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Sample records for corn stunt spiroplasmas

  1. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii strain CR2-3x, causal agent of corn stunt disease in Zea mays L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma kunkelii is the cause of corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in South America, Central America, Mexico, and the southern United States. This spiroplasma is closely related to the plant pathogens S. citri and S. phoenicium and to the honey bee pathogen S. melliferum. Here, we report the n...

  2. A plasmid from S. citri strain M14 hybridizes with extrachromosomal DNAs from other spiroplasmas, including corn stunt spiroplasma E275, tick spiroplasma 277F, and coco spiroplasma N525.

    PubMed Central

    Mouches, C.; Bové, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A plasmid, pM41, has been isolated from the Spiroplasma citri strain M4 (group I-1) and characterized by restriction mapping. Using a 32P-labeled probe specific of the plasmid, we have shown by DNA-DNA hybridization that a plasmid identical to pM41 or a closely related plasmid, is present in several, but not all, S. citri strains. DNA sequences that hybridize to pM41 were also identified in three other spiroplasmas not belonging to the S. citri species. Protein patterns of several S. citri strains have been compared in order to investigate the effect of pM41 on the spiroplasma protein profiles or maps. In fact, the presence of pM41 does not appear to modify the protein pattern. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6679153

  3. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.

  4. Cultivation and partial characterization of spiroplasmas in cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, T; McGarrity, G J; Phillips, D M

    1982-01-01

    Spiroplasmas were propagated in the Drosophila melanogaster cell line Dm-1. Spiroplasma citri and unidentified strains (corn shunt organism, 277F [tick isolate], powder puff, BNR-1, honey bee, and OBMG) grew to 10(8) to 10(9) colony-forming units per ml and could be passaged. Cytopathic effect (CPE) varied with the infecting spiroplasma. The honey bee isolate killed Dm-1 within 2 to 4 days and produced CPE in four mammalian cells tested. At 25 degrees C, suckling mouse cataract agent produced no CPE in Dm-1 cells. Dm-1 cells did not support growth of the spiroplasmal sex ratio organism. Spiroplasmas could be detected in the cell cultures by agar inoculation, dark-field microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and DNA fluorescent staining. The uridine phosphorylase test showed significant levels of conversion of [14C]uridine to [14C]uracil for all but some plant isolates: S. citri, corn shunt organism, lettuce, cactus, and powder puff strains, the first mycoplasmas to lack the enzyme. Primary isolations of corn shunt organism from infected corn plants were made in Dm-1 and I-XII cultures. The course of corn stunt organism infection of Dm-1 was monitored for three passages. The use of agarose and Dienes staining of the colonies improved growth and colony counting of corn stunt organism. The number of viable infected DM-1 cells decreased from 1.2 x 10(7) at passage 1 to 7.0 x 10(6) at passage 2 and 3 x 10(5) at passage 3. Images PMID:6797950

  5. Molecular detection of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum in bees.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Ivan; Vercruysse, Vicky; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum are known as honey bee pathogens and are detected by unspecific methodologies like culturing or dark field microscopy. We developed a multiplex PCR being able to differentiate between both species and detect the genus Spiroplasma. This PCR can directly be used on culture samples or on DNA extracted bees. By PCR on cultured samples we were able to identify S. apis in Bombus pratorum and S. melliferum in Bombus pascuorum.

  6. Nutritional stunting.

    PubMed

    Hizli, Samil; Abaci, Ayhan; Büyükgebiz, Benal; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2007-03-01

    Nutritional stunting is a common problem of the pediatric population especially in developing countries. Although it is a resolvable problem, it continues to be an important health issue. Stunting can be diagnosed when a child's height falls more than two standard deviations below the mean height for age. Stunting may be caused by genetic, hormonal, pharmaceutical, psychosocial and nutritional factors. Before doing extensive laboratory tests, nutritional factors must be searched for at the time of diagnosis. If the etiology is nutritional deficiency, meticulous dietary regulation must be done. The results of treatment must be assessed for guiding the nutritional rehabilitation during follow up. Here we review the interaction of wasting and nutritional stunting; the prevalence of nutritional stunting; diet components and growth; the pathophysiology of stunting; periods of accelerated growth; the diagnosis and clinical assessment of nutritional stunting; the anthropometric and laboratory nutritional indices that can be used at the time of diagnosis and for follow-up purposes during rehabilitation and also the management of nutritional stunting.

  7. First Human Systemic Infection Caused by Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Aquilino, Ana; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J.; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. PMID:25428150

  8. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  9. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. TU-14

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Haryono, Mindia; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. TU-14 was isolated from a contaminated sample of Entomoplasma lucivorax PIPN-2T obtained from the International Organization for Mycoplasmology collection. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:28082500

  11. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-04-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism.

  12. Spiralin diversity within Iranian strains of Spiroplasma citri.

    PubMed

    Khanchezar, Amin; Béven, Laure; Izadpanah, Keramat; Salehi, Mohammad; Saillard, Colette

    2014-01-01

    The first-cultured and most-studied spiroplasma is Spiroplasma citri, the causal agent of citrus stubborn disease, one of the three plant-pathogenic, sieve-tube-restricted, and leafhopper vector-transmitted mollicutes. In Iranian Fars province, S. citri cultures were obtained from stubborn affected citrus trees, sesame and safflower plants, and from the leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. Spiralin gene sequences from different S. citri isolates were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic trees based on spiralin gene sequence showed diversity and indicated the presence of three clusters among the S. citri strains. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of eleven spiralins from Iranian strains and those from the reference S. citri strain GII-3 (241 aa), Palmyre strain (242 aa), Spiroplasma kunkelii (240 aa), and Spiroplasma phoeniceum (237 aa) confirmed the conservation of general features of the protein. However, the spiralin of an S. citri isolate named Shiraz I comprised 346 amino acids and showed a large duplication of the region comprised between two short repeats previously identified in S. citri spiralins. We report in this paper the spiralin diversity in Spiroplasma strains from southern Iran and for the first time a partial internal duplication of the spiralin gene.

  13. Viruses of Spiroplasma citri and their possible effects on pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, R.

    1983-01-01

    Strains of Spiroplasma citri are persistently infected by viruses which have been separated into three groups on the basis of their morphology. The properties of each group are reviewed. Viruses normally only appear in spiroplasma cultures but recently all three types of particle have been identified in cells of a single strain of S. citri within an infected plant. Replication of a short-tailed polyhedral virus SP-V3 (ai) appears to be correlated with unusually mild symptom expression. Introduction of the virus with its host into plants already infected with a severe and potentially lethal strain of S. citri results in a marked suppression of symptoms and a reduction in the number of spiroplasmas. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:6382829

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390

    PubMed Central

    Haryono, Mindia; Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma sp. NBRC 100390 was initially described as a duplicate of S. atrichopogonis GNAT3597T (=ATCC BAA-520T) but later found to be different in the 16S rDNA sequences. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to establish its identity and to facilitate future investigation. PMID:28280009

  15. A new spiroplasma isolate from the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Su, Ping-Yi; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chiang, Ching-Hao; Kim, Jae Su; Chen, Yue-Wen; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

    2014-07-01

    We briefly described the morphology and transmission pathway of a Spiroplasma sp. isolated from the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus in Taiwan, followed by the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The cricket spiroplasma infected the hemolymph, gut, muscle tissues and tracheal cells; therefore we suggest that the pathogen invaded tissues and organs from the hemolymph through the tracheal system and the endoplasmic reticular system. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the phylogeny, this spiroplasma was most closely related to Spiroplasma platyhelix (Identity=95%) isolated from the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis and belongs to the Ixodetis clade.

  16. Spiroplasma swim by a processive change in body helicity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaevitz, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    Microscopic organisms must rely on very different strategies than their macroscopic counterparts to swim through liquid. To date, the best understood method for prokaryotic swimming employs the rotation of flagella. I will present data that Spiroplasma, tiny helical bacteria that infect plants and insects, use a very different approach. By measuring cell kinematics during free swimming, we find that propulsion is generated by the propagation of kink pairs down the length of the cell body. A processive change in the helicity of the body creates these waves and enables directional movement. Unlike the motion of other helical swimmers such as Spirochetes, Spiroplasma swimming velocity increases with increasing viscosity. In addition, cell morphological parameters such as helical pitch and cell length influence swimming velocity.

  17. The isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in Macon County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A A; Johnson, W E; Stevens, C; Tang, A Y

    1987-06-01

    During the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in Macon County, Alabama. Mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with CO2-baited light traps. Spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 Aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 Anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 Culex nigripalpus. Electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum, a parasite of horse fly, Haematopota sp. (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma turonicum was isolated from a Haematopota sp. fly in France. We report the nucleotide sequence of the circular chromosome of strain Tab4cT. The genome information will facilitate evolutionary studies of spiroplasmas, including symbionts of insects and ticks, and pathogens of plants, cr...

  19. Rapid spread of the defensive endosymbiont Spiroplasma in Drosophila hydei under high parasitoid wasp pressure.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialei; Winter, Caitlyn; Winter, Lauryn; Mateos, Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Maternally transmitted endosymbionts of insects are ubiquitous in nature and play diverse roles in the ecology and evolution of their hosts. To persist in host lineages, many symbionts manipulate host reproduction to their advantage (e.g. cytoplasmic incompatibility and male-killing), or confer fitness benefits to their hosts (e.g. metabolic provisioning and defense against natural enemies). Recent studies suggest that strains of the bacterial genus Spiroplasma protect their host (flies in the genus Drosophila) against parasitoid attack. The Spiroplasma-conferred protection is partial and flies surviving a wasp attack have reduced adult longevity and fecundity. Therefore, it is unclear whether protection against wasps alone can counter Spiroplasma loss by imperfect maternal transmission and any possible fitness costs to harboring Spiroplasma. To address this question, we conducted a population cage study comparing Spiroplasma frequencies over time (host generations) under conditions of high wasp pressure and no wasp pressure. A dramatic increase of Spiroplasma prevalence was observed under high wasp pressure. In contrast, Spiroplasma prevalence in the absence of wasps did not change significantly over time; a pattern consistent with random drift. Thus, the defensive mechanism may contribute to the high prevalence of Spiroplasma in host populations despite imperfect vertical transmission.

  20. Spiroplasma taxonomy and identification of the sex ratio organisms: can they be cultivated?

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D. L.; Steiner, T.; McGarrity, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The spiroplasmas that occur naturally in several species of Drosophila were the first spiroplasmas ever observed, even though their discoverers, D.F. Poulson and B. Sakaguchi, in 1961 described them as being "treponema-like spirochetes." These Drosophila spiroplasmas are transovarially, or maternally, transmitted by infected females whose progenies are composed entirely of females. A more recently discovered Drosophila spiroplasma found in flies originating in Ito, Japan, is also maternally inherited but does not result in the elimination of males from the progeny of infected females. In spite of their early discovery, their high numerical density in the hemolymph of infected females (10(6)-10(7)/microliters), and numerous attempts at in vitro cultivation, they remain prime examples of non-cultivable spiroplasmas. It is the purpose of this paper to recount some of the approaches used in attempts at their cultivation. PMID:6382824

  1. Childhood stunting: a global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Childhood stunting is the best overall indicator of children's well‐being and an accurate reflection of social inequalities. Stunting is the most prevalent form of child malnutrition with an estimated 161 million children worldwide in 2013 falling below −2 SD from the length‐for‐age/height‐for‐age World Health Organization Child Growth Standards median. Many more millions suffer from some degree of growth faltering as the entire length‐for‐age/height‐for‐age z‐score distribution is shifted to the left indicating that all children, and not only those falling below a specific cutoff, are affected. Despite global consensus on how to define and measure it, stunting often goes unrecognized in communities where short stature is the norm as linear growth is not routinely assessed in primary health care settings and it is difficult to visually recognize it. Growth faltering often begins in utero and continues for at least the first 2 years of post‐natal life. Linear growth failure serves as a marker of multiple pathological disorders associated with increased morbidity and mortality, loss of physical growth potential, reduced neurodevelopmental and cognitive function and an elevated risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The severe irreversible physical and neurocognitive damage that accompanies stunted growth poses a major threat to human development. Increased awareness of stunting's magnitude and devastating consequences has resulted in its being identified as a major global health priority and the focus of international attention at the highest levels with global targets set for 2025 and beyond. The challenge is to prevent linear growth failure while keeping child overweight and obesity at bay. PMID:27187907

  2. Spiroplasma Bacteria Enhance Survival of Drosophila hydei Attacked by the Parasitic Wasp Leptopilina heterotoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialei; Vilchez, Igor; Mateos, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally-transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are ubiquitous. While many of these associations are obligate and mutually beneficial, many are facultative, and the mechanism(s) by which these microbes persist in their host lineages remain elusive. Inherited microbes with imperfect transmission are expected to be lost from their host lineages if no other mechanisms increase their persistence (i.e., host reproductive manipulation and/or fitness benefits to host). Indeed numerous facultative heritable endosymbionts are reproductive manipulators. Nevertheless, many do not manipulate reproduction, so they are expected to confer fitness benefits to their hosts, as has been shown in several studies that report defense against natural enemies, tolerance to environmental stress, and increased fecundity. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined whether larval to adult survival of Drosophila hydei against attack by a common parasitoid wasp (Leptopilina heterotoma), differed between uninfected flies and flies that were artificially infected with Spiroplasma, a heritable endosymbiont of Drosophila hydei that does not appear to manipulate host reproduction. Survival was significantly greater for Spiroplasma-infected flies, and the effect of Spiroplasma infection was most evident during the host's pupal stage. We examined whether or not increased survival of Spiroplasma-infected flies was due to reduced oviposition by the wasp (i.e., pre-oviposition mechanism). The number of wasp eggs per fly larva did not differ significantly between Spiroplasma-free and Spiroplasma-infected fly larvae, suggesting that differential fly survival is due to a post-oviposition mechanism. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that Spiroplasma confers protection to D. hydei against wasp parasitism. This is to our knowledge the first report of a potential defensive mutualism in the genus Spiroplasma. Whether it explains the persistence and high

  3. Evaluation of [3H]thymidine uptake method for studying growth of spiroplasmas under various conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, F O; Baliga, B S; Pollock, H M

    1988-01-01

    [3H]thymidine uptake and colony counts are quantitative and inexpensive methods for studying Spiroplasma growth. Using these techniques, we demonstrated subtle effects on the growth of suckling mouse cataract agent of medium alterations, inoculum size, and freezing of cultures. In addition, suckling mouse cataract agent multiplied more actively under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. These techniques have wide application for the study of Spiroplasma growth and will be useful for the development of a defined medium. PMID:3182999

  4. The stunting syndrome in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a ‘stunting syndrome’ in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  5. Cell Division by Longitudinal Scission in the Insect Endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii

    PubMed Central

    Maclachlan, Catherine; Clerc-Rosset, Stéphanie; Knott, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasma bacteria are highly motile bacteria with no cell wall and a helical morphology. This clade includes many vertically transmitted insect endosymbionts, including Spiroplasma poulsonii, a natural endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. S. poulsonii bacteria are mainly found in the hemolymph of infected female flies and exhibit efficient vertical transmission from mother to offspring. As is the case for many facultative endosymbionts, S. poulsonii can manipulate the reproduction of its host; in particular, S. poulsonii induces male killing in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we analyze the morphology of S. poulsonii obtained from the hemolymph of infected Drosophila. This endosymbiont was not only found as long helical filaments, as previously described, but was also found in a Y-shaped form. The use of electron microscopy, immunogold staining of the FtsZ protein, and antibiotic treatment unambiguously linked the Y shape of S. poulsonii to cell division. Observation of the Y shape in another Spiroplasma, S. citri, and anecdotic observations from the literature suggest that cell division by longitudinal scission might be prevalent in the Spiroplasma clade. Our study is the first to report the Y-shape mode of cell division in an endosymbiotic bacterium and adds Spiroplasma to the so far limited group of bacteria known to utilize this cell division mode. PMID:27460796

  6. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.

