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Sample records for corn stunt spiroplasmas

  1. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii strain CR2-3x, causal agent of corn stunt disease in Zea mays L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spiroplasma kunkelii is the cause of corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in South America, Central America, Mexico, and the southern United States. This spiroplasma is closely related to the plant pathogens S. citri and S. phoenicium and to the honey bee pathogen S. melliferum. Here, we report the n...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii Strain CR2-3x, Causal Agent of Corn Stunt Disease in Zea mays L.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Dally, Ellen L.; Zhao, Yan; Gasparich, Gail E.; Gaynor, Brady J.; Athey, John C.; Harrison, Nigel A.; Donofrio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma kunkelii causes corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in the Americas. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,463,926-bp circular chromosome and four plasmids of strain CR2-3x. This information will facilitate studies of Spiroplasma pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to transkingdom parasitism in plants and insect vectors. PMID:26494665

  3. A plasmid from S. citri strain M14 hybridizes with extrachromosomal DNAs from other spiroplasmas, including corn stunt spiroplasma E275, tick spiroplasma 277F, and coco spiroplasma N525.

    PubMed Central

    Mouches, C.; Bové, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A plasmid, pM41, has been isolated from the Spiroplasma citri strain M4 (group I-1) and characterized by restriction mapping. Using a 32P-labeled probe specific of the plasmid, we have shown by DNA-DNA hybridization that a plasmid identical to pM41 or a closely related plasmid, is present in several, but not all, S. citri strains. DNA sequences that hybridize to pM41 were also identified in three other spiroplasmas not belonging to the S. citri species. Protein patterns of several S. citri strains have been compared in order to investigate the effect of pM41 on the spiroplasma protein profiles or maps. In fact, the presence of pM41 does not appear to modify the protein pattern. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6679153

  4. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.

  5. Cultivation and partial characterization of spiroplasmas in cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, T; McGarrity, G J; Phillips, D M

    1982-01-01

    Spiroplasmas were propagated in the Drosophila melanogaster cell line Dm-1. Spiroplasma citri and unidentified strains (corn shunt organism, 277F [tick isolate], powder puff, BNR-1, honey bee, and OBMG) grew to 10(8) to 10(9) colony-forming units per ml and could be passaged. Cytopathic effect (CPE) varied with the infecting spiroplasma. The honey bee isolate killed Dm-1 within 2 to 4 days and produced CPE in four mammalian cells tested. At 25 degrees C, suckling mouse cataract agent produced no CPE in Dm-1 cells. Dm-1 cells did not support growth of the spiroplasmal sex ratio organism. Spiroplasmas could be detected in the cell cultures by agar inoculation, dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and DNA fluorescent staining. The uridine phosphorylase test showed significant levels of conversion of [14C]uridine to [14C]uracil for all but some plant isolates: S. citri, corn shunt organism, lettuce, cactus, and powder puff strains, the first mycoplasmas to lack the enzyme. Primary isolations of corn shunt organism from infected corn plants were made in Dm-1 and I-XII cultures. The course of corn stunt organism infection of Dm-1 was monitored for three passages. The use of agarose and Dienes staining of the colonies improved growth and colony counting of corn stunt organism. The number of viable infected DM-1 cells decreased from 1.2 x 10(7) at passage 1 to 7.0 x 10(6) at passage 2 and 3 x 10(5) at passage 3. Images PMID:6797950

  6. Spiroplasmas: serological grouping of strains associated with plants and insects.

    PubMed

    Davis, R E; Lee, I M; Basciano, L K

    1979-08-01

    Spiroplasma strains from plant and arthropod hosts, and from surfaces of flowers, were classified into three serological groups (designated I, II, and III) based on results from growth-inhibition tests. No significant cross reactions were observed among groups. The groupings were confirmed by ring-interface precipitin and microprecipitin tests, using membrane preparations as test antigens, and by organism-deformation tests. Serogroup I contained three subgroups: subgroup A (Spiroplasma citri strains Maroc R8A2 and C189), subgroup B (strain AS 576 and closely related strains from honeybee or flowers), and subgroup C (corn stunt spiroplasma strains). Serogroup II contained strains 23-6 and 27-31 isolated from flowers of the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing in Maryland. Serogroup III contained strains SR 3 and SR 9 isolated from flowers of the tulip growing in Connecticut. The subgroups of serogroup I were based on organism deformation, microprecipitin, and ring-interface precipitin tests. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the three serogroups represent no less than three distinct spiroplasma species.

  7. Spiroplasma fibrils.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D L; Brink, P R; Zieve, G W

    1984-09-01

    A fundamental question in biology concerns the morphology of spiroplasmas: How does a wall-less microorganism maintain its characteristic morphology as a helical filament? An answer to this question began to form when it was discovered that spiroplasmas treated with any of a number of detergents (sodium deoxycholate, Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40) release their cytoplasmic contents. If this procedure is performed on a formvar-coated electron microscope grid and the resultant preparation negatively stained and observed by transmission electron microscopy, numerous striated microfibrils can be seen where spiroplasmas once were. The fibrils are of varying lengths, 4 nm in width, and show a striation repeat at 9 nm along their length. It is not possible to discern from the pattern of the released fibrils just how they are organized within the intact spiroplasma; nor is it yet possible to identify a fibrillar substructure in thin sections or in freeze-fractured organisms. Townsend and his colleagues at the John Innes Institute in Norwich, UK, purified fibrils by density gradient centrifugation. SDS-PAGE showed the fibrils to consist of a 55,000-dalton protein recognizable in the four serogroups tested by protein blotting with an antiserum made against the PAGE-separated protein. The presence of fibrils is a feature common to all spiroplasma, regardless of whether they are helical or nonhelical, as in the Ixodes tick-derived spiroplasma or Townsend's ASP-1 strain of Spiroplasma citri. We have employed gentle demembranation treatments that preserve filamentous substructure in an effort to elucidate the organization of the fibrils within the spiroplasma cell.

  8. Molecular detection of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum in bees.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Ivan; Vercruysse, Vicky; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum are known as honey bee pathogens and are detected by unspecific methodologies like culturing or dark field microscopy. We developed a multiplex PCR being able to differentiate between both species and detect the genus Spiroplasma. This PCR can directly be used on culture samples or on DNA extracted bees. By PCR on cultured samples we were able to identify S. apis in Bombus pratorum and S. melliferum in Bombus pascuorum.

  9. First Human Systemic Infection Caused by Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Aquilino, Ana; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J.; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. PMID:25428150

  10. Nutritional stunting.

    PubMed

    Hizli, Samil; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Benal; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2007-03-01

    Nutritional stunting is a common problem of the pediatric population especially in developing countries. Although it is a resolvable problem, it continues to be an important health issue. Stunting can be diagnosed when a child's height falls more than two standard deviations below the mean height for age. Stunting may be caused by genetic, hormonal, pharmaceutical, psychosocial and nutritional factors. Before doing extensive laboratory tests, nutritional factors must be searched for at the time of diagnosis. If the etiology is nutritional deficiency, meticulous dietary regulation must be done. The results of treatment must be assessed for guiding the nutritional rehabilitation during follow up. Here we review the interaction of wasting and nutritional stunting; the prevalence of nutritional stunting; diet components and growth; the pathophysiology of stunting; periods of accelerated growth; the diagnosis and clinical assessment of nutritional stunting; the anthropometric and laboratory nutritional indices that can be used at the time of diagnosis and for follow-up purposes during rehabilitation and also the management of nutritional stunting.

  11. Rubus stunt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rubus stunt is a severe disease that naturally infects only plants in the genus Rubus, and no immune Rubus germplasm has been reported. Apium, Chrysanthemum, Fragaria, and Trifolium species have been used as experimental hosts for Rubus stunt phytoplasma. The disease occurs in wild and cultivated R...

  12. Spiroplasma - an emerging arthropod-borne pathogen?

    PubMed

    Cisak, Ewa; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma is a genus of wall-less, low-GC, small Gram-positive bacteria of the internal contractile cytoskeleton, with helical morphology and motility. The genus is classified within the class Mollicutes. Spiroplasma / host interactions can be classified as commensal, pathogenic or mutualist. The majority of spiroplasmas are found to be commensals of insects, arachnids, crustaceans or plants, whereas a small number of species are pathogens of plants, insects, and crustaceans. Insects are particularly rich sources of spiroplasmas. The bacteria are common in haematophagous arthropods: deerflies, horseflies, mosquitoes, and in ticks, where they may occur abundantly in salivary glands. The ability of spiroplasmas to propagate in rodents was experimentally proven, and Spiroplasma infections have been reported recently in humans. Some authors have purported an etiological role of Spiroplasma in causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), but convincing proof is lacking. The possibility for humans and other vertebrates to be infected with Spiroplasma spp. in natural conditions is largely unknown, as well as the possibility of the transmission of these bacteria by ticks and haematophagous insects. Nevertheless, in the light of new data, such possibilities cannot be excluded.

  13. Mosquito spiroplasmas from France and their ecology.

    PubMed

    Chastel, C; Devau, B; Le Goff, F; Simitzis-Le Flohic, A M; Gruffaz, R; Kerdraon, G; Gilot, B

    1987-06-01

    Spiroplasmas have been isolated previously from a number of blood-sucking arthropods, including ticks, horseflies, and deerflies. More recently, spiroplasmas were isolated from mosquitoes from the USA, France, and Taiwan. Spiroplasmas isolated from mosquitoes from France belong to at least three serogroups and are serologically different from one of the Taiwan isolates, Sp2. Our Ar 1343 strain is the prototype of a new serogroup (XIII). During 3 consecutive years (1983-85), the ecology of these spiroplasmas was studied in different biotopes near, and in, the Isère River Valley in Savoia, France. A total of 23 strains was isolated from four species or groups of mosquitoes (Aedes sticticus/vexans, Ae. cantans/annulipes, Ae. cinereus/geminus and Coquillettidia richiardii). Spiroplasmas were isolated only from female mosquitoes and only during June and July. An as yet unidentified virus was also isolated from three mosquito pools, one of which yielded spiroplasmas. Spiroplasma viruses were not detected. Antibody to our Ar 1357 isolate was found in 4 of 20 sera from cows living in the areas studied, but not in sera from wild rodents or in sera from rabbit or pigeon sentinels. Finally, preliminary results are presented on the effects of experimental infection of Ae. aegypti with the Ar 1357 isolated (serogroup XXII).

  14. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  15. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  16. Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Bacteriophage Infection of the Helical Mycoplasma-Like Organism (Spiroplasma citri gen. nov., sp. nov.) Cultured from “Stubborn” Disease of Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Roger M.; Tully, Joseph G.; Popkin, Terry J.; Bové, Joseph M.

    1973-01-01

    The mycoplasma-like organism Spiroplasma citri gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from citrus infected with “Stubborn” disease and carried in serial cultures in several media, was examined by dark-field microscopy and electron microscopy of negatively-stained and shadowed preparations and of sections. It grows as motile, helical filaments in liquid, but as nonmotile, nonhelical filaments and round bodies in agar cultures. Helicity and motility are lost in old broth cultures and upon addition of a variety of negative stains, fixatives, and other solutions. No organelles accounting for motility are present, but a layer of surface projections is present on the surface of the single, bounding membrane. The mycoplasma produces a tailed, type B bacteriophage which appear to attach to the outer layer. Helical filaments are preserved in ammonium molybdate, but not in sodium phosphotungstate, and by fixation in Formalin or glutaraldehyde made up in medium, but not by osmium nor by glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer. This mycoplasma appears similar to the noncultured helical microorganism in corn stunt-diseased tissues and is probably a representative of a new group of mycoplasmas which are in possession of surface projections, rotary motility, and bacteriophage infection. Images PMID:4123916

  17. Fructose utilization and phytopathogenicity of Spiroplasma citri.

    PubMed

    Gaurivaud, P; Danet, J L; Laigret, F; Garnier, M; Bové, J M

    2000-10-01

    Spiroplasma citri is a plant-pathogenic mollicute. Recently, the so-called nonphytopathogenic S. citri mutant GMT 553 was obtained by insertion of transposon Tn4001 into the first gene of the fructose operon. Additional fructose operon mutants were produced either by gene disruption or selection of spontaneous xylitol-resistant strains. The behavior of these spiroplasma mutants in the periwinkle plants has been studied. Plants infected via leafhoppers with the wild-type strain GII-3 began to show symptoms during the first week following the insect-transmission period, and the symptoms rapidly became severe. With the fructose operon mutants, symptoms appeared only during the fourth week and remained mild, except when reversion to a fructose+ phenotype occurred. In this case, the fructose+ revertants quickly overtook the fructose- mutants and the symptoms soon became severe. When mutant GMT 553 was complemented with the fructose operon genes that restore fructose utilization, severe pathogenicity, similar to that of the wild-type strain, was also restored. Finally, plants infected with the wild-type strain and grown at 23 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C showed late symptoms, but these rapidly became severe. These results are discussed in light of the role of fructose in plants. Fructose utilization by the spiroplasmas could impair sucrose loading into the sieve tubes by the companion cells and result in accumulation of carbohydrates in source leaves and depletion of carbon sources in sink tissues.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. TU-14

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Haryono, Mindia; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. TU-14 was isolated from a contaminated sample of Entomoplasma lucivorax PIPN-2T obtained from the International Organization for Mycoplasmology collection. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:28082500

  19. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    PubMed Central

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  20. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-04-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism.

  1. Spiralin diversity within Iranian strains of Spiroplasma citri.

    PubMed

    Khanchezar, Amin; Béven, Laure; Izadpanah, Keramat; Salehi, Mohammad; Saillard, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The first-cultured and most-studied spiroplasma is Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, one of the three plant-pathogenic, sieve-tube-restricted, and leafhopper vector-transmitted mollicutes. In Iranian Fars province, S. citri cultures were obtained from stubborn affected citrus trees, sesame and safflower plants, and from the leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. Spiralin gene sequences from different S. citri isolates were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic trees based on spiralin gene sequence showed diversity and indicated the presence of three clusters among the S. citri strains. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of eleven spiralins from Iranian strains and those from the reference S. citri strain GII-3 (241 aa), Palmyre strain (242 aa), Spiroplasma kunkelii (240 aa), and Spiroplasma phoeniceum (237 aa) confirmed the conservation of general features of the protein. However, the spiralin of an S. citri isolate named Shiraz I comprised 346 amino acids and showed a large duplication of the region comprised between two short repeats previously identified in S. citri spiralins. We report in this paper the spiralin diversity in Spiroplasma strains from southern Iran and for the first time a partial internal duplication of the spiralin gene.

  2. Viruses of Spiroplasma citri and their possible effects on pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, R.

    1983-01-01

    Strains of Spiroplasma citri are persistently infected by viruses which have been separated into three groups on the basis of their morphology. The properties of each group are reviewed. Viruses normally only appear in spiroplasma cultures but recently all three types of particle have been identified in cells of a single strain of S. citri within an infected plant. Replication of a short-tailed polyhedral virus SP-V3 (ai) appears to be correlated with unusually mild symptom expression. Introduction of the virus with its host into plants already infected with a severe and potentially lethal strain of S. citri results in a marked suppression of symptoms and a reduction in the number of spiroplasmas. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:6382829

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Mindia; Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390 was initially described as a duplicate of S. atrichopogonis GNAT3597T (=ATCC BAA-520T) but later found to be different in the 16S rDNA sequences. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to establish its identity and to facilitate future investigation. PMID:28280009

  4. A new spiroplasma isolate from the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Su, Ping-Yi; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiang, Ching-Hao; Kim, Jae Su; Chen, Yue-Wen; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

    2014-07-01

    We briefly described the morphology and transmission pathway of a Spiroplasma sp. isolated from the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus in Taiwan, followed by the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The cricket spiroplasma infected the hemolymph, gut, muscle tissues and tracheal cells; therefore we suggest that the pathogen invaded tissues and organs from the hemolymph through the tracheal system and the endoplasmic reticular system. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the phylogeny, this spiroplasma was most closely related to Spiroplasma platyhelix (Identity=95%) isolated from the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis and belongs to the Ixodetis clade. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spiroplasma swim by a processive change in body helicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    Microscopic organisms must rely on very different strategies than their macroscopic counterparts to swim through liquid. To date, the best understood method for prokaryotic swimming employs the rotation of flagella. I will present data that Spiroplasma, tiny helical bacteria that infect plants and insects, use a very different approach. By measuring cell kinematics during free swimming, we find that propulsion is generated by the propagation of kink pairs down the length of the cell body. A processive change in the helicity of the body creates these waves and enables directional movement. Unlike the motion of other helical swimmers such as Spirochetes, Spiroplasma swimming velocity increases with increasing viscosity. In addition, cell morphological parameters such as helical pitch and cell length influence swimming velocity.

  6. The isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in Macon County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A A; Johnson, W E; Stevens, C; Tang, A Y

    1987-06-01

    During the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in Macon County, Alabama. Mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with CO2-baited light traps. Spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 Aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 Anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 Culex nigripalpus. Electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum, a parasite of horse fly, Haematopota sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spiroplasma turonicum was isolated from a Haematopota sp. fly in France. We report the nucleotide sequence of the circular chromosome of strain Tab4cT. The genome information will facilitate evolutionary studies of spiroplasmas, including symbionts of insects and ticks, and pathogens of plants, cr...

  8. Rapid spread of the defensive endosymbiont Spiroplasma in Drosophila hydei under high parasitoid wasp pressure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialei; Winter, Caitlyn; Winter, Lauryn; Mateos, Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects are ubiquitous in nature and play diverse roles in the ecology and evolution of their hosts. To persist in host lineages, many symbionts manipulate host reproduction to their advantage (e.g. cytoplasmic incompatibility and male-killing), or confer fitness benefits to their hosts (e.g. metabolic provisioning and defense against natural enemies). Recent studies suggest that strains of the bacterial genus Spiroplasma protect their host (flies in the genus Drosophila) against parasitoid attack. The Spiroplasma-conferred protection is partial and flies surviving a wasp attack have reduced adult longevity and fecundity. Therefore, it is unclear whether protection against wasps alone can counter Spiroplasma loss by imperfect maternal transmission and any possible fitness costs to harboring Spiroplasma. To address this question, we conducted a population cage study comparing Spiroplasma frequencies over time (host generations) under conditions of high wasp pressure and no wasp pressure. A dramatic increase of Spiroplasma prevalence was observed under high wasp pressure. In contrast, Spiroplasma prevalence in the absence of wasps did not change significantly over time; a pattern consistent with random drift. Thus, the defensive mechanism may contribute to the high prevalence of Spiroplasma in host populations despite imperfect vertical transmission. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Entry of Spiroplasma citri into Circulifer haematoceps Cells Involves Interaction between Spiroplasma Phosphoglycerate Kinase and Leafhopper Actin▿

    PubMed Central

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie; Dubrana, Marie-Pierre; Saillard, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of the phytopathogenic mollicutes, spiroplasmas, and phytoplasmas by their insect vectors mainly depends on their ability to pass through gut cells, to multiply in various tissues, and to traverse the salivary gland cells. The passage of these different barriers suggests molecular interactions between the plant mollicute and the insect vector that regulate transmission. In the present study, we focused on the interaction between Spiroplasma citri and its leafhopper vector, Circulifer haematoceps. An in vitro protein overlay assay identified five significant binding activities between S. citri proteins and insect host proteins from salivary glands. One insect protein involved in one binding activity was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as actin. Confocal microscopy observations of infected salivary glands revealed that spiroplasmas colocated with the host actin filaments. An S. citri actin-binding protein of 44 kDa was isolated by affinity chromatography and identified by LC-MS/MS as phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). To investigate the role of the PGK-actin interaction, we performed competitive binding and internalization assays on leafhopper cultured cell lines (Ciha-1) in which His6-tagged PGK from S. citri or purified PGK from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was added prior to the addition of S. citri inoculum. The results suggested that exogenous PGK has no effect on spiroplasmal attachment to leafhopper cell surfaces but inhibits S. citri internalization, demonstrating that the process leading to internalization of S. citri in eukaryotic cells requires the presence of PGK. PGK, regardless of origin, reduced the entry of spiroplasmas into Ciha-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:20118377

  10. Spiroplasma taxonomy and identification of the sex ratio organisms: can they be cultivated?

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D. L.; Steiner, T.; McGarrity, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The spiroplasmas that occur naturally in several species of Drosophila were the first spiroplasmas ever observed, even though their discoverers, D.F. Poulson and B. Sakaguchi, in 1961 described them as being "treponema-like spirochetes." These Drosophila spiroplasmas are transovarially, or maternally, transmitted by infected females whose progenies are composed entirely of females. A more recently discovered Drosophila spiroplasma found in flies originating in Ito, Japan, is also maternally inherited but does not result in the elimination of males from the progeny of infected females. In spite of their early discovery, their high numerical density in the hemolymph of infected females (10(6)-10(7)/microliters), and numerous attempts at in vitro cultivation, they remain prime examples of non-cultivable spiroplasmas. It is the purpose of this paper to recount some of the approaches used in attempts at their cultivation. PMID:6382824

  11. Spiroplasma Bacteria Enhance Survival of Drosophila hydei Attacked by the Parasitic Wasp Leptopilina heterotoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialei; Vilchez, Igor; Mateos, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally-transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are ubiquitous. While many of these associations are obligate and mutually beneficial, many are facultative, and the mechanism(s) by which these microbes persist in their host lineages remain elusive. Inherited microbes with imperfect transmission are expected to be lost from their host lineages if no other mechanisms increase their persistence (i.e., host reproductive manipulation and/or fitness benefits to host). Indeed numerous facultative heritable endosymbionts are reproductive manipulators. Nevertheless, many do not manipulate reproduction, so they are expected to confer fitness benefits to their hosts, as has been shown in several studies that report defense against natural enemies, tolerance to environmental stress, and increased fecundity. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined whether larval to adult survival of Drosophila hydei against attack by a common parasitoid wasp (Leptopilina heterotoma), differed between uninfected flies and flies that were artificially infected with Spiroplasma, a heritable endosymbiont of Drosophila hydei that does not appear to manipulate host reproduction. Survival was significantly greater for Spiroplasma-infected flies, and the effect of Spiroplasma infection was most evident during the host's pupal stage. We examined whether or not increased survival of Spiroplasma-infected flies was due to reduced oviposition by the wasp (i.e., pre-oviposition mechanism). The number of wasp eggs per fly larva did not differ significantly between Spiroplasma-free and Spiroplasma-infected fly larvae, suggesting that differential fly survival is due to a post-oviposition mechanism. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Spiroplasma confers protection to D. hydei against wasp parasitism. This is to our knowledge the first report of a potential defensive mutualism in the genus Spiroplasma. Whether it explains the persistence and high

  12. Evaluation of [3H]thymidine uptake method for studying growth of spiroplasmas under various conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, F O; Baliga, B S; Pollock, H M

    1988-01-01

    [3H]thymidine uptake and colony counts are quantitative and inexpensive methods for studying Spiroplasma growth. Using these techniques, we demonstrated subtle effects on the growth of suckling mouse cataract agent of medium alterations, inoculum size, and freezing of cultures. In addition, suckling mouse cataract agent multiplied more actively under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. These techniques have wide application for the study of Spiroplasma growth and will be useful for the development of a defined medium. PMID:3182999

  13. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a whitefly-transmitted virus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is distributed throughout the Middle East, most of the Mediterranean Basin, North America, and Central America. Symptoms are similar on most cucurbits, although early mottle symp...

  14. Occurrence and frequency of subgroup I-6 spiroplasma in arthropods associated with old fields in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Hackett, K; Clark, T B; Hicks, A; Whitcomb, R F; Lowry, E; Batra, S W

    1984-10-01

    The Subgroup I-6 spiroplasma, "Maryland Flower Spiroplasma," originally discovered on fall flowers and subsequently recovered from a syrphid fly and a beetle triungulin, was isolated from two new fall flower hosts and from the guts of nine nectar-imbibing insect species. These data, together with lack of recovery of I-6 spiroplasma from foliage-feeding, plant-sucking, or flightless flower-associated insects, suggest that I-6 spiroplasma may infect and be disseminated by nectar- or pollen-foraging insects, and that the dynamics of maintenance will prove to be complex.

  15. Childhood stunting: a global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Childhood stunting is the best overall indicator of children's well‐being and an accurate reflection of social inequalities. Stunting is the most prevalent form of child malnutrition with an estimated 161 million children worldwide in 2013 falling below −2 SD from the length‐for‐age/height‐for‐age World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. Many more millions suffer from some degree of growth faltering as the entire length‐for‐age/height‐for‐age z‐score distribution is shifted to the left indicating that all children, and not only those falling below a specific cutoff, are affected. Despite global consensus on how to define and measure it, stunting often goes unrecognized in communities where short stature is the norm as linear growth is not routinely assessed in primary health care settings and it is difficult to visually recognize it. Growth faltering often begins in utero and continues for at least the first 2 years of post‐natal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of multiple pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality, loss of physical growth potential, reduced neurodevelopmental and cognitive function and an elevated risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The severe irreversible physical and neurocognitive damage that accompanies stunted growth poses a major threat to human development. Increased awareness of stunting's magnitude and devastating consequences has resulted in its being identified as a major global health priority and the focus of international attention at the highest levels with global targets set for 2025 and beyond. The challenge is to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight and obesity at bay. PMID:27187907

  16. Cell Division by Longitudinal Scission in the Insect Endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii

    PubMed Central

    Maclachlan, Catherine; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma bacteria are highly motile bacteria with no cell wall and a helical morphology. This clade includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. S. poulsonii bacteria are mainly found in the hemolymph of infected female flies and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. As is the case for many facultative endosymbionts, S. poulsonii can manipulate the reproduction of its host; in particular, S. poulsonii induces male killing in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we analyze the morphology of S. poulsonii obtained from the hemolymph of infected Drosophila. This endosymbiont was not only found as long helical filaments, as previously described, but was also found in a Y-shaped form. The use of electron microscopy, immunogold staining of the FtsZ protein, and antibiotic treatment unambiguously linked the Y shape of S. poulsonii to cell division. Observation of the Y shape in another Spiroplasma, S. citri, and anecdotic observations from the literature suggest that cell division by longitudinal scission might be prevalent in the Spiroplasma clade. Our study is the first to report the Y-shape mode of cell division in an endosymbiotic bacterium and adds Spiroplasma to the so far limited group of bacteria known to utilize this cell division mode. PMID:27460796

  17. Spiroplasma apis, a new species from the honey-bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mouches, C; Bové, J M; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; McCoy, R E; Carle-Junca, P; Garnier, M; Saillard, C

    1983-01-01

    Two spiroplasma strains (B31 and B39) recovered from diseased honey-bees (Apis mellifera) in southwestern France were similar in biochemical, serological and pathological properties. The organisms grew at 30 degrees C, required cholesterol for growth, fermented glucose, catabolized arginine and produced a film and spot reaction. The two spiroplasmas were serologically indistinguishable but were related to serogroup IV spiroplasmas, which had been previously isolated from flower surfaces and from insects. The isolates were distinct from the three previously established species of Spiroplasma and from other presently known serogroups. The G + C content of the DNA from strain B31 was 30 +/- 1 mol %. Both B31 and B39 strains were associated with a lethal infection ("May disease") of the honey-bee. On the basis of the characterization presented here, it is proposed that these spiroplasmal pathogens of bees and allied strains be classified as a new species, Spiroplasma apis, the type strain of which is B31 (ATCC 33834).

  18. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.

  19. Detection of Spiroplasma melliferum in honey bee colonies in the US.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-06-01

    Spiroplasma infections in honey bees have been reported in Europe and Asia quite recently, due to intensive studies on the epidemiology of honey bee diseases. The situation in the US is less well analyzed. Here, we examined the honey bee colonies in Beltsville, MD, where Spiroplasmamelliferum was originally reported and found S. melliferum infection in honey bees. Our data showed high variation of S. melliferum infection in honey bees with a peak prevalence in May during the course of one-year study period. The colony prevalence increased from 5% in February to 68% in May and then decreased to 25% in June and 22% in July. Despite that pathogenicity of spiroplasmas in honey bee colonies remains to be determined, our results indicated that spiroplasma infections need to be included for the consideration of the impacts on honey bee health.

  20. Diversity of lectins in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their expression patterns under spiroplasma MR-1008 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huanxi; Du, Jie; Hui, Kai-Min; Liu, Peng; Chen, Jing; Xiu, Yunji; Yao, Wei; Wu, Ting; Meng, Qingguo; Gu, Wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    Lectins play important roles in crustacean innate immunity through recognition of foreign pathogens. In this study, 20 lectins including C-type lectins [dual-carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) type and single-CRD type], L-type lectin, and lectin with low-density lipoprotein class A (LDLa) domain were identified from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The tissue distribution and expression patterns of these lectins under spiroplasma strain MR-1008 challenge were investigated. Most of the lectins were found to be mainly distributed in the hepatopancreas. Lectin5, Lectin14, Lectin17, and Lectin18 exhibited the highest expression level in the hemocytes, nerve, intestine, and heart, respectively. MrLec1 to MrLec6 (dual-CRD lectins) in the hepatopancreas were up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Single-CRD lectins reached the highest level at 72 h after spiroplasma challenge. Lectin9 and Lectin15 both belong to L-type lectins. At post-spiroplasma challenge, Lectin9 expression was up-regulated, whereas Lectin15 expression was down-regulated. Lectin11 with LDLa domain showed the highest level after 12 h Lectin18 and Lectin20, namely, CD209, were also up-regulated by spiroplasma challenge. Lectin14, a C-type lectin, quickly reached the highest level after 2 h Lectin16 showed the highest level after 72 h Lectin5 reached the highest level in cultured hemocytes after 6 h Lectin17 in the intestine and Lectin14 in the nerve were slightly up-regulated after 6 and 2 h, respectively. Our research results indicate that lectins may play important roles in early or late immune responses against spiroplasma challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome Sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster Male-Killing Spiroplasma Strain MSRO Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Juan C.; Herren, Jeremy K.; Schüpfer, Fanny; Marin, Ray; Claverol, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasmas are helical and motile members of a cell wall-less eubacterial group called Mollicutes. Although all spiroplasmas are associated with arthropods, they exhibit great diversity with respect to both their modes of transmission and their effects on their hosts; ranging from horizontally transmitted pathogens and commensals to endosymbionts that are transmitted transovarially (i.e., from mother to offspring). Here we provide the first genome sequence, along with proteomic validation, of an endosymbiotic inherited Spiroplasma bacterium, the Spiroplasma poulsonii MSRO strain harbored by Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of the genome content of S. poulsonii with that of horizontally transmitted spiroplasmas indicates that S. poulsonii has lost many metabolic pathways and transporters, demonstrating a high level of interdependence with its insect host. Consistent with genome analysis, experimental studies showed that S. poulsonii metabolizes glucose but not trehalose. Notably, trehalose is more abundant than glucose in Drosophila hemolymph, and the inability to metabolize trehalose may prevent S. poulsonii from overproliferating. Our study identifies putative virulence genes, notably, those for a chitinase, the H2O2-producing glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, and enzymes involved in the synthesis of the eukaryote-toxic lipid cardiolipin. S. poulsonii also expresses on the cell membrane one functional adhesion-related protein and two divergent spiralin proteins that have been implicated in insect cell invasion in other spiroplasmas. These lipoproteins may be involved in the colonization of the Drosophila germ line, ensuring S. poulsonii vertical transmission. The S. poulsonii genome is a valuable resource to explore the mechanisms of male killing and symbiont-mediated protection, two cardinal features of many facultative endosymbionts. PMID:25827421

  2. Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V

    2004-12-13

    Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format.

