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Sample records for corms

  1. Differential Effects of CORM-2 and CORM-401 in Murine Intestinal Epithelial MODE-K Cells under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Dinesh; Leclercq, Georges; Motterlini, Roberto; Lefebvre, Romain A.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are intensively studied to provide cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of CO in inflammatory conditions including intestinal inflammation. The water-soluble CORM-A1 reduced apoptosis and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/cycloheximide (CHX) in mouse MODE-K intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), without influencing TNF-α/CHX-induced mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2•–). The aim of the present study in the same model was to comparatively investigate the influence of lipid-soluble CORM-2 and water-soluble CORM-401, shown in vitro to release more CO under oxidative conditions. CORM-2 abolished TNF-α/CHX-induced total cellular ROS whereas CORM-401 partially reduced it, both partially reducing TNF-α/CHX-induced cell death. Only CORM-2 increased mitochondrial O2•– production after 2 h of incubation. CORM-2 reduced TNF-α/CHX-, rotenone- and antimycin-A-induced mitochondrial O2•– production; CORM-401 only reduced the effect of antimycin-A. Co-treatment with CORM-401 during 1 h exposure to H2O2 reduced H2O2 (7.5 mM)-induced ROS production and cell death, whereas CORM-2 did not. The study illustrates the importance of the chemical characteristics of different CO-RMs. The lipid solubility of CORM-2 might contribute to its interference with TNF-α/CHX-induced mitochondrial ROS signaling, at least in mouse IECs. CORM-401 is more effective than other CO-RMs under H2O2-induced oxidative stress conditions. PMID:28228725

  2. Spatial and temporal gene expression patterns occur during corm development.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L A; Carneiro, M; Neshich, D de C; de Paiva, G R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated gene expression patterns that occur during taro corm development. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified several different prevalent proteins that accumulate during corm development. Microsequencing studies indicated that some of these proteins are related to taste-modifying proteins, such as curculin and miraculin, and proteins found in other storage organs, such as sporamin and the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. A curculin-encoding cDNA clone, designated as TC1, was identified that corresponds to a highly prevalent 1-kb corm mRNA. The TC1 mRNA accumulates during corm development, is more prevalent in corm apical than basal regions, and is either absent, or present at low concentrations, in other vegetative organs such as the leaf and root. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the TC1 mRNA is highly concentrated in corm storage parenchyma cells and is absent, or present in reduced concentrations, in other corm cells and tissues. Our results show that corm development is associated with the differentiation of specialized cells and tissues, and that these differentiation events are coupled with the temporal and spatial expression of corm-specific genes.

  3. Spatial and temporal gene expression patterns occur during corm development.

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, L A; Carneiro, M; Neshich, D de C; de Paiva, G R

    1992-01-01

    We investigated gene expression patterns that occur during taro corm development. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified several different prevalent proteins that accumulate during corm development. Microsequencing studies indicated that some of these proteins are related to taste-modifying proteins, such as curculin and miraculin, and proteins found in other storage organs, such as sporamin and the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. A curculin-encoding cDNA clone, designated as TC1, was identified that corresponds to a highly prevalent 1-kb corm mRNA. The TC1 mRNA accumulates during corm development, is more prevalent in corm apical than basal regions, and is either absent, or present at low concentrations, in other vegetative organs such as the leaf and root. In situ hybridization experiments showed that the TC1 mRNA is highly concentrated in corm storage parenchyma cells and is absent, or present in reduced concentrations, in other corm cells and tissues. Our results show that corm development is associated with the differentiation of specialized cells and tissues, and that these differentiation events are coupled with the temporal and spatial expression of corm-specific genes. PMID:1467653

  4. Lead and other elemental content of normal and Erwinia carotovora infected Amorphallus konjac corms.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Wei, Wen-Guo; Shao, Wei; Chen, Bai-Ling; Huang, Ying-Ping

    2010-06-01

    Amorphallus konjac corms are important agriculture products in Yichang, Hubei Province, China. The Erwinia carotovora infected Amorphallus konjac corms are processed to food as normal corms. The contents of elements and L: -Proline in the normal and infected Amorphallus konjac corms are analyzed for food safety. Even growing in the almost same soil condition, the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn and L: -Proline in infected corms are significantly higher than those of normal corms (show data as suggestion by peers). Our study suggested that the infected corms are not suitable for food purpose.

  5. Concentration of Risk Model (CORM) Verification and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-15

    Mental Health and using data from a repository at the University of Michigan, had attempted to identify soldiers at higher-than-average risk of suicide ...TRAC-M-TR-14-023 15 June 2014 Concentration of Risk Model (CORM) Verification and Analysis TRADOC Analysis Center - Monterey 700 Dyer Road Monterey...TRAC-M-TR-14-023 15 June 2014 Concentration of Risk Model (CORM) Verification and Analysis Edward M. Masotti Sam Buttrey TRADOC Analysis Center

  6. Enhanced acute anti-inflammatory effects of CORM-2-loaded nanoparticles via sustained carbon monoxide delivery.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Omer Salman; Zeb, Alam; Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Myung-Sic; Kang, Jong-Ho; Kim, Hoo-Seong; Majid, Arshad; Han, Inbo; Chang, Sun-Young; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Jin-Ki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon monoxide (CO) via sustained release of CO from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-loaded lipid nanoparticles (CORM-2-NPs). CORM-2-NPs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method using trilaurin as a solid lipid core and Tween 20/Span 20/Myrj S40 as surfactant mixture. The physicochemical properties of CORM-2-NPs were characterized and CO release from CORM-2-NPs was assessed by myoglobin assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by nitric oxide assay in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by measuring paw volumes and histological examination in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Spherical CORM-2-NPs were around 100nm with narrow particle size distribution. The sustained CO release from CORM-2-NPs was observed and the half-life of CO release increased up to 10 times compared with CORM-2 solution. CORM-2-NPs showed enhanced in vitro anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of nitric oxide production. Edema volume in rat paw was significantly reduced after treatment with CORM-2-NPs. Taken together, CORM-2-NPs have a great potential for CO therapeutics against inflammation via sustained release of CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CORM-EDE1: A Highly Water-Soluble and Nontoxic Manganese-Based photoCORM with a Biogenic Ligand Sphere.

    PubMed

    Mede, Ralf; Klein, Moritz; Claus, Ralf A; Krieck, Sven; Quickert, Stefanie; Görls, Helmar; Neugebauer, Ute; Schmitt, Michael; Gessner, Guido; Heinemann, Stefan H; Popp, Jürgen; Bauer, Michael; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2016-01-04

    [Mn(CO)5Br] reacts with cysteamine and 4-amino-thiophenyl with a ratio of 2:3 in refluxing tetrahydrofuran to the complexes of the type [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SCH2CH2NH3)3]Br2 (1, CORM-EDE1) and [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)3]Br2 (2, CORM-EDE2). Compound 2 precipitates during refluxing of the tetrahydrofuran solution as a yellow solid whereas 1 forms a red oil that slowly solidifies. Recrystallization of 2 from water yields the HBr-free complex [{(OC)3Mn}2(μ-S-C6H4-4-NH2)2(μ-SC6H4-4-NH3)] (3). The n-propylthiolate ligand (which is isoelectronic to the bridging thiolate of 1) leads to the formation of the di- and tetranuclear complexes [(OC)4Mn(μ-S-nPr)2]2 and [(OC)3Mn(μ-S-nPr)]4. CORM-EDE1 possesses ideal properties to administer carbon monoxide to biological and medicinal tissues upon irradiation (photoCORM). Isolated crystalline CORM-EDE1 can be handled at ambient and aerobic conditions. This complex is nontoxic, highly soluble in water, and indefinitely stable therein in the absence of air and phosphate buffer. CORM-EDE1 is stable as frozen stock in aqueous solution without any limitations, and these stock solutions maintain their CO release properties. The reducing dithionite does not interact with CORM-EDE1, and therefore, the myoglobin assay represents a valuable tool to study the release kinetics of this photoCORM. After CO liberation, the formation of MnHPO4 in aqueous buffer solution can be verified.

  8. Vascular and angiogenic activities of CORM-401, an oxidant-sensitive CO-releasing molecule.

    PubMed

    Fayad-Kobeissi, Sarah; Ratovonantenaina, Johary; Dabiré, Hubert; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Rodriguez, Anne Marie; Berdeaux, Alain; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Mann, Brian E; Motterlini, Roberto; Foresti, Roberta

    2016-02-15

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and displays important signaling, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicating that pharmacological agents mimicking its action may have therapeutic benefit. This study examined the biochemical and pharmacological properties of CORM-401, a recently described CO-releasing molecule containing manganese as a metal center. We used in vitro approaches, ex-vivo rat aortic rings and the EA.hy926 endothelial cell line in culture to address how CORM-401 releases CO and whether the compound modulates vascular tone and pro-angiogenic activities, respectively. We found that CORM-401 released up to three CO/mole of compound depending on the concentration of the acceptor myoglobin. Oxidants such as H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide or hypochlorous acid increased the CO liberated by CORM-401. CORM-401 also relaxed pre-contracted aortic rings and vasorelaxation was enhanced in combination with H2O2. Consistent with the release of multiple CO molecules, CORM-401-induced vasodilation was three times higher than that elicited by CORM-A1, which exhibits a similar half-life to CORM-401 but liberates only one CO/mole of compound. Furthermore, endothelial cells exposed to CORM-401 accumulated CO intracellularly, accelerated migration in vitro and increased VEGF and IL-8 levels. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors revealed HO-1 and p38 MAP kinase as two independent and parallel mechanisms involved in stimulating migration. We conclude that the ability of CORM-401 to release multiple CO, its sensitivity to oxidants which increase CO release, and its vascular and pro-angiogenic properties highlight new advances in the design of CO-releasing molecules that can be tailored for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress-mediated pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The therapeutic effect of CORM-3 on acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing-Zhu; Yang, Bao-Shan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yan-Fen; Pei, Feng-Hua; Zhu, An-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Ren; Liu, Bing-Rong

    2016-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe and life-threatening clinical syndrome resulting in a high mortality and extremely poor prognosis. Recently, a water-soluble CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was to investigate the effect of CORM-3 on ALF and elucidate its underlying mechanism. ALF was induced by a combination of LPS/D-GalN in mice which were treated with CORM-3 or inactive CORM-3 (iCORM-3). The efficacy of CORM-3 was evaluated based on survival, liver histopathology, serum aminotransferase activities (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin (TBiL). Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta and IL-10) and liver immunohistochemistry of NF-kappaB-p65 were determined; the expression of inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2 and TLR4 was measured using Western blotting. The pretreatment with CORM-3 significantly improved the liver histology and the survival rate of mice compared with the controls; CORM-3 also decreased the levels of ALT, AST and TBiL. Furthermore, CORM-3 significantly inhibited the increased concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta) and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) productions in ALF mice. Moreover, CORM-3 significantly reduced the increased expression of iNOS and TLR4 in liver tissues and inhibited the nuclear expression of NF-kappaB-p65. CORM-3 had no effect on the increased expression of COX-2 in the ALF mice. An iCORM-3 failed to prevent acute liver damage induced by LPS/D-GalN. These findings provided evidence that CORM-3 may offer a novel alternative approach for the management of ALF through anti-inflammatory functions.

  10. Cytochrome bd-I in Escherichia coli is less sensitive than cytochromes bd-II or bo'' to inhibition by the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, CORM-3: N-acetylcysteine reduces CO-RM uptake and inhibition of respiration.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Helen E; Nye, Tacita L; McLean, Samantha; Green, Jeffrey; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2013-09-01

    CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are potential therapeutic agents, able to deliver CO - a critical gasotransmitter - in biological environments. CO-RMs are also effective antimicrobial agents; although the mechanisms of action are poorly defined, haem-containing terminal oxidases are primary targets. Nevertheless, it is clear from several studies that the effects of CO-RMs on biological systems are frequently not adequately explained by the release of CO: CO-RMs are generally more potent inhibitors than is CO gas and other effects of the molecules are evident. Because sensitivity to CO-RMs cannot be predicted by sensitivity to CO gas, we assess the differential susceptibilities of strains, each expressing only one of the three terminal oxidases of E. coli - cytochrome bd-I, cytochrome bd-II and cytochrome bo', to inhibition by CORM-3. We present the first sensitive measurement of the oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd-II (Km 0.24μM) employing globin deoxygenation. Finally, we investigate the way(s) in which thiol compounds abolish the inhibitory effects of CORM-2 and CORM-3 on respiration, growth and viability, a phenomenon that is well documented, but poorly understood. We show that a strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3 in its growth and respiration of both intact cells and membranes. Growth studies show that cytochrome bd-II has similar CORM-3 sensitivity to cytochrome bo'. Cytochromes bo' and bd-II also have considerably lower affinities for oxygen than bd-I. We show that the ability of N-acetylcysteine to abrogate the toxic effects of CO-RMs is not attributable to its antioxidant effects, or prevention of CO targeting to the oxidases, but may be largely due to the inhibition of CO-RM uptake by bacterial cells. A strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole terminal oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3. N-acetylcysteine is a potent inhibitor of CO-RM uptake by E. coli. Rational design

  11. Temporal and spatial regulation of glucomannan deposition and mobilization in corms of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Chua, Melinda; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2013-02-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM), the main biologically active constituent of konjac flour extracted from corms of Amorphophallus konjac (konjac), has potential to be used as a nutraceutical (satiety agent) to combat obesity. Here we present the results of an immunocytochemical investigation of the developmental regulation of the deposition and mobilization of glucomannan in corm tissues of konjac, using an antiheteromannan (mannan/glucomannan) antiserum. The intensity of antibody binding to glucomannan idioblasts at six developmental stages (i.e., dormancy, leaf bud emergence, leaf bud elongation, leaflet emergence, leaf expansion, and shoot senescence) was compared. A temporally regulated pattern of glucomannan deposition and mobilization within the glucomannan idioblasts was observed. A source-sink transition in the corm was shown to occur after leaflet emergence, prior to complete expansion of the leaves. Our data also suggest that the mobilization of KGM initiates at the periphery of the corm and proceeds inward toward the center of the corm. This study represents a significant milestone in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the physiological and biochemical control of KGM biosynthesis, partitioning, storage, and remobilization. Moreover, this information and the methodology presented provide valuable data for future improvement of the yield and productivity of this important crop.

  12. Low temperature maximizes growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development.

    PubMed

    Lundmark, Maria; Hurry, Vaughan; Lapointe, Line

    2009-01-01

    In Crocus vernus, a spring bulbous species, prolonged growth at low temperatures results in the development of larger perennial organs and delayed foliar senescence. Because corm growth is known to stop before the first visual sign of leaf senescence, it is clear that factors other than leaf duration alone determine final corm size. The aim of this study was to determine whether reduced growth at higher temperatures was due to decreased carbon import to the corm or to changes in the partitioning of this carbon once it had reached the corm. Plants were grown under two temperature regimes and the amount of carbon fixed, transported, and converted into a storable form in the corm, as well as the partitioning into soluble carbohydrates, starch, and the cell wall, were monitored during the growth cycle. The reduced growth at higher temperature could not be explained by a restriction in carbon supply or by a reduced ability to convert the carbon into starch. However, under the higher temperature regime, the plant allocated more carbon to cell wall material, and the amount of glucose within the corm declined earlier in the season. Hexose to sucrose ratios might control the duration of corm growth in C. vernus by influencing the timing of the cell division, elongation, and maturation phases. It is suggested that it is this shift in carbon partitioning, not limited carbon supply or leaf duration, which is responsible for the smaller final biomass of the corm at higher temperatures.

  13. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people.

  14. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus

    SciTech Connect

    Seng, Shanshan; Wu, Jian; Sui, Juanjuan; Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-05-20

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. -- Highlights: •Cormel quantity was reduced significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Corm quality was declined significantly in silenced Gladiolus plants. •Starch synthesis was inhibited in silenced Gladiolus plants.

  15. Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Tariq; Nawaz Khan, Salik; Javaid, Arshad

    2010-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control.

  16. Silicium dioxide nanoparticles as carriers for photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs).

    PubMed

    Dördelmann, Gregor; Pfeiffer, Hendrik; Birkner, Alexander; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2011-05-16

    Silicium dioxide nanoparticles of about 20 nm diameter containing azido groups at the surface were prepared by emulsion copolymerization of trimethoxymethylsilane and (3-azidopropyl)triethoxysilane and studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A photoactivatable CO-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM) based on [Mn(CO)(3)(tpm)](+) (tpm = tris(pyrazolyl)methane) containing an alkyne-functionalized tpm ligand was covalently linked to the silicium dioxide nanoparticles via the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC "click" reaction). The surface functionalization of the particles with azido groups and manganese CORMs was analyzed by UV-vis, IR, (1)H and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopies as well as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The myoglobin assay was used to demonstrate that the CORM-functionalized nanoparticles have photoinducible CO-release properties very similar to the free complex. In the future, such functionalized silicium dioxide nanoparticles might be utilized as delivery agents for CORMs in solid tumors.

  17. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Corm Formation in Sagittaria trifolia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyong; Hussain, Javeed; Yin, Jingjing; Zhang, Yi; Li, Liangjun; Chen, Xuehao

    2013-01-01

    Sagittaria trifolia is a good model of wetland plants to elucidate the formation of corm. However, few studies have been conducted to uncover the complexity of gene expression involved in corm formation. In this study, high-throughput tag-sequencing based on Solexa Genome Analyzer Platform was applied to monitor the changes in gene expression with three libraries of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (C1 library: stolon stage, C2 library: initial swelling stage and C3 library: swelling stage) during corm formation in Sagittaria trifolia. Approximately 6.0 million tags were sequenced, and 5854021, 5983454, and 5761079 clean tags including 138319, 116804, and 101739 distinct tags were obtained after removal of low quality tags from each library, respectively. About 46% distinct tags were unambiguous tags mapping to the reference genes, and 33% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. Totally, 20575, 19807, and 18438 were annotated in C1, C2, and C3 libraries, respectively, after mapping their functions in existing databases. In addition, we found that profiling of gene expression in C1/C2 and C2/C3 libraries were different among most of the selected 20 DEGs. Most DEGs in C1/C2 libraries were relevant to hormone synthesis and response; energy metabolism and stress response, while most of the genes in C2/C3 libraries were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. All up-regulated transcriptional factors and 16 important genes relevant to corm formation in three libraries were also identified. To further analyze the expression of 9 genes, from the results of tag-sequencing, qRT-PCR was applied. In summary, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression, during the formation of corm in Sagittaria trifolia. PMID:23359383

  18. A carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM-3) uncouples mitochondrial respiration and modulates the production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Luisa; Boczkowski, Jorge; Zini, Roland; Salouage, Issam; Berdeaux, Alain; Motterlini, Roberto; Morin, Didier

    2011-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), produced during the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase, is an important signaling mediator in mammalian cells. Here we show that precise delivery of CO to isolated heart mitochondria using a water-soluble CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) uncouples respiration. Addition of low-micromolar concentrations of CORM-3 (1-20 μM), but not an inactive compound that does not release CO, significantly increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (State 2 respiration) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, higher concentrations of CORM-3 (100 μM) suppressed ADP-dependent respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. The uncoupling effect mediated by CORM-3 was inhibited in the presence of the CO scavenger myoglobin. Moreover, this effect was associated with a gradual decrease in membrane potential (ψ) over time and was partially reversed by malonate, an inhibitor of complex II activity. Similarly, inhibition of uncoupling proteins or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter attenuated the effect of CORM-3 on both State 2 respiration and Δψ. Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) produced by mitochondria respiring from complex I-linked substrates (pyruvate/malate) was increased by CORM-3. However, respiration initiated via complex II using succinate resulted in a fivefold increase in H₂O₂ production and this effect was significantly inhibited by CORM-3. These findings disclose a counterintuitive action of CORM-3 suggesting that CO at low levels acts as an important regulator of mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Kunitz proteinase inhibitor from corms of Xanthosoma blandum with bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thaís B; Silva, Osmar N; Migliolo, Ludovico; Souza-Filho, Carlos R; Gonçalves, Eduardo G; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Amaral, André C; Franco, Octávio L

    2011-05-27

    Bacterial infections directly affect the world's population, and this situation has been aggravated by indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents, which can generate resistant microorganisms. In this report, an initial screening of proteins with antibacterial activity from corms of 15 species of the Xanthosoma genus was conducted. Since Xanthosoma blandum corms showed enhanced activity toward bacteria, a novel protein with bactericidal activity was isolated from this particular species. Edman degradation was used for protein N-termini determination; the primary structure showed similarities with Kunitz inhibitors, and this protein was named Xb-KTI. This protein was further challenged against serine proteinases from different sources, showing clear inhibitory activities. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity was observed for Xb-KTI. The results demonstrate the biotechnological potential of Xb-KTI, the first proteinase inhibitor with antimicrobial activity described in the Xanthosoma genus.

  20. Novel lead structures and activation mechanisms for CO-releasing molecules (CORMs)

    PubMed Central

    Schatzschneider, U

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous small signalling molecule in the human body, produced by the action of haem oxygenase on haem. Since it is very difficult to apply safely as a gas, solid storage and delivery forms for CO are now explored. Most of these CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are based on the inactivation of the CO by coordinating it to a transition metal centre in a prodrug approach. After a brief look at the potential cellular target structures of CO, an overview of the design principles and activation mechanisms for CO release from a metal coordination sphere is given. Endogenous and exogenous triggers discussed include ligand exchange reactions with medium, enzymatically-induced CO release and photoactivated liberation of CO. Furthermore, the attachment of CORMs to hard and soft nanomaterials to confer additional target specificity to such systems is critically assessed. A survey of analytical methods for the study of the stoichiometry and kinetics of CO release, as well as the tracking of CO in living systems by using fluorescent probes, concludes this review. CORMs are very valuable tools for studying CO bioactivity and might lead to new drug candidates; however, in the design of future generations of CORMs, particular attention has to be paid to their drug-likeness and the tuning of the peripheral ‘drug sphere’ for specific biomedical applications. Further progress in this field will thus critically depend on a close interaction between synthetic chemists and researchers exploring the physiological effects and therapeutic applications of CO. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24628281

  1. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation.

  2. Determination of Metal Content in Crocus sativus L. Corms in Dormancy and Waking Stages

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Nardana; Ebrahimzadeh, Hassan; Abdi, Khosrou; Mirmasoumi, Masoud; Lamei, Navid; Azizi Shamami, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 mineral elements have been found with different key functions in helping plants and animals to survive and live healthy. As a direct result, they have always attracted the attention of scientists. The quest is to find some efficient analytical and quantitative procedures in this study to determine some mineral and trace elements of Iranian Crocus sativus L. corms. Several studies have been made using distinct methods and eventually, to achieve this purpose, three analytical methods were used as follows: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Seventeen mineral and trace elements (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Fe, Co, Cd, Sr, Rb, Sc, and Br) were determined in Crocus sativus L. corms in two different physiological stages. The mineral elements content in saffron corms showed a wide variability and their concentrations in dormancy stage were higher than waking. Despite of the fact that K concentration was the highest among all mineral elements studied in both samples, it was nil for Sc, Co, Hg, Pb and Cd. PMID:24250569

  3. Analysis of the Bacterial Response to Ru(CO)3Cl(Glycinate) (CORM-3) and the Inactivated Compound Identifies the Role Played by the Ruthenium Compound and Reveals Sulfur-Containing Species as a Major Target of CORM-3 Action

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Ronald; Jesse, Helen E.; Mann, Brian E.; Sanguinetti, Guido; Poole, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are being developed with the ultimate goal of safely utilizing the therapeutic potential of CO clinically. One such application is antimicrobial activity; therefore, we aimed to characterize and compare the effects of the CO-RM, CORM-3, and its inactivated counterpart, where all labile CO has been removed, at the transcriptomic and cellular level. Results: We found that both compounds are able to penetrate the cell, but the inactive form is not inhibitory to bacterial growth under conditions where CORM-3 is. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the bacterial response to inactivated CORM-3 (iCORM-3) is much lower than to the active compound and that a wide range of processes appear to be affected by CORM-3 and to a lesser extent iCORM-3, including energy metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and the metabolism of many sulfur-containing species, including cysteine and methionine. Innovation: This work has demonstrated that both CORM-3 and its inactivated counterpart react with cellular functions to yield a complex response at the transcriptomic level. A full understanding of the actions of both compounds is vital to understand the toxic effects of CO-RMs. Conclusion: This work has furthered our understanding of how CORM-3 behaves at the cellular level and identifies the responses that occur when the host is exposed to the Ru compound as well as those that result from the released CO. This is a vital step in laying the groundwork for future development of optimized CO-RMs for eventual use in antimicrobial therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1999–2012. PMID:23472713

  4. A Structurally-Tunable 3-Hydroxyflavone Motif for Visible Light-Induced Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecules (CORMs)**

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey N; Richards, Jason M; Esquer, Hector J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Arif, Atta M; Berreau, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Molecules that can be used to deliver a controlled amount of carbon monoxide (CO) have the potential to facilitate investigations into the roles of this gaseous molecule in biology and advance therapeutic treatments. This has led to the development of light-induced CO-releasing molecules (photoCORMs). A goal in this field of research is the development of molecules that exhibit a combination of controlled CO release, favorable biological properties (e.g., low toxicity and trackability in cells), and structural tunability to affect CO release. Herein, we report a new biologically-inspired organic photoCORM motif that exhibits several features that are desirable in a next-generation photoCORM. We show that 3-hydroxyflavone-based compounds are easily synthesized and modified to impart changes in absorption features and quantum yield for CO release, exhibit low toxicity, are trackable in cells, and can exhibit both O2-dependent and -independent CO release reactivity. PMID:26491637

  5. A Structurally-Tunable 3-Hydroxyflavone Motif for Visible Light-Induced Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecules (CORMs).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey N; Richards, Jason M; Esquer, Hector J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Arif, Atta M; Berreau, Lisa M

    2015-10-01

    Molecules that can be used to deliver a controlled amount of carbon monoxide (CO) have the potential to facilitate investigations into the roles of this gaseous molecule in biology and advance therapeutic treatments. This has led to the development of light-induced CO-releasing molecules (photoCORMs). A goal in this field of research is the development of molecules that exhibit a combination of controlled CO release, favorable biological properties (e.g., low toxicity and trackability in cells), and structural tunability to affect CO release. Herein, we report a new biologically-inspired organic photoCORM motif that exhibits several features that are desirable in a next-generation photoCORM. We show that 3-hydroxyflavone-based compounds are easily synthesized and modified to impart changes in absorption features and quantum yield for CO release, exhibit low toxicity, are trackable in cells, and can exhibit both O2-dependent and -independent CO release reactivity.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a heteropolysaccharide from the corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus.

    PubMed

    Das, Debsankar; Mondal, Subhas; Roy, Sadhan K; Maiti, Debabrata; Bhunia, Bibhas; Maiti, Tapas K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-12-14

    A water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from the aqueous extract of the corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus was found to contain D-galactose, D-glucose, 4-O-acyl-D-methyl galacturonate, and l-arabinose in a molar ratio 2:1:1:1. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: This molecule showed splenocyte activation.

  7. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Released from Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) Dimer (CORM-2) in Gastroprotection against Experimental Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage

    PubMed Central

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Adamski, Juliusz; Surmiak, Marcin; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The physiological gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide (CO) becomes a subject of extensive investigation due to its vasoactive activity throughout the body but its role in gastroprotection has been little investigated. We determined the mechanism of CO released from its donor tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) in protection of gastric mucosa against 75% ethanol-induced injury. Rats were pretreated with CORM-2 30 min prior to 75% ethanol with or without 1) non-selective (indomethacin) or selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (SC-560) and COX-2 (celecoxib) inhibitors, 2) nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NNA, 3) ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, hemin, a heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inductor or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an inhibitor of HO-1 activity. The CO content in gastric mucosa and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level in blood was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gastric mucosal mRNA expression for HO-1, COX-1, COX-2, iNOS, IL-4, IL-1β was analyzed by real-time PCR while HO-1, HO-2 and Nrf2 protein expression was determined by Western Blot. Pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.5–10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ethanol-induced lesions and raised gastric blood flow (GBF) but large dose of 100 mg/kg was ineffective. CORM-2 (5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg i.g.) significantly increased gastric mucosal CO content and whole blood COHb level. CORM-2-induced protection was reversed by indomethacin, SC-560 and significantly attenuated by celecoxib, ODQ and L-NNA. Hemin significantly reduced ethanol damage and raised GBF while ZnPPIX which exacerbated ethanol-induced injury inhibited CORM-2- and hemin-induced gastroprotection and the accompanying rise in GBF. CORM-2 significantly increased gastric mucosal HO-1 mRNA expression and decreased mRNA expression for iNOS, IL-1β, COX-1 and COX-2 but failed to affect HO-1 and Nrf2 protein expression decreased by ethanol. We conclude that CORM-2 released CO exerts gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric

  8. A corm-specific gene encodes tarin, a major globulin of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, I C; Castro, L A; Neshich, G; de Almeida, E R; de Sá, M F; Mello, L V; Monte-Neshich, D C

    1995-04-01

    A gene encoding a globulin from a major taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm protein family, tarin (G1, ca. 28 kDa) was isolated from a lambda Charon 35 library, using a cDNA derived from a highly abundant corm-specific mRNA, as probe. The gene, named tar1, and the corresponding cDNA were characterized and compared. No introns were found. The major transcription start site was determined by primer extension analysis. The gene has an open reading frame (ORF) of 765 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated a precursor polypeptide of 255 residues that is post-translationally processed into two subunits of about 12.5 kDa each. The deduced protein is 45% homologous to curculin, a sweet-tasting protein found in the fruit pulp of Curculigo latifolia and 40% homologous to a mannose-binding lectin from Galanthus nivalis. Significant similarity was also found at the nucleic acid sequence level with genes encoding lectins from plant species of the Amaryllidaceae and Lilliaceae families.

  9. Next generation PhotoCORMs: polynuclear tricarbonylmanganese(I)-functionalized polypyridyl metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Govender, Preshendren; Pai, Sandesh; Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Smith, Gregory S

    2013-05-06

    The first CO-releasing metallodendrimers, based on polypyridyl dendritic scaffolds functionalized with Mn(CO)3 moieties, of the general formula [DAB-PPI-{MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═N))(CO)3}n], where DAB = 1,4-diaminobutane, PPI = poly(propyleneimine), bpy = bipyridyl, and n = 4 for first- or n = 8 for second-generation dendrimers, were synthesized and comprehensively characterized by analytical (HR-ESI mass spectrometry and elemental analysis) and spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}-NMR, infrared, and UV/vis spectroscopy) methods. The CO-release properties of these compounds were investigated in pure buffer and using the myoglobin assay. Both metallodendrimer generations are stable in the dark in aqueous buffer for up to 16 h but show photoactivated CO release upon excitation at 410 nm, representing a novel class of macromolecular photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). No scaling effects were observed since both metallodendrimers release ∼65% of the total number of CO ligands per molecule, regardless of the generation number. In addition, the mononuclear model complex [MnBr(bpy(CH3,CH═NCH2CH2CH3))(CO)3] was prepared and comprehensively studied, including DFT/TDDFT calculations. These metallodendrimer-based PhotoCORMs afford new methods of targeted delivery of large amounts of carbon monoxide to cellular systems.

  10. Synthesis of oxime-based CO-releasing molecules, CORMs and their immobilization on maghemite nanoparticles for magnetic-field induced CO release.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hajo; Brenner, Markus; Höfert, Simon-P; Knedel, Tim-O; Kunz, Peter C; Schmidt, Annette M; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Janiak, Christoph

    2016-05-04

    Oxime-based CO-releasing molecules (oximeCORMs) were immobilized with a catechol-modified backbone on maghemite iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to give oximeCORM@IONP. The CO release from the free and immobilized oximeCORMs was measured using the standard myoglobin assay. The oximeCORM-nanoparticles were coated with dextran for improved water solubility and confined into an alginate shell for protection and separation from the surrounding myoglobin assay to allow for CO release studies by UV/Vis absorption without interference from highly-absorptive oximeCORM@IONP. Half-lifes of the oxime-based polymer-confined alginate@dextran@oximeCORM@IONPs were estimated at 20 °C to 814 ± 23 min, at 37 °C to 346 ± 83 min and at 50 °C to 73 ± 1 min. The alginate@dextran@oximeCORM@IONP composite showed a further decrease of the half-life of CO release to 153 ± 27 min at 37 °C through local magnetic heating of the susceptible iron oxide nanoparticles with application of an external alternating magnetic field (31.7 kA m(-1), 247 kHz, 39.9 mTesla). The activation energy for the CO release from molecular dicarbonylchlorido(imidazole-2-carbaldehydeoxime)(alkoxycarbonyl)ruthenium(ii) complexes is determined to be ∼100 kJ mol(-1) for five different imidazole-oxime derivatives.

  11. Beneficial effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in mice: Role of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Hitesh; Pandya, Gaurav; Patel, Praful; Acharya, Aviseka; Jain, Mukul; Mehta, Anita A.

    2011-05-15

    Doxorubicin (DXR) has been used in variety of human malignancies for decades. Despite its efficacy in cancer, clinical usage is limited because of its cardiotoxicity, which has been associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been shown to reduce the oxidative damage and apoptosis. The present study investigated the effects of CORM-2, a fast CO-releaser, against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using biochemical, histopathological and gene expression approaches. CORM-2 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days and terminated the study on day 11. DXR (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected before 72 h of termination. Mice treated with DXR showed cardiotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3 and decrease the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in heart tissues. Pre- and post-treatment with CORM-2 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited significant improvement in CK, LDH, MDA, caspase-3 and TAS levels. Histopathological studies showed that cardiac damage with DXR has been reversed with CORM-2 + DXR treatment. There was dramatic decrease in hematological count in DXR-treated mice, which has been improved with CORM-2. Furthermore, there was also elevation of mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease in inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression upon treatment with CORM-2 that might be linked to cardioprotection. These data suggest that CORM-2 treatment provides cardioprotection against acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and this effect may be attributed to CORM-2-mediated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

  12. Carbon monoxide released by CORM-401 uncouples mitochondrial respiration and inhibits glycolysis in endothelial cells: A role for mitoBKCa channels.