  7. Detection of Spiroplasma melliferum in honey bee colonies in the US.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-06-01

    Spiroplasma infections in honey bees have been reported in Europe and Asia quite recently, due to intensive studies on the epidemiology of honey bee diseases. The situation in the US is less well analyzed. Here, we examined the honey bee colonies in Beltsville, MD, where Spiroplasmamelliferum was originally reported and found S. melliferum infection in honey bees. Our data showed high variation of S. melliferum infection in honey bees with a peak prevalence in May during the course of one-year study period. The colony prevalence increased from 5% in February to 68% in May and then decreased to 25% in June and 22% in July. Despite that pathogenicity of spiroplasmas in honey bee colonies remains to be determined, our results indicated that spiroplasma infections need to be included for the consideration of the impacts on honey bee health.

  8. Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V

    2004-12-13

    Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format.

  9. Genome Sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster Male-Killing Spiroplasma Strain MSRO Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Juan C.; Herren, Jeremy K.; Schüpfer, Fanny; Marin, Ray; Claverol, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiroplasmas are helical and motile members of a cell wall-less eubacterial group called Mollicutes. Although all spiroplasmas are associated with arthropods, they exhibit great diversity with respect to both their modes of transmission and their effects on their hosts; ranging from horizontally transmitted pathogens and commensals to endosymbionts that are transmitted transovarially (i.e., from mother to offspring). Here we provide the first genome sequence, along with proteomic validation, of an endosymbiotic inherited Spiroplasma bacterium, the Spiroplasma poulsonii MSRO strain harbored by Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of the genome content of S. poulsonii with that of horizontally transmitted spiroplasmas indicates that S. poulsonii has lost many metabolic pathways and transporters, demonstrating a high level of interdependence with its insect host. Consistent with genome analysis, experimental studies showed that S. poulsonii metabolizes glucose but not trehalose. Notably, trehalose is more abundant than glucose in Drosophila hemolymph, and the inability to metabolize trehalose may prevent S. poulsonii from overproliferating. Our study identifies putative virulence genes, notably, those for a chitinase, the H2O2-producing glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, and enzymes involved in the synthesis of the eukaryote-toxic lipid cardiolipin. S. poulsonii also expresses on the cell membrane one functional adhesion-related protein and two divergent spiralin proteins that have been implicated in insect cell invasion in other spiroplasmas. These lipoproteins may be involved in the colonization of the Drosophila germ line, ensuring S. poulsonii vertical transmission. The S. poulsonii genome is a valuable resource to explore the mechanisms of male killing and symbiont-mediated protection, two cardinal features of many facultative endosymbionts. PMID:25827421

  10. Comparative genome analysis of Spiroplasma melliferum IPMB4A, a honeybee-associated bacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genus Spiroplasma contains a group of helical, motile, and wall-less bacteria in the class Mollicutes. Similar to other members of this class, such as the animal-pathogenic Mycoplasma and the plant-pathogenic ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, all characterized Spiroplasma species were found to be associated with eukaryotic hosts. While most of the Spiroplasma species appeared to be harmless commensals of insects, a small number of species have evolved pathogenicity toward various arthropods and plants. In this study, we isolated a novel strain of honeybee-associated S. melliferum and investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by whole-genome shotgun sequencing and comparative analysis with other Mollicutes genomes. Results The whole-genome shotgun sequencing of S. melliferum IPMB4A produced a draft assembly that was ~1.1 Mb in size and covered ~80% of the chromosome. Similar to other Spiroplasma genomes that have been studied to date, we found that this genome contains abundant repetitive sequences that originated from plectrovirus insertions. These phage fragments represented a major obstacle in obtaining a complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma with the current sequencing technology. Comparative analysis of S. melliferum IPMB4A with other Spiroplasma genomes revealed that these phages may have facilitated extensive genome rearrangements in these bacteria and contributed to horizontal gene transfers that led to species-specific adaptation to different eukaryotic hosts. In addition, comparison of gene content with other Mollicutes suggested that the common ancestor of the SEM (Spiroplasma, Entomoplasma, and Mycoplasma) clade may have had a relatively large genome and flexible metabolic capacity; the extremely reduced genomes of present day Mycoplasma and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species are likely to be the result of independent gene losses in these lineages. Conclusions The findings in this study highlighted the significance of

  11. Maize dwarf mosaic can reduce weed suppressive ability of sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) stunts corn growth, delays development, and is the most prevalent viral disease of sweet corn grown in many regions of North America and Europe. Although weeds evade control in most sweet corn fields, the extent to which MDM influences the weed suppressive ability of the cro...

  12. Maize dwarf mosaic in sweet corn contributes to weed growth and seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize dwarf mosaic (MDM) stunts corn growth, delays development, and is the most prevalent viral disease of sweet corn. Although weeds evade control in most sweet corn fields, the extent to which MDM influences the crop’s weed suppressive ability is unknown. Field studies were conducted over a three...

  13. Found and Lost: The Fates of Horizontally Acquired Genes in Arthropod-Symbiotic Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism that contributed to biological diversity, particularly in bacteria. Through acquisition of novel genes, the recipient cell may change its ecological preference and the process could promote speciation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of two Spiroplasma species for comparative analyses and inferred the putative gene gains and losses. Although most Spiroplasma species are symbionts of terrestrial insects, Spiroplasma eriocheiris has evolved to be a lethal pathogen of freshwater crustaceans. We found that approximately 7% of the genes in this genome may have originated from HGT and these genes expanded the metabolic capacity of this organism. Through comparison with the closely related Spiroplasma atrichopogonis, as well as other more divergent lineages, our results indicated that these HGT events could be traced back to the most recent common ancestor of these two species. However, most of these horizontally acquired genes have been pseudogenized in S. atrichopogonis, suggesting that they did not contribute to the fitness of this lineage that maintained the association with terrestrial insects. Thus, accumulation of small deletions that disrupted these foreign genes was not countered by natural selection. On the other hand, the long-term survival of these horizontally acquired genes in the S. eriocheiris genome hinted that they might play a role in the ecological shift of this species. Finally, the implications of these findings and the conflicts among gene content, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and serological typing, are discussed in light of defining bacterial species. PMID:26254485

  14. Genetic variation of Spiroplasma citri populations in California revealed by two genomic loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus stubborn disease (CSD), known to be present in California since 1915, was confirmed to be caused by Spiroplasma citri in 1972. Hosts of S. citri include citrus and a wide range of annual weeds, ornamentals and crops such as carrots and sesame. Genetic variation of S. citri in California was e...

  15. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  16. Molecular Detection of Spiroplasma Citri Associated with Stubborn Disease in Citrus Orchards in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (CSD) and can be transmitted from plant to plant by several species of phloem-feeding leafhoppers. CSD is an important disorder in certain warm and arid citrus-growing areas, and its agent has been recorded from several Med...

  17. Evaluation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake method for studying growth of spiroplasmas under various conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bastian, F.O.; Baliga, B.S.; Pollock, H.M.

    1988-10-01

    (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake and colony counts are quantitative and inexpensive methods for studying Spiroplasma growth. Using these techniques, we demonstrated subtle effects on the growth of suckling mouse cataract agent of medium alterations, inoculum size, and freezing of cultures. In addition, suckling mouse cataract agent multiplied more actively under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. These techniques have wide application for the study of Spiroplasma growth and will be useful for the development of a defined medium.

  18. Honey bee colonies act as reservoirs for two Spiroplasma facultative symbionts and incur complex, multiyear infection dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Teixeira, Érica Weinstein; Tauber, James P; Birke, Juliane M; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Fonseca, Isabela; Evans, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    Two species of Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) bacteria were isolated from and described as pathogens of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, ∼30 years ago but recent information on them is lacking despite global concern to understand bee population declines. Here we provide a comprehensive survey for the prevalence of these two Spiroplasma species in current populations of honey bees using improved molecular diagnostic techniques to assay multiyear colony samples from North America (U.S.A.) and South America (Brazil). Significant annual and seasonal fluctuations of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum prevalence in colonies from the U.S.A. (n = 616) and Brazil (n = 139) occurred during surveys from 2011 through 2013. Overall, 33% of U.S.A. colonies and 54% of Brazil colonies were infected by Spiroplasma spp., where S. melliferum predominated over S. apis in both countries (25% vs. 14% and 44% vs. 38% frequency, respectively). Colonies were co-infected by both species more frequently than expected in both countries and at a much higher rate in Brazil (52%) compared to the U.S.A. (16.5%). U.S.A. samples showed that both species were prevalent not only during spring, as expected from prior research, but also during other seasons. These findings demonstrate that the model of honey bee spiroplasmas as springtime-restricted pathogens needs to be broadened and their role as occasional pathogens considered in current contexts. PMID:24771723

  19. Effect of the Drosophila endosymbiont Spiroplasma on parasitoid wasp development and on the reproductive fitness of wasp-attacked fly survivors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialei; Tiner, Bethany; Vilchez, Igor; Mateos, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that Spiroplasma, a maternally transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium of Drosophila hydei, enhances larval to adult survival of its host when exposed to oviposition attack by the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. The mechanism by which Spiroplasma enhances host survival has not been elucidated. To better understand this mechanism, we compared the growth of wasp larvae in Spiroplasma-infected and uninfected hosts. Our results indicate that wasp embryos in Spiroplasma-infected hosts hatch and grow normally for ~2 days, after which their growth is severely impaired, compared to wasps developing in uninfected hosts. Thus, despite their reduced ability to complete development in Spiroplasma-infected hosts, developing wasps may exert fitness costs on their hosts that are manifested after host emergence. The severity of these costs will influence the degree to which this protective mechanism contributes to the long-term persistence of Spiroplasma in D. hydei. We therefore examined survival to 10-day-old adult stage and fecundity of Spiroplasma-infected flies surviving a wasp treatment. Our results suggest detrimental effects of wasp attack on longevity of Spiroplasma-infected adult flies. However, compared to Spiroplasma-free flies exposed to wasps, Spiroplasma-infected flies exposed to wasps have ~5 times greater survival from larva to 10 day-adult. The relative fecundity of wasp-attacked Spiroplasma-infected females was ~71% that of un-attacked Spiroplasma-free females. Our combined survival and female fecundity results suggest that under high wasp parasitism, the reproductive fitness of Spiroplasma-infected flies may be ~3.5 times greater than that of uninfected females, so it is potentially relevant to the persistence of Spiroplasma in natural populations of D. hydei. Interestingly, Spiroplasma-infected males surviving a wasp attack were effectively sterile during the 3-day period examined. This observation is consistent with the

  20. Implications of stunting on morphology of freshwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Strauss, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess morphological differences between stunted and non-stunted white perch Morone americana and green sunfish Lepomis cyanellus. Few female M. americana were captured; thus, morphological differences between adult males and juveniles were assessed for M. americana. Similarly, few immature (juvenile) L. cyanellus were captured for the stunted morphotype; thus, male and female morphological differences were assessed for L. cyanellus. Features of the head tended to be relatively larger in stunted fish of both species, whereas the mid-body tended to be relatively larger in non-stunted M. americana, but not in non-stunted L. cyanellus. Adult and juvenile morphology overlapped considerably in non-stunted M. americana, but there was a clear distinction between adult and juvenile morphology of stunted M. americana. There was little sexual dimorphism in shape in stunted L. cyanellus, whereas sexual dimorphism was evident in non-stunted L. cyanellus. It appears that selective forces imposed by predation and food limitation may contribute to morphological diversification between stunted and non-stunted fishes. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  2. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  3. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  4. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME).

    PubMed

    Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Stanton, Thad B; Smith, Jodi D; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A; Stasko, Judith A; Richt, Juergen A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrP(d)) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrP(d) by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons.

  5. Male Killing Spiroplasma Preferentially Disrupts Neural Development in the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Chong, Trisha; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Male killing bacteria such as Spiroplasma are widespread pathogens of numerous arthropods including Drosophila melanogaster. These maternally transmitted bacteria can bias host sex ratios toward the female sex in order to ‘selfishly’ enhance bacterial transmission. However, little is known about the specific means by which these pathogens disrupt host development in order to kill males. Here we show that a male-killing Spiroplasma strain severely disrupts nervous tissue development in male but not female D. melanogaster embryos. The neuroblasts, or neuron progenitors, form properly and their daughter cells differentiate into neurons of the ventral nerve chord. However, the neurons fail to pack together properly and they produce highly abnormal axons. In contrast, non-neural tissue, such as mesoderm, and body segmentation appear normal during this time, although the entire male embryo becomes highly abnormal during later stages. Finally, we found that Spiroplasma is altogether absent from the neural tissue but localizes within the gut and the epithelium immediately surrounding the neural tissue, suggesting that the bacterium secretes a toxin that affects neural tissue development across tissue boundaries. Together these findings demonstrate the unique ability of this insect pathogen to preferentially affect development of a specific embryonic tissue to induce male killing. PMID:24236124

  6. Piecing together the stunting puzzle: a framework for attributable factors of child stunting.

    PubMed

    Mosites, Emily; Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth; Walson, Judd; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-09-29

    Reducing the burden of stunting in childhood is critical to improving health in low- and middle-income settings. However, because many aetiologies underlie linear growth failure, stunting has proved difficult to prevent and reverse. Understanding the contributions these aetiologies make to the burden of stunting can help the development of targeted, effective interventions. To begin to frame these causes, a qualitative and a quantitative framework of the primary drivers of stunting in low-resource settings were developed. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated to inform the quantitative framework. According to these estimates, infectious diseases were responsible for large attributable fractions in all settings, and a combination of dietary indicators also comprised a large fraction in Africa. However, the PAF calculation was found to have several limitations, including a requirement for a binary outcome and sensitivity to confounding, which necessitate broad interpretation of the results. More robust tools to model complex causality are needed in order to understand the causal aetiology of stunting.

  7. Birth Size, Stunting and Recovery from Stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India: Evidence from the Young Lives Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Kaushalendra

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Few Indian studies have examined the relationship between birth size and stunting in children. Studies on recovery from stunting in India are even fewer. This study, thus, investigates the relationship between birth size and stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India. This study further examines the factors associated with recovery from stunting using a longitudinal data. Methods We used data from the three waves of Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in Andhra Pradesh in the years 2002, 2006-2007, and 2009 respectively. We used data from 1965 children in wave 1 to examine the association between birth size and stunting. For examining the factors associated with recovery from stunting between 1 and 5 years of age, and between 5 and 8 years, we use data from 582 and 670 children who were stunted at age 1 and age 5 respectively. We use multivariable logistic regression models to fulfil the objectives of the paper. Results The children who were of average- or large- size at birth were significantly less likely to be stunted than children who were of small size at birth (OR 0.61 and 0.47 respectively). Children of average/tall mothers were 0.41 times less likely to be stunted than children of shorter mothers. Severely stunted children were less likely than other stunted children to recover from stunting between 1 and 5 years of age, and between 5 and 8 years. Mother's height was statistically associated with recovery. Change in wealth status of the household was statistically associated with recovery between 1 and 5 years of age. In comparison, child immunization was associated with recovery between 5 and 8 years. Conclusions for Practice This study contributes to the understanding of the impact of birth size on childhood stunting, and to the extent of recovery from stunting in India. Further follow-up is necessary to demonstrate the impact during adolescence and adulthood.