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum IPMB4A, a honeybee-associated bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Ling-Ling; Chung, Wan-Chia; Gasparich, Gail E; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-16

    The genus Spiroplasma contains a group of helical, motile, and wall-less bacteria in the class Mollicutes. Similar to other members of this class, such as the animal-pathogenic Mycoplasma and the plant-pathogenic 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', all characterized Spiroplasma species were found to be associated with eukaryotic hosts. While most of the Spiroplasma species appeared to be harmless commensals of insects, a small number of species have evolved pathogenicity toward various arthropods and plants. In this study, we isolated a novel strain of honeybee-associated S. melliferum and investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and comparative analysis with other Mollicutes genomes. The whole-genome shotgun sequencing of S. melliferum IPMB4A produced a draft assembly that was ~1.1 Mb in size and covered ~80% of the chromosome. Similar to other Spiroplasma genomes that have been studied to date, we found that this genome contains abundant repetitive sequences that originated from plectrovirus insertions. These phage fragments represented a major obstacle in obtaining a complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma with the current sequencing technology. Comparative analysis of S. melliferum IPMB4A with other Spiroplasma genomes revealed that these phages may have facilitated extensive genome rearrangements in these bacteria and contributed to horizontal gene transfers that led to species-specific adaptation to different eukaryotic hosts. In addition, comparison of gene content with other Mollicutes suggested that the common ancestor of the SEM (Spiroplasma, Entomoplasma, and Mycoplasma) clade may have had a relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capacity; the extremely reduced genomes of present day Mycoplasma and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species are likely to be the result of independent gene losses in these lineages. The findings in this study highlighted the significance of phage insertions and horizontal gene

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum IPMB4A, a honeybee-associated bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Spiroplasma contains a group of helical, motile, and wall-less bacteria in the class Mollicutes. Similar to other members of this class, such as the animal-pathogenic Mycoplasma and the plant-pathogenic ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, all characterized Spiroplasma species were found to be associated with eukaryotic hosts. While most of the Spiroplasma species appeared to be harmless commensals of insects, a small number of species have evolved pathogenicity toward various arthropods and plants. In this study, we isolated a novel strain of honeybee-associated S. melliferum and investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and comparative analysis with other Mollicutes genomes. Results The whole-genome shotgun sequencing of S. melliferum IPMB4A produced a draft assembly that was ~1.1 Mb in size and covered ~80% of the chromosome. Similar to other Spiroplasma genomes that have been studied to date, we found that this genome contains abundant repetitive sequences that originated from plectrovirus insertions. These phage fragments represented a major obstacle in obtaining a complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma with the current sequencing technology. Comparative analysis of S. melliferum IPMB4A with other Spiroplasma genomes revealed that these phages may have facilitated extensive genome rearrangements in these bacteria and contributed to horizontal gene transfers that led to species-specific adaptation to different eukaryotic hosts. In addition, comparison of gene content with other Mollicutes suggested that the common ancestor of the SEM (Spiroplasma, Entomoplasma, and Mycoplasma) clade may have had a relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capacity; the extremely reduced genomes of present day Mycoplasma and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species are likely to be the result of independent gene losses in these lineages. Conclusions The findings in this study highlighted the significance of

  5. Maize dwarf mosaic can reduce weed suppressive ability of sweet corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) stunts corn growth, delays development, and is the most prevalent viral disease of sweet corn grown in many regions of North America and Europe. Although weeds evade control in most sweet corn fields, the extent to which MDM influences the weed suppressive ability of the cro...

  6. Maize dwarf mosaic in sweet corn contributes to weed growth and seed production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) stunts corn growth, delays development, and is the most prevalent viral disease of sweet corn. Although weeds evade control in most sweet corn fields, the extent to which MDM influences the crop’s weed suppressive ability is unknown. Field studies were conducted over a three...

  7. The stunting syndrome in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a ‘stunting syndrome’ in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  8. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  9. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  10. Found and Lost: The Fates of Horizontally Acquired Genes in Arthropod-Symbiotic Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism that contributed to biological diversity, particularly in bacteria. Through acquisition of novel genes, the recipient cell may change its ecological preference and the process could promote speciation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of two Spiroplasma species for comparative analyses and inferred the putative gene gains and losses. Although most Spiroplasma species are symbionts of terrestrial insects, Spiroplasma eriocheiris has evolved to be a lethal pathogen of freshwater crustaceans. We found that approximately 7% of the genes in this genome may have originated from HGT and these genes expanded the metabolic capacity of this organism. Through comparison with the closely related Spiroplasma atrichopogonis, as well as other more divergent lineages, our results indicated that these HGT events could be traced back to the most recent common ancestor of these two species. However, most of these horizontally acquired genes have been pseudogenized in S. atrichopogonis, suggesting that they did not contribute to the fitness of this lineage that maintained the association with terrestrial insects. Thus, accumulation of small deletions that disrupted these foreign genes was not countered by natural selection. On the other hand, the long-term survival of these horizontally acquired genes in the S. eriocheiris genome hinted that they might play a role in the ecological shift of this species. Finally, the implications of these findings and the conflicts among gene content, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and serological typing, are discussed in light of defining bacterial species. PMID:26254485

  11. Genetic variation of Spiroplasma citri populations in California revealed by two genomic loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), known to be present in California since 1915, was confirmed to be caused by Spiroplasma citri in 1972. Hosts of S. citri include citrus and a wide range of annual weeds, ornamentals and crops such as carrots and sesame. Genetic variation of S. citri in California was e...

  12. Spiroplasma turonicum sp. nov. from Haematopota horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in France.

    PubMed

    Hélias, C; Vazeille-Falcoz, M; Le Goff, F; Abalain-Colloc, M L; Rodhain, F; Carle, P; Whitcomb, R F; Williamson, D L; Tully, J G; Bové, J M; Chastel, C

    1998-04-01

    Strain Tab4cT, a helical prokaryote that was isolated from the body of a Haematopota sp. fly collected in Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, was found to be a member of the class Mollicutes. The cells of strain Tab4cT were small, motile helices that were devoid of a cell wall. The organism passed through filters with mean pore diameters as small as 0.20 mm. Strain Tab4cT grew rapidly in liquid SP-4 medium at both 30 and 37 degrees C. The organism fermented glucose but did not hydrolyse arginine or urea, and did not require serum for growth. In preliminary electrophoretic analyses, the cell protein patterns of strain Tab4cT were distinct from those of 14 other spiroplasmas found in mosquitoes, deer flies and horse flies from Europe and the Far-East. In reciprocal metabolism inhibition and deformation serological tests, employing antigens and antisera representative of spiroplasma groups I-XXXIII (including all sub-groups), plus ungrouped strains BARC 1901 and BARC 2649, no serological relationship with Tab4cT was found. The G + C content of the DNA of strain Tab4cT was about 25 +/- 1 mol% and its genome size was 1.305 kbp. It is proposed that spiroplasma strain Tab4cT be assigned to group XVII (presently vacant) and that strain (ATCC 700271T) is the type strain of a new species, Spiroplasma turonicum.

  13. Evaluation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake method for studying growth of spiroplasmas under various conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, F.O.; Baliga, B.S.; Pollock, H.M.

    1988-10-01

    (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake and colony counts are quantitative and inexpensive methods for studying Spiroplasma growth. Using these techniques, we demonstrated subtle effects on the growth of suckling mouse cataract agent of medium alterations, inoculum size, and freezing of cultures. In addition, suckling mouse cataract agent multiplied more actively under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. These techniques have wide application for the study of Spiroplasma growth and will be useful for the development of a defined medium.

  14. Honey bee colonies act as reservoirs for two Spiroplasma facultative symbionts and incur complex, multiyear infection dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Teixeira, Érica Weinstein; Tauber, James P; Birke, Juliane M; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Fonseca, Isabela; Evans, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    Two species of Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) bacteria were isolated from and described as pathogens of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, ∼30 years ago but recent information on them is lacking despite global concern to understand bee population declines. Here we provide a comprehensive survey for the prevalence of these two Spiroplasma species in current populations of honey bees using improved molecular diagnostic techniques to assay multiyear colony samples from North America (U.S.A.) and South America (Brazil). Significant annual and seasonal fluctuations of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum prevalence in colonies from the U.S.A. (n = 616) and Brazil (n = 139) occurred during surveys from 2011 through 2013. Overall, 33% of U.S.A. colonies and 54% of Brazil colonies were infected by Spiroplasma spp., where S. melliferum predominated over S. apis in both countries (25% vs. 14% and 44% vs. 38% frequency, respectively). Colonies were co-infected by both species more frequently than expected in both countries and at a much higher rate in Brazil (52%) compared to the U.S.A. (16.5%). U.S.A. samples showed that both species were prevalent not only during spring, as expected from prior research, but also during other seasons. These findings demonstrate that the model of honey bee spiroplasmas as springtime-restricted pathogens needs to be broadened and their role as occasional pathogens considered in current contexts. PMID:24771723

  15. Effect of the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma on parasitoid wasp development and on the reproductive fitness of wasp-attacked fly survivors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialei; Tiner, Bethany; Vilchez, Igor; Mateos, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that Spiroplasma, a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium of Drosophila hydei, enhances larval to adult survival of its host when exposed to oviposition attack by the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. The mechanism by which Spiroplasma enhances host survival has not been elucidated. To better understand this mechanism, we compared the growth of wasp larvae in Spiroplasma-infected and uninfected hosts. Our results indicate that wasp embryos in Spiroplasma-infected hosts hatch and grow normally for ~2 days, after which their growth is severely impaired, compared to wasps developing in uninfected hosts. Thus, despite their reduced ability to complete development in Spiroplasma-infected hosts, developing wasps may exert fitness costs on their hosts that are manifested after host emergence. The severity of these costs will influence the degree to which this protective mechanism contributes to the long-term persistence of Spiroplasma in D. hydei. We therefore examined survival to 10-day-old adult stage and fecundity of Spiroplasma-infected flies surviving a wasp treatment. Our results suggest detrimental effects of wasp attack on longevity of Spiroplasma-infected adult flies. However, compared to Spiroplasma-free flies exposed to wasps, Spiroplasma-infected flies exposed to wasps have ~5 times greater survival from larva to 10 day-adult. The relative fecundity of wasp-attacked Spiroplasma-infected females was ~71% that of un-attacked Spiroplasma-free females. Our combined survival and female fecundity results suggest that under high wasp parasitism, the reproductive fitness of Spiroplasma-infected flies may be ~3.5 times greater than that of uninfected females, so it is potentially relevant to the persistence of Spiroplasma in natural populations of D. hydei. Interestingly, Spiroplasma-infected males surviving a wasp attack were effectively sterile during the 3-day period examined. This observation is consistent with the

  16. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Stanton, Thad B; Smith, Jodi D; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A; Stasko, Judith A; Richt, Juergen A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrP(d)) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrP(d) by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons.

  17. Male Killing Spiroplasma Preferentially Disrupts Neural Development in the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Chong, Trisha; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Male killing bacteria such as Spiroplasma are widespread pathogens of numerous arthropods including Drosophila melanogaster. These maternally transmitted bacteria can bias host sex ratios toward the female sex in order to ‘selfishly’ enhance bacterial transmission. However, little is known about the specific means by which these pathogens disrupt host development in order to kill males. Here we show that a male-killing Spiroplasma strain severely disrupts nervous tissue development in male but not female D. melanogaster embryos. The neuroblasts, or neuron progenitors, form properly and their daughter cells differentiate into neurons of the ventral nerve chord. However, the neurons fail to pack together properly and they produce highly abnormal axons. In contrast, non-neural tissue, such as mesoderm, and body segmentation appear normal during this time, although the entire male embryo becomes highly abnormal during later stages. Finally, we found that Spiroplasma is altogether absent from the neural tissue but localizes within the gut and the epithelium immediately surrounding the neural tissue, suggesting that the bacterium secretes a toxin that affects neural tissue development across tissue boundaries. Together these findings demonstrate the unique ability of this insect pathogen to preferentially affect development of a specific embryonic tissue to induce male killing. PMID:24236124

  18. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME)

    PubMed Central

    Hamir, Amir N.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Stanton, Thad B.; Smith, Jodi D.; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A.; Stasko, Judith A.; Richt, Juergen A.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrPd) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrPd by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons. PMID:21461191

  19. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  20. Three spiroplasmas isolated from Haematopota sp. (Diptera:Tabanidae) in France.

    PubMed

    Vazeille-Falcoz, M; Hélias, C; Le Goff, F; Rodhain, F; Chastel, C

    1997-03-01

    On August 1991, three spiroplasmas (Tab 2A, Tab 2B and Tab 4C) were isolated from Haematopota sp. flies collected from Indre-et-Loire, France. Isolations were made at 28 degrees C in MD1 medium from ground individual flies, but not from external washings. All isolates adapted well to SP4 medium at 30 and 37 degrees C and were triple cloned before serological identification. Using the cross deformation test, the 3 isolates were compared with 42 known spiroplasmas isolated from diseased plants, flowers, various insects and ticks belonging to 25 serological groups. Each isolate cross-reacted with others and exhibited weak 1-way reactions with TABS-2 or PLHS-1, two spiroplasmas isolated in the United States from respectively Tabanus abactor Philip and Panorpa helena L, a scorpion-fly. These results suggest that Tab 2A, Tab 2B and Tab 4C together with TABS-2 and PLHS-1 may represent, members of a new serological supergroup.

  1. Spiroplasma lineolae sp. nov., from the horsefly Tabanus lineola (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    French, F E; Whitcomb, R F; Tully, J G; Carle, P; Bové, J M; Henegar, R B; Adams, J R; Gasparich, G E; Williamson, D L

    1997-10-01

    Spiroplasma strain TALS-2T from the viscera of the striped horsefly, Tabanus lineola, collected in Georgia was serologically distinct from other Spiroplasma species, groups, putative groups, and subgroups. Light and electron microscopy of cells of strain TALS-2T revealed helical motile cells surrounded only by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organism grew in M1D and SP-4 liquid media. Growth also occurred in 1% serum fraction medium and in conventional horse serum medium. Growth in liquid media was serum dependent. The strain passed through 220-nm filter pores, but was retained in filters with 100-nm pores. The optimum temperature for growth was 30 degrees C. Multiplication occurred at temperatures from 20 to 37 degrees C, with a doubling time at the optimum temperature of 5.6 h in M1D broth. Strain TALS-2T catabolized glucose but hydrolyzed neither arginine nor urea. The guanine-plus-cytosine content of the DNA was 25 +/- 1 mol%. The genome size was 1,390 kbp. Six isolates serologically similar to strain TALS-2T were obtained from the same host in coastal Georgia. Three strains closely related to strain TALS-2T were isolated from the horsefly Poeciloderas quadripunctatus in Costa Rica. Strain TALS-2T (= ATCC 51749), a representative of group XXVII, is designated the type strain of a new species, Spiroplasma lineolae (Mollicutes: Entomoplasmatales).

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Strain Tab4cT, a Parasite of a Horse Fly, Haematopota sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Yan; Gasparich, Gail E.; Gaynor, Brady J.; Donofrio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma turonicum was isolated from a Haematopota sp. fly in France. We report the nucleotide sequence of the circular chromosome of strain Tab4cT. The genome information will facilitate evolutionary studies of spiroplasmas, including symbionts of insects and ticks and pathogens of plants, insects, crustaceans, and humans. PMID:26586899

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Strain Tab4cT, a Parasite of a Horse Fly, Haematopota sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert E; Shao, Jonathan; Zhao, Yan; Gasparich, Gail E; Gaynor, Brady J; Donofrio, Nicole

    2015-11-19

    Spiroplasma turonicum was isolated from a Haematopota sp. fly in France. We report the nucleotide sequence of the circular chromosome of strain Tab4c(T). The genome information will facilitate evolutionary studies of spiroplasmas, including symbionts of insects and ticks and pathogens of plants, insects, crustaceans, and humans. Copyright © 2015 Davis et al.

  4. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  5. Implications of stunting on morphology of freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Strauss, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess morphological differences between stunted and non-stunted white perch Morone americana and green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus. Few female M. americana were captured; thus, morphological differences between adult males and juveniles were assessed for M. americana. Similarly, few immature (juvenile) L. cyanellus were captured for the stunted morphotype; thus, male and female morphological differences were assessed for L. cyanellus. Features of the head tended to be relatively larger in stunted fish of both species, whereas the mid-body tended to be relatively larger in non-stunted M. americana, but not in non-stunted L. cyanellus. Adult and juvenile morphology overlapped considerably in non-stunted M. americana, but there was a clear distinction between adult and juvenile morphology of stunted M. americana. There was little sexual dimorphism in shape in stunted L. cyanellus, whereas sexual dimorphism was evident in non-stunted L. cyanellus. It appears that selective forces imposed by predation and food limitation may contribute to morphological diversification between stunted and non-stunted fishes. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  7. Corning's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Brad

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Corning, Inc.'s relationship with the surrounding community and the problem that arose when a large Corning-backed campus-style high school was proposed that brought objections from many local residents. (GR)

  8. Piecing together the stunting puzzle: a framework for attributable factors of child stunting.

    PubMed

    Mosites, Emily; Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth; Walson, Judd; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-09-29

    Reducing the burden of stunting in childhood is critical to improving health in low- and middle-income settings. However, because many aetiologies underlie linear growth failure, stunting has proved difficult to prevent and reverse. Understanding the contributions these aetiologies make to the burden of stunting can help the development of targeted, effective interventions. To begin to frame these causes, a qualitative and a quantitative framework of the primary drivers of stunting in low-resource settings were developed. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated to inform the quantitative framework. According to these estimates, infectious diseases were responsible for large attributable fractions in all settings, and a combination of dietary indicators also comprised a large fraction in Africa. However, the PAF calculation was found to have several limitations, including a requirement for a binary outcome and sensitivity to confounding, which necessitate broad interpretation of the results. More robust tools to model complex causality are needed in order to understand the causal aetiology of stunting.

  9. Birth Size, Stunting and Recovery from Stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India: Evidence from the Young Lives Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Kaushalendra

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Few Indian studies have examined the relationship between birth size and stunting in children. Studies on recovery from stunting in India are even fewer. This study, thus, investigates the relationship between birth size and stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India. This study further examines the factors associated with recovery from stunting using a longitudinal data. Methods We used data from the three waves of Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in Andhra Pradesh in the years 2002, 2006-2007, and 2009 respectively. We used data from 1965 children in wave 1 to examine the association between birth size and stunting. For examining the factors associated with recovery from stunting between 1 and 5 years of age, and between 5 and 8 years, we use data from 582 and 670 children who were stunted at age 1 and age 5 respectively. We use multivariable logistic regression models to fulfil the objectives of the paper. Results The children who were of average- or large- size at birth were significantly less likely to be stunted than children who were of small size at birth (OR 0.61 and 0.47 respectively). Children of average/tall mothers were 0.41 times less likely to be stunted than children of shorter mothers. Severely stunted children were less likely than other stunted children to recover from stunting between 1 and 5 years of age, and between 5 and 8 years. Mother's height was statistically associated with recovery. Change in wealth status of the household was statistically associated with recovery between 1 and 5 years of age. In comparison, child immunization was associated with recovery between 5 and 8 years. Conclusions for Practice This study contributes to the understanding of the impact of birth size on childhood stunting, and to the extent of recovery from stunting in India. Further follow-up is necessary to demonstrate the impact during adolescence and adulthood.

  10. CORN FLAVOR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  11. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma citri strain R8-A2T, causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spiroplasma citri is the causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp., as well as the cause of diseases in numerous other plant genera. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709 bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of strain R8-A2T. This information will facilitate comparative ...

  12. Improved real-time PCR diagnosis of citrus stubborn disease by targeting prophage genes of Spiroplasma citri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spiroplasma citri is a phloem-limited bacterium causing citrus stubborn disease (CSD). Isolation and culturing of S. citri is difficult and time consuming. Current detection methods use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with primers developed from sequences of S. citri house-keeping genes. In c...

  13. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in the Defense and Stress Response of Spiroplasma citri Infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Dickinson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties. PMID:22408455

  14. Production and application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Bao, Haixun; Miao, Fengqin; Peng, Yaqin; Shen, Yuqing; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as a lethal pathogen of tremor disease (TD) in Chinese mitten crab recently. In order to acquire appropriate biological and diagnostic tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against S. eriocheiris were produced. Among the mAbs, 6F5, 7C8 and 12H5 lead to the deformation of S. eriocheiris. A peptide sequence, YMRDMQSGLPRY was identified as a mimic motif of MreB that is the cell shape determining protein of S. eriocheiris interacting with 3 mAbs. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of S. eriocheiris was established using the mAb and pAb we prepared. It detected as low as 0.1 μg/mL of S. eriocheiris. No cross-reaction was observed with three other common bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis) and the hemolymph samples of healthy Eriocheir sinensis. Collectively, our results indicated that the mAbs and pAb we prepared could be used in the analysis of S. eriocheiris membrane proteins mimotope and development of a diagnostic kit for S. eriocheiris infections. PMID:26639364

  15. Spiroplasma-like organisms closely associated with the gut in five leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Gasparich, Gail E; Hall, David G; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Spiroplasmas are bacteria in the Class Mollicutes that are frequently associated with insects and/or plants. Here, we describe the ultrastructure, localization, and occurrence of apparent commensal/symbiotic spiroplasma-like organisms (SLOs) in the midgut and hindgut of five leafhopper species from laboratory-reared colonies. Those found in Dalbulus elimatus, Endria inimica, and Macrosteles quadrilineatus were long and tubular shaped, whereas those in Dalbulus maidis and Graminella nigrifrons were shorter and mostly rod-shaped in their host organisms. These SLOs were found in great numbers in the gut lumen frequently associated with the gut microvilli, but unlike the plant-pathogenic mollicutes, they did not seem to invade the gut epithelium or other tissues in any of these five leafhopper species. Large accumulations of these gut-associated organisms were more commonly found by confocal laser scanning microscopy in males than in females and in crowded than in singly reared leafhoppers. Ultrastructural evidence suggests that these SLOs may be horizontally transmitted between leafhoppers by contamination of the mouth parts with leafhopper excretions.

  16. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  17. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  18. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M; Ordiz, M Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12-59months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p<0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  20. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  1. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. PMID:27211567

  2. The effect of predation on stunted and nonstunted white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pierce, L.L.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Predation is widely regarded as a means to prevent or minimise the establishment of a stunted (high density of slow growing individuals) population. We investigated the effect of predation on two different white perch Morone americana populations (stunted and nonstunted) by examining the stomach contents of piscivorous fishes. White perch and gizzard shad dominated piscivore diets in Branched Oak Lake, whereas white perch dominated piscivore diets in Pawnee Lake. White perch consumed in the stunted population (Branched Oak Lake) were larger and older than white perch consumed in the nonstunted population (Pawnee Lake). Many of the consumed white perch in the stunted population were sexually mature and had the opportunity to spawn at least once. In contrast, all of the consumed white perch in the nonstunted population were sexually immature. Predation may have reinforced the stunting of white perch in Branched Oak Lake through removal of the largest, oldest individuals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Behaviour and development of stunted and nonstunted Jamaican children.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J M; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Himes, J; Chang, S

    1999-07-01

    In order to examine the mechanism whereby stunted children have poor developmental levels, we compared the behaviour of stunted (N = 78) and nonstunted (N = 26) children aged 12 to 24 months, and examined the relationship of their behaviour to their developmental levels. The effect of nutritional supplementation with or without psychosocial stimulation on the stunted children's behaviour was also examined. The children were observed at home during 4 days over a period of 6 months. The stunted children showed significantly more apathy, and less enthusiasm and variety in exploring, were less happy and more fussy. Caretakers' vocalisations to them were less warm or instructive. Stunted children's activity level, exploratory and happy behaviours were predictive of change in developmental levels measured on the Griffiths Scales, from enrolment to 12 and 24 months later. Supplementation predicted mental age at 12 and 24 months after enrolment, however, it had no significant effect on behaviour.

  4. Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Moschovis, Peter P; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O D; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-10-01

    Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. We analysed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n = 958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n = 1702), which enrolled children aged 2-59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < -2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxaemic pneumonia. Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients [unadjusted RR = 1.24 (95% CI 1.08, 1.41); adjusted RR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.10, 1.48)]. An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxaemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalisation of respiratory rate [HR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.52, 0.75)] and oxygen saturation [HR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.89)]. Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovis, Peter P.; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O. D.; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C.; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B.; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M.; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. Methods We analyzed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n=958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n=1702), which enrolled children aged 2–59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < −2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxemic pneumonia. Results Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients (unadjusted RR = 1.24 [95% CI 1.08, 1.41]; adjusted RR = 1.28 [95% CI 1.10, 1.48]). An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalization of respiratory rate (HR = 0.63 [95% CI 0.52, 0.75]) and oxygen saturation (HR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.61, 0.89]). Conclusions Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. PMID:26083963

  6. Immune response and survival of Circulifer haematoceps to Spiroplasma citri infection requires expression of the gene hexamerin.

    PubMed

    Eliautout, Rémi; Dubrana, Marie-Pierre; Vincent-Monégat, Carole; Vallier, Agnès; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Poirié, Marylène; Saillard, Colette; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma citri is a cell wall-less bacterium that infects plants. It is transmitted by the leafhopper Circulifer haematoceps, which hosts this bacterium in the haemocel and insect tissues. Bacterial factors involved in spiroplasma colonization of the insect host have been identified, but the immune response of the leafhopper to S. citri infection remains unknown. In this study, we showed that C. haematoceps activates both humoral and cellular immune responses when challenged with bacteria. When infected by S. citri, C. haematoceps displayed a specific immune response, evidenced by activation of phagocytosis and upregulation of a gene encoding the protein hexamerin. S. citri infection also resulted in decreased phenoloxidase-like activity. Inhibition of hexamerin by RNA interference resulted in a significant reduction in phenoloxidase-like activity and increased mortality of infected leafhoppers. Therefore, the gene hexamerin is involved in S. citri control by interfering with insect phenoloxidase activity.

  7. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  8. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  9. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  10. Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2017-03-01

    More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context. Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as <=-2.0 height-for-age z-score by WHO-Anthro 2005. Trained interviewers administered the household dietary diversity questionnaire to 768 households with children aged <5 years in East Java, Indonesia. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between dietary diversity and child stunting. The prevalence of child stunting was 39.4%, and the percentage of households consuming food groups high in protein and calcium, like dairy products (41%), and meat/poultry, (65%) was lower compared with other food groups. The unadjusted model revealed that higher dietary diversity scores were associated with lower likelihood of child stunting (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.98). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for family size, maternal literacy, food expenditure, breastfeeding, energy, and protein intake (OR=0.89; 95% CI=0.80-0.99). The dietary diversity score was moderate, with consumption of dairy products and meat/poultry lowest among 12 food groups. Hence, population interventions should focus on promoting food groups currently lacking in maternal and child diet, including those rich in growth-promoting nutrients like dairy, meat/poultry. These results, from an Indonesian context, confirm the widely observed protective relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting.

  11. Molecular evolution of the substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors in mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lo, Wen-Sui; Ku, Chuan; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-03-01

    Comparative genomics provides a powerful tool to characterize the genetic differences among species that may be linked to their phenotypic variations. In the case of mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species, such approach is useful for the investigation of their differentiations in substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors. Among the four species that have been assessed for pathogenicity by artificial infection experiments, Spiroplasma culicicola and S. taiwanense were found to be pathogenic, whereas S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense were not. Intriguingly, based on the species phylogeny, the association with mosquito hosts and the gain or loss of pathogenicity in these species appears to have evolved independently. Through comparison of their complete genome sequences, we identified the genes and pathways that are shared by all or specific to one of these four species. Notably, we found that a glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase gene (glpO) is present in S. culicicola and S. taiwanense but not in S. diminutum or S. sabaudiense. Because this gene is involved in the production of reactive oxygen species and has been demonstrated as a major virulence factor in Mycoplasma, this distribution pattern suggests that it may be linked to the observed differences in pathogenicity among these species as well. Moreover, through comparative analysis with other Spiroplasma, Mycoplasma, and Mesoplasma species, we found that the absence of glpO in S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense is best explained by independent losses. Finally, our phylogenetic analyses revealed possible recombination of glpO between distantly related lineages and local rearrangements of adjacent genes.

  12. Quantitative detection and proliferation dynamics of a novel Spiroplasma eriocheiris pathogen in the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Tang, Jianqing; Xue, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris disease control based on sensitive quantitative methods has become a priority. A SYBR Green real-time PCR that can simultaneously detect and quantify S. eriocheiris in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii was produced and evaluated. In the asymptomatic crayfish, hemolymph exhibited the statistically greatest number of S. eriocheiris copies indicating a tissue-specific pathogen infection characteristic. The curve of the pathogen amount change in vivo assumed a very similar shape with the typical one-step growth curve. A turning point from chronic infection to acute infection was suggested from 3 to 4 days when the S. eriocheiris copies in hemolymph increased substantially.

