, beneficial effect of CO which adds to its growing potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:25501830

  5. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mealey, Stephen Patrick

    1980-01-01

     The natural food habits of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord) in Yellowstone National Park were investigated in 1973-74 to identify the grizzly's energy sources and trophic level(s), nutrient use, and distribution. Food consumption was determined by scat analysis and field observations. Food quality and digestibility were estimated by chemical analysis. Grizzlies were distributed in 3 distinctive feeding economies: valley/plateau, a grass/rodent economy where grizzlies were intensive diggers; mountain, primarily a grass/springbeauty/root economy where grizzlies were casual diggers; and lake, primarily a fish/grass economy where grizzlies were fishers. The economies occured in areas with fertile soils; distribution of bears within each was related to the occurrence of succulent plants. The feeding cycle in the valley/plateau and mountain economies followed plant phenology. Grizzlies fed primarily on meat before green-up and on succulent herbs afterwards; meat, corms, berries, and nuts became important during the postgrowing season. Succulent grasses and sedges with an importance value percentage of 78.5 were the most important food items consumed. Protein from animal tissue was more digestible than protein from plant tissue. Storage fats were more digestible than structural fats. Food energy and digestibility were directly related. Five principle nutrient materials (listed with their percentage digestibilities) contributed to total energy intake: protein from succulent herbs, 42.8; protein and fat from animal material, 78.1; fat and protein from pine nuts, 73.6; starch, 78.8; and sugar from berries and fruits, digestibility undetermined. Protein from succulent herbs, with a nutritive value percentage of 77.3, was the grizzlies' primary energy source. Because succulent, preflowering herbs had higher protein levels than dry, mature herbs, grizzly use of succulent herbs guaranteed them the highest source of herbaceous protein. Low protein digestibility of

  6. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1-10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons.

  7. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  8. Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia. Its corms contain a high level of water-soluble glucomannan; therefore, it has long been used as a medicinal herb and food source. Genetic studies of Amorphophallus have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. A large number of molecular markers are required for genetic diversity study and improving disease resistance in Amorphophallus. Here, we report large scale of transcriptome sequencing of two species: Amorphophallus konjac and Amorphophallus bulbifer using deep sequencing technology, and microsatellite (SSR) markers were identified based on these transcriptome sequences. Results cDNAs of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 135,822 non-redundant unigenes were assembled from about 9.66 gigabases, and 19,596 SSRs were identified in 16,027 non-redundant unigenes. Di-nucleotide SSRs were the most abundant motif (61.6%), followed by tri- (30.3%), tetra- (5.6%), penta- (1.5%), and hexa-nucleotides (1%) repeats. The top di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs included AG/CT (45.2%) and AGG/CCT (7.1%), respectively. A total of 10,754 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Of these, 320 primers were synthesized and used for validation of amplification and assessment of polymorphisms in 25 individual plants. The total of 275 primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products, of which 205 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 and the polymorphism information content valued ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Genetic diversity analysis was done using 177 highly polymorphic SSR markers. A phenogram based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients was constructed, which showed a distinct cluster of 25 Amorphophallus individuals. Conclusion A total of 10,754 SSR markers have been identified in Amorphophallus using transcriptome sequencing. One hundred and

  9. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local

  10. A NON-DAIRY PROBIOTIC’S (POI) INFLUENCE ON CHANGING THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT’S MICROFLORA ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy C.; Shovic, Anne; Ibrahim, Salam; Holck, Peter; Huang, Alvin

    2006-01-01

    Justification Yogurt has been historically used to restore gut microflora adversely affected by antibiotic treatment. Certain fermented dairy products are probiotics; “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” Microorganisms in foods may benefit certain health conditions such as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. A potential new probiotic from a Polynesian traditional food is poi; a starchy paste made from the corm of taro plants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if consumption of poi, a potential non-dairy probiotic, altered the microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults. Methods A cross-over clinical study included 18 subjects (19–64 years of age) divided into a poi group (n=10) and control group (n=8). The study duration of 14 weeks consisted of a 2-week washout, 4-week treatment or control, a subsequent 2-week washout, cross-over of 4-week treatment or control, and a final 2-week washout. Subjects thus served as their own controls. While receiving the poi treatment, participants consumed fresh poi (1–2 days old) three times a day (130 g/meal or about _ cup/meal); the control group did not. Both groups filled out 3-day dietary records to ensure compliance. Measurable outcomes include pre-and post-treatment microbiological fecal culture analyses. Results We found no significant differences in total bacterial counts following a poi diet versus following a control diet, nor were significant differences found in counts of specific bacterial species. Lactococcus tends to be higher in poi when it is analyzed for specific bacteria, but the poi consumption in our study did not alter the mean concentration of individual bacterial species (log10 CFU/g wet feces) for Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Bifidobacterium. No significant differences in stool frequency or