  8. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  9. Impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gaire, Surya; Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Pandey, Srijana; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting is a major public health problem that results from inadequate nutritional intake over a long period of time. Disasters have major implications in poor and vulnerable children. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the impact of disasters on child stunting in Nepal. Method A sample consisting of 2,111 children aged 6–59 months was obtained from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine moderate and severe stunting against disaster, controlling for all possible confounders. Result Out of the total study sample, 43% were stunted (17.1% severely and 25.9% moderately). The final model, after adjusting for confounders, showed that epidemics have no impact on child stunting (adjusted odds ratio [OR] =1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66, 1.97 and adjusted OR =1.04, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.65 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). Floods have impact on child stunting (adjusted OR =0.57, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.96 and adjusted OR =0.66, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94 for severe and moderate stunting, respectively). However, children aged 6–11 months, nonvaccinated children, children of working women, children who live in mountainous areas, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be moderately stunted. Similarly, children aged 36–47 months, Dalit and other ethnic groups, children from rural settings, and children from the poorest households were more likely to be severely stunted. Conclusion This article illustrates the need to rethink about child stunting in Nepal. This study suggests need for further research, integration of disaster data in the Nepal Demography Health Survey, educational interventions, public awareness, promotion of vaccination, and equity in health service delivery. PMID:27354834

  10. Early Childhood Stunting and Later Fine Motor Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susan M.; Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Powell, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of early childhood stunting (height for age 2SD or more below reference values) and interventions on fine motor abilities at 11 to 12 years, and the relationship between fine motor abilities and school achievement and intelligence. Method: A cohort of stunted children who had participated in…

  11. Child Stunting is Associated with Low Circulating Essential Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Shardell, Michelle; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A.; Moaddel, Ruin; Trehan, Indi; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Kraemer, Klaus; Khadeer, Mohammed A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of children. Methods We used a targeted metabolomics approach to measure serum amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and other metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 313 children, aged 12–59 months, from rural Malawi. Children underwent anthropometry. Findings Sixty-two percent of the children were stunted. Children with stunting had lower serum concentrations of all nine essential amino acids (tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine) compared with nonstunted children (p < 0.01). In addition, stunted children had significantly lower serum concentrations of conditionally essential amino acids (arginine, glycine, glutamine), non-essential amino acids (asparagine, glutamate, serine), and six different sphingolipids compared with nonstunted children. Stunting was also associated with alterations in serum glycerophospholipid concentrations. Interpretation Our findings support the idea that children with a high risk of stunting may not be receiving an adequate dietary intake of essential amino acids and choline, an essential nutrient for the synthesis of sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. PMID:27211567

  12. The effect of predation on stunted and nonstunted white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Pierce, L.L.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Predation is widely regarded as a means to prevent or minimise the establishment of a stunted (high density of slow growing individuals) population. We investigated the effect of predation on two different white perch Morone americana populations (stunted and nonstunted) by examining the stomach contents of piscivorous fishes. White perch and gizzard shad dominated piscivore diets in Branched Oak Lake, whereas white perch dominated piscivore diets in Pawnee Lake. White perch consumed in the stunted population (Branched Oak Lake) were larger and older than white perch consumed in the nonstunted population (Pawnee Lake). Many of the consumed white perch in the stunted population were sexually mature and had the opportunity to spawn at least once. In contrast, all of the consumed white perch in the nonstunted population were sexually immature. Predation may have reinforced the stunting of white perch in Branched Oak Lake through removal of the largest, oldest individuals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Improved real-time PCR diagnosis of citrus stubborn disease by targeting prophage genes of Spiroplasma citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri is a phloem-limited bacterium causing citrus stubborn disease (CSD). Isolation and culturing of S. citri is difficult and time consuming. Current detection methods use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with primers developed from sequences of S. citri house-keeping genes. In c...

  14. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma citri strain R8-A2T, causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spiroplasma citri is the causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp., as well as the cause of diseases in numerous other plant genera. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709 bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of strain R8-A2T. This information will facilitate comparative ...

  15. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in the Defense and Stress Response of Spiroplasma citri Infected Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Nejat, Naghmeh; Vadamalai, Ganesan; Dickinson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties. PMID:22408455

  16. Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovis, Peter P.; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O. D.; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C.; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B.; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M.; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. Methods We analyzed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n=958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n=1702), which enrolled children aged 2–59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < −2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxemic pneumonia. Results Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients (unadjusted RR = 1.24 [95% CI 1.08, 1.41]; adjusted RR = 1.28 [95% CI 1.10, 1.48]). An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalization of respiratory rate (HR = 0.63 [95% CI 0.52, 0.75]) and oxygen saturation (HR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.61, 0.89]). Conclusions Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. PMID:26083963

  17. Spiroplasma-like organisms closely associated with the gut in five leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Gasparich, Gail E; Hall, David G; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Spiroplasmas are bacteria in the Class Mollicutes that are frequently associated with insects and/or plants. Here, we describe the ultrastructure, localization, and occurrence of apparent commensal/symbiotic spiroplasma-like organisms (SLOs) in the midgut and hindgut of five leafhopper species from laboratory-reared colonies. Those found in Dalbulus elimatus, Endria inimica, and Macrosteles quadrilineatus were long and tubular shaped, whereas those in Dalbulus maidis and Graminella nigrifrons were shorter and mostly rod-shaped in their host organisms. These SLOs were found in great numbers in the gut lumen frequently associated with the gut microvilli, but unlike the plant-pathogenic mollicutes, they did not seem to invade the gut epithelium or other tissues in any of these five leafhopper species. Large accumulations of these gut-associated organisms were more commonly found by confocal laser scanning microscopy in males than in females and in crowded than in singly reared leafhoppers. Ultrastructural evidence suggests that these SLOs may be horizontally transmitted between leafhoppers by contamination of the mouth parts with leafhopper excretions.

  18. Production and application of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Bao, Haixun; Miao, Fengqin; Peng, Yaqin; Shen, Yuqing; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-01-01

    A new species of spiroplasma, Spiroplasma eriocheiris (S. eriocheiris), was identified as a lethal pathogen of tremor disease (TD) in Chinese mitten crab recently. In order to acquire appropriate biological and diagnostic tools for characterizing this newly discovered pathogen, 5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal antibody (pAb) against S. eriocheiris were produced. Among the mAbs, 6F5, 7C8 and 12H5 lead to the deformation of S. eriocheiris. A peptide sequence, YMRDMQSGLPRY was identified as a mimic motif of MreB that is the cell shape determining protein of S. eriocheiris interacting with 3 mAbs. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for detection of S. eriocheiris was established using the mAb and pAb we prepared. It detected as low as 0.1 μg/mL of S. eriocheiris. No cross-reaction was observed with three other common bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis) and the hemolymph samples of healthy Eriocheir sinensis. Collectively, our results indicated that the mAbs and pAb we prepared could be used in the analysis of S. eriocheiris membrane proteins mimotope and development of a diagnostic kit for S. eriocheiris infections. PMID:26639364

  19. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  20. Immune response and survival of Circulifer haematoceps to Spiroplasma citri infection requires expression of the gene hexamerin.

    PubMed

    Eliautout, Rémi; Dubrana, Marie-Pierre; Vincent-Monégat, Carole; Vallier, Agnès; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Poirié, Marylène; Saillard, Colette; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Arricau-Bouvery, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma citri is a cell wall-less bacterium that infects plants. It is transmitted by the leafhopper Circulifer haematoceps, which hosts this bacterium in the haemocel and insect tissues. Bacterial factors involved in spiroplasma colonization of the insect host have been identified, but the immune response of the leafhopper to S. citri infection remains unknown. In this study, we showed that C. haematoceps activates both humoral and cellular immune responses when challenged with bacteria. When infected by S. citri, C. haematoceps displayed a specific immune response, evidenced by activation of phagocytosis and upregulation of a gene encoding the protein hexamerin. S. citri infection also resulted in decreased phenoloxidase-like activity. Inhibition of hexamerin by RNA interference resulted in a significant reduction in phenoloxidase-like activity and increased mortality of infected leafhoppers. Therefore, the gene hexamerin is involved in S. citri control by interfering with insect phenoloxidase activity.

  1. Stunting Is Characterized by Chronic Inflammation in Zimbabwean Infants

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.; Rukobo, Sandra; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Jones, Andrew; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Humphrey, Jean H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) <−2; cases) or non-stunted (HAZ >−0.5; controls) at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP), inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6) and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3) in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression. Results At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR) HAZ −1.00 (−1.53, −0.08) vs 0.03 (−0.57, 0.62,); P<0.001) than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI) −21.4 (−39.8, −3.1) ng/mL). From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3–12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99); P = 0.008) and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74); P = 0.087) during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting. Conclusions Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were

  2. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Svefors, Pernilla; Rahman, Anisur; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Lindström, Emma; Persson, Lars Åke; Ekholm Selling, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years. Methods and Findings Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054) was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2) at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD) to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50%) decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001) and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm) (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06–4.20), mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.81) or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37–2.77). Conclusions Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth. PMID:26934484

  3. Micronutrients in the treatment of stunting and moderate malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Penny, Mary Edith

    2012-01-01

    Linear growth retardation or stunting may occur with or without low weight-for-age, but in both cases stunted or moderately malnourished children are deficient in micronutrients. Pregnancy and the first 2 years are critical periods. Dietary deficiency of zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A are especially common and often occur together. Zinc is essential for adequate growth, and supplements have been shown to increase intrauterine femur length and to prevent stunting. However, in general, supplements which provide a mixture of micronutrients have been more successful in preventing stunting and are simpler to take and distribute. Multiple micronutrients together with energy and macronutrients are also needed for the management of moderate malnutrition. Multiple micronutrients may be delivered as medicinal-like supplements, but may also be combined with food, for instance in milk drinks, in fortified dried cereal mixes used to supplement complementary foods or in lipid nutrition supplements. The latter also provide essential fats necessary for growth. Micronutrient powders for home fortification are effective in preventing anemia, but present combinations do not prevent stunting. Improving the diets of infant and young children is also possible, and increased intake of animal source foods can improve growth.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among under-fives in North Maluku province of Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ramli; Agho, Kingsley E; Inder, Kerry J; Bowe, Steven J; Jacobs, Jennifer; Dibley, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrition is needed to ensure optimum growth and development of infants and young children. Understanding of the risk factors for stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province is important to guide Indonesian government public health planners to develop nutrition programs and interventions in a post conflict area. The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than five years in North Maluku province of Indonesia. Methods The health and nutritional status of children aged less than five years was assessed in North Maluku province of Indonesia in 2004 using a cross-sectional multi-stage survey conducted on 750 households from each of the four island groups in North Maluku province. A total of 2168 children aged 0-59 months were used in the analysis. Results Prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 29% (95%CI: 26.0-32.2) and 14.1% (95%CI: 11.7-17.0) for children aged 0-23 months and 38.4% (95%CI: 35.9-41.0) and 18.4% (95%CI: 16.1-20.9) for children aged 0-59 months, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for stunted children were child's age in months, male sex and number of family meals per day (≤2 times), for children aged 0-23 months, and income (poorest and middle-class family), child's age in months and male sex for children aged 0-59 months. The risk factors for severe stunting in children aged 0-23 months were income (poorest family), male sex and child's age in months and for children aged 0-59 months were income (poorest family), father's occupation (not working), male sex and child's age in months. Conclusion Programmes aimed at improving stunting in North Maluku province of Indonesia should focus on children under two years of age, of male sex and from families of low socioeconomic status. PMID

  5. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. CYSDV and its vector, sweetpotato whitefly (MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci; SPWF) are a devastating combination in the Sonoran Desert areas of California and A...

  6. Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus detected in pigweed in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples were collected from pigweed, a species of Amaranth, that were in proximity to virus-infected watermelons in south Florida. No symptoms of virus infection were observed on the weed samples; however, testing by two independent methods found infection by Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus...

  7. Discovery of uncharacterized sugarcane viruses by next generation sequencing technology: the case of Ramu stunt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  8. Molecular evolution of the substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors in mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lo, Wen-Sui; Ku, Chuan; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-03-01

    Comparative genomics provides a powerful tool to characterize the genetic differences among species that may be linked to their phenotypic variations. In the case of mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species, such approach is useful for the investigation of their differentiations in substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors. Among the four species that have been assessed for pathogenicity by artificial infection experiments, Spiroplasma culicicola and S. taiwanense were found to be pathogenic, whereas S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense were not. Intriguingly, based on the species phylogeny, the association with mosquito hosts and the gain or loss of pathogenicity in these species appears to have evolved independently. Through comparison of their complete genome sequences, we identified the genes and pathways that are shared by all or specific to one of these four species. Notably, we found that a glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase gene (glpO) is present in S. culicicola and S. taiwanense but not in S. diminutum or S. sabaudiense. Because this gene is involved in the production of reactive oxygen species and has been demonstrated as a major virulence factor in Mycoplasma, this distribution pattern suggests that it may be linked to the observed differences in pathogenicity among these species as well. Moreover, through comparative analysis with other Spiroplasma, Mycoplasma, and Mesoplasma species, we found that the absence of glpO in S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense is best explained by independent losses. Finally, our phylogenetic analyses revealed possible recombination of glpO between distantly related lineages and local rearrangements of adjacent genes.

  9. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  10. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  11. Quantitative detection and proliferation dynamics of a novel Spiroplasma eriocheiris pathogen in the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Tang, Jianqing; Xue, Hui; Li, Jiajia; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris disease control based on sensitive quantitative methods has become a priority. A SYBR Green real-time PCR that can simultaneously detect and quantify S. eriocheiris in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii was produced and evaluated. In the asymptomatic crayfish, hemolymph exhibited the statistically greatest number of S. eriocheiris copies indicating a tissue-specific pathogen infection characteristic. The curve of the pathogen amount change in vivo assumed a very similar shape with the typical one-step growth curve. A turning point from chronic infection to acute infection was suggested from 3 to 4 days when the S. eriocheiris copies in hemolymph increased substantially.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma apis B31T (ATCC 33834), a Bacterium Associated with May Disease of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-09

    Spiroplasma apis B31(T) (ATCC 33834) is a wall-less bacterium in the class Mollicutes that has been linked to May disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its virulence factors.