  13. Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.; Rukobo, Sandra; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Jones, Andrew; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Humphrey, Jean H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) <−2; cases) or non-stunted (HAZ >−0.5; controls) at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP), inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6) and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3) in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression. Results At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR) HAZ −1.00 (−1.53, −0.08) vs 0.03 (−0.57, 0.62,); P<0.001) than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI) −21.4 (−39.8, −3.1) ng/mL). From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3–12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99); P = 0.008) and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74); P = 0.087) during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting. Conclusions Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were

  14. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  15. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Micronutrients in the treatment of stunting and moderate malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute. Multiple micronutrients together with energy and macronutrients are also needed for the management of moderate malnutrition. Multiple micronutrients may be delivered as medicinal-like supplements, but may also be combined with food, for instance in milk drinks, in fortified dried cereal mixes used to supplement complementary foods or in lipid nutrition supplements. The latter also provide essential fats necessary for growth. Micronutrient powders for home fortification are effective in preventing anemia, but present combinations do not prevent stunting. Improving the diets of infant and young children is also possible, and increased intake of animal source foods can improve growth.

  17. Length screens better than weight in stunted populations.

    PubMed

    Ruel, M T; Rivera, J; Habicht, J P

    1995-05-01

    Stunting (low length-for-age) is the most widespread manifestation of growth retardation worldwide. Yet, most nutrition programs use weight-for-age for screening of at-risk children. This study tested whether weight-for-age was an effective screening tool in a severely stunted rural Guatemalan population, using data from the INCAP longitudinal supplementation trial (n = 400). Stunting was defined as length-for-age < -2 SD of the National Center for Health Statistics standards at 3 y of age. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to compare weight indicators (weight-for-age, weight velocity and weight-for-length) with length (length-for-age and length velocity) and arm and head circumferences measured during early infancy. Length indicators were clearly superior to weight in predicting stunting (Zda test), and velocities were consistently worse than attained growth. Length-for-age at 6 mo had the best performance, followed by length-for-age at 3 mo, and weight-for-age at 6 and at 3 mo. Velocities, weight-for-length and circumferences were all poor predictors of stunting. Using the cutoff of < -1 SD, length-for-age at 3 mo was the best screening indicator for the early detection of growth faltering. Thus, the current use of weight-for-age, which results in large proportions of at-risk children being missed by screening, greatly limits the potential for impact of nutrition interventions.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ramli; Agho, Kingsley E; Inder, Kerry J; Bowe, Steven J; Jacobs, Jennifer; Dibley, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrition is needed to ensure optimum growth and development of infants and young children. Understanding of the risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province is important to guide Indonesian government public health planners to develop nutrition programs and interventions in a post conflict area. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province of Indonesia. Methods The health and nutritional status of children aged less than five years was assessed in North Maluku province of Indonesia in 2004 using a cross-sectional multi-stage survey conducted on 750 households from each of the four island groups in North Maluku province. A total of 2168 children aged 0-59 months were used in the analysis. Results Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% (95%CI: 26.0-32.2) and 14.1% (95%CI: 11.7-17.0) for children aged 0-23 months and 38.4% (95%CI: 35.9-41.0) and 18.4% (95%CI: 16.1-20.9) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for stunted children were child's age in months, male sex and number of family meals per day (≤2 times), for children aged 0-23 months, and income (poorest and middle-class family), child's age in months and male sex for children aged 0-59 months. The risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months were income (poorest family), male sex and child's age in months and for children aged 0-59 months were income (poorest family), father's occupation (not working), male sex and child's age in months. Conclusion Programmes aimed at improving stunting in North Maluku province of Indonesia should focus on children under two years of age, of male sex and from families of low socioeconomic status. PMID

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma apis B31T (ATCC 33834), a Bacterium Associated with May Disease of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-09

    Spiroplasma apis B31(T) (ATCC 33834) is a wall-less bacterium in the class Mollicutes that has been linked to May disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its virulence factors.

  20. Proteome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum (A56) and protein characterisation across species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Cordwell, S J; Basseal, D J; Humphery-Smith, I

    1997-08-01

    Spiroplasma melliferum (Class: Mollicutes) is a wall-less, helical bacterium with a genome of approximately 1460 kbp encoding 800-1000 gene-products. A two-dimensional electrophoresis gel reference map of S. melliferum was produced by Phoretix 2-D gel software analysis of eight high quality gels. The reference map showed 456 silver-stained and replicated protein spots. 156 proteins (34% of visible protein spots) from S. melliferum were further characterised by one, or a combination, of the following: amino acid analysis, peptide-mass fingerprinting via matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and N-terminal protein microsequencing. Proteins with close relationship to those previously determined from other species were identified across species barriers. Thus, this study represents the first larger-scale analysis of a proteome based upon the attribution of predominantly 'unique numerical parameters' for protein characterisation across species boundaries, as opposed to a sequence-based approach. This approach allowed all database entries to be screened for homology, as is currently the case for studies based on nucleic acid or protein sequence information. Several proteins studied from this organism were identified as hypothetical, or having no close homolog already present in the databases. Gene-products from major families such as glycolysis, translation, transcription, cellular processes, energy metabolism and protein synthesis were identified. Several gene-products characterised in S. melliferum were not previously found in studies of the entire Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (both closely related Mollicutes) genomes. The presence of such gene-products in S. melliferum is discussed in terms of genome size as compared with the smallest known free-living organisms. Finally, the levels of expression of S. melliferum gene-products were determined with respect to total optical intensity associated with

  1. Corn insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  2. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  3. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Meera; D’Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Childhood stunting, being short for one’s age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5–53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016–25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a ‘business as usual’, which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under ‘business as usual’, this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001–11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. PMID:28453717

  4. Direct visualization of the novel pathogen, Spiroplasma eriocheiris, in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z F; Xia, S Y; Xue, H; Tang, J Q; Ren, Q; Gu, W; Meng, Q G; Wang, W

    2015-09-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is the first spiroplasma strain known to be pathogenic to freshwater crustaceans. It has caused considerable economic losses both in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) and in some other crustaceans. The monitoring of the pathogen in crustacean populations and study of its behaviour in the laboratory require the development of reliable diagnostic tools. In this article, we improved microscopic identification of S. eriocheiris by combining in situ hybridization with specific fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes. The established fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed simultaneous visualization, identification and localization of S. eriocheiris in the tissues of diseased crayfish P. clarkii and exhibited low background autofluorescence and ideal signal-to-noise ratio. With the advantages of better tissue penetration, potentially more specific and stable, we designed three species-specific oligonucleotide probes utilizing the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of S. eriocheiris. Positive hybridization signals were visualized in haemocytes and connective tissues of hepatopancreas, cardiac muscle and gill from diseased crayfish. This unique distribution pattern matched the pathological changes when diagnosed by H&E staining and indicated that S. eriocheiris probably spread throughout the tissues in P. clarkii by hemokinesis. This assay will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of S. eriocheiris and enhance the early diagnosis of the novel pathogen.

  5. Effects of co-occurring Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts on the Drosophila immune response against insect pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shokal, Upasana; Yadav, Shruti; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Kenney, Eric; Banks, Katherine; Katakam, Akash; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-02-09

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and animals are common in nature. Symbiotic organisms are particularly common in insects and, in some cases, they may protect their hosts from pathogenic infections. Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts naturally inhabit various insects including Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies. Therefore, this symbiotic association is considered an excellent model to investigate whether endosymbiotic bacteria participate in host immune processes against certain pathogens. Here we have investigated whether the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma endosymbionts in D. melanogaster adult flies affects the immune response against the virulent insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens and against non-pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. We found that D. melanogaster flies carrying no endosymbionts, those carrying both Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, and those containing Wolbachia only had similar survival rates after infection with P. luminescens or Escherichia coli bacteria. However, flies carrying both endosymbionts or Wolbachia only contained higher numbers of E. coli cells at early time-points post infection than flies without endosymbiotic bacteria. Interestingly, flies containing Wolbachia only had lower titers of this endosymbiont upon infection with the pathogen P. luminescens than uninfected flies of the same strain. We further found that the presence of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in D. melanogaster up-regulated certain immune-related genes upon infection with P. luminescens or E. coli bacteria, but it failed to alter the phagocytic ability of the flies toward E. coli inactive bioparticles. Our results suggest that the presence of Wolbachia and Spiroplasma in D. melanogaster can modulate immune signaling against infection by certain insect pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Results from such studies are important for understanding the molecular basis of the interactions between endosymbiotic bacteria of insects

  6. Bifurcations of 2-Periodic Nonautonomous Stunted Tent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L.; Rocha, J. Leonel; Silva, M. T.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we will consider a family of 2-periodic nonautonomous dynamical systems, generated by the alternate iteration of two stunted tent maps and study its bifurcation skeleton. We will describe the bifurcation phenomena along and around the bones accomplished with the combinatorial data furnished by the respective symbolic dynamics.

  7. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Samples were collected from pigweed, a species of Amaranth, that were in proximity to virus-infected watermelons in south Florida. No symptoms of virus infection were observed on the weed samples; however, testing by two independent methods found infection by Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus...

  8. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  9. Discovery of uncharacterized sugarcane viruses by next generation sequencing technology: the case of Ramu stunt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  10. Environmental enteric dysfunction and growth failure/stunting in global child health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. P...

  11. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in Tanzania: evidence from the 2010 cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Chirande, Lulu; Charwe, Deborah; Mbwana, Hadijah; Victor, Rose; Kimboka, Sabas; Issaka, Abukari Ibrahim; Baines, Surinder K; Dibley, Michael J; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2015-10-21

    Stunting is one of the main public health problems in Tanzania. It is caused mainly by malnutrition among children aged less than 5 years. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting among such children would help public health planners to reshape and redesign new interventions to reduce this health hazard. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in Tanzania. The sample is made up of 7324 children aged 0-59 months, from the Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys 2010. Analysis in this study was restricted to children who lived with the respondent (women aged 15-49 years). Stunting and severe stunting were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 35.5% [95% Confidence interval (CI): 33.3-37.7] and 14.4% (95 % CI: 12.9-16.1) for children aged 0-23 months and 41.6% (95 % CI: 39.8-43.3) and 16.1% (95 % CI: 14.8-17.5) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that the most consistent significant risk factors for stunted and severely-stunted children aged 0-23 and 0-59 months were: mothers with no schooling, male children, babies perceived to be of small or average size at birth by their mothers and unsafe sources of drinking water [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for stunted children aged 0-23 months = 1.37; 95% CI: (1.07, 1.75)]; [AOR for severely stunted children aged 0-23 months = 1.50; 95% CI: (1.05, 2.14)], [AOR for stunted children aged 0-59 months = 1.42; 95% CI: (1.13, 1.79)] and [AOR for severely stunted children aged 0-59 months = 1.26; 95% CI: (1.09, 1.46)]. Community-based interventions are needed to reduce the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in Tanzania. These interventions should target mothers with low levels of education, male children, small- or average

  12. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    PubMed

    Angood, Chloe; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel; Berkley, James A

    2016-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments. We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact) using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72%) experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions. Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  13. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments. Methods and Findings We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact) using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72%) experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: “Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?”; “What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?”; and “What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?” There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions. Conclusions Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences. PMID:27159235

  14. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  15. Spiroplasma eriocheiris Adhesin-Like Protein (ALP) Interacts with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Domain Proteins to Facilitate Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Libo; Liu, Yuhan; Gao, Qi; Xu, Xuechuan; Ning, Mingxiao; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Min; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen found in recent years, causing the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Like Spiroplasma mirum, S. eriocheiris infects the newborn mouse (adult mice are not infected) and can cause cataract. Adhesion-related protein is an important protein involved in the interaction between pathogen and host. In this study, the Adhesin-like Protein (ALP) of S. eriocheiris was detected on its outer membrane by using immune electron microscopy, and was found to be involved in the bacterium's infection of mouse embryo fibroblasts (3T6-Swiss albino). Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that ALP interacts with a diverse group of mouse proteins. The interactions between recombinant partial fibulin7 (FBLN7; including two epidermal growth factor [EGF] domains) and ALP were confirmed by Far-western blotting and colocalization. We synthetized the domains of FBLN7 [EGF domain: amino acids 136–172 and complement control protein (CCP) domain: 81–134 amino acids], and demonstrated that only EGF domain of FBLN7 can interact with ALP. Because the EGF domain has high degree of similarity to EGF, it can activate the downstream EGFR signaling pathway, in key site amino acids. The EGFR pathway in 3T6 cells was restrained after rALP stimulation resulting from competitive binding of ALP to EGF. The unborn mouse, newborn mouse, and the adult mouse with cataract have a small amount of expressed FBLN7; however, none was detected in the brain and very little expression was seen in the eye of normal adult mice. In short, ALP as a S. eriocheiris surface protein, is critical for infection and further supports the role of ALP in S. eriocheiris infection by competitive effection of the EGF/EGFR axis of the target cells. PMID:28184355

  16. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  17. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  18. An improved non-denaturing method for the purification of spiralin, the main membrane lipoprotein of the pathogenic bacteria Spiroplasma melliferum.

    PubMed

    Desfougères, Yann; Poitou, Jean-Michel; Wróblewski, Henri; Béven, Laure

    2016-11-15

    Spiralin is the most abundant protein of several species of spiroplasmas, helical, motile bacteria pathogenic for arthropods and plants. This amphiphilic protein is anchored to the outer face of the plasma membrane by a lipoylated N-terminal cysteine. Although spiroplasma pathogenicity in mammals is controversial, it was shown that spiralin is highly immunogenic and endowed with immunomodulatory activity. In this paper, we describe a high performance method for the purification of Spiroplasma melliferum spiralin under non-denaturing conditions. The protein was selectively extracted with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propyl sulfonate (CHAPS) from the membrane pre-treated with sodium dodecyl-N-sarcosinate (Sarkosyl), and purified to homogeneity by cation-exchange HPLC with an overall yield of ∼60%. Detergent-depleted, water-soluble micelles of spiralin displaying a mean diameter of 170Å, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, were obtained by dialysis detergent removal. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and cross immunoprecipitation assay of the purified spiralin strongly suggested that this purification method could retain the structural characteristics of the native spiralin. The strategy developed to purify spiralin (two successive selective extractions of membrane proteins with mild detergents followed by ion-exchange chromatography) should prove useful for the purification of membrane lipoproteins of other bacteria of the class Mollicutes including different pathogens for humans, animals and plants.

  19. Atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus isolated from peanuts collected from northern Philippines as potential biocon agents against pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxin contamination of food products causes liver cancer and weakened immunity in humans, and stunted growth and reduced productivity in animals (CAST, 2003). Effective control of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination of peanut and corn due to AflaGuard and Aflasafe in the United States and Africa...

  20. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  1. Determinants of underweight, stunting and wasting among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Wolde, Mekides; Berhan, Yifru; Chala, Alemzewed

    2015-01-17

    The cause of under-nutrition in schoolchildren is complex and varying from region to region. However, identifying the cause is the basic step for nutritional intervention programs. School based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 450 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years, using multi-stage sampling techniques in Dale Woreda, southern Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire and 24-hour recall methods were administered to determine the sociodemographic and dietary intake of participants. Stool microscopic examination was done. Weight and height were measured using a standard calibrated scale. Odds ratio generated from logistic regression was used to determine the strength of variables association. Older age group (10-14 vs. 7-9) (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI, 1.7-6.6) and having Trichuris Trichura infection (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4 -11.6) increased the risk of being stunted. Children whose mothers have completed primary education are less likely to be stunted than children whose mothers do not have formal education (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8). Having large family size (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.4-7.9) and inadequate intake of carbohydrate (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-6.8) were independent predictors of wasting. Children whose mothers completed primary education are less likely to be underweight (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9). Children live in food insecure households are more likely to be stunted, under-weight and wasted than children live in food secure households (AOR = 2.5; 95%, 1-5.6; AOR = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.0; AOR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.7-13.6;). Household food insecurity, low maternal education and infection with Trichuris trichura were some of the major factors contributing to under-nutrition in the study area.

  2. Determinants of stunting reduction in Ethiopia 2000 - 2011.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Bailes, Adam; Matji, Joan; Timmer, Arnold; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Ethiopia declined from 57% in 2000 to 44% in 2011, yet the factors producing this change are not fully understood. Data on 23,999 children 0-59 months of age from three Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2000, 2005, and 2011 were analyzed to assess the trends in stunting prevalence, mean height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) and the associations between potential factors and HAZ. Associations were determined separately using three separate generalized linear models for children age less than 6 months, 6-23 months, and 24-59 months of age. Significant variables were then analyzed to determine if they showed an overall trend between the 2000 and 2011 surveys. In children < 6 months of age, only mother's height was both a significant predictor of HAZ and showed a progressive, albeit non-significant, increase from 2000 to 2011. In children 6-23 months of age, only mother's use of modern contraception showed substantial changes in a direction consistent with improving HAZ, but improvements in maternal nutrition status were observed from 2000 to 2005. For children 24-59 months of age a consistent and progressive change is seen in child's diarrhea, fever, mother's education, and the occurrence of open defecation. Our analysis demonstrated that factors associated with HAZ vary by child's age and the dominant livelihood practice in the community. Variables that could have contributed to the decline of stunting in Ethiopia in children less than 5 years of age include markers of child health, mother's nutritional status, mother's educational level, and environmental hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  4. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  5. Birth interval and stunting in children under five years of age in Peru (1996-2014).

    PubMed

    Sobrino, M; Gutiérrez, C; Alarcón, J; Dávila, M; Cunha, A J

    2017-01-01

    Examine the evolution of stunting in <5 years of age in Peru and its relationship with birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children <5 years of age for stunting (height / age ≤ 2DS). The main independent variable of interest was BI dichotomized by interval between date of last and penultimate birth (≤24 months vs. >24 months) and others sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in logistic regression for the effect of BI and other variables on stunting by each survey year. Between 1996 and 2014, stunting declined in both BI groups: ≤24 months: 35.8% to 21.8%; >24 months: 29.5% to 14.3%. BI was associated with stunting after adjustment for other variables in each survey except 2005. Of the other factors, sex, birth order (fourth child or more), maternal education and poverty were independently associated with stunting in all survey years. Residence in rural areas and in Amazon forest and highland regions was associated with stunting 1996 and 2000. Maternal age was not independently associated with stunting. While stunting showed a decreasing trend from 1996 to 2014, birth interval exceeding 24 months exerted a protective effect on stunting across the years surveyed. Poverty, low maternal education and high birth order were associated with stunting in all survey years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight children 6-13 years in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Peña Reyes, M E; Tan, S K; Little, B B

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the growth and physical fitness of normal, stunted and overweight/obese (owt/ob) Oaxaca children 6-13 years. This study was a cross-sectional, included 688 school children (grades 1-3, 4-6), aged 6-13 years, from an indigenous rural community (n=361) and colonia popular (n=327) in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Anthropometry-weight, height, sitting height, limb circumferences, skinfolds. Derived-body mass index, sitting height/height ratio, leg and step lengths, limb muscle areas, sum of skinfolds. Physical fitness-sit and reach, sit-ups, distance run, grip strength, standing long jump, 35 yard dash. Physical activity-steps to and from school, household chores, sports participation. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age. Two children were stunted and owt/ob, and were excluded. Age-adjusted means for body size, muscularity, adiposity and grip strength showed a gradient, owt/ob>normal>stunted in both sexes and grade levels (P<0.001). Relative position of stunted and owt/ob children was reversed for strength per unit mass. Stunted and normal children ran a greater distance than owt/ob children (P<0.05). Normal, stunted and owt/ob children did not differ consistently in other fitness items and indicators of activity and inactivity. Size, muscularity, fatness and strength differed significantly, owt/ob>normal>stunted, but owt/ob children had less strength per unit mass and poorer endurance. Normal and stunted children did not differ consistently in fitness. Physical activity and television time did not differ among the three groups.

  7. Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children’s health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

  8. Sequence variability of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in different chrysanthemum cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2017-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest infectious agents, and their genomes consist of a short single strand of RNA that does not encode any protein. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the family Pospiviroidae, causes chrysanthemum stunt disease. Here, we report the genomic variations of CSVd to understand the sequence variability of CSVd in different chrysanthemum cultivars. We randomly sampled 36 different chrysanthemum cultivars and examined the infection of CSVd in each cultivar by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eleven cultivars were infected by CSVd. Cloning followed by Sanger sequencing successfully identified a total of 271 CSVd genomes derived from 12 plants from 11 cultivars. They were further classified into 105 CSVd variants. Each single chrysanthemum plant had a different set of CSVd variants. Moreover, different single plants from the same cultivar had different sets of CSVd variants but identical consensus genome sequences. A phylogenetic tree using 12 consensus genome sequences revealed three groups of CSVd genomes, while six different groups were defined by the phylogenetic analysis using 105 variants. Based on the consensus CSVd genome, by combining all variant sequences, we identified 99 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) as well as three nucleotide positions showing high mutation rates. Although 99 SNVs were identified, most CSVd genomes in this study were derived from variant 1, which is identical to known CSVd SK1 showing pathogenicity. PMID:28149699

  9. Stubborn Disease in Iran: Diversity of Spiroplasma citri Strains in Circulifer haematoceps Leafhoppers Collected in Sesame Fields in Fars Province.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Zahra; Salehi, Mohammad; Azami, Zabihallah; Salari, Khadijeh; Béven, Laure

    2017-02-01

    Spiroplasma citri is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the economically important citrus stubborn disease. Sesame and citrus seeds serve as hosts for both S. citri and its leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. To evaluate whether sesame could act as a reservoir for citrus-infecting strains or not, the genetic diversity among S. citri strains found in leafhoppers collected in citrus and citrus-free sesame fields was investigated. Among 26 periwinkle plants exposed to the collected C. haematoceps leafhoppers, 12 plants developed typical stubborn symptoms. All symptomatic periwinkles were polymerase chain reaction positive using S. citri-specific primer pairs targeting the spiralin and P89 genes. Phylogenetic trees based on spiralin gene sequence analysis indicated that the novel field-collected strains clustered with those belonging to two formerly defined S. citri groups (groups 6 and 1). In addition, our results strongly suggest that group 1 strains could be transmitted from sesame-infected plants to citrus trees by C. haematoceps, while group 6 strains may not infect citrus trees.

  10. Identification and function analysis of ras-related nuclear protein from Macrobrachium rosenbergii involved in Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection.

    PubMed

    Ning, Mingxiao; Xiu, Yunji; Yuan, Meijun; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Min; Wei, Panpan; Yan, Yuye; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2017-09-19

    A ras-related nuclear protein (Ran) protein was obtained from Macrobrachium rosenbergii, named MrRan. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that MrRan was clustered in one group together with other crustaceans. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that MrRan was expressed mainly in gill, intestine and stomach, and expressed weakly in muscle. The MrRan expression levels in gill and hemocyte of prawns were significantly up-regulated after challenged by Spiroplasma eriocheiris. The copy number of S. eriocheiris in MrRan dsRNA injection group was significantly less than control groups during infection. Meanwhile, silencing MrRan obviously increased the survival rate of prawns. The subcellular localization experiment suggested that recombinant MrRan was mainly located in the nucleus, and relatively weak in the cytoplasm. Finally, over-expression in Drosophila S2 cell indicated that MrRan could increase copies of S. eriocheiris and decrease of cell viability. The present study suggested that MrRan participated in regulating the phagocytosis of S. eriocheiris in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First report of hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple apple fruit symptoms in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), the type member of the genus Hostuviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first described from hops with stunt disease in Japan. HSVd has a wide host range that includes hop, cucumber, citrus, grapevine, plum, pear, peach, apricot and almond and is the causal agent of serious dis...

  12. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Treesearch

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  13. Mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus banksiana seedlings is unrelated to colonization by mycorrhizal fungi

    Treesearch

    Lynette R. Potvin; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten Dumroese; Dana L. Richter; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic stunting, the occurrence of random patches of chlorotic seedlings with reduced shoot and diameter growth amidst more robust cohorts within bareroot nurseries, is classically associated with poor colonization by mycorrhizal fungi. We examined possible relationships among soil fertility, mycorrhizas, and random patches of mosaic stunting in bareroot Pinus...

  14. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  15. Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Azage, Muluken; Mola, Tegegn; Rainey, Rochelle

    2016-04-15

    Stunting reflects a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time. Stunting is associated with adverse functional consequences including poor cognition, low educational performance, low adult wages, and poor reproductive outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A total of 9893 children aged 0-59 months were included in the analysis. The Getis-Ord spatial statistical tool was used to identify high and low hotspots areas of stunting. A multilevel multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Statistically significant hotspots of stunting were found in northern parts of the country whereas low hotspots where there was less stunting than expected were found in the central, eastern, and western parts of the country. In the final model of multilevel logistic regression analysis, individual and community level factors accounted for 36.6 % of childhood stunting. Short birth interval [AOR = 1.68; 95%CI: (1.46-1.93)], being male [AOR = 1.20; 95%CI: (1.08-1.33)], and being from a male-headed household [AOR = 1.18; 95 % CI: (1.01-1.38)] were the factors that increased the odds of stunting at the individual level. Children in the age group between 24-35 months were more likely to be stunted than children whose age was less than one year [AOR = 6.61; 95 % CI: (5.17-8.44)]. The odds of stunting among children with severe anemia were higher than children with no anemia [AOR = 3.23; 95%CI: (2.35-4.43)]. Children with mothers who had completed higher education had lower odds of being stunted compared to children whose mothers had no formal education [AOR = 0.42; 95%CI: (0.18-0.94)]. The odds of being stunted were lower among children whose fathers completed higher education [AOR = 0.58; 95%CI: (0

  16. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  17. The monomeric, tetrameric, and fibrillar organization of Fib: the dynamic building block of the bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Krausz, Sara; Cabahug, Pamela C; Trachtenberg, Shlomo

    2011-07-08

    Spiroplasmas belong to the class Mollicutes, representing the minimal, free-living, and self-replicating forms of life. Spiroplasmas are helical wall-less bacteria and the only ones known to swim by means of a linear motor (rather than the near-universal rotary bacterial motor). The linear motor follows the shortest path along the cell's helical membranal tube. The motor is composed of a flat monolayered ribbon of seven parallel fibrils and is believed to function in controlling cell helicity and motility through dynamic, coordinated, differential length changes in the fibrils. The latter cause local perturbations of helical symmetry, which are essential for net directional displacement in environments with a low Reynolds number. The underlying fibrils' core building block is a circular tetramer of the 59-kDa protein Fib. The fibrils' differential length changes are believed to be driven by molecular switching of Fib, leading consequently to axial ratio and length changes in tetrameric rings. Using cryo electron microscopy, diffractometry, single-particle analysis of isolated ribbons, and sequence analyses of Fib, we determined the overall molecular organization of the Fib monomer, tetramer, fibril, and linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 that underlies cell geometry and motility. Fib appears to be a bidomained molecule, of which the N-terminal half is apparently a globular phosphorylase. By a combination of reversible rotation and diagonal shift of Fib monomers, the tetramer adopts either a cross-like nonhanded conformation or a ring-like handed conformation. The sense of Fib rotation may determine the handedness of the linear motor and, eventually, of the cell. A further change in the axial ratio of the ring-like tetramers controls fibril lengths and the consequent helical geometry. Analysis of tetramer quadrants from adjacent fibrils clearly demonstrates local differential fibril lengths.

  18. Stunting and the Prediction of Lung Volumes Among Tibetan Children and Adolescents at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which stunting (height-for-age Z-scores ≤ -2) compromises the use of low altitude prediction equations to gauge the general increase in lung volumes during growth among high altitude populations. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) of 208 stunted and 365 non-stunted high-altitude Tibetan children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 20 years are predicted using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII) and the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLF) equations, and compared to observed lung volumes. Stunted Tibetan children show smaller positive deviations from both NHANESIII and GLF prediction equations at most ages than non-stunted children. Deviations from predictions do not correspond to differences in body proportions (sitting heights and chest circumferences relative to stature) between stunted and non-stunted children; but appear compatible with the effects of retarded growth and lung maturation that are likely to exist among stunted children. These results indicate that, before low altitude standards can be used to evaluate the effects of hypoxia, or before high altitude populations can be compared to any other group, it is necessary to assess the relative proportion of stunted children in the samples. If the proportion of stunted children in a high altitude population differs significantly from the proportion in the comparison group, lung function comparisons are unlikely to yield an accurate assessment of the hypoxia effect. The best solution to this problem is to (1) use stature and lung function standards based on the same low altitude population; and (2) assess the hypoxic effect by comparing observed and predicted values among high altitude children whose statures are most like those of children on whom the low altitude spirometric standard is based-preferably high altitude children with HAZ-scores ≥ -1.

  19. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  20. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  1. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far‐reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high‐burden settings, such as South Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  2. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Yogita; Selvaraj, Vijayanandraj; Hajeri, Subhas; Yokomi, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative) PCR (qPCR) for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR.

  3. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hajeri, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD) in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative) PCR (qPCR) for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR. PMID:28910375

  4. Wasting and stunting are still prevalent in children with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esezobor, Christopher I; Akintan, Patricia; Akinsulie, Adebola; Temiye, Edamisan; Adeyemo, Titilope

    2016-05-04

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with growth failure. However, recent reports indicate high rates of overweight or obesity among children with SCA in developed countries. It is unclear whether overweight or obesity is also common in children with SCA in developing countries. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of overweight or obesity, wasting and stunting and identify predictors of wasting and stunting among children with SCA in Nigeria. Children with SCA attending a public-funded tertiary hospital clinic were studied. Weight, height, haemoglobin, haemoglobin fractions and white cell count were measured. Anthropometric values were converted to z scores and referenced to the WHO Child Growth Standards and WHO Reference 2007. The proportions with wasting, stunting and overweight or obesity were determined. Regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of wasting and stunting. Two hundred and thirty-three children [mean (±SD) age of 9.0 (±4.0) years, 60.9 % males] participated in the study. Wasting, stunting and overweight or obesity rates were 22.7 %, 11.6 % and 1.7 %, respectively. Boys and children from low socioeconomic class were 3.25 (1.45-7.29) and 2.42 (1.14-5.18) times more likely to be wasted respectively, while both wasting and stunting were more common with increasing age [adjusted OR of 1.33 (1.18-1.51) and 1.15 (1.01-1.32) respectively]. Sickle cell-related complications and intake of oral penicillin and hydroxyurea were not associated with wasting and stunting. Overweight or obesity is uncommon while wasting and stunting are still prevalent in children with SCA in Lagos. The strongest predictors of wasting and stunting were older age, male gender and low socioeconomic status.