    PubMed

    Kaczara, Patrycja; Motterlini, Roberto; Rosen, Gerald M; Augustynek, Bartlomiej; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Szewczyk, Adam; Foresti, Roberta; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a product of heme degradation by heme oxygenases, plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that mitochondria are among a number of molecular targets that mediate the cellular actions of CO. In the present study we characterized the effects of CO released from CORM-401 on mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in intact human endothelial cells using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry and the Seahorse XF technology. We found that CORM-401 (10-100μM) induced a persistent increase in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) that was accompanied by inhibition of glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate, ECAR) and a decrease in ATP-turnover. Furthermore, CORM-401 increased proton leak, diminished mitochondrial reserve capacity and enhanced non-mitochondrial respiration. Inactive CORM-401 (iCORM-401) neither induced mitochondrial uncoupling nor inhibited glycolysis, supporting a direct role of CO in the endothelial metabolic response induced by CORM-401. Interestingly, blockade of mitochondrial large-conductance calcium-regulated potassium ion channels (mitoBKCa) with paxilline abolished the increase in OCR promoted by CORM-401 without affecting ECAR; patch-clamp experiments confirmed that CO derived from CORM-401 activated mitoBKCa channels present in mitochondria. Conversely, stabilization of glycolysis by MG132 prevented CORM-401-mediated decrease in ECAR but did not modify the OCR response. In summary, we demonstrated in intact endothelial cells that CO induces a two-component metabolic response: uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration dependent on the activation of mitoBKCa channels and inhibition of glycolysis independent of mitoBKCa channels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vasorelaxing effects and inhibition of nitric oxide in macrophages by new iron-containing carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

    PubMed

    Motterlini, Roberto; Sawle, Philip; Hammad, Jehad; Mann, Brian E; Johnson, Tony R; Green, Colin J; Foresti, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a class of organometallo carbonyl complexes capable of delivering controlled quantities of CO gas to cells and tissues thus exerting a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. Here we report on the chemical synthesis, CO releasing properties, cytotoxicity profile and pharmacological activities of four novel structurally related iron-allyl carbonyls. The major difference among the new CO-RMs tested was that three compounds (CORM-307, CORM-308 and CORM-314) were soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), whereas a fourth one (CORM-319) was rendered water-soluble by reacting the iron-carbonyl with hydrogen tetrafluoroborate. We found that despite the fact all compounds liberated CO, CO-RMs soluble in DMSO caused a more pronounced toxic effect both in vascular and inflammatory cells as well as in isolated vessels. More specifically, iron carbonyls soluble in DMSO released CO with a fast kinetic and displayed a marked cytotoxic effect in smooth muscle cells and RAW 247.6 macrophages despite exerting a rapid and pronounced vasorelaxation ex vivo. In contrast, CORM-319 that is soluble in water and liberated CO with a slower rate, preserved smooth muscle cell viability, relaxed aortic tissue and exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in macrophages challenged with endotoxin. These data suggest that iron carbonyls can be used as scaffolds for the design and synthesis of pharmacologically active CO-RMs and indicate that increasing water solubility and controlling the rate of CO release are important parameters for limiting their potential toxic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Taro corms mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patch: an efficient device for delivery of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Gunjan; Saha, Nayan Ranjan; Roy, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Amartya; Bose, Madhura; Mishra, Roshnara; Rana, Dipak; Bhattacharjee, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the effectiveness of mucilage/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based transdermal patch (matrix type) as a drug delivery device. We have successfully extracted mucilage from Colocasia esculenta (Taro) corms and prepared diltiazem hydrochloride incorporated mucilage/HPMC based transdermal patches using various wt% of mucilage by the solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of both mucilage and transdermal patches has been done by several techniques such as Molisch's test, organoleptic evaluation of mucilage, mechanical, morphological and thermal analysis of transdermal patches. Skin irritation test is studied on hairless Albino rat skin showing that transdermal patches are apparently free of potentially hazardous skin irritation. Fourier transform infrared analysis shows that there is no interaction between drug, mucilage and HPMC while scanning electron microscopy shows the surface morphology of transdermal patches. In vitro drug release time of mucilage-HPMC based transdermal patches is prolonged with increasing mucilage concentration in the formulation.

  15. Variation of mineral composition in different parts of taro (Colocasia esculenta) corms.

    PubMed

    Mergedus, Andrej; Kristl, Janja; Ivancic, Anton; Sober, Andreja; Sustar, Vilma; Krizan, Tomaz; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important root crop in the humid tropics and a valuable source of essential mineral nutrients. In the presented study, we compared the mineral compositions of four main parts of taro corm: the upper, marginal, central and lower (basal) parts. The freeze-dried taro samples were analysed for eleven minerals (K, P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr). The upper part, which plays a critical role in vegetative propagation based on headsets, contained high levels of P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd. The central part, which is essential for human nutrition, was characterised by higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Cd. Ca was concentrated in the lower and marginal parts. The effect of the genotype was significant for more than half of the analysed minerals (i.e., Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn).

  16. Visible-light-induced CO release from a therapeutically viable tryptophan-derived manganese(I) carbonyl (TryptoCORM) exhibiting potent inhibition against E. coli.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jonathan S; Lynam, Jason M; Moir, James; Fairlamb, Ian J S

    2014-11-10

    The first visible-light-activated carbon-monoxide-releasing molecule (CO-RM) to exhibit a potent effect against Escherichia coli is described. The easily prepared tryptophan-derived manganese-containing complex (TryptoCORM) released 1.4 moles of CO at 465 nm, and 2 moles at 400 nm. A comprehensive synthetic, mechanistic and microbiological study into the behaviour of TryptoCORM is reported. The complex is thermally stable (i.e., does not release CO in solution in the absence of light), shows low toxicity against mammalian cells and releases tryptophan on photoinduced degradation, all of which point to TryptoCORM being therapeutically viable.

  17. Cytochrome bd-I in Escherichia coli is less sensitive than cytochromes bd-II or bo′' to inhibition by the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, CORM-3☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Jesse, Helen E.; Nye, Tacita L.; McLean, Samantha; Green, Jeffrey; Mann, Brian E.; Poole, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are potential therapeutic agents, able to deliver CO – a critical gasotransmitter – in biological environments. CO-RMs are also effective antimicrobial agents; although the mechanisms of action are poorly defined, haem-containing terminal oxidases are primary targets. Nevertheless, it is clear from several studies that the effects of CO-RMs on biological systems are frequently not adequately explained by the release of CO: CO-RMs are generally more potent inhibitors than is CO gas and other effects of the molecules are evident. Methods: Because sensitivity to CO-RMs cannot be predicted by sensitivity to CO gas, we assess the differential susceptibilities of strains, each expressing only one of the three terminal oxidases of E. coli — cytochrome bd-I, cytochrome bd-II and cytochrome bo′, to inhibition by CORM-3. We present the first sensitive measurement of the oxygen affinity of cytochrome bd-II (Km 0.24 μM) employing globin deoxygenation. Finally, we investigate the way(s) in which thiol compounds abolish the inhibitory effects of CORM-2 and CORM-3 on respiration, growth and viability, a phenomenon that is well documented, but poorly understood. Results: We show that a strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3 in its growth and respiration of both intact cells and membranes. Growth studies show that cytochrome bd-II has similar CORM-3 sensitivity to cytochrome bo′. Cytochromes bo′ and bd-II also have considerably lower affinities for oxygen than bd-I. We show that the ability of N-acetylcysteine to abrogate the toxic effects of CO-RMs is not attributable to its antioxidant effects, or prevention of CO targeting to the oxidases, but may be largely due to the inhibition of CO-RM uptake by bacterial cells. Conclusions: A strain expressing cytochrome bd-I as the sole terminal oxidase is least susceptible to inhibition by CORM-3. N-acetylcysteine is a

  18. Impact of biological control agents on fusaric acid secreted from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder and Hansen in Gladiolus grandiflorus corms.

    PubMed

    Nosir, Walid; McDonald, Jim; Woodward, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Fusaric acid (FA) (5-n-butylpuridine 2-carboxyl acid), a highly toxic secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium oxysporum strains, plays a significant role in disease development. The abilities of three F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyder and Hansen isolates (G010; 649-91; and 160-57) to produce FA in infected Gladiolus corm tissues was evaluated in vitro in relation to the presence of two biological control agents, Trichoderma harzianum T22, and Aneurinobacillus migulanus. Pathogenicity tests were used to differentiate between the abilities of the F. oxysporum strains to secrete FA. FA was identified using LC/MS and quantified using HPLC. Isolate G010 was significantly more virulent (P < 0.01) on Gladiolus grandiflorus corms; it secretes 1.8 μM FA/g fresh weight corm into inoculated Gladiolus. Moreover, G010 was the only isolate that produced FA among the three examined isolates. There was a correlation between the corm lesion area and the FA secretion ability of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli (P < 0.001; r (2) = 0.96). No FA was detected in PDA cultures of F.oxysporum f. sp. gladioli isolates. The presence of T. harzianum T22 appeared to prevent FA secretion into the corms. In the presence of A. migulanus, however, the amount of FA secreted into the corm tissues increased. These results support the use of T. harzianum as an effective biological control agent against F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli.

  19. Global gene expression profiling and antibiotic susceptibility after repeated exposure to the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sahlberg Bang, Charlotte; Demirel, Isak; Kruse, Robert; Persson, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of urinary tract infections is today a challenge due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). There is an urgent need for new treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant UPEC and preferably with targets that have low potential for development of resistance. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are novel and potent antibacterial agents. The present study examines the transcriptomic targets of CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing UPEC isolate in response to a single exposure to CORM-2 and after repeated exposure to CORM-2. The bacterial viability and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined after repeated exposure to CORM-2. Microarray analysis revealed that a wide range of processes were affected by CORM-2, including a general trend of down-regulation in energy metabolism and biosynthesis pathways and up-regulation of the SOS response and DNA repair. Several genes involved in virulence (ibpB), antibiotic resistance (marAB, mdtABC) and biofilm formation (bhsA, yfgF) were up-regulated, while some genes involved in virulence (kpsC, fepCEG, entABE), antibiotic resistance (evgA) and biofilm formation (artIP) were down-regulated. Repeated exposure to CORM-2 did not alter the gene expression patterns, the growth inhibitory response to CORM-2 or the MIC values for CORM-2, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. This study identifies several enriched gene ontologies, modified pathways and single genes that are targeted by CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant UPEC isolate. Repeated exposure to CORM-2 did not change the gene expression patterns or fold changes and the susceptibility to CORM-2 remained after repeated exposure.

  20. CO-Releasing Molecules Have Nonheme Targets in Bacteria: Transcriptomic, Mathematical Modeling and Biochemical Analyses of CORM-3 [Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)] Actions on a Heme-Deficient Mutant of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jayne Louise; Wareham, Lauren K.; McLean, Samantha; Begg, Ronald; Greaves, Sarah; Mann, Brian E.; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are being developed with the ultimate goal of safely utilizing the therapeutic potential of CO clinically, including applications in antimicrobial therapy. Hemes are generally considered the prime targets of CO and CORMs, so we tested this hypothesis using heme-deficient bacteria, applying cellular, transcriptomic, and biochemical tools. Results: CORM-3 [Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)] readily penetrated Escherichia coli hemA bacteria and was inhibitory to these and Lactococcus lactis, even though they lack all detectable hemes. Transcriptomic analyses, coupled with mathematical modeling of transcription factor activities, revealed that the response to CORM-3 in hemA bacteria is multifaceted but characterized by markedly elevated expression of iron acquisition and utilization mechanisms, global stress responses, and zinc management processes. Cell membranes are disturbed by CORM-3. Innovation: This work has demonstrated for the first time that CORM-3 (and to a lesser extent its inactivated counterpart) has multiple cellular targets other than hemes. A full understanding of the actions of CORMs is vital to understand their toxic effects. Conclusion: This work has furthered our understanding of the key targets of CORM-3 in bacteria and raises the possibility that the widely reported antimicrobial effects cannot be attributed to classical biochemical targets of CO. This is a vital step in exploiting the potential, already demonstrated, for using optimized CORMs in antimicrobial therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 148–162. PMID:25811604

  1. Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A

    2014-01-01

    Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-α mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NFκB was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of IκBα degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms.

  2. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) improves clinical signs of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in rats.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Mangano, Katia; Mammana, Santa; Cavalli, Eugenio; Di Marco, Roberto; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2015-04-01

    Uveitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory disease of the eye which represents the third leading cause of blindness in the developed countries. The conventional pharmacological treatment includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, which are limited by their side effects. New therapeutic strategies are thus strongly needed. Exogenously-administered carbon monoxide (CO) may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are a novel group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO. Among CORMs, CORM-A1 represents the first example of water soluble CO releaser. We show here that CORM-A1 under a late prophylactic regime is able to significantly ameliorate the natural course of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis, a rodent model of immunoinflammatory posterior uveitis. The present study strongly supports the development of CORM-A1 as a potential new drug for treatment of patients with non-infectious posterior uveitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amphetamine Decreases α2C-Adrenoceptor Binding of [11C]ORM-13070: A PET Study in the Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Zoë A; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Stepanov, Vladimir; Nakao, Ryuji; Varnäs, Katarina; Varrone, Andrea; Arponen, Eveliina; Marjamäki, Päivi; Pohjanoksa, Katariina; Vuorilehto, Lauri; Babalola, Phebian A; Solin, Olof; Grimwood, Sarah; Sallinen, Jukka; Farde, Lars; Scheinin, Mika; Halldin, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Background: The neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been implicated in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Examination of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations in the living brain may be possible with positron emission tomography (PET), but has been hampered by the lack of suitable radioligands. Methods: We explored the use of the novel α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist PET tracer [11C]ORM-13070 for measurement of amphetamine-induced changes in synaptic norepinephrine. The effect of amphetamine on [11C]ORM-13070 binding was evaluated ex vivo in rat brain sections and in vivo with PET imaging in monkeys. Results: Microdialysis experiments confirmed amphetamine-induced elevations in rat striatal norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations. Regional [11C]ORM-13070 receptor binding was high in the striatum and low in the cerebellum. After injection of [11C]ORM-13070 in rats, mean striatal specific binding ratios, determined using cerebellum as a reference region, were 1.4±0.3 after vehicle pretreatment and 1.2±0.2 after amphetamine administration (0.3mg/kg, subcutaneous). Injection of [11C]ORM-13070 in non-human primates resulted in mean striatal binding potential (BP ND) estimates of 0.65±0.12 at baseline. Intravenous administration of amphetamine (0.5 and 1.0mg/kg, i.v.) reduced BP ND values by 31–50%. Amphetamine (0.3mg/kg, subcutaneous) increased extracellular norepinephrine (by 400%) and dopamine (by 270%) in rat striata. Conclusions: Together, these results indicate that [11C]ORM-13070 may be a useful tool for evaluation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations in vivo. Future studies are required to further understand a potential contribution of dopamine to the amphetamine-induced effect. PMID:25522417

  4. X-ray microCT imaging technique reveals corm microstructures of an arctic-boreal cotton-sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Sarah J; Spiers, Graeme; Cholewa, Ewa

    2010-09-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), a non-destructive imaging technique, has recently been effectively applied to botanical research. In this study an X-ray microCT technique was developed to allow for anatomical study of the overwintering corms of Eriophorum vaginatum, an ecologically important sedge species in arctic tussock-tundra and boreal peatlands. Using a GE Medical MS8X-130 X-ray microCT scanner, optimal imaging parameters included scanning isolated corms at 80 k Vp and 100 microA with a 3500 ms exposure time and an isotropic voxel size of 10 microm. A Gaussian blur image filter with a blur radius (sigma) of two pixels was applied to the optimal dataset to improve visual detection and contrast of tissues while removing 99.2% of image noise. Using the developed X-ray microCT technique several undocumented anatomical characteristics of the corm were identified including the vascular connection between a parent corm and branching cormel and the 3D shape of sclereid clusters. The 3D structure of sclereid clusters was determined whereby the perimeter of their lance shape is greatly reinforced by sclereids with thicker secondary cell walls as compared to those of the interior of the cluster. The structure of sclereid clusters and their association with leaf traces suggests they may be stabilizing the corm-leaf connection to protect vascular tissues from physical damage. The proposed X-ray microCT technique is an excellent tool for determination of the 3D structure of E. vaginatum corms and may be used to detect alterations in tissue structure and chemistry in response to environmental change in this and other Cyperaceous species.

  5. Interaction of the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: in situ measurements of carbon monoxide binding by integrating cavity dual-beam spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rana, Namrata; McLean, Samantha; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that binds to haems, but also plays critical signalling and cytoprotective roles in mammalian systems; despite problems associated with systemic delivery by inhalation of the gas, it may be employed therapeutically. CO delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas; CO-RMs are also attractive candidates as novel antimicrobial agents. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an enteropathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans. Recent studies have implicated haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the protein that catalyses the degradation of haem into biliverdin, free iron and CO, in the host immune response to Salmonella infection. In several studies, CO administration via CO-RMs elicited many of the protective roles of HO-1 induction and so we investigated the effects of a well-characterized water-soluble CO-RM, Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3), on Salmonella. CORM-3 exhibits toxic effects at concentrations significantly lower than those reported to cause toxicity to RAW 264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated here, through oxyhaemoglobin assays, that CORM-3 did not release CO spontaneously in phosphate buffer, buffered minimal medium or very rich medium. CORM-3 was, however, accumulated to high levels intracellularly (as shown by inductively coupled plasma MS) and released CO inside cells. Using growing Salmonella cultures without prior concentration, we showed for the first time that sensitive dual-beam integrating cavity absorption spectrophotometry can detect directly the CO released from CORM-3 binding in real-time to haems of the bacterial electron transport chain. The toxic effects of CO-RMs suggested potential applications as adjuvants to antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Christian Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005) per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines. PMID:27847420

  7. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy. - Highlights: • GhAFP-like is expessed in dormant corm. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like showed early germination and insensitivity to ABA. • Overexpressing GhAFP-like changed ABI5 downstream genes expression.

  8. Luminescent Re(I) Carbonyl Complexes as Trackable PhotoCORMs for CO delivery to Cellular Targets.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Indranil; Jimenez, Jorge; Sameera, W M C; Kato, Masako; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2017-03-06

    A family of Re(I) carbonyl complexes of general formula [ReX(CO)3(phen)](0/1+) (where X = Cl(-), CF3SO3(-), MeCN, PPh3, and methylimidazole) derived from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) exhibits variable emission characteristics depending on the presence of the sixth ancillary ligand/group (X). All complexes but with X = MeCN exhibit moderate CO release upon irradiation with low-power UV light and are indefinitely stable in anaerobic/aerobic environment in solution as well as in solid state when kept under dark condition. These CO donors liberate three, one, or no CO depending on the nature of sixth ligand upon illumination as studied with the aid of time-dependent IR spectroscopy. Results of excited-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations provided insight into the origin of the emission characteristics of these complexes. The luminescent rheinum(I) photoCORMs uniformly displayed efficient cellular internalization by the human breast adenocarcinoma cells, MDA-MB-231, while the complex with PPh3 as ancillary ligand showed moderate nuclear localization in addition to the cytosolic distribution. These species hold significant promise as theranostic photoCORMs (photoinduced CO releasing molecules), where the entry of the pro-drug can be tracked within the cellular matrices.

  9. Purification and characterization of a mannan-binding lectin specifically expressed in corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Escribano, J; Rubio, A; Alvarez-Ortí, M; Molina, A; Fernández, J A

    2000-02-01

    Despite the economical interest of Crocus sativus, its biochemistry has been poorly studied. Herein, we have isolated a lectin present in saffron corm by gel-filtration, anion-exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography. One- and two-dimensional PAGE, MALDI-MS, and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated that the native protein forms noncovalently linked aggregates of about 80 kDa apparent molecular mass, mainly composed of two charged heterogeneous (pI's, 6.69-6.93) basic subunits of approximately 12 kDa. Their N-terminal sequences shared 25% similarity and were homologous to the N- and C-terminal domains of monocotyledonous mannose-binding lectins, respectively. An additional polypeptide of around 28 kDa apparent molecular mass was also detected, probably corresponding to a precursor processed into two mature subunits. In addition, the N-terminal domain subunit exhibited 56% similarity with curculin, a sweet protein with taste-modifying activity. The native lectin specifically interacts with a yeast mannan and is a major corm protein specifically expressed in this organ.

  10. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  11. Ru(CO)3Cl(Glycinate) (CORM-3): A Carbon Monoxide–Releasing Molecule with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial and Photosensitive Activities Against Respiration and Cation Transport in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jayne Louise; Jesse, Helen E.; Hughes, Bethan; Lund, Victoria; Naylor, Kathryn; Davidge, Kelly S.; Cook, Gregory M.; Mann, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide (CO) delivered to cells and tissues by CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has beneficial and toxic effects not mimicked by CO gas. The metal carbonyl Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate) (CORM-3) is a novel, potent antimicrobial agent. Here, we established its mode of action. Results: CORM-3 inhibits respiration in several bacterial and yeast pathogens. In anoxic Escherichia coli suspensions, CORM-3 first stimulates, then inhibits respiration, but much higher concentrations of CORM-3 than of a classic protonophore are required for stimulation. Proton translocation measurements (H+/O quotients, i.e., H+ extrusion on pulsing anaerobic cells with O2) show that respiratory stimulation cannot be attributed to true “uncoupling,” that is, dissipation of the protonmotive force, or to direct stimulation of oxidase activity. Our data are consistent with CORM-3 facilitating the electrogenic transmembrane movement of K+ (or Na+), causing a stimulation of respiration and H+ pumping to compensate for the transient drop in membrane potential (ΔΨ). The effects on respiration are not mimicked by CO gas or control Ru compounds that do not release CO. Inhibition of respiration and loss of bacterial viability elicited by CORM-3 are reversible by white light, unambiguously identifying heme-containing oxidase(s) as target(s). Innovation: This is the most complete study to date of the antimicrobial action of a CO-RM. Noteworthy are the demonstration of respiratory stimulation, electrogenic ion transport, and photosensitive activity, establishing terminal oxidases and ion transport as primary targets. Conclusion: CORM-3 has multifaceted effects: increased membrane permeability, inhibition of terminal oxidases, and perhaps other unidentified mechanisms underlie its effectiveness in tackling microbial pathogenesis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 497–509. PMID:23186316

  12. Physical, functional, and pasting properties of flours from corms of two Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma sagittifolium) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Okafor, Chidinma A

    2015-06-01

    Physical, functional and physicochemical properties of flours of five cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) cultivars were evaluated. Colour (L*a*b*) parameters of corms and flours, pasting and functional properties of the flours were determined. Xanthosoma spp showed significantly higher length (95.16-151.46), width (75.29-78.03) and weight (179.20-605.94) than the Colocasia spp., but the parameters did not vary significantly within either Xanthosoma and Colocasia spp. Generally, colour of peeled corms [L* (72.08-78.93); a* (+1.06 - +3.5); b* (+17.65 - +35.80)] was lighter than the flours [L* (69.35-84.97); a* (+0.30 - + 4.76); b* (+4.44 - +23.48)]. The NXs001 showed significantly higher peak (201.71RVU), trough (186.75 RVU), final (289.75 RVU) and setback (103 RVU) viscosities that the other cultivars. Pasting profiles of the cocoyam flours showed similar trend with the NXs001 showing a steeper curve. Pasting temperature and peak time ranged from 87.33 to 92.53 °C and 5.17-6.34 min, respectively. Water absorption capacity, gelling point, pH, foam capacity, bulk density and swelling power varied from 32-69 %, 6.56-7.59, 58.5-72.5 °C, 7.19-14.72 %, 0.94-1.01 g/mL and 3.18-7.36, respectively.

  13. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3; Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)) as a tool to study the concerted effects of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide on bacterial flavohemoglobin Hmp: applications and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Denby, Katie J; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Hassoubah, Shahira A; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-10-24

    CO and NO are small toxic gaseous molecules that play pivotal roles in biology as gasotransmitters. During bacterial infection, NO, produced by the host via the inducible NO synthase, exerts critical antibacterial effects while CO, generated by heme oxygenases, enhances phagocytosis of macrophages. In Escherichia coli, other bacteria and fungi, the flavohemoglobin Hmp is the most important detoxification mechanism converting NO and O2 to the ion nitrate (NO3(-)). The protoheme of Hmp binds not only O2 and NO, but also CO so that this ligand is expected to be an inhibitor of NO detoxification in vivo and in vitro. CORM-3 (Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate)) is a metal carbonyl compound extensively used and recently shown to have potent antibacterial properties. In this study, attenuation of the NO resistance of E. coli by CORM-3 is demonstrated in vivo. However, polarographic measurements showed that CO gas, but not CORM-3, produced inhibition of the NO detoxification activity of Hmp in vitro. Nevertheless, CO release from CORM-3 in the presence of soluble cellular compounds is demonstrated by formation of carboxy-Hmp. We show that the inability of CORM-3 to inhibit the activity of purified Hmp is due to slow release of CO in protein solutions alone i.e. when sodium dithionite, widely used in previous studies of CO release from CORM-3, is excluded. Finally, we measure intracellular CO released from CORM-3 by following the formation of carboxy-Hmp in respiring cells. CORM-3 is a tool to explore the concerted effects of CO and NO in vivo. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Carbon Monoxide-releasing Molecule-3 (CORM-3; Ru(CO)3Cl(Glycinate)) as a Tool to Study the Concerted Effects of Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide on Bacterial Flavohemoglobin Hmp

    PubMed Central

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Denby, Katie J.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Hassoubah, Shahira A.; Mann, Brian E.; Poole, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    CO and NO are small toxic gaseous molecules that play pivotal roles in biology as gasotransmitters. During bacterial infection, NO, produced by the host via the inducible NO synthase, exerts critical antibacterial effects while CO, generated by heme oxygenases, enhances phagocytosis of macrophages. In Escherichia coli, other bacteria and fungi, the flavohemoglobin Hmp is the most important detoxification mechanism converting NO and O2 to the ion nitrate (NO3−). The protoheme of Hmp binds not only O2 and NO, but also CO so that this ligand is expected to be an inhibitor of NO detoxification in vivo and in vitro. CORM-3 (Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)) is a metal carbonyl compound extensively used and recently shown to have potent antibacterial properties. In this study, attenuation of the NO resistance of E. coli by CORM-3 is demonstrated in vivo. However, polarographic measurements showed that CO gas, but not CORM-3, produced inhibition of the NO detoxification activity of Hmp in vitro. Nevertheless, CO release from CORM-3 in the presence of soluble cellular compounds is demonstrated by formation of carboxy-Hmp. We show that the inability of CORM-3 to inhibit the activity of purified Hmp is due to slow release of CO in protein solutions alone i.e. when sodium dithionite, widely used in previous studies of CO release from CORM-3, is excluded. Finally, we measure intracellular CO released from CORM-3 by following the formation of carboxy-Hmp in respiring cells. CORM-3 is a tool to explore the concerted effects of CO and NO in vivo. PMID:25193663

  15. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems.

  16. Cloning and characterization of a novel Gladiolus hybridus AFP family gene (GhAFP-like) related to corm dormancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Carianopol, Carina; Sui, Juanjuan; Yang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Fengqin; Jiang, Huiru; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-02-26

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling seed dormancy. AFPs (ABA INSENSITIVE FIVE BINDING PROTEINS) are reported to be negative regulators of the ABA signaling pathway. The involvement of AFPs in dormant vegetative organs remains poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel AFP family member from Gladiolus dormant cormels, GhAFP-like, containing three conserved domains of the AFP family. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GhAFP-like was expressed in dormant organs and its expression was down-regulated along with corm storage. GhAFP-like was verified to be a nuclear-localized protein. Overexpressing GhAFP-like in Arabidopsis thaliana not only showed weaker seed dormancy with insensitivity to ABA, but also changed the expression of some ABA related genes. In addition, a primary root elongation assay showed GhAFP-like may involve in auxin signaling response. The results in this study indicate that GhAFP-like acts as a negative regulator in ABA signaling and is related to dormancy.

  17. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  18. Design strategies to improve the sensitivity of photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs) to visible light and their potential as CO-donors to biological targets.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha J; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2014-08-19

    The recent surprising discovery of the beneficial effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in mammalian physiology has drawn attention toward site-specific delivery of CO to biological targets. To avoid difficulties in handling of this noxious gas in hospital settings, researchers have focused their attention on metal carbonyl complexes as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs). Because further control of such CO delivery through light-triggering can be achieved with photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs), we and other groups have attempted to isolate such complexes in the past few years. Typical metal carbonyl complexes release CO when exposed to UV light, a fact that often deters their use in biological systems. From the very beginning, our effort therefore was directed toward identifying design principles that could lead to photoCORMs that release CO upon illumination with low-power (5-15 mW/cm(2)) visible and near-IR light. In our work, we have utilized Mn(I), Re(I), and Ru(II) centers (all d(6) ground state configuration) to ensure overall stability of the carbonyl complexes. We also hypothesized that transfer of electron density from the electron-rich metal centers to π* MOs of the ligand frame via strong metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible/near-IR region would weaken metal-CO back-bonding and promote rapid CO photorelease. This expectation has been realized in a series of carbonyl complexes derived from a variety of designed ligands and smart choice of ligand/coligand combinations. Several principles have emerged from our systematic approach to the design of principal ligands and the choice of auxiliary ligands (in addition to the number of CO) in synthesizing these photoCORMs. In each case, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) study afforded insight into the dependence of the CO photorelease from a particular photoCORM on the wavelength of light. Results of these theoretical studies indicate that extended

  19. Introducing [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ(3)N)](+) as a novel photoactivatable CO-releasing molecule with well-defined iCORM intermediates - synthesis, spectroscopy, and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christoph; McLean, Samantha; Poole, Robert K; Braunschweig, Holger; Kramer, Thomas; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2014-07-14

    [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ(3)N)]Br was prepared as a novel photoactivatable CO-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM) from [MnBr(CO)5] and tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpa) for the delivery of carbon monoxide to biological systems, with the κ(3)N binding mode of the tetradentate tpa ligand demonstrated by X-ray crystallography. The title compound is a CORM prodrug stable in solution in the dark for up to 16 h. However, photoactivation at 365 nm leads to CO release from the metal coordination sphere and transfer to haem proteins, as demonstrated by the standard myoglobin assay. Different iCORM intermediates could be detected with solution IR spectroscopy and assigned using DFT vibrational calculations. The antibacterial activity of the complex was studied on Escherichia coli. No effects were observed when the cultures were either kept in the dark in the presence of PhotoCORM or illuminated in the absence of metal complex. However, photoactivation of [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ(3)N)]Br at 365 nm led to the appearance of the spectral signatures of CO-coordinated haems in the terminal oxidases of the bacterial electron transport chain in whole-cell UV/Vis absorption spectra. Significant internalization of the PhotoCORM was demonstrated by ICP-MS measurement of the intracellular manganese concentration. In particular when using medium with succinate as the sole carbon source, a very pronounced and concentration-dependent decrease in the E. coli growth rate could be observed upon illumination in the presence of metal complex, which is attributed to the constrained energy metabolism under these conditions and a strong indicator of terminal oxidase inhibition by carbon monoxide delivered from the PhotoCORM.

  20. The CORM ALF-186 Mediates Anti-Apoptotic Signaling via an Activation of the p38 MAPK after Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai B.; Meske, Alexander; Lagrèze, Wolf A.; Augustynik, Michael; Buerkle, Hartmut; Ramao, Carlos C.; Biermann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemia and reperfusion injury may induce apoptosis and lead to sustained tissue damage and loss of function, especially in neuronal organs. While carbon monoxide is known to exert protective effects after various harmful events, the mechanism of carbon monoxide releasing molecules in neuronal tissue has not been investigated yet. We hypothesize that the carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186, administered after neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), counteracts retinal apoptosis and its involved signaling pathways and consecutively reduces neuronal tissue damage. Methods IRI was performed in rat´s retinae for 1 hour. The water-soluble CORM ALF-186 (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via a tail vein after reperfusion. After 24 and 48 hours, retinal tissue was harvested to analyze mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. Densities of fluorogold pre-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGC) were analyzed 7 days after IRI. Immunohistochemistry was performed on retinal cross sections. Results ALF-186 significantly reduced IRI mediated loss of RGC. ALF-186 treatment differentially affected mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation: ALF-186 activated p38 and suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while JNK remained unchanged. Furthermore, ALF-186 treatment affected mitochondrial apoptosis, decreasing pro-apoptotic Bax and Caspase-3-cleavage, but increasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Inhibition of p38-MAPK using SB203580 reduced ALF-186 mediated anti-apoptotic effects. Conclusion In this study, ALF-186 mediated substantial neuroprotection, affecting intracellular apoptotic signaling, mainly via MAPK p38. CORMs may thus represent a promising therapeutic alternative treating neuronal IRI. PMID:27764224

  1. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis: Increase of Neuronal Differentiation Yield by Preventing Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell line, human teratocarcinoma NT2 cell line and organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). Cell lines were differentiated into post-mitotic neurons by treatment with retinoic acid (RA) supplemented with CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1). CORM-A1 positively modulated neuronal differentiation, since it increased final neuronal production and enhanced the expression of specific neuronal genes: Nestin, Tuj1 and MAP2. Furthermore, during neuronal differentiation process, there was an increase in proliferative cell number (ki67 mRNA expressing cells) and a decrease in cell death (lower propidium iodide (PI) uptake, limitation of caspase-3 activation and higher Bcl-2 expressing cells). CO supplementation did not increase the expression of RA receptors. In the case of SH-S5Y5 model, small amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation emerges as important signaling molecules during CO-promoted neuronal differentiation. CO's improvement of neuronal differentiation yield was validated using OHSC as ex vivo model. CORM-A1 treatment of OHSC promoted higher levels of cells expressing the neuronal marker Tuj1. Still, CORM-A1 increased cell proliferation assessed by ki67 expression and also prevented cell death, which was followed by increased Bcl-2 expression, decreased levels of active caspase-3 and PI uptake. Likewise, ROS signaling emerged as key factors in CO

  2. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively.