  13. Direct visualization of the novel pathogen, Spiroplasma eriocheiris, in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) using fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z F; Xia, S Y; Xue, H; Tang, J Q; Ren, Q; Gu, W; Meng, Q G; Wang, W

    2015-09-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is the first spiroplasma strain known to be pathogenic to freshwater crustaceans. It has caused considerable economic losses both in the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) and in some other crustaceans. The monitoring of the pathogen in crustacean populations and study of its behaviour in the laboratory require the development of reliable diagnostic tools. In this article, we improved microscopic identification of S. eriocheiris by combining in situ hybridization with specific fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes. The established fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed simultaneous visualization, identification and localization of S. eriocheiris in the tissues of diseased crayfish P. clarkii and exhibited low background autofluorescence and ideal signal-to-noise ratio. With the advantages of better tissue penetration, potentially more specific and stable, we designed three species-specific oligonucleotide probes utilizing the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) of S. eriocheiris. Positive hybridization signals were visualized in haemocytes and connective tissues of hepatopancreas, cardiac muscle and gill from diseased crayfish. This unique distribution pattern matched the pathological changes when diagnosed by H&E staining and indicated that S. eriocheiris probably spread throughout the tissues in P. clarkii by hemokinesis. This assay will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis of S. eriocheiris and enhance the early diagnosis of the novel pathogen.

  14. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  15. Corn insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  16. Spiroplasma eriocheiris Adhesin-Like Protein (ALP) Interacts with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Domain Proteins to Facilitate Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Libo; Liu, Yuhan; Gao, Qi; Xu, Xuechuan; Ning, Mingxiao; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Min; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen found in recent years, causing the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Like Spiroplasma mirum, S. eriocheiris infects the newborn mouse (adult mice are not infected) and can cause cataract. Adhesion-related protein is an important protein involved in the interaction between pathogen and host. In this study, the Adhesin-like Protein (ALP) of S. eriocheiris was detected on its outer membrane by using immune electron microscopy, and was found to be involved in the bacterium's infection of mouse embryo fibroblasts (3T6-Swiss albino). Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that ALP interacts with a diverse group of mouse proteins. The interactions between recombinant partial fibulin7 (FBLN7; including two epidermal growth factor [EGF] domains) and ALP were confirmed by Far-western blotting and colocalization. We synthetized the domains of FBLN7 [EGF domain: amino acids 136–172 and complement control protein (CCP) domain: 81–134 amino acids], and demonstrated that only EGF domain of FBLN7 can interact with ALP. Because the EGF domain has high degree of similarity to EGF, it can activate the downstream EGFR signaling pathway, in key site amino acids. The EGFR pathway in 3T6 cells was restrained after rALP stimulation resulting from competitive binding of ALP to EGF. The unborn mouse, newborn mouse, and the adult mouse with cataract have a small amount of expressed FBLN7; however, none was detected in the brain and very little expression was seen in the eye of normal adult mice. In short, ALP as a S. eriocheiris surface protein, is critical for infection and further supports the role of ALP in S. eriocheiris infection by competitive effection of the EGF/EGFR axis of the target cells. PMID:28184355

  17. Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children’s health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

  18. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    PubMed

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  19. Sequence variability of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid in different chrysanthemum cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2017-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest infectious agents, and their genomes consist of a short single strand of RNA that does not encode any protein. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the family Pospiviroidae, causes chrysanthemum stunt disease. Here, we report the genomic variations of CSVd to understand the sequence variability of CSVd in different chrysanthemum cultivars. We randomly sampled 36 different chrysanthemum cultivars and examined the infection of CSVd in each cultivar by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Eleven cultivars were infected by CSVd. Cloning followed by Sanger sequencing successfully identified a total of 271 CSVd genomes derived from 12 plants from 11 cultivars. They were further classified into 105 CSVd variants. Each single chrysanthemum plant had a different set of CSVd variants. Moreover, different single plants from the same cultivar had different sets of CSVd variants but identical consensus genome sequences. A phylogenetic tree using 12 consensus genome sequences revealed three groups of CSVd genomes, while six different groups were defined by the phylogenetic analysis using 105 variants. Based on the consensus CSVd genome, by combining all variant sequences, we identified 99 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) as well as three nucleotide positions showing high mutation rates. Although 99 SNVs were identified, most CSVd genomes in this study were derived from variant 1, which is identical to known CSVd SK1 showing pathogenicity. PMID:28149699

  20. An improved non-denaturing method for the purification of spiralin, the main membrane lipoprotein of the pathogenic bacteria Spiroplasma melliferum.

    PubMed

    Desfougères, Yann; Poitou, Jean-Michel; Wróblewski, Henri; Béven, Laure

    2016-11-15

    Spiralin is the most abundant protein of several species of spiroplasmas, helical, motile bacteria pathogenic for arthropods and plants. This amphiphilic protein is anchored to the outer face of the plasma membrane by a lipoylated N-terminal cysteine. Although spiroplasma pathogenicity in mammals is controversial, it was shown that spiralin is highly immunogenic and endowed with immunomodulatory activity. In this paper, we describe a high performance method for the purification of Spiroplasma melliferum spiralin under non-denaturing conditions. The protein was selectively extracted with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propyl sulfonate (CHAPS) from the membrane pre-treated with sodium dodecyl-N-sarcosinate (Sarkosyl), and purified to homogeneity by cation-exchange HPLC with an overall yield of ∼60%. Detergent-depleted, water-soluble micelles of spiralin displaying a mean diameter of 170Å, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, were obtained by dialysis detergent removal. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and cross immunoprecipitation assay of the purified spiralin strongly suggested that this purification method could retain the structural characteristics of the native spiralin. The strategy developed to purify spiralin (two successive selective extractions of membrane proteins with mild detergents followed by ion-exchange chromatography) should prove useful for the purification of membrane lipoproteins of other bacteria of the class Mollicutes including different pathogens for humans, animals and plants.

  1. First report of hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple apple fruit symptoms in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), the type member of the genus Hostuviroid, family Pospiviroidae, was first described from hops with stunt disease in Japan. HSVd has a wide host range that includes hop, cucumber, citrus, grapevine, plum, pear, peach, apricot and almond and is the causal agent of serious dis...

  2. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  3. Stunting and the Prediction of Lung Volumes Among Tibetan Children and Adolescents at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Charles A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the extent to which stunting (height-for-age Z-scores ≤ -2) compromises the use of low altitude prediction equations to gauge the general increase in lung volumes during growth among high altitude populations. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) of 208 stunted and 365 non-stunted high-altitude Tibetan children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 20 years are predicted using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESIII) and the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLF) equations, and compared to observed lung volumes. Stunted Tibetan children show smaller positive deviations from both NHANESIII and GLF prediction equations at most ages than non-stunted children. Deviations from predictions do not correspond to differences in body proportions (sitting heights and chest circumferences relative to stature) between stunted and non-stunted children; but appear compatible with the effects of retarded growth and lung maturation that are likely to exist among stunted children. These results indicate that, before low altitude standards can be used to evaluate the effects of hypoxia, or before high altitude populations can be compared to any other group, it is necessary to assess the relative proportion of stunted children in the samples. If the proportion of stunted children in a high altitude population differs significantly from the proportion in the comparison group, lung function comparisons are unlikely to yield an accurate assessment of the hypoxia effect. The best solution to this problem is to (1) use stature and lung function standards based on the same low altitude population; and (2) assess the hypoxic effect by comparing observed and predicted values among high altitude children whose statures are most like those of children on whom the low altitude spirometric standard is based-preferably high altitude children with HAZ-scores ≥ -1.

  4. Detection by next generation sequencing of a multi-segmented viral genome from sugarcane associated with Ramu stunt disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ramu stunt disease of sugarcane was first reported in Papua New Guinea in the mid 1980's. The disease can reduce sugarcane yields significantly and causes severe stunting and mortality in highly susceptible cultivars. The causal agent of Ramu stunt has been investigated but its characterization has ...

  5. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far‐reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high‐burden settings, such as South Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  6. The genome sequence of lettuce necrotic stunt virus indicates a close relationship to Moroccan pepper virus.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Anchieta, Amy G

    2012-07-01

    Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) causes severe losses to lettuce production in the western United States, which results in stunting, necrosis and death on all non-crisphead lettuces, as well as flower abortion and yield losses in greenhouse tomato production. The genome of LNSV was sequenced and has an organization typical of viruses of the genus Tombusvirus. Sequence comparisons indicated that much of the genome is relatively closely related to tomato bushy stunt virus; however, the coat protein is very closely related to that of isolates of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV).

  7. Stubborn Disease in Iran: Diversity of Spiroplasma citri Strains in Circulifer haematoceps Leafhoppers Collected in Sesame Fields in Fars Province.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Zahra; Salehi, Mohammad; Azami, Zabihallah; Salari, Khadijeh; Béven, Laure

    2017-02-01

    Spiroplasma citri is a bacterial pathogen responsible for the economically important citrus stubborn disease. Sesame and citrus seeds serve as hosts for both S. citri and its leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps. To evaluate whether sesame could act as a reservoir for citrus-infecting strains or not, the genetic diversity among S. citri strains found in leafhoppers collected in citrus and citrus-free sesame fields was investigated. Among 26 periwinkle plants exposed to the collected C. haematoceps leafhoppers, 12 plants developed typical stubborn symptoms. All symptomatic periwinkles were polymerase chain reaction positive using S. citri-specific primer pairs targeting the spiralin and P89 genes. Phylogenetic trees based on spiralin gene sequence analysis indicated that the novel field-collected strains clustered with those belonging to two formerly defined S. citri groups (groups 6 and 1). In addition, our results strongly suggest that group 1 strains could be transmitted from sesame-infected plants to citrus trees by C. haematoceps, while group 6 strains may not infect citrus trees.

  8. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  9. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    PubMed

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  10. Low lead levels stunt neuronal growth in a reversible manner.

    PubMed Central

    Cline, H T; Witte, S; Jones, K W

    1996-01-01

    The developing brain is particularly susceptible to lead toxicity; however, the cellular effects of lead on neuronal development are not well understood. The effect of exposure to nanomolar concentrations of lead on several parameters of the developing retinotectal system of frog tadpoles was tested. Lead severely reduced the area and branchtip number of retinal ganglion cell axon arborizations within the optic tectum at submicromolar concentrations. These effects of lead on neuronal growth are more dramatic and occur at lower exposure levels than previously reported. Lead exposure did not interfere with the development of retinotectal topography. The deficient neuronal growth does not appear to be secondary to impaired synaptic transmission, because concentrations of lead that stunted neuronal growth were lower than those required to block synaptic transmission. Subsequent treatment of lead-exposed animals with the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid completely reversed the effect of lead on neuronal growth. These studies indicate that impaired neuronal growth may be responsible in part for lead-induced cognitive deficits and that chelator treatment counteracts this effect. PMID:8790431

  11. The monomeric, tetrameric, and fibrillar organization of Fib: the dynamic building block of the bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Krausz, Sara; Cabahug, Pamela C; Trachtenberg, Shlomo

    2011-07-08

    Spiroplasmas belong to the class Mollicutes, representing the minimal, free-living, and self-replicating forms of life. Spiroplasmas are helical wall-less bacteria and the only ones known to swim by means of a linear motor (rather than the near-universal rotary bacterial motor). The linear motor follows the shortest path along the cell's helical membranal tube. The motor is composed of a flat monolayered ribbon of seven parallel fibrils and is believed to function in controlling cell helicity and motility through dynamic, coordinated, differential length changes in the fibrils. The latter cause local perturbations of helical symmetry, which are essential for net directional displacement in environments with a low Reynolds number. The underlying fibrils' core building block is a circular tetramer of the 59-kDa protein Fib. The fibrils' differential length changes are believed to be driven by molecular switching of Fib, leading consequently to axial ratio and length changes in tetrameric rings. Using cryo electron microscopy, diffractometry, single-particle analysis of isolated ribbons, and sequence analyses of Fib, we determined the overall molecular organization of the Fib monomer, tetramer, fibril, and linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 that underlies cell geometry and motility. Fib appears to be a bidomained molecule, of which the N-terminal half is apparently a globular phosphorylase. By a combination of reversible rotation and diagonal shift of Fib monomers, the tetramer adopts either a cross-like nonhanded conformation or a ring-like handed conformation. The sense of Fib rotation may determine the handedness of the linear motor and, eventually, of the cell. A further change in the axial ratio of the ring-like tetramers controls fibril lengths and the consequent helical geometry. Analysis of tetramer quadrants from adjacent fibrils clearly demonstrates local differential fibril lengths.

  12. Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ≥−2 and <−1) or of normal stature, as well as overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) or normal weight. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

  13. Spatial heterogeneity and risk factors for stunting among children under age five in Ethiopia: A Bayesian geo-statistical model

    PubMed Central

    Hagos, Seifu; Hailemariam, Damen; WoldeHanna, Tasew; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the spatial distribution of stunting and underlying factors operating at meso-scale is of paramount importance for intervention designing and implementations. Yet, little is known about the spatial distribution of stunting and some discrepancies are documented on the relative importance of reported risk factors. Therefore, the present study aims at exploring the spatial distribution of stunting at meso- (district) scale, and evaluates the effect of spatial dependency on the identification of risk factors and their relative contribution to the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted to measure the occurrence of stunting and severe stunting among children aged 0–59 months. Additionally, we collected relevant information on anthropometric measures, dietary habits, parent and child-related demographic and socio-economic status. Latitude and longitude of surveyed households were also recorded. Local Anselin Moran's I was calculated to investigate the spatial variation of stunting prevalence and identify potential local pockets (hotspots) of high prevalence. Finally, we employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model, which accounted for spatial dependency structure in the data, to identify potential risk factors for stunting in the study area. Results Overall, the prevalence of stunting and severe stunting in the district was 43.7% [95%CI: 40.9, 46.4] and 21.3% [95%CI: 19.5, 23.3] respectively. We identified statistically significant clusters of high prevalence of stunting (hotspots) in the eastern part of the district and clusters of low prevalence (cold spots) in the western. We found out that the inclusion of spatial structure of the data into the Bayesian model has shown to improve the fit for stunting model. The Bayesian geo-statistical model indicated that the risk of stunting increased as the child’s age increased (OR 4.74; 95% Bayesian credible

  14. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota in Persistently Stunted Young Children in South India

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Duy M.; Ramadass, Balamurugan; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Braunstein, Philip; Tai, Albert; Wanke, Christine A.; Hassoun, Soha; Kane, Anne V.; Naumova, Elena N.; Kang, Gagandeep; Ward, Honorine D.