  5. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    PubMed

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2017-09-13

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ<-2), moderately stunted (-2 ≤ HAZ≤-1), and nonstunted (HAZ>-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The genome sequence of lettuce necrotic stunt virus indicates a close relationship to Moroccan pepper virus.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Anchieta, Amy G

    2012-07-01

    Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) causes severe losses to lettuce production in the western United States, which results in stunting, necrosis and death on all non-crisphead lettuces, as well as flower abortion and yield losses in greenhouse tomato production. The genome of LNSV was sequenced and has an organization typical of viruses of the genus Tombusvirus. Sequence comparisons indicated that much of the genome is relatively closely related to tomato bushy stunt virus; however, the coat protein is very closely related to that of isolates of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV).

  7. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  8. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  9. Actinomycetales from corn.

    PubMed

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  10. Actinomycetales from Corn

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, A. J.; Pridham, T. G.; Rogers, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewer's grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27%) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes—two from brewer's grits and one from break flour. Images PMID:803819

  11. Stunting among primary-school children: a sample from Baghdad, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Saffa, A J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish baseline information about the prevalence and distribution of growth deficit (stunting) in a sample of Iraqi schoolchildren from the capital, Baghdad. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of the growth status of 5286 primary-school children aged 7-12 years (2888 males, 2398 females) was conducted by measuring the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score < -2), and underweight (body mass index-for-age) using the NCHS/WHO and laTE/WHO cutoff values respectively. The prevalence of stunting only, and concurrent stunting and underweight, were 18.7% and 13.5% respectively, with a slight predominance among girls. The study also demonstrated the progression of height deficit with increasing age.

  12. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  13. Low lead levels stunt neuronal growth in a reversible manner.

    PubMed Central

    Cline, H T; Witte, S; Jones, K W

    1996-01-01

    The developing brain is particularly susceptible to lead toxicity; however, the cellular effects of lead on neuronal development are not well understood. The effect of exposure to nanomolar concentrations of lead on several parameters of the developing retinotectal system of frog tadpoles was tested. Lead severely reduced the area and branchtip number of retinal ganglion cell axon arborizations within the optic tectum at submicromolar concentrations. These effects of lead on neuronal growth are more dramatic and occur at lower exposure levels than previously reported. Lead exposure did not interfere with the development of retinotectal topography. The deficient neuronal growth does not appear to be secondary to impaired synaptic transmission, because concentrations of lead that stunted neuronal growth were lower than those required to block synaptic transmission. Subsequent treatment of lead-exposed animals with the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid completely reversed the effect of lead on neuronal growth. These studies indicate that impaired neuronal growth may be responsible in part for lead-induced cognitive deficits and that chelator treatment counteracts this effect. PMID:8790431

  14. Epidemiology of cheerleading stunt-related injuries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shields, Brenda J; Fernandez, Soledad A; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    Cheerleading-related injuries are on the rise. To date, no epidemiologic studies of cheerleading stunt-related injuries have been published. To describe and compare cheerleading stunt-related injuries by type of cheerleading team (All Star, college, high school, middle school, or recreation league) and event (practice, pep rally, athletic event, or cheerleading competition). Prospective injury surveillance study. Participant exposure and injury data were collected from US cheerleading teams via the Cheerleading RIO (Reporting Information Online) surveillance tool. Athletes from enrolled cheerleading teams who participated in official, organized cheerleading practices, pep rallies, athletic events, or cheerleading competitions. The numbers, types, and rates of cheerleading stunt-related injuries during a 1-year period (2006-2007) are reported. Stunt-related injuries accounted for 60% (338/567) of the injuries sustained by US cheerleaders who participated in the study and 96% (22/23) of the concussions and closed head injuries (CHIs) reported during the study. Collegiate cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a concussion or CHI than were cheerleaders on other types of teams (P = .02, odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 8.06). Most injuries occurred while the cheerleader was spotting or basing another cheerleader (34%, 115/338), and these injuries comprised 32% (51/161) of all stunt-related strains and sprains. Four cheerleaders (1.2%, 4/335) were admitted to the hospital, and 9 cheerleaders (2.7%, 9/335) required surgery. Cheerleading stunts pose an increased risk for injury, especially in terms of sustaining a concussion or CHI. Spotters and bases were most likely to be injured during the performance of cheerleading stunts and were at risk for sustaining strain and sprain injuries. The ankle, lower back, and wrist were the sites most likely to be reinjured while performing cheerleading stunts.

  15. Stunting is associated with blood lead concentration among Bangladeshi children aged 2-3 years.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Kelsey M; Valeri, Linda; Shankar, A H; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rodrigues, Ema G; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2016-11-04

    Lead toxicity is of particular public health concern given its near ubiquitous distribution in nature and established neurotoxicant properties. Similar in its ubiquity and ability to inhibit neurodevelopment, early childhood stunting affects an estimated 34 % of children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries. Both lead and stunting have been shown to be associated with decreased neurodevelopment, although the relationship between these childhood burdens is underexplored. The association between lead exposure and stunting has been previously established, yet limited data are available on susceptibility windows. Whole blood lead samples were collected from rural Bangladeshi children at delivery (umbilical cord blood) and at age 20-40 months (fingerstick blood). Stunting was determined using the Child Growth Standards developed from the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Children with height for age < -2 z-scores below the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards were classified as stunted in all analyses. Median (IQR) umbilical cord and fingerstick blood lead levels were 3.1 (1.6-6.3) μg/dl and 4.2 (1.7-7.6) μg/dl, respectively. In adjusted multivariable regression models, the odds of stunting at 20-40 months increased by 1.12 per μg/dl increase in blood lead level (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.22). No association was found between cord blood lead level and risk of stunting (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI: 0.94-1.00). There is a significant association between stunting and concurrent lead exposure at age 20-40 months. This association is slightly attenuated after controlling for study clinic site. Additional research including more precise timing of lead exposure during these critical 20-40 months is needed.

  16. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  17. Individual and contextual factors associated with childhood stunting in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Adekanmbi, Victor T; Kayode, Gbenga A; Uthman, Olalekan A

    2013-04-01

    Stunting, a form of undernutrition, is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children's health, development and the environment where they live. The aim of this study was to quantify the predictors of childhood stunting in Nigeria. This study used data obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). A total of 28 647 children aged 0-59 months included in NDHS in 2008 were analysed in this study. We applied multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis in which individual-level factors were at the first level and community-level factors at the second level. The percentage change in variance of the full model accounted for about 46% in odds of stunting across the communities. The present study found that the following predictors increased the odds of childhood stunting: male gender, age above 11 months, multiple birth, low birthweight, low maternal education, low maternal body mass index, poor maternal health-seeking behaviour, poor household wealth and short birth interval. The community-level predictors found to have significant association with childhood stunting were: child residing in community with high illiteracy rate and North West and North East regions of the country. In conclusion, this study revealed that both individual- and community-level factors are significant determinants of childhood stunting in Nigeria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Stunting associated with poor socioeconomic and maternal nutrition status and respiratory morbidity in Colombian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Louise H; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    There are few recent reports on the prevalence and risk factors of stunting and thinness among schoolchildren in Latin America. To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of stunting and thinness among school-age children in Bogotá, Colombia, and to examine whether these nutritional indices are associated with the risk of respiratory and diarrheal morbidity symptoms, visits to the doctor, and school absenteeism during the school year in a prospective study. We obtained information on anthropometric and maternal sociodemographic characteristics of 3100 children 5 to 12 years of age who attended public primary schools in 2006 and who came from low- and middle-income households. Data on the incidence of common gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms were collected prospectively on morbidity diaries throughout the year. The prevalence rates of stunting and thinness were 9.9% and 8.7%, respectively. There were inverse, statistically significant trends in the prevalence of stunting by categories of child's birth and current weight; maternal education level, height, and body mass index (BMI); and household socioeconomic stratum. A strong positive association was found with maternal parity (p for trend < .0001). Thinness was positively associated with the child's and the mother's age and inversely associated with birthweight and maternal BMI. Stunting was associated with a 44% increase in the incidence of cough with fever during the school year (p = .04). Child stunting in Bogotá is associated with poor socioeconomic and maternal nutritional status and predicts symptoms of respiratory infection.

  19. Fat free mass explains the relationship between stunting and energy expenditure in urban Mexican Maya children.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Hoffman, Daniel J; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2012-09-01

    Childhood stunting has been associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood, but the causes are unclear. This study hypothesizes that stunting significantly reduces both resting and activity energy expenditure. To assess and describe energy expenditure of low socio-economic Maya children and to determine whether stunting is independently related to energy expenditure after controlling for lean mass. Thirty-three urban Maya children, 17 boys, aged 7-9 years, living in Merida, Mexico, were measured for height, weight and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Body composition was estimated from BIA. Energy expenditure was measured for one week using the Actiheart (combined heart rate and accelerometer). Stunting (height-for-age below the 5(th) percentile of NHANES III based references) affected 35% of these physically active children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, greater lean body mass predicted higher resting and activity energy expenditure. Stature was not a significant predictor of resting energy expenditure. A lower height-for-age z-score, but not stunting as a categorical variable, significantly predicted lower activity energy expenditure. The hypothesis that stunting reduces total energy expenditure (resting + active) in children is not supported. Rather, children with shorter stature and less lean body mass have lower total energy expenditure. Complex interactions between body size, body composition, and metabolic activity appear to elevate the risk for later life obesity in these Maya children.

  20. Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geo-statistical model

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Seifu; Hailemariam, Damen; WoldeHanna, Tasew; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district) scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted to measure the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0–59 months. Additionally, we collected relevant information on anthropometric measures, dietary habits, parent and child-related demographic and socio-economic status. Latitude and longitude of surveyed households were also recorded. Local Anselin Moran's I was calculated to investigate the spatial variation of stunting prevalence and identify potential local pockets (hotspots) of high prevalence. Finally, we employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model, which accounted for spatial dependency structure in the data, to identify potential risk factors for stunting in the study area. Results Overall, the prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in the district was 43.7% [95%CI: 40.9, 46.4] and 21.3% [95%CI: 19.5, 23.3] respectively. We identified statistically significant clusters of high prevalence of stunting (hotspots) in the eastern part of the district and clusters of low prevalence (cold spots) in the western. We found out that the inclusion of spatial structure of the data into the Bayesian model has shown to improve the fit for stunting model. The Bayesian geo-statistical model indicated that the risk of stunting increased as the child’s age increased (OR 4.74; 95% Bayesian credible

  1. iTRAQ-based proteomic study of the effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris on Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingguo; Hou, Libo; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yanqing; Xia, Siyao; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2014-09-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is as a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease. The hemocytes have been shown to be major target cells in S. eriocheiris infection. The aim of this study was to examine the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. The differential proteomes of the crab hemocytes were analyzed immediately prior to injection with the pathogen, and at 10 d post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1075 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 76 differentially expressed proteins (7.07%) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Thirty-five (3.26%) proteins were up-regulated and 41 (3.81%) proteins were down-regulated resulting from a S. eriocheiris infection. Approximately 20 differential proteins in hemocytes were involved in the stress and immune responses. Up-regulated proteins included alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), prostaglandin D synthase (GST), ferritin, and heat shock protein 60. Down-regulated proteins included two lectins (mannose-binding protein and hemocytin), three kinds of serine proteinase inhibitors (two serpins and pacifastin), three different kinds of serine proteases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and two thioredoxins (Trx), crustin, etc. Selected bioactive factors (α2M, GST, ferritin, tubulin, crustin, thioredoxin, clip domain serine protease and serpin) are verified by their immune roles in the S. eriocheiris infection using Real-time PCR. The variation trend of immune gene's mRNA expression is similar with the result of iTRAQ, except the tubulin. The prophenoloxidase-activating system, antimicrobial action and antioxidant system involved in the immune responses of E. sinensis is believed to be a resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. This is the

  2. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  3. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  4. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wemakor, Anthony; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2016-08-24

    Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women's mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) in Northern Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15-45 years) and their children (0-59 months) who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29-4.77, p = 0.0011). There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  5. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Duy M.; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A.; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V.; Naumova, Elena N.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D.

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the histone-like HU protein from Spiroplasma melliferum KC3

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Konstantin; Gorbacheva, Marina; Rakitina, Tatiana; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry; Vanyushkina, Anna; Kamashev, Dmitry; Lipkin, Alexey; Popov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    HU proteins belong to the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) that are involved in vital processes such as DNA compaction and reparation, gene transcription etc. No data are available on the structures of HU proteins from mycoplasmas. To this end, the HU protein from the parasitic mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Prismatic crystals of the protein were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique at 4°C. The crystals diffracted to 1.36 Å resolution (the best resolution ever obtained for a HU protein). The diffraction data were indexed in space group C2 and the structure of the protein was solved by the molecular-replacement method with one monomer per asymmetric unit. PMID:25615963

  7. Can maternally inherited endosymbionts adapt to a novel host? Direct costs of Spiroplasma infection, but not vertical transmission efficiency, evolve rapidly after horizontal transfer into D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S; Parratt, S R; Hutchence, K J; Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Hurst, G D D

    2015-06-01

    Maternally inherited symbionts are common in arthropods and many have important roles in host adaptation. The observation that specific symbiont lineages infect distantly related host species implies new interactions are commonly established by lateral transfer events. However, studies have shown that symbionts often perform poorly in novel hosts. We hypothesized selection on the symbiont may be sufficiently rapid that poor performance in a novel host environment is rapidly ameliorated, permitting symbiont maintenance. Here, we test this prediction for a Spiroplasma strain transinfected into the novel host Drosophila melanogaster. In the generations immediately following transinfection, the symbiont had low transmission efficiency to offspring and imposed severe fitness costs on its host. We observed that effects on host fitness evolved rapidly, being undetectable after 17 generations in the novel host, whereas vertical transmission efficiency was poorly responsive over this period. Our results suggest that long-term symbiosis may more readily be established in cases where symbionts perform poorly in just one aspect of symbiosis.

  8. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali

    2015-01-01

    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  9. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  13. Factors associated with underweight and stunting among children in rural Terai of eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pramod Singh, G C; Nair, Manju; Grubesic, Ruth B; Connell, Frederick A

    2009-04-01

    Malnutrition continues to affect a large proportion of children in the developing world. The authors undertook this study to identify biologic, socioeconomic, and health care factors associated with underweight and stunting in young children in an the eastern Tarai (plains) district of Nepal. Data were collected via questionnaires from mothers of 443 children aged 6 to 36 months in Sunsari district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select villages and children. Anthropometric measurements were made on both children and their mothers. Logistic regression was used to measure the independent (adjusted) effect of risk and protective factors on the odds of underweight or stunting. More than half (53.3%) of the children were found to be underweight (<2 standard deviations weight for age below reference median) and more than one third (36.6%) had stunting (<2 standard deviations height for age below reference median). Low maternal body mass index, child's age, higher birth order, and lower standard of living score were strong predictors of underweight, whereas mother's education >5 years and participation in vitamin A and nutritional programs were protective. Infant age, low maternal body mass index, and low standard of living score were significant risk factors for stunting, whereas mother's education >5 years was strongly protective. These results suggest that underweight and stunting are the result of a nexus of biological, socioeconomic, and health care factors.

  14. Determinants of stunting in children under five in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Santana, Sandra Cristina da Silva; Sequeira, Leopoldina Augusta de Souza; Rissin, Anete; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of stunting in children under five and identify factors associated. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 1991, 1997 and 2006 in the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. The following variables associated with the prevalence of stunting (height-for-age < -2 z-score) were studied: socioeconomic condition, maternal and child characteristics, and health care provided. A hierarchical model was used in the multiple logistic regression to assess the impact of explanatory variables on children's stunting. The prevalence of child malnutrition (height-for-age) was reduced by 65% from 1991 to 2006. Socioeconomic variables (per capita family income, maternal education, number of people living in the household and access to consumer goods), maternal height and birth weight were associated with stunting in children under five. All the determinants studied improved over the study period though not consistently. Despite significant reduction of child malnutrition in Pernambuco there remain differences regarding stunting, and children with better socioeconomic conditions have more favorable outcomes.

  15. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  16. Association between growth stunting with dental development and skeletal maturation stage.

    PubMed

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Mauricio, Franco Raul; Orellana, Maria Fernanda; Major, Paul William

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of growth stunting on the maturation stage of the medium phalanx of the third finger (MP3) and the dental development of the left mandibular canine in 280 high school children (140 stunted and 140 normal controls; equally distributed by sex) between 9.5 and 16.5 years of age, from a representative Peruvian school. Periapical radiographs of the MP3 from the left hand were used to determine the skeletal maturity stage, according to an adaptation of the Hägg and Taranger method. Panoramic radiographs were used to determine the dental maturity stage of the lower left canine, according to Demirjian method. Stunting was determined by relating height and age, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. There was no statistically significant difference in the skeletal maturation stage (P = .134) and the dental development stage (P = .497) according to nutritional status, even when considering different age groups (P > .183). A high correlation (r = 0.85) was found between both maturity indicators regardless of the nutritional status (growth stunted, r = 0.855 and normal controls, r = 0.863) or sex (boys, r = 0.809 and girls, r = 0.892). When skeletal level was considered, correlations values were similar between advanced (r = 0.903) and average (r = 0.895) maturers but lower (r = 0.751) for delayed maturers. Growth stunting was not associated with dental development and skeletal maturity stages in Peruvian school children.

  17. Stunting syndrome in broilers: physical, physiological, and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-01-01

    The effect of stunting syndrome (SS) on young broilers induced by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of SS-affected broiler chicks was studied in two experiments. Depression of growth, feed intake, and feed utilization, respectively, was negatively related to the age of inoculation, i.e., highest at posthatch inoculation (63, 57, and 61%), and intermediate at the ages of 3 (42, 45, and 50%) and 7 d (29, 34, and 53%), whereas at the age of 14 d inoculation was ineffectual and the inoculated chicks performed similarly to the naive controls. Eating behavior was determined by periodically recording the number of chicks in each treatment group exhibiting this behavior, i.e., pecking mash in the feeder or pecking the litter. Eating activity was much higher in inoculated chicks (about 20 to 24%) than in the naive controls (6 to 12%) and as with performance negatively related to the age of inoculation. In chicks inoculated at the age of 14 d, eating activity was quite similar to that of the naive control chicks. Noninoculated chickens raised in the same room as their inoculated counterparts were infected by the disease agents. In some respects the consequences of horizontal infection were similar to those observed in inoculated chicks, i.e., depressed feed intake, growth, and feed utilization and a heavier heart, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, and gastrointestinal contents. In contrast, the activities of the pancreatic digestive enzymes were more similar to those of the naive controls than to those of the inoculated groups. At the age of 14 d, activities of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase in the pancreas were lower in the inoculated than in the naive control birds. At the age of 21 d, the results were reversed and activity in the inoculated birds was higher than in the naive control birds. During both periods, the activity of pancreatic lipase was higher in the naive controls than in the inoculated birds. The hyperactivity

  18. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention.

  19. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura E.; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Turner, Paul C.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301

  20. Factors behind the success story of under-five stunting in Peru: a district ecological multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Segura, Eddy R; Niño de Guzman, Jessica; Rivera-Ch, María; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-19

    Stunting prevalence in children less than 5 years has remained stagnated in Peru from 1992 to 2007, with a rapid reduction thereafter. We aimed to assess the role of different predictors on stunting reduction over time and across departments, from 2000 to 2012. We used various secondary data sources to describe time trends of stunting and of possible predictors that included distal to proximal determinants. We determined a ranking of departments by annual change of stunting and of different predictors. To account for variation over time and across departments, we used an ecological hierarchical approach based on a multilevel mixed-effects regression model, considering stunting as the outcome. Our unit of analysis was one department-year. Stunting followed a decreasing trend in all departments, with differing slopes. The reduction pace was higher from 2007-2008 onwards. The departments with the highest annual stunting reduction were Cusco (-2.31%), Amazonas (-1.57%), Puno (-1.54%), Huanuco (-1.52%), and Ancash (-1.44). Those with the lowest reduction were Ica (-0.67%), Ucayali (-0.64%), Tumbes (-0.45%), Lima (-0.37%), and Tacna (-0.31%). Amazon and Andean departments, with the highest baseline poverty rates and concentrating the highest rural populations, showed the highest stunting reduction. In the multilevel analysis, when accounting for confounding, social determinants seemed to be the most important factors influencing annual stunting reduction, with significant variation between departments. Stunting reduction may be explained by the adoption of anti-poverty policies and sustained implementation of equitable crosscutting interventions, with focus on poorest areas. Inclusion of quality indicators for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health interventions may enable further analyses to show the influence of these factors. After a long stagnation period, Peru reduced dramatically its national and departmental stunting prevalence, thanks to a combination

  1. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on diarrhoeal disease among stunted children in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chhagan, M K; Van den Broeck, J; Luabeya, K-Ka; Mpontshane, N; Tucker, K L; Bennish, M L

    2009-07-01

    The efficacy of zinc combined with vitamin A or multiple micronutrients in preventing diarrhoea is unclear in African countries with high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children. Potential modifying factors, such as stunting, need to be addressed. The objective of this study was to determine whether adding zinc or zinc plus multiple micronutrients to vitamin A reduces diarrhoea incidence, and whether this differs between the strata of stunted or HIV-infected children. We analyzed data from a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00156832) of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Three cohorts of children: 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, received vitamin A, vitamin A plus zinc or multiple micronutrients, which included vitamin A and zinc. The main outcome was incidence of diarrhoea. Poisson regression was used in intent-to-treat analyses. Stratified analyses followed testing for statistical interaction between intervention and stunting. We observed no significant differences in overall diarrhoea incidence among treatment arms. Stunting modified this effect with stunted HIV-uninfected children having significantly lower diarrhoea incidence when supplemented with zinc or multiple micronutrients compared with vitamin A alone (2.04 and 2.23 vs 3.92 episodes/year, respectively, P=0.024). No meaningful subgroup analyses could be done in the cohort of HIV-infected children. Compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc and with zinc and multiple micronutrients, reduced diarrhoea morbidity in stunted rural South African children. Efficacy of zinc supplementation in HIV-infected children needs confirmation in studies that represent the spectrum of disease severity and age groups.

  2. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  3. Meat consumption is associated with less stunting among toddlers in four diverse low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Mazariegos, Manolo; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl; Sami, Neelofar; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Hambidge, K Michael

    2011-09-01

    Early growth faltering is common but is difficult to reverse after the first 2 years of life. To describe feeding practices and growth in infants and young children in diverse low-income settings prior to undertaking a complementary feeding trial. This cross-sectional study was conducted through the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research in Guatemala, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Pakistan. Feeding questionnaires were administered to convenience samples of mothers of 5- to 9-month old infants and 12- to 24-month-old toddlers. After standardized training, anthropometric measurements were obtained from the toddlers. Following the 2006 World Health Organization Growth Standards, stunting was defined as length-for-age < -2SD, and wasting as weight-for-length < -2SD. Logistic regression was applied to evaluate relationships between stunting and wasting and consumption of meat (including chicken and liver and not including fish). Data were obtained from 1,500 infants with a mean (+/- SD) age of 6.9 +/- 1.4 months and 1,658 toddlers with a mean age of 17.2 +/- 3.5 months. The majority of the subjects in both age groups were breastfed. Less than 25% of the infants received meat regularly, whereas 62% of toddlers consumed these foods regularly, although the rates varied widely among sites. Stunting rate ranged from 44% to 66% among sites; wasting prevalence was less than 10% at all sites. After controlling for covariates, consumption of meat was associated with a reduced likelihood of stunting (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.90). The strikingly high stunting rates in these toddlers and the protective effect of meat consumption against stunting emphasize the need for interventions to improve complementary feeding practices, beginning in infancy.

  4. Epidemiology of Cheerleading Stunt-Related Injuries in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Brenda J.; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Smith, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: Cheerleading-related injuries are on the rise. To date, no epidemiologic studies of cheerleading stunt-related injuries have been published. Objective: To describe and compare cheerleading stunt-related injuries by type of cheerleading team (All Star, college, high school, middle school, or recreation league) and event (practice, pep rally, athletic event, or cheerleading competition). Design: Prospective injury surveillance study. Setting: Participant exposure and injury data were collected from US cheerleading teams via the Cheerleading RIO (Reporting Information Online) surveillance tool. Patients or Other Participants: Athletes from enrolled cheerleading teams who participated in official, organized cheerleading practices, pep rallies, athletic events, or cheerleading competitions. Main Outcome Measure(s): The numbers, types, and rates of cheerleading stunt-related injuries during a 1-year period (2006–2007) are reported. Results: Stunt-related injuries accounted for 60% (338/567) of the injuries sustained by US cheerleaders who participated in the study and 96% (22/23) of the concussions and closed head injuries (CHIs) reported during the study. Collegiate cheerleaders were more likely to sustain a concussion or CHI than were cheerleaders on other types of teams (P  =  .02, odds ratio  =  3.10, 95% confidence interval  =  1.20, 8.06). Most injuries occurred while the cheerleader was spotting or basing another cheerleader (34%, 115/338), and these injuries comprised 32% (51/161) of all stunt-related strains and sprains. Four cheerleaders (1.2%, 4/335) were admitted to the hospital, and 9 cheerleaders (2.7%, 9/335) required surgery. Conclusions: Cheerleading stunts pose an increased risk for injury, especially in terms of sustaining a concussion or CHI. Spotters and bases were most likely to be injured during the performance of cheerleading stunts and were at risk for sustaining strain and sprain injuries. The ankle, lower back

  5. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to Stunting among Children in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esfarjani, Fatemeh; Roustaee, Roshanak; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no information is available to link major dietary patterns to stunting during childhood, although dietary patterns are associated with chronic diseases. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between major dietary patterns and stunting in the first grade pupils of Tehran in 2009. In this case-control study, 86 stunted children (defined as height-for-age of less than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points) were enrolled from among 3,147 first grade pupils of Tehran, selected using a multistage cluster random-sampling method. Participants for the control group (n=308) were selected randomly from non-stunted children (height-for-age more than the 5th percentile of CDC2000 cutoff points), after matching for age, sex, and area of residence. Dietary data were collected using two 24-hour dietary recalls through face-to-face interview with mothers. Factor analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. Mean consumption of dairy products (308±167 vs 382±232 g/day, p<0.05), dried fruits and nuts (2.58±9 vs 7.15±26 g/day, p<0.05) were significantly lower among stunted children than those in the control group. Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional dietary pattern’ that was dominated by bread, potato, fats, eggs, flavours, vegetables other than leafy ones, sugar, drinks, and fast food; ‘mixed dietary pattern’ that was dominated by leafy vegetables, fast foods, nuts, fats, cereals other than bread, fruits, legumes, visceral meats, sugars, eggs, and vegetables other than leafy vegetables; and ‘carbohydrate-protein pattern’ that was dominated by sweets and desserts, poultry, dairy, fruits, legumes, and visceral meats. No significant relationships were found between traditional and mixed dietary patterns and stunting. Individuals in the third quartile of carbohydrate-protein dietary pattern were less likely to be stunted compared to those in the bottom quartile (OR: 0.31, 95% CI 0

  6. Overweight with concurrent stunting in very young children from rural Mexico: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Fernald, L C; Neufeld, L M

    2007-05-01

    To document the prevalence of overweight or obesity concurrent with stunting in rural low-income Mexican children and to identify demographic and socio-economic characteristics that could help identify families at risk of having an overweight/obese and stunted young child in this population. Cross-sectional analysis of the nutritional status of very young children, using primary data from a rural community-based survey conducted in 2003. Overweight, obesity and stunting were documented along with several maternal, household and community characteristics. Impoverished areas of rural Mexico. Pre-school children (n=7555), aged 24-72 months. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was equal to or greater than 20% in all children, as was the prevalence of stunting. The prevalence of concurrent overweight or obesity and stunting was approximately 5% in non-indigenous children, and over 10% in indigenous children 24-60 months. A multinomial logistic analysis revealed that the factors associated with coexisting stunting and overweight/obesity were lower socio-economic status (SES), lower maternal age, education, intelligence (vocabulary) and perceived social status, shorter maternal height, and larger household size. Among only stunted children, the risk of also being overweight or obese was associated with younger maternal age (relative risk ratios (RRR): 0.98, P=0.05), lower maternal perceived social status (RRR: 0.95, P<0.01) and maternal obesity (RRR: 2.93, P<0.0001) or overweight (RRR: 1.50, P=0.002). These analyses highlight that concurrent overweight or obesity and stunting is an important public health issue in low-income areas of rural Mexico beginning in early childhood. Even within this impoverished population, children living in households with low relative SES are the most vulnerable. Financial support for this research was provided by the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, the Fogarty International Center at NIH, the John D

  7. Habitat of the corn leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during the dry (winter) season in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Nault, Lowell R

    2007-10-01

    Although the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong and Wolcott) is the most important vector of maize pathogens in Latin America, little is known about how and where it overwinters (passes the dry season), particularly in Mexico. The objectives of this study were (1) to monitor the abundance of D. maidis adults throughout the dry season in maize and maize-free habitats and (2) to determine where and how D. maidis adults, exposed or nonexposed to the maize pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii Whitcomb, overwinter in a maize-free habitat. Work for the first objective was done during the two consecutive dry seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001; the second objective was done during the dry seasons of 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. During the dry winter seasons, D. maidis was prevalent as long as maize was present in irrigated areas. The leafhopper was found in 52 of the 58 irrigated maize fields sampled in Mexico at the end of the dry seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. However, leafhopper adults were not found in nonirrigated maize-free habitats at high elevation during the dry winter season (February, March, and April), although leafhopper adults were prevalent on perennial wild grasses in January after maize harvest. Additional experiments revealed, however, that corn leafhopper adults, although few in number, survived the entire dry season in these nonirrigated maize-free fields. Also, no detectable difference in survival existed between leafhoppers exposed and those not exposed to S. kunkelli during the two dry seasons in the maize-free habitat.

  8. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  9. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Bentley, G; Trevino, S G

    1996-06-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses.

  10. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  11. Foliar diseases of corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  12. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  13. Stunted child/overweight mother pairs represent a statistical artifact, not a distinct entity.