  3. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    PubMed

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  4. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  5. Synthesis and solution stability of water-soluble κ(2)N,κO-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)ethanol manganese(i) tricarbonyl bromide (CORM-ONN1).

    PubMed

    Mede, Ralf; Traber, Juliane; Klein, Moritz; Görls, Helmar; Gessner, Guido; Hoffmann, Patrick; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Heinemann, Stefan H; Neugebauer, Ute; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2017-01-31

    The reaction of (OC)5MnBr with bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)methane yields [{(Pz(Me2))2CH2}Mn(CO)3Br] (1). The use of tridentate heteroscorpionates such as bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)acetic acid and 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)ethanol leads to the formation of mononuclear [(OC)3Mn{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CO2}] (2) and [(OC)3Mn{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CH2OH}]Br (3, CORM-ONN1). Salt-like photoCORM 3 is soluble in aqueous media up to a concentration of 200 μM, non-toxic up to an approx. 65 μM solution and releases all carbonyl ligands upon irradiation. The molecular complexes 1 and 2 are insoluble in aqueous solutions. CORM-ONN1 (3) slowly degrades in methanol yielding iCORM 4, consisting of the complex cation [{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CH2OH}{(Pz(Me2))2CH-CH2O}Mn](+) and the [Mn(CO)5](-) counter anion with the cations linked to a dimeric unit by intermolecular hydrogen bridges between the alcohol and alkoxide functionalities.

  6. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO)

    PubMed Central

    Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Surmiak, Marcin; Adamski, Juliusz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Pajdo, Robert; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g.)), RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g.), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)), hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g.) and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p.), indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p.), SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g.), and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g.) affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). Gastric blood flow (GBF), the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO) contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g.) and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g.) significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO. PMID:27023525

  7. Detecting a dexmedetomidine-evoked reduction of noradrenaline release in the human brain with the alpha2C-adrenoceptor PET ligand [11C]ORM-13070.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Jussi; Scheinin, Annalotta; Johansson, Jarkko; Marjamäki, Päivi; Arponen, Eveliina; Scheinin, Harry; Scheinin, Mika

    2016-02-01

    PET imaging can for some neurotransmitters be used to measure synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations. The objective of this study was to test whether the receptor binding of the α2C -AR antagonist PET tracer [(11)C]ORM-13070 would increase in response to reductions in synaptic noradrenaline, evoked by dexmedetomidine as a sympatholytic drug challenge. Six subjects underwent a control PET scan and two dexmedetomidine PET scans. Dexmedetomidine was infused with target plasma concentrations of 0.6 and 0.2 ng/ml. Tracer binding was measured by voxel-based analysis of bound per free (B/F) images. ROI-based analysis was performed in the dorsal striatum and in the thalamus. Vital signs and drug concentrations in plasma were measured and the sedative effect was estimated with the visual analog scale. In the voxel-based analysis, dexmedetomidine administration was associated with a tendency to increased B/F tracer in the right thalamus (mean, +17%, P = 0.14, and +19%, P = 0.05, with the low and high dose, respectively). Tracer binding in the dorsal striatum was unaffected by dexmedetomidine. A cluster with significantly increased B/F tracer (+42%, P = 0.01) was seen in the right superior temporal gyrus with low-dose dexmedetomidine, but not after the high dose. Brain uptake of [(11)C]ORM-13070 has previously been shown to be reduced in conditions of increased synaptic noradrenaline concentrations. In this study, tracer binding in the thalamus tended to increase in accordance with reduced activity of noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus, but statistical significance was not reached.

  8. Molecular phylogeny, diversity, community structure, and plant growth promoting properties of fungal endophytes associated with the corms of saffron plant: An insight into the microbiome of Crocus sativus Linn.

    PubMed

    Wani, Zahoor Ahmed; Mirza, Dania Nazir; Arora, Palak; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-12-01

    A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs). Some endophytes were found to possess antimicrobial properties that could be helpful for the host in evading the pathogens. These endophytes generally produced significant quantities of indole acetic acid (IAA) as well. However, thirteen of the endophytic taxa were found to cause corm rot in the host with different levels of severity under in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. This is the first report of community structure and biological properties of fungal endophytes associated with C. sativus, which may eventually help us to develop agro-technologies, based on plant-endophyte interactions for sustainable cultivation of saffron. The endophytes preserved ex situ, in this study, may also yield bioactive natural products for pharmacological and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New modular manganese(I) tricarbonyl complexes as PhotoCORMs: in vitro detection of photoinduced carbon monoxide release using COP-1 as a fluorogenic switch-on probe.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sandesh; Hafftlang, Maryam; Atongo, George; Nagel, Christoph; Niesel, Johanna; Botov, Svetlana; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Yard, Benito; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2014-06-21

    Five manganese(i) tricarbonyl complexes of the general formulae [Mn(bpea(N=CHC6H4R))(CO)3]PF6 and [Mn(bpea(NHCH2C6H4R))(CO)3]PF6 based on the tridentate bis(pyrazolyl)ethylamine (bpea) ligand, each containing a pendant 4-substituted phenyl group with R = H, I, and C≡C-H, were synthesized and fully characterized, including X-ray structure analysis for three compounds. All complexes are stable in the dark in aqueous buffer for an extended period of time. However, CO-release could be triggered by illumination at 365 nm, establishing these compounds as novel photoactivatable CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs). The influence of the imine vs. amine group in the ligands on the electronic structure and the photophysical behavior was investigated with the aid of DFT and TDDFT calculations. Solution IR studies on selected compounds allowed identification of intermediates resulting from the photoreaction. Finally, light-induced CO release from a model compound was demonstrated both in PBS buffer and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using COP-1 as a fluorescent switch-on probe.

  10. Characterization of a versatile organometallic pro-drug (CORM) for experimental CO based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, João D.; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Otterbein, Leo E; Gallo, David J.; Rodrigues, Sandra S.; Guerreiro, Bruno H.; Gonçalves, Ana M. L.; Penacho, Nuno; Marques, Ana R.; Coelho, Ana C.; Reis, Patrícia M.; Romão, Maria J.; Romão, Carlos C.

    2013-01-01

    The complex fac-[Mo(CO)3(histidinate)]Na has been reported to be an effective CO− Releasing Molecule in vivo, eliciting therapeutic effects in several animal models of disease. The CO releasing profile of this complex in different settings both in vitro and in vivo reveals that the compound can readily liberate all of its three CO equivalents under biological conditions. The compound has low toxicity and cytoxicity and is not hemolytic. CO release is accompanied by a decrease in arterial blood pressure following administration in vivo. We studied its behavior in solution and upon the interaction with proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to air and polyoxomolybdate formation in soaks with lysozyme crystals were observed as processes ensuing from the decomposition of the complex and the release of CO. PMID:23223860

  11. CO and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) in acute gastrointestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D; Motterlini, R; Lefebvre, R A

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is enzymatically generated in mammalian cells alongside the liberation of iron and the production of biliverdin and bilirubin. This occurs during the degradation of haem by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, a class of ubiquitous proteins consisting of constitutive and inducible isoforms. The constitutive HO2 is present in the gastrointestinal tract in neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal and CO released from these cells might contribute to intestinal inhibitory neurotransmission and/or to the control of intestinal smooth muscle cell membrane potential. On the other hand, increased expression of the inducible HO1 is now recognized as a beneficial response to oxidative stress and inflammation. Among the products of haem metabolism, CO appears to contribute primarily to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the HO1 pathway explaining the studies conducted to exploit CO as a possible therapeutic agent. This article reviews the effects and, as far as known today, the mechanism(s) of action of CO administered either as CO gas or via CO-releasing molecules in acute gastrointestinal inflammation. We provide here a comprehensive overview on the effect of CO in experimental in vivo models of post-operative ileus, intestinal injury during sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. In addition, we will analyse the in vitro data obtained so far on the effect of CO on intestinal epithelial cell lines exposed to cytokines, considering the important role of the intestinal mucosa in the pathology of gastrointestinal inflammation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24641722

  12. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    PubMed

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of the Manganese Photoactivated Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+ Against a Pathogenic Escherichia coli that Causes Urinary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Rana, Namrata; Nagel, Christoph; Jesse, Helen E.; Smith, Thomas W.; Wareham, Lauren K.; Hippler, Michael; Schatzschneider, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We set out to investigate the antibacterial activity of a new Mn-based photoactivated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM, [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]+) against an antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic strain (EC958) of Escherichia coli. Results: Activated PhotoCORM inhibits growth and decreases viability of E. coli EC958, but non-illuminated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM) is without effect. NADH-supported respiration rates are significantly decreased by activated PhotoCORM, mimicking the effect of dissolved CO gas. CO from the PhotoCORM binds to intracellular targets, namely respiratory oxidases in strain EC958 and a bacterial globin heterologously expressed in strain K-12. However, unlike previously characterized CORMs, the PhotoCORM is not significantly accumulated in cells, as deduced from the cellular manganese content. Activated PhotoCORM reacts avidly with hydrogen peroxide producing hydroxyl radicals; the observed peroxide-enhanced toxicity of the PhotoCORM is ameliorated by thiourea. The PhotoCORM also potentiates the effect of the antibiotic, doxycycline. Innovation: The present work investigates for the first time the antimicrobial activity of a light-activated PhotoCORM against an antibiotic-resistant pathogen. A comprehensive study of the effects of the PhotoCORM and its derivative molecules upon illumination is performed and mechanisms of toxicity of the activated PhotoCORM are investigated. Conclusion: The PhotoCORM allows a site-specific and time-controlled release of CO in bacterial cultures and has the potential to provide much needed information on the generality of CORM activities in biology. Understanding the mechanism(s) of activated PhotoCORM toxicity will be key in exploring the potential of this and similar compounds as antimicrobial agents, perhaps in combinatorial therapies with other agents. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 765–780. PMID:26842766

  14. [Toxicology and tissue distribution of Ruthenium (II) CO-releasing molecules and its interaction with endogenous substances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-peng; Liu, Hua-peng; Zhao, Quan-yi; Chen, Yong-lin; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Bao-ping; Zheng, Qian

    2013-11-01

    Carbon monoxide has been proved to be an important signal molecule in body. Transition metal carbonyl compounds are solidified form of carbon monoxide. Numerous studies have shown that Ruthenium carbonyl carbon monoxide releasing molecules have a strong pharmacological activity. In this paper, five Ruthenium (II) carbonyl CORMs 1-5 were synthesized and their toxicology, tissue distribution and interaction with blood endogenous substances were investigated. The results showed CORMs' IC50 to fibroblasts are ranged from 212.9 to 2089.2 micromol x L(-1). Their oral LD50 to mouse is between 800 to 1600 mg x kg(-1). After repeated administration, CORMs 1 and CORMs 5 haven't shown an obvious influence to rats' liver and kidney function, but caused the injury to liver and kidney cells. The in vivo distribution result revealed the majority of CORMs were distributed in blood, liver and kidney, only a small part of CORMs distributed in lung, heart and spleen. They could scarcely cross the blood-brain barrier and distribute to brain. The non-CO ligands in structure have an obvious relevance to their in vivo absorption and distribution. Interestingly, CORMs could enhance the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin, and this enhancement was in direct proportion with the concentration of CORMs. Under different conditions, interaction of CORMs with glutathione got different type of products, one is Ruthenium (II) tricarbonyl complexes, and Ruthenium (II) dicarbonyl complexes.

  15. The Bactericidal Activity of Carbon Monoxide–Releasing Molecules against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Ana F.; Parente, Margarida R.; Justino, Marta C.; Oleastro, Mónica; Nobre, Lígia S.; Saraiva, Lígia M.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that establishes long life infections responsible for chronic gastric ulcer diseases and a proved risk factor for gastric carcinoma. The therapeutic properties of carbon-monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) led us to investigate their effect on H. pylori. We show that H. pylori 26695 is susceptible to two widely used CORMs, namely CORM-2 and CORM-3. Also, several H. pylori clinical isolates were killed by CORM-2, including those resistant to metronidazole. Moreover, sub-lethal doses of CORM-2 combined with metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin was found to potentiate the effect of the antibiotics. We further demonstrate that the mechanisms underpinning the antimicrobial effect of CORMs involve the inhibition of H. pylori respiration and urease activity. In vivo studies done in key cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, showed that CORM-2, either alone or when combined with metronidazole, strongly reduces the ability of H. pylori to infect animal cells. Hence, CORMs have the potential to kill antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. PMID:24386154

  16. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease.

  17. Carbon monoxide improves cardiac function and mitochondrial population quality in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg x kg(-1)), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3-treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Improves Cardiac Function and Mitochondrial Population Quality in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Aims Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Methods and Results Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg.kg−1), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3–treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. Conclusion CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22870253

  19. Examining the antimicrobial activity and toxicity to animal cells of different types of CO-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Lígia S; Jeremias, Hélia; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-01-28

    Transition metal carbonyl complexes used as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) for biological and therapeutic applications may exhibit interesting antimicrobial activity. However, understanding the chemical traits and mechanisms of action that rule this activity is required to establish a rationale for the development of CORMs into useful antibiotics. In this work the bactericidal activity, the toxicity to eukaryotic cells, and the ability of CORMs to deliver CO to bacterial and eukaryotic cells were analysed for a set of seven CORMs that differ in the transition metal, ancillary ligands and the CO release profile. Most of these CORMs exhibited bactericidal properties that decrease in the following order: CORM-2 > CORM-3 > ALF062 > ALF850 > ALF186 > ALF153 > [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](BF4)2. A similar yet not entirely coincident decreasing order was found for their induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli. In contrast, studies in model animal cells showed that for any given CORM, the level of intracellular ROS generated was negligible when compared with that measured inside bacteria. Importantly, these CORMs were in general not toxic to eukaryotic cells, namely murine macrophages, kidney LLC-PK1 epithelial cells, and liver cell line HepG2. CORM-2 and CORM-3 delivered CO to the intracellular space of both E. coli and the two types of tested eukaryotic cells, yet toxicity was only elicited in the case of E. coli. CO delivered by ALF186 into the intercellular space did not enter E. coli cells and the compound was not toxic to either bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. The Fe(ii) carbonyl complex [Fe(SBPy3)(CO)](2+) had the reverse, undesirable toxicity profile, being unexpectedly toxic to eukaryotic cells and non-toxic to E. coli. ALF153, the most stable complex in the whole set, was essentially devoid of toxicity or ROS induction ability in all cells. These results suggest that CORMs have a relevant therapeutic potential as antimicrobial drugs since (i) they

  20. Effects of Ru(CO)3Cl-glycinate on the developmental toxicities induced by X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rong; Song, Jing'e; Si, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Gan, Lu; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yupei; Yan, Junfang; Zhang, Qianjing

    The inhibitory effects of carbon monoxide (CO), generated by Ru(CO)3Cl-glycinate [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3)], on developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos induced by ionizing radiation with different linear energy transfer (LET) were studied. Zebrafish embryos at 5h post-fertilization were irradiated with X-ray (low-LET) and carbon-ion (high-LET) with or without pretreatment of CORM-3 1h before irradiation. CORM-3 pre-treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect on X-ray irradiation-induced developmental toxicity, but had little effect on carbon-ion irradiation-induced developmental toxicity. X-ray irradiation-induced significant increase in ROS levels and cell apoptosis could be modified by CORM-3 pretreatment. However, embryos exposed to carbon-ion irradiation showed significantly increase of cell apoptosis without obvious ROS generation, which could not be attenuated by CORM-3 pretreatment. CORM-3 could inhibit apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation with low-LET as an effective ROS scavenger. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes increased significantly after X-ray irradiation, but increased expression was reduced markedly when CORM-3 was applied before irradiation. Moreover, the protein levels of P53 and γ-H2AX increased markedly after X-ray irradiation, which could be modified by the presence of CORM-3. The protective effect of CORM-3 on X-ray irradiation occurred mainly by suppressing ROS generation and DNA damage, and thus inhibiting the activation of P53 and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, leading to the attenuation of cell apoptosis and consequently alleviating X-ray irradiation-induced developmental toxicity at lethal and sub-lethal levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Tight-Junction Damage and Mortality in Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qiankun; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Shoutao; Wang, Guozheng; Ji, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Objective Damage to intestinal epithelial tight junctions plays an important role in sepsis. Recently we found that Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2) is able to protect LPS-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage and in this study we will investigate if CORM-2 could protect intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Materials and Methods The CLP model was generated using male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats according to standard procedure and treated with CORM-2 or inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2), 8 mg/kg, i.v. immediately after CLP induction and euthanized after 24h or 72h (for mortality rate only). Morphological changes were investigated using both transmission electron and confocal microscopy. The levels of important TJ proteins and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were examined using Western blotting. Cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kits. The overall intestinal epithelial permeability was evaluated using FD-4 as a marker. Results CORM-2, but not iCORM-2, significantly reduced sepsis-induced damage of intestinal mucosa (including TJ disruption), TJ protein reduction (including zonula occludens-l (ZO-1), claudin-1 and occludin), MLC phosphorylation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The overall outcomes showed that CORM-2 suppressed sepsis-induced intestinal epithelial permeability changes and reduced mortality rate of those septic rats. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic reagent for sepsis by suppressing inflammation, restoring intestinal epithelial barrier and reducing mortality. PMID:26720630

  2. Toxicity of botanical insecticides on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    PubMed

    Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

    2010-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of crude extracts from five highly potential plants, Annona squamosa seed, Nerium indicum Leaves, Stemona tuberose root, Cyperus rotundus corm and Derris elliptica root was assessed to Pomacea canaliculata. D. elliptica root and C. rotundus corm extracts showed the highest toxicity against 3-month old snails which have LC50 as 23.68 +/- 2.96 mg/l and 133.20 +/- 7.94 mg/l, respectively. The C. rotundus corm extracts were chosen for detoxification enzyme in vivo assay which shows esterase and glutathione S-transferase activity in stomach, intestinal tracts and digestive glands of survival treated P. canaliculata were inhibited.

  3. CO-releasing Metal Carbonyl Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents in the Post-antibiotic Era*

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Lauren K.; Poole, Robert K.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of a “post-antibiotic era” in the 21st century, in which common infections may kill, has prompted research into radically new antimicrobials. CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), mostly metal carbonyl compounds, originally developed for therapeutic CO delivery in animals, are potent antimicrobial agents. Certain CORMs inhibit growth and respiration, reduce viability, and release CO to intracellular hemes, as predicted, but their actions are more complex, as revealed by transcriptomic datasets and modeling. Progress is hindered by difficulties in detecting CO release intracellularly, limited understanding of the biological chemistry of CO reactions with non-heme targets, and the cytotoxicity of some CORMs to mammalian cells. PMID:26055702

  4. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica... 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01 (b...

  5. Chapter II. Taxonomy and Phylogeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book chapter presents a review of the taxonomic distribution of ornamental geophytic plants (bulbs, tubers, corms, rhizomes) and the modern classification of the families within which they belong....

  6. 40 CFR 180.482 - Tebufenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../05 Sweet potato, roots 0.25 12/31/05 (c) Tolerances with regional registrations. (d) Indirect or..., roots 0.3 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0...

  7. A role for reactive oxygen species in the antibacterial properties of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana Filipa N; Nobre, Lígia S; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are, in general, transition metal carbonyl complexes that liberate controlled amounts of CO. In animal models, CO-RMs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischaemia, inflammation and vascular dysfunction, and to provide a protective effect in organ transplantation. Moreover, CO-RMs are bactericides that kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Herein are reviewed the microbial genetic and biochemical responses associated with CO-RM-mediated cell death. Particular emphasis is given to the data revealing that CO-RMs induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to the antibacterial activity of these compounds.

  8. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  9. Physiological activities of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules: Ca ira.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, P K

    2007-04-01

    In this issue of British Journal of Pharmacology, Megías and colleagues demonstrate how preincubation of human colonic Caco-2 cells with CORM-2, a carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CO-RM), reduces the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 caused by proinflammatory cytokines. A role for IL-6 in the regulation of metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 expression by CORM-2 is described. However, it is the demonstration that CORM-2 inhibits MMP-7 or matrilysin expression, which is most intriguing as this small MMP has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Thus, CO-RMs appear to now possess chemoprotective properties and, in this particular case, may influence inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis via modulation of nuclear factors participating in the transcription of genes implicated in the development of intestinal inflammation and cancer. This report opens yet another door for research involving these exciting molecules and it is now clear that further discoveries of the beneficial properties of CO-RMs will go on.

  10. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    PubMed

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 on saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. SUBTILIS FZB24(R). Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12 %. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required.

  11. Incorporation of photo-carbon monoxide releasing materials into electrospun scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Michael, Eden; Abeyrathna, Nawodi; Patel, Aatish V; Liao, Yi; Bashur, Chris A

    2016-03-23

    Hyper-proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and a reduction in endothelial cell function are reasons for poor patency rates of current tissue engineered small-diameter vascular grafts. The controlled delivery of carbon monoxide (CO), a gasotransmitter involved in cell signaling, could improve vascular cell function in these grafts. Current CO releasing molecules (CORMs) can improve endothelialization of injured vessels with appropriate doses, but they still have limitations. The goal of this project was to generate a novel tissue engineered scaffold that includes a non-toxic and photoactivatable CORM. This is the first use of a CORM for tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that CORM-loaded, electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds can be photo-activated and release CO. The fluorescence that develops after CO release can be used to non-destructively track the extent of reaction. Further, activation can occur when both dry and incubated in cell culture conditions. However, incubation in serum protein-containing media decreases the time frame for activation, demonstrating the importance of testing the release profile in culture conditions. Rat SMCs were able to attach, grow, and express contractile SMC markers on activated CORM-loaded meshes and controls. Overall, these findings demonstrate that CORM-loaded electrospun scaffolds provide a promising delivery system for vascular tissue engineering.

  12. Dual effects of carbon monoxide on pericytes and neurogenesis in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Maki, Takakuni; Mandeville, Emiri T; Koh, Seong-Ho; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Arai, Ken; Kim, Young-Myeong; Whalen, Michael J; Xing, Changhong; Wang, Xiaoying; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lo, Eng H

    2016-11-01

    At low levels, carbon monoxide (CO) has physiological roles as a second messenger and neuromodulator. Here we assess the effects of CO in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Treatment with CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 reduced pericyte death and ameliorated the progression of neurological deficits. In contrast, although treatment with the radical scavenger N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (PBN) also reduced pericyte death, neurological outcomes were not rescued. As compared to vehicle-treated control and PBN-treated mice, CORM-3-treated mice showed higher levels of phosphorylated neural nitric oxide synthase within neural stem cells (NSCs). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase diminished the CORM-3-mediated increase in the number of cells that stained positive for both the neuronal marker NeuN and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU; a marker for proliferating cells) in vivo, consequently interfering with neurological recovery after TBI. Because NSCs seemed to be in close proximity to pericytes, we asked whether cross-talk between pericytes and NSCs was induced by CORM-3, thereby promoting neurogenesis. In pericyte cultures that were undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation, conditioned cell culture medium collected after CORM-3 treatment enhanced the in vitro differentiation of NSCs into mature neurons. Taken together, these findings suggest that CO treatment may provide a therapeutic approach for TBI by preventing pericyte death, rescuing cross-talk with NSCs and promoting neurogenesis.

  13. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA).

    PubMed

    Gold, C S; Ragama, P E; Coe, R; Rukazambuga, N D T M

    2005-04-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is an important pest on bananas and plantains. Population build-up is slow and damage becomes increasingly important in successive crop cycles (ratoons). Yield loss results from plant loss, mat disappearance and reduced bunch size. Damage assessment requires destructive sampling and is most often done on corms of recently harvested plants. A wide range of damage assessment methods exist and there are no agreed protocols. It is critical to know what types of damage best reflect C. sordidus pest status through their relationships with yield loss. Multiple damage assessment parameters (i.e. for the corm periphery, cortex and central cylinder) were employed in two yield loss trials and a cultivar-screening trial in Uganda. Damage to the central cylinder had a greater effect on plant size and yield loss than damage to the cortex or corm periphery. In some cases, a combined assessment of damage to the central cylinder and cortex showed a better relationship with yield loss than an assessment of the central cylinder alone. Correlation, logistic and linear regression analyses showed weak to modest correlations between damage to the corm periphery and damage to the central cylinder. Thus, damage to the corm periphery is not a strong predictor of the more important damage to the central cylinder. Therefore, C. sordidus damage assessment should target the central cylinder and cortex.

  14. Exogenous carbon monoxide inhibits neutrophil infiltration in LPS-induced sepsis by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Yisen; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration in vital organs is life-threatening to patients who suffer from sepsis. We identified a critical role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. CO delivered from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) dramatically increased the survival rate of C57BL/6 mice subjected to LPS in vivo. CORM-2 significantly suppressed neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung as well as markers of inflammatory responses. Affymetrix GeneChip array analysis revealed that the increased expression of chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) may contribute to the excessive neutrophil infiltration. The under agarose migration assay demonstrated that LPS stimulation promoted migration to the ligand of FPR1, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) but that CORM-2 treatment inhibited this promotion. Further studies demonstrated that CORM-2 internalized FPR1 by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which may explain the inhibitory effect of CORM-2 on LPS-stimulated neutrophils. In summary, our study demonstrates that exogenous CO inhibits sepsis-induced neutrophil infiltration by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2. PMID:27144520

  15. Stabilizing Alginate Confinement and Polymer Coating of CO-Releasing Molecules Supported on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles To Trigger the CO Release by Magnetic Heating.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hajo; Winkler, Felix; Kunz, Peter; Schmidt, Annette M; Hamacher, Alexandra; Kassack, Matthias U; Janiak, Christoph

    2015-12-07

    Maghemite (Fe2O3) iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized, modified with covalent surface-bound CO-releasing molecules of a tri(carbonyl)-chlorido-phenylalaninato-ruthenium(II) complex (CORM), and coated with a dextran polymer. The time- and temperature-dependent CO release from this CORM-3 analogue was followed by a myoglobin assay. A new measurement method for the myoglobin assay was developed, based on confining "water-soluble" polymer-coated Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles in hollow spheres of nontoxic and easily prepared calcium alginate. Dropping a mixture of Dextran500k@CORM@IONP and sodium alginate into a CaCl2 solution leads to stable hollow spheres of Ca(2+) cross-linked alginate which contain the Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles. This "alginate-method" (i) protects CORM-3 analogues from rapid CO-displacement reactions with a protein, (ii) enables a spatial separation of the CORM from its surrounding myoglobin assay with the alginate acting as a CO-permeable membrane, and (iii) allows the use of substances with high absorptivity (such as iron oxide nanoparticles) in the myoglobin assay without interference in the optical path of the UV cell. Embedding the CORM@IONP nanoparticles in the alginate vessel represents a compartmentation of the reactive component and allows for close contact with, yet facile separation from, the surrounding myoglobin assay. The half-life of the CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles surrounded by alginate was determined to be 890 ± 70 min at 20 °C. An acceleration of the CO release occurs at higher temperature with a half-life of 172 ± 27 min at 37 °C and 45 ± 7 min at 50 °C. The CO release can be triggered in an alternating current magnetic field (31.7 kA m(-1), 247 kHz, 39.9 mT) through local magnetic heating of the susceptible iron oxide nanoparticles. With magnetic heating at 20 °C in the bulk solution, the half-life of CO release from Dextran500k@CORM@IONP particles decreased to 155 ± 18 min

  16. Regulatory effect and mechanisms of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule II on hepatic energy metabolism in septic mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feng; Cao, Jie; Qin, Wei-Ting; Wang, Xu; Qiu, Xue-Feng; Sun, Bing-Wei

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanisms of exogenous carbon monoxide-releasing molecule II (CORM-2) intervention on hepatic energy metabolism in experimental sepsis. METHODS: Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): sham group; cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) group; CLP + CORM-2 group and CLP + iCORM-2 (inactive CORM-2) group. Survival rates were determined after 72 h. Twenty-four similarly treated mice (n = 6 in each group) were assayed for post-operative continuous blood glucose in the first 36 h. Thirty-six similarly treated mice (n = 9 in each group) underwent micro-positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after tail vein injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) 24 h after operation. Plasma and liver specimens were collected for assay of liver pathology, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities. Hepatic glucokinase activity, lactic acid levels and mitochondrial swelling were also determined. RESULTS: Improved survival was observed in CORM-2 treated mice. Both the CLP and CLP + CORM-2 groups had sustained low blood glucose levels within the first post-operative 36 h. 18F-FDG micro-PET images showed abnormally high levels of hepatic glucose metabolism (standardized uptake value) in the CLP group (2.76 ± 0.39 vs 0.84 ± 0.14, P < 0.01), which declined to normal levels after CORM-2 intervention (1.29 ± 0.32 vs 2.76 ± 0.39, P < 0.05). glucokinase activity was markedly increased in the CLP group (6.38 ± 0.56 U/g vs 4.60 ± 0.21 U/g, P < 0.01), but was normal after CORM-2 intervention (4.74 ± 0.14 U/g vs 6.38 ± 0.56 U/g, P < 0.05). CORM-2 suppressed plasma lactic acid levels (4.02 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs 7.72 ± 2.37 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and protected hepatic mitochondria in CLP mice. CORM-2 intervention also reduced elevated plasma AST (199.67 ± 11.08 U/L vs 379.67 ± 16.34 U/L, P < 0.05) and ALT (63.67 ± 12.23 U/L vs 112.67 ± 9.74 U/L, P < 0.05) activities in CLP mice. CONCLUSION: The release

  17. Reactivity of 17 e- complex [Re(II)Br4(CO)2]2- with bridging aromatic ligands. Characterization and CO-releasing properties.

    PubMed

    Zobi, Fabio; Blacque, Olivier

    2011-05-14

    Carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are a newly emerging class of compounds of pharmacological interest. Among the transition metal-based CO-RMs, 17-electron complexes of general formula cis-trans-[Re(II)(CO)(2)Br(2)L(2)] are promising candidates but their poor hydrophilicity hampers future applications. In an effort to increase water solubility of d(5) dicarbonyl rhenium CO-RMs, the reaction of the cis-[Re(II)(CO)(2)Br(4)](2-) anion with bridging aromatic ligands of the pyridine and diazine type was investigated. Mononuclear and binuclear complexes are presented and it is shown that the nature of the bridging ligand critically dictates the formation of either species. Most complexes retained their fundamental CO-releasing properties. The synthesis of the molecules together with structural, spectroscopic and theoretical details are discussed.

  18. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

  19. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 enhances coagulation in rabbit plasma and decreases bleeding time in clopidogrel/aspirin-treated rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Chawla, Nikhil; Mangla, Dipty; Gomes, Sheldon B; Arkebauer, Matthew R; Wasko, Kimberly A; Sadacharam, Kesavan; Vosseller, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Administration of carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide-releasing molecules has been demonstrated to enhance coagulation in vitro at small concentrations (100-200 μmol/l) in human and rabbit plasma. We sought to determine if carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 [tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer, CORM-2] would improve coagulation in rabbit plasma in vitro via thrombelastography and in an in vivo preclinical rabbit model of ear bleeding time following administration of clopidogrel (20 mg/kg) with aspirin (10 mg/kg) via gavage. Addition of 100 μmol/l CORM-2 to rabbit plasma significantly improved coagulation. This procoagulant effect was blocked by pre-exposure of plasma to an agent that converts hemefibrinogen to methemefibrinogen in human plasma, preventing carbon monoxide binding and enhancement of coagulation. Rabbit ear bleeding time was 5.8 ± 1.1 min 2-3 h after clopidogrel/aspirin administration. Bleeding time significantly decreased to 2.6 ± 0.6 min, 5 min after administration of CORM-2 (10 mg/kg; 279 μmol/l 'best-case' instantaneous concentration) intravenously. CORM-2 enhances plasmatic coagulation in a manner similar to that of human plasma in vitro, and plasmatic coagulation is enhanced in vivo by CORM-2 as well. Additional preclinical investigation of the effects of CORM-2 on coagulopathy (e.g. heparin or hemodilution mediated) utilizing this rabbit model is planned.