    2016-01-01

    Stunting or reduced linear growth is very prevalent in low-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between alterations in the gut microbiome and moderate or severe acute malnutrition in children in these countries. However, there have been no primary longitudinal studies comparing the intestinal microbiota of persistently stunted children to that of non-stunted children in the same community. In this pilot study, we characterized gut microbial community composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota of 10 children with low birth weight and persistent stunting (cases) and 10 children with normal birth weight and no stunting (controls) from a birth cohort every 3 months up to 2 years of age in a slum community in south India. There was an increase in diversity indices (P <0.0001) with increasing age in all children. However, there were no differences in diversity indices or in the rates of their increase with increasing age between cases and controls. The percent relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in stunted compared to control children at 12 months of age (P = 0.043). There was an increase in the relative abundance of this phylum with increasing age in all children (P = 0.0380) with no difference in the rate of increase between cases and controls. There was a decrease in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (P = 0.0004) and Actinobacteria (P = 0.0489) with increasing age in cases. The microbiota of control children was enriched in probiotic species Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus mucosae, whereas that of stunted children was enriched in inflammogenic taxa including those in the Desulfovibrio genus and Campylobacterales order. Larger, longitudinal studies on the compositional and functional maturation of the microbiome in children are needed. PMID:27228122

  16. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali

    2015-01-01

    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  17. Factors associated with underweight and stunting among children in rural Terai of eastern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pramod Singh, G C; Nair, Manju; Grubesic, Ruth B; Connell, Frederick A

    2009-04-01

    Malnutrition continues to affect a large proportion of children in the developing world. The authors undertook this study to identify biologic, socioeconomic, and health care factors associated with underweight and stunting in young children in an the eastern Tarai (plains) district of Nepal. Data were collected via questionnaires from mothers of 443 children aged 6 to 36 months in Sunsari district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select villages and children. Anthropometric measurements were made on both children and their mothers. Logistic regression was used to measure the independent (adjusted) effect of risk and protective factors on the odds of underweight or stunting. More than half (53.3%) of the children were found to be underweight (<2 standard deviations weight for age below reference median) and more than one third (36.6%) had stunting (<2 standard deviations height for age below reference median). Low maternal body mass index, child's age, higher birth order, and lower standard of living score were strong predictors of underweight, whereas mother's education >5 years and participation in vitamin A and nutritional programs were protective. Infant age, low maternal body mass index, and low standard of living score were significant risk factors for stunting, whereas mother's education >5 years was strongly protective. These results suggest that underweight and stunting are the result of a nexus of biological, socioeconomic, and health care factors.

  18. Stunting syndrome in broilers: physical, physiological, and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, F; Nir, I

    1995-01-01

    The effect of stunting syndrome (SS) on young broilers induced by orally administering an inoculum prepared from intestines of SS-affected broiler chicks was studied in two experiments. Depression of growth, feed intake, and feed utilization, respectively, was negatively related to the age of inoculation, i.e., highest at posthatch inoculation (63, 57, and 61%), and intermediate at the ages of 3 (42, 45, and 50%) and 7 d (29, 34, and 53%), whereas at the age of 14 d inoculation was ineffectual and the inoculated chicks performed similarly to the naive controls. Eating behavior was determined by periodically recording the number of chicks in each treatment group exhibiting this behavior, i.e., pecking mash in the feeder or pecking the litter. Eating activity was much higher in inoculated chicks (about 20 to 24%) than in the naive controls (6 to 12%) and as with performance negatively related to the age of inoculation. In chicks inoculated at the age of 14 d, eating activity was quite similar to that of the naive control chicks. Noninoculated chickens raised in the same room as their inoculated counterparts were infected by the disease agents. In some respects the consequences of horizontal infection were similar to those observed in inoculated chicks, i.e., depressed feed intake, growth, and feed utilization and a heavier heart, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine, and gastrointestinal contents. In contrast, the activities of the pancreatic digestive enzymes were more similar to those of the naive controls than to those of the inoculated groups. At the age of 14 d, activities of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase in the pancreas were lower in the inoculated than in the naive control birds. At the age of 21 d, the results were reversed and activity in the inoculated birds was higher than in the naive control birds. During both periods, the activity of pancreatic lipase was higher in the naive controls than in the inoculated birds. The hyperactivity

  19. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura E.; Prendergast, Andrew J.; Turner, Paul C.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention. PMID:26602301

  20. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention.

  1. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  2. iTRAQ-based proteomic study of the effects of Spiroplasma eriocheiris on Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingguo; Hou, Libo; Zhao, Yang; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yanqing; Xia, Siyao; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2014-09-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is as a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease. The hemocytes have been shown to be major target cells in S. eriocheiris infection. The aim of this study was to examine the hemocytes' immune response at the protein levels. The differential proteomes of the crab hemocytes were analyzed immediately prior to injection with the pathogen, and at 10 d post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantization (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 1075 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data. Using a 1.2-fold change in expression as a physiologically significant benchmark, 76 differentially expressed proteins (7.07%) were reliably quantified by iTRAQ analysis. Thirty-five (3.26%) proteins were up-regulated and 41 (3.81%) proteins were down-regulated resulting from a S. eriocheiris infection. Approximately 20 differential proteins in hemocytes were involved in the stress and immune responses. Up-regulated proteins included alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M), prostaglandin D synthase (GST), ferritin, and heat shock protein 60. Down-regulated proteins included two lectins (mannose-binding protein and hemocytin), three kinds of serine proteinase inhibitors (two serpins and pacifastin), three different kinds of serine proteases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and two thioredoxins (Trx), crustin, etc. Selected bioactive factors (α2M, GST, ferritin, tubulin, crustin, thioredoxin, clip domain serine protease and serpin) are verified by their immune roles in the S. eriocheiris infection using Real-time PCR. The variation trend of immune gene's mRNA expression is similar with the result of iTRAQ, except the tubulin. The prophenoloxidase-activating system, antimicrobial action and antioxidant system involved in the immune responses of E. sinensis is believed to be a resistance to S. eriocheiris infection. This is the

  3. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  4. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the histone-like HU protein from Spiroplasma melliferum KC3

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Konstantin; Gorbacheva, Marina; Rakitina, Tatiana; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry; Vanyushkina, Anna; Kamashev, Dmitry; Lipkin, Alexey; Popov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    HU proteins belong to the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) that are involved in vital processes such as DNA compaction and reparation, gene transcription etc. No data are available on the structures of HU proteins from mycoplasmas. To this end, the HU protein from the parasitic mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Prismatic crystals of the protein were obtained by the vapour-diffusion technique at 4°C. The crystals diffracted to 1.36 Å resolution (the best resolution ever obtained for a HU protein). The diffraction data were indexed in space group C2 and the structure of the protein was solved by the molecular-replacement method with one monomer per asymmetric unit. PMID:25615963

  6. Can maternally inherited endosymbionts adapt to a novel host? Direct costs of Spiroplasma infection, but not vertical transmission efficiency, evolve rapidly after horizontal transfer into D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, S; Parratt, S R; Hutchence, K J; Lewis, Z; Price, T A R; Hurst, G D D

    2015-06-01

    Maternally inherited symbionts are common in arthropods and many have important roles in host adaptation. The observation that specific symbiont lineages infect distantly related host species implies new interactions are commonly established by lateral transfer events. However, studies have shown that symbionts often perform poorly in novel hosts. We hypothesized selection on the symbiont may be sufficiently rapid that poor performance in a novel host environment is rapidly ameliorated, permitting symbiont maintenance. Here, we test this prediction for a Spiroplasma strain transinfected into the novel host Drosophila melanogaster. In the generations immediately following transinfection, the symbiont had low transmission efficiency to offspring and imposed severe fitness costs on its host. We observed that effects on host fitness evolved rapidly, being undetectable after 17 generations in the novel host, whereas vertical transmission efficiency was poorly responsive over this period. Our results suggest that long-term symbiosis may more readily be established in cases where symbionts perform poorly in just one aspect of symbiosis.

  7. Recessive resistance to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in melon TGR 1551

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) reduces melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit quality and yield in many parts of the world. Host plant resistance of melon to CYSDV is a high priority for sustainable melon production in affected production areas. High-level resistance to CYSDV exhibited by TG...

  8. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  9. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  10. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  11. Stunted patches in onion bulb crops in Oregon and Washington: Etiology and yield loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an important soilborne disease in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. From 2010 to 2013, 251 isolates of Rhizoctonia or Rhizoctonia-like spp. were obtained from soil and onion plant samples collected from Oregon and Washington. Sequence analysis ...

  12. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  13. A new expanded host range of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus includes three agricultural crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) was identified in the fall of 2006 affecting cucurbit production in the Imperial Valley of California, the adjacent Yuma, AZ region, as well as nearby Sonora, Mexico. There was nearly universal infection of fall melon crops in 2006 and 2007, and late,...

  14. Assessment of the WHO Stunting Framework using Ethiopia as a case study.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Rohner, Fabian; Petry, Nicolai; Onyango, Adelheid W; Matji, Joan; Bailes, Adam; de Onis, Mercedes; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-04-29

    Poor linear growth in children <5 years old, or stunting, is a serious public health problem particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a conceptual framework on the Context, Causes and Consequences of Childhood Stunting (the 'WHO framework') that identifies specific and general factors associated with stunting. The framework is based upon a global review of data, and we have applied it to a country-level analysis where health and nutrition policies are made and public health and nutrition data are collected. We reviewed the literature related to sub-optimal linear growth, stunting and birth outcomes in Ethiopia as a case study. We found consistent associations between poor linear growth and indicators of birth size, recent illness (e.g. diarrhoea and fever), maternal height and education. Other factors listed as causes in the framework such as inflammation, exposure to mycotoxins and inadequate feeding during and after illness have not been examined in Ethiopia, and the existing literature suggests that these are clear data gaps. Some factors associated with poor linear growth in Ethiopia are missing in the framework, such as household characteristics (e.g. exposure to indoor smoke). Examination of the factors included in the WHO framework in a country setting helps identifying data gaps helping to target further data collection and research efforts. © 2016 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus in pastures of Bingol Province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The province of Bingol, a very mountainous area located in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey, has limited agricultural land but large intermountain pastures supporting the main economic resource of the region, livestock production. The stunt nematode Sauertylenchus maximus was recovered from a ...

  16. Protein interfaces and intersubunit bonding. The case of tomato bushy stunt virus.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, S C

    1980-01-01

    An atomic model of the subunit of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) has been constructed to fit an electron density map at 2.9 A resolution. Subunit interfaces show networks of polar residues forming H-bonds and salt bridges. The way in which alternative specific bonding geometries are built into a contact are described. PMID:7248446

  17. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  18. Geophagy is associated with environmental enteropathy and stunting in children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Perin, Jamie; Lee, Gwenyth O; Kosek, Margaret; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Parvin, Tahmina; Azmi, Ishrat J; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Talukder, Kaisar A; Mohammad, Shahnaij; Faruque, Abu G

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing body of literature indicating an association between stunting and environmental enteropathy (EE), a disorder thought to be caused by repeated exposures to enteric pathogens. To investigate the relationship between exposure to enteric pathogens through geophagy, consumption of soil, EE, and stunting, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 216 children under 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. Geophagy was assessed at baseline using 5 hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Stool was analyzed for fecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin (all three combined to form an EE disease activity score), and calprotectin. Eighteen percent of children had observed geophagy events by structured observation and 28% had caregiver reported events in the past week. Nearly all households had Escherichia coli (97%) in soil, and 14% had diarrheagenic E. coli. Children with caregiver-reported geophagy had significantly higher EE scores (0.72 point difference, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 1.42) and calprotectin concentrations (237.38 μg/g, 95% CI: 12.77, 462.00). Furthermore, at the 9-month follow-up the odds of being stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2) was double for children with caregiver-reported geophagy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.51). These findings suggest that geophagy in young children may be an important unrecognized risk factor for EE and stunting.

  19. Factors Associated with Stunting among Pre-school Children in Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Mutwiri, George Mutembei; Kopplow, Regine; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stunting is a major public health problem in Africa and is associated with poor child survival and development. We investigate factors associated to child stunting in three Tanzanian regions. Methods: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling survey was conducted among children aged 6-59 months. The sample included 1360 children aged 6-23 months and 1904 children aged 24-59 months. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Our main results are: in the younger group, stunting was associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.17; confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-3.09), maternal absence (AOR: 1.93; CI: 1.21-3.07) and household diet diversity (AOR: 0.61; CI: 0.41-0.92). Among older children, stunting was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.28; CI: 1.00-1.64), age of 4 and 5 (AOR: 0.71; CI: 0.54-0.95; AOR: 0.60; CI: 0.44-0.83), access to improved water source (AOR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to a functioning water station (AOR: 0.63; CI: 0.40–0.98) and mother breastfeeding (AOR: 1.97; CI: 1.18-3.29). Conclusions: Interventions that increase household wealth and improve water and sanitation conditions should be implemented to reduce stunting. Family planning activities and programmes supporting mothers during pregnancy and lactation can positively affect both newborns and older siblings. PMID:27122480

  20. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. Subjects/Methods: In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results: Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=−11.90, confidence interval (CI)=−22.33 to −1.48) and waist circumference (β=−4.29, CI=−5.62 to −2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=−4.50, CI=−6.47 to −2.52), triglycerides (β=−9.61, CI=−17.66 to −1.56) and waist circumference (β=−1.14, CI=−4.22 to −1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. Conclusions: The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults. PMID:26733042

  1. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8). Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting) especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) was associated with 0.07 standard units' increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15)]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth. PMID:27379184

  2. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    de Onis, Mercedes; Dewey, Kathryn G; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; Blössner, Monika; Daelmans, Bernadette; Piwoz, Ellen; Branca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization adopted a resolution on maternal, infant and young child nutrition that included a global target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted under-five children by 2025. The target was based on analyses of time series data from 148 countries and national success stories in tackling undernutrition. The global target translates to a 3.9% reduction per year and implies decreasing the number of stunted children from 171 million in 2010 to about 100 million in 2025. However, at current rates of progress, there will be 127 million stunted children by 2025, that is, 27 million more than the target or a reduction of only 26%. The translation of the global target into national targets needs to consider nutrition profiles, risk factor trends, demographic changes, experience with developing and implementing nutrition policies, and health system development. This paper presents a methodology to set individual country targets, without precluding the use of others. Any method applied will be influenced by country-specific population growth rates. A key question is what countries should do to meet the target. Nutrition interventions alone are almost certainly insufficient, hence the importance of ongoing efforts to foster nutrition-sensitive development and encourage development of evidence-based, multisectoral plans to address stunting at national scale, combining direct nutrition interventions with strategies concerning health, family planning, water and sanitation, and other factors that affect the risk of stunting. In addition, an accountability framework needs to be developed and surveillance systems strengthened to monitor the achievement of commitments and targets.

  3. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  4. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  9. Framework to Delay Corn Rootworm Resistance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This proposed framework is intended to delay the corn rootworm pest becoming resistant to corn genetically engineered to produce Bt proteins, which kill corn rootworms but do not affect people or wildlife. It includes requirements on Bt corn manufacturers.

  10. Stunting Mediates the Association between Small-for-Gestational-Age and Postneonatal Mortality123

    PubMed Central

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Christian, Parul; Katz, Joanne; Liu, Li; Kozuki, Naoko; Black, Robert E; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, one-third of all births are small for gestational age (SGA), and 4.4 million children are stunted; both conditions increase the risk of child mortality. SGA has also been shown to increase the risk of stunting. Objective: We tested whether the association between SGA and postneonatal mortality is mediated by stunting. Methods: We used longitudinal data from children aged 6 wk to 24 mo (n = 12,155) enrolled in the ZVITAMBO (Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies) trial. HIV exposure was defined based on maternal HIV status at baseline. SGA was defined as birthweight <10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st (International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century) standards. We used a standard mediation approach by comparing the attenuation of the risk when the mediator was added to the model. We used Cox proportional hazards models first to regress SGA on postneonatal mortality, controlling for age. Stunting (length-for-age z score <−2) was then included in the model to test mediation. Results: Approximately 20% of children were term SGA, and 23% were stunted before their last follow-up visit. In this cohort, 31% of children were exposed to HIV; the HIV-exposed group represented a pooled group of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children. Postneonatal mortality was significantly higher among children born SGA (HR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.7). This association was attenuated and not statistically significant when stunting was included in the model, suggesting a mediation effect (HR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.3). When stratified by HIV exposure status, we observed a significant attenuation of the risk, suggesting mediation, only among HIV-exposed children (model 1, HR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.6; model 2, HR: 1.1; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.3). Conclusions: This analysis aids in investigating pathways that underlie an observed SGA-mortality relation and may inform survival interventions in undernourished settings. PMID:27733526

  11. miRNA: A Novel Link Between Rice Ragged Stunt Virus and Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xiong; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Wanhong

    2016-06-01

    Rice ragged stunt disease caused leads to severe loss of rice yield. Recently, rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) were found to be increasingly common in rice-growing regions of China and Vietnam. RRSV may cause problem by interacting with microRNAs (miRNAs) of host cells and the mechanism is not clear yet. In this study we identified 11 miRNAs in response to RRSV infection and predicted their possible targets to viral RNA segments (S1-S10) through the bioinformatics analysis. Interestingly, we found that Osa-miR-168b might bind to both the CDS region and 3'UTR of S5 and S8 and target eEF-1A to inhibit the activity of host cells to facilitate RRSV replication. These results suggest that miRNAs may be a potential target for developing rice against RRSV infection.