    PubMed

    Dieffenbach, Sara; Stein, Aryeh D

    2012-04-01

    Stunted child/overweight mother (SCOWT) pairs have been viewed as a distinct phenomenon and much effort has been expended to characterize the environments that create these dual burden households. We hypothesized that the prevalence of SCOWT pairs is not independent of the prevalence of overweight mothers and stunted children in the general population. We analyzed data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 1991 to 2009. Datasets were included if the maternal BMI and the height-for-age Z-scores for children were reported. Mothers were included if they had a living child between 2 and 5 y old and were not currently pregnant. In 121 datasets from 54 countries, 339,202 households met the inclusion criteria. The median prevalences of maternal overweight, childhood stunting, and SCOWT pairs were 19.6% (range 1.6-70.7%), 27.3% (range 6.65-50.8%), and 3.3% (range 0.5-16.0%), respectively. The mean difference between the observed and expected prevalence of SCOWT pairs was -1.18% (95% CI -1.32%, -1.04%). Only two datasets had an observed prevalence of SCOWT pairs that was higher than the expected prevalence, but both were within the 95% CI for the observed prevalence. SCOWT prevalence was more strongly associated with maternal overweight than with child stunting. SCOWT pairs are not independent and their prevalence depends primarily on the prevalence of maternal overweight.

  14. Stunting of southern pine seedlings by a needle nematode (Longidorus sp.)

    Treesearch

    M.M. Cram; S.W. Fraedrich; J. Fields

    2003-01-01

    An undescribed needle nematode (Longidorus sp.) was consistently associated with stunted loblolly pine seedlings at the Flint River Nursery in south Georgia. Seedlings in affected areas had root systems that were greatly reduced in size, and lacked lateral and fine roots. In a growth chamber experiment, the needle nematode significantly reduced the...

  15. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  16. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  17. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  18. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  19. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  20. Assessment of the WHO Stunting Framework using Ethiopia as a case study.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Rohner, Fabian; Petry, Nicolai; Onyango, Adelheid W; Matji, Joan; Bailes, Adam; de Onis, Mercedes; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-04-29

    Poor linear growth in children <5 years old, or stunting, is a serious public health problem particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a conceptual framework on the Context, Causes and Consequences of Childhood Stunting (the 'WHO framework') that identifies specific and general factors associated with stunting. The framework is based upon a global review of data, and we have applied it to a country-level analysis where health and nutrition policies are made and public health and nutrition data are collected. We reviewed the literature related to sub-optimal linear growth, stunting and birth outcomes in Ethiopia as a case study. We found consistent associations between poor linear growth and indicators of birth size, recent illness (e.g. diarrhoea and fever), maternal height and education. Other factors listed as causes in the framework such as inflammation, exposure to mycotoxins and inadequate feeding during and after illness have not been examined in Ethiopia, and the existing literature suggests that these are clear data gaps. Some factors associated with poor linear growth in Ethiopia are missing in the framework, such as household characteristics (e.g. exposure to indoor smoke). Examination of the factors included in the WHO framework in a country setting helps identifying data gaps helping to target further data collection and research efforts. © 2016 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

  2. Protein interfaces and intersubunit bonding. The case of tomato bushy stunt virus.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S C

    1980-01-01

    An atomic model of the subunit of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) has been constructed to fit an electron density map at 2.9 A resolution. Subunit interfaces show networks of polar residues forming H-bonds and salt bridges. The way in which alternative specific bonding geometries are built into a contact are described. PMID:7248446

  3. First Report of Cucurbit Yellow Stunting Disorder Virus in Cucurbits in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In August and September of 2007, watermelon plants (Cucumis lanatus L.) in commercial fields in Manatee and Hillsborough Counties in west central Florida began exhibiting a range of symptoms including stunting, deformation, interveinal chlorosis, leaf mottling and spotting. Leaves of plants had larg...

  4. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  5. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  6. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  7. Detection and management of stunt and stubby root nematodes in a southern forest nursery

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2007-01-01

    Populations of stunt (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) and stubby-root (Paratrichodorus minor) nematodes, as well as predaceous nematodes (Mylonchulus spp., Mononchus spp.), were monitored in 2005 for 8 months in three loblolly pine fields at a southern forest nursery. The fields were selected based...

  8. Three pythium species isolated from severely stunted wheat during an outbreak in North Carolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large portions of eastern North Carolina experienced prolonged soil waterlogging in 2016. Severely stunted wheat plants from saturated fields were examined and Pythium consistently was associated with the symptoms observed. Three species of Pythium were identified among 15 isolates derived from wh...

  9. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus in pastures of Bingol Province, Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The province of Bingol, a very mountainous area located in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has limited agricultural land but large intermountain pastures supporting the main economic resource of the region, livestock production. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus was recovered from a ...

  10. Geophagy is associated with environmental enteropathy and stunting in children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Lee, Gwenyth O; Kosek, Margaret; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A; Mohammad, Shahnaij; Faruque, Abu G

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 children under 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. Geophagy was assessed at baseline using 5 hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (all three combined to form an EE disease activity score), and calprotectin. Eighteen percent of children had observed geophagy events by structured observation and 28% had caregiver reported events in the past week. Nearly all households had Escherichia coli (97%) in soil, and 14% had diarrheagenic E. coli. Children with caregiver-reported geophagy had significantly higher EE scores (0.72 point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 1.42) and calprotectin concentrations (237.38 μg/g, 95% CI: 12.77, 462.00). Furthermore, at the 9-month follow-up the odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2) was double for children with caregiver-reported geophagy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.51). These findings suggest that geophagy in young children may be an important unrecognized risk factor for EE and stunting. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Geophagy Is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy and Stunting in Children in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Lee, Gwenyth O.; Kosek, Margaret; Sack, R. Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Mohammad, Shahnaij; Faruque, Abu G.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 children under 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. Geophagy was assessed at baseline using 5 hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (all three combined to form an EE disease activity score), and calprotectin. Eighteen percent of children had observed geophagy events by structured observation and 28% had caregiver reported events in the past week. Nearly all households had Escherichia coli (97%) in soil, and 14% had diarrheagenic E. coli. Children with caregiver-reported geophagy had significantly higher EE scores (0.72 point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 1.42) and calprotectin concentrations (237.38 μg/g, 95% CI: 12.77, 462.00). Furthermore, at the 9-month follow-up the odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2) was double for children with caregiver-reported geophagy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.51). These findings suggest that geophagy in young children may be an important unrecognized risk factor for EE and stunting. PMID:25918214

  12. Economic inequality and child stunting in Bangladesh and Kenya: an investigation of six hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Reinbold, Gary W

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the increasing focus on issues of equity in developing countries, I extend the literature analyzing the relationship between economic inequality and individual health to the developing world. Using survey data from Bangladesh and Kenya with economic status measured by a wealth index and with three different geographic definitions of community, I analyze six competing hypotheses for how economic inequality may be related to stunting among children younger than 5 years old. I find little support for the predominant hypothesis that economic inequality as measured by a Gini index is an important predictor of individual health. Instead, I find that the difference between a household's wealth and the mean household wealth in the community is the measure of economic inequality that is most closely related to stunting in these countries. In particular, a 1 standard deviation increase in household wealth relative to the community mean is associated with a 30–32 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Bangladesh and a 16–21 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Kenya.

  13. Perspective: The potential role of essential amino acids and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathogenesis of child stunting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missi...

  14. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  15. A Conditional Cash Transfer Program in the Philippines Reduces Severe Stunting.

    PubMed

    Kandpal, Eeshani; Alderman, Harold; Friedman, Jed; Filmer, Deon; Onishi, Junko; Avalos, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Pantawid, a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines, provided grants conditioned on health-related behaviors for children aged 0-5 y and schooling for those aged 10-14 y. We investigated whether Pantawid improved anthropometric measurements in children aged 6-36 mo. We estimated cross-sectional intention-to-treat effects using a 2011 cluster-randomized trial across 130 villages-65 treated and 65 control-with data collected after 31 mo of implementation. Anthropometry characteristics were measured for 241 children in treated areas and 244 children in control areas. Health service use for children aged 6-36 mo and dietary intake for those aged 6-60 mo also were measured. Outcome variables were height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and weight-for-age z scores (WAZs), stunting, severe stunting, underweight, and severely underweight. Impact also was assessed on perinatal care, institutional delivery, presence of skilled birth attendant, breastfeeding practices, immunization, growth monitoring and deworming, care-seeking, and children's intake of protein-rich foods. Pantawid was associated with a significant reduction in severe stunting [<-3 SD from WHO standards for healthy children; β = -10.2 percentage points (95% CI -18.8, -1.6 percentage points); P = 0.020] as well as a marginally significant increase in HAZs [β = 0.284 SDs (95% CI -0.033, 0.602 SDs); P = 0.08]. WAZs, stunting, underweight, and severely underweight status did not change. Concomitantly, several measures of health-seeking behavior increased significantly. To our knowledge, Pantawid is one of few CCT programs worldwide that significantly reduced severe stunting in children aged 6-36 mo; changes in key parenting practices, including children's intake of protein-rich foods and care-seeking behavior, were concurrent. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  17. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8). Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting) especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) was associated with 0.07 standard units' increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15)]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth. PMID:27379184

  18. Factors Associated with Stunting among Pre-school Children in Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Mutwiri, George Mutembei; Kopplow, Regine; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stunting is a major public health problem in Africa and is associated with poor child survival and development. We investigate factors associated to child stunting in three Tanzanian regions. Methods: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling survey was conducted among children aged 6-59 months. The sample included 1360 children aged 6-23 months and 1904 children aged 24-59 months. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Our main results are: in the younger group, stunting was associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.17; confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.09), maternal absence (AOR: 1.93; CI: 1.21-3.07) and household diet diversity (AOR: 0.61; CI: 0.41-0.92). Among older children, stunting was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.28; CI: 1.00-1.64), age of 4 and 5 (AOR: 0.71; CI: 0.54-0.95; AOR: 0.60; CI: 0.44-0.83), access to improved water source (AOR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to a functioning water station (AOR: 0.63; CI: 0.40–0.98) and mother breastfeeding (AOR: 1.97; CI: 1.18-3.29). Conclusions: Interventions that increase household wealth and improve water and sanitation conditions should be implemented to reduce stunting. Family planning activities and programmes supporting mothers during pregnancy and lactation can positively affect both newborns and older siblings. PMID:27122480

  19. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    de Onis, Mercedes; Dewey, Kathryn G; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; Blössner, Monika; Daelmans, Bernadette; Piwoz, Ellen; Branca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization adopted a resolution on maternal, infant and young child nutrition that included a global target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted under-five children by 2025. The target was based on analyses of time series data from 148 countries and national success stories in tackling undernutrition. The global target translates to a 3.9% reduction per year and implies decreasing the number of stunted children from 171 million in 2010 to about 100 million in 2025. However, at current rates of progress, there will be 127 million stunted children by 2025, that is, 27 million more than the target or a reduction of only 26%. The translation of the global target into national targets needs to consider nutrition profiles, risk factor trends, demographic changes, experience with developing and implementing nutrition policies, and health system development. This paper presents a methodology to set individual country targets, without precluding the use of others. Any method applied will be influenced by country-specific population growth rates. A key question is what countries should do to meet the target. Nutrition interventions alone are almost certainly insufficient, hence the importance of ongoing efforts to foster nutrition-sensitive development and encourage development of evidence-based, multisectoral plans to address stunting at national scale, combining direct nutrition interventions with strategies concerning health, family planning, water and sanitation, and other factors that affect the risk of stunting. In addition, an accountability framework needs to be developed and surveillance systems strengthened to monitor the achievement of commitments and targets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-07-12

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The...

  6. Socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Kamal S M

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition among under-five children is a chronic problem in developing countries. This study explores the socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Cross-sectional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the socio-demographic variables on moderate and severe stunting over normal among the children. Findings revealed that over two-fifths of the children were stunted, of which 26.3% were moderately stunted and 15.1% were severely stunted. The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of severe stunting (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.34-4.79) and moderate stunting (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.47-3.83) over normal among children with a thinner mother. Region, father's education, toilet facilities, child's age, birth order of children and wealth index were also important determinants of children's nutritional status. Development and poverty alleviation programmes should focus on the disadvantaged rural segments of people to improve their nutritional status.

  7. Transition between stunted and nonstunted status: both occur from birth to 15 years of age in Malawi children.

    PubMed

    Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Cheung, Yin Bun; Kortekangas, Emma; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    The timing and frequency of stunting and possible catch-up growth are ambiguous in low-income settings. This study explored the timing and extent of becoming stunted and nonstunted between birth and 15 years of age in a resource-poor area of Malawi, south-east Africa. We followed 767 children from the foetal period until 15 years of age and examined the transition between stunted and nonstunted status and the pubertal stage at 15 years of age. We also plotted smoothed curves for the mean absolute deficits in centimetres and height-for-age standard deviation scores (HAZ) according to the World Health Organization's 2006 and 2007 references. Most two-year olds (80%) were stunted (HAZ < -2 SD), but this had declined to 37% at 15 years of age. During the three five-year intervals, new stunting cases ranged from 3.9 to 21.3% and the percentage who became nonstunted was 9.1 to 15%. The majority (85%) of the children, who were moderately stunted at two years of age, became nonstunted during the follow-up period. Only, 9% of boys and 20% of girls had reached advanced puberty by the age of 15. Becoming stunted and nonstunted status both occurred throughout the period from birth to 15 years of age in Malawi children. The small percentage who had reached advanced puberty by the age of 15 suggests significant further growth potential. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  9. Environmental predictors of stunting among children under-five in Somalia: cross-sectional studies from 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Berkley, James A; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-07-28

    Stunting among children under five years old is associated with long-term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, economic productivity in adulthood and maternal reproductive outcomes. Accurate estimation of stunting and tools to forecast risk are key to planning interventions. We estimated the prevalence and distribution of stunting among children under five years in Somalia from 2007 to 2010 and explored the role of environmental covariates in its forecasting. Data from household nutritional surveys in Somalia from 2007 to 2010 with a total of 1,066 clusters covering 73,778 children were included. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical space-time model to forecast stunting by using the relationship between observed stunting and environmental covariates in the preceding years. We then applied the model coefficients to environmental covariates in subsequent years. To determine the accuracy of the forecasting, we compared this model with a model that used data from all the years with the corresponding environmental covariates. Rainfall (OR = 0.994, 95 % Credible interval (CrI): 0.993, 0.995) and vegetation cover (OR = 0.719, 95 % CrI: 0.603, 0.858) were significant in forecasting stunting. The difference in estimates of stunting using the two approaches was less than 3 % in all the regions for all forecast years. Stunting in Somalia is spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Rainfall and vegetation are major drivers of these variations. The use of environmental covariates for forecasting of stunting is a potentially useful and affordable tool for planning interventions to reduce the high burden of malnutrition in Somalia.

  10. Structural basis of the high thermal stability of the histone-like HU protein from the mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum KC3

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Konstantin M.; Rakitina, Tatiana V.; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry A.; Vlaskina, Anna V.; Agapova, Yuliya K.; Kamashev, Dmitry E.; Kleymenov, Sergey Y.; Popov, Vladimir O.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the histone-like HU protein from the mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 (HUSpm) was determined at 1.4 Å resolution, and the thermal stability of the protein was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. A detailed analysis revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the HUSpm dimer is similar to that of its bacterial homologues but is characterized by stronger hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface. This HUSpm dimer interface lacks salt bridges but is stabilized by a larger number of hydrogen bonds. According to the DSC data, HUSpm has a high denaturation temperature, comparable to that of HU proteins from thermophilic bacteria. To elucidate the structural basis of HUSpm thermal stability, we identified amino acid residues potentially responsible for this property and modified them by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative analysis of the melting curves of mutant and wild-type HUSpm revealed the motifs that play a key role in protein thermal stability: non-conserved phenylalanine residues in the hydrophobic core, an additional hydrophobic loop at the N-terminal region of the protein, the absence of the internal cavity present at the dimer interface of some HU proteins, and the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between the monomers that are missing in homologous proteins. PMID:27808161

  11. Organization and nucleotide sequences of the Spiroplasma citri genes for ribosomal protein S2, elongation factor Ts, spiralin, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and an unidentified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, C; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    1990-01-01

    The gene for spiralin, the major membrane protein of the helical mollicute Spiroplasma citri, was cloned in Escherichia coli as a 5-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA fragment. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 5.0-kbp spiroplasmal DNA fragment was determined (GenBank accession no. M31161). The spiralin gene was identified by the size and amino acid composition of its translational product. Besides the spiralin gene, the spiroplasmal DNA fragment was found to contain five additional open reading frames (ORFs). The translational products of four of these ORFs were identified by their amino acid sequence homologies with known proteins: ribosomal protein S2, elongation factor Ts, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase, respectively encoded by the genes rpsB, tsf, pfk, and pyk. The product of the fifth ORF remains to be identified and was named protein X (X gene). The order of the above genes was tsf--X--spiralin gene--pfk--pyk. These genes were transcribed in one direction, while the gene for ribosomal protein S2 (rpsB) was transcribed in the opposite direction. Images PMID:2139649

  12. Structural basis of the high thermal stability of the histone-like HU protein from the mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum KC3.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Konstantin M; Rakitina, Tatiana V; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry A; Vlaskina, Anna V; Agapova, Yuliya K; Kamashev, Dmitry E; Kleymenov, Sergey Y; Popov, Vladimir O

    2016-11-03

    The three-dimensional structure of the histone-like HU protein from the mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 (HUSpm) was determined at 1.4 Å resolution, and the thermal stability of the protein was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. A detailed analysis revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the HUSpm dimer is similar to that of its bacterial homologues but is characterized by stronger hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface. This HUSpm dimer interface lacks salt bridges but is stabilized by a larger number of hydrogen bonds. According to the DSC data, HUSpm has a high denaturation temperature, comparable to that of HU proteins from thermophilic bacteria. To elucidate the structural basis of HUSpm thermal stability, we identified amino acid residues potentially responsible for this property and modified them by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative analysis of the melting curves of mutant and wild-type HUSpm revealed the motifs that play a key role in protein thermal stability: non-conserved phenylalanine residues in the hydrophobic core, an additional hydrophobic loop at the N-terminal region of the protein, the absence of the internal cavity present at the dimer interface of some HU proteins, and the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between the monomers that are missing in homologous proteins.

  13. Chemotaxis without Conventional Two-Component System, Based on Cell Polarity and Aerobic Conditions in Helicity-Switching Swimming of Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Huajun; Meng, Qingguo; Terahara, Natsuho; Gu, Wei; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Nakane, Daisuke; Wang, Wen; Miyata, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S. eriocheiris performs chemotaxis without the conventional two-component system, a system commonly found in bacterial chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of S. eriocheiris was observed more clearly when the cells were cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The cells were polarized as evidenced by a tip structure, swimming in the direction of the tip, and were shown to reverse their swimming direction in response to attractants. Triton X-100 treatment revealed the internal structure, a dumbbell-shaped core in the tip that is connected by a flat ribbon, which traces the shortest line in the helical cell shape from the tip to the other pole. Sixteen proteins were identified as the components of the internal structure by mass spectrometry, including Fibril protein and four types of MreB proteins. PMID:28217108

  14. Stunting Mediates the Association between Small-for-Gestational-Age and Postneonatal Mortality123

    PubMed Central

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Christian, Parul; Katz, Joanne; Liu, Li; Kozuki, Naoko; Black, Robert E; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. Objective: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. Methods: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial. HIV exposure was defined based on maternal HIV status at baseline. SGA was defined as birthweight <10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st (International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century) standards. We used a standard mediation approach by comparing the attenuation of the risk when the mediator was added to the model. We used Cox proportional hazards models first to regress SGA on postneonatal mortality, controlling for age. Stunting (length-for-age z score <−2) was then included in the model to test mediation. Results: Approximately 20% of children were term SGA, and 23% were stunted before their last follow-up visit. In this cohort, 31% of children were exposed to HIV; the HIV-exposed group represented a pooled group of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children. Postneonatal mortality was significantly higher among children born SGA (HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.7). This association was attenuated and not statistically significant when stunting was included in the model, suggesting a mediation effect (HR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.3). When stratified by HIV exposure status, we observed a significant attenuation of the risk, suggesting mediation, only among HIV-exposed children (model 1, HR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6; model 2, HR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.3). Conclusions: This analysis aids in investigating pathways that underlie an observed SGA-mortality relation and may inform survival interventions in undernourished settings. PMID:27733526

  15. miRNA: A Novel Link Between Rice Ragged Stunt Virus and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xiong; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wanhong

    2016-06-01

    Rice ragged stunt disease caused leads to severe loss of rice yield. Recently, rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) were found to be increasingly common in rice-growing regions of China and Vietnam. RRSV may cause problem by interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs) of host cells and the mechanism is not clear yet. In this study we identified 11 miRNAs in response to RRSV infection and predicted their possible targets to viral RNA segments (S1-S10) through the bioinformatics analysis. Interestingly, we found that Osa-miR-168b might bind to both the CDS region and 3'UTR of S5 and S8 and target eEF-1A to inhibit the activity of host cells to facilitate RRSV replication. These results suggest that miRNAs may be a potential target for developing rice against RRSV infection.

  16. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  17. Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea-Stunting Pathway?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-31

    Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea -Stunting Pathway? Christa L. Fischer Walker1*, Laura Lamberti1, Linda Adair2, Richard...States of America Abstract Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries...yet the additional effects and sequelae, such as cognitive impairment associated with diarrhea , have not been quantified. Methods: We quantified the

  18. Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974-2007.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Konno, Silvia; Lovadino, Ana Lucia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2010-04-01

    To assess trends in the prevalence and social distribution of child stunting in Brazil to evaluate the effect of income and basic service redistribution policies implemented in that country in the recent past. The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z score below -2 using the Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization) among children aged less than 5 years was estimated from data collected during national household surveys carried out in Brazil in 1974-75 (n = 34,409), 1989 (n = 7374), 1996 (n = 4149) and 2006-07 (n = 4414). Absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. Over a 33-year period, we documented a steady decline in the national prevalence of stunting from 37.1% to 7.1%. Prevalence dropped from 59.0% to 11.2% in the poorest quintile and from 12.1% to 3.3% among the wealthiest quintile. The decline was particularly steep in the last 10 years of the period (1996 to 2007), when the gaps between poor and wealthy families with children under 5 were also reduced in terms of purchasing power; access to education, health care and water and sanitation services; and reproductive health indicators. In Brazil, socioeconomic development coupled with equity-oriented public policies have been accompanied by marked improvements in living conditions and a substantial decline in child undernutrition, as well as a reduction of the gap in nutritional status between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic quintiles. Future studies will show whether these gains will be maintained under the current global economic crisis.

  19. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child <36 months (n = 821) from NFHS-2. The main explanatory variables of autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  1. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother's education, toilet and tap water availability, children's medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children's nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  2. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  3. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural communities of Sidama, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Masresha; Belachew, Tefera; Ersino, Getahun

    2013-01-01

    The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study that involved 575 participants from rural Sidama was conducted from February to March 2011. A two-stage stratified sampling procedure was employed to select the required households. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare stunting by feeding patterns and other characteristics. Only 14.4% of mothers fed their children optimally. Prevalence of stunting was higher for infants aged 6 to 8 months (43%) than for those in 0-5 months (26.6%) or 9-23 months (39%) category. Women who did not receive antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy were 1.5 times more likely to practice pre-lacteal feeding and 2.8 and 1.9 times more likely to feed their children below minimum dietary diversity and minimum meal frequency, respectively (P=0.01). Mothers older than 18 years during the birth of index child were 86% less likely to feed their child below minimum meal frequency than their younger counterparts (P=0.01). Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ANC attendance should be strengthened through extensive use of the Health Extension Workers to reduce the level of child stunting in the study area.

  4. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  5. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  6. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  7. Impact of contaminated household environment on stunting in children aged 12-59 months in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Fregonese, Federica; Siekmans, Kendra; Kouanda, Seni; Druetz, Thomas; Ly, Antarou; Diabaté, Souleymane; Haddad, Slim

    2017-04-01

    Stunting affects 165 million children worldwide, with repercussions on their survival and development. A contaminated environment is likely to contribute to stunting: frequent faecal-oral transmission possibly causes environmental enteropathy, a chronic inflammatory disorder that may contribute to faltering growth in children. This study's objective was to assess the effect of contaminated environment on stunting in Burkina Faso, where stunting prevalence is persistently high. Panel study of children aged 1-5 years in Kaya. Household socioeconomic characteristics, food needs and sanitary conditions were measured once, and child growth every year (2011-2014). Using multiple correspondence analysis and 12 questions and observations on water, sanitation, hygiene behaviours, yard cleanliness and animal proximity, we constructed a 'contaminated environment' index as a proxy of faecal-oral transmission exposure. Analysis was performed using a generalised structural equation model (SEM), adjusting for repeat observations and hierarchical data. Stunting (<2 SD height-for-age) prevalence was 29% among 3121 children (median (IQR) age 36 (25-48) months). Environment contamination was widespread, particularly in rural and peri-urban areas, and was associated with stunting (prevalence ratio 1.30; p=0.008), controlling for sex, age, survey year, setting, mother's education, father's occupation, household food security and wealth. This association was significant for children of all ages (1-5 years) and settings. Lower contamination and higher food security had effects of comparable magnitude. Environment contamination can be at least as influential as nutritional components in the pathway to stunting. There is a rationale for including interventions to reduce environment contamination in stunting prevention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Multisector intervention to accelerate reductions in child stunting: an observational study from 9 sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Remans, Roseline; Pronyk, Paul M; Fanzo, Jessica C; Chen, Jiehua; Palm, Cheryl A; Nemser, Bennett; Muniz, Maria; Radunsky, Alex; Abay, Alem Hadera; Coulibaly, Mouctar; Mensah-Homiah, Joseph; Wagah, Margaret; An, Xiaoyi; Mwaura, Christine; Quintana, Eva; Somers, Marie-Andree; Sanchez, Pedro A; Sachs, Sonia E; McArthur, John W; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2011-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, ~ 40% of children <5 y old are stunted, with levels that have remained largely unchanged over the past 2 decades. Although the complex determinants of undernutrition are well recognized, few studies have evaluated strategies that combine nutrition-specific, health-based approaches with food system- and livelihood-based interventions. We examined changes in childhood stunting and its determinants after 3 y of exposure to an integrated, multisector intervention and compared these changes with national trends. A prospective observational trial was conducted across rural sites in 9 sub-Saharan African countries with baseline levels of childhood stunting >20%. A stratified random sample of households and resident children <2 y old from villages exposed to the program were enrolled in the study. Main outcome measures included principal determinants of undernutrition and childhood stunting, which was defined as a height-for-age z score less than -2. National trends in stunting were generated from demographic and health surveys. Three years after the start of the program in 2005-2006, consistent improvements were observed in household food security and diet diversity, whereas coverage with child care and disease-control interventions improved for most outcomes. The prevalence of stunting in children <2 y old at year 3 of the program (2008-2009) was 43% lower (adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.83) than at baseline. The average national stunting prevalence for the countries included in the study had remained largely unchanged over the past 2 decades. These findings provide encouraging evidence that a package of multisector interventions has the potential to produce reductions in childhood stunting.

  9. Identification of Hop stunt viroid infecting Citrus limon in China using small RNAs deep sequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2015-07-07

    The advent of next generation sequencing technology has allowed for significant advances in plant virus discovery, particularly for identification of covert viruses and previously undescribed viruses. The Citrus limon Burm. f. (C. limon) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and . China is the world's top lemon-producing nation. In this work, lemon samples were collected from southwestern of China, where an unknown disease outbreak had caused huge losses in the lemon production industry. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing and the assembly of small RNAs, we showed that the Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) was present in C. limon leaf sample. The majority of it is a main lemon producing agricultural cultivarHop stunt viroid derived siRNAs (HSVd-siRNAs) in C. limon were 21 nucleotides in length, and nearly equal amount of HSVd-siRNAs originated from the plus-genomic RNA strand as from the complementary strand. A bias of HSVd-siRNAs toward sequences beginning with a 5'-Guanine was observed. Furthermore, hotspot analysis showed that a large amount of HSVd-siRNAs derived from the central and variant domains of the HSVd genome. Our results suggest that C. limon could set up a small RNA-mediated gene silencing response to Hop stunt viroid, Interestingly, based on bioinformatics analysis, our results also suggest that the large amounts of HSVd-siRNAs from central and variant domains might be involved in interference with host gene expression and affect symptom development.

  10. The prevalence of wasting, but not stunting, has improved in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel J; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2005-03-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the nutritionally vulnerable countries of the world. The objectives of this paper were to determine the current prevalence of undernutrition among children using data from the latest national survey and to compare the findings with those from the previous national survey in 1997. In 2002 with cooperation from UNICEF and the World Food Program (WFP), the government of the DPRK conducted a survey of 6000 households with children < 7 y old using multiple-stage sampling methods. Data were collected for sociodemographic variables, use of WFP food aid, and anthropometric measures of the youngest child in the household. The prevalence of stunting (height for age Z-score less than -2.0) in all children was 39.4% (40.2 and 38.5% for boys and girls, respectively). The prevalence of wasting (weight for height Z-score less than -2.0) was 8.2% in all children (9.1 and 7.3% for boys and girls, respectively). Although the prevalence of wasting has decreased from 1997 (16.5%) to 2002 (8.2%), the prevalence of stunting has not changed between those years, 38.2 vs. 39.4%. Thus, we conclude that acute undernutrition is decreasing in the DPRK, but chronic undernutrition that results in stunting is still highly prevalent. Continued surveillance of nutritional status of children in the DPRK is warranted given the continued state of undernutrition in that country.

  11. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    PubMed

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  12. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children.

    PubMed

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-10-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score < -2) of 17-32 months old were randomly assigned to multivitamin-multimineral (n = 48) or placebo (n = 53) group. Supplementation was daily and supervised throughout 6 weeks. Knee-heel length, length, weight, arm circumference and appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05), but were not different between groups. Growth was similar 4 months after the intervention. Morbidity was comparable in both groups before as well as after supplementation. We conclude that 6-week multivitamin-multimineral supplementation alone failed to improve appetite and growth of stunted young children.