  20. Management of Cosmopolites sordidus and Metamasius hemipterus in banana by pheromone-based mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Alpizar, D; Fallas, M; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M

    2012-03-01

    Mass trapping Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-baited pitfall trap and Metamasius hemipterus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) using a pheromone-sugarcane-baited open gallon trap was conducted in commercial banana. Four traps for each insect per hectare were placed in each of two 5-hectare plots of banana. Two additional 5-hectare plots were designated as controls and treated according to the plantation protocol. Capture rates of C. sordidus and M. hemipterus declined by >75 % over 10-12 months. In the banana growing region studied, corm damage was due primarily to C. sordidus, while only a minor amount of damage was attributable to M. hemipterus. Corm damage reduction in trapping plots was, thus, attributed primarily to C. sordidus trapping. In trapping plots, corm damage decreased by 61-64 % during the experiment. Banana bunch weights increased 23 % relative to control plots after 11-12 months of trapping. Fruit diameter did not vary between bunches harvested from trapping plots vs. control plots. Plant vigor, however, as determined by stem circumference at one meter above ground increased in plots with traps compared to control plots. Trapping for C. sordidus in two plantations of over 200 hectares each, reduced corm damage 62-86 % relative to pre-trapping levels. Insecticide control measures in place when the experiment commenced resulted in about 20-30 % corm damage, while use of pheromone trapping to manage C. sordidus lowered corm damage to 10 % or less. It is estimated that the increase in value of increased yield obtained in this trial (23 %) is about $4,240 USD per year per hectare, while the cost of pheromone trapping is approximately $185 USD per year per hectare. The trapping program becomes revenue neutral if bunch weights increase by an average of 1 % per year of trapping. Approximately 10 % of all plantation area in Costa Rica use the pheromone trapping system described here. The system also is used in Martinique

  1. Apical dominance in saffron and the involvement of the branching enzymes CCD7 and CCD8 in the control of bud sprouting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In saffron (Crocus sativus), new corms develop at the base of every shoot developed from the maternal corm, a globular underground storage stem. Since the degree of bud sprouts influences the number and size of new corms, and strigolactones (SLs) suppress growth of pre-formed axillary bud, it was considered appropriate to investigate SL involvement in physiology and molecular biology in saffron. We focused on two of the genes within the SL pathway, CCD7 and CCD8, encoding carotenoid cleavage enzymes required for the production of SLs. Results The CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 genes are the first ones isolated and characterized from a non-grass monocotyledonous plant. CsCCD7 and CsCCD8 expression showed some overlapping, although they were not identical. CsCCD8 was highly expressed in quiescent axillary buds and decapitation dramatically reduced its expression levels, suggesting its involvement in the suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed also the involvement of auxin, cytokinin and jasmonic acid on the sprouting of axillary buds from corms in which the apical bud was removed. In addition, CsCCD8 expression, but not CsCCD7, was higher in the newly developed vascular tissue of axillary buds compared to the vascular tissue of the apical bud. Conclusions We showed that production and transport of auxin in saffron corms could act synergistically with SLs to arrest the outgrowth of the axillary buds, similar to the control of above-ground shoot branching. In addition, jasmonic acid seems to play a prominent role in bud dormancy in saffron. While cytokinins from roots promote bud outgrowth. In addition the expression results of CsCCD8 suggest that SLs could positively regulate procambial activity and the development of new vascular tissues connecting leaves with the mother corm. PMID:24947472

  2. Determining the most effective traits to improve saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mahdi; Rahimi, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effective traits to improve saffron yield, a split plot design based on RBCD was done in Mashhad region in Iran for three years (2012-2014). The results showed that all traits except number of daughter corm, fresh weight of daughter corm and dry leaf weight had low general heritability. Results of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and genetic advance demonstrated that the majority of traits had a low diversity and the selection did not have any effect in improving the traits. As a result, the best way to increase saffron yield is improvement of farm management. It was also found that saffron yield had the highest phenotypic and genotypic correlations with fresh and dry weight of daughter corm and dry and fresh flower weight. Therefore, the efforts to improve these traits will increase saffron yield. According to the present study 5-Jun to 5-Jul was found to be the best sowing date for planting saffron. Also, the Mashhad and Torbat ecotypes were the best ecotypes in this study. Phenotypic and genotypic path analysis showed that in the first step three traits number of daughter corm, fresh flower weight and flower number and in the second step traits fresh weight of daughter corm, dry flower weight and dry leaf weight interred to the regression model and had the highest positive direct and indirect effects on saffron yield. Mainly, it can be derived that the implementation of correct farm management including appropriate sowing date, saffron ecotypes, proper density, bigger and higher quality saffron corm can play an important role in improving yield components and subsequently increasing saffron yield.

  3. Carbon monoxide in biology and microbiology: surprising roles for the "Detroit perfume".

    PubMed

    Davidge, Kelly S; Motterlini, Roberto; Mann, Brian E; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas with a reputation for being an anthropogenic poison; there is extensive documentation of the modes of human exposure, toxicokinetics, and health effects. However, CO is also generated endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) in mammals and microbes, and its extraordinary biological activities are now recognized and increasingly utilized in medicine and physiology. This review introduces recent advances in CO biology and chemistry and illustrates the exciting possibilities that exist for a deeper understanding of its biological consequences. However, the microbiological literature is scant and is currently restricted to: 1) CO-metabolizing bacteria, CO oxidation by CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and the CO-sensing mechanisms that enable CO oxidation; 2) the use of CO as a heme ligand in microbial biochemistry; and 3) very limited information on how microbes respond to CO toxicity. We demonstrate how our horizons in CO biology have been extended by intense research activity in recent years in mammalian and human physiology and biochemistry. CO is one of several "new" small gas molecules that are increasingly recognized for their profound and often beneficial biological activities, the others being nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The chemistry of CO and other heme ligands (oxygen, NO, H2S and cyanide) and the implications for biological interactions are briefly presented. An important advance in recent years has been the development of CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) for aiding experimental administration of CO as an alternative to the use of CO gas. The chemical principles of CO-RM design and mechanisms of CO release from CO-RMs (dissociation, association, reduction and oxidation, photolysis, and acidification) are reviewed and we present a survey of the most commonly used CO-RMs. Amongst the most important new applications of CO in mammalian physiology and medicine are its vasoactive properties and the

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Sevindik, Basar; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important species in Crocus genus because of its effective usage. It is not only a very expensive spice, but it has also a big ornamental plant potential. Crocus species are propagated by corm and seed, and male sterility is the most important problem of this species. Hence, somatic embryogenesis can be regarded as a strategic tool for the multiplication of saffron plants. In this chapter, the production of saffron corms via somatic embryogenesis is described.

  5. Beauty, bounty, and biodiversity: the story of California Indian’s relationship with edible native geophytes

    Treesearch

    M. Kat Anderson; Frank K.   Lake

    2016-01-01

    California supported a great diversity of plants with edible underground storage organs available to Indian tribes. Together, plant foods, fish and meat made up an indigenous diet that was well-rounded, diverse, and relatively secure. The edible underground parts possessed by these plants are classified as bulbs, corms, taproots, tubers and rhizomes, and when...

  6. Aspects of Carbon Monoxide in Form of CO-Releasing Molecules Used in Cancer Treatment: More Light on the Way

    PubMed Central

    Kourti, Malamati; Jiang, Wen G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has always been recognised as a toxic gas, due to its higher affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen. However, biological studies have revealed an intriguing role for CO as an endogenous signalling molecule, a gasotransmitter. CO is demonstrated to exert many cellular activities including anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. In animal studies, CO gas administration can prevent tissues from hypoxia or ischemic-reperfusion injury. As a result, there are a plethora of reports dealing with the biological applications of CO and CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) in inflammatory and vascular diseases. CORMs have already been tested as a therapeutic agent in clinical trials. More recently, an increased interest has been drawn to CO's potential use as an anticancer agent. In this review, we will aim to give an overview of the research focused on the role of CO and CORMs in different types of cancer and expand to the recent development of the next generation CORMs for clinical application in cancer treatment. PMID:28286606

  7. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... beet, garden beet, radish, and turnip 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 1No US..., hulls 0.50 Turnip, roots 0.1 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7, forage 1.5 Vegetable, foliage of...

  8. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beet, garden beet, radish, and turnip 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 1No US..., hulls 0.50 Turnip, roots 0.1 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7, forage 1.5 Vegetable, foliage of...

  9. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... beet, garden beet, radish, and turnip 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 1No US..., hulls 0.50 Turnip, roots 0.1 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7, forage 1.5 Vegetable, foliage of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.589 - Boscalid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... beet, garden beet, radish, and turnip 1.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 1No US..., hulls 0.50 Turnip, roots 0.1 Vegetable, foliage of legume, group 7, forage 1.5 Vegetable, foliage of...

  11. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... intended for seeding, potting, or transplanting non-bearing fruit and vegetable seedlings and as a foliar... crops, stone fruits, tomatoes, tree nuts, tropical fruits, field roses, forestry seedlings, lawns... Rhizoctonia and Fusarium as a dip for seedlings, transplants, plugs, tubers, bulbs, corms, cuttings and roots...

  12. 75 FR 16113 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... seedlings and as a foliar spray on asparagus, cole crops, bulb vegetables, berry crops, cucurbits, flowers... crops, silage crops, stone fruits, tomatoes, tree nuts, tropical fruits, field roses, forestry seedlings... as Rhizoctonia and Fusarium as a dip for seedlings, transplants, plugs, tubers, bulbs, corms...

  13. Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, CstNCED, isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxycarotenoids by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the critical step in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis in higher plants. ABA has been associated with dormancy and flower senescence, while also regulating plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses. An NCED gene, CstNCED, was cloned from Crocus sativus stigmas. The deduced amino acid sequence of the CstNCED protein shared high identity with other monocot NCEDs, and was closely related to the liliopsida enzymes. At the N-terminus of CstNCED a chloroplast transit peptide sequence is located. However, its expression in chloroplast-free tissues suggested localization in other plastid types. The relationship between expression of CstNCED and the endogenous ABA level was investigated in the stigma and corms, where it was developmentally regulated. The senescence of the unpollinated stigma is preceded by an increase in ABA levels and CstNCED expression. In corms, a correlation was observed between CstNCED expression and dormancy. Furthermore, CstNCED expression was correlated with the presence of zeaxanthin in the dormant corms. When detached C. sativus leaves and stigmas were water and salt stressed, increases in CstNCED mRNA were observed. The results provided evidence of the involvement of CstNCED in the regulation of ABA-associated processes such as flower senescence and corm dormancy in monocotyledonous saffron.

  14. First report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in Amaryllis in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ornamental flower bulbs (including true bulbs, bulbils, corms, tubers and rhizomes) are increasingly important floriculture crops. Amaryllis is a small genus of flowering bulbs, with two species. The South African native, Amaryllis belladonna, also known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady,...

  15. Comparison of Morphology and Physicochemical Properties of Starch Among 3 Arrowhead Varieties.

    PubMed

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Yunhong; Zhang, Yongji; Yu, Xurun; Xiong, Fei; Zhou, Rumei; Zhang, Yongtai

    2016-05-01

    Arrowhead (Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis) is a source of starch worldwide, but arrowhead starch has been rarely studied. In this work, starch was separated from arrowhead corm. The morphology and physicochemical properties of starch were then investigated and compared among 3 different arrowhead varieties (Purple-corm, Hongta, and Japanese). Results showed that starches from the 3 varieties similarly featured an oval shape containing a visible polarization cross, a CA -type crystalline structure, and an ordered structure in the external granule region. However, starch content, granule size, crystal characteristics, and pasting properties differed among the 3 varieties. Japanese arrowhead exhibited the highest starch content and degree of ordered structure in the external granule region, as well as onset, peak, and final gelatinization temperature. Purple-corm arrowhead starch demonstrated the highest amylose content and relative degree of crystallinity, smallest granule size, and lowest swelling power and solubility. Purple-corm arrowhead starch also showed the highest gelatinization enthalpy, as well as peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities. This starch further presented the lowest breakdown viscosity and degree of hydrolysis by HCl and porcine pancreatic α-amylase. These findings can provide useful references for arrowhead variety selection in food and nonfood industries. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. 40 CFR 180.458 - Clethodim; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide clethodim ((E)-(±)-2- imino]propyl]-5- -3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one... herbicide clethodim imino]propyl]-5- -3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one] and its metabolites containing the 5-(2..., tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 1.0 (3) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide...

  17. 40 CFR 180.556 - Pymetrozine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... Turnip, greens 0.25 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 0.2 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.1 Vegetable, leafy, execpt brassica, group 4 0.6 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.02 (b) Section 18...

  18. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances....05 Onion, green 4 Potato, wet peel 0.03 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.6 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01...

  19. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... the tolerance for this crop group in Sec. 180.628(a). The tolerance for shallot, fresh leaves was..., tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C from the table in paragraph (a); 0 iv. Remove the entries for shallot and... shallot, green leaves to the table in paragraph (d). The added and revised text read as follows: Sec....

  20. Registration of the Soft Red Winter Wheat Germplasm MD01W233-06-1 Resistant to Fusarium Head Blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MD01W233-06-1 (Reg. No., PI ) is a soft red winter wheat (SRWW) (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm line developed at the University of Maryland and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station in 2009. MD01W233-06-1 was selected from a cross of ‘McCormick’/ ‘Choptank’ made in 2001. McCorm...

  1. 77 FR 31356 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... of section 3(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA...: Fungicide/Ornamental bulb and corm uses. Contact: Erin Malone, (703) 347-0253, email address: malone.erin... ingredient: Ethephon. Proposed Classification/Use: Fungicide/Small Greenhouse Tomatoes. Contact: Dominic...

  2. Uncoupling charge movement from channel opening in voltage-gated potassium channels by ruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2011-05-06

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K(+)-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K(+)-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling.

  3. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Spearmint, tops 0.05 Squash, summer 0.1 Squash, winter 0.1 Sugarcane, cane 0.05 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.05 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.05 (b) Section...

  4. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., winter 0.1 Sugarcane, cane 0.05 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.05 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.05 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  5. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4 (2...

  6. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., winter 0.1 Sugarcane, cane 0.05 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.05 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.05 (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with...

  7. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spearmint, tops 0.05 Squash, summer 0.1 Squash, winter 0.1 Sugarcane, cane 0.05 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.05 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.05 (b) Section...

  8. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4 (2...

  9. 40 CFR 180.425 - Clomazone; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Spearmint, tops 0.05 Squash, summer 0.1 Squash, winter 0.1 Sugarcane, cane 0.05 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.05 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.05 (b) Section...

  10. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60..., root, subgroup 1A 0.5 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4 (2...

  11. Saffron: Its Phytochemistry, Developmental Processes, and Biotechnological Prospects.

    PubMed

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Nebauer, Sergio G; Molina, Rosa Victoria; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-10-14

    The present state of knowledge concerning developmental processes and the secondary metabolism of saffron, Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae), along with the genes involved in these processes so far known, is reviewed. Flowers and corms constitute the most valuable parts of saffron. Corm and flower development are two key aspects to be studied in saffron to increase the yield and quality of the spice, to raise its reproductive rate, and to implement new production systems. Important knowledge about the physiology of flowering and vegetative growth has been acquired in recent years, but there is still only limited information on molecular mechanisms controlling these processes. Although some genes involved in flower formation and meristem transition in other species have been isolated in saffron, the role of these genes in this species awaits further progress. Also, genes related with the synthesis pathway of abscisic acid and strigolactones, growth regulators related with bud endodormancy and apical dominance (paradormancy), have been isolated. However, the in-depth understanding of these processes as well as of corm development is far from being achieved. By contrast, saffron phytochemicals have been widely studied. The different flower tissues and the corm have been proved to be an important source of phytochemicals with pharmacological properties. The biotechnological prospects for saffron are here reviewed on the basis of the discovery of the enzymes involved in key aspects of saffron secondary metabolism, and we also analyze the possibility of transferring current knowledge about flowering and vegetative propagation in model species to the Crocus genus.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Tenascin-C Mediated Inflammation via IL-10 Expression in a Septic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Li, Chun-shi; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chen, Yingqing; Zhang, Qinggao; Ryter, Stefan W.; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2015-01-01

    Tenascin-C (TN-C), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein, is specifically induced upon tissue injury and infection and during septic conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is known to exert various anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of CO on TN-C-mediated inflammation are unknown. In the present study, we found that treatment with LPS significantly enhanced TN-C expression in macrophages. CO gas, or treatment with the CO-donor compound, CORM-2, dramatically reduced LPS-induced expression of TN-C and proinflammatory cytokines while significantly increased the expression of IL-10. Treatment with TN-C siRNA significantly suppressed the effects of LPS on proinflammatory cytokines production. TN-C siRNA did not affect the CORM-2-dependent increase of IL-10 expression. In cells transfected with IL-10 siRNA, CORM-2 had no effect on the LPS-induced expression of TN-C and its downstream cytokines. These data suggest that IL-10 mediates the inhibitory effect of CO on TN-C and the downstream production of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, administration of CORM-2 dramatically reduced LPS-induced TN-C and proinflammatory cytokines production while expression of IL-10 was significantly increased. In conclusion, CO regulated IL-10 expression and thus inhibited TN-C-mediated inflammation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26557739

  13. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica....05 Onion, green 4 Potato, wet peel 0.03 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.6 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01 (b...

  14. 40 CFR 180.637 - Mandipropamid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the following commodities. Commodity Parts per million Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 3 Brassica....05 Onion, green 4 Potato, wet peel 0.03 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.6 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8 1.0 Vegetable, leafy except Brassica, group 4 20 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.01 (b...

  15. Uncoupling Charge Movement from Channel Opening in Voltage-gated Potassium Channels by Ruthenium Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A.; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2011-01-01

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K+-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K+-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling. PMID:21454671

  16. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  17. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  18. 40 CFR 180.663 - Ametoctradin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Spinach 50.0 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 3.0 Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 1.5 Vegetable, leafy, except Brassica, group 4, except spinach 40.0 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C 0.05 (b) Section...

  19. Effects of neem seed derivatives on behavioral and physiological responses of the Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Musabyimana, T; Saxena, R C; Kairu, E W; Ogol, C P; Khan, Z R

    2001-04-01

    Both in a choice and multi-choice laboratory tests, fewer adults of the banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), settled under the corms of the susceptible banana "Nakyetengu" treated with 5% aqueous extract of neem seed powder or cake or 2.5 and 5% emulsified neem oil than on water-treated corms. Feeding damage by larvae on banana pseudostem discs treated with 5% extract of powdered neem seed, kernel, or cake, or 5% emulsified neem oil was significantly less than on untreated discs. The larvae took much longer to locate feeding sites, initiate feeding and bore into pseudostem discs treated with extract of powdered neem seed or kernel. Few larvae survived when confined for 14 d on neem-treated banana pseudostems; the survivors weighed two to four times less than the larvae developing on untreated pseudostems. Females deposited up to 75% fewer eggs on neem-treated corms. In addition, egg hatching was reduced on neem-treated corms. The higher the concentration of neem materials the more severe the effect.

  20. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Pesticide Root Zone Model/Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS) for registered and proposed new... tolerances in or on vegetable, tuberous and corm, subgroup 1C and potato, processed waste. In addition, this...: Potato, processed waste at 0.04 ppm; vegetables, fruiting, group 8 at 0.6 ppm; fruit, citrus, group 10 at...

  1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    PubMed Central

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut. PMID:27716802

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Gene Expression during Chinese Water Chestnut Storage Organ Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Libao; Li, Shuyan; Chen, Sainan; Wang, Yan; Yu, Meizhen; Chen, Xuehao; Li, Liangjun; Yin, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    The product organ (storage organ; corm) of the Chinese water chestnut has become a very popular food in Asian countries because of its unique nutritional value. Corm formation is a complex biological process, and extensive whole genome analysis of transcripts during corm development has not been carried out. In this study, four corm libraries at different developmental stages were constructed, and gene expression was identified using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. Approximately 4.9 million tags were sequenced, and 4,371,386, 4,372,602, 4,782,494, and 5,276,540 clean tags, including 119,676, 110,701, 100,089, and 101,239 distinct tags, respectively, were obtained after removal of low-quality tags from each library. More than 39% of the distinct tags were unambiguous and could be mapped to reference genes, while 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. After mapping their functions in existing databases, a total of 11,592, 10,949, 10,585, and 7,111 genes were annotated from the B1, B2, B3, and B4 libraries, respectively. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in B1/B2, B2/B3, and B3/B4 libraries showed that most of the DEGs at the B1/B2 stages were involved in carbohydrate and hormone metabolism, while the majority of DEGs were involved in energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism at the B2/B3 and B3/B4 stages. All of the upregulated transcription factors and 9 important genes related to product organ formation in the above four stages were also identified. The expression changes of nine of the identified DEGs were validated using a quantitative PCR approach. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during corm formation in the Chinese water chestnut.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Gas Is Not Inert, but Global, in Its Consequences for Bacterial Gene Expression, Iron Acquisition, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Lauren K.; Begg, Ronald; Jesse, Helen E.; van Beilen, Johan W.A.; Ali, Salar; Svistunenko, Dimitri; McLean, Samantha; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Carbon monoxide is a respiratory poison and gaseous signaling molecule. Although CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) deliver CO with temporal and spatial specificity in mammals, and are proven antimicrobial agents, we do not understand the modes of CO toxicity. Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas per se, without intervention of CORMs, on bacterial physiology and gene expression. Results: We used tightly controlled chemostat conditions and integrated transcriptomic datasets with statistical modeling to reveal the global effects of CO. CO is known to inhibit bacterial respiration, and we found expression of genes encoding energy-transducing pathways to be significantly affected via the global regulators, Fnr, Arc, and PdhR. Aerobically, ArcA—the response regulator—is transiently phosphorylated and pyruvate accumulates, mimicking anaerobiosis. Genes implicated in iron acquisition, and the metabolism of sulfur amino acids and arginine, are all perturbed. The global iron-related changes, confirmed by modulation of activity of the transcription factor Fur, may underlie enhanced siderophore excretion, diminished intracellular iron pools, and the sensitivity of CO-challenged bacteria to metal chelators. Although CO gas (unlike H2S and NO) offers little protection from antibiotics, a ruthenium CORM is a potent adjuvant of antibiotic activity. Innovation: This is the first detailed exploration of global bacterial responses to CO, revealing unexpected targets with implications for employing CORMs therapeutically. Conclusion: This work reveals the complexity of bacterial responses to CO and provides a basis for understanding the impacts of CO from CORMs, heme oxygenase activity, or environmental sources. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 1013–1028. PMID:26907100

  5. Blockade of P2X4 Receptors Inhibits Neuropathic Pain-Related Behavior by Preventing MMP-9 Activation and, Consequently, Pronociceptive Interleukin Release in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is still an extremely important problem in today’s medicine because opioids, which are commonly used to reduce pain, have limited efficacy in this type of pathology. Therefore, complementary therapy is needed. Our experiments were performed in rats to evaluate the contribution of the purinergic system, especially P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), in the modulation of glia activation and, consequently, the levels of nociceptive interleukins after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the right sciatic nerve, a rat model of neuropathic pain. Moreover, we studied how intrathecal (ith.) injection of a P2X4R antagonist Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) modulates nociceptive transmission and opioid effectiveness in the CCI model. Our results demonstrate that repeated ith. administration of CORM-2 once daily (20 μg/5 μl, 16 and 1 h before CCI and then daily) for eight consecutive days significantly reduced pain-related behavior and activation of both spinal microglia and/or astroglia induced by CCI. Moreover, even a single administration of CORM-2 on day 7 after CCI attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity as efficiently as morphine and buprenorphine. In addition, using Western blot, we have shown that repeated ith. administration of CORM-2 lowers the CCI-elevated level of MMP-9 and pronociceptive interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6) in the dorsal L4-L6 spinal cord and/or DRG. Furthermore, in parallel, CORM-2 upregulates spinal IL-1Ra; however, it does not influence other antinociceptive factors, IL-10 and IL-18BP. Additionally, based on our biochemical results, we hypothesize that p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt but not the NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway are partly involved in the CORM-2 analgesic effects in rat neuropathic pain. Our data provide new evidence that P2X4R may indeed play a significant role in neuropathic pain development by modulating neuroimmune interactions in the spinal cord and DRG, suggesting that its blockade may have potential

  6. CO Induces Nrf2-Dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Transcription by Cooperating with Sp1 and c-Jun in Rat Brain Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Pei-Ling; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-08-01

    Upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) by carbon monoxide (CO) delivered by CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) may be utilized as a therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. This study was to delineate the two putative anti-oxidant response elements (AREs) in modulating HO-1 gene by participating with its promoter elements in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression was mediated through superoxide, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), protein tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K/Akt), revealed by the pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of these signaling molecules. CORM-2-enhanced HO-1 promoter activity was inhibited by co-transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) of c-Jun, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), or nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Immunoprecipitation assay showed that CORM-2 increased the association of nuclear Nrf2 with Sp1 and c-Jun. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that Nrf2, Sp1, and c-Jun are associated with the proximal ARE binding site on HO-1 promoter, suggesting that Nrf2/Sp1/c-Jun cooperations are key transcription factors modulating HO-1 expression. Mechanistically, CORM-2-induced ARE promoter activity was reduced by the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS), p38 MAPK, Pyk2, MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and 2 (MEK1/2), PDGFR, and PI3K/Akt or the siRNAs of c-Jun, SP1, and Nrf2. These findings suggested that CORM-2 increases formation of c-Jun, Sp1, and Nrf2 complex and binding with ARE1 binding site, which is mediated through both ROS/p38 MAPK and Pyk2-dependent PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/Erk1/2 pathways, resulting in HO-1 expression in RBA-1 cells.

  7. Effects of carbon monoxide (CO) delivery by a CO donor or hemoglobin on vascular hypoxia inducible factor 1α and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Chad E N; Alayash, Abdu I

    2012-01-01

    We examined carbon monoxide (CO) delivery by carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) or hemoglobin (Hb) on cellular oxygen sensing and mitochondrial respiration in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). CORM-2 reduced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in normoxic and hypoxic cells, but while Hb alone significantly reduced HIF-1α stabilization in hypoxic cells, CO delivered by Hb (Hb-CO) had no effect on HIF-1α stabilization. CO dose-dependently increased basal oxygen consumption and reduced overall mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Hb-CO increased basal oxygen consumption but did not alter respiratory capacity. Together, CO reduced ET-1, and, at low doses, had no effect on endothelial mitochondria oxygen consumption. CO ligation to Hb may be developed further as non-vasoactive oxygen therapeutic without compromising mitochondrial function.

  8. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  9. Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Han, Ting; Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Ming, Qian-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant properties of stigmas and corms of Crocus sativus L. The aqueous ethanol extract of C. sativus corms was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the petroleum ether fraction and dichloromethane fraction at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg showed significant antidepressant-like activities in dose-dependent manners, by means of behavioral models of depression. The immobility time in the forced swimming test and tail suspending test was significantly reduced by the two fractions, without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the open-field test. By means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, twelve compounds of the petroleum ether fraction were identified. These data show that administration of C. sativus corms extract produces antidepressant-like effects. Aqueous stigmas extract also exerted antidepressive effects in the behavioral models. Crocin 1 and crocin 2 of the aqueous stigmas extract were identified by a reversed-phase HPLC analysis. In addition, the bioactive compound crocin 1 in this herb was quantitatively determined. The data indicate that antidepressant-like properties of aqueous stigma extracts may be due to crocin 1, giving support to the validity of the use of this plant in traditional medicine. All these results suggest that the low polarity parts of C. sativus corms should be considered as a new plant material for curing depression, which merit further studies regarding antidepressive-like activities of chemical compounds isolated from the two fractions and mechanism of action.

  10. 40 CFR 180.493 - Dimethomorph; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Ginseng 0.90 Grape 3.0 Grape, raisin 7.0 Hop, dried cones 60 Lettuce, head 10 Lettuce, leaf 10 Onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A 0.6 Onion, green, subgroup 3-07B 15.0 Potato 0.05 Potato, wet peel 0.20 Taro, corm 0.5 Taro... Bean, lima, succulent 0.60 (d) Indirect or inadvertent residues. Tolerances are established for the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.544 - Methoxyfenozide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 0.05 Corn, pop, stover 125 Corn, sweet, forage 30 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.05 Corn, sweet, stover 60 Cotton, gin byproducts 35 Cotton, undelinted seed 2.0 Cranberry 0.5 Feijoa... sugar beet, Subgroup 1B 0.90 Vegetable, tuberous and corm, except potato, subgroup 1D 0.02 Wax jambu 0.4...

  12. Oxylipins from Dracontium loretense.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Angelyne; Napolitano, Assunta; Bassarello, Carla; Carbone, Virginia; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Malfitano, Annamaria; Saggese, Paola; Bifulco, Maurizio; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-05-22

    Four novel oxylipins (1-4) were isolated from the n-butanol extract of the corms of Dracontium loretense. Their structures were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR analyses and electrospray ionization multistage ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) data. Relative configurations were assigned on the basis of combined analysis of homonuclear and heteronuclear (2,3)J couplings, along with ROE data. Oxylipin 2 exhibited an immunostimulatory effect on human PBMC proliferation.

  13. Induction of HO-1 by carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 attenuates thrombin-induced COX-2 expression and hypertrophy in primary human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the cytoprotective byproducts of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and exerts anti-inflammatory action in various models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying CO-induced HO-1 expression in primary human cardiomyocytes remain largely unidentified. We used primary left ventricle myocytes as a model and applied CO releasing molecule (CORM)-2 to investigate the relationship of CO and HO-1 expression. We herein used Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity and EIA to investigate the role of HO-1 expression protecting against thrombin-mediated responses. We found that thrombin-induced COX-2 expression, PGE2 release and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers (increase in ANF/BNP, α-actin expression and cell surface area) was attenuated by pretreatment with CORM-2 which was partially reversed by hemoglobin (Hb) or ZnPP (an inhibitor of HO-1 activity), suggesting that HO-1/CO system may be of clinical importance to ameliorate heart failure through inhibition of inflammatory responses. CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein expression, mRNA and promoter was attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors of Pyk2 (PF431396), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-5), p38 (SB202530), JNK1/2 (SP600125), FoxO1 (AS1842856) and Sp1 (mithramycin A). The involvement of these signaling components was further confirmed by transfection with respective siRNAs, consistent with those of pharmacological inhibitors. These results suggested that CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression is mediated through a Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/FoxO1/Sp1-dependent manner and exerts a cytoprotective effect in human cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymbiotic Germination Response to Photoperiod and Nutritional Media in Six Populations of Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus (Orchidaceae): Evidence for Ecotypic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kauth, Philip J.; Kane, Michael E.; Vendrame, Wagner A.; Reinhardt-Adams, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Ecotypic differentiation has been explored in numerous plant species, but has been largely ignored in the Orchidaceae. Applying a specific germination protocol for widespread seed sources may be unreliable due to inherent physiological or genetic differences in localized populations. It is crucial to determine whether ecotypic differentiation exists for restoration and conservation programmes. Calopogon tuberosus var. tuberosus, a widespread terrestrial orchid of eastern North America, is a model species to explore ecotypic differences in germination requirements, as this species occupies diverse habitats spanning a wide geographical range. Methods Mature seeds were collected from south Florida, north central Florida, three locations in South Carolina, and the upper Michigan peninsula. Effects of three photoperiods (8/16, 12/12, 16/8 h L/D) were examined on asymbiotic in vitro seed germination and seedling development of C. tuberosus. Germination and early development was monitored for 8 weeks, while advanced development was monitored for an additional 8 weeks. In an additional experiment, asymbiotic seed germination and development was monitored for 8 weeks on six culture media (BM-1 terrestrial orchid medium, Knudson C, Malmgrem, half-strength MS, P723, and Vacin and Went). A tetrazolium test for embryo viability was performed. Key Results Short days promoted the highest germination among Florida populations, but few differences among photoperiods in other seed sources existed. Different media had little effect on the germination of Michigan and Florida populations, but germination of South Carolina seeds was higher on media with higher calcium and magnesium. Tetrazolium testing confirmed that South Carolina seeds exhibited low viability while viability was higher in Florida seeds. Seed germination and corm formation was rapid in Michigan seeds across all treatments. Michigan seedlings allocated more biomass to corms compared with other seed

  15. Pretreatment of Mouse Neural Stem Cells with Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Interferes with NF-κB p65 Signaling and Suppresses Iron Overload-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxing; Han, Ping; Cui, Zhenwen; Wang, Baofeng; Zhong, Zhihong; Sun, Yuhao; Yang, Guoyuan; Sun, Qingfang; Bian, Liuguan

    2016-11-01

    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising approach to repair the damaged brain after hemorrhagic stroke; however, it is largely limited by the poor survival of donor cells. Breakdown products of the hematoma and subsequent iron overload contribute to the impairment of survival of neural cells. There is little information regarding the mechanism involved in the death of grafted cells. Furthermore, therapeutic research targeted to improving the survival of grafted neural stem cells (NSCs) is strikingly lacking. Here, we showed that iron overload induced apoptosis of C17.2 cells, a cell line originally cloned from mouse NSCs and immortalized by v-myc. Pretreatment with carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) markedly protected C17.2 cells against iron overload in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, CORM-2 interfered with NF-κB signaling, including inhibition of nuclear translocation and down-regulation of NF-κB p65. TUNEL staining showed that preconditioning C17.2 cells with CORM-2 enhanced their resistance to apoptosis induced by iron overload, which was concomitant with down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and cleaved caspase-3) and up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. The protective effect of CORM-2 could be simulated by BAY11-7082, a special inhibitor of NF-κB p65. These results provide a novel and effective strategy to enhance the survival of NSCs after transplantation and, therefore, their efficacy in repairing brain injury due to hemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqing; Nie, Lili; Yu, K N; Wu, Lijun; Kong, Peizhong; Bao, Lingzhi; Chen, Guodong; Yang, Haoran; Han, Wei

    2016-12-08

    During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO) was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2), at a relatively low concentration (20 µM), effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and micronucleus (MN). In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2) of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2) with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1), MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures.