  12. Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea-Stunting Pathway?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-31

    Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea -Stunting Pathway? Christa L. Fischer Walker1*, Laura Lamberti1, Linda Adair2, Richard...States of America Abstract Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries...yet the additional effects and sequelae, such as cognitive impairment associated with diarrhea , have not been quantified. Methods: We quantified the

  13. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  15. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  16. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  17. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children.

    PubMed

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-10-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score < -2) of 17-32 months old were randomly assigned to multivitamin-multimineral (n = 48) or placebo (n = 53) group. Supplementation was daily and supervised throughout 6 weeks. Knee-heel length, length, weight, arm circumference and appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p < 0.05), but were not different between groups. Growth was similar 4 months after the intervention. Morbidity was comparable in both groups before as well as after supplementation. We conclude that 6-week multivitamin-multimineral supplementation alone failed to improve appetite and growth of stunted young children.

  18. Habitat of the corn leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during the dry (winter) season in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Hogenhout, Saskia A; Nault, Lowell R

    2007-10-01

    Although the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong and Wolcott) is the most important vector of maize pathogens in Latin America, little is known about how and where it overwinters (passes the dry season), particularly in Mexico. The objectives of this study were (1) to monitor the abundance of D. maidis adults throughout the dry season in maize and maize-free habitats and (2) to determine where and how D. maidis adults, exposed or nonexposed to the maize pathogen Spiroplasma kunkelii Whitcomb, overwinter in a maize-free habitat. Work for the first objective was done during the two consecutive dry seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001; the second objective was done during the dry seasons of 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. During the dry winter seasons, D. maidis was prevalent as long as maize was present in irrigated areas. The leafhopper was found in 52 of the 58 irrigated maize fields sampled in Mexico at the end of the dry seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. However, leafhopper adults were not found in nonirrigated maize-free habitats at high elevation during the dry winter season (February, March, and April), although leafhopper adults were prevalent on perennial wild grasses in January after maize harvest. Additional experiments revealed, however, that corn leafhopper adults, although few in number, survived the entire dry season in these nonirrigated maize-free fields. Also, no detectable difference in survival existed between leafhoppers exposed and those not exposed to S. kunkelli during the two dry seasons in the maize-free habitat.

  19. Recovery from stunting and cognitive outcomes in young children: evidence from the South African Birth to Twenty Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Casale, D; Desmond, C

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyse the implications for cognitive function of recovery from stunting in early childhood. More specifically, we test whether children who met the definition for stunted at age 2, but not at age 5, perform better in cognitive tests than children who remain stunted over this period. The sample is drawn from the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study, a prospective data set of children born in 1990 in urban South Africa. The measure of cognitive function that we use is based on the Revised Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire implemented when the children were age 5. We employ multivariate regression in the analysis to control for child-specific characteristics, socio-economic status, the home environment and caregiver inputs. We find that recovery from stunting is not uncommon among young children in our sample. However, children who recover from stunting by age 5 still perform significantly worse on cognitive tests than children who do not experience early malnutrition, and almost as poorly as children who remain stunted. These findings suggest that the timing of nutritional inputs in the early years is key in a child's cognitive development, with implications for school readiness and achievement.

  20. Global, regional and country trends in underweight and stunting as indicators of nutrition and health of populations.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, L M; Osendarp, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Stunting and wasting provide indicators of different nutritional deficiency problems, the causes of which are well established. Underweight based on weight-for-age cannot distinguish between these two and is therefore not useful to target programs and has limited value for tracking progress. Stunting reduces later school attainment and income as adults and increases the risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in later life. Globally, the estimated number of stunted children is decreasing, but is not on track to meet the goal of 100 million by 2025 (165 million), and there has been little change in the number of children suffering from wasting since 2004. Stunting and wasting provide excellent indicators of inequity. For example, from 1990 to 2010, the number of stunted children in Asia declined from 188.7 to 98.4 million, while in sub-Saharan Africa there was essentially no change in prevalence, and the number of stunted children increased from 45.7 to 55.8 million. Recent global development movements are recognizing the need for robust measures of trends in nutritional status of children, particularly during the critical first years of life. Such measures are needed to track progress and improve accountability, and should be aspirational to mobilize sufficient investment in nutrition.

  1. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  2. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  3. CORN, LP Goldfield Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 19, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from CORN, LP, Goldfield facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS pro

  4. Chemotaxis without Conventional Two-Component System, Based on Cell Polarity and Aerobic Conditions in Helicity-Switching Swimming of Spiroplasma eriocheiris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zheng, Huajun; Meng, Qingguo; Terahara, Natsuho; Gu, Wei; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Nakane, Daisuke; Wang, Wen; Miyata, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a pathogen that causes mass mortality in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. S. eriocheiris causes tremor disease and infects almost all of the artificial breeding crustaceans, resulting in disastrous effects on the aquaculture economy in China. S. eriocheiris is a wall-less helical bacterium, measuring 2.0 to 10.0 μm long, and can swim up to 5 μm per second in a viscous medium without flagella by switching the cell helicity at a kink traveling from the front to the tail. In this study, we showed that S. eriocheiris performs chemotaxis without the conventional two-component system, a system commonly found in bacterial chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of S. eriocheiris was observed more clearly when the cells were cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The cells were polarized as evidenced by a tip structure, swimming in the direction of the tip, and were shown to reverse their swimming direction in response to attractants. Triton X-100 treatment revealed the internal structure, a dumbbell-shaped core in the tip that is connected by a flat ribbon, which traces the shortest line in the helical cell shape from the tip to the other pole. Sixteen proteins were identified as the components of the internal structure by mass spectrometry, including Fibril protein and four types of MreB proteins. PMID:28217108

  5. Structural basis of the high thermal stability of the histone-like HU protein from the mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum KC3

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Konstantin M.; Rakitina, Tatiana V.; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry A.; Vlaskina, Anna V.; Agapova, Yuliya K.; Kamashev, Dmitry E.; Kleymenov, Sergey Y.; Popov, Vladimir O.

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the histone-like HU protein from the mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 (HUSpm) was determined at 1.4 Å resolution, and the thermal stability of the protein was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. A detailed analysis revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the HUSpm dimer is similar to that of its bacterial homologues but is characterized by stronger hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface. This HUSpm dimer interface lacks salt bridges but is stabilized by a larger number of hydrogen bonds. According to the DSC data, HUSpm has a high denaturation temperature, comparable to that of HU proteins from thermophilic bacteria. To elucidate the structural basis of HUSpm thermal stability, we identified amino acid residues potentially responsible for this property and modified them by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative analysis of the melting curves of mutant and wild-type HUSpm revealed the motifs that play a key role in protein thermal stability: non-conserved phenylalanine residues in the hydrophobic core, an additional hydrophobic loop at the N-terminal region of the protein, the absence of the internal cavity present at the dimer interface of some HU proteins, and the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between the monomers that are missing in homologous proteins. PMID:27808161

  6. Organization and nucleotide sequences of the Spiroplasma citri genes for ribosomal protein S2, elongation factor Ts, spiralin, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and an unidentified protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, C; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    1990-01-01

    The gene for spiralin, the major membrane protein of the helical mollicute Spiroplasma citri, was cloned in Escherichia coli as a 5-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA fragment. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 5.0-kbp spiroplasmal DNA fragment was determined (GenBank accession no. M31161). The spiralin gene was identified by the size and amino acid composition of its translational product. Besides the spiralin gene, the spiroplasmal DNA fragment was found to contain five additional open reading frames (ORFs). The translational products of four of these ORFs were identified by their amino acid sequence homologies with known proteins: ribosomal protein S2, elongation factor Ts, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase, respectively encoded by the genes rpsB, tsf, pfk, and pyk. The product of the fifth ORF remains to be identified and was named protein X (X gene). The order of the above genes was tsf--X--spiralin gene--pfk--pyk. These genes were transcribed in one direction, while the gene for ribosomal protein S2 (rpsB) was transcribed in the opposite direction. Images PMID:2139649

  7. Structural basis of the high thermal stability of the histone-like HU protein from the mollicute Spiroplasma melliferum KC3.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Konstantin M; Rakitina, Tatiana V; Korzhenevskiy, Dmitry A; Vlaskina, Anna V; Agapova, Yuliya K; Kamashev, Dmitry E; Kleymenov, Sergey Y; Popov, Vladimir O

    2016-11-03

    The three-dimensional structure of the histone-like HU protein from the mycoplasma Spiroplasma melliferum KC3 (HUSpm) was determined at 1.4 Å resolution, and the thermal stability of the protein was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. A detailed analysis revealed that the three-dimensional structure of the HUSpm dimer is similar to that of its bacterial homologues but is characterized by stronger hydrophobic interactions at the dimer interface. This HUSpm dimer interface lacks salt bridges but is stabilized by a larger number of hydrogen bonds. According to the DSC data, HUSpm has a high denaturation temperature, comparable to that of HU proteins from thermophilic bacteria. To elucidate the structural basis of HUSpm thermal stability, we identified amino acid residues potentially responsible for this property and modified them by site-directed mutagenesis. A comparative analysis of the melting curves of mutant and wild-type HUSpm revealed the motifs that play a key role in protein thermal stability: non-conserved phenylalanine residues in the hydrophobic core, an additional hydrophobic loop at the N-terminal region of the protein, the absence of the internal cavity present at the dimer interface of some HU proteins, and the presence of additional hydrogen bonds between the monomers that are missing in homologous proteins.

  8. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. Methods A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Findings Child stunting was associated with the child’s sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents’ education, maternal tobacco use and mother’s birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Conclusion Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition. PMID:23678197

  9. Socioeconomic disparities and the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2012-07-01

    The double burden of malnutrition, defined here as households with a stunted child and an overweight mother (SCOM), is a growing problem in Guatemala. We explored the magnitude of SCOM and the identification of socio-economic factors associated with this malnutrition duality. From the 2000 Living Standards Measurement Study from Guatemala, we obtained a sample of 2492 households with pairs of children 6-60 months and their mothers (18-49 years) and estimated the prevalence of SCOM. Economic characteristics of this sample were assessed with the Concentration Index (CI). Results revealed higher prevalence of child stunting, but a lower prevalence of maternal overweight among the poor compared to the rich households. Economic inequality in child stunting was greater than economic inequality in maternal overweight (CI=-0.22 vs. +0.14). SCOM pairs were more prevalent among the poor and middle SES groups as compared to the rich households. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that SCOM was more likely to occur in households from the middle consumption quintile than in those from the first quintile (odds ratio=1.7). The findings reported here add new insights into the complex phenomenon observed in households with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum, and support the need for the identification of economic, social and biological interventions aimed at, on the one hand, the prevention of this duality of the malnutrition in those households where it is still non-existent, and on the other hand, to deter or correct the economic, social and biological environments where those mother-child dyads are already affected by such phenomena.

  10. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S., Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. Methods A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales—Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. Findings The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. Conclusion There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities. PMID:27490200

  11. Infant and young child feeding practices and stunting in two highland provinces in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Blouin, Brittany; Marquis, Grace S; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2017-04-01

    The first two years of life are critical for growth and development. Little is known about infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the Ecuadorian highlands and how they contribute to stunting. With the objective of understanding nutritional status and the influencing factors to design an intervention, we assessed the nutritional status of 293 infants and children between 0 and 24 months of age, living in 14 communities in the provinces of Tungurahua and Chimborazo using a cross-sectional study design. We used the WHO IYCF indicators to assess feeding practices; estimated dietary intake with 24-h recalls; and identified nutritious local foods by food frequency questionnaires. Multiple regression modelling was performed to identify correlates of nutritional status. Stunting was found in 56.2% of children. Mean protein, vitamin A and vitamin C intakes were above recommendations for all ages. Only infants 6.0 to 8.9 months of age and non-breastfed children 12-23.9 months of age consumed energy intakes below recommendations. Younger age groups had below recommended intakes for iron and calcium. While mean complementary food densities met recommendations for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C and energy, those for zinc, iron and calcium were lower than recommended. Older age, respiratory infections and being male were predictors of lower HAZ, whereas early initiation of breastfeeding, higher socioeconomic status, consumption of iron-rich foods and higher dietary protein density were protective. Interventions that promote and support optimal breastfeeding practices and enable increased consumption of nutritious local foods have potential to contribute to reducing stunting in this vulnerable population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. What Explains Cambodia’s Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    PubMed Central

    Zanello, Giacomo; Srinivasan, C. S.; Shankar, Bhavani

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, (“covariate effects”) and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes (“coefficient effects”)? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects) may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries. PMID:27649080

  13. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels

    PubMed Central

    Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fink, Günther; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sania, Ayesha; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24–35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days’ period of vulnerability) that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries. Methods and Findings We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million–12.6 million) of stunting (out of 44.1 million) were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million–8.2 million), and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million–9.2 million). FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and

  14. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk....

  19. Long-segmented filamentous organisms observed in poults experimentally infected with stunting syndrome agent.

    PubMed

    Angel, C R; Sell, J L; Fagerland, J A; Reynolds, D L; Trampel, D W

    1990-01-01

    One-day-old turkeys were inoculated per os with material shown previously to induce stunting syndrome (SS). Weight gain and feed efficiency of inoculated poults from 1 to 13 days of age were impaired (P less than 0.01) compared with uninoculated poults. Examination of the jejunal mucosa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of long-segmented filamentous organisms (LSFOs) in poults that had been inoculated with SS. These organisms were not seen in jejuna of uninoculated poults. Further research is needed to characterize LSFOs and to determine their involvement, if any, in the adverse effects associated with SS.

  20. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  1. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D; Moore, Sean R; Scharf, Rebecca J; Lima, Aldo A M

    2013-04-01

    More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.