  13. Global, regional and country trends in underweight and stunting as indicators of nutrition and health of populations.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, L M; Osendarp, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Stunting and wasting provide indicators of different nutritional deficiency problems, the causes of which are well established. Underweight based on weight-for-age cannot distinguish between these two and is therefore not useful to target programs and has limited value for tracking progress. Stunting reduces later school attainment and income as adults and increases the risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in later life. Globally, the estimated number of stunted children is decreasing, but is not on track to meet the goal of 100 million by 2025 (165 million), and there has been little change in the number of children suffering from wasting since 2004. Stunting and wasting provide excellent indicators of inequity. For example, from 1990 to 2010, the number of stunted children in Asia declined from 188.7 to 98.4 million, while in sub-Saharan Africa there was essentially no change in prevalence, and the number of stunted children increased from 45.7 to 55.8 million. Recent global development movements are recognizing the need for robust measures of trends in nutritional status of children, particularly during the critical first years of life. Such measures are needed to track progress and improve accountability, and should be aspirational to mobilize sufficient investment in nutrition.

  14. Recovery from stunting and cognitive outcomes in young children: evidence from the South African Birth to Twenty Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Casale, D; Desmond, C

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the implications for cognitive function of recovery from stunting in early childhood. More specifically, we test whether children who met the definition for stunted at age 2, but not at age 5, perform better in cognitive tests than children who remain stunted over this period. The sample is drawn from the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study, a prospective data set of children born in 1990 in urban South Africa. The measure of cognitive function that we use is based on the Revised Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire implemented when the children were age 5. We employ multivariate regression in the analysis to control for child-specific characteristics, socio-economic status, the home environment and caregiver inputs. We find that recovery from stunting is not uncommon among young children in our sample. However, children who recover from stunting by age 5 still perform significantly worse on cognitive tests than children who do not experience early malnutrition, and almost as poorly as children who remain stunted. These findings suggest that the timing of nutritional inputs in the early years is key in a child's cognitive development, with implications for school readiness and achievement.

  15. Disentangling nutritional factors and household characteristics related to child stunting and maternal overweight in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify nutritional factors and households characteristics associated with child stunting, maternal overweight and the familial coexistence of both types of malnutrition. In Guatemala, 2000, with nationally representative data, we selected 2261 households with at least one child aged 12-60 months and his/her mother. Nutritional status was assessed in children (e.g., stunting as height-for-age Z-score<-2) and mothers (e.g., overweight as body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) and identified the presence of both, child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household (SCOM). With logistic regression models we assessed the association of the malnutrition indicators with individual and household socio-economic and health characteristics. SCOM was identified in 18% of households. Socio-economic status (SES) of SCOM households was significantly lower than SES of households with non-stunted children. SCOM households, compared to those with normal-stature children and normal weight mothers, were more likely to have mothers of short stature (adjusted odds ratio-OR+/-95% CI=3.1 (2.1-4.7)), higher parity (1.2 (1.1-1.3)), currently working (1.7 (1.1-2.6), and self-identified as indigenous (2.0 (1.3-3.1)). Factors associated with stunting in children such as poverty, maternal short stature and indigenousness, were predictors of SCOM. These findings support the notion that SCOM is an extension of the malnutrition spectrum in the most disadvantaged population groups in countries that are in the middle of their nutrition transitions such as Guatemala. At the same time it revealed that these populations are already in the stage of chronic, nutrition related diseases associated with less physical activity and more access to highly processed foods of low cost, high dietary energy and low nutrient density in important population groups. The challenge for the decision makers and service deliverers is to guide SCOM households to deal equally with both

  16. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  17. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall be...

  19. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  20. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  1. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  2. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  3. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  4. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy.

  5. A Structural Framework for a Near-Minimal Form of Life: Mass and Compositional Analysis of the Helical Mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum BC3

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, Shlomo; Schuck, Peter; Phillips, Terry M.; Andrews, S. Brian; Leapman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma melliferum is a wall-less bacterium with dynamic helical geometry. This organism is geometrically well defined and internally well ordered, and has an exceedingly small genome. Individual cells are chemotactic, polar, and swim actively. Their dynamic helicity can be traced at the molecular level to a highly ordered linear motor (composed essentially of the proteins fib and MreB) that is positioned on a defined helical line along the internal face of the cell’s membrane. Using an array of complementary, informationally overlapping approaches, we have taken advantage of this uniquely simple, near-minimal life-form and its helical geometry to analyze the copy numbers of Spiroplasma’s essential parts, as well as to elucidate how these components are spatially organized to subserve the whole living cell. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to measure the mass-per-length and mass-per-area of whole cells, membrane fractions, intact cytoskeletons and cytoskeletal components. These local data were fit into whole-cell geometric parameters determined by a variety of light microscopy modalities. Hydrodynamic data obtained by analytical ultracentrifugation allowed computation of the hydration state of whole living cells, for which the relative amounts of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, DNA, and RNA were also estimated analytically. Finally, ribosome and RNA content, genome size and gene expression were also estimated (using stereology, spectroscopy and 2D-gel analysis, respectively). Taken together, the results provide a general framework for a minimal inventory and arrangement of the major cellular components needed to support life. PMID:24586297

  6. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  7. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  8. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  9. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. Methods A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Findings Child stunting was associated with the child’s sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents’ education, maternal tobacco use and mother’s birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Conclusion Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition. PMID:23678197

  10. Change in body water distribution index in infants who become stunted between 4 and 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gartner, A; Berger, J; Simondon, K B; Maire, B; Traissac, P; Ly, C; San Miguel, J L; Simondon, F; Delpeuch, F

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate body composition changes using bioelectrical impedance analysis and skinfold thickness measurements in infants from tropical areas who become stunted between 4-18 months of age. Follow-up study. Extracellular water to total body water ratio index (length(2)/resistance at low to high frequency), peripheral fat (tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness), and length-for-age index were studied at 4 and 18 months of age. Low-income areas in four tropical regions (Congo, Senegal, Bolivia and New Caledonia). Infants were included in the analysis provided they were neither stunted nor wasted at 4 months. Two groups of infants were compared, those that were stunted at 18 months (n=61) or not (n=170). The extracellular water to total body water ratio index and the sum of skinfold thickness measurements were similar in the two groups at 4 months, and only the extracellular water to total body water ratio index was significantly different at 18 months. When no stunting appeared between 4 and 18 months, the change in the extracellular water to total body water ratio index was not linked with variations in length-for-age, and presented the expected pattern of variation in body water compartments. When stunting occurred, variation in length-for-age was related to significant changes in the extracellular water to total body water ratio index, the biggest increase in the proportion of extracellular water being found in the most stunted infants. Variations in the sum of the two skinfold thickness measurements presented the expected pattern for the 4-18 months growth and did not differ between the two groups. Multifrequency resistances suggested that stunting was associated with a lack of the expansion of the intracellular compartment that is expected during normal growth of cell mass, together with preserved fat mass. Supported by grant 92L0623 from the French Ministry of Research, and by Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD).

  11. Stunting, overweight and child development impairment go hand in hand as key problems of early infancy: Uruguayan case.

    PubMed

    Bove, Isabel; Miranda, Teresa; Campoy, Cristina; Uauy, Ricardo; Napol, Marta

    2012-09-01

    Stunting, overweight and child development impairment are key problems affecting early infancy and have short and long-term consequences on academic performance, social competence and adult health. The aim of this paper is to identify linkages and factors that may simultaneously contribute to these problems. A cross sectional study. 2,046 children under 5 years in Canelones, Uruguay. For simultaneous assessment of the relationship between stunting, overweight and child development impairment we used multiple logistic regression analyses. We included children, household, maternal and paternal variables as confounder factors. To give the strength of association we performed odds ratios (OR). A significant OR was defined as upper and lower 95% confidence limits not containing the value of one. Significance level was <0.05. Low birthweight was a risk for stunting OR: 3.2 (1.8-5.6) and for reduced head circumference growth OR: 3.9 (1.9-8.0); infants with reduced head circumference had an increased chance of delayed psychomotor development OR: 2.4 (1.17-5.07) and of being stunted OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.3); stunted infants had almost three times risk of being overweight OR: 2.7 (1.8-4.1). Maternal stature <160 cm, low BMI, low education and poverty were also predictor for stunting. Obese mother, maternal stature >160 cm and maternal smoking increased chance of overweight. Some maternal behaviors, such as mother not used to singing songs and maternal smoking increased the likelihood of delaying psychomotor development. The close linkages between stunting, being overweight and child development impairment suggest they should be targeted together: they coexist in the same infants and predict each other. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Physics of Popping Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a framework for teachers to use the thermodynamic system of popping corn to generate student interest. Examines the popping mechanism and the role of steam in, the heat required during, and the energy efficiency of the popping process. (MDH)

  13. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol to...

  14. What Explains Cambodia’s Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    PubMed Central

    Zanello, Giacomo; Srinivasan, C. S.; Shankar, Bhavani

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, (“covariate effects”) and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes (“coefficient effects”)? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects) may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries. PMID:27649080

  15. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S., Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. Methods A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales—Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. Findings The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. Conclusion There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities. PMID:27490200

  16. Infant and young child feeding practices and stunting in two highland provinces in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Marquis, Grace S; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-04-01

    The first two years of life are critical for growth and development. Little is known about infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the Ecuadorian highlands and how they contribute to stunting. With the objective of understanding nutritional status and the influencing factors to design an intervention, we assessed the nutritional status of 293 infants and children between 0 and 24 months of age, living in 14 communities in the provinces of Tungurahua and Chimborazo using a cross-sectional study design. We used the WHO IYCF indicators to assess feeding practices; estimated dietary intake with 24-h recalls; and identified nutritious local foods by food frequency questionnaires. Multiple regression modelling was performed to identify correlates of nutritional status. Stunting was found in 56.2% of children. Mean protein, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were above recommendations for all ages. Only infants 6.0 to 8.9 months of age and non-breastfed children 12-23.9 months of age consumed energy intakes below recommendations. Younger age groups had below recommended intakes for iron and calcium. While mean complementary food densities met recommendations for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and energy, those for zinc, iron and calcium were lower than recommended. Older age, respiratory infections and being male were predictors of lower HAZ, whereas early initiation of breastfeeding, higher socioeconomic status, consumption of iron-rich foods and higher dietary protein density were protective. Interventions that promote and support optimal breastfeeding practices and enable increased consumption of nutritious local foods have potential to contribute to reducing stunting in this vulnerable population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of deterrent impact of Ontario's Street Racing and Stunt Driving Law on extreme speeding convictions.

    PubMed

    Meirambayeva, Aizhan; Vingilis, Evelyn; Zou, Guangyong; Elzohairy, Yoassry; McLeod, A Ian; Xiao, Jinkun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a process and outcome evaluation of the deterrent impact of Ontario's street racing and stunt driving legislation, introduced in September 2007, on extreme speeding convictions. It was hypothesized that because males are much more likely to engage in speeding, street racing, and stunt driving, the new law would have more impact in reducing extreme speeding in males compared to females. Descriptive statistics and time series plots were used for the suspensions data. Interrupted time series analysis with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling was applied to the monthly extreme speeding convictions in Ontario for the period of January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2011, to assess the impact of the new legislation, separately for male drivers (intervention group) and female drivers (comparison group). The results indicated that per licensed driver, 1.21 percent of 16- to 24-year-old male drivers and 0.37 percent of 25- to 64-year-old male drivers had their licenses suspended between September 2007 and December 2011. This is in contrast to female drivers: 0.21 percent of 16- to 24-year-old female drivers and 0.07 percent of 25- to 64-year-old female drivers had their licenses suspended during the same time period. A significant intervention effect of reduced extreme speeding convictions was found in the male driver group, though no corresponding effect was observed in the female driver group. The findings of this study are consistent with previous research on demographics of street racers and stunt drivers. These findings are congruent with deterrence theory that certain, swift, and severe sanctions can deter risky driving behavior and support the hypothesis that legal sanctions can have an impact on the extreme speeding convictions of the intervention group.

  18. Socioeconomic disparities and the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2012-07-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined here as households with a stunted child and an overweight mother (SCOM), is a growing problem in Guatemala. We explored the magnitude of SCOM and the identification of socio-economic factors associated with this malnutrition duality. From the 2000 Living Standards Measurement Study from Guatemala, we obtained a sample of 2492 households with pairs of children 6-60 months and their mothers (18-49 years) and estimated the prevalence of SCOM. Economic characteristics of this sample were assessed with the Concentration Index (CI). Results revealed higher prevalence of child stunting, but a lower prevalence of maternal overweight among the poor compared to the rich households. Economic inequality in child stunting was greater than economic inequality in maternal overweight (CI=-0.22 vs. +0.14). SCOM pairs were more prevalent among the poor and middle SES groups as compared to the rich households. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that SCOM was more likely to occur in households from the middle consumption quintile than in those from the first quintile (odds ratio=1.7). The findings reported here add new insights into the complex phenomenon observed in households with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum, and support the need for the identification of economic, social and biological interventions aimed at, on the one hand, the prevention of this duality of the malnutrition in those households where it is still non-existent, and on the other hand, to deter or correct the economic, social and biological environments where those mother-child dyads are already affected by such phenomena.

  19. Trends and determinants of childhood stunting and underweight in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, R P; Hossain, S M M; Anuranga, C; Wickramasinghe, R; Jayatissa, R; Abeykoon, A T P L

    2013-03-01

    Child undernutrition is a major risk factor for child mortality and adult ill-health. Despite substantial progress in most health indicators, undernutrition remains high in Sri Lanka, with recent trends being unclear, owing to methodological differences in national surveys. This study uses data from the 1987, 1993, 2000 and 2006-07 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the 2009 Nutrition and Food Security Survey (NFSS) to investigate trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were re-estimated using the 2006 WHO growth standards to ensure consistency. Multivariate regression analysis was then undertaken to analyse the determinants of height-forage in children aged 9-23 months, and 24-59 months, and the relative impact of key factors was assessed using prediction models. Stunting and wasting substantially improved from 1987 to 2000, but rates stagnated from 2000 to 2006/07. Whilst economic inequalities in under nutrition were greater than in most other countries, the multivariate analysis found that maternal height, household wealth, length of breast-feeding and altitude are significant determinants of stunting, but differences in child feeding practices and other factors were not. Of these, maternal height and household wealth had the most influence. The results are consistent with the finding that food insecurity is the main driver of undernutrition, but more research is required to validate this. The strong relationship of child height with maternal height suggests that epigenetic factors, proxied by short maternal height, constrain the applicability of the WHO growth standards in Sri Lanka.

  20. What Explains Cambodia's Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    PubMed

    Zanello, Giacomo; Srinivasan, C S; Shankar, Bhavani

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects") and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects")? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects) may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

  1. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Huruy; Belachew, Tefera; Negash, Legesse

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual's life. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socio Economic Status, age, sex and mothers' educational level are among the important determinants factors of nutritional status of adolescents. Younger adolescents tend to be more undernourished than older adolescents, and, contrary to expectations that boys are almost twice as undernourished as girls. In this study, we test the competing hypothesis about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. We report a total of 2084 adolescents from the second round of a 5-year longitudinal study in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Univariate and Multivariable linear regression were used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents in Jimma zone. Age, highest grade completed, job and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; and gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended and abdominal pain are associated with stunted. The findings reflect socio-demographic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting.

  2. Socio-demographic factors associated with underweight and stunting among adolescents in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Huruy; Belachew, Tefera; Negash, Legesse

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition during adolescence plays an important role in the individual's life. There are different factors that affect nutritional status of adolescents. Socio Economic Status, age, sex and mothers’ educational level are among the important determinants factors of nutritional status of adolescents. Younger adolescents tend to be more undernourished than older adolescents, and, contrary to expectations that boys are almost twice as undernourished as girls. In this study, we test the competing hypothesis about the correlates of nutritional status among Ethiopian adolescents. Methods We report a total of 2084 adolescents from the second round of a 5-year longitudinal study in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Univariate and Multivariable linear regression were used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with Underweight and Stunting among Adolescents in Jimma zone. Results Age, highest grade completed, job and last attended in community school were positively associated with BMI for Age z-score and highest grade completed, household income and job were positively associated with Height for Age z-score. However, male gender was negatively associated with BMI for Age z-score and male gender, last attended in community school, abdominal pain and household size were negatively associated with Height for Age z-score. Conclusion Age of the adolescents, gender, educational status, employment status and type of last school attended are associated with underweight; and gender, place of residence, household size, household income, educational status, employment status, type of last school attended and abdominal pain are associated with stunted. The findings reflect socio-demographic characteristics are associated with underweight and stunting. PMID:26161175

  3. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    PubMed

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p < 0.001). Geographic location and primary education, which were conceptualized as contextual factors, explained most of this relationship, controlling for country fixed-effects. In adjusted models, we found that early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Mike L T; Smits, Jeroen; Netea, Mihai G; van der Ven, André

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called "non-specific effects". We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under five. We use a Big Data design, including cross-sectional data for 368,450 children from 33 SSA countries. Logistic regression analysis is used with control factors at child, mother, household and context level. Overall, BCG vaccination did not affect stunting in SSA children (OR 1.00 [0.98-1.03]). Timing of BCG vaccination was of importance (βtime=0.067 [0.061-0.073]): compared to unvaccinated children, BCG was associated with lower odds on stunting for children vaccinated early in life (OR 0.92 [0.89-0.94]) and higher odds for children vaccinated later in infancy (OR 1.64 [1.53-1.76]). Similar findings were done for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)1 and measles vaccination, and when hemoglobin concentration was used as outcome variable. We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fink, Günther; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sania, Ayesha; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24–35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days’ period of vulnerability) that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries. Methods and Findings We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million–12.6 million) of stunting (out of 44.1 million) were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million–8.2 million), and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million–9.2 million). FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and

  6. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  7. Long-segmented filamentous organisms observed in poults experimentally infected with stunting syndrome agent.

    PubMed

    Angel, C R; Sell, J L; Fagerland, J A; Reynolds, D L; Trampel, D W

    1990-01-01

    One-day-old turkeys were inoculated per os with material shown previously to induce stunting syndrome (SS). Weight gain and feed efficiency of inoculated poults from 1 to 13 days of age were impaired (P less than 0.01) compared with uninoculated poults. Examination of the jejunal mucosa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of long-segmented filamentous organisms (LSFOs) in poults that had been inoculated with SS. These organisms were not seen in jejuna of uninoculated poults. Further research is needed to characterize LSFOs and to determine their involvement, if any, in the adverse effects associated with SS.

  8. The prevalence and factors associated with stunting among infants aged 6 months in a peri-urban South African community.

    PubMed

    Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Kruger, Herculina S; Faber, Mieke; Rothman, Marinel; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-09-07

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in 6-month-old South African infants. This cross-sectional study was part of the baseline of a randomized controlled trial. Weight-for-length, length-for-age and weight-for-age Z-scores were based on the WHO classification. Blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Socio-economic, breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices were assessed by questionnaire. Setting/Subjects Infants aged 6 months (n 750) from a peri-urban area of Matlosana Municipality, North West Province of South Africa. Stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight affected 28·5, 11·1, 1·7 and 10·1 % of infants, respectively. Exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months of age was reported in 5·9 % of the infants. Multivariable binary logistic regression showed that birth weight (OR=0·12; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·21, P8·3 mg/l) concentrations. The association between stunting and lower birth weight, shorter maternal height and male sex reflects possibly the intergenerational origins of stunting. Therefore, interventions that focus on improving preconceptual and maternal nutritional status, combined with strategies to promote appropriate infant feeding practices, may be an important strategy to prevent stunting in vulnerable settings.

  9. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A S; Hashim, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline G; Damian, Damian J; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-05-10

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0-24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother's education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region.

  10. Underweight, Stunting and Wasting among Children in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania; a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mgongo, Melina; Chotta, Nikolas A. S.; Hashim, Tamara H.; Uriyo, Jacqueline G.; Damian, Damian J.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Msuya, Sia E.; Wandel, Margareta; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0–24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status. A total of 1870 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of children classified as underweight was 46.0%, stunting was 41.9%, and wasting was 24.7%. About 33% were both underweight and stunted, and 12% had all three conditions. In a multivariate logistic regression, child age, child being ill and birth weight were associated with all anthropometric indices. Child being breastfed was associated with being underweight and wasting. Mother’s education was associated with being underweight and stunting. Fathers aged 35+ years, and living in the Hai district was associated with stunting, and being female was associated with wasting. The prevalence of child undernutrition is high in this region. Strategies that target each risk factor for child undernutrition may help to reduce the problem in the region. PMID:28489043

  11. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... field corn: (1) Grown on insurable acreage in the county listed in the accepted application; (2... with another crop. (b) Hybrid seed corn, popcorn, sweet corn, and other specialty corn may only...

  12. Stunting and weight statuses of adolescents differ between public and private schools in urban Gambia.

    PubMed

    Juwara, Alimatou; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsin-Jen

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the disparity in nutritional status of adolescents between public and private schools in urban Gambia. This is a school-based cross-sectional study in six private and six public upper basic schools in urban Gambia. This study recruited 491 students from public and 469 students from private schools (13-15 years of age). The prevalence of stunting (WHO height-for-age Z < -2SD) was 13.4 % for public school students and 4.5 % for private schools. After adjustment for children's sex, age, and family socioeconomic status, the differences in prevalence of stunting and underweight were significant between public and private schools. Private school students are more likely to be overweight/obese (WHO BMI-for-age Z > +1SD) (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.55-5.22), but less likely to be thin (BMI-for-age Z < -2SD) (OR = 0.61 [0.39-0.96]), compared to public school students. Children from lower income families had lower odds for overweight/obese than normal weight, compared to those from higher income families (OR = 0.34 [0.15-0.76]). Public and private schools in urban regions of the Gambia may face different nutritional challenges due to differences in school environment and resources.

  13. Stunt or elongate? Two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keisuke; Hattori, Yoko; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of habitat is important for the perpetuation of species. In particular, plants which are sedentary must evolve specialized functions to adapt itself to new environment. Deepwater rice is cultivated mainly in the lowland areas of South and Southeast Asia that are flooded during the rainy season. The internodes of deepwater rice elongates in response to increasing water level to keep its leaves above the water surface and avoid anoxia. This elongation is stimulated by ethylene-regulated genes, Snorkel1 and Snorkel2. In contrast, when a flash flood occurs at the seedling stage, submergence-tolerant rice, which carries Submergence-1A, remains stunted and survives in water for a few weeks to avoid the energy consumption associated with plant elongation, and restarts its growth using its conserved energy after the water recedes. Interestingly, both Snorkel genes and Submergence-1A encode ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor and are connected to gibberellin biosynthesis or signal transduction. However, deepwater and submergence-tolerant rice seem to have opposite flooding response; namely, escape by elongation or remain stunted under water until flood recedes.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus (WmCSV) from Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S.; Jamous, Rana M.; Mallah, Omar B.; Abu-Zeitoun, Salam Y.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[PAL]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for WmCSV-[PAL] infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA). Disease incidence ranged between 25%–98% in watermelon fields in the studied area, 77% of leaf samples collected from Jenin were found to be mixed infected with WmCSV-[PAL] and SLCV. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis of virus genomes showed that DNA-A and DNA-B had 97.6%–99.42% and 93.16%–98.26% nucleotide identity with other virus isolates in the region, respectively. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Palestinian isolate of WmCSV shared the highest nucleotide identity with an isolate from Israel suggesting that the virus was introduced to Palestine from Israel. PMID:24956181

  15. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, S S; Mandal, B; Ali, A; Varma, A

    2010-06-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) an important vegetable crop in India was observed to be affected by a chlorotic curly stunt disease (CCSD) during 2003-2006 in the vegetable growing areas of Delhi and adjoining state of Haryana. The affected plants are severely stunted and bear very small chlorotic and mildly curled leaves. Incidence of the disease varied from 4.7 to 36%. The disease could be easily transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci but not by sap. The causal virus was found to be a Begomovirus on the basis of whitefly transmission and sequence identity of putative coat protein (CP) and replication initiator protein (Rep) genes. The virus was transmitted to Cucumis sativus, Luffa acutangula, L. cylndrica, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Praecitrullus fistulosus but not to Citrullus lunatus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita moschata and Vigna unguiculata. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of CP of the virus had 100% sequence identity with all the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and two isolates of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV). The full length amino acid sequence of the CP and Rep genes had 100% similarity with ToLCNDV-Svr and -Luffa isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus associated with CCSD of bottle gourd belongs to ToLCNDV cluster of the begomoviruses. This is the first record of emergence of a Begomovirus associated severe disease in bottle gourd in India.

  16. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mejía‐Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over‐reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand‐side problem and an over‐reliance on unintegrated single‐factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support‐led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society.Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth‐mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support‐led strategy.Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand‐side problem with proximal single‐factorial interventions is futile.There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. PMID:27187918

  17. The principles and practices of nutrition advocacy: evidence, experience and the way forward for stunting reduction.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David; Haider, Rukhsana; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Sarkar, Satyajit

    2013-09-01

    Advocacy represents an intervention into complex, dynamic and highly contextual socio-political systems, in which strategies and tactics must be adjusted on a continual basis in light of rapidly changing conditions, reactions from actors and feedback. For this reason, the practice of advocacy is often considered more art than science. However, capacities and practices for advocacy can be strengthened by sharing and analysing experiences in varying contexts, deriving general principles and learning to adapt these principles to new contexts. Nutrition is a particular context for advocacy, but to date, there has been little systematic analysis of experiences. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and draw lessons from the practice of nutrition advocacy, especially in relation to stunting and complementary feeding, and suggest ways to strengthen capacities and practices in the future. The strategies and tactics, achievements and lessons learnt are described for three case studies: Uganda, Vietnam and Bangladesh. These cases, and experience from elsewhere, demonstrate that concerted, well-planned and well-implemented advocacy can bring significant achievements, even in short period of time. In light of the global and national attention being given to stunting reduction through the SUN (Scaling Up Nutrition) movement and other initiatives, there is now a need for much stronger investments in strategic and operational capacities for advocacy, including the human, organisational and financial resources for the advocacy and strategic communication themselves, as well as for monitoring and evaluation, supportive research and institutional capacity-building.

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Akhtar J.; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W.; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  19. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D; Moore, Sean R; Scharf, Rebecca J; Lima, Aldo A M

    2013-04-01

    More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.

  20. Effect of neonatal stunting on development of rats: large litter rearing.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G

    1979-03-01

    As nurslings, rat pups reared in large litters showed reduced frequencies of returns to their nest from other parts of the home cage and reached maximum levels of nest returns at older ages than control animals from small litters. These differences were not due to differences in activity level or attraction to the nest but appeared to be perceptual in nature. As adults, animals from large litters showed deficits in learning the 1st 2 problems in a series of visual discriminations in a modified version of the Lashley jumping stand technique in which food reinforcement was not used. The deficits were confined to male animals only and were the result of stronger position habits in the early part of training, rather than an inability to make the discriminations. A comparison of these results with those obtained when other methods of stunting animals are employed revealed that different methods of stunting may result in both common and divergent effects on behavior. One long-term consequence of large litter rearing appears to be increased emotional response to noval situations.

  1. The impoverished gut—a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; DeBoer, Mark D.; Moore, Sean R.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2013-01-01

    More than one-fifth of the world’s population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7–9 years old. A child’s height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or ‘human capital’. To this ‘double burden’ of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a ‘triple burden’ of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty. PMID:23229327

  2. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of the Procambarus clarkii microRNAs potentially related to immunity against Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jiangtao; Li, Yue; Ding, Zhengfeng; Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Du, Jie; Li, Wenjie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    We used the Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from hemocytes of Procambarus clarkii under normal and infection conditions. The high-throughput sequencing approach resulted in approximately 12,801,827 and 8,410,455 raw reads corresponding to 10,949,754 and 6,648,161 high-quality mappable reads for the normal and infected hemocyte samples, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses identified 195 unique miRNAs, including 30 that are conserved in crustaceans, 48 that are novel to crayfish but are present in other arthropods (PN-type), and 117 that are completely new (PC-type). Thirty-three miRNAs displayed significant differential expressions between the two hemocyte samples (p < 0.0001). Of these, 15 (45.5%) were significantly up-regulated and 18 (54.5%) were significantly down-regulated upon challenge with Spiroplasma eriocheiris. Integrating comparative genomic and bibliomic analysis, of the 33 significant miRNAs identified, 19 were conserved and immune-related in P. clarkii and Eriocheir sinensis infected with S. eriocheiris infection; 24 were conserved and immune-related in P. clarkii and Marsupenaeus japonicus immune response to S. eriocheiris or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Function annotation of target genes revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways that regulated by crayfish miRNAs. Thereinto, pcl-miR-34, pcl-miR-7, PN-pcl-let-7, pcl-miR-1, and pcl-miR-2b are highly conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates and function in the similar pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comprehensive identification of P. clarkii miRNAs and of expression analysis of P. clarkii miRNAs after exposure to S. eriocheiris in crayfish, and many miRNAs were differentially regulated under normal and infection conditions. Our results should help develop new control strategies for efficient immune protection against S. eriocheiris infections in crustaceans.

  3. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  4. The relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, household food security, and stunting of children in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie A; Du Plessis, Lissane

    2017-03-01

    The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals. The study was undertaken in resource-poor households in two rural areas in Kenya. Mothers/Care givers and household with children of 24-59 months of age were the main subjects. The prevalence of underweight [WAZ <-2SD] ranged between 16.7% and 21.6% and stunting [HAZ <-2SD] from 26.3% to 34.7%. Mean DDS ranged from 2.9 to 3.7 and HFIAS ranged from 9.3 to 16.2. AB was between 6.6 and 7.2 items. Households with and without children with stunted growth were significantly different in DDS (P = 0.047) after the rainy season and HFIAS (P = 0.009) in the dry season, but not with AB score (P = 0.486). The mean AB for households with children with stunted growth were lower at 6.8, compared to 7.0 for those with normal growth, however, the difference was insignificant. Data indicate that households with children with stunted growth and those without are significantly different in DDS and HFIAS but not with AB. This suggests some potential in using DDS and HFIAS as proxy measures for stunting.