  17. Gastrodianin-like mannose-binding proteins: a novel class of plant proteins with antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Bauw, G; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Chen, Z L; Van Montagu, M; Angenon, G; Dillen, W

    2001-03-01

    The orchid Gastrodia elata depends on the fungus Armillaria mellea to complete its life cycle. In the interaction, fungal hyphae penetrate older, nutritive corms but not newly formed corms. From these corms, a protein fraction with in vitro activity against plant-pathogenic fungi has previously been purified. Here, the sequence of gastrodianin, the main constituent of the antifungal fraction, is reported. Four isoforms that encoded two different mature proteins were identified at the cDNA level. Another isoform was detected in sequenced peptides. Because the antifungal activity of gastrodianins produced in and purified from Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum was comparable to that of gastrodianin purified from the orchid, gastrodianins are the active component of the antifungal fractions. Gastrodianin accumulation is probably an important part of the mechanism by which the orchid controls Armillaria penetration. Gastrodianin was found to be homologous to monomeric mannose-binding proteins of other orchids, of which at least one (Epipactis helleborine mannose-binding protein) also displayed in vitro antifungal activity. This establishes the gastrodianin-like proteins (GLIPs) as a novel class of antifungal proteins.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical screening and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Philippine taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebosada, Richemae Grace R.; Librando, Ivy L.

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anti-hyperglycemic property in terms of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the various parts (corm, leaf and petiole) of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9. Each of the plant parts were extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated using a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. The crude extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides and saponins using Thin Layer Chromatography. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the crude extracts (50 mg/L) were assayed spectrophotometrically using a microplate reader. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in the leaf part while flavonoids and saponins were detected in the petiole and only saponins were present in the corm. The assay showed that the percentage α-glucosidase inhibition of the 50 mg/L ethanolic crude extract of the corm, leaves and petiole of C. esculenta are 68.03, 71.64 and 71.39%, respectively. Statistical analysis shows significant differences in the α-glucosidase inhibition among the various plant parts. It can be concluded that the ethanolic crude extracts of the different parts of C. esculenta (L.) Schott var. PSB-VG #9 exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract and can be further subjected for isolation of the therapeutically active compounds with antidiabetes potency.

  19. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules reverse leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min; Zhang, Qinggao; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Uddin, Md Jamal; Rhew, Hyunyul; Kim, Taeksang; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-04-01

    Leptin, a circulating hormone, regulates food intake and body weight. While leptin resistance represents a major cause of obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can contribute to leptin resistance. Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, exerts antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of tissue injury. We hypothesized that CO could inhibit leptin resistance during ER stress. Thapsigargin or tunicamycin was used to induce ER stress in human cells expressing the leptin receptor. These agents markedly inhibited leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, confirming that ER stress induces leptin resistance. The CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 blocked the ER stress-dependent inhibition of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. CORM-2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α and enhanced PERK phosphorylation during ER stress. Furthermore, CORM-2 inhibited X-box binding protein-1 expression, activating transcription factor-6 cleavage, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)1α phosphorylation induced by ER stress. IRE1α knockdown rescued leptin resistance, whereas PERK knockdown blocked CO-dependent regulation of IRE1α. In vivo, CO inhalation normalized body weight in animals fed high-fat diets. Furthermore, CO modulated ER stress pathways and rescued leptin resistance in vivo. In conclusion, the pathological mechanism of leptin resistance may be ameliorated by the pharmacological application of CO.

  20. Capturing the photo-signaling state of a photoreceptor in a steady-state fashion by binding a transition metal complex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengyun; Song, Lei; Qin, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2017-08-30

    Binding a small molecule to proteins causes conformational changes, but often to a limited extent. Here we demonstrate that the interaction of a CO-releasing molecule (CORM3) with a photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein (PYP) drives large structural changes in the latter. The interaction of CORM3 and a mutant of PYP, Met100Ala, not only triggers the isomerization of its chromophore, p-coumaric acid, from its anionic trans configuration to a protonated cis configuration, but also increases the content of β-sheet at the cost of α-helix and random coil in the secondary structure of the protein. The CORM3 derived Met100Ala is found to highly resemble the signaling state, which is one of the key photo-intermediates of this photoactive protein, in both protein local conformation and chromophore configuration. The organometallic reagents hold promise as protein engineering tools. This work highlights a novel approach to structurally accessing short lived intermediates of proteins in a steady-state fashion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  1. Identification of bacteria associated with underground parts of Crocus sativus by 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Sangwan, Naseer; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P; Lal, Rup; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2014-10-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L), an autumn-flowering perennial sterile plant, reproduces vegetatively by underground corms. Saffron has biannual corm-root cycle that makes it an interesting candidate to study microbial dynamics in its rhizosphere and cormosphere (area under influence of corm). Culture independent 16S rRNA gene metagenomic study of rhizosphere and cormosphere of Saffron during flowering stage revealed presence of 22 genera but none of the genus was common in all the three samples. Bulk soil bacterial community was represented by 13 genera with Acidobacteria being dominant. In rhizosphere, out of eight different genera identified, Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus. Cormosphere bacteria comprised of six different genera, dominated by the genus Pantoea. This study revealed that the bacterial composition of all the three samples is significantly different (P < 0.05) from each other. This is the first report on the identification of bacteria associated with rhizosphere, cormosphere and bulk soil of Saffron, using cultivation independent 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

  2. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenqing; Nie, Lili; Yu, K. N.; Wu, Lijun; Kong, Peizhong; Bao, Lingzhi; Chen, Guodong; Yang, Haoran; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO) was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2), at a relatively low concentration (20 µM), effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and micronucleus (MN). In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2) of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2) with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1), MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures. PMID:27941646

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gastrodia elata (Orchidaceae) in response to fungus symbiosis to identify gastrodin biosynthesis-related genes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Wu, Keh-Ming; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Huang, Chun-Yen; Chou, Chang-Hung; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-03-09

    Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae) is an important Chinese medicine with several functional components. In the life cycle of G. elata, the orchid develops a symbiotic relationship with two compatible mycorrhizal fungi Mycena spp. and Armillaria mellea during seed germination to form vegetative propagation corm and vegetative growth to develop tubers, respectively. Gastrodin (p-hydroxymethylphenol-beta-D-glucoside) is the most important functional component in G. elata, and gastrodin significantly increases from vegetative propagation corms to tubers. To address the gene regulation mechanism in gastrodin biosynthesis in G. elata, a comparative analysis of de novo transcriptome sequencing among the vegetative propagation corms and tubers of G. elata and A. mellea was conducted using deep sequencing. Transcriptome comparison between the vegetative propagation corms and juvenile tubers of G. elata revealed 703 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 298 and 405 unigenes were, respectively up-regulated (fold-change ≥ 2, q-value < 0.05, the trimmed mean of M-values (TMM)-normalized fragments per kilobase of transcript per Million mapped reads (FPKM) > 10) and down-regulated (fold-change ≤ 0.5, q-value <0.05, TMM-normalized FPKM > 10) in juvenile tubers. After Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, 112 up-regulated unigenes with KEGG Ortholog identifiers (KOids) or enzyme commission (EC) numbers were assigned to 159 isogroups involved in seventy-eight different pathways, and 132 down-regulated unigenes with KOids or EC numbers were assigned to 168 isogroups, involved in eighty different pathways. The analysis of the isogroup genes from all pathways revealed that the two unigenes TRINITY_DN54282_c0_g1 (putative monooxygenases) and TRINITY_DN50323_c0_g1 (putative glycosyltransferases) might participate in hydroxylation and glucosylation in the gastrodin biosynthetic pathway. The gene

  4. Carbon monoxide contributes to the constipating effects of granisetron in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, Carmela; Fanelli, Margherita; Potenza, Maria Assunta; Leo, Valentina; Montagnani, Monica; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1-100 μmol/L) were evaluated on colon specimens incubated with granisetron (3 μmol/L, 15 min), ZnPPIX (10 μmol/L, 60 min) or CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L) alone or in combination. These experiments were performed under co-treatment with or without atropine (3 μmol/L, a muscarinic receptor antagonist) or NG-nitro-L-Arginine (L-NNA, 100 μmol/L, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). RESULTS Administration of granisetron (50, 75 μg/kg) in vivo significantly increased the time to first defecation (P = 0.045 vs vehicle-treated rats), clearly suggesting a constipating effect of this drug. Although administration of ZnPPIX or hemin alone had no effect on this gastrointestinal motility parameter, ZnPPIX co-administered with granisetron abolished the granisetron-induced constipation. On the other hand, co-administration of hemin and granisetron did not modify the increased constipation observed under granisetron alone. When administered in vitro, granisetron alone (3 μmol/L) did not significantly modify the colon’s contractile response to either EFS or ACh. Incubation with ZnPPIX alone (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced the colon’s contractile response to EFS (P = 0.016) but had no effect on contractile response to ACh. Co-administration of ZnPPIX and atropine (3 μmol/L) abolished the Zn

  5. Nutrition and burrowing energetics of the Cape mole-rat Georychus capensis.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, J T; Jarvis, J U M; Louw, G N

    1985-04-01

    At 22°C the resting oxygen consumption of G. capensis is 1.13±0.05 cm(3)O2·g(-1)·h(-1) (mean± S.E.). In loose sandy soil the burrowing metabolic rate was approximately three times that of resting (3.41±0.19 cm(3)O2·g(-1)· h(-1)). Rate of oxygen consumption while burrowing bears a linear relationship with rate of burrowing. The equation of the regression line describing this relationship was used to construct a model for calculating energy expenditure of burrowing in free-living mole-rats. The diet of G. capensis consists of some green plant material and geophyte corms. The latter has a mean gross energy content of 16.36 kJ·g(-1) dry weight. The digestibility coefficient for captive G. capensis fed on sweet potato, was 97.42±0.41%. Data collected from an excavated burrow system revealed that the total energetic cost of constructing the burrow amounted to 79% of the estimated digestible energy available from geophyte corms in the area. A food store in the same burrow system was sufficient to meet the maintenance requirements of an adult G. capensis, resting at 22°C, for approximately 80-85 days. Soil samples taken at random adjacent to the burrow contained corms with a mean estimated digestible energy value of 2084 kJ per m(3) of soil. A comparison of energetic cost of burrowing and randomly available digestible energy in the field suggests that foraging patterns are not random.

  6. Aluminum Doped MCM-41 Nanoparticles as Platforms for the Dual Encapsulation of a CO-Releasing Molecule and Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Francisco J; Jiménez-Amezcua, Ignacio; Rojas, Sara; Romão, Carlos C; Navarro, Jorge A R; Maldonado, Carmen R; Barea, Elisa

    2017-09-05

    Mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 nanoparticles have been used, for the first time, as vehicles for the single and dual encapsulation of the cationic CO-releasing molecule (CORM) [Mn(1,4,7-triazacyclononane)(CO)3](+) (ALF472(+)) and the well-known antineoplastic drug, cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (cisplatin). Thus, two new hybrid materials, namely, ALF472@Al-MCM-41 and ALF472-cisplatin@Al-MCM-41, have been isolated and fully characterized. The results reveal that the presence of CORM molecules enhances cisplatin loading 3-fold, yielding a cargo of 0.45 mmol g(-1) of ALF472(+) and 0.12 mmol g(-1) of the platinum complex for ALF472-cisplatin@Al-MCM-41. It is worth noting that ALF472@Al-MCM-41 shows a good dispersion in phosphate buffered saline solution, while the dual hybrid material slightly aggregates in this simulated physiological medium (hydrodynamic size: 112 ± 23 and 336 ± 50 nm, respectively). In addition, both hybrid materials (ALF472@Al-MCM-41 and ALF472-cisplatin@Al-MCM-41) behave as photoactive CO-releasing materials, delivering 0.25 and 0.11 equiv of CO, respectively, after 24 h and exhibiting a more controlled CO delivery than that of the free CORM. Finally, metal leaching studies have confirmed the good retention capacity of Al-MCM-41 toward the potentially toxic manganese fragments (86% of retention after 72 h) as well as the low release of cisplatin (ca. 7% after 72 h).

  7. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  8. Synthesis and structures of photoactive manganese-carbonyl complexes derived from 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole and 2-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Stenger-Smith, Jenny; Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha; Mascharak, Pradip

    2017-04-01

    PhotoCORMs (photo-active CO-releasing molecules) have emerged as a class of CO donors where the CO release process can be triggered upon illumination with light of appropriate wavelength. We have recently reported an Mn-based photoCORM, namely [MnBr(pbt)(CO)3] [pbt is 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole], where the CO release event can be tracked within cellular milieu by virtue of the emergence of strong blue fluorescence. In pursuit of developing more such trackable photoCORMs, we report herein the syntheses and structural characterization of two Mn(I)-carbonyl complexes, namely fac-tricarbonylchlorido[2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole-κ(2)N,N']manganese(I), [MnCl(C12H8N2S)(CO)3], (1), and fac-tricarbonylchlorido[2-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole-κ(2)N,N']manganese(I), [MnCl(C16H10N2S)(CO)3], (2). In both complexes, the Mn(I) center resides in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. Weak intermolecular C-H...Cl contacts in complex (1) and Cl...S contacts in complex (2) consolidate their extended structures. These complexes also exhibit CO release upon exposure to low-power broadband visible light. The apparent CO release rates for the two complexes have been measured to compare their CO donating capacity. The fluorogenic 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole and 2-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,3-benzothiazole ligands provide a convenient way to track the CO release event through the `turn-ON' fluorescence which results upon de-ligation of the ligands from their respective metal centers following CO photorelease.

  9. In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Parray, Javid A; Kamili, Azra N; Hamid, Rehana; Husaini, Amjad M

    2012-01-01

    A complete protocol for the saffron cormlet production under in vitro conditions and subsequent flowering under greenhouse conditions is described. Highest number of cormlets (70.0 ± 0.30) per corm slice (explant) could be regenerated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) half strength medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) (20 µM), Indole acetic acid (IAA) (10 µM), and sucrose (40 g/l). Maximum germination (90%) of these cormlets could be achieved on MS medium containing 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (20 µM) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (15 µM). In order to increase the size of the in vitro raised cormlets, these were cultured on MS medium containing TDZ (15 µM) and IAA in the range of 1.5-30 µM. Maximum increase in cormlet size could be attained on TDZ (15 µM) + IAA (12.5 µM) + sucrose (30 g/l), and the average size of cormlets was 2.5g. In another experiment, apical vegetative buds of actively growing corms were cultured for cormlet development, and corms of size 2.5g could be developed on MS medium with NAA (15 µM), BAP (20 µM), and sucrose (30 g/l). The in vitro developed cormlets were dried under shade at 25 ± 2°C for 7 d. These were then planted in small cups containing clay loam soil and kept in green house at 20 ± 2°C. In vitro developed cormlets with mean weight 2.5 g showed maximum flowering (25%) as well as vegetative growth (55%), while only 19% cormlets of 2.0 g flowered. To our knowledge this is the first report on successful flowering from in vitro raised cormlets under greenhouse.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Protects Against Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation-Induced Microcirculatory Injury and Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Kautza, Benjamin; Rubin, Mark; Escobar, Daniel; Luciano, Jason; Loughran, Patricia; Gomez, Hernando; Scott, Jeffrey; Gallo, David; Brumfield, John; Otterbein, Leo E.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microcirculatory activation and injury from hemorrhage contributes to organ injury. Many adaptive responses occur within the microcirculatory beds to limit injury including up regulation of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, the rate limiting enzymes in the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Here we tested the hypothesis that CO abrogates trauma induced injury and inflammation protecting the microcirculatory beds. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice underwent sham operation or hemorrhagic shock to a mean arterial pressure of 25mmHg for 120 minutes. Mice were resuscitated with Lactated Ringer’s at 2X the volume of maximal shed blood. Mice were randomized to receive CO-releasing molecule (CO-RM) or inactive CO-RM at resuscitation. A cohort of mice was pretreated with tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP) to inhibit endogenous CO generation by heme oxygenases (HO). Primary mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cells were cultured for in vitro experiments. Results. CO-RM protected against hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS/R) organ injury and systemic inflammation and reduced hepatic sinusoidal endothelial injury. Inhibition of HO activity with SnPP exacerbated liver hepatic sinusoidal injury. HS/R in vivo or cytokine stimulation in vitro resulted in increased endothelial expression of adhesion molecules that was associated with decreased leukocyte adhesion in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions. HS/R is associated with endothelial injury. HO enzymes and CO are involved in part in diminishing this injury and may prove useful as a therapeutic adjunct that can be harnessed to protect against endothelial activation and damage. PMID:25243427

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines.

  12. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  13. MECHANISM OF INHIBITION OF TUBULOGLOMERULAR FEEDBACK (TGF) BY CARBON MONOXIDE AND cGMP

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; D’Ambrosio, Martin A.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Hong; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a mechanism that senses NaCl in the macula densa (MD) and causes constriction of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). Carbon monoxide (CO), either endogenous or exogenous, inhibits TGF at least in part via cGMP. We hypothesize that CO in the MD, acting via both cGMP-dependent and - independent mechanisms, attenuates TGF by acting downstream from depolarization and Ca entry into the MD cells. In vitro, microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and their MD were simultaneously perfused and TGF was measured as the decrease in Af-Art diameter. MD depolarization was induced with ionophores, while adding the CO-releasing molecule CORM-3 to the MD perfusate at non-toxic concentrations. CORM-3 blunted depolarization-induced TGF at 50 μM, from 3.6±0.4 to 2.5±0.4 μm (P<0.01), and abolished it at 100 μM, to 0.1±0.1 μm (P<0.001, n=6). When cGMP generation was blocked by guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 added to the MD, CORM-3 no longer affected depolarization-induced TGF at 50 μM (2.9±0.4 vs. 3.0±0.4 μm), but partially inhibited TGF at 100 μM (to 1.3±0.2 μm, P<0.05, n=9). Experiments using ETYA and indomethacin suggest arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate the cGMP-independent effect of CO. We then added the calcium ionophore A23187 to the macula densa, which caused TGF (4.1±0.6 μM); A23187-induced TGF was inhibited by CORM-3 at 50 μM (1.9±0.6 μM, P<0.01) and 100 μM (0.2±0.5 μM, P<0.001, n=6). We conclude that CO inhibits TGF acting downstream from depolarization and calcium entry, acting via cGMP at low concentrations, but additional mechanisms of action may be involved at higher concentrations. PMID:23648700

  14. McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    P.O. Box 678, 200 W. Church St., C::a:.v-;ux, i- Colonel Gay E. Jester District Engineer U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 210 North 12th Street St. Louis...Missouri 63101 Dear Colonel Jester : We have reviewed the Draft Ew7Tronmental ?tateueuo; McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, i] n , , warded...8217-_.. ..... .... . ... ... ,i "Ř. ., Cdlone! Guy E. Jester , 9/> /72 We appreciate the opportwdity to review and corme .t proposed project. Sincerely, Howard W. Busch , State

  15. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  16. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    PubMed Central

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  17. Transition-Metal-Free CO-Releasing BODIPY Derivatives Activatable by Visible to NIR Light as Promising Bioactive Molecules.

    PubMed

    Palao, Eduardo; Slanina, Tomáš; Muchová, Lucie; Šolomek, Tomáš; Vítek, Libor; Klán, Petr

    2016-01-13

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are chemical agents used to administer CO as an endogenous, biologically active molecule. A precise spatial and temporal control over the CO release is the major requirement for their applications. Here, we report the synthesis and properties of a new generation of transition-metal-free carbon monoxide-releasing molecules based on BODIPY chromophores (COR-BDPs) activatable by visible-to-NIR (up to 730 nm) light. We demonstrate their performance for both in vitro and in vivo experimental settings, and we propose the mechanism of the CO release based on steady-state and transient spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemical calculations.

  18. FEASIL Implementation under VAX VMS with Design Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Hallum, III (205) 876-4141 -- - 00 FORM 1473. 84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exrausted SErCQiTY CLASSJCCAT O : OF S DAC.E All other editions...corm~ order? AS j~in (AA9CM=USTRING 4n aa Ar4h c~ic th S~ Wrie OWUF haacer-int6 A.M ak atr t th Me ysn Mar ~ , bOHI (S TA RT SWIICH UNITS PACE 16 no yesl... FAAcT /oI OUTPUT 15 A WH E tVvmnEX + FKACTIO N P-9/(P-1O blank

  19. Spectral Inverse Scattering Theory for Dielectric Media: Application to Optical Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-23

    refractive index Figures 3-6 were prepared using data passed di- profiles have solutions that have been studied ana- rectly to gnuplot , a powerful...well with pre- on a variety of platforms, including IBM-PC corm- viously published results. patibles. By using gnuplot as our graphical display The...tions are made in the shell, as shown in Figure 2 for supported by gnuplot . 3 140 1 202 AICKLEN AND TAMIL 24 Ii12 13 14 05 I.O 21 31 22 32 23 33 C

  20. Antioxidant, anticholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibition activities, and fatty acids of Crocus mathewii - A forgotten endemic angiosperm of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildiztekin, Fatma; Nadeem, Said; Erol, Ebru; Yildiztekin, Mahmut; Tuna, Atilla L; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Context We report the first ever chemical/biochemical study on Crocus mathewii Kerndorff (Iridaceae) - a Turkish endemic angiosperm. This plant has never been explored for its phytochemistry and bioactivities. Objective This study explores C. mathewii corm and aerial parts for the chemical and biological properties of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fractions of the extracts. Material and methods Plant material (20 g) was extracted by methanol (250 mL × 5, 3 days each) and fractioned into hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All fractions were subjected to β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·), ABTS(·)(+), CUPRAC, metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Hexane fractions were submitted to GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate fractions showed excellent IC50 values in DPPH(·) (aerial 36.21 ± 0.76 and corm 33.87 ± 0.02 mg/L) and ABTS(·)(+) (aerial 33.01 ± 0.79 and bulb 27.87 ± 0.33 mg/L); higher than the IC50 of the standard α-tocopherol (DPPH 116.25 ± 1.97; ABTS 52.64 ± 0.37 mg/L), higher than BHA in DPPH (57.31 ± 0.25 mg/L), but slightly lower in ABTS (19.86 ± 2.73 mg/L). Methanol extract of aerial parts also showed higher activity than α-tocopherol in DPPH (85.56 ± 11.51 mg/L) but slightly less (72.90 ± 3.66 mg/L) than both the standards in ABTS. Linoleic (aerial 53.9%, corm 43.9%) and palmitic (aerial 22.2%, corm 18%) were found as the major fatty acids. Discussion and conclusion Some fractions of C. mathewii showed higher antioxidant activities than the standards. There is a need to explore more about this plant.

  1. Toward CO-based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues#

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E.; Wang, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacological studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO releasing molecules (CO-RMs). The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  2. Seasonal and spatial variations of alkaloids in Merendera montana in relation to chemical defense and phenology.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniel; Azorín, José; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles

    2003-05-01

    Merendera montana (Liliaceae) is an endemic plant broadly, but exclusively, occurring in the Iberian Peninsula where it is one of the most abundant species in rangelands grazed by sheep and on the routes used by migrating sheep herds. In spite of showing a peculiar phenology adapted to Mediterranean regions (leaves remain green from fall to spring and are absent in summer), this species has also successfully colonized high altitude environments (up to 2300 m), and abundant populations can be found in montane and subalpine pasturcs. Chemical analysis has shown a high forage quality as well as the presence of tropolone alkaloids (similar to other species of the genus Merendera), mainly colchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, and colchicoside. In general terms, the alkaloid content was significantly lower in the subterranean corms than in the leaves. No remarkable seasonal variations in total alkaloids was found, although an increase of colchicoside in the corms and a decrease of colchicine was noted in summer. Both chemical deterrents and phenology could be the cause of the widespread ecological adaptation of Merendera montana. The alkaloid content would prevent intake by wild herbivores during winter, while the absence of aerial organs in summer, coinciding exactly with the highest domestic herbivore pressure, would permit this species to colonize rich soil habitats where there is low plant competition.

  3. Histological observations of morphogenesis in petiole derived callus of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, J B; Liu, J; Yan, H B; Xie, C H

    2005-12-01

    The initiation and development of somatic embryos and organogenic shoots and corm-like structures (CLSs) from petiole-derived calli of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu were observed histologically. The petioles were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.37 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 4.44 microM N(6)-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) for callus induction. The shoot and corm organogenesis occurred from the compact calli when they were transferred to a medium containing 0.54 microM NAA and 4.44 microM 6-BA. A combination of 13.57 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 8.88 microM 6-BA or 24.18 microM NAA and 6.66 microM 6-BA was optimum for induction of somatic embryos, which failed to produce plantlets because of their structural abnormalities. Shoot regeneration predominantly happened through organogenesis although somatic embryogenesis infrequently occurred. The subepidermal cells of the compact callus converted to competent cells and started divisions, which resulted in formation of the meristemoids. The meristemoid cells continued division to develop into bud primordia. Subepidermal cells could also form the globular structures. Subsequently, these globoids developed into CLSs from which plantlets regenerated during subculture. Meanwhile, the CLSs were capable to form cormels, which could be a promising way for the propagation of A. rivieri.

  4. Deep sequencing of voodoo lily (Amorphophallus konjac): an approach to identify relevant genes involved in the synthesis of the hemicellulose glucomannan.

    PubMed

    Gille, Sascha; Cheng, Kun; Skinner, Mary E; Liepman, Aaron H; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Pauly, Markus

    2011-09-01

    A Roche 454 cDNA deep sequencing experiment was performed on a developing corm of Amorphophallus konjac--also known as voodoo lily. The dominant storage polymer in the corm of this plant is the polysaccharide glucomannan, a hemicellulose known to exist in the cell walls of higher plants and a major component of plant biomass derived from softwoods. A total of 246 mega base pairs of sequence data was obtained from which 4,513 distinct contigs were assembled. Within this voodoo lily expressed sequence tag collection genes representing the carbohydrate related pathway of glucomannan biosynthesis were identified, including sucrose metabolism, nucleotide sugar conversion pathways for the formation of activated precursors as well as a putative glucomannan synthase. In vivo expression of the putative glucomannan synthase and subsequent in vitro activity assays unambiguously demonstrate that the enzyme has indeed glucomannan mannosyl- and glucosyl transferase activities. Based on the expressed sequence tag analysis hitherto unknown pathways for the synthesis of GDP-glucose, a necessary precursor for glucomannan biosynthesis, could be proposed. Moreover, the results highlight transcriptional bottlenecks for the synthesis of this hemicellulose.

  5. Effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on somatic embryogenesis induction in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Rajabpoor, Sh; Azghandi, A V; Saboora, A

    2007-11-01

    To optimize an in vitro protocol for propagation of saffron through somatic embryogenesis, effects of various concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) in combination with BAP (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) were studied. Surface-sterilized corms were cut transversally into equal portions and the upper or lower parts were used separately as explants. All treatments were maintained in the darkness at 24 +/- 2 degrees C. After 70 days, the first globular embryos were observed and the number of embryos on each explant reached to its maximum 3 months after culture. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatments regarding the number of embryos induced on each explant. The most effective treatment was 2.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D + 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP for both types of explant (inducing 6.5 +/- 1.3 and 35.95 +/- 4.9 embryos on each explant for the upper and lower parts, respectively). The average percentages of explants showing embryogenic response were 33.3 and 93.3% for the upper and the lower part of corm tissue respectively in this treatment. Complementary studies are in progress to optimize maturation and germination stages of these somatic embryos.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-Young; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Seon-Jin; Chung, Su Wol

    2015-09-15

    The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule Erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon the production of intracellular iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not other metals. However, key regulators remain unknown. The heme oxygenase (HO) is a major intracellular source of iron. In this study, the role of heme oxygenase in Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death has been investigated. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, prevented Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death. Furthermore, Erastin induced the protein and mRNA levels of HO-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. HO-1+/+ and HO-1-/- fibroblast, HO-1 overexpression, and chycloheximide-treated experiments revealed that the expression of HO-1 has a decisive effects in Erastin-triggered cell death. Hemin and CO-releasing molecules (CORM) promote Erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death, not by biliverdin and bilirubin. In addition, hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death.

  7. Sediment contamination, bioavailability and toxicity of sediments affected by an acute oil spill: Four years after the sinking of the tanker Prestige (2002).

    PubMed

    Morales-Caselles, C; Kalman, J; Micaelo, C; Ferreira, A M; Vale, C; Riba, I; Delvalls, T A

    2008-04-01

    Sediment contamination and three bioassays were used to determine the sediment quality four years after an oil spill (Prestige, 2002): the Microtox test, a 10-day bioassay using the amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis, and a polychaete 10-day toxicity test with the lugworm Arenicola marina. In addition, bioaccumulation of PAHs was examined in the polychaete after 10 days of exposure. The results obtained from the toxicity tests and bioaccumulation analyses were statistically compared to the sediment chemical data, in order to assess the bioavailability of the contaminants, their effects, and their relationship with the oil spill. The sediments studied were from two areas of the Galician Coast (NW Spain): the Bay of Corme-Laxe and the Cíes Island, located in the Atlantic Island National Park. The results point to a decrease in contamination with respect to previous studies and to the disappearance of the acute toxicity four years after the oil spill. However an important bioaccumulation of PAHs was detected in the organisms exposed to sediments from Corme-Laxe, suggesting that despite the recovery of the environmental quality of the area, effects in the biota might be occurring.

  8. Bactericidal Effect of a Photoresponsive Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Nonwoven against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Klinger-Strobel, Mareike; Gläser, Steve; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Wyrwa, Ralf; Weisser, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in skin and skin structure infections, including surgical and traumatic infections that are associated with biofilm formation. Because biofilm formation is accompanied by high phenotypic resistance of the embedded bacteria, they are almost impossible to eradicate by conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are of high interest. We generated nanostructured hybrid nonwovens via the electrospinning of a photoresponsive carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule [CORM-1, Mn2(CO)10] and the polymer polylactide. This nonwoven showed a CO-induced antimicrobial activity that was sufficient to reduce the biofilm-embedded bacteria by 70% after photostimulation at 405 nm. The released CO increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the biofilms, suggesting that in addition to inhibiting the electron transport chain, ROS might play a role in the antimicrobial activity of CORMs on S. aureus. The nonwoven showed increased cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells after longer exposure, most probably due to the released lactic acid, that might be acceptable for local and short-time treatments. Therefore, CO-releasing nonwovens might be a promising local antimicrobial therapy against biofilm-associated skin wound infections. PMID:27114272

  9. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  10. An Efficient In Vitro Propagation Protocol of Cocoyam [Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L) Schott

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Anne E.; Hughes, Harrison G.; Abbas, Mohamed S.; Shahba, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Sprouted corm sections of “South Dade” white cocoyam were potted and maintained in a greenhouse for 8 weeks. Shoot tips of 3–5 mm comprising the apical meristem with 4–6 leaf primordial, and approximately 0.5 mm of corm tissue at the base. These explants were treated to be used into the culture medium. A modified Gamborg's B5 mineral salts supplemented with 0.05 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used throughout the study. Thidiazuron (TDZ) solution containing 0.01% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. Erlenmeyer flasks and test tubes were used for growing cultures. The effect of different media substrate, thidiazuron, and the interaction between TDZ and Benzylaminopurine (BAP) on cocoyam culture were tested. Results indicated that cocoyam can be successfully micropropagated in vitro through various procedures. All concentrations tested (5–20 μM BAP and 1–4 μM TDZ) produced more axillary shoots per shoot tip than the control without cytokinins. Greater proliferation rates were obtained through the use of 20 μM BAP and 2 μM TDZ, respectively, 12 weeks from initiation. Shoots produced with BAP were larger and more normal in appearance than those produced with TDZ, which were small, compressed, and stunted. The use of stationary liquid media is recommended for economic reasons. PMID:22666109

  11. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Han, W; Yu, K N; Wu, L J; Wu, Y C; Wang, H Z

    2011-05-10

    A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that α-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus.

    PubMed

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Gowda, Malali; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb) during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm) but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%). At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%). This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and cormosphere dormant

  13. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Singh, Heikham Russiachand; Gowda, Malali; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb) during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm) but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%). At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%). This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and cormosphere dormant

  14. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. N-Nitrosamine-{cis-Re[CO]2}(2+) cobalamin conjugates as mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Ruben; Kottelat, Emmanuel; Blacque, Olivier; Bogdanova, Anna Yu; Zobi, Fabio

    2016-01-28

    Mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules were prepared by conjugation of the 17-electron rhenium dicarbonyl cis-[Re(CO)2Br4](2-) complex to N-nitrosamine modified cyanocobalamin (B12) bio-vectors. The species were fully characterized by standard analytical techniques, including X-ray crystallography for cyanocobalamin-5'-O-pyrazine and () and its N-pyrazine nitrosylated derivative (). The N-nitrosamine B12 derivatives are able to liberate low NO doses in buffer solutions and appear to be "activated" towards NO release if in contact with cultured cells. Coordination of the cis-[Re(CO)2Br4](2-) complex on the axial cyanide of B12 allows for the combined loss of CO and NO from the conjugates. The mixed CO/NO-releasing molecules show cytoprotection in an ischemia-reperfusion model but no significant enhanced synergistic effects over the relative NORMs and CORMs building constituents.

  16. Plant-parasitic Nematode Problems in the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Bridge, J

    1988-04-01

    The Pacific islands have a diverse range of food and cash crops with indigenous and introduced nematode problems. The staple food crops have serious nematode pests, such as Meloidogyne spp. on sweet potato, Hirschmanniella miticausa causing corm rot of taro, and Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus sp. producing tuber dry rot of yams. Bananas are infested with P. coffeae or R. similis, citrus with Tylenchulus semipenetrans, rice with Aphelenchoides besseyi, and ginger with Meloidogyne spp. and R. similis. Rotylenchulus reniformis, P. zeae, P. brachyurus, and Helicotylenchus spp. are important on all of these and other crops, such as sugarcane, passion fruit, pawpaw, and cassava. Meloidogyne spp. cause serious damage to local and introduced leaf and fruit vegetables and other crops, such as tobacco, sugarcane, pawpaw, black pepper, and pyrethrum. Many other plant-parasitic genera and species, some undescribed, occur in the Pacific, and there are many islands still to be investigated.