  2. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, S S; Mandal, B; Ali, A; Varma, A

    2010-06-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) an important vegetable crop in India was observed to be affected by a chlorotic curly stunt disease (CCSD) during 2003-2006 in the vegetable growing areas of Delhi and adjoining state of Haryana. The affected plants are severely stunted and bear very small chlorotic and mildly curled leaves. Incidence of the disease varied from 4.7 to 36%. The disease could be easily transmitted by whitefly, Bemisia tabaci but not by sap. The causal virus was found to be a Begomovirus on the basis of whitefly transmission and sequence identity of putative coat protein (CP) and replication initiator protein (Rep) genes. The virus was transmitted to Cucumis sativus, Luffa acutangula, L. cylndrica, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum and Praecitrullus fistulosus but not to Citrullus lunatus, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita moschata and Vigna unguiculata. The N-terminal 60 amino acids of CP of the virus had 100% sequence identity with all the isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and two isolates of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCV). The full length amino acid sequence of the CP and Rep genes had 100% similarity with ToLCNDV-Svr and -Luffa isolates. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus associated with CCSD of bottle gourd belongs to ToLCNDV cluster of the begomoviruses. This is the first record of emergence of a Begomovirus associated severe disease in bottle gourd in India.

  3. The principles and practices of nutrition advocacy: evidence, experience and the way forward for stunting reduction.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David; Haider, Rukhsana; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Sarkar, Satyajit

    2013-09-01

    Advocacy represents an intervention into complex, dynamic and highly contextual socio-political systems, in which strategies and tactics must be adjusted on a continual basis in light of rapidly changing conditions, reactions from actors and feedback. For this reason, the practice of advocacy is often considered more art than science. However, capacities and practices for advocacy can be strengthened by sharing and analysing experiences in varying contexts, deriving general principles and learning to adapt these principles to new contexts. Nutrition is a particular context for advocacy, but to date, there has been little systematic analysis of experiences. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and draw lessons from the practice of nutrition advocacy, especially in relation to stunting and complementary feeding, and suggest ways to strengthen capacities and practices in the future. The strategies and tactics, achievements and lessons learnt are described for three case studies: Uganda, Vietnam and Bangladesh. These cases, and experience from elsewhere, demonstrate that concerted, well-planned and well-implemented advocacy can bring significant achievements, even in short period of time. In light of the global and national attention being given to stunting reduction through the SUN (Scaling Up Nutrition) movement and other initiatives, there is now a need for much stronger investments in strategic and operational capacities for advocacy, including the human, organisational and financial resources for the advocacy and strategic communication themselves, as well as for monitoring and evaluation, supportive research and institutional capacity-building.

  4. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mejía‐Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over‐reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand‐side problem and an over‐reliance on unintegrated single‐factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support‐led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society.Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth‐mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support‐led strategy.Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand‐side problem with proximal single‐factorial interventions is futile.There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. PMID:27187918

  5. Stunt or elongate? Two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keisuke; Hattori, Yoko; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of habitat is important for the perpetuation of species. In particular, plants which are sedentary must evolve specialized functions to adapt itself to new environment. Deepwater rice is cultivated mainly in the lowland areas of South and Southeast Asia that are flooded during the rainy season. The internodes of deepwater rice elongates in response to increasing water level to keep its leaves above the water surface and avoid anoxia. This elongation is stimulated by ethylene-regulated genes, Snorkel1 and Snorkel2. In contrast, when a flash flood occurs at the seedling stage, submergence-tolerant rice, which carries Submergence-1A, remains stunted and survives in water for a few weeks to avoid the energy consumption associated with plant elongation, and restarts its growth using its conserved energy after the water recedes. Interestingly, both Snorkel genes and Submergence-1A encode ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor and are connected to gibberellin biosynthesis or signal transduction. However, deepwater and submergence-tolerant rice seem to have opposite flooding response; namely, escape by elongation or remain stunted under water until flood recedes.

  6. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Akhtar J.; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W.; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:22852046

  7. Effect of neonatal stunting on development of rats: large litter rearing.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G

    1979-03-01

    As nurslings, rat pups reared in large litters showed reduced frequencies of returns to their nest from other parts of the home cage and reached maximum levels of nest returns at older ages than control animals from small litters. These differences were not due to differences in activity level or attraction to the nest but appeared to be perceptual in nature. As adults, animals from large litters showed deficits in learning the 1st 2 problems in a series of visual discriminations in a modified version of the Lashley jumping stand technique in which food reinforcement was not used. The deficits were confined to male animals only and were the result of stronger position habits in the early part of training, rather than an inability to make the discriminations. A comparison of these results with those obtained when other methods of stunting animals are employed revealed that different methods of stunting may result in both common and divergent effects on behavior. One long-term consequence of large litter rearing appears to be increased emotional response to noval situations.

  8. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    PubMed

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact.

  9. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Hortensia; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Sandoval, Araceli; Castillo, Raúl; Santos, José Ignacio; Doubova, Svetlana V; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area). Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities. Therefore, developing and

  10. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  11. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  12. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  13. Rhizoctonia spp. dynamics and optimal timing of glyphosate application to cereal cover crops to manage onion stunting in Washington and Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting or bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an economically important disease in sandy soils of the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. Patches of stunted onions develop where cover crops of wheat or barley are killed with a herbicide spray prior to spring planting of onion seed....

  14. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  15. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  16. Establishing alfalfa in corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...

  17. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  18. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; Leite, Alvaro M.; Pinkerton, Relana; Medeiros, Pedro H. Q. S.; Cavalcante, Paloma A.; DeBoer, Mark; Kosek, Margaret; Duggan, Christopher; Gewirtz, Andrew; Kagan, Jonathan C.; Gauthier, Anna E.; Swann, Jonathan; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Bolick, David T.; Maier, Elizabeth A.; Guedes, Marjorie M.; Moore, Sean R.; Petri, William A.; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Ila F.; Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Michaleckyj, Josyf C.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Sturgeon, Craig; Fasano, Alessio; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6–26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting) in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old), and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption); and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA) (suggesting impaired defenses). In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation). Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1) functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2) structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3) systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO) associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin) associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how we

  19. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  20. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  1. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  2. Recombination-based generation of the agroinfectious clones of Peanut stunt virus.

    PubMed

    Wrzesińska, Barbara; Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-11-01

    Full-length cDNA clones of Peanut stunt virus strain P (PSV-P) were constructed and introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cDNA fragments corresponding to three PSV genomic RNAs and satellite RNA were cloned into pGreen binary vector between Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator employing seamless recombinational cloning system. The plasmids were delivered into A. tumefaciens, followed by infiltration of hosts plants. The typical symptoms on systemic leaves of infected plants similar to those of wild-type PSV-P were observed. The presence of the virus was confirmed by means of RT-PCR and Western blotting. Re-inoculation to N. benthamiana, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Pisum sativum resulted in analogous results. Generation of infectious clones of PSV-P enables studies on virus-host interaction as well as revealing viral genes functions.

  3. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    PubMed Central

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole; Höglund, Erik; Gorissen, Marnix; Flik, Gert; Kristiansen, Tore S.; Øverli, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation that the serotonergic system in GS fish is unresponsive to additional stressors, yet a cortisol response is maintained. The inability of the serotonergic system to respond to additional stress, while a cortisol response is present, probably leads to both imbalance in energy metabolism and attenuated neural plasticity. Hence, we propose that serotonin-mediated behavioural inhibition may have evolved in vertebrates to minimize stress exposure in vulnerable individuals. PMID:27293782

  4. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  5. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  6. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in...

  8. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  9. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  10. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  11. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  12. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  13. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, p<0.001), father educational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, p<0.001) and mother educational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, p<0.001) as well as MES (Wald=13.95, p<0.001) were strong predictors of stunting among girls. Similarly BO (Wald=13.71, p<0.001) was a strong predictor of stunting among girls. Girls with >or=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with stunting than those with FES>or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESstunting than those with FES>or=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this

  14. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  15. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  16. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in‐depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0–23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5‐fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96–3.27]; children 6–23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24–2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two‐fold increased odds of stunting in children 6–23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19–3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two‐fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46–2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17–3.02). Attained linear growth (height‐for‐age z‐score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6–23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0–23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted.Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor

  17. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of the Procambarus clarkii microRNAs potentially related to immunity against Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jiangtao; Li, Yue; Ding, Zhengfeng; Xiu, Yunji; Wu, Ting; Du, Jie; Li, Wenjie; Zhu, Huanxi; Ren, Qian; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen

    2013-08-01

    We used the Illumina/Solexa deep sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from hemocytes of Procambarus clarkii under normal and infection conditions. The high-throughput sequencing approach resulted in approximately 12,801,827 and 8,410,455 raw reads corresponding to 10,949,754 and 6,648,161 high-quality mappable reads for the normal and infected hemocyte samples, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses identified 195 unique miRNAs, including 30 that are conserved in crustaceans, 48 that are novel to crayfish but are present in other arthropods (PN-type), and 117 that are completely new (PC-type). Thirty-three miRNAs displayed significant differential expressions between the two hemocyte samples (p < 0.0001). Of these, 15 (45.5%) were significantly up-regulated and 18 (54.5%) were significantly down-regulated upon challenge with Spiroplasma eriocheiris. Integrating comparative genomic and bibliomic analysis, of the 33 significant miRNAs identified, 19 were conserved and immune-related in P. clarkii and Eriocheir sinensis infected with S. eriocheiris infection; 24 were conserved and immune-related in P. clarkii and Marsupenaeus japonicus immune response to S. eriocheiris or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Function annotation of target genes revealed a broad range of biological processes and signal transduction pathways that regulated by crayfish miRNAs. Thereinto, pcl-miR-34, pcl-miR-7, PN-pcl-let-7, pcl-miR-1, and pcl-miR-2b are highly conserved in vertebrates and invertebrates and function in the similar pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comprehensive identification of P. clarkii miRNAs and of expression analysis of P. clarkii miRNAs after exposure to S. eriocheiris in crayfish, and many miRNAs were differentially regulated under normal and infection conditions. Our results should help develop new control strategies for efficient immune protection against S. eriocheiris infections in crustaceans.

  18. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  19. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  20. Preventing environmental enteric dysfunction through improved water, sanitation and hygiene: an opportunity for stunting reduction in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jean H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, one in every four (26%) children under 5 years of age worldwide was stunted. The realization that most stunting cannot be explained by poor diet or by diarrhoea, nor completely reversed by optimized diet and reduced diarrhoea has led to the hypothesis that a primary underlying cause of stunting is subclinical gut disease. Essentially, ingested microbes set in motion two overlapping and interacting pathways that result in linear growth impairment. Firstly, partial villous atrophy results in a reduced absorptive surface area and loss of digestive enzymes. This in turn results in maldigestion and malabsorption of much needed nutrients. Secondly, microbes and their products make the gut leaky, allowing luminal contents to translocate into systemic circulation. This creates a condition of chronic immune activation, which (i) diverts nutrient resources towards the metabolically expensive business of infection fighting rather than growth; (ii) suppresses the growth hormone‐IGF axis and inhibits bone growth, leading to growth impairment; and (iii) causes further damage to the intestinal mucosa thereby exacerbating the problem. As such, the unhygienic environments in which infants and young children live and grow must contribute to, if not be the overriding cause of, this environmental enteric dysfunction. We suggest that a package of baby‐WASH interventions (sanitation and water improvement, handwashing with soap, ensuring a clean play and infant feeding environment and food hygiene) that interrupt specific pathways through which feco‐oral transmission occurs in the first two years of a child's life may be central to global stunting reduction efforts. PMID:26542185

  1. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  2. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  3. Field evaluation of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus transmission by Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Castle, S J; Palumbo, J P; Merten, P

    2017-03-22

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a whitefly-transmitted Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) that impacts melon production in many parts of the world including the USA. It has been responsible for melon crop loss in the southwestern U.S. since 2006 when it was first identified. Control strategies have revolved mainly around chemical control, but research to identify suitable products and approaches to implementing them has lagged. The current study investigated the performance of four systemic insecticides in the field while concurrently tracking CYSDV disease progression after controlled and natural whitefly inoculation of young melon plants. Assessments of virus incidence were made using two different visual observation methods in concert with ELISA analyses of leaf disks samples collected biweekly. Infection rates were consistently lowest in plots treated with the butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone while dinotefuran was second in efficacy measures. Flupyradifurone also held whitefly densities to their lowest numbers relative to the other treatments. Two other insecticides, imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole, exacerbated virus incidence in multiple trials. Further investigation into the anomalous finding of increased virus incidence due to insecticide application is ongoing.

  4. Invasion of shoot apical meristems by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid differs among Argyranthemum cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Spetz, Carl; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiaochun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) is a damaging pathogen attacking Argyranthemum plants. Our study attempted to reveal distribution patterns of CSVd in shoot apical meristems (SAM) and to explore reasons for differential ability of CSVd to invade SAM of selected Argyranthemum cultivars. Symptom development was also observed on greenhouse-grown Argyranthemum plants. Viroid localization using in situ hybridization revealed that the ability of CSVd to invade SAM differed among cultivars. In diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ and ‘Butterfly’, CSVd was found in all tissues including the uppermost cell layers in the apical dome (AD) and the youngest leaf primordia 1 and 2. In diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Border Pink’, CSVd was detected in the lower part of the AD and elder leaf primordia, leaving the upper part of the AD, and leaf primordia 1 and 2 free of viroid. Histological observations and transmission electron microscopy showed similar developmental patterns of vascular tissues and plasmodesmata (PD) in the SAM of ‘Yellow Empire’ and ‘Border Dark Red’, while immunolocalization studies revealed a major difference in the number of callose (β-1, 3-glucan) particles deposited at PD in SAM. A lower number of callose particles were found deposited at PD of SAM of ‘Yellow Empire’ than ‘Border Dark Red’. This difference is most likely responsible for the differences in ability of CSVd to invade SAM among Argyranthemum cultivars. PMID:25763000

  5. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  6. Unusual ``Stunted'' Outbursts in Old Novae and Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Robertson, J. W.; Turner, G. W.

    1998-06-01

    Outbursts averaging 0.6 mag in amplitude and 10 days in width are described in five old novae and nova-like cataclysmic variables: UU Aqr, Q Cyg, CP Lac, X Ser, and RW Sex. These stars are thought to be high mass transfer rate systems for which the accretion disk is expected to be stable against the thermal instability responsible for dwarf nova outbursts. The widths and spacings of these events are similar to those of dwarf nova eruptions, but the amplitudes are significantly smaller, or ``stunted.'' The outbursts are sometimes accompanied by dips. These dips have amplitudes that are similar to the outbursts' but have shapes that scatter significantly more than the shapes of the outbursts. The outbursts and dips sometimes occur as pairs and are sometimes isolated. We are not able at this time to determine a single common mechanism for this behavior, or even to conclude that some mechanisms are preferred. Rather, we characterize these phenomena with regard to outburst shapes and frequency of occurrence and explore a range of possible causes, including truncated disks, mass transfer modulations, and Z Camelopardalis type behavior. Arguments are assembled for and against such possible mechanisms, and key observations are suggested. It appears unlikely that accretion disk instabilities are the single common cause of these phenomena, and we are left with either a combination of accretion disk and mass transfer events or a situation in which mass transfer events are somehow responsible for all these varied behaviors.

  7. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  8. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  9. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  10. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  11. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  12. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  13. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  15. 77 FR 10617 - Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wellsboro & Corning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC (WCLLC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company...

  16. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed to remove residual water soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and....1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly called D-glucose or dextrose... by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes, followed...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  7. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  8. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the…

  9. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned corn. 155.130 Section 155.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.130 Canned corn. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels...

  10. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned corn. 155.130 Section 155.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.130 Canned corn. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels...

  11. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned corn. 155.130 Section 155.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.130 Canned corn. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels...