  5. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  6. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-11-30

    Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities.Therefore, developing and implementing health programs to tackle

  7. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  8. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  9. Is Overweight in Stunted Preschool Children in Cameroon Related to Reductions in Fat Oxidation, Resting Energy Expenditure and Physical Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ndzana, Anne-Christine; Pasquet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that early modifications in metabolic pathways and behaviour, leading to energy conservation and reduced linear growth, could represent adaptations to nutritional constraints during foetal life and infancy. Impaired fat oxidation, low resting energy expenditure and reduced physical activity, resulting from these adaptations, could facilitate fat storage and development of overweight in growth-retarded children that consume more energy-dense food. This study aims at assessing whether: (1) dual-burden preschool children (simultaneously stunted and overweight) of Yaounde (Cameroon) have low birth-weight (indicator of foetal undernutrition) and reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity, (2) fat oxidation, REE and physical activity are associated with foetal growth. Methodology/Principal Findings 162 children (24–72 months) were considered: 22 stunted-overweight (SO), 40 stunted (S), 41 overweight (O), and 59 non stunted-non overweight (NSNO). Nutritional status and body composition were assessed using anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) and REE were measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity was determined using accelerometers, food questionnaires were used for diet assessment and birth-weight was noted. Mean RQs and REE (weight adjusted) did not differ between stunted children (SO and S) and non-stunted children (O and NSNO). SO and S children spent more time in sedentary activities than O children (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous activities than NSNO children (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). SO children’s diet was less diverse (p = 0.01) with less animal products (p = 0.006). Multiple linear regressions model revealed that birth-weight is predictive of RQ (β = 0.237, p<0.01, R2 = 0.08). Conclusions/Significance This study showed that growth

  10. Is overweight in stunted preschool children in Cameroon related to reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure and physical activity?

    PubMed

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Ndzana, Anne-Christine; Pasquet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that early modifications in metabolic pathways and behaviour, leading to energy conservation and reduced linear growth, could represent adaptations to nutritional constraints during foetal life and infancy. Impaired fat oxidation, low resting energy expenditure and reduced physical activity, resulting from these adaptations, could facilitate fat storage and development of overweight in growth-retarded children that consume more energy-dense food. This study aims at assessing whether: (1) dual-burden preschool children (simultaneously stunted and overweight) of Yaounde (Cameroon) have low birth-weight (indicator of foetal undernutrition) and reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity, (2) fat oxidation, REE and physical activity are associated with foetal growth. 162 children (24-72 months) were considered: 22 stunted-overweight (SO), 40 stunted (S), 41 overweight (O), and 59 non stunted-non overweight (NSNO). Nutritional status and body composition were assessed using anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) and REE were measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity was determined using accelerometers, food questionnaires were used for diet assessment and birth-weight was noted. Mean RQs and REE (weight adjusted) did not differ between stunted children (SO and S) and non-stunted children (O and NSNO). SO and S children spent more time in sedentary activities than O children (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous activities than NSNO children (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively). SO children's diet was less diverse (p = 0.01) with less animal products (p = 0.006). Multiple linear regressions model revealed that birth-weight is predictive of RQ (β = 0.237, p<0.01, R(2) = 0.08). This study showed that growth retardation in stunted-overweight children could be associated with

  11. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p < 0.01). The prevalences of overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p < 0.05). Overall there was stunting in 2630 children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p < 0.01). According to WHO standards, there was stunting in 1201 children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p < 0.05). The prevalence of stunting in urban areas was 1.3%, which is significantly lower than that of suburban areas, at 3.9% (p < 0.01). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  12. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  13. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  14. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  15. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  16. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture of...

  17. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  18. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  19. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  20. 77 FR 10617 - Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wellsboro & Corning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC (WCLLC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed to remove residual water soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  2. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  3. Rhizoctonia spp. dynamics and optimal timing of glyphosate application to cereal cover crops to manage onion stunting in Washington and Oregon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Onion stunting or bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an economically important disease in sandy soils of the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. Patches of stunted onions develop where cover crops of wheat or barley are killed with a herbicide spray prior to spring planting of onion seed....

  4. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  5. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  6. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  11. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  12. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  13. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  14. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  15. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  16. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by... dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis, corn syrup may contain, in addition to glucose, maltose and higher saccharides. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications as defined...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis...

  1. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Leite, Alvaro M.; Pinkerton, Relana; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Cavalcante, Paloma A.; DeBoer, Mark; Kosek, Margaret; Duggan, Christopher; Gewirtz, Andrew; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Gauthier, Anna E.; Swann, Jonathan; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Bolick, David T.; Maier, Elizabeth A.; Guedes, Marjorie M.; Moore, Sean R.; Petri, William A.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F.; Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Michaleckyj, Josyf C.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Sturgeon, Craig; Fasano, Alessio; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6–26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting) in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old), and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption); and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA) (suggesting impaired defenses). In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation). Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1) functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2) structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3) systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO) associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin) associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how we

  2. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  3. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  4. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Treesearch

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  5. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  6. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention.

  7. The effect of fallow on Longidorus americanus, a nematode associated with stunting of loblolly pine seedlings in Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Michelle M. Cram; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Stunting of loblolly pine (Pinue taeda L.) seedlings, caused by Longidorus americanus, has been a problem at a Georgia (USA) nursery. Field and growth chamber studies were conducted to determine the survivability of the nematode in a fallow nursery soil. The population density of L. americanus decreased rapidly...

  8. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  9. Suitability of Southern Pines, Other Selected Crops, and Nutsedge to a Longidorus sp. Associated with Stunting of Loblolly Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    S.W. Fraedrich; M.M. Cram; Z.A. Handoo

    2003-01-01

    An undescribed needle nematode (Longidorus sp.) has been associated with severely stunted loblolly pine seedlings at a south Georgia nursery. Containers with selected crop and weed species were infested with 100 or 200 adults and juveniles of the Longidorus individuals to evaluate host suitability. Nematode populations increased in...

  10. The Association of a Longidorus Species with Stunting and Root Damage of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Michelle M. Cram

    2002-01-01

    A Longidorus species was consistently associated with patches of stunted and chlorotic loblolly pine seedlings at a forest-tree nursery in Georgia. Seedlings from affected areas had poorly developed root systems that lacked lateral and feeder roots. Longidorus population densities in composite soil samples from the margins of...

  11. Complete genome sequence and biological characterization of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and reclassification of Lettuce necrotic stunt virus as MPV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) have been steadily increasing in prevalence in central Asia and western North America, respectively over the past decade. Recent sequence analysis of LNSV demonstrated a close relationship between the coat proteins of LNSV and MPV....

  12. Recombination-based generation of the agroinfectious clones of Peanut stunt virus.

    PubMed

    Wrzesińska, Barbara; Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-11-01

    Full-length cDNA clones of Peanut stunt virus strain P (PSV-P) were constructed and introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cDNA fragments corresponding to three PSV genomic RNAs and satellite RNA were cloned into pGreen binary vector between Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator employing seamless recombinational cloning system. The plasmids were delivered into A. tumefaciens, followed by infiltration of hosts plants. The typical symptoms on systemic leaves of infected plants similar to those of wild-type PSV-P were observed. The presence of the virus was confirmed by means of RT-PCR and Western blotting. Re-inoculation to N. benthamiana, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Pisum sativum resulted in analogous results. Generation of infectious clones of PSV-P enables studies on virus-host interaction as well as revealing viral genes functions.

  13. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    PubMed Central

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole; Höglund, Erik; Gorissen, Marnix; Flik, Gert; Kristiansen, Tore S.; Øverli, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation that the serotonergic system in GS fish is unresponsive to additional stressors, yet a cortisol response is maintained. The inability of the serotonergic system to respond to additional stress, while a cortisol response is present, probably leads to both imbalance in energy metabolism and attenuated neural plasticity. Hence, we propose that serotonin-mediated behavioural inhibition may have evolved in vertebrates to minimize stress exposure in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27293782

  14. [Stunting in Mexico in the last quarter century: analysis of four national surveys].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; González de Cosío, Teresita; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Feregrino, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    To describe the magnitude, distribution, and trends of undernutrition and overweight from 1988 to 2006, and provide recommendations for their erradication. Antrhopometric indicators of nutritional status in children <5 y from four surveys were analyzed. Despite its significant reduction in the study period, stunting remains as a public health problem, with the highest prevalences in indigenous population, the rural south and the lowest living conditions quintile. Several policies and programs have demonstrated effectiveness, but implementation challenges persist among the poorest population, particularly in indigenous households. Measures for improving the effectiveness of the nutrition policies and programs, particularly among the indigenous and poorest population, are provided, which include adjusting current programs according to the results of evaluations, and the implementation of policies that address the social determinants of undernutrition.

  15. Has the prevalence of stunting in South African children changed in 40 years? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-06-05

    In the last 20 years, South Africa has experienced political, economic, and demographic transitions accompanied by an epidemiological transition. Like several sub-Saharan countries, the South African population is facing both under-and over-nutrition, and nutrition and lifestyle related chronic disease while the burden of infectious disease remains high. It is critical to understand these trends overtime in order to highlights the pitfalls and successful measures initiatives taken in the efforts to tackle malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the changes in the prevalence of stunting, a chronic form of undernutrition, in South Africa over 40 years, and to derive lessons from the South African experience, a country in an advanced process of transition in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a systematic review of publications selected from PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. We included studies and surveys published between 1970 and 2013 if they reported the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under-6 years of age living in South Africa. We excluded studies conducted in health facility outpatients or hospital wards, or children with known chronic and acute infectious diseases. We extracted Date of data collection, study setting, ethnicity, age, sex, sample size, growth references/standards, diagnostic criteria for stunting and prevalence of stunting from each study. Over the last decade, the national prevalence of stunting has decreased. However, between and within provincial, age and ethnic group disparities remain. Unlike other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, no sex or rural/urban differences were found in preschool children. However, the analysis of long-term trends and identification of vulnerable groups is complicated by the use of different growth references/standards and sampling methods. Despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, stunting remains

  16. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  17. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  18. Stunting, Wasting and Underweight in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Hall, John J.; Wali, Nidhi; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Merom, Dafna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Child undernutrition is a major public health problem. One third of all undernourished children globally reside in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of this study was to systematically review studies to determine the factors associated with stunting, wasting and underweight in SSA and contribute to the existing body of evidence needed for the formulation of effective interventions. Methods: This systematic review was conducted using the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Five computerized bibliographic databases were searched: Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Embase. The included studies were rated using eight quality-appraisal criteria derived from the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist: sample size, sampling methodology, response rate, outcome measures, statistical analyses, control for confounding, study limitation, and ethical consideration. Results: Of a total of 2810 articles retrieved from the five databases, 49 studies met our inclusion criteria. The most consistent factors associated with childhood stunting, wasting and underweight in SSA were: low mother’s education, increasing child’s age, sex of child (male), wealth index/SES (poor household), prolonged duration of breastfeeding (>12 months), low birth weight, mother’s age (<20 years), source of drinking water (unimproved), low mother’s BMI (<18.5), birth size (small), diarrhoeal episode, low father’s education and place of residence (rural). Conclusions: The factors that predispose a child to undernutrition are multisectoral. To yield a sustainable improvement in child nutrition in SSA, a holistic multi-strategy community-based approach is needed that targets the factors associated with undernutrition, thereby setting the region on the path to achieving the WHO global nutrition target by 2025. PMID:28788108

  19. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  20. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, p<0.001), father educational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, p<0.001) and mother educational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, p<0.001) as well as MES (Wald=13.95, p<0.001) were strong predictors of stunting among girls. Similarly BO (Wald=13.71, p<0.001) was a strong predictor of stunting among girls. Girls with >or=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with stunting than those with FES>or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESstunting than those with FES>or=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this

  1. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  2. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  3. Improved corn protein based articles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  4. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  5. Secular trends in the prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity among South African children (1994-2004).

    PubMed

    Armstrong, M E G; Lambert, M I; Lambert, E V

    2011-07-01

    Various nutrition programs and free health care for children less than 6 years old were introduced in South Africa in the mid-1990s. We aim to describe secular trends for nutritional status of South African (SA) children in the 10-year period following these reforms. The SA National Primary Schools' Anthropometric Survey (n=105 000) is a cross-sectional survey of children from all SA Education Departments sampled during 1994. The Health of the Nation Study (n=10 295) is a cross-sectional study, including children from primary schools in five SA Provinces sampled from 2001 to 2004. Height and weight of SA children were measured during both surveys. In 8-11 year olds, the National Centre for Health Statistics reference was used to calculate the prevalence of mild and moderate stunting, and overweight and obesity were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force reference. Coexistence of stunting, overweight and obesity among these two age- and sex-matched cohorts were also calculated. When compared with previous SA data, moderate stunting (24.6-4.9%, P<0.001) decreased over the 7-10 years considered, whereas overweight (1.2-13.0%, P<0.001) and obesity (0.2-3.3%, P<0.001) prevalence increased. There were lower levels of mild stunting and similar levels of moderate stunting among overweight/obese children when compared with non-overweight/non-obese children. Our findings suggest that feeding policies may have been effective in reducing the prevalence of under-nutrition. However, inter-sectoral policies should recognize the apparent secular trend for an increased prevalence in overweight/obesity among young South Africans.

  6. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Mosites, Emily M.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Palmer, Guy H.; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Walson, Judd L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008–2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79–0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96–1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity. PMID:26361393

  7. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  8. An evaluation of an operations research project to reduce childhood stunting in a food-insecure area in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Bridget; Bulti, Assaye T; Nduna, Themba; Duffield, Arabella; Watson, Fiona

    2012-09-01

    To determine which interventions can reduce linear growth retardation (stunting) in children aged 6-36 months over a 5-year period in a food-insecure population in Ethiopia. We used data collected through an operations research project run by Save the Children UK: the Child Caring Practices (CCP) project. Eleven neighbouring villages were purposefully selected to receive one of four interventions: (i) health; (iii) nutrition education; (iii) water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); or (iv) integrated comprising all interventions. A comparison group of three villages did not receive any interventions. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline (2004) and for impact evaluation (2009) using the same quantitative and qualitative tools. The primary outcome was stunted growth in children aged 6-36 months measured as height (or length)-for-age Z-scores (mean and prevalence). Secondary outcomes were knowledge of health seeking, infant and young child feeding and preventive practices. Amhara, Ethiopia. Children aged 6-36 months. The WASH intervention group was the only group to show a significant increase in mean height-for-age Z-score (+0·33, P = 0·02), with a 12·1 % decrease in the prevalence of stunting, compared with the baseline group. This group also showed significant improvements in mothers' knowledge of causes of diarrhoea and hygiene practices. The other intervention groups saw non-significant impacts for childhood stunting but improvements in knowledge relating to specific intervention education messages given. The study suggests that an improvement in hygiene practices had a significant impact on stunting levels. However, there may be alternative explanations for this and further evidence is required.

  9. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  10. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; ...

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  11. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-01-01

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits

  12. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46-2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.02). Attained linear growth (height-for-age z-score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6-23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2

  13. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in‐depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0–23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5‐fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96–3.27]; children 6–23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24–2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two‐fold increased odds of stunting in children 6–23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19–3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two‐fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46–2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17–3.02). Attained linear growth (height‐for‐age z‐score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6–23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0–23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted.Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor

  14. Effects of early childhood psychosocial stimulation and nutritional supplementation on cognition and education in growth-stunted Jamaican children: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2005-11-19

    Growth retardation affects about a third of children younger than age 5 years in developing countries and is associated with poor development. Previously, we did a trial of nutritional supplementation and psychosocial stimulation in stunted children aged 9-24 months. Non-stunted children were also assessed. Both types of intervention improved development. We now present the effects of early interventions on cognition and education in 103 of the 129 stunted children and compare them with 64 of the 84 non-stunted children now aged 17-18 years. We recorded no significant effects of nutritional supplementation. Compared with no intervention, stimulation resulted in higher full scale IQ scores (coefficient 0.38, 95% CI 0.06-0.71, p=0.02) and higher scores on the verbal subscale (0.37, 0.07-0.68, p=0.02), Peabody picture vocabulary test (7.84, 0.73-14.95, p=0.03), verbal analogies (0.26, 0.03-0.49, p=0.03), and reading tests (4.73, 1.31-8.14, p=0.007, and 2.7, 1.12-4.37, p=0.001). Overall, stunted non-stimulated participants had significantly poorer scores than the non-stunted group on 11 of 12 cognitive and educational tests. Stunting in early childhood is associated with cognitive and educational deficits in late adolescence, which are reduced by stimulation at a young age.

  15. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age <-2 below the WHO reference median and maternal overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  16. Digestibility of amino acids in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Petersen, G I; Stein, H H

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent ileal digestibility and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and hominy feed and to compare these values with the apparent ileal digestibility and SID of CP and AA in corn and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight growing barrows (initial BW: 82.5 ± 5.5 kg) were randomly allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 diets and 8 periods. Diets contained corn, DDGS, bakery meal, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, or hominy feed as the sole source of protein and AA. An N-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and protein. Pigs were fed experimental diets for eight 7-d periods, with ileal digesta being collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results indicated that the SID of Lys in corn gluten meal (78.7%) was greater (P < 0.01) than in DDGS, bakery meal, corn germ meal, and hominy feed (46.0, 48.4, 68.4, and 58.8%, respectively). The SID of all indispensable AA except Arg, Leu, and Met in bakery meal were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Arg, His, Leu, and Met in corn gluten feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of all other indispensable AA in corn gluten feed were not different from those in corn. However, for most indispensable AA, the SID in corn gluten feed was not different from the SID in DDGS. The SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg, His, Leu, and Met, were not different from the SID in corn. Likewise, the SID of all indispensable AA in corn germ meal, except Arg and Leu, were not different from those in DDGS. The SID of Ile, Met, Phe, and Val in hominy feed were less (P < 0.01) than in corn, but the SID of the remaining indispensable AA in hominy feed were not different from the SID of indispensable AA in corn. All indispensable AA in hominy feed also had SID values that were not different from the SID values

  17. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  18. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may, without...

  19. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  20. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  1. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  2. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  3. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  4. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  6. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays L...

  7. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  8. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  9. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  10. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  11. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  12. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  13. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  14. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  15. Corning: supplier of multiple optical materials for telescope projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Navan, W. David; Edwards, Mary J.

    2006-06-01

    Corning manufactures several optical materials that can be used as reflective and transmissive optics for telescope optical systems. Corning can manufacture these materials in a large range of sizes and configurations. This paper discusses Corning's portfolio of optical materials and their properties, along with Corning's manufacturing capabilities using these materials. Specific examples of optical blanks that Corning has supplied will be discussed.

  16. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  18. Shock treatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bond, Austin; Rughoonundun, Hema; Petersen, Eric; Holtzapple, Carol; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Corn stover digestibility was enhanced via shock treatment. A slurry of lime-treated corn stover was placed in a partially filled closed vessel. From the ullage space, either a shotgun shell was fired into the slurry, or a gas mixture was detonated. Various conditions were tested (i.e., pressures, depth, solids concentrations, gas mixtures). A high pressurization rate (108,000 MPa/s shotgun shells; 4,160,000 MPa/s hydrogen/oxygen detonation) was the only parameter that improved enzymatic digestibility. Stoichiometric propane/air deflagration had a low pressurization rate (37.2 MPa/s) and did not enhance enzymatic digestibility. Without shock, enzymatic conversion of lime-treated corn stover was 0.80 g glucan digested/g glucan fed with an enzyme loading of 46.7 mg protein/g glucan. With shock, the enzyme loading was reduced by ∼2× while maintaining the same conversion. Detonations are extraordinarily fast; rapidly cycling three small vessels (0.575 m(3) each) every 7.5 s enables commercially relevant shock treatment (2,000 tone/day). © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:815-823, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Corn earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northeastern field corn: infestation levels and the value of transgenic hybrids.

    PubMed

    Bohnenblust, Eric; Breining, Jim; Fleischer, Shelby; Roth, Gregory; Tooker, John

    2013-06-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a polyphagous noctuid pest of agricultural crops across the United States that is gaining attention as a pest of field corn. Before the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant hybrids, this pest was largely ignored in field corn, but now many Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids have activity against corn earworm. However, the value of control in the northeastern United States is unclear because the risk posed by corn earworm to field corn has not been well characterized. To understand the threat from corn earworm and the value of Bt hybrids in field corn, we assessed corn earworm injury in Bt and non-Bt hybrids at 16 sites across four maturity zones throughout Pennsylvania in 2010, and 10 sites in 2011. We also used corn earworm captures from the PestWatch pheromone trapping network to relate moth activity to larval damage in field corn. Corn earworm damage was less than one kernel per ear at 21 of 26 sites over both years, and the percentage of ears damaged was generally < 15%, much lower than in the southern United States where damage can be up to 30 kernels per ear. At sites with the highest damage levels, Bt hybrids suppressed corn earworm damage relative to non-Bt hybrids, but we found no differences among Bt traits. Cumulative moth captures through July effectively predicted damage at the end of the season. Currently, the additional benefit of corn earworm control provided by Bt hybrids is typically less than US$4.00/ha in northeastern field corn.

  20. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  1. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  2. Corn residue removal impact on topsoil organic carbon in a corn-soybean rotation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn [Zea mays L.] residue is being considered as a feedstock source for biofuels production. The impact of removing corn residue on soil productivity needs to be determined in order to preserve the soil resource. A corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] rotation was established in 2000 and the eff...

  3. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  4. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  5. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  6. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  7. Novel approach of corn fiber utilization.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, G; Recseg, K; Gáspár, M; Réczey, K

    2006-01-01

    The corn wet milling process produces a 10% (w/w of the processed corn) byproduct called corn fiber, which is utilized worldwide as a low-value feedstock for cattle. The aim of this study was to find a higher value use of corn fiber. The main fractions of corn fiber are: 20% starch, 40% hemicellulose, 14% cellulose, and 14% protein. Extraction of the highly valuable, cholesterol-lowering corn fiber oil is not feasible owing to its low (2% w/w) concentration in the fiber. The developed technology is based on simple and inexpensive procedures, like washing with hot water, dilute acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, screening, drying, and extraction. The main fractions are sharply separated in the order of starch, hemicellulose, cellulose, lipoprotein, and lignin). The lipoprotein fraction adds up to 10% of the original dry corn fiber, and contains 45% corn fiber oil, thus yielding more oil than direct extraction of the fiber. It is concluded that the defined method makes the extraction of the corn fiber oil economically feasible. The fractionation process also significantly increases the yield of cholesterol-lowering substances (sterols and sterolesters). At the same time clear and utilizable fractions of monosaccharides, protein, and lignin are produced.

  8. Novel approach of corn fiber utilization.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, G; Recseg, K; Gáspár, M; Réczey, K

    2006-03-01

    The corn wet milling process produces a 10% (w/w of the processed corn) byproduct called corn fiber, which is utilized worldwide as a low-value feedstock for cattle. The aim of this study was to find a higher value use of corn fiber. The main fractions of corn fiber are: 20% starch, 40% hemicellulose, 14% cellulose, and 14% protein. Extraction of the highly valuable, cholesterol-lowering corn fiber oil is not feasible owing to its low (2% w/w) concentration in the fiber. The developed technology is based on simple and inexpensive procedures, like washing with hot water, dilute acid hydrolysis at 120 degrees C, enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, screening, drying, and extraction. The main fractions are sharply separated in the order of starch, hemicellulose, cellulose, lipoprotein, and lignin). The lipoprotein fraction adds up to 10% of the original dry corn fiber, and contains 45% corn fiber oil, thus yielding more oil than direct extraction of the fiber. It is concluded that the defined method makes the extraction of the corn fiber oil economically feasible. The fractionation process also significantly increases the yield of cholesterol-lowering substances (sterols and sterolesters). At the same time clear and utilizable fractions of monosaccharides, protein, and lignin are produced.

  9. Preventing environmental enteric dysfunction through improved water, sanitation and hygiene: an opportunity for stunting reduction in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jean H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, one in every four (26%) children under 5 years of age worldwide was stunted. The realization that most stunting cannot be explained by poor diet or by diarrhoea, nor completely reversed by optimized diet and reduced diarrhoea has led to the hypothesis that a primary underlying cause of stunting is subclinical gut disease. Essentially, ingested microbes set in motion two overlapping and interacting pathways that result in linear growth impairment. Firstly, partial villous atrophy results in a reduced absorptive surface area and loss of digestive enzymes. This in turn results in maldigestion and malabsorption of much needed nutrients. Secondly, microbes and their products make the gut leaky, allowing luminal contents to translocate into systemic circulation. This creates a condition of chronic immune activation, which (i) diverts nutrient resources towards the metabolically expensive business of infection fighting rather than growth; (ii) suppresses the growth hormone‐IGF axis and inhibits bone growth, leading to growth impairment; and (iii) causes further damage to the intestinal mucosa thereby exacerbating the problem. As such, the unhygienic environments in which infants and young children live and grow must contribute to, if not be the overriding cause of, this environmental enteric dysfunction. We suggest that a package of baby‐WASH interventions (sanitation and water improvement, handwashing with soap, ensuring a clean play and infant feeding environment and food hygiene) that interrupt specific pathways through which feco‐oral transmission occurs in the first two years of a child's life may be central to global stunting reduction efforts. PMID:26542185

  10. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  11. Field evaluation of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus transmission by Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Castle, S J; Palumbo, J P; Merten, P

    2017-03-22

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a whitefly-transmitted Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) that impacts melon production in many parts of the world including the USA. It has been responsible for melon crop loss in the southwestern U.S. since 2006 when it was first identified. Control strategies have revolved mainly around chemical control, but research to identify suitable products and approaches to implementing them has lagged. The current study investigated the performance of four systemic insecticides in the field while concurrently tracking CYSDV disease progression after controlled and natural whitefly inoculation of young melon plants. Assessments of virus incidence were made using two different visual observation methods in concert with ELISA analyses of leaf disks samples collected biweekly. Infection rates were consistently lowest in plots treated with the butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone while dinotefuran was second in efficacy measures. Flupyradifurone also held whitefly densities to their lowest numbers relative to the other treatments. Two other insecticides, imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole, exacerbated virus incidence in multiple trials. Further investigation into the anomalous finding of increased virus incidence due to insecticide application is ongoing.

  12. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  13. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  14. Nasopharyngeal carriage of respiratory pathogens in Warao Amerindians: significant relationship with stunting.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermsen, Meyke; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Sisco, María Carolina; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2017-04-01

    To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of potential pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0-4 years, 227 children aged 5-10 years and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0-4 years. Carriage rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were 51%, 7%, 1% and 13%, respectively. Crowding index, method of cooking and tobacco exposure were not associated with increased carriage. In multivariable analysis, an increase in height-for-age Z score (i.e. improved chronic nutritional status) was associated with decreased odds of S. pneumoniae colonisation (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83) in children aged 0-4 years. Better knowledge of demographic and environmental risk factors facilitates better understanding of the dynamics of colonisation with respiratory bacteria in an Amerindian population. Poor chronic nutritional status was associated with increased pathogen carriage in children <5 years of age. The high rates of stunting generally observed in indigenous children may fuel the acquisition of respiratory bacteria that can lead to respiratory and invasive disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Invasion of shoot apical meristems by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid differs among Argyranthemum cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Spetz, Carl; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiaochun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) is a damaging pathogen attacking Argyranthemum plants. Our study attempted to reveal distribution patterns of CSVd in shoot apical meristems (SAM) and to explore reasons for differential ability of CSVd to invade SAM of selected Argyranthemum cultivars. Symptom development was also observed on greenhouse-grown Argyranthemum plants. Viroid localization using in situ hybridization revealed that the ability of CSVd to invade SAM differed among cultivars. In diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ and ‘Butterfly’, CSVd was found in all tissues including the uppermost cell layers in the apical dome (AD) and the youngest leaf primordia 1 and 2. In diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Border Pink’, CSVd was detected in the lower part of the AD and elder leaf primordia, leaving the upper part of the AD, and leaf primordia 1 and 2 free of viroid. Histological observations and transmission electron microscopy showed similar developmental patterns of vascular tissues and plasmodesmata (PD) in the SAM of ‘Yellow Empire’ and ‘Border Dark Red’, while immunolocalization studies revealed a major difference in the number of callose (β-1, 3-glucan) particles deposited at PD in SAM. A lower number of callose particles were found deposited at PD of SAM of ‘Yellow Empire’ than ‘Border Dark Red’. This difference is most likely responsible for the differences in ability of CSVd to invade SAM among Argyranthemum cultivars. PMID:25763000

  16. Unusual ``Stunted'' Outbursts in Old Novae and Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Robertson, J. W.; Turner, G. W.

    1998-06-01

    Outbursts averaging 0.6 mag in amplitude and 10 days in width are described in five old novae and nova-like cataclysmic variables: UU Aqr, Q Cyg, CP Lac, X Ser, and RW Sex. These stars are thought to be high mass transfer rate systems for which the accretion disk is expected to be stable against the thermal instability responsible for dwarf nova outbursts. The widths and spacings of these events are similar to those of dwarf nova eruptions, but the amplitudes are significantly smaller, or ``stunted.'' The outbursts are sometimes accompanied by dips. These dips have amplitudes that are similar to the outbursts' but have shapes that scatter significantly more than the shapes of the outbursts. The outbursts and dips sometimes occur as pairs and are sometimes isolated. We are not able at this time to determine a single common mechanism for this behavior, or even to conclude that some mechanisms are preferred. Rather, we characterize these phenomena with regard to outburst shapes and frequency of occurrence and explore a range of possible causes, including truncated disks, mass transfer modulations, and Z Camelopardalis type behavior. Arguments are assembled for and against such possible mechanisms, and key observations are suggested. It appears unlikely that accretion disk instabilities are the single common cause of these phenomena, and we are left with either a combination of accretion disk and mass transfer events or a situation in which mass transfer events are somehow responsible for all these varied behaviors.

  17. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  18. Prevalence of Thinness, Stunting and Anemia Among Rural School-aged Sudanese Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children <10 years of age (p < 0.0001). We found a high prevalence of stunting, thinness and anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    PubMed

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p < .01). The annual cost per child was US$116.50. Adaptations of this participative program could contribute to decreased stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  20. Biomass fuel use for household cooking in Swaziland: is there an association with anaemia and stunting in children aged 6-36 months?