  17. In situ observation of crystallinity disruption patterns during starch gelatinization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Canhui; Wei, Cunxu

    2013-01-30

    Twelve starches were isolated from the tuberous root of sweet potato, the rhizomes of lotus and yam, the tuber of potato, the corm of water chestnut, and the seeds of pea, bean, barley, wheat, lotus, water caltrop, and ginkgo. Their gelatinization processes were in situ viewed using a polarizing microscope in combination with a hot stage. Four patterns of crystallinity disruption during heating were proposed. The crystallinity disruption initially occurred on the proximal surface of the eccentric hilum, on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum, from the central hilum, or on the surface of the central hilum starch granule. The patterns of initial disruption on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum and on the surface of the central hilum starch were reported for the first time. The heterogeneous distribution of amylose in starch granule might partly explain the different patterns of crystallinity disruption and swelling during gelatinization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A photochemical precursor for carbon monoxide release in aerated aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, R Dale; Richter, Heinrich; Ford, Peter C

    2010-02-01

    Interest in therapeutic applications of carbon monoxide release to physiological targets has led us to explore a photochemical strategy for such CO delivery. Here, we describe the photoactivated carbon monoxide releasing moiety (photoCORM), W(CO)(5)(TPPTS)(3-) (1), an air-stable, water-soluble tungsten(0) carbonyl complex of the trianionic ligand tris(sulphonatophenyl)phosphine. Near-UV photolysis of 1 in an aqueous buffer solution leads to the high quantum yield release of a single CO, the formation of which has been verified by three analytical methodologies. Furthermore, in aerated media, additional CO is slowly released from the W(CO)(4)(H(2)O)(TPPTS)(3-) photoproduct owing to autoxidation of the tungsten center. Thus, 1 serves as a carbon monoxide releasing moiety both in the primary photochemical reaction and in the secondary reactions of the initially formed photoproduct. The three methodologies for quantifying CO release under these physiologically relevant conditions are also described.

  19. Thuniopsis: A New Orchid Genus and Phylogeny of the Tribe Arethuseae (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hai-Fei; Wen, Tie-Long; Li, Shi-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of a questionable orchid led to the discovery of a new genus and species Thuniopsis cleistogama, endemic to Yunnan province, China. It is characterized by having a subglobose corm, a spike-like (racemose) inflorescence, half opened and spurless flowers, a collar-shaped stigma and subglobose capsules. Based on DNA sequence data from three gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast matK and trnL), we investigated its phylogenetic position within the tribe Arethuseae. Phylogenies using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the recognition of Thuniopsis as a distinct genus, and suggest its close relationship to the genera Bletilla, Dilochia, and Thunia. The new genus is circumscribed and a description and illustrations of the new species are provided. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera in Arethuseae are accessed. Moreover, our phylogeny also shed light on the phylogenetic positions of several genera which, to date, remain uncertain. PMID:26244769

  20. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    PubMed

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  1. Plant-parasitic Nematode Problems in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, John

    1988-01-01

    The Pacific islands have a diverse range of food and cash crops with indigenous and introduced nematode problems. The staple food crops have serious nematode pests, such as Meloidogyne spp. on sweet potato, Hirschmanniella miticausa causing corm rot of taro, and Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus sp. producing tuber dry rot of yams. Bananas are infested with P. coffeae or R. similis, citrus with Tylenchulus semipenetrans, rice with Aphelenchoides besseyi, and ginger with Meloidogyne spp. and R. similis. Rotylenchulus reniformis, P. zeae, P. brachyurus, and Helicotylenchus spp. are important on all of these and other crops, such as sugarcane, passion fruit, pawpaw, and cassava. Meloidogyne spp. cause serious damage to local and introduced leaf and fruit vegetables and other crops, such as tobacco, sugarcane, pawpaw, black pepper, and pyrethrum. Many other plant-parasitic genera and species, some undescribed, occur in the Pacific, and there are many islands still to be investigated. PMID:19290200

  2. Structural and functional properties of C-type starches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Zhou, Weidong; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-30

    This study investigated the structural and functional properties of C-type starches from pea seeds, faba bean seeds, yam rhizomes and water chestnut corms. These starches were mostly oval in shape with significantly different sizes and contents of amylose, damaged starch and phosphorus. Pea, faba bean and water chestnut starches had central hila, and yam starch had eccentric hilum. Water chestnut and yam starches had higher amylopectin short and long chain, respectively. Water chestnut and faba bean starches showed CA-type crystallinities, and pea and yam starches had C-type crystallinities. Water chestnut starch had the highest swelling power, granule swelling and pasting viscosity, lowest gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy. Faba bean starch had the lowest pasting viscosity, whereas yam starch had the highest gelatinization temperatures. Water chestnut and yam starches possessed significantly higher and lower susceptibility to acid and enzyme hydrolysis, the highest and lowest RDS contents, and the lowest and highest RS contents, respectively.

  3. Hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Alper; Acikgoz, Aynur Ozkul

    2008-05-13

    The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L.) make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world's most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone--a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K--and two different microorganism based materials--biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms (EM)--in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus) was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  4. Screening of plants used in southern Africa for epilepsy and convulsions in the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor assay.

    PubMed

    Risa, Jofrid; Risa, Anlaug; Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Stafford, Gary I; van Staden, Johannes; Jäger, Anna K

    2004-08-01

    A number of plants are traditionally used to treat mental diseases in South Africa. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of 43 plants that are traditionally used to treat against epilepsy and convulsions, were tested in the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor binding assay, where the binding of 3H-Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) to the benzodiazepine site is measured. The GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor complex is involved in epilepsy and convulsions. Out of the 118 extracts tested, one aqueous and 18 ethanol extracts showed activity. The most active extracts were the ethanolic leaf extracts of Rhus tridentata, Rhus rehmanniana and Hoslundia opposita and the ethanolic corm extract of Hypoxis colchicifolia, which all showed good dose-dependent activity.

  5. Thuniopsis: A New Orchid Genus and Phylogeny of the Tribe Arethuseae (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Ye, De-Ping; Niu, Miao; Yan, Hai-Fei; Wen, Tie-Long; Li, Shi-Jin

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of a questionable orchid led to the discovery of a new genus and species Thuniopsis cleistogama, endemic to Yunnan province, China. It is characterized by having a subglobose corm, a spike-like (racemose) inflorescence, half opened and spurless flowers, a collar-shaped stigma and subglobose capsules. Based on DNA sequence data from three gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS, chloroplast matK and trnL), we investigated its phylogenetic position within the tribe Arethuseae. Phylogenies using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the recognition of Thuniopsis as a distinct genus, and suggest its close relationship to the genera Bletilla, Dilochia, and Thunia. The new genus is circumscribed and a description and illustrations of the new species are provided. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera in Arethuseae are accessed. Moreover, our phylogeny also shed light on the phylogenetic positions of several genera which, to date, remain uncertain.

  6. Hexamethylenetetramine carboxyborane: synthesis, structural characterization and CO releasing properties.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, T I; Raymond, C C; Dingra, N N

    2017-01-17

    Carbon monoxide, although widely known as a toxic gas, has received great attention in the past few decades due to its promising role as a medical gas. Several classes of carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) have been synthesised with many of them having pharmacological activities under physiological conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis and structural characterization of the first example of amine carboxyborane that releases CO under physiological conditions without the aid of inducers. A representative compound hexamethylenetetramine carboxyborane (HMTA-CB) described here has a half-life of 2.7 days and gradually releases CO with the rate constant of 3.0 × 10(-6) s(-1). Its ability to promote cell growth shows the beneficial effect of slow CO release to supplement CO in small amounts over time.

  7. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K N; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae.

    PubMed

    García, María Laura; Bó, Elena Dal; da Graça, John V; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A; Reyes, Carina A; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-06-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae.

  9. Carbon monoxide reverses the metabolic adaptation of microglia cells to an inflammatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jayne Louise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Almeida, Ana S; Vieira, Helena L; Ouidja, Mohand Ouidir; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    Microglia fulfill important immunological functions in the brain by responding to pathological stresses and modulating their activities according to pro- or anti-inflammatory stimuli. Recent evidence indicates that changes in metabolism accompany the switch in microglia activation state, favoring glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation when cells exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme breakdown by heme oxygenase, exerts anti-inflammatory action and affects mitochondrial function in cells and tissues. In the present study, we analyzed the metabolic profile of BV2 and primary mouse microglia exposed to the CO-releasing molecules CORM-401 and CORM-A1 and investigated whether CO affects the metabolic adaptation of cells to the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Microglia respiration and glycolysis were measured using an Extracellular Flux Analyzer to provide a real-time bioenergetic assessment, and biochemical parameters were evaluated to define the metabolic status of the cells under normal or inflammatory conditions. We show that CO prevents LPS-induced depression of microglia respiration and reduction in ATP levels while altering the early expression of inflammatory markers, suggesting the metabolic changes induced by CO are associated with control of inflammation. CO alone affects microglia respiration depending on the concentration, as low levels increase oxygen consumption while higher amounts inhibit respiration. Increased oxygen consumption was attributed to an uncoupling activity observed in cells, at the molecular level (respiratory complex activities) and during challenge with LPS. Thus, application of CO is a potential countermeasure to reverse the metabolic changes that occur during microglia inflammation and in turn modulate their inflammatory profile.

  10. Curcumin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression prevents H2O2-induced cell death in wild type and heme oxygenase-2 knockout adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Niels A J; Lundvig, Ditte M S; van Dalen, Stephanie C M; Schelbergen, Rik F; van Lent, Peter L E M; Szarek, Walter A; Regan, Raymond F; Carels, Carine E; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2014-10-08

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO) generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from wild type (WT) and HO-2 knockout (KO) mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2) significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  11. Life-history differentiation and the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Dorken, Marcel E; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2003-09-01

    The existence of monoecious and dioecious populations within plant species is rare. This limits opportunities to investigate the ecological mechanisms responsible for the evolution and maintenance of these contrasting sexual systems. In Sagittaria latifolia, an aquatic flowering plant, monoecious and dioecious populations exist in close geographic proximity but occupy distinct wetland habitats differing in the relative importance of disturbance and competition, respectively. Life-history theory predicts contrasting evolutionary responses to these environmental conditions. We propose that the maintenance of monoecy and dioecy in S. latifolia is governed by ecological selection of divergent life-history strategies in contrasting habitats. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by comparing components of growth and reproduction between monoecious and dioecious populations under four conditions: natural populations, a uniform glasshouse environment, a common garden in which monoecious and dioecious populations and their F1 progeny were compared, and a transplant experiment using shaded and unshaded plots in a freshwater marsh. Plants from dioecious populations were larger in size and produced heavier corms in comparison with monoecious populations. Monoecious populations flowered earlier and produced more flowers, clonal ramets, and corms than dioecious populations. The life-history differences between the sexual systems were shown to have a quantitative genetic basis, with F1 progeny generally exhibiting intermediate trait values. Survival was highest for each sexual system in field plots that most closely resembled the habitats in which monoecious (unshaded) and dioecious (shaded) populations grow. These results demonstrate that monoecious and dioecious populations exhibit contrasting patterns of investment in traits involved with growth and reproduction. Selection for divergent life histories between monoecious and dioecious populations of S. latifolia appears to be the

  12. IRG1 induced by heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide inhibits LPS-mediated sepsis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Jamal Uddin, Md; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Oh Jeong, Sun; Ryter, Stefan W; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2016-01-01

    The immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) protein has crucial functions in embryonic implantation and neurodegeneration. IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression in macrophages through reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which generates endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), is expressed in the lung during Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance and cross tolerance. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and functional links between IRG1 and HO-1 in the innate immune system remain unknown. In the present study, we found that the CO releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) and chemical inducers of HO-1 increased IRG1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and HO-1 siRNA significantly reduced expression of IRG1 under these conditions. In addition, treatment with CO and HO-1 induction significantly increased A20 expression, which was reversed by ZnPP and HO-1 siRNA. LPS-stimulated TNF-α was significantly decreased, whereas IRG1 and A20 were increased by CORM-2 application and HO-1 induction, which in turn were abrogated by ZnPP. Interestingly, siRNA against IRG1 and A20 reversed the effects of CO and HO-1 on LPS-stimulated TNF-α production. Additionally, CO and HO-1 inducers significantly increased IRG1 and A20 expression and downregulated TNF-α production in a LPS-stimulated sepsis mice model. Furthermore, the effects of CO and HO-1 on TNF-α production were significantly reversed when ZnPP was administered. In conclusion, CO and HO-1 induction regulates IRG1 and A20 expression, leading to inhibition of inflammation in vitro and in an in vivo mice model. PMID:25640654

  13. In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mir, Javid Iqbal; Ahmed, Nazeer; Wani, Shabir H; Rashid, Rizwan; Mir, Hidayatullah; Sheikh, Muneer A

    2010-12-01

    Saffron is an important spice derived from the stigmas of Crocus sativus, a species belonging to the family Iridaceae. Due to its triploid nature it is sterile and is not able to set seeds, so it is propagated only by corms. The natural propagation rate of most geophytes including saffron is relatively low. An in vitro multiplication technique like micropropagation has been used for the propagation of saffron. In the present study, various explants were cultured on different nutrient media supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators to standardize the best media combination for obtaining optimum response with respect to corm production and development of Stigma Like Structures (SLS). Highest response (60 %) was observed with half ovaries on G-5 media supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 55 % on LS media with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA. Maximum size (1.3 g) of microcorms were obtained from apical buds on the LS media supplemented with 21.6 μM NAA and 22.2 μM. Stigma Like Structures were developed from half ovary explants both directly and indirectly. Maximum number (120 indirectly and 20 directly) and size (5.2 cm) of SLS were obtained in G-5 medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA followed by 100 indirectly and 20 directly and 4.5 cm long on LS medium supplemented with 27 μM NAA and 44.4 μM BA.

  14. Enhanced expression of heme oxygenase-1 in the locus coeruleus can be associated with anxiolytic-like effects.

    PubMed

    Cazuza, Rafael Alves; Pol, Olga; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2017-09-05

    Some researchers have shown that carbon monoxide (CO) plays a role in emotional behavior modulation through intracellular 3'-5'-guanosine monophosphate mechanisms in the locus coeruleus (LC). In fact, the LC region has a high expression of the heme-oxygenase (HO) enzymes, which are responsible for the production of CO. However, the physiological mechanism by which the HO-CO pathway participates in the modulation of emotional responses in the LC still needs clarification. This study evaluates whether a systemic intraperitoneal treatment is able to alter behavioral responses (in the elevated plus-maze and the light-dark box test) and the expression of the HO-1 and HO-2 enzymes in the LC. The tested treatments are acute (3h before) or chronic (twice daily for 10 days) and with a carbon monoxide releaser (tricarbonyldichlororuthenium [II] dimer, or CORM-2) or with a HO-1 inducer compound (cobalt protoporphyrin IX, CoPP). The results for the elevated plus-maze show that CO-for both acute or chronic administration of either drug-increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in the open arms. Regarding the light-dark box test, chronic treatment with either drug increased the time spent in the light compartment. Additionally, treatment with CORM-2 or CoPP, either acutely or chronically, increased HO-1 enzyme expression in the LC cells. This study shows that systemic CO treatment can promote an anxiolytic-like effect and the expression of HO-1 enzymes in LC cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. IRG1 induced by heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide inhibits LPS-mediated sepsis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Jamal Uddin, Md; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Seul-Ki; Oh Jeong, Sun; Ryter, Stefan W; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2016-03-01

    The immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) protein has crucial functions in embryonic implantation and neurodegeneration. IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression in macrophages through reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which generates endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), is expressed in the lung during Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance and cross tolerance. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and functional links between IRG1 and HO-1 in the innate immune system remain unknown. In the present study, we found that the CO releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) and chemical inducers of HO-1 increased IRG1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent fashion in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) and HO-1 siRNA significantly reduced expression of IRG1 under these conditions. In addition, treatment with CO and HO-1 induction significantly increased A20 expression, which was reversed by ZnPP and HO-1 siRNA. LPS-stimulated TNF-α was significantly decreased, whereas IRG1 and A20 were increased by CORM-2 application and HO-1 induction, which in turn were abrogated by ZnPP. Interestingly, siRNA against IRG1 and A20 reversed the effects of CO and HO-1 on LPS-stimulated TNF-α production. Additionally, CO and HO-1 inducers significantly increased IRG1 and A20 expression and downregulated TNF-α production in a LPS-stimulated sepsis mice model. Furthermore, the effects of CO and HO-1 on TNF-α production were significantly reversed when ZnPP was administered. In conclusion, CO and HO-1 induction regulates IRG1 and A20 expression, leading to inhibition of inflammation in vitro and in an in vivo mice model.

  16. Hybrid performance in taro (Colocasia esculenta) in relation to genetic dissimilarity of parents.

    PubMed

    Quero-García, José; Letourmy, P; Ivancic, A; Feldmann, P; Courtois, B; Noyer, J L; Lebot, V

    2009-07-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) breeding, as other root crop breeding, is based on the production and evaluation of large numbers of hybrids. The selection of parents is based on their phenotypic value in the absence of information concerning general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), or genetic distances between varieties. By combining data from heritability trials and from genetic diversity studies conducted with AFLP and SSR markers, we aimed at studying the relationship between hybrid vigour and genetic dissimilarity between parents. The traits studied included number of suckers, corm weight, corm dimensions, and dry matter content. Correlation coefficients between hybrid gain and dissimilarity values were calculated. The prediction of hybrid performance based on the mid-parent value was compared to the prediction based on a modified expression that takes into account the genetic relationships between parents. Correlations were all but one positive but not statistically significant for all traits, with the exception of the number of suckers, when using SSR markers for dissimilarity calculations. Accordingly, the genetic dissimilarities in the prediction of hybrid performances did not increase the correlation between predicted and observed hybrid vigour values. However, large differences were observed among the residual means from the regression between predicted and observed values when using AFLP or SSR markers, mainly due to the much higher polymorphism revealed by the latter. Models need to be further adapted to the type of molecular marker used, since their ability to reveal different rates of polymorphism will have a direct incidence on the calculation of genetic dissimilarities between genotypes. Nevertheless, since SSR markers are more polymorphic and more informative than AFLP markers, they should be preferentially used for these studies. Low genetic dissimilarity of parents yielded weak heterosis effects and future studies need to be

  17. Spinal Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Exerts Antinociceptive Effects Against Neuropathic Pain in a Mouse Model of L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhijun; Cheng, Zhuqiang; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Shuangshuang; Liu, Hongjun; Jia, Hongbin; Jin, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts protective effects against ischemia and inflammation in the central nervous system. However, its role in neuropathic pain is still unclear. This study was undertaken to explore the distribution and possible mechanism of HO-1 in a mouse model of peripheral nerve injury. The experiment was conducted using a mouse model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Mice received repeated intraperitoneal injection of Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CO-RM-2), HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) or single intraspinal injection of lentivirus (LV) over-expressing HO-1. The behavior analyses were conducted. The distribution and expression of HO-1 in the spinal cord were analyzed. HO-1 but not HO-2 was upregulated in spinal cord microglia cells after nerve injury, and the repeated intraperitoneal administration of CORM-2 (10 mg/kg/d) or CoPP (5 mg/kg/d) both significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by SNL (P < 0.01). Intraspinal injection of LV-HO-1 persistently suppresses SNL-induced neuropathic pain (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly induced the spinal HO-1 protein content (P < 0.01) and inhibited the microglia activation (P < 0.01) 7 days after SNL. HO-1 upregulation could elicit potent analgesic effects against neuropathic pain, which might partly be attributed to inhibition of spinal microglia activation. HO-1 signaling pathway may present a novel strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  18. Reduced caveolin-1 promotes hyper-inflammation due to abnormal heme oxygenase-1 localizationin LPS challenged macrophages with dysfunctional CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping-Xia; Murray, Thomas S.; Villella, Valeria Rachela; Ferrari, Eleonora; Esposito, Speranza; D'Souza, Anthony; Raia, Valeria; Maiuri, Luigi; Krause, Diane S.; Egan, Marie E.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that TLR4 signaling is increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated Cystic Fibrosis (CF) macrophages (MΦs), contributing to the robust production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The heme oxygenase (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) pathway modulates cellular redox status, inflammatory responses, and cell survival. The HO-1 enzyme, together with the scaffold protein caveolin 1 (CAV-1), also acts as a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling in MΦs. Here, we demonstrate that in LPS-challenged CF MΦs, HO-1 does not compartmentalize normally to the cell surface and instead accumulates intracellularly. The abnormal HO-1 localization in CF MΦs in response to LPS is due to decreased CAV-1 expression, which is controlled by the cellular oxidative state, and is required for HO-1 delivery to the cell surface. Overexpression of HO-1 or stimulating the pathway with CO-releasing molecules (CORM2)enhancesCAV-1 expression in CF MΦs, suggesting a positive-feed forward loop between HO-1/CO induction and CAV-1 expression. These manipulations reestablished HO-1 and CAV-1 cell surface localization in CF MΦ's. Consistent with restoration of HO-1/CAV-1 negative regulation of TLR4 signaling, genetic or pharmacological (CORM2)-induced enhancement of this pathway decreased the inflammatory response of CF MΦs and CF mice treated with LPS. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the counter-regulatory HO-1/CO pathway, which is critical in balancing and limiting the inflammatory response, is defective in CF MΦs through a CAV-1-dependent mechanism, exacerbating the CF MΦ's response to LPS. This pathway could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention for CF lung disease. PMID:23606537

  19. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  20. Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br.

    PubMed

    Chua, Melinda; Baldwin, Timothy C; Hocking, Trevor J; Chan, Kelvin

    2010-03-24

    Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) has long been used in China, Japan and South East Asia as a food source and as a traditional medicine. Flour extracted from the corm of this species is used in Far Eastern cuisine to make noodles, tofu and snacks. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a gel prepared from the flour has been used for detoxification, tumour-suppression, blood stasis alleviation and phlegm liquefaction; and for more than 2000 years has been consumed by the indigenous people of China for the treatment of asthma, cough, hernia, breast pain, burns as well as haematological and skin disorders. Over the past two decades, purified konjac flour, commonly known as konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been introduced on a relatively small scale into the United States and Europe, both as a food additive and a dietary supplement. The latter is available in capsule form or as a drink mix and in food products. Clinical studies have demonstrated that supplementing the diet with KGM significantly lowers plasma cholesterol, improves carbohydrate metabolism, bowel movement and colonic ecology. Standards for the classification of both konjac flour and KGM have been established by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, the European Commission and the U.S. Food Chemicals Codex. However, to date, there is no worldwide agreed regulatory standard for konjac flour or KGM. This highlights the need for harmonization of konjac commercial standards to assess and ensure the quality of existing and future KGM products. Despite the widespread consumption of konjac derived products in East and South East Asia, there has been limited research on the biology, processing and cultivation of this species in the West. Most studies performed outside Asia have focussed on the structural characterisation and physicochemical properties of KGM. Therefore, the objective of this monograph is to review the literature covering the ethnic uses, botany and cultivation of konjac corms, together with the health

  1. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  2. On the use of certified reference materials for assuring the quality of results for the determination of mercury in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Bulska, Ewa; Krata, Agnieszka; Kałabun, Mateusz; Wojciechowski, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    This work focused on the development and validation of methodologies for the accurate determination of mercury in environmental samples and its further application for the preparation and certification of new reference materials (RMs). Two certified RMs ERM-CC580 (inorganic matrix) and ERM-CE464 (organic matrix) were used for the evaluation of digestion conditions assuring the quantitative recovery of mercury. These conditions were then used for the digestion of new candidates for the environmental RMs: bottom sediment (M_2 BotSed), herring tissue (M_3 HerTis), cormorant tissue (M_4 CormTis), and codfish muscle (M_5 CodTis). Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) were used for the measurement of mercury concentration in all RMs. In order to validate and assure the accuracy of results, isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was applied as a primary method of measurement, assuring the traceability of obtained values to the SI units: the mole, the kilogram, and the second. Results obtained by IDMS using n((200)Hg)/n((202)Hg) ratio, with estimated combined uncertainty, were as follows: (916 ± 41)/[4.5 %] ng g(-1) (M_2 BotSed), (236 ± 14)/[5.9 %] ng g(-1) (M_3 HerTis), (2252 ± 54)/[2.4 %] ng g(-1) (M_4 CormTis), and (303 ± 15)/[4.9 %] ng g(-1) (M_CodTis), respectively. Different types of detection techniques and quantification (external calibration, standard addition, isotope dilution) were applied in order to improve the quality of the analytical results. The good agreement (within less than 2.5 %) between obtained results and those derived from the Inter-laboratory Comparison, executed by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) on the same sample matrices, further validated the analytical procedures developed in this study, as well as the concentration of mercury in all four new RMs. Although the developed protocol enabling the metrological

  3. Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, via endogenous carbon monoxide, promote survival of brain endothelial cells during TNF-α-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Basuroy, Shyamali; Tcheranova, Dilyara; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Leffler, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in promoting cell survival during oxidative stress induced by the inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) from newborn piglets. Nox4 is the major isoform of NADPH oxidase responsible for TNF-α-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in CMVEC. We present novel data that Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS also initiate a cell survival mechanism by increasing production of a gaseous antioxidant mediator carbon monoxide (CO) by constitutive heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2). TNF-α rapidly enhanced endogenous CO production in a superoxide- and NADPH oxidase-dependent manner in CMVEC with innate, but not with small interfering RNA (siRNA)-downregulated Nox4 activity. CORM-A1, a CO-releasing compound, inhibited Nox4-mediated ROS production and enhanced cell survival in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-induced CO-mediated survival mechanism requires functional interactions between the protein kinase B/Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)/p38 MAPK signaling pathways activated by TNF-α. In Akt siRNA-transfected CMVEC and in cells with pharmacologically inhibited Akt, Erk1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, CORM-A1 was no longer capable of blocking Nox4 activation and apoptosis caused by TNF-α. Overall, Nox4 NADPH oxidase-derived ROS initiate both death and survival pathways in TNF-α-challenged CMVEC. The ROS-dependent cell survival pathway is mediated by an endogenous antioxidant CO, which inhibits Nox4 activation via a mechanism that includes Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The ability of CO to inhibit TNF-α-induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities in an Akt-dependent manner appears to be the key element in ROS-dependent survival of endothelial cells during TNF-α-mediated brain inflammatory disease. PMID:21123734

  4. Analysis of nonstructural carbohydrates in storage organs of 30 ornamental geophytes by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ranwala, Anil P; Miller, William B

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of nonstructural carbohydrates in storage organs (bulbs and corms) of 30 ornamental geophytes was conducted by employing a variety of extraction techniques followed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Among species, starch, fructan, glucomannan and soluble sugars accounted for 50-80% of storage organ dry weight (DW). Starch ranged from 24 to 760 mg g(-1) DW, fructan (commonly occurring with starch) from 25 to 500 mg g(-1) DW, and glucomannan from 15 to 145 mg g(-1) DW. An acid hydrolysis protocol for concurrent determination of fructan and glucomannan was developed. The average degree of polymerization (DP) of ethanol and water-soluble fructan and the man : glu ratio of glucomannan also varied between species. The 80% ethanol fraction contained soluble sugars and short-chain fructans (< 25 DP), whereas water extracts contained soluble sugars, fructans (both short- and long-chain,

  5. Effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation in an estuarine emergent wetland plant-Sagittaria graminea (Alismataceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lihui; Zhao, Xingnan; Huang, Shengjun; Zhao, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    In estuarine wetlands, the daily periodic tidal activity has a profound effect on plant growth and reproduction. We studied the effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation of Sagittaria graminea. Results showed that the species had very different reproductive allocation in tidal and non-tidal habitats. In the tidal area, seed production was only 9.7% of that in non-tidal habitat, however, plants produced more male flowers and nearly twice the corms compared to those in non-tidal habitat. An experiment showed that the time available for effective pollination determined the pollination rate and pollen deposition in the tidal area. A control experiment suggested that low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency is not the main cause of very low seed sets or seed production in this plant in tidal habitat. The negative effects of tides (water) on pollen germination may surpass the influence of low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency. The length of time from pollen deposition to flower being submerged by water affected pollen germination rate on stigmas; more than three hours is necessary to allow pollen germination and complete fertilization to eliminate the risk of pollen grains being washed away by tidal water.

  6. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  7. Genetic variation and variation in aggressiveness to native and exotic hosts among Brazilian populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; Thorpe, Daniel J; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2011-05-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a complex of many species that cause wilt and cankers on woody plants and rot of storage roots or corms of many economically important crops worldwide. In Brazil, C. fimbriata infects different cultivated crop plants that are not native to Brazil, including Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus spp., Mangifera indica (mango), Ficus carica (fig), and Colocasia esculenta (inhame). Phylogenetic analyses and inoculation studies were performed to test the hypothesis that there are host-specialized lineages of C. fimbriata in Brazil. The internal transcribed spacer region ribosomal DNA sequences varied greatly but there was little resolution of lineages based on these sequences. A portion of the MAT1-2 mating type gene showed less variation, and this variation corresponded more closely with host of origin. However, mango isolates were found scattered throughout the tree. Inoculation experiments on the five exotic hosts showed substantial variation in aggressiveness within and among pathogen populations. Native hosts from the same families as the exotic hosts tended to be less susceptible than the cultivated hosts, but there was little correlation between aggressiveness to the cultivated and native hosts of the same family. Cultivation and vegetative propagation of exotic crops may select for strains that are particularly aggressive on those crops.

  8. Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium–mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana. PMID:22745785

  9. The hexacarbonyldicobalt derivative of aspirin acts as a CO-releasing NSAID on malignant mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zanellato, Ilaria; Bonarrigo, Ilaria; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gust, Ronald; Osella, Domenico

    2013-12-01

    The antiproliferative activity of the aspirin derivative [2-acetoxy-(2-propynyl)benzoate]hexacarbonyldicobalt (Co-ASS) and its analogue hexacarbonyl[μ-(2-ethylphenyl)methanol]dicobalt (Co-EPM) was investigated on malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cell lines, having an epithelioid or a sarcomatoid phenotype. In sarcomatoid cell lines Co-ASS was more potent than Co-EPM and the prototypal metallo-drug cisplatin, and induced cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, associated with a strong NF-κB inhibition. In contrast, both Co-ASS and Co-EPM showed only a modest cytostatic activity against epithelioid MPM cells. Co-EPM induced an increase of senescent cells, while Co-ASS did not; the different outcomes were traced back to the organic (aspirin-like) portion of the molecule. Both Co-EPM and Co-ASS significantly reduced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and in turn nitrites, suggesting that the hexacarbonyldicobalt moiety may deliver CO within the cell, acting as a CO-releasing molecule (CO-RM). In perspective, Co-ASS would be better considered as a CO-NSAID agent (a CO-releasing molecule retaining the NSAID properties similar to NO- and H2S-NSAIDs) than as an antitumor drug candidate.

  10. Organochlorine (chlordecone) uptake by root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clostre; Philippe, Letourmy; Magalie, Lesueur-Jannoyer

    2015-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, continues to pollute soils in the French West Indies. The main source of human exposure to this pollutant is food. Root vegetables, which are staple foods in tropical regions, can be highly contaminated and are thus a very effective lever for action to reduce consumer exposure. We analyzed chlordecone contamination in three root vegetables, yam, dasheen and sweet potato, which are among the main sources of chlordecone exposure in food in the French West Indies. All soil types do not have the same potential for the contamination of root vegetables, allophanic andosols being two to ten times less contaminating than non-allophanic nitisols and ferralsols. This difference was only partially explained by the higher OC content in allophanic soils. Dasheen corms were shown to accumulate more chlordecone than yam and sweet potato tubers. The physiological nature of the root vegetable may explain this difference. Our results are in good agreement with the hypothesis that chlordecone uptake by root vegetables is based on passive and diffusive processes and limited by transport and dilution during growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical characterization and thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anuradha; Wadhwa, Neeraj

    2017-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase from Amorphophallus corm was purified (5.54 fold) by acetone precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Electrophoretic-blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of enzyme is 40 kDa. Enzyme preferred catechol as substrate and showed optimum activity at pH 6 and 35 °C with Km of 17.56 mM and Vmax 0.023 U/ml/min. Thermal inactivation kinetics study showed that 5.68% inactivation was achieved at 75 °C within 40 min. The half-life time of PPO is between 126.00 and 32.54 min. The activation energy (Ea) and Z values are 64.22 kJ/mol and 34.01 °C, respectively. The inhibitory action of L-ascorbic acid, sodium azide, NaCl, CaCl2, ZnSO4 and EDTA were studied. Thermodynamic studies indicated a non-spontaneous (ΔG > 0) and endothermic reaction process. Other thermodynamic activation parameters, such as Ea, ΔH(#), ΔG(#) and ΔS(#), were also studied. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius polyphenol oxidase can find application in baking industry.

  12. Characteristics of glucomannan isolated from fresh tuber of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume).

    PubMed

    Yanuriati, Anny; Marseno, Djagal Wiseso; Rochmadi; Harmayani, Eni

    2017-01-20

    Porang is a potential source of glucomannan. This research objective was to find a direct glucomannan isolation method from fresh porang corm to produce high purity glucomannan. Two isolation methods were performed. In first method, sample was water dissolved using Al2(SO4)3 as flocculant for 15 (AA15) or 30 (AA30) minutes with purification. In second method, sample was repeatedly milled using ethanol as solvent and filtered for 5 (EtOH5) or 7 (EtOH7) times without purification. The characteristics of obtained glucomannan were compared to those of commercial porang flour (CPF) and purified konjac glucomannan (PKG). High purity (90.98%), viscosity (27,940 cps) and transparency (57.74%) of amorphous glucomannan were isolated by EtOH7. Ash and protein level significantly reduced to 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively, with no starch content. Water holding capacity (WHC) of EtOH7 glucomannan significantly enhanced, whereas its solubility was lower than those of PKG due to its ungrounded native granular form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population structure of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) in Asia.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Edi; Lian, Chun Lan; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Misra, Raj Shekhar; Boonkorkaew, Patchareeya; Thanomchit, Kanokwan

    2017-01-01

    The corms and leaves of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) are important foods in the local diet in many Asian regions. The crop has high productivity and wide agroecological adaptation and exhibits suitability for the agroforestry system. Although the plant is assumed to reproduce via panmixia, a comprehensive study on the genetic background across regions to enhance wider consumer palatability is still lacking. Here, ten informative microsatellites were analyzed in 29 populations across regions in India, Indonesia and Thailand to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and distribution to improve breeding and conservation programs. The genetic diversity was high among and within regions. Some populations exhibited excess heterozygosity and bottlenecking. Pairwise FST indicated very high genetic differentiation across regions (FST = 0.274), and the Asian population was unlikely to be panmictic. Phylogenetic tree construction grouped the populations according to country of origin with the exception of the Medan population from Indonesia. The current gene flow was apparent within the regions but was restricted among the regions. The present study revealed that Indonesia and Thailand populations could be alternative centers of the gene pool, together with India. Consequently, regional action should be incorporated in genetic conservation and breeding efforts to develop new varieties with global acceptance.

  14. Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Xu, Daokun; Cui, Weiti; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-01-01

    Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences. PMID:22419743

  15. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana.

    PubMed

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana.

  16. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and nutritional content in selected ethiopian staple food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Forsido, Sirawdink Fikreyesus; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Astatkie, Tess

    2013-12-01

    The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content (TPC) and nutritional content of five types of enset (Enset ventricosum) flour in comparison with four staples (teff [Eragrostis tef], wheat, corn and tapioca) were evaluated. Teff, corn and "amicho" (corm of enset) had the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP and TPC of teff (1.8 mmol Trolox equivalence/100 g dry matter (DM) and 123.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DM, respectively) were over 4-fold larger than the lowest obtained from "bulla" (dehydrated juice of pseudostem of enset). Corn had the lowest IC(50) value of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (10.27 mg DM mL(-1)). Teff had the highest crude fat content (3.71%) and some mineral profile (P, Mg, Mn and Cu). Enset products had higher fiber, Ca, K, Mg and Mn content as compared to wheat and corn. Ethiopian staple teff has a potential for developing value-added food products with nutritional and health benefits.

  17. Age and Individual Foraging Behavior Predict Tooth Wear in Amboseli Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Altmann, Jeanne; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Alberts, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    Teeth represent an essential component of the foraging apparatus for any mammal, and tooth wear can have significant implications for survival and reproduction. This study focuses on tooth wear in wild baboons in Amboseli, southern Kenya. We obtained mandibular and maxillary tooth impressions from 95 baboons and analyzed digital images of replicas made from these impressions. We measured tooth wear as the percent dentine exposure (PDE, the percent of the occlusal surface on which dentine was exposed), and we examined the relationship of PDE to age, behavior, and life history variables. We found that PDE increased significantly with age for both sexes in all three molar types. In females, we also tested the hypotheses that long-term patterns of feeding behavior, social dominance rank, and one measure of maternal investment (the cumulative number of months that a female had dependent infants during her lifetime) would predict tooth wear when we controlled for age. The hypothesis that feeding behavior predicted tooth wear was supported. The percent of feeding time spent consuming grass corms predicted PDE when controlling for age. However, PDE was not associated with social dominance rank or maternal investment. Am J Phys Anthropol 000:000–000, 2010. PMID:20721946

  18. Conservation of remnant populations of Colchicum autumnale - The relative importance of local habitat quality and habitat fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaens, Dries; Jacquemyn, Hans; Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Semi-natural habitat is extremely vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and degradation since its socio-economic value has decreased substantially during the last century in most parts of Europe. We evaluated the relative effects of habitat fragmentation and local environmental conditions on population structure and reproductive performance of the long-lived corm geophyte Colchicum autumnale in 17 highly fragmented populations. Habitat isolation did not affect patch occupancy, population structure or plant performance. In contrast, population size and local environment strongly affected population structure and reproductive performance. Densities of all life stages increased with increasing population size. Large populations also showed a higher reproductive performance and a larger proportion of new recruits. Relationships with local growth conditions pointed towards the importance of an open grassland sward for flower and fruit set and the presence of microsites for successful sexual recruitment. These results suggest that the distribution of C. autumnale consists of an assemblage of basically unconnected populations that are remnants of formerly larger populations. This is in accordance with the species' ability to grow clonally, allowing long-term persistence under deteriorating conditions that occurred during a long period of habitat fragmentation. In conclusion, our results indicate that local habitat and population size are more important than habitat fragmentation (i.e. calcareous grassland isolation and surface area) and argue in favour of a management that is primarily focused on local habitat restoration. This is preferentially accomplished by reintroducing grazing practices, complemented by regular setback of spontaneous succession towards forest.

  19. Interaction of carbon monoxide with transition metals: evolutionary insights into drug target discovery.

    PubMed

    Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    The perception that carbon monoxide (CO) is poisonous and life-threatening for mammalian organisms stems from its intrinsic propensity to bind iron in hemoglobin, a reaction that ultimately leads to impaired oxygen delivery to tissues. From evolutionary and chemical perspectives, however, CO is one of the most essential molecules in the formation of biological components and its interaction with transition metals is at the origin of primordial cell signaling. Not surprisingly, mammals have gradually evolved systems to finely control the synthesis and the sensing of this gaseous molecule. Cells are indeed continuously exposed to small quantities of CO produced endogenously during the degradation of heme by constitutive and inducible heme oxygenase enzymes. We have gradually learnt that heme oxygenase-derived carbon monoxide (CO) serves as a ubiquitous signaling mediator which could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. The development of transition metal carbonyls as prototypic carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) represents a novel stratagem for a safer delivery of CO-based pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various pathological disorders. This review will look back at evolution to analyze and argue that a dynamic interaction of CO with specific intracellular metal centers is the common denominator for the diversified beneficial effects mediated by this gaseous molecule.

  20. Remote-controlled delivery of CO via photoactive CO-releasing materials on a fiber optical device.

    PubMed

    Gläser, Steve; Mede, Ralf; Görls, Helmar; Seupel, Susanne; Bohlender, Carmen; Wyrwa, Ralf; Schirmer, Sina; Dochow, Sebastian; Reddy, Gandra Upendar; Popp, Jürgen; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-08-16

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) delivery materials (CORMAs) have been generated, remote-controlled delivery with light-activated CORMAs at a local site has not been achieved. In this work, a fiber optic-based CO delivery system is described in which the photoactive and water insoluble CO releasing molecule (CORM) manganese(i) tricarbonyl [(OC)3Mn(μ3-SR)]4 (R = nPr, 1) has been non-covalently embedded into poly(l-lactide-co-d/l-lactide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) non-woven fabrics via the electrospinning technique. SEM images of the hybrid materials show a porous fiber morphology for both polymer supports. The polylactide non-woven fabric was attached to a fiber optical device. In combination with a laser irradiation source, remote-controlled and light-triggered CO release at 405 nm excitation wavelength was achieved. The device enabled a high flexibility of the spatially and timely defined application of CO with the biocompatible hybrid fabric in aqueous media. The rates of liberated CO were adjusted with the light intensity of the laser. CO release was confirmed via ATR-IR spectroscopy, a portable electrochemical CO sensor and a heterogeneous myoglobin assay.

  1. Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process that occurs under inductive conditions and causes fully differentiated cells to be reprogrammed to an embryo like state. In order to get a better insight about molecular basis of the SE in Crocus sativus L. and to characterize differentially accumulated proteins during the process, a proteomic study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry has been carried out. Results We have compared proteome profiles of non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli with native corm explants. Total soluble proteins were phenol-extracted and loaded on 18 cm IPG strips for the first dimension and 11.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels for the second dimension. Fifty spots with more than 1.5-fold change in abundance were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis for further characterization. Among them 36 proteins could be identified, which are classified into defense and stress response, protein synthesis and processing, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, secondary metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Conclusion Our results showed that diverse cellular and molecular processes were affected during somatic to embryogenic transition. Differential proteomic analysis suggests a key role for ascorbate metabolism during early stage of SE, and points to the possible role of ascorbate-glutathione cycle in establishing somatic embryos. PMID:22243837

  2. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of {eta}{omicron}-1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyoung Chul; Kim, Hee Sun; Lee, Kwang Youn; Chang, Ki Churl Kang, Young Jin

    2008-11-28

    We investigated whether NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, induces HO-1 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). NS-398 reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} without modulation of expression of COX-2 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, but inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. Furthermore, SnPPIX, a HO-1 inhibitor, reversed the effects of NS-398 on PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting that COX-2 activity can be affected by HO-1. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} and proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, but not bilirubin inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC in a HbO{sub 2}-sensitive manner. In conclusion, NS-398 inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC by HO-1-derived CO. Thus, NS-398 may facilitate the healing process of vessels in vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis.

  3. Fourier transform infrared analysis of Tamra Bhasma at different levels: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Rajput, Dhirajsingh S.; Galib, R.; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tamra Bhasma, one among the herbo-metallic preparations is extensively used in Ayurveda for different conditions. To make it safe to use, Tamra has to pass through a set of classical pharmaceutical procedures including a series of quenching in prescribed liquids, followed by incineration with black sulfide of mercury and herbal juice of Citrus jambhiri Lush. and corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus Linn. FTIR profiles of Tamra Bhasma at different levels is not available. Aim: To evaluate the chemical changes in Tamra Bhasma at different steps by following Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: In current study, raw Tamra, intermediate samples obtained during purification, incineration and Amritikarana were analyzed using FTIR. Results: It was observed that Shodhana procedure leads in the formation of bonds between surface particles of Tamra and Shodhana media. These formed bonds on the surface of Shodhita Tamra samples gave various sharp peaks representing presence of many functional groups. Conclusion: The FTIR spectra revealed that both Bhasma samples contained organic compounds probably in the form of a complex with common functional groups like alkyl, methyl, etc., which need further studies for exact characterization of the complexes. PMID:26730144

  4. Fourier transform infrared analysis of Tamra Bhasma at different levels: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Rajput, Dhirajsingh S; Galib, R; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tamra Bhasma, one among the herbo-metallic preparations is extensively used in Ayurveda for different conditions. To make it safe to use, Tamra has to pass through a set of classical pharmaceutical procedures including a series of quenching in prescribed liquids, followed by incineration with black sulfide of mercury and herbal juice of Citrus jambhiri Lush. and corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus Linn. FTIR profiles of Tamra Bhasma at different levels is not available. To evaluate the chemical changes in Tamra Bhasma at different steps by following Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In current study, raw Tamra, intermediate samples obtained during purification, incineration and Amritikarana were analyzed using FTIR. It was observed that Shodhana procedure leads in the formation of bonds between surface particles of Tamra and Shodhana media. These formed bonds on the surface of Shodhita Tamra samples gave various sharp peaks representing presence of many functional groups. The FTIR spectra revealed that both Bhasma samples contained organic compounds probably in the form of a complex with common functional groups like alkyl, methyl, etc., which need further studies for exact characterization of the complexes.

  5. Overexpression of MusaMYB31, a R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene indicate its role as a negative regulator of lignin biosynthesis in banana

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin and polyphenols are important cellular components biosynthesized through phenylpropanoid pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is regulated by some important transcription factors including R2R3 MYB transcription factors. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a banana R2R3-MYB transcription factor (MusaMYB31) by overexpression in transgenic banana plants and evaluated its potential role in regulating biosynthesis of lignin and polyphenols. Sequence analysis of MusaMYB31 indicated its clustering with members of subgroup 4 (Sg4) of R2R3MYB family which are well known for their role as repressors of lignin biosynthesis. Expression analysis indicated higher expression of MusaMYB31 in corm and root tissue, known for presence of highly lignified tissue than other organs of banana. Overexpression of MusaMYB31 in banana cultivar Rasthali was carried out and four transgenic lines were confirmed by GUS histochemical staining, PCR analysis and Southern blot. Histological and biochemical analysis suggested reduction of cell wall lignin in vascular elements of banana. Transgenic lines showed alteration in transcript levels of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes including lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Reduction of total polyphenols content in transgenic lines was in line with the observation related to repression of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. This study suggested the potential role of MusaMYB31 as repressor of lignin and polyphenols biosynthesis in banana. PMID:28234982

  6. A New Probe of the Molecular Gas Content in Galaxies: Application to M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. A.; Allen, R. J.; Bohlin, R. C.; Nicholson, N.; Stecher, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of nearby spiral galaxies suggest that photodissociation regions (PDRs) are capable of producing the observed large--scale distribution of HI (Allen et al.- 1997, and references therein). The column density of HI in a PDR is fundamentally linked to the amount of far--ultraviolet (FUV) emission produced by nearby young stars and the local molecular gas volume density. Measurements of the HI column density and the FUV emission associated with PDRs thus provide a new probe of the molecular gas distribution in nearby galaxies. Advantages of this method include its insensitivity to assumptions about the CO/{\\rm H2} conversion factor or the gas temperature. We discuss the application of this method to M101. The HI column density and FUV emission have been measured for 35 PDRs from VLA data (Braun 1997) and Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope data (Waller et al.-1997). We derive volume densities ranging from n-100 {\\rm cm(exp -3)} in the central HI--poor regions of M101 to n -3000 {\\rm cm(exp -3)} in the HI--rich periphery of the galaxy.

  7. Effects of Tidal Action on Pollination and Reproductive Allocation in an Estuarine Emergent Wetland Plant–Sagittaria graminea (Alismataceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lihui; Zhao, Xingnan; Huang, Shengjun; Zhao, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    In estuarine wetlands, the daily periodic tidal activity has a profound effect on plant growth and reproduction. We studied the effects of tidal action on pollination and reproductive allocation of Sagittaria graminea. Results showed that the species had very different reproductive allocation in tidal and non-tidal habitats. In the tidal area, seed production was only 9.7% of that in non-tidal habitat, however, plants produced more male flowers and nearly twice the corms compared to those in non-tidal habitat. An experiment showed that the time available for effective pollination determined the pollination rate and pollen deposition in the tidal area. A control experiment suggested that low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency is not the main cause of very low seed sets or seed production in this plant in tidal habitat. The negative effects of tides (water) on pollen germination may surpass the influence of low pollen deposition from low visitation frequency. The length of time from pollen deposition to flower being submerged by water affected pollen germination rate on stigmas; more than three hours is necessary to allow pollen germination and complete fertilization to eliminate the risk of pollen grains being washed away by tidal water. PMID:24244393

  8. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions.

  9. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Phytophthora colocasiae responsible for the taro leaf blight using conventional and real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Nath, Vishnu S; Hegde, Vinayaka M; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi L; Misra, Raj S; Veena, Syamala S; Raj, Mithun; Unnikrishnan, Suresh K; Darveekaran, Sree S

    2014-03-01

    Conventional and real-time PCR assays were developed for sensitive and specific detection of Phytophthora colocasiae, an oomycete pathogen that causes leaf blight and corm rot of taro. A set of three primer pairs was designed from regions of the RAS-related protein (Ypt1), G protein alpha-subunit (GPA1) and phospho-ribosylanthranilate isomerase (TRP1) genes. In conventional PCR, the lower limit of detection was 50 pg DNA, whereas in real-time PCR, the detection limit was 12.5 fg for the primer based on Ypt1 gene. The cycle threshold values were linearly correlated with the concentration of the target DNA (range of R(2) = 0.911-0.999). All the primer sets were successful in detecting P. colocasie from naturally infected leaves and tubers of taro. Phytophthora colocasiae was detected from artificially infested samples after 18 and 15 h of postinoculation in conventional and real-time PCR assay, respectively. The developed PCR assay proved to be a robust and reliable technique to detect P. colocasiae in taro planting material and for assessing the distribution of pathogen within fields, thus aid in mitigating taro leaf blight.

  11. Molecular cloning, recombinant gene expression, and antifungal activity of cystatin from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Kaosiung no. 1).

    PubMed

    Yang, A H; Yeh, K W

    2005-06-01

    A cDNA clone, designated CeCPI, encoding a novel phytocystatin was isolated from taro corms (Colocasia esculenta) using both degenerated primers/RT-PCR amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The full-length cDNA gene is 1,008 bp in size, encodes 206 amino acid residues, with a deduced molecular weight of 29 kDa. It contains a conserved reactive site motif Gln-Val-Val-Ser-Gly of cysteine protease inhibitors, and another consensus ARFAV sequence for phytocystatin. Sequence analysis revealed that CeCPI is phylogenetically closely related to Eudicots rather than to Monocots, despite taro belonging to Monocot. Recombinant GST-CeCPI fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and its inhibitory activity against papain was identified on gelatin/SDS-PAGE. These results confirmed that recombinant CeCPI protein exhibited strong cysteine protease inhibitory activity. Investigation of its antifungal activity clearly revealed a toxic effect on the mycelium growth of phytopathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. etc., at a concentration of 80 microg recombinant CeCPI/ ml. Moreover, mycelium growth was completely inhibited and the sclerotia lysed at a concentration of 150-200 microg/ml. Further studies have demonstrated that recombinant CeCPI is capable of acting against the endogenous cysteine proteinase in the fungal mycelium.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Managing the Papuana uninodis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Taro Beetle in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Daigneault, A

    2014-10-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) plays a prominent role in the economies and cultures of Pacific Island countries such as Fiji. Unfortunately, taro is highly susceptible to invasion from taro beetles, which burrow into the corms and weaken the plants, rendering them unmarkable and prone to rot. Papuana uninodis Prell, an invasive alien species that is native to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, was first reported on Viti Levu (Fiji's largest island) in 1984. Since that time, taro production on Viti Levu has fallen substantially. In this paper, we employ data from surveys of households and communities to document the impacts of P. uninodis on Viti Levu. We then identify three management approaches-chemical controls, cultural controls, and switching from taro to another staple crop-and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of each. We find strong arguments for pursuing chemical control, which derives a net present value of monetised benefits of about FJ$139,500 per hectare over 50 yr, or >FJ$21 for each FJ$1 spent. Still, any of the three management options is more efficient than no management, even without any attempt to quantify the benefits to biodiversity or forest protection, underscoring the value of actively managing this invasive alien species.

  13. Rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lebot, Vincent; Malapa, Roger; Bourrieau, Marion

    2011-09-14

    The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology for the rapid estimation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) quality. Chemical analyses were conducted on 315 accessions for major constituents (starch, total sugars, cellulose, proteins, and minerals). NIRS calibration equations, developed on a calibration set composed of 243 accessions, showed high explained variances in cross-validation (r(2)(cv)) for starch (0.89), sugars (0.90), proteins (0.89), and minerals (0.90) but poor response for amylose (0.44) and cellulose (0.61). The predictions were tested on an independent set of 58 randomly selected accessions. The r(2)(pred) values for starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals were, respectively, of 0.76, 0.74, 0.85, and 0.85 with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of 3.41, 4.01, 3.78, and 3.64. New calibration equations developed on 303 accessions confirmed good RPD values for starch (3.30), sugars (4.13), proteins (3.61), and minerals (3.74). NIRS could be used to predict starch, sugars, proteins, and minerals contents in taro corms with reasonably high confidence.

  14. Influence of nutrient media on callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in selected Turkish crocus species.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Ashok Kumar; Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Uslu, Emel; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-06-01

    Callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were initiated in selected five species of Turkish crocus using three diffrent explants (leaf, stem and corm) cultured on four different media (MS, GB5, LS and CHE). The highest frequencies of callus induction (100%) and shoot regeneration (70%, with 7.2 shoots/callus) were found in the crocus species Crocus oliveri ssp. Oliveri, using the MS medium containing 5% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with (4 mg/L NAA + 4 mg/L TDZ) and (2 mg/L IAA + 2 mg/L TDZ + 2 mg/L BAP). When the embryogenic calli were transferred into the four nutrient media containing (2 mg/L IAA + 2 mg/L TDZ) and 100 mg/L ABA, these further developed into cotyledonary embryos. Maximum number of somatic embryos (2.9 embryos per leaf explant, with a frequency 46.6%) was obtained in C. oliveri ssp. Oliveri. During subculture using the half strength media, cotyledonary embryos gradually developed into plantlets.

  15. Functional characterization of secondary wall deposition regulating transcription factors MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2016-03-01

    NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in stress responses and developmental regulation. MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are vascular-related NAC domain-containing genes encoding for nuclear-localized proteins. The transcript level of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are gradually induced after induction of lignification conditions in banana embryogenic cells. Banana embryogenic cells differentiated to tracheary element-like cells after overexpression of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 with a differentiation frequency of 63.5 and 23.4 %, respectively, after ninth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing either of MusaVND2 or MusaVND3 showed ectopic secondary wall deposition as well as transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements. Transdifferentiation to tracheary element-like cells was observed in cortical cells of corm and in epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves of transgenic plants. Elevated levels of lignin and crystalline cellulose were detected in the transgenic banana lines than control plants. The results obtained are useful for understanding the molecular regulation of secondary wall development in banana.

  16. Population structure of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Raj Shekhar; Boonkorkaew, Patchareeya; Thanomchit, Kanokwan

    2017-01-01

    The corms and leaves of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) are important foods in the local diet in many Asian regions. The crop has high productivity and wide agroecological adaptation and exhibits suitability for the agroforestry system. Although the plant is assumed to reproduce via panmixia, a comprehensive study on the genetic background across regions to enhance wider consumer palatability is still lacking. Here, ten informative microsatellites were analyzed in 29 populations across regions in India, Indonesia and Thailand to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and distribution to improve breeding and conservation programs. The genetic diversity was high among and within regions. Some populations exhibited excess heterozygosity and bottlenecking. Pairwise FST indicated very high genetic differentiation across regions (FST = 0.274), and the Asian population was unlikely to be panmictic. Phylogenetic tree construction grouped the populations according to country of origin with the exception of the Medan population from Indonesia. The current gene flow was apparent within the regions but was restricted among the regions. The present study revealed that Indonesia and Thailand populations could be alternative centers of the gene pool, together with India. Consequently, regional action should be incorporated in genetic conservation and breeding efforts to develop new varieties with global acceptance. PMID:28658282

  17. Effect of Iron and Carbon Monoxide on Fibrinogenase-like Degradation of Plasmatic Coagulation by Venoms of Six Agkistrodon Species.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Redford, Daniel T; Boyle, Patrick K

    2016-05-01

    Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snakebite, often from defibrinogenating species. It has been demonstrated that iron and carbon monoxide change the ultrastructure of plasma thrombi and improve coagulation kinetics. Thus, this investigation sought to determine whether pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from Agkistrodon species with fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pre-treated with ferric chloride (0-10 μM) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2, 0-100 μM) prior to exposure to 0.5-11 μg/ml of six different Agkistrodon species' venom. The amount of venom used for experimentation needed to decrease coagulation function of one or more kinetic parameters by at least 50% of normal values for (e.g. half the normal speed of clot formation). Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All six snake venoms degraded plasmatic coagulation kinetics to a significant extent, especially prolonging the onset to clot formation and diminishing the speed of clot growth. Pre-treatment of plasma with iron and carbon monoxide attenuated these venom-mediated coagulation kinetic changes in a species-specific manner, with some venom effects markedly abrogated while others were only mildly decreased. Further in vitro investigation of other pit viper venoms that possess fibrinogenolytic activity is indicated to identify species amenable to or resistant to iron and carbon monoxide-mediated attenuation of venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen. Lastly, future pre-clinical investigation with animal models (e.g. rabbit ear-bleed model) is planned to determine whether iron and carbon monoxide can be used therapeutically after envenomation. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  18. Integrated micro-biochemical approach for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils using Gladiolus grandiflorus L cut flower.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The potential of vermicompost, elemental sulphur, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and Pseudomonas putida for phytoremediation is well known individually but their integrated approach has not been discovered so far. The present work highlights the consideration of so far overlooked aspects of their integrated treatment by growing the ornamental plant, Gladiolus grandiflorus L in uncontaminated and sewage-contaminated soils (sulphur-deficient alluvial Entisols, pH 7.6-7.8) for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead under pot experiment. Between vermicompost and elemental sulphur, the response of vermicompost was higher towards improvement in the biometric parameters of plants, whereas the response of elemental sulphur was higher towards enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metals under soils. The integrated treatment (T7: vermicompost 6g and elemental sulphur 0.5gkg(-1) soil and co-inoculation of the plant with T. thiooxidans and P. putida) was found superior in promoting root length, plant height and dry biomass of the plant. The treatment T7 caused enhanced accumulation of Cd up to 6.96 and 6.45mgkg(-1) and Pb up to 22.6 and 19.9mgkg(-1) in corm and shoot, respectively at the contaminated soil. T7 showed maximum remediation efficiency of 0.46% and 0.19% and bioaccumulation factor of 2.92 and 1.21 and uptake of 6.75 and 21.4mgkg(-1) dry biomass for Cd and Pb respectively in the contaminated soil. The integrated treatment T7 was found significant over the individual treatments to promote plant growth and enhance phytoremediation. Hence, authors conclude to integrate vermicompost, elemental sulphur and microbial co-inoculation for the enhanced clean-up of Cd and Pb-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  20. Prevention by lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, of indomethacin -induced small intestinal ulceration in rats through induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Y; Amagase, K; Kato, S; Tokioka, S; Murano, M; Kakimoto, K; Nishio, H; Umegaki, E; Takeuchi, K; Higuchi, K

    2010-06-01

    The effect of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), on indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration was examined in rats, particularly in relation to heme oxygenase (HO)-1. The animals were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and killed 24 h later. Lansoprazole (30-100 mg/kg, p.o.) and omeprazole (30-100 mg/kg, p.o.) were given 30 min before the administration of indomethacin, while tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnPP: 30 mg/kg, i.v.), an inhibitor of HO-1, was injected 10 min before indomethacin or lansoprazole. Indomethacin produced hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, accompanied with an increase of mucosal invasion of enterobacteria, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the mucosa. Pretreatment with lansoprazole dose- dependently reduced the severity of the indomethacin-induced intestinal lesions, with suppression of the increased MPO activity, while omeprazole had no effect. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly exacerbated these intestinal lesions and almost totally abolished the protective effect of lansoprazole. The up-regulation of iNOS mRNA expression following indomethacin was suppressed by lansoprazole in a SnPP-inhibitable manner, although the enhanced enterobacterial invasion remained unaffected. The amount of HO-1 protein in the intestinal mucosa was significantly increased by lansoprazole but not by omeprazole. Prior administration of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2; 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the severity of these lesions and the enhancement of mucosal iNOS mRNA expression induced in the small intestine by indomethacin. These results suggest that lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced small intestinal ulceration, and this effect is associated with inhibition of iNOS expression, through up-regulation of HO-1/CO production in the mucosa.

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  2. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis.

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury across Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its

  4. Investigating the effect of cadmium and aluminium on growth and stress-induced responses in the micropropagated medicinal plant Hypoxis hemerocallidea.

    PubMed

    Okem, A; Moyo, M; Stirk, W A; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a highly utilized medicinal plant in South Africa. Its cultivation has received considerable attention in order to meet the high demand. High levels of cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) in H. hemerocallidea plants sold in traditional medicinal markets was previously reported. The present study used an in vitro propagation model to investigate the uptake of Cd and Al by H. hemerocallidea and their effect on plant growth, elemental uptake and some stress-induced responses such as pigment, malondialdehyde (MDA), proline content and ultrastructural changes. Shoot and root growth of plantlets exposed to Cd, Cd:Al and high concentrations of Al was significantly reduced. Highest concentrations of Cd accumulated in the corms of Cd-treated plantlets while highest Al concentrations occurred in the leaves and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd and Al when applied singularly compared to the Cd:Al combination treatments. Cd and Al also reduced accumulation of trace elements in micropropagted H. hemerocallidea with lowest concentrations in the Cd:Al combination treatments. Exposure to Cd, Al and Cd:Al significantly reduced the level of chlorophyll but increased the levels of carotenoids, MDA and proline. Ultrastructural changes were also observed in H. hemerocallidea exposed to Cd and Al. All these factors contributed to the inhibition of plant growth and could potentially affect the ability of this important medicinal plant to synthesize bioactive compounds. It is thus necessary to understand heavy metal stress-induced responses in this highly valued medicinal plant to ensure a high quality product for the consumer. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Ethnomedicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill, Srinagar, J&K, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kewal; Sharma, Yash Pal; Manhas, R K; Bhatia, Harpreet

    2015-07-21

    Primitive human societies have always relied on plants and plant products for various remedies. In certain areas, these folk medical prescriptions are endemic and have survived through ages from one generation to the next through word of mouth. They do not exist as written knowledge. The present study was undertaken with an objective of documenting the ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill by taking the help of local herbalists, elderly and knowledgeable people. The data was quantitatively analysed using use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (Fl%) indices. Total 130 plant species from 57 families and 111 genera were ethno-medicinally utilized by the 103 informants interviewed in the present study. The most used families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae and Brassicaceae. The medicinal plants were mainly herbs (79.2%). Leaves were the most used (27.6%) plant part followed by whole plant (14.8%), root (11.4%) and seed (10.5%). The most important species on the basis of UV were Viola odorata, Taraxacum campylodes, Aesculus hippocastanum, Artemisia absinthium, Daucus carota, Thymus serphyllum, Ephedra gerardiana and Salvia moorcroftiana. The values ICF ranged between 0.93 and 0.76. Only Epilobium hirsutum recorded 100% Fl. Some of the most important medicinal plants with high Fl values were Tribulus terrestris, Asparagus officinalis, Trifolium repens, Anemone biflora, Melia azedarach, A. absinthium, Lonicera quinquelocularis, Rosa webbiana, D. carota, Oxalis corniculata and Potentilla reptans. The contribution of plant parts collected through destructive methods was 29.5%. Harvesting of roots, rhizomes, bulbs and corm kills the parent plant and could be a severe threat for survival of the often rare and slowly reproducing medicinal plants, and therefore need sustainable utilization and conservation strategies. Ethnomedicinal species like A. absinthium, A. hippocastanum, D. carota, M. azedarach

  6. Nutritional and chemical properties of fermented food of wild and cultivated genotypes of enset (Ensete ventricosum).

    PubMed

    Bosha, Abraham; Dalbato, Abitew Lagibo; Tana, Tamado; Mohammed, Wassu; Tesfaye, Buzayew; Karlsson, Laila M

    2016-11-01

    The multipurpose crop enset (Ensete ventricosum) has been traditionally cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. The main food product is the starch-rich fermented kocho made from the pseudostem and corm. There are many vegetatively propagated landraces utilised by farmers, but no concisions breeding have taken place, and there are requests for improved cultivars. There are also populations of wild ensets which propagate sexually, and the variation in characteristics among the wild is not studied. We suggest investigating the variation among the wild, in order utilise the most proper combinations of parent plants when breeding for different purposes. We analysed kocho, after 30 and 90days of fermentation, from three wild genotypes and three cultivars, to compare how and how much they differ in components and perceived food quality. The three cultivars scored generally higher than all the three wild genotypes for protein, fat, sugar and minerals, while the wild had larger fraction of starch. On average, panellists rated all the cultivated significantly higher than all the wild regarding the investigated characteristics (colour, texture, taste and overall). However, there were nine out of 25 panellists who rated at least one wild genotype higher or equal to at least one cultivar regarding taste, showing that people can be open for unfamiliar kocho. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations of the variation among wild plants should be done, aiming to get a larger gene pool with improved characteristics as e.g. disease tolerance or superior mineral uptake; by careful selection of parent plants, desired combinations can be achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1 Deficiency Diminishes Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clearance Due to Reduced TLR9 Expression in Pleural Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gahlot, Satindra; Nasreen, Najmunnisa; Johnson, Judith A.; Sahn, Steven A.; Mohammed, Kamal A.

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause pneumonia and empyema thoraces. TLR9 activation provides protection against bacterial infections and Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is known to enhance host innate immunity against bacterial infections. However, it is still unclear whether HO-1 regulates TLR-9 expression in the pleura and modulates the host innate defenses during MRSA empyema. In order to determine if HO-1 regulates host innate immune functions via modulating TLR expression, in MRSA empyema, HO-1+/+ and HO-1-/- mouse pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) were infected with MRSA (1:10, MOI) in the presence or absence of Cobalt Protoporphyrin (CoPP) and Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZnPP) or CORM-2 (a Carbon monoxide donor) and the expression of mTLR9 and mBD14 was assessed by RT-PCR. In vivo, HO-1+/+ and HO-1-/- mice were inoculated with MRSA (5x106 CFU) intra-pleurally and host bacterial load was measured by CFU, and TLR9 expression in the pleura was determined by histochemical-immunostaining. We noticed MRSA inducing differential expression of TLR9 in HO-1+/+ and HO-1 -/- PMCs. In MRSA infected HO-1+/+ PMCs, TLR1, TLR4, and TLR9 expression was several fold higher than MRSA infected HO-1-/- PMCs. Particularly TLR9 expression was very low in MRSA infected HO-1-/- PMCs both in vivo and in vitro. Bacterial clearance was significantly higher in HO-1+/+ PMCs than compared to HO-1-/- PMCs in vitro, and blocking TLR9 activation diminished MRSA clearance significantly. In addition, HO-1-/- mice were unable to clear the MRSA bacterial load in vivo. MRSA induced TLR9 and mBD14 expression was significantly high in HO-1+/+ PMCs and it was dependent on HO-1 activity. Our findings suggest that HO-1 by modulating TLR9 expression in PMCs promotes pleural innate immunity in MRSA empyema. PMID:28052108

  8. Bystander effect between zebrafish embryos in vivo induced by high-dose X-rays.

    PubMed

    Choi, V W Y; Ng, C Y P; Kobayashi, A; Konishi, T; Suya, N; Ishikawa, T; Cheng, S H; Yu, K N

    2013-06-18

    We employed embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, for our studies on the in vivo bystander effect between embryos irradiated with high-dose X-rays and naive unirradiated embryos. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals at 25 h post fertilization (hpf) through the terminal dUTP transferase-mediated nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay followed by counting the stained cells under a microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4-Gy X-ray irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce a bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We further demonstrated that this bystander effect (induced through partnering) could be successfully suppressed through the addition of the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) into the medium but not through the addition of the CO liberator tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3). This shows that NO was involved in the bystander response between zebrafish embryos induced through X-ray irradiation. We also report data showing that the bystander effect could be successfully induced in naive embryos by introducing them into the irradiated embryo conditioned medium (IECM) alone, i.e., without partnering with the irradiated embryos. The IECM was harvested from the medium that had conditioned the zebrafish embryos irradiated at 5 hpf with 4-Gy X-ray until the irradiated embryos developed into 29 hpf. NO released from the irradiated embryos was unlikely to be involved in the bystander effect induced through the IECM because of the short life of NO. We further revealed that this bystander effect (induced through IECM) was rapidly abolished through diluting the IECM by a factor of 2× or greater, which agreed with the proposal that the bystander effect was an on/off response with a threshold.