    PubMed

    Machisa, Mercilene; Wichmann, Janine; Nyasulu, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    This study is the second to investigate the association between the use of biomass fuels (BMF) for household cooking and anaemia and stunting in children. Such fuels include coal, charcoal, wood, dung and crop residues. Data from the 2006-2007 Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey (a cross-sectional study design) were analysed. Childhood stunting was ascertained through age and height, and anaemia through haemoglobin measurement. The association between BMF use and health outcomes was determined in multinomial logistic regression analyses. Various confounders were considered in the analyses. A total of 1150 children aged 6-36 months were included in the statistical analyses, of these 596 (51.8%) and 317 (27.6%) were anaemic and stunted, respectively. BMF use was not significantly associated with childhood anaemia in univariate analysis. Independent risk factors for childhood anaemia were child's age, history of childhood diarrhoea and mother's anaemia status. No statistically significant association was observed between BMF use and childhood stunting, after adjusting for child's gender, age, birth weight and preceding birth interval. This study identified the need to prioritize childhood anaemia and stunting as health outcomes and the introduction of public health interventions in Swaziland. Further research is needed globally on the potential effects of BMF use on childhood anaemia and stunting.

  1. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.

  3. Incidence and levels of fumonisin contamination in Colombian corn and corn products.

    PubMed

    Perilla, N; Diaz, G

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the levels of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn and corn-based products available in Colombia for human and animal consumption. A total of 120 samples were analyzed by acetonitrile-water extraction, cleanup with a strong-anion-exchange column, and liquid chromatography with o-phthaldialdehyde-2-mercaptoethanol derivatization and fluorescence detection. The samples of corn and corn-based products for animal intake were taken at different feed manufacturing plants, whereas the samples used for human foods where purchased from local retail stores. The number of positive samples for fumonisin B1 was 20.0% higher in corn and corn-based products for animal intake (75.0%) than in corn and corn-based products for human consumption (55.0%). The levels of fumonisin B1 were also higher in corn and corn-based products for animal intake (mean = 694 μg/kg; range = 32-2964 μg/kg), than in corn and corn-based products for human intake (mean = 218 μg/kg; range = 24-2170 μg/ kg). The incidence and levels of fumonisin B2 were lower than those for fumonisin B1. Corn and corn-based products for animal consumption had an incidence of fumonisin B2 of 58.3%, with a mean value of 283 μg/kg, and a range of 44-987 μg/kg. The incidence of fumonisin B2 in corn-based products for human intake was 35.0%, with a mean value of 118 μg/kg and a range of 21-833 μg/kg. The highest incidence and levels of fumonisins were found in samples of hominy feed, with concentrations ranging from 86 to 2964 μg/kg fumonisin B1 and 57 to 987 μg/kg fumonisin B2.

  4. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  5. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  6. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted.

  7. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  8. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  9. Degradation of Corn Protein During Extrusion Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn protein (zein) is one of the main co-products of corn bio-ethanol production. Extrusion processing of zein continues to be the preferred route to provide improved articles having lower cost and improved properties. There is a lack of information regarding the conditions which can be employed t...

  10. Alcohol from corn: poor energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-10

    It is reported that most processing plants producing alcohol from corn currently operate with very unfavourable energy balances. The energy needed to grow and harvest corn plus petroleum or natural gas used in the processing phase often exceeds the energy that can be derived from the alcohol.

  11. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  12. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  13. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  14. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  15. Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wamani, Henry; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Peterson, Stefan; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    Background Many studies in sub-Saharan Africa have occasionally reported a higher prevalence of stunting in male children compared to female children. This study examined whether there are systematic sex differences in stunting rates in children under-five years of age, and how the sex differences in stunting rates vary with household socio-economic status. Methods Data from the most recent 16 demographic and health surveys (DHS) in 10 sub-Saharan countries were analysed. Two separate variables for household socio-economic status (SES) were created for each country based on asset ownership and mothers' education. Quintiles of SES were constructed using principal component analysis. Sex differentials with stunting were assessed using Student's t-test, chi square test and binary logistic regressions. Results The prevalence and the mean z-scores of stunting were consistently lower amongst females than amongst males in all studies, with differences statistically significant in 11 and 12, respectively, out of the 16 studies. The pooled estimates for mean z-scores were -1.59 for boys and -1.46 for girls with the difference statistically significant (p < 0.001). The stunting prevalence was also higher in boys (40%) than in girls (36%) in pooled data analysis; crude odds ratio 1.16 (95% CI 1.12–1.20); child age and individual survey adjusted odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 1.14–1.22). Male children in households of the poorest 40% were more likely to be stunted compared to females in the same group, but the pattern was not consistent in all studies, and evaluation of the SES/sex interaction term in relation to stunting was not significant for the surveys. Conclusion In sub-Saharan Africa, male children under five years of age are more likely to become stunted than females, which might suggest that boys are more vulnerable to health inequalities than their female counterparts in the same age groups. In several of the surveys, sex differences in stunting were more pronounced in

  16. Stunting in Infancy Is Associated with Decreased Risk of High Body Mass Index for Age at 8 and 12 Years of Age123

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D; Reynolds, Sarah A; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Penny, Mary E; Schott, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effects of early-life stunting on adiposity development later in childhood are not well understood, specifically with respect to age in the onset of overweight and obesity. Objectives: We analyzed associations of infant stunting with prevalence of, incidence of, and reversion from high body mass index–for-age z score (BMIZ) later in life. We then estimated whether associations of infant stunting with BMIZ varied by sex, indigenous status, and rural or urban residence. Methods: Data were collected from 1942 Peruvian children in the Young Lives cohort study at ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 y. Multivariable generalized linear models estimated associations of stunting (height-for-age z score <−2) at age 1 y with risk of BMIZ > 1 and BMIZ > 2 prevalence, incidence (moving above a BMIZ threshold between ages), and reversion (moving below a BMIZ threshold between ages) at later ages. Results: After adjustment for covariates, stunting at age 1 y was associated with a lower prevalence of BMIZ > 1 at age 8 y (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.00; P = 0.049) and 12 y (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.91; P = 0.004), as well as a lower prevalence of BMIZ > 2 at age 8 y. Stunting was not associated with incident risk of BMIZ > 1 or BMIZ > 2. Stunting was positively associated at age 5 y with risk of reversion from BMIZ > 1 (RR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.42; P = 0.008) and BMIZ > 2. We found evidence that the association of stunting with prevalent and incident BMIZ > 1 was stronger for urban children at ages 5 and 8 y, and for nonindigenous children at age 8 y. Conclusions: Stunting predicted a lower risk of prevalent BMIZ > 1 and BMIZ > 2, even after controlling for potential confounders. This finding may be driven in part by a higher risk of reversion from BMIZ > 1 by age 5 y. Our results contribute to an understanding of how nutritional stunting in infancy is associated with BMIZ later in life. PMID:27683868

  17. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  18. The New "Obstetrical Dilemma": Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2017-04-01

    The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries. This article explores how the double burden of malnutrition and the global obesity epidemic may be reshaping the obstetrical dilemma. First, short maternal stature increases the risk of obstructed labour, while early age at marriage also risks pregnancy before pelvic growth is completed. Second, maternal obesity increases the risk of macrosomic offspring. In some populations, short maternal stature may also promote the risk of gestational diabetes, another risk factor for macrosomic offspring. These nutritional influences are furthermore sensitive to social values relating to issues such as maternal and child nutrition, gender inequality and age at marriage. Secular trends in maternal obesity are substantially greater than those in adult stature, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The association between the dual burden of malnutrition and the obstetrical dilemma is therefore expected to increase, because the obesity epidemic is emerging faster than stunting is being resolved. However, we currently lack objective population-specific data on the association between maternal obesity and birth injuries. Anat Rec, 300:716-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relation of Ratio Indices of Anthropometric Measures to Obesity in a Stunted Population

    PubMed Central

    JUDD, SUZANNE E.; RAMIREZ-ZEA, MANUEL; STEIN, ARYEH D.

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of anthropometric measures are used to estimate obesity while controlling for allometric scaling. A good index should be uncorrelated with its denominator; this often requires exponentiation of the denominator. The stability of the derived exponents across populations is not known. We obtained subscapular (SUBS) and triceps (TRI) skinfolds, weight (WT), height (HT), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of Guatemalan adults [height 1.63 ± 0.06 m (868 males); 1.51 ± 0.06 m (1047 females)]. We derived exponents for the indices WT/HTP, SUBS/TRIP, TRI/SUBSP, WC/HTP, FM/WTP, and FM/FFMP such that the ratios were free from association with their denominators. The derived exponents were (Men: SUBS/TRI0.88, FM/WT2.69, FM/FFM2.86, WC/HT0.68, and WT/HT2.17; Women: SUBS/TRI0.93, FM/WT2.01, FM/FFM3.37, WC/HT0.47, WT/HT2.03). For all examined indices the derived exponents differed (P < 0.05) from 1 and differed (P < 0.05) between men and women. The exponents for the men also differed from those previously published for Brazilian men (JCK Wells and CG Victora [2005]: Int J Obes 29:483–489). The derived indices were not more strongly correlated with adiposity than were simple unexponentiated ratios. Although exponentiation of the denominator eliminates the association of index with its denominator, the resulting exponents lack generalizability across populations, especially those where stunting remains prevalent. PMID:18348171

  20. Use of fermented foods to combat stunting and failure to thrive.

    PubMed

    Saran, Shailee; Gopalan, Sarath; Krishna, T Prasanna

    2002-05-01

    With the adoption of vigorous child survival strategies, infant and child mortalities in India have declined significantly, even among the poorest, most undernourished segments of the population. Of the surviving infants and children, however, many remain stunted and undernourished. The present study was based on the hypothesis that failure to thrive is the result of damage to the gut epithelium incurred during repeated bouts of gastrointestinal infections. Promoting the regeneration of the damaged gut epithelium through the use of lactobacillus-rich fermented foods may yield beneficial results. This low-cost procedure can be widely used, even in poor communities. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect in poor Indian communities of supplementation with a probiotic on the growth of children (aged 2 to 5 years) with growth retardation and assess the difference in morbidity between those receiving the supplement (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50), mainly with respect to the frequency, severity, and duration of diarrheal episodes. One hundred children aged 2 to 5 y from an urban slum of New Delhi were matched for their age (+/-36 d), sex and weight (+/-1 kg) and assigned to one of two groups (experimental n= 50 and control n= 50). The experimental group received a probiotic supplement (50 ml curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus) and the control group received an isocaloric supplement daily for 6 mo. Weight, height, and morbidity profile with respect to diarrhea, fever, cough, and cold was recorded. Increases in weight (P < 0.002) and height (P < 0.001) were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. In addition, after 6 mo, of supplementation, there were fewer cases of diarrhea (P < 0.005) and fever (P < 0.001) in the intervention group then in the control group. From this study, it can be concluded that 6 mo of probiotic supplementation may be beneficial with respect to decrease in diarrheal morbidity and

  1. REG1B as a predictor of childhood stunting in Bangladesh and Peru123

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kristine M; Buss, Janice; Easley, Rebecca; Yang, Zhengyu; Korpe, Poonum S; Niu, Feiyang; Ma, Jennie Z; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Haque, Rashidul; Kosek, Margaret N; Petri, William A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition remains a significant problem worldwide, with environmental enteropathy implicated as a contributing factor. An understanding of the pathogenesis and identification of children at risk are critical to the design of more-effective interventions. Objective: The stool regenerating gene 1β (REG1B) protein, which is a putative measure of intestinal injury and repair, was tested as a noninvasive biomarker of future childhood stunting. Design: A total of 222 children from Bangladesh and 97 children from Peru, who were from impoverished communities, were followed from birth through 24 mo of age with anthropometric measures obtained every 3 mo. Stool REG1B protein concentrations were obtained by using an REG1B polyclonal-polyclonal ELISA at 3 mo of age. We tested for the ability of REG1B to forecast future anthropometric shortfalls, independent of known predictors of undernutrition of family income and baseline height and weight. Results: In the Bangladesh cohort of 222 children, higher REG1B concentrations at month 3 were significantly and independently associated with a growth shortfall in a linear regression analysis at months 9, 12, 18, 21, and 24 and, in the Peru cohort, at months 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24. With the use of a mixed model for repeated measurements, higher stool REG1B concentrations at 3 mo were also independently predictive of a lower future length-for-age z score through 24 mo of age (Bangladesh P = 0.006; Peru P = 0.058). Conclusion: The ability of fecal REG1B to predict growth shortfall in independent cohorts of impoverished children from the developing world offers promise as a malnutrition biomarker and supports a role for environmental enteropathy in the pathogenesis of growth shortfall. PMID:23553156

  2. Persistence of growth stunting in a Peruvian high altitude community, 1964-1999.

    PubMed

    Pawson, Ivan G; Huicho, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The growth of children living in Nuñoa, a Peruvian high-altitude community, was studied over a 35-year period using data collected in 1964 and 1999. There had been evidence of a secular trend in growth in the mid-1980s, but this was before a period of sociopolitical upheaval lasting until the late 1990s partly linked to the activities of the Shining Path group and the Peruvian government's response. Anthropometric data for 576 children examined in 1964-1966 were compared with data from 361 children examined in 1999. Data were converted to Z Scores using NCHS/WHO reference standards. Compared with the 1964 cohort, boys in 1999 had marginally greater height Z Scores, but among females, the trend was reversed. Stunting prevalence had decreased from 1964 levels, but still approached 60% in both sexes, among the highest rates recorded for a modern world population. The prevalence of low weight for height was less than expected, possibly because of the compensatory effect of enlarged chest diameter. This anatomical feature may represent the effect of chronic hypoxic stress, causing growth of the chest cavity at the expense of growth in height. In view of modest improvements during the late 1980s in this population, we believe that the relatively poor growth status of children a decade later may result from food disruption associated with later political instability. Compared with children in a nearby community, which benefits from the socioeconomic infrastructure associated with a large copper mine, Nuñoa children continue to fare relatively poorly.

  3. Inadequate dietary intake is not the cause of stunting amongst young children living in an informal settlement in Gauteng and rural Limpopo Province in South Africa: the NutriGro study.

    PubMed

    Theron, M; Amissah, A; Kleynhans, I C; Albertse, E; MacIntyre, U E

    2007-04-01

    To measure dietary intakes of young children aged 12-24 months and to determine the impact of poor diets on stunting. A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was adapted, tested and standardised. Trained enumerators conducted in-depth interviews with the mothers/caregivers of the children. Forty stunted children in urban informal settlements and 30 stunted children in rural areas were selected and pair-matched with controls. The data were captured on the Food Finder Program of the Medical Research Council. In both urban and rural areas, the diet of stunted and non-stunted groups did differ significantly and all diets were of poor nutritional quality. Diets in both areas resembled the recommended prudent diet, i.e. low in fat and high in carbohydrates. Poor quality diets were not the primary cause of stunting.

  4. Stunting among children under 3 years of age in Côte d'Ivoire: spatial and temporal variations between 1994 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Barankanira, Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Msellati, Philippe; Laurent, Christian; Bork, Kirsten A

    2017-06-01

    To investigate spatial heterogeneity of stunting prevalence among children in Côte d'Ivoire and examine changes in stunting between 1994 and 2011, to assess the impact of the 2002-2011 civil war that led to temporary partitioning of the country. Data from 1994, 1998 and 2011 Côte d'Ivoire Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were analysed using a geostatistical approach taking into account spatial autocorrelation. Stunting data were interpolated using ordinary kriging; spatial clusters with high and low stunting prevalence were identified using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was then carried out, with year of survey as the main independent variable and an interaction term for time by geographic zone (Abidjan, South, North). Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Children aged 0-35 months included in three DHS (n 6709). Overall stunting prevalence was 30·7, 28·7 and 27·8 % in 1994, 1998 and 2011, respectively (P=0·32). Clusters with high prevalence were found in 1994 (in the West region, P<0·001) and 1998 (in the West and North-West regions, P<0·01 and P=0·01, respectively), but not in 2011. Abidjan was included in a cluster with low prevalence in all surveys (P<0·05). Risk of stunting did not change between 1994 and 2011 at national level (adjusted OR; 95 % CI: 1·39; 0·72, 2·64), but decreased in the South (0·74; 0·58, 0·94) and increased from 1998 to 2011 in Abidjan (1·96; 1·06, 3·64). In Côte d'Ivoire, significant changes in stunting prevalence were observed at the sub-national level between 1994 and 2011.

  5. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  8. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  9. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  10. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  11. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  12. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  14. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  15. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  16. 34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn cracking machine, by Sprout, Waldron and Co., (Muncy, PA), which cut and diced corn to a uniform size, then separated it into three grades of cracked corn and corn meal and removed chaff. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  18. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  19. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  20. Stunted growth, increased mortality, and liver tumors in offspring of polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) dosed sherman rats.

    PubMed

    Groce, D F; Kimbrough, R D

    1984-01-01

    Firemaster FF-1, a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture, was dissolved in corn oil and given as a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to Sherman rats on d 7 and 14 of pregnancy. Control rats received equivalent doses of corn oil alone. Selected pups and all dams were killed 1 mo after pups were weaned. A total of 50 male and 50 female offspring per group were followed until they were 2 yr old. The livers of offspring killed at the ages of 2 mo and 2 yr had PBB levels of 2,4 (SD 1.2) and 0.8 (SD 0.65) mg/kg for females and 3.0 (SD 1.6) and 0.6 (SD 0.37) mg/kg for males, respectively. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas was 3/51 (5.9%) and 4/41 (9.6%) after 2 yr in females and males, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinomas were not observed among the controls. Neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules of the liver were present in 9/51 (17.6%) and 2/41 (4.9%) of exposed females and males, respectively, whereas only 2/48 (4.2%) of control females and no control males had neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules. Body weights were lower in PBB-exposed rats at ages 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo. Survival rates from birth to weaning were lower in PBB-exposed pups (89%) than in controls (98%). Mortality was two times higher in PBB-exposed males (64%) than in control males (32%) after 2 yr. Transplacental PBB exposure and exposure through milk resulted in PBB body burdens in the offspring still measurable at the end of their lifespan. These offspring had increased mortality rates and lower body weights than controls, and they developed hepatocellular carcinomas.

  1. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    PubMed

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged <6 years. The concentration index for socio-economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  2. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p < 0.001). Compared to non-anemic children, anemic children had lower score for the verbal reasoning test (9.5 ± 1.7 vs 8.9 ± 2.2; p = 0.02). However, except for hemoglobin, none of the iron biomarkers had significant associations with the cognitive score of the study children (p > 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p < 0.05). The present study finding linking chronic undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency to cognitive deficits suggests the need for designing effective intervention programmes to control for protein energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  3. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    PubMed

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, p<0.05). Improved conditions of sanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ

  4. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, p<0.05). Conclusions Improved conditions of sanitation and hygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future

  5. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    PubMed

    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with stunting and overweight in Amazonian children: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cobayashi, Fernanda; Augusto, Rosângela Aparecida; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2014-03-01

    To examine the prevalence of stunting and overweight in children and identify demographic, socio-economic and maternal characteristics, as well as biochemical indicators, associated with these outcomes. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed. Data from structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood and stool samples were used in Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) according to a hierarchical conceptual framework. Acrelândia, western Brazilian Amazon. Children (n 1139) aged <10 years. Prevalence of stunting was 7·1 % (95 % CI 5·1, 9·6 %) and 3·7 % (95 % CI 2·4, 5·7 %) among children aged <5 years and ≥5 years, respectively; overweight was detected in 20·6 % (95 % CI 17·4, 24·2 %) and 9·4 % (95 % CI 7·2, 12·1 %) of children aged <5 years and ≥5 years, respectively. Among children <5 years of age, stunting was positively associated with the lowest maternal height tertile (PR = 3·09, 95 % CI 1·26, 7·63), low birth weight (PR = 2·70, 95 % CI 1·41, 5·19), diarrhoea for ≥3d (PR = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·03, 4·77) and geohelminth infections (PR = 2·53, 95 % CI 1·02, 6·13). Overweight in children <5 years of age was positively associated with caesarean delivery (PR = 1·45, 95 % CI 1·02, 2·06), birth weight ≥3500 g (PR = 1·82, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·55) and Fe deficiency (PR = 1·64, 95 % CI 1·07, 2·53). Among children aged ≥5 years, land or livestock ownership (PR = 1·85, 95 % CI 1·07, 3·22), maternal overweight (PR = 2·06, 95 % CI 1·23, 3·47), high C-reactive protein concentration (PR = 2·43, 95 % CI 1·26, 4·70), vitamin A deficiency (PR = 1·97, 95 % CI 1·13, 3·41) and high serum TAG concentration (PR = 2·16, 95 % CI 1·27, 3·68) were associated with overweight. Overweight was more prevalent than stunting, being associated with higher household wealth, maternal overweight, caesarean delivery, high birth weight, micronutrient deficiencies and high TAG concentration

  7. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  8. Perspective: The Potential Role of Essential Amino Acids and the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Child Stunting123

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D; Trehan, Indi; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Kraemer, Klaus; Moaddel, Ruin; Ordiz, M Isabel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missing. A dietary pattern of poor-quality protein is associated with stunting. Stunted children have significantly lower circulating essential amino acids than do nonstunted children. Inadequate dietary intakes of essential amino acids could adversely affect growth, because amino acids are required for synthesis of proteins. The master growth regulation pathway, the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, is exquisitely sensitive to amino acid availability. mTORC1 integrates cues such as nutrients, growth factors, oxygen, and energy to regulate growth of bone, skeletal muscle, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic cells, immune effector cells, organ size, and whole-body energy balance. mTORC1 represses protein and lipid synthesis and cell and organismal growth when amino acids are deficient. Over the past 4 decades, the main paradigm for child nutrition in developing countries has been micronutrient malnutrition, with relatively less attention paid to protein. In this Perspective, we present the view that essential amino acids and the mTORC1 pathway play a key role in child growth. The current assumption that total dietary protein intake is adequate for growth among most children in developing countries needs re-evaluation. PMID:27633102

  9. Risk factors for stunting and wasting at age six, twelve and twenty-four months for squatter children of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fikree, F F; Rahbar, M H; Berendes, H W

    2000-10-01

    A high proportion of stunting and wasting in children under-five has been reported from developing countries. This paper presents the nutritional status of a two year cohort of urban squatter children in Karachi, Pakistan and assesses risk factors for wasting and stunting at the reference ages of six, twelve and twenty-four months. A birth cohort of 738 children were visited at specific intervals by trained nurses to collect information on anthropometric measurements, feeding practices and intercurrent illnesses. Socioeconomic and demographic information included water and sanitation facilities, availability of electricity, type of house construction material and average monthly income. Information about the mother's reproductive history was also obtained. At two years the proportion of stunting and wasting was 41.8% and 10.6% respectively. Intrauterine growth retarded children had a higher risk of stunting and wasting at all reference ages as compared to children who were appropriate for gestational age. In the logistic regression models, intrauterine growth retardation was the only significant risk factor that remained in all models at each reference age. The consistent association of IUGR for stunting and wasting adds to the growing body of evidence that by improving maternal health we will ultimately break the vicious cycle of malnourishment and improve the health and well-being of future generations. We suggest interventions to improve the nutritional status of Pakistani urban children living in squatter settlements focused on mothers and children.

  10. How useful is BMI in predicting adiposity indicators in a sample of Maya children and women with high levels of stunting?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Griffiths, Paula L; Azcorra, Hugo; Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2011-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used frequently to estimate adiposity levels in children and adults. However, the applicability of BMI to populations with high levels of stunting has been questioned. Stunted people can have disproportionately short legs, which may increase BMI without increasing body fat because of the relatively larger trunk compared with the legs. A sample of 57 urban Maya schoolchildren, aged 7-9 years (31 boys), and 53 adult women underwent anthropometric assessments and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine whether the ability of BMI to predict adiposity indicators is altered by stunting and sitting height ratio (SHR). The adiposity indicators were waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, upper arm muscle area, upper arm fat area, and arm fat index. BMI was the strongest predictor of all adiposity indicators and in most cases, explained more of the variance in adiposity of Maya children than Maya women. Abdominal adiposity was better predicted by BMI than peripheral adiposity in Maya women and Maya children. Stunting was significant in predicting adiposity in some models but never substantially changed the variance explained. SHR was never a significant predictor. The relationship between BMI and adiposity indicators is not changed by stunting status or body proportions in this short population of urban Maya children and women. BMI can be used as an indicator of adiposity for these children but not the women. It is recommended that BMI is used in conjunction with other estimates of body composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  12. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  13. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  14. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  16. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  18. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open,...

  19. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open,...

  20. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  1. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  2. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  3. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  4. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; P<0.0001). Only few indicators of low socio-economic status were found to be associated with infection. In rural but not urban schoolchildren, infection prevalence declined significantly with age. G. duodenalis infection more than doubled the odds of stunting in both rural (adjusted OR, 2.35 (95%CI, 1.25-4.41)) and urban children (adjusted OR, 2.27 (95%CI, 1.01-5.09)). In the study area of rural southern Rwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren.

  5. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  6. A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Gado, Justin; Close, Kelly; Wallace, Dennis; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a cereal made from caterpillars, a micronutrient-rich, locally available alternative animal-source food, on reducing stunting and anaemia in infants in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Six-month-old infants were cluster randomized to receive either caterpillar cereal daily until 18 months of age or the usual diet. At 18 months of age, anthropometric measurements and biological samples were collected. The rural Equateur Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. One hundred and seventy-five infants followed from 6 to 18 months of age. Stunting was common at 6 months (35%) and the prevalence increased until 18 months (69%). There was no difference in stunting prevalence at 18 months between the intervention and control groups (67% v. 71%, P = 0.69). Infants in the cereal group had higher Hb concentration than infants in the control group (10.7 v. 10.1 g/dl, P = 0.03) and fewer were anaemic (26 v. 50%, P = 0.006), although there was no difference in estimates of body Fe stores (6.7 v. 7.2 mg/kg body weight, P = 0.44). Supplementation of complementary foods with caterpillar cereal did not reduce the prevalence of stunting at 18 months of age. However, infants who consumed caterpillar cereal had higher Hb concentration and fewer were anaemic, suggesting that caterpillar cereal might have some beneficial effect. The high prevalence of stunting at 6 months and the lack of response to this micronutrient-rich supplement suggest that factors other than dietary deficiencies also contribute to stunting.

  7. South Africa's nutritional transition: overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in female primary school learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M

    2013-06-27

    Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of stunting in under-five children in central Tanzania: remaining threats to achieving Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Semali, Innocent Antony; Tengia-Kessy, Anna; Mmbaga, Elia John; Leyna, Germana

    2015-11-21

    The Millennium Development Goal No 4 (MDG 4) requires countries to scale up interventions addressing malnutrition and other immediate determinants of burden of disease among children to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, which is this year. Whereas globally some achievements have been registered, under-nourishment remains a significant problem in some developing countries such as Tanzania. This study set out to estimate the extent of stunting and its associated determinants to assess the progress made thus far towards achieving MDG 4 in Tanzania. A random sample of 678 households with under-five children was selected from two randomly selected wards of Kongwa district in Dodoma region, Tanzania. The WHO anthropometric calculator, which computes Z-scores using a reference population, was used to process the anthropometric measurement data taken from all the participants. Children with height for age Z-score of less than 2 were categorised as stunted and coded as 1 and the rest were coded as 0. Proportions of stunting were compared using the chi-square test to determine the association between stunting and the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) of the independent determinants of stunting. The cut-off for significant association was set at p = 0.05. All these analyses used the STATA 12 software. About half (49.7 %) of the children were stunted. This stunting was associated with belonging to households where the head of family was young (<35 years) (AOR = 0.67, 95 % CI 0.47-0.96, p = 0.031), young age of the mothers (AOR = 1.54, 95 % CI 1.06-2.24, p = 0.023), and economic variables such as owning a cellular phone (AOR = 0.66, 96 % CI 0.46-0.94, p = 0.023). Stunting was highly prevalent in Kongwa district despite general improvements in child nutritional status at the national level. Household characteristics and economic status were found to

  9. Factors associated with stunting among children according to the level of food insecurity in the household: a cross-sectional study in a rural community of Southeastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shinsugi, Chisa; Matsumura, Masaki; Karama, Mohamed; Tanaka, Junichi; Changoma, Mwatasa; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2015-04-30

    Chronic malnutrition or stunting among children under 5 years old is affected by several household environmental factors, such as food insecurity, disease burden, and poverty. However, not all children experience stunting even in food insecure conditions. To seek a solution at the local level for preventing stunting, a cross-sectional study was conducted in southeastern Kenya, an area with a high level of food insecurity. The study was based on a cohort organized to monitor the anthropometric status of children. A structured questionnaire collected information on the following: demographic characteristics, household food security based on the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), household socioeconomic status (SES), and child health status. The associations between stunting and potential predictors were examined by bivariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, analyses stratified by level of food security were conducted to specify factors associated with child stunting in different food insecure groups. Among 404 children, the prevalence of stunting was 23.3%. The percentage of households with severe food insecurity was 62.5%. In multivariative analysis, there was no statistically significant association with child stunting. However, further analyses conducted separately according to level of food security showed the following significant associations: in the severely food insecure households, feeding tea/porridge with milk (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 3.22; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 1.43-7.25); age 2 to 3 years compared with 0 to 5 months old (aOR: 4.04; 95% CI: 1.01-16.14); in households without severe food insecurity, animal rearing (aOR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.04-10.07); SES with lowest status as reference (aOR range: from 0.13 to 0.22). The number of siblings younger than school age was not significantly associated, but was marginally associated in the latter household group (aOR: 2.81; 95% CI: 0.92-8.58). Our

  10. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  11. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia. Setting Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6–59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1×1 km spatial resolution. Participants 73 778 children aged 6–59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Results Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18–5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26–4.32). Conclusions The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central

  12. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  13. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants as influenced by corn residue management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership corn stover project, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) field studies incorporating stover removal management practices (0 and 100% removal) were established in both Alabama and South Carolina. Plots in both states were representative of major soil types in t...

  14. Resistance Management Monitoring for the US Corn Crop to the Illinois Corn Growers Association

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  15. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1 expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 20...

  16. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  17. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured...

  18. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  19. Open-Pollinated Corn Varietal Hybrids: Diverse Germplasm for Corn Improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is some renewed interest in open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and open-pollinated varietal hybrids (OPVhs) of corn, especially among organic and low-input farmers, due to their stable yield and broad adaptation as compared with hybrid corn. In addition, open-pollinated varietal hybrids may have...

  20. AgRISTARS: Supporting research. Classification of corn: Badhwar profile similarity technique. [us corn belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The same software programs used to classify spring wheat are applied to the classification of corn in 26 segments in the corn belt. Numerical results of the acreage estimation are given. Potential problem areas defined in an earlier application are examined.