  9. Eradication of HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by controlled photorelease of CO from a CO-releasing polymer (photoCORP-1) triggered by visible light through an optical fiber-based device.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Miguel N; Chakraborty, Indranil; Sandoval, Cosme; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2017-10-28

    The gaseous signaling molecule carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been recognized for its wide range of physiological activity as well as its antineoplastic properties. However, site-specific delivery of this noxious gas presents a major challenge in hospital settings. In this work, a visible light-sensitive CO-releasing molecule (photoCORM) derived from manganese(I) and 2-(quinolyl)benzothiazole (qbt) namely, [Mn(CO)3(qbt)(4-vpy)](CF3SO3) (1), has been co-polymerized within a gas-permeable HEMA/EGDMA hydrogel. The resulting photoactive CO-releasing polymer (photoCORP-1) incorporates 1 such that neither the carbonyl complex nor its photoproduct(s) exits the polymer at any time. The material can be triggered to photorelease CO remotely by low-power broadband visible light (<1mWcm(-2)) with the aid of fiber optics technology. The CO photorelease rates of photoCORP-1 (determined by spectrophotometry) can be modulated by both the concentration of 1 in the hydrogel and the intensity of the light. A CO-delivery device has been assembled to deliver CO to a suspension of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) under the control of visible light and the extent of CO-induced apoptotic death of the cancer cells has been determined via Annexin V/Propidium iodide stain and flow cytometry. This photoactive CO-releasing polymer could find use in delivering controlled doses of CO to cellular targets such as malignant tissues in remote parts of the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: a review emphasizing fossorial animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    Roots, bulbs, corms, and other below-ground organs are almost universally present in communities containing vascular plants. A large and taxonomically diverse group of herbivores uses these below-ground plant parts as its sole or primary source of food. Important within this group are plant-parasitic nematodes and several fossorial taxa that affect plants through their soil-disturbing activities as well as by consuming plant tissue. The fossorial taxa are probably best exemplified by fossorial rodents, which are distributed on all continents except Australia. All other fossorial herbivores are insects. The impact of below-groud herbivory on individual plant fitness will depend upon the extent to which, and under what circumstances, the consumption of plant tissue disrupts one or more of the six functions of below-ground plant parts. Below-ground herbivory is probably more often chronic than acute. Indirect evidence suggests that plants have responded evolutionarily to herbivory by enhancing the functional capacities of below-ground organs, thus developing a degree of tolerance, and by producing compounds that serve as feeding deterrents. Many plant species respond to the removal of root tissues by increasing the growth rate of the remaining roots and initiating new roots. Soil movement and mixing by fossorial rodents infleuce the environment of other below-ground herbivores as well as that of plants and plant propagules. The relationships among the various groups of below-ground herbivores, and between below-ground herbivores and plants, are at best poorly known, yet they appear to have major roles in determining the structure and regulating the functioning of natural communities.

  11. Isolation of a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 homolog in saffron (Crocus sativus L.): characterization and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Kalivas, Apostolos; Michailidou, Sofia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2012-08-01

    Genes in the phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family are instrumental in regulating the fate of meristems and flowering time. To investigate the role of these genes in the monocotyledonous plant Crocus (Crocus sativus L), an industrially important crop cultivated for its nutritional and medicinal properties, we have cloned and characterized a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (CEN/TFL1) like gene, named CsatCEN/TFL1-like, the first reported CEN/TFL1 gene characterized from such a perennial geophyte. Sequence analysis revealed that CsatCEN/TFL1 shows high similarity to its homologous PEBP family genes CEN/TFL1, FT and MFT from a variety of plant species and maintains the same exon/intron organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the CsatCEN/TFL1 amino acid sequence confirmed that the isolated sequences belong to the CEN/TFL1 clade of the PEBP family. CsatCEN/TFL1 transcripts could be detected in corms, flower and flower organs but not in leaves. An alternative spliced transcript was also detected in the flower. Comparison of expression levels of CsatCEN/TFL1 and its alternative spliced transcript in wild type flower and a double flower mutant showed no significant differences. Overexpression of CsatCEN/TFL1 transcript in Arabidopsis tfl1 plants reversed the phenotype of early flowering and terminal flowering of the tfl1 plants to a normal one. Computational analysis of the obtained promoter sequences revealed, next to common binding motifs in CEN/TFL1-like genes as well as other flowering gene promoters, the presence of two CArG binding sites indicative of control of CEN/TFL1 by MADS-box transcription factors involved in crocus flowering and flower organ formation.

  12. Pollinator shifts as triggers of speciation in painted petal irises (Lapeirousia: Iridaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Félix; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C.; Baker, David; Colville, Jonathan F.; Devey, Dion S.; Jose, Sarah; Kaye, Maria; Buerki, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Adaptation to different pollinators has been hypothesized as one of the main factors promoting the formation of new species in the Cape region of South Africa. Other researchers favour alternative causes such as shifts in edaphic preferences. Using a phylogenetic framework and taking into consideration the biogeographical scenario explaining the distribution of the group as well as the distribution of pollinators, this study compares pollination strategies with substrate adaptations to develop hypotheses of the primary factors leading to speciation in Lapeirousia (Iridaceae), a genus of corm-bearing geophytes well represented in the Cape and presenting an important diversity of pollination syndromes and edaphic preferences. Methods Phylogenetic relationships are reconstructed within Lapeirousia using nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. State-of-the-art methods in biogeography, divergence time estimation, character optimization and diversification rate assessments are used to examine the evolution of pollination syndromes and substrate shifts in the history of the group. Based on the phylogenetic results, ecological factors are compared for nine sister species pairs in Lapeirousia. Key Results Seventeen pollinator shifts and ten changes in substrate types were inferred during the evolution of the genus Lapeirousia. Of the nine species pairs examined, all show divergence in pollination syndromes, while only four pairs present different substrate types. Conclusions The available evidence points to a predominant influence of pollinator shifts over substrate types on the speciation process within Lapeirousia, contrary to previous studies that favoured a more important role for edaphic factors in these processes. This work also highlights the importance of biogeographical patterns in the study of pollination syndromes. PMID:24323246

  13. IL-10/HMOX1 signaling modulates cochlear inflammation via negative regulation of MCP-1/CCL2 expression in cochlear fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jeong-Im; Kil, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sejo; Lee, Yoo-Jin; Park, Raekil; Lim, David J.; Moon, Sung K.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear inflammatory diseases such as tympanogenic labyrinthitis are associated with acquired sensorineural hearing loss. Although otitis media is extremely frequent in children, tympanogenic labyrinthitis is not commonly observed, which suggests the existence of a potent anti-inflammatory mechanism modulating cochlear inflammation. In this study, we aim to determine the molecular mechanism involved in cochlear protection from inflammation-mediated tissue damage, focusing on interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hemoxygenase-1 (HMOX1) signaling. We demonstrated that IL-10 receptors (IL-10Rs) are expressed in the cochlear lateral wall of mice and rats, particularly in the spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs). The rat SLF cell line (RSL) was found to inhibit nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi)-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in response to IL-10. This inhibition was suppressed by silencing IL-10R1 and was mimicked by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) and carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2). In addition, IL-10 appeared to suppress monocyte recruitment through reduction of NTHi-induced RSL-derived chemoattractants. Silencing of HMOX1 was found to attenuate the inhibitory effect of IL-10 on NTHi-induced MCP-1/CCL2 up-regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that IL-10 inhibits NTHi-induced binding of p65 NF-κB to the distal motif in the promoter region of MCP-1/CCL2, resulting in suppression of NTHi-induced NF-κB activation. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency appeared to significantly affect cochlear inflammation induced by intratympanic injections of NTHi. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-10/HMOX1 signaling is involved in modulation of cochlear inflammation through inhibition of MCP-1/CCL2 regulation in SLFs, implying therapeutic potential of a carbon monoxide (CO)-based approach for inflammation-associated cochlear diseases. PMID:25780042

  14. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Sun Young; Kim, Yoon-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, an edible corm of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as Taro was extracted with cold water (4˚C). Finally, 10.44 g (1.04%) of the crude polysaccharide (Taro-0) was obtained from Taro. The purified active compound (Taro-4-I) was isolated using DEAE-Sepharose FF and Sephadex G-100. The anti-complementary activity of Taro-4-I (57.3±4.5%) was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as the positive control). The molecular weight of Taro-4-I was 200 kDa and it was a polysaccharide composed of 64.4% neutral sugars and 35.6% uronic acid. Taro-4-I activated the complement system through the classical and alternative pathways. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with Taro-4-I significantly increased the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-12 production showed maximal activity at 56 µg/ml and subsequently decreased. Splenocytes obtained from mice which were administered Taro-4-I intravenously showed a higher toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to those obtained from untreated mice in a effector‑to‑target (E/T) ratio-dependent manner. The group treated with 50 µg/ml Taro-4-I showed a significantly increased toxicity to Yac-1 cells compared to the group treated with 500 µg/ml Taro-4-I. The administration of Taro-4-I significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells. However, the group treated with 50 µg/mouse Taro-4-I had a significantly lower number of tumors compared to the group injected with 500 µg/mouse Taro-4-I.

  15. The anti-cancer effects of poi (Colocasia esculenta) on colonic adenocarcinoma cells In vitro.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy C; Reitzenstein, Jonathan E; Liu, Jessie; Jadus, Martin R

    2005-09-01

    Hawaiians tend to have lower incidence rates of colorectal cancer and it was hypothesized that this may be due to ethnic differences in diet, specifically, their consumption of poi, a starchy paste made from the taro (Colocasia esulenta L.) plant corm. Soluble extracts of poi were incubated at 100 mg/mL in vitro for antiproliferative activity against the rat YYT colon cancer cell line. (3)H-thymidine incorporation studies were conducted to demonstrate that the poi inhibited the proliferation of these cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The greatest suppression of YYT colon cancer growth occurred when 25% concentration was used. When poi was incubated with the YYT cells after 2 days, the YYT cells underwent apoptotic changes as evidenced by a positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) stain. Poi enhanced the proliferation of normal mouse splenocyte control cells, suggesting that poi is not simply toxic to all cells but even has a positive immunostimulatory role. By flow cytometry, T cells (CD4+ and CD8+) were predominantly activated by the poi. Although numerous factors can contribute to the risk of colon cancer, perhaps poi consumption may contribute to the lower colon cancer rates among Hawaiians by two distinct mechanisms. First, by inducing apoptosis within colon cancer cells; second, by non-specifically activating lymphocytes, which in turn can lyse cancerous cells. Our results suggest for the first time that poi may have novel tumor specific anti-cancer activities and future research is suggested with animal studies and human clinical trials.

  16. Study on Phylogenetic Relationships, Variability, and Correlated Mutations in M2 Proteins of Influenza Virus A

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ly; Leluk, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    M2 channel, an influenza virus transmembrane protein, serves as an important target for antiviral drug design. There are still discordances concerning the role of some residues involved in proton transfer as well as the mechanism of inhibition by commercial drugs. The viral M2 proteins show high conservativity; about 3/4 of the positions are occupied by one residue in over 95%. Nine M2 proteins from the H3N2 strain and possibly two proteins from H2N2 strains make a phylogenic cluster closely related to 2RLF. The variability range is limited to 4 residues/position with one exception. The 2RLF protein stands out by the presence of 2 serines at the positions 19 and 50, which are in most other M2 proteins occupied by cysteines. The study of correlated mutations shows that there are several positions with significant mutational correlation that have not been described so far as functionally important. That there are 5 more residues potentially involved in the M2 mechanism of action. The original software used in this work (Consensus Constructor, SSSSg, Corm, Talana) is freely accessible as stand-alone offline applications upon request to the authors. The other software used in this work is freely available online for noncommercial purposes at public services on bioinformatics such as ExPASy or NCBI. The study on mutational variability, evolutionary relationship, and correlated mutation presented in this paper is a potential way to explain more completely the role of significant factors in proton channel action and to clarify the inhibition mechanism by specific drugs. PMID:21829678

  17. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  18. Targeting Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide for Therapeutic Modulation of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) enzyme system remains an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. HO-1, a cellular stress protein, serves a vital metabolic function as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin-IXα (BV) which is converted to bilirubin-IXα (BR). HO-1 may function as a pleiotropic regulator of inflammatory signaling programs, through the generation of its biologically active end-products, namely CO and BV/BR. CO, when applied exogenously, can affect apoptotic, proliferative, and inflammatory cellular programs. Specifically, CO can modulate the production of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. HO-1/CO may also have immunomodulatory effects with respect to regulating the functions of antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells, and regulatory T-cells. Therapeutic strategies to modulate HO-1 in disease include the application of natural inducing compounds, as well as gene therapy approaches for the targeted genetic overexpression or knockdown of HO-1. Several compounds have been used therapeutically to inhibit HO activity, including competitive inhibitors of the metalloporphyrin series, or non-competitive isoform-selective derivatives of imidazole-dioxolanes. The end-products of HO activity, BV/BR and CO may be used therapeutically as pharmacological treatments. CO may be applied by inhalation, or through the use of CO releasing molecules (CORMs). This review will discuss HO-1 as a therapeutic target in diseases involving inflammation, including lung and vascular injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and transplant rejection. PMID:26166253

  19. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of wild banana (Musa acuminata Colla): A review.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nimisha Sarah; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2017-01-20

    Musa acuminata, the wild species of banana is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of M. acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have found their use in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. Literature review have indicated use of M. acuminata in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and some of the non-communicable diseases. The reported pharmacological activities of M. acuminata include antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anticancer, and antimicrobial especially anti-HIV activity. This review presents information on the phytochemicals and pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of different parts of M. acuminata in various diseases and ailments. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of M. acuminata extracts is included and possible mechanisms and phytochemicals involved have also been correlated to provide effective intervention strategies for preventing or managing diseases. A literature search was performed on M. acuminata using ethnobotanical textbooks, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, local magazines, unpublished materials, and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The Plant List, Promusa, Musalit, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) databases were used to validate the scientific names and also provide information on the subspecies and cultivars of M. acuminata. The edible part of M. acuminata provides energy, vitamins and minerals. All other parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. The rich diversity of phytochemicals present in them probably contributes to their beneficial effects, and validates the

  20. Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia. Its corms contain a high level of water-soluble glucomannan; therefore, it has long been used as a medicinal herb and food source. Genetic studies of Amorphophallus have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. A large number of molecular markers are required for genetic diversity study and improving disease resistance in Amorphophallus. Here, we report large scale of transcriptome sequencing of two species: Amorphophallus konjac and Amorphophallus bulbifer using deep sequencing technology, and microsatellite (SSR) markers were identified based on these transcriptome sequences. Results cDNAs of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 135,822 non-redundant unigenes were assembled from about 9.66 gigabases, and 19,596 SSRs were identified in 16,027 non-redundant unigenes. Di-nucleotide SSRs were the most abundant motif (61.6%), followed by tri- (30.3%), tetra- (5.6%), penta- (1.5%), and hexa-nucleotides (1%) repeats. The top di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs included AG/CT (45.2%) and AGG/CCT (7.1%), respectively. A total of 10,754 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Of these, 320 primers were synthesized and used for validation of amplification and assessment of polymorphisms in 25 individual plants. The total of 275 primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products, of which 205 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 and the polymorphism information content valued ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Genetic diversity analysis was done using 177 highly polymorphic SSR markers. A phenogram based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients was constructed, which showed a distinct cluster of 25 Amorphophallus individuals. Conclusion A total of 10,754 SSR markers have been identified in Amorphophallus using transcriptome sequencing. One hundred and

  1. Cloning and evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Amorphophallus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Niu, Yi; Wang, Qijun; Liu, Haili; Jin, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used in the detection and quantification of gene expression levels because of its high accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility as well as its large dynamic range. However, the reliability and accuracy of RT-qPCR depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. Amorphophallus is a perennial plant with a high content of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in its corm. This crop has been used as a food source and as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. Without adequate knowledge of gene expression profiles, there has been no report of validated reference genes in Amorphophallus. In this study, nine genes that are usually used as reference genes in other crops were selected as candidate reference genes. These putative sequences of these genes Amorphophallus were cloned by the use of degenerate primers. The expression stability of each gene was assessed in different tissues and under two abiotic stresses (heat and waterlogging) in A. albus and A. konjac. Three distinct algorithms were used to evaluate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes. The results demonstrated that EF1-a, EIF4A, H3 and UBQ were the best reference genes under heat stress in Amorphophallus. Furthermore, EF1-a, EIF4A, TUB, and RP were the best reference genes in waterlogged conditions. By comparing different tissues from all samples, we determined that EF1-α, EIF4A, and CYP were stable in these sets. In addition, the suitability of these reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of a gene encoding the small heat shock protein SHSP, which is related to heat stress in Amorphophallus. In sum, EF1-α and EIF4A were the two best reference genes for normalizing mRNA levels in different tissues and under various stress treatments, and we suggest using one of these genes in combination with 1 or 2 reference genes associated with different biological processes to

  2. Development of microsatellite markers by transcriptome sequencing in two species of Amorphophallus (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xingfei; Pan, Cheng; Diao, Ying; You, Yongning; Yang, Chaozhu; Hu, Zhongli

    2013-07-19

    Amorphophallus is a genus of perennial plants widely distributed in the tropics or subtropics of West Africa and South Asia. Its corms contain a high level of water-soluble glucomannan; therefore, it has long been used as a medicinal herb and food source. Genetic studies of Amorphophallus have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers. A large number of molecular markers are required for genetic diversity study and improving disease resistance in Amorphophallus. Here, we report large scale of transcriptome sequencing of two species: Amorphophallus konjac and Amorphophallus bulbifer using deep sequencing technology, and microsatellite (SSR) markers were identified based on these transcriptome sequences. cDNAs of A. konjac and A. bulbifer were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing technology. A total of 135,822 non-redundant unigenes were assembled from about 9.66 gigabases, and 19,596 SSRs were identified in 16,027 non-redundant unigenes. Di-nucleotide SSRs were the most abundant motif (61.6%), followed by tri- (30.3%), tetra- (5.6%), penta- (1.5%), and hexa-nucleotides (1%) repeats. The top di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs included AG/CT (45.2%) and AGG/CCT (7.1%), respectively. A total of 10,754 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Of these, 320 primers were synthesized and used for validation of amplification and assessment of polymorphisms in 25 individual plants. The total of 275 primer pairs yielded PCR amplification products, of which 205 were polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 and the polymorphism information content valued ranged from 0.10 to 0.90. Genetic diversity analysis was done using 177 highly polymorphic SSR markers. A phenogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients was constructed, which showed a distinct cluster of 25 Amorphophallus individuals. A total of 10,754 SSR markers have been identified in Amorphophallus using transcriptome sequencing. One hundred and seventy-seven polymorphic

  3. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. Results A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local

  4. Structure and Chemistry of Atomic Clusters from Supersonic Beams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-He.

    A tandem time-of-flight (TOF) apparatus was designed to study the structure and chemistry of cold transition metal cluster ions from supersonic beams. By means of a photodissociation laser fluence dependence technique, binding energies of Nb_{rm x }^{+} (x = 2 - 20), Co_{rm x}^{+ } (x = 4 - 20) and etc. were found to generally increase with cluster size. The desorption energies of Nb_{rm x}N _2^{+} (x = 2 - 17) and Nb_{rm x} CO^{+} (x = 2 - 10) also increase with cluster size with some oscillations similar to the size dependent reactivities of these clusters. Photodetachment studies revealed that electron affinities of copper clusters increase with cluster size with a sharp even/odd alternation. Unlike other noble metals, Ag_{rm x}^ {-} clusters display two competing processes: photodissociation and photodetachment. Relative reactivities of cluster ions of Nb, Co, Ag, and etc. have been measured using a fast flow cluster reactor, displaying a similar function of cluster size to that of the neutrals. In addition, preliminary photoelectron experiments have been performed on Cu_{ rm x}^{-} and Nb _{rm x}^{-}. A magnetic Time-of-flight ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer (MTOFUPS) has been developed to study electronic structures of cold metal and semiconductor cluster anions prepared in supersonic beams. Application of this spectrometer to carbon clusters with a F_2 laser (7.9 eV) allowed their electron affinities and UPS patterns to be measured,demonstrating a remarkable structural evolution of these clusters: Chains (C_2^{ -}-C_9^{-} ) - Rings (C_{10}^ {-}-C_{29}^ {-}) - Cages (C_{38 }^{-}-C_{84 }^{-}). In particular, the UPS of C_{60}^{-} is in excellent agreement with the CNDO/S calculation, providing a striking spectral evidence for the highly symmetric icosahedral soccer ball structure--Buckminsterfullerene. For comparison, the UPS of Si_ {rm x}^{-} and Ge_{rm x}^{ -} are presented. Unlike carbon clusters which prefer structures of low dimensionality, these

  5. Glucose lowering effect of montbretin A in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Violet G; Coleman, John; Withers, Steven G; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Mustafa, Sally; McNeill, John H

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent disease state with a global impact. It is important that effective and cost-efficient methods be developed to treat this disease state. Zucker diabetic fatty rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, were treated with montbretin A (MbA), a selective human pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor, isolated from the corms of the Crocosmia crocosmiiflora plant that may have potential as a glucose-lowering agent. The study purpose was to determine if MbA was an orally effective treatment for diabetes. The effect of MbA was compared to a current clinical treatment modality, acarbose that is associated with gastrointestinal side effects known to affect patient compliance. MbA and acarbose were administered daily in the drinking water. Body weight and fluid intake were measured daily to calculate dose consumption. Plasma glucose levels were determined twice weekly in both the fed and fasted state. At termination samples were collected to assess increased risk of secondary complications related to diabetes and oxidative stress. There was no effect of either MbA or acarbose treatment on insulin levels. Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower following MbA treatment in the ZT group which persisted throughout the study period (day 49: 12.1 ± 1.2 mM). However, while there was an initial decrease in plasma glucose levels in the acarbose-treated fatty group, this effect was not sustained (day 49: 20.6 ± 1.3 mM) through to termination. MbA improved the oxidative status of the fatty diabetic animals as well as attenuated markers for increased risk of cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. This study demonstrated that, at a lower dose as compared to acarbose (10 mg/kg/day), chronic oral administration of MbA (7.5 mg/kg/day) was an effective glucose-lowering agent in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Use of weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-08-20

    Most agricultural weeds are usually regarded as undesirable and targeted for eradication. However, weeds are useful to human beings as food and traditional medicines. Few studies have been done to document the uses of weeds as traditional vegetables. This study was therefore, done to document indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and use of agricultural weeds as traditional vegetables in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe, emphasizing their role in food security and livelihoods of the local people. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 147 participants were employed between December 2011 and January 2012 to obtain ethnobotanical data on the use of edible weeds as traditional vegetables. Based on ethnobotanical information provided by the participants, botanical specimens were collected, numbered, pressed and dried for identification. A total of 21 edible weeds belonging to 11 families and 15 genera, mostly from Amaranthaceae (19%), Asteraceae and Tiliaceae (14.3%), Capparaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae (9.5% each) were identified. Of the documented edible weeds, 52.4% are indigenous while 47.6% are exotic to Zimbabwe; either semi-cultivated or growing naturally as agricultural weeds in farmlands, fallow land and home gardens. Among the main uses of edible weeds were leafy vegetables (81%), followed by edible fruits (19%), edible corms (9.5%), edible flowers and seeds (4.8% each). The most important edible weeds were Cleome gynandra, cited by 93.9% of the participants, Cucumis metuliferus (90.5%), Cucumis anguria (87.8%), Corchorus tridens (50.3%) and Amaranthus hybridus (39.5%). All edible weeds were available during rainy and harvest period with Cleome gynandra, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis anguria, Cucumis metuliferus and Moringa oleifera also available during the dry season, enabling households to obtain food outputs in different times of the year. The importance of edible weeds for local livelihoods was ubiquitously perceived

  7. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Methods Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. Results We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn

  8. A NON-DAIRY PROBIOTIC’S (POI) INFLUENCE ON CHANGING THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT’S MICROFLORA ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amy C.; Shovic, Anne; Ibrahim, Salam; Holck, Peter; Huang, Alvin

    2006-01-01

    Justification Yogurt has been historically used to restore gut microflora adversely affected by antibiotic treatment. Certain fermented dairy products are probiotics; “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host.” Microorganisms in foods may benefit certain health conditions such as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. A potential new probiotic from a Polynesian traditional food is poi; a starchy paste made from the corm of taro plants. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if consumption of poi, a potential non-dairy probiotic, altered the microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults. Methods A cross-over clinical study included 18 subjects (19–64 years of age) divided into a poi group (n=10) and control group (n=8). The study duration of 14 weeks consisted of a 2-week washout, 4-week treatment or control, a subsequent 2-week washout, cross-over of 4-week treatment or control, and a final 2-week washout. Subjects thus served as their own controls. While receiving the poi treatment, participants consumed fresh poi (1–2 days old) three times a day (130 g/meal or about _ cup/meal); the control group did not. Both groups filled out 3-day dietary records to ensure compliance. Measurable outcomes include pre-and post-treatment microbiological fecal culture analyses. Results We found no significant differences in total bacterial counts following a poi diet versus following a control diet, nor were significant differences found in counts of specific bacterial species. Lactococcus tends to be higher in poi when it is analyzed for specific bacteria, but the poi consumption in our study did not alter the mean concentration of individual bacterial species (log10 CFU/g wet feces) for Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Bifidobacterium. No significant differences in stool frequency or

  9. Cloning and evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Amorphophallus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Niu, Yi; Wang, Qijun; Liu, Haili; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Shenglin

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used in the detection and quantification of gene expression levels because of its high accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility as well as its large dynamic range. However, the reliability and accuracy of RT-qPCR depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. Amorphophallus is a perennial plant with a high content of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in its corm. This crop has been used as a food source and as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. Without adequate knowledge of gene expression profiles, there has been no report of validated reference genes in Amorphophallus. In this study, nine genes that are usually used as reference genes in other crops were selected as candidate reference genes. These putative sequences of these genes Amorphophallus were cloned by the use of degenerate primers. The expression stability of each gene was assessed in different tissues and under two abiotic stresses (heat and waterlogging) in A. albus and A. konjac. Three distinct algorithms were used to evaluate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes. The results demonstrated that EF1-a, EIF4A, H3 and UBQ were the best reference genes under heat stress in Amorphophallus. Furthermore, EF1-a, EIF4A, TUB, and RP were the best reference genes in waterlogged conditions. By comparing different tissues from all samples, we determined that EF1-α, EIF4A, and CYP were stable in these sets. In addition, the suitability of these reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of a gene encoding the small heat shock protein SHSP, which is related to heat stress in Amorphophallus. In sum, EF1-α and EIF4A were the two best reference genes for normalizing mRNA levels in different tissues and under various stress treatments, and we suggest using one of these genes in combination with 1 or 2 reference genes associated with different biological processes to

  10. Ferulic Acid Regulates the Nrf2/Heme Oxygenase-1 System and Counteracts Trimethyltin-Induced Neuronal Damage in the Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    PubMed Central

    Catino, Stefania; Paciello, Fabiola; Miceli, Fiorella; Rolesi, Rolando; Troiani, Diana; Calabrese, Vittorio; Santangelo, Rosaria; Mancuso, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, several lines of evidence have pointed out the efficacy of ferulic acid (FA) in counteracting oxidative stress elicited by β-amyloid or free radical initiators, based on the ability of this natural antioxidant to up-regulate the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and biliverdin reductase (BVR) system. However, scarce results can be found in literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of FA in case of damage caused by neurotoxicants. The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanisms through which FA exerts neuroprotection in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT). FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased both basal and TMT (10 μM for 24 h)-induced HO-1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells by fostering the nuclear translocation of the transcriptional activator Nrf2. In particular, the co-treatment of FA (10 μM) with TMT was also responsible for the nuclear translocation of HO-1 in an attempt to further increase cell stress response in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition to HO-1, FA (1–10 μM for 6 h) dose-dependently increased the basal expression of BVR. The antioxidant and neuroprotective features of FA, through the increase of HO activity, were supported by the evidence that FA inhibited TMT (10 μM)-induced lipid peroxidation (evaluated by detecting 4-hydroxy-nonenal) and DNA fragmentation in SH-SY5Y cells and that this antioxidant effect was reversed by the HO inhibitor Zinc-protoporphyrin-IX (5 μM). Among the by-products of the HO/BVR system, carbon monoxide (CORM-2, 50 nM) and bilirubin (BR, 50 nM) significantly inhibited TMT-induced superoxide anion formation in SH-SY5Y cells. All together, these results corroborate the neuroprotective effect of FA through the up-regulation of the HO-1/BVR system, via carbon monoxide and BR formation, and provide the first evidence on the role of HO-1/Nrf2 axis in FA-related enhancement of cell stress response in human neurons. PMID:26779023

  11. Impairment of Nitric Oxide Synthase but Not Heme Oxygenase Accounts for Baroreflex Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Nicotine in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Mohamed A.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; El-Gowilly, Sahar M.; Rashed, Laila; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that chronic nicotine impairs reflex chronotropic activity in female rats. Here, we sought evidence to implicate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and/or heme oxygenase (HO) in the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate to increases (phenylephrine) or decreases (sodium nitroprusside) in blood pressure were generated in conscious female rats treated with nicotine or saline in absence and presence of pharmacological modulators of NOS or HO activity. Compared with saline-treated rats, nicotine (2 mg/kg/day i.p., for 14 days) significantly reduced the slopes of baroreflex curves, a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Findings that favor the involvement of NOS inhibition in the nicotine effect were (i) NOS inhibition (Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME) reduced BRS in control rats but failed to do so in nicotine-treated rats, (ii) L-arginine, NO donor, reversed the BRS inhibitory effect of nicotine. Alternatively, HO inhibition (zinc protoporphyrin IX, ZnPP) had no effect on BRS in nicotine- or control rats and failed to reverse the beneficial effect of L-arginine on nicotine-BRS interaction. Similar to female rats, BRS was reduced by L-NAME, but not ZnPP, in male rats and the L-NAME effect was not accentuated after concomitant administration of nicotine. Baroreflex dysfunction caused by nicotine in female rats was blunted after supplementation with hemin (HO inducer) but not tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (CORM-2), a carbon monoxide (CO) releasing molecule, or bilirubin, the breakdown product of heme catabolism. The facilitatory effect of hemin was abolished upon simultaneous treatment with L-NAME or 1H-[1], [2], [4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, sGC). The activities of HO and NOS in brainstem tissues were also significantly increased by hemin. Thus, the inhibition of NOS, but not HO, accounts for the baroreflex depressant of chronic nicotine

  12. The natural food habits of grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mealey, Stephen Patrick

    1980-01-01

     The natural food habits of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord) in Yellowstone National Park were investigated in 1973-74 to identify the grizzly's energy sources and trophic level(s), nutrient use, and distribution. Food consumption was determined by scat analysis and field observations. Food quality and digestibility were estimated by chemical analysis. Grizzlies were distributed in 3 distinctive feeding economies: valley/plateau, a grass/rodent economy where grizzlies were intensive diggers; mountain, primarily a grass/springbeauty/root economy where grizzlies were casual diggers; and lake, primarily a fish/grass economy where grizzlies were fishers. The economies occured in areas with fertile soils; distribution of bears within each was related to the occurrence of succulent plants. The feeding cycle in the valley/plateau and mountain economies followed plant phenology. Grizzlies fed primarily on meat before green-up and on succulent herbs afterwards; meat, corms, berries, and nuts became important during the postgrowing season. Succulent grasses and sedges with an importance value percentage of 78.5 were the most important food items consumed. Protein from animal tissue was more digestible than protein from plant tissue. Storage fats were more digestible than structural fats. Food energy and digestibility were directly related. Five principle nutrient materials (listed with their percentage digestibilities) contributed to total energy intake: protein from succulent herbs, 42.8; protein and fat from animal material, 78.1; fat and protein from pine nuts, 73.6; starch, 78.8; and sugar from berries and fruits, digestibility undetermined. Protein from succulent herbs, with a nutritive value percentage of 77.3, was the grizzlies' primary energy source. Because succulent, preflowering herbs had higher protein levels than dry, mature herbs, grizzly use of succulent herbs guaranteed them the highest source of herbaceous protein. Low protein digestibility of