  12. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  13. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  14. Boys are more stunted than girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of 16 demographic and health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wamani, Henry; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Peterson, Stefan; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2007-01-01

    Background Many studies in sub-Saharan Africa have occasionally reported a higher prevalence of stunting in male children compared to female children. This study examined whether there are systematic sex differences in stunting rates in children under-five years of age, and how the sex differences in stunting rates vary with household socio-economic status. Methods Data from the most recent 16 demographic and health surveys (DHS) in 10 sub-Saharan countries were analysed. Two separate variables for household socio-economic status (SES) were created for each country based on asset ownership and mothers' education. Quintiles of SES were constructed using principal component analysis. Sex differentials with stunting were assessed using Student's t-test, chi square test and binary logistic regressions. Results The prevalence and the mean z-scores of stunting were consistently lower amongst females than amongst males in all studies, with differences statistically significant in 11 and 12, respectively, out of the 16 studies. The pooled estimates for mean z-scores were -1.59 for boys and -1.46 for girls with the difference statistically significant (p < 0.001). The stunting prevalence was also higher in boys (40%) than in girls (36%) in pooled data analysis; crude odds ratio 1.16 (95% CI 1.12–1.20); child age and individual survey adjusted odds ratio 1.18 (95% CI 1.14–1.22). Male children in households of the poorest 40% were more likely to be stunted compared to females in the same group, but the pattern was not consistent in all studies, and evaluation of the SES/sex interaction term in relation to stunting was not significant for the surveys. Conclusion In sub-Saharan Africa, male children under five years of age are more likely to become stunted than females, which might suggest that boys are more vulnerable to health inequalities than their female counterparts in the same age groups. In several of the surveys, sex differences in stunting were more pronounced in

  15. Persistence of growth stunting in a Peruvian high altitude community, 1964-1999.

    PubMed

    Pawson, Ivan G; Huicho, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The growth of children living in Nuñoa, a Peruvian high-altitude community, was studied over a 35-year period using data collected in 1964 and 1999. There had been evidence of a secular trend in growth in the mid-1980s, but this was before a period of sociopolitical upheaval lasting until the late 1990s partly linked to the activities of the Shining Path group and the Peruvian government's response. Anthropometric data for 576 children examined in 1964-1966 were compared with data from 361 children examined in 1999. Data were converted to Z Scores using NCHS/WHO reference standards. Compared with the 1964 cohort, boys in 1999 had marginally greater height Z Scores, but among females, the trend was reversed. Stunting prevalence had decreased from 1964 levels, but still approached 60% in both sexes, among the highest rates recorded for a modern world population. The prevalence of low weight for height was less than expected, possibly because of the compensatory effect of enlarged chest diameter. This anatomical feature may represent the effect of chronic hypoxic stress, causing growth of the chest cavity at the expense of growth in height. In view of modest improvements during the late 1980s in this population, we believe that the relatively poor growth status of children a decade later may result from food disruption associated with later political instability. Compared with children in a nearby community, which benefits from the socioeconomic infrastructure associated with a large copper mine, Nuñoa children continue to fare relatively poorly.

  16. The New "Obstetrical Dilemma": Stunting, Obesity and the Risk of Obstructed Labour.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2017-04-01

    The "obstetrical dilemma" refers to the tight fit between maternal pelvic dimensions and neonatal size at delivery. Most interest traditionally focused on its generic significance for humans, for example our neonatal altriciality and our complex and lengthy birth process. Across contemporary populations, however, the obstetrical dilemma manifests substantial variability, illustrated by differences in the incidence of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, obstructed labour and cesarean section. Beyond accounting for 12% of maternal mortality worldwide, obstructed labour also imposes a huge burden of maternal morbidity, in particular through debilitating birth injuries. This article explores how the double burden of malnutrition and the global obesity epidemic may be reshaping the obstetrical dilemma. First, short maternal stature increases the risk of obstructed labour, while early age at marriage also risks pregnancy before pelvic growth is completed. Second, maternal obesity increases the risk of macrosomic offspring. In some populations, short maternal stature may also promote the risk of gestational diabetes, another risk factor for macrosomic offspring. These nutritional influences are furthermore sensitive to social values relating to issues such as maternal and child nutrition, gender inequality and age at marriage. Secular trends in maternal obesity are substantially greater than those in adult stature, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The association between the dual burden of malnutrition and the obstetrical dilemma is therefore expected to increase, because the obesity epidemic is emerging faster than stunting is being resolved. However, we currently lack objective population-specific data on the association between maternal obesity and birth injuries. Anat Rec, 300:716-731, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  18. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  19. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  20. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  1. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  2. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; ...

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  3. Stunted growth, increased mortality, and liver tumors in offspring of polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) dosed sherman rats.

    PubMed

    Groce, D F; Kimbrough, R D

    1984-01-01

    Firemaster FF-1, a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture, was dissolved in corn oil and given as a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight to Sherman rats on d 7 and 14 of pregnancy. Control rats received equivalent doses of corn oil alone. Selected pups and all dams were killed 1 mo after pups were weaned. A total of 50 male and 50 female offspring per group were followed until they were 2 yr old. The livers of offspring killed at the ages of 2 mo and 2 yr had PBB levels of 2,4 (SD 1.2) and 0.8 (SD 0.65) mg/kg for females and 3.0 (SD 1.6) and 0.6 (SD 0.37) mg/kg for males, respectively. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas was 3/51 (5.9%) and 4/41 (9.6%) after 2 yr in females and males, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinomas were not observed among the controls. Neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules of the liver were present in 9/51 (17.6%) and 2/41 (4.9%) of exposed females and males, respectively, whereas only 2/48 (4.2%) of control females and no control males had neoplastic (hyperplastic) nodules. Body weights were lower in PBB-exposed rats at ages 1, 6, 12, and 24 mo. Survival rates from birth to weaning were lower in PBB-exposed pups (89%) than in controls (98%). Mortality was two times higher in PBB-exposed males (64%) than in control males (32%) after 2 yr. Transplacental PBB exposure and exposure through milk resulted in PBB body burdens in the offspring still measurable at the end of their lifespan. These offspring had increased mortality rates and lower body weights than controls, and they developed hepatocellular carcinomas.

  4. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  5. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  6. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  9. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  10. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  11. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  12. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  13. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  14. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  15. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  18. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  19. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  20. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  1. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  2. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  3. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  4. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  5. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  6. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  7. Shock treatment of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Bond, Austin; Rughoonundun, Hema; Petersen, Eric; Holtzapple, Carol; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-01-27

    Corn stover digestibility was enhanced via shock treatment. A slurry of lime-treated corn stover was placed in a partially filled closed vessel. From the ullage space, either a shotgun shell was fired into the slurry, or a gas mixture was detonated. Various conditions were tested (i.e., pressures, depth, solids concentrations, gas mixtures). A high pressurization rate (108,000 MPa/s shotgun shells; 4,160,000 MPa/s hydrogen/oxygen detonation) was the only parameter that improved enzymatic digestibility. Stoichiometric propane/air deflagration had a low pressurization rate (37.2 MPa/s) and did not enhance enzymatic digestibility. Without shock, enzymatic conversion of lime-treated corn stover was 0.80 g glucan digested/g glucan fed with an enzyme loading of 46.7 mg protein/g glucan. With shock, the enzyme loading was reduced by ∼2× while maintaining the same conversion. Detonations are extraordinarily fast; rapidly cycling three small vessels (0.575 m(3) each) every 7.5 s enables commercially relevant shock treatment (2,000 tone/day). © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2017.

  8. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  9. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  10. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; P<0.0001). Only few indicators of low socio-economic status were found to be associated with infection. In rural but not urban schoolchildren, infection prevalence declined significantly with age. G. duodenalis infection more than doubled the odds of stunting in both rural (adjusted OR, 2.35 (95%CI, 1.25-4.41)) and urban children (adjusted OR, 2.27 (95%CI, 1.01-5.09)). In the study area of rural southern Rwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren.

  11. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  12. Corn residue removal impact on topsoil organic carbon in a corn-soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn [Zea mays L.] residue is being considered as a feedstock source for biofuels production. The impact of removing corn residue on soil productivity needs to be determined in order to preserve the soil resource. A corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] rotation was established in 2000 and the eff...

  13. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  14. Research on mechanical properties of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kaifei; He, Yujing; Zhang, Hongmei; Li, He

    2017-03-01

    Many domestic scholars have studied on straw utilization from lodging resistance, by breeding agricultural experts to optimization parameters, which selected by agricultural mechanical experts and efficient utilization after the harvest crush. Therefore, the study of the mechanical properties of corn stalks has great prospects. It can provide the basis for the design of agricultural machinery and comprehensive utilization of straw that study the relationship between the properties of the corn stalk and the mechanical properties. In this paper, the radial compression and bending mechanical properties of corn stalk was conducted by universal material testing machine, which contributes to the increase of corn crop and provides basis for the development of equipment.

  15. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  16. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  17. Boys Are More Stunted than Girls from Early Infancy to 3 y of Age in Rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bork, Kirsten A; Diallo, Aldiouma

    2017-03-15

    Background: Girls tend to have a lower risk of stunting than boys do in low-income countries.Objective: We evaluated differences in height status and complementary food (CF) intake between sexes from ages 2 to 39 mo in Senegal.Methods: Length and weight measurements were taken at ages 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, and 9-10 mo (n = 7319). Qualitative 24-h and 7-d food recalls were conducted in a subgroup (n = 2512). A smaller subsample was followed up to age 39 mo (n = 512). Height was measured, and intake of CF was noted. Boys and girls were compared in terms of height-for-age z score (HAZ) of WHO standards and National Center for Health Statistics growth reference, height-for-age difference, stunting, and consumption of CF by using chi-square tests, general linear models, and mixed-effects linear models (MLMs).Results: By using WHO standards, the mean HAZ was lower for boys than for girls in infancy, i.e., at 2-3 mo of age (-0.65 compared with -0.57; P = 0.002) and beyond, i.e., at 24-29 mo of age (-2.01 compared with -1.65; P < 0.001). Overall risk of stunting was 24.5% and 19.4% for boys and girls, respectively, during infancy (P < 0.001) compared with 59.2% and 47.9%, respectively, at 12-39 mo (P = 0.010). In MLMs from ages 2 to 39 mo, boys had a lower mean HAZ than girls had at age 2 mo (β0 = -0.19; P = 0.035), and sex differences increased with increasing age (β1 = -0.007 z scores/mo; P < 0.001). At 2-3 mo of age, boys were more likely to have been fed CF every day during the past week (15.8% compared with 11.2% for girls; P = 0.005) and to have eaten ≥2 meals in the past 24 h (13.4% compared with 8.2% for girls; P < 0.001).Conclusions: In Senegalese infants, CF intake differed by sex, with boys more likely to consume CF. Boys had lower HAZs than girls had during infancy, and sex differences increased up to age 39 mo. The importance of sex in complementary feeding and growth warrants further attention in low-income countries.

  18. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  19. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  20. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  1. Corn stalk as a bioenergy resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul E., Jr.

    Waste corn stalk has the potential to help reduce the nation's dependence upon foreign sources of petroleum by becoming a major bioenergy resource. There are many sources of biomass that could also be utilized for this endeavor. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of agricultural waste are produced in the United States alone. This represents a significant source of energy. Through gasification, this waste could be used to generate power, fuels, and/or products. This dissertation shows that the gasification of corn stalk can produce char, heat, synthesis gases (CO and H2), and can also be used for work to dry moist biomass. Through the integration of drying, gasification, and carbon production, waste corn stalk can be used as a significant bioenergy resource. Novel concepts included in this dissertation include: (1) using corn stalk as a gasification fuel, (2) using corn stalk to generate activated carbon, (3) using activated carbon from corn stalk to adsorb organic pollutants, (4) using the gasification of corn stalk in a new process to dry moist biomass, (5) using the "partial" gasification of moist corn stalk in another new process to dry moist biomass in a single step. Each concept could be integrated with existing gasification technology to increase the efficient utilization of energy from biomass.

  2. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  3. Alcohol from corn: poor energy balance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-10

    It is reported that most processing plants producing alcohol from corn currently operate with very unfavourable energy balances. The energy needed to grow and harvest corn plus petroleum or natural gas used in the processing phase often exceeds the energy that can be derived from the alcohol.

  4. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  5. Efficacy of fungicides to manage onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting, caused by Rhizoctonia spp., has become a significant soilborne problem of onion bulb crops planted in sandy soils in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Research on the epidemiology and management of this disease is in progress. ...

  6. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  7. Yield responses of three onion cultivars to stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause patches of stunted onion plants in onion bulbs crop in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon when onion crops are planted in sandy soils of this semi-arid region following winter cereal cover crops. A herbicide application is used to kill the cereal cover crop, usually ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” Strain Mbita1, the Causative Agent of Napier Grass Stunt Disease in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Wambua, Lillian; Olds, Cassandra; Midega, Charles; Dickinson, Matthew; Kawicha, Praphat; Khan, Zeyaur; Masiga, Daniel; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens with devastating impact on agricultural production worldwide. In eastern Africa, Napier grass stunt disease causes serious economic losses in the smallholder dairy industry. This draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1 provides insight into its genomic organization and the molecular basis of pathogenicity. PMID:27103722

  9. Rapid differentiation of citrus Hop stunt viroid variants by use of real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The RNA genome of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) contains five to six nucleotides in a variable (V) domain, called the cachexia expression motif, which is associated with pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants in citrus. Current methods to differentiate HSVd variants rely on lengthy greenhouse biological i...

  10. Assessing the movement of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in susceptible and tolerant cucumber germplasms using serological and nucleic acid based methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is an emerging virus causing significant yield losses in cucurbits. Simple but reliable detection and quantification methods constitute an important support to disease management. In a susceptible germplasm CYSDV was detected 5 days post-inoculation (D...

  11. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P < 0.03). Children's reports of management strategies were associated with 5 of 7 work activities measured. Labor in food-insecure children was the main activity that explained school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences.

  12. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient‐rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post‐natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post‐natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post‐natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post‐natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation. PMID:27187908

  13. Stunting, adiposity, and the individual-level “dual burden” among urban lowland and rural highland peruvian children

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Cole, Tim J; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Background The causes of the “dual burden” of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error. Methods Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 3–8.5 years (n = 201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores. Results Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P < 0.001). Height was positively associated with BMI among urban lowland children, and more weakly with WCHtR. Among rural highland children, height was negatively associated with WCHtR but unrelated to BMI. Similar results using tibia length rather than stature indicate that stature measurement error was not a major concern. Conclusions Lowland and rural highland children differ in their patterns of stunting, BMI, and WCHtR. These contrasts likely reflect environmental differences and overall environmental stress exposure. Tibia length or knee height can be used to assess the influence of measurement error in height on the relationship between stature and BMI or WCHtR. PMID:24706334

  14. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score <-2 was categorised as underweight, height-for-age-z-score <-2 as stunted, and BMI-z-score >+1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01). Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  15. 34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn cracking machine, by Sprout, Waldron and Co., (Muncy, PA), which cut and diced corn to a uniform size, then separated it into three grades of cracked corn and corn meal and removed chaff. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not...

  19. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  20. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  3. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  4. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  5. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  6. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  7. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not...

  9. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  11. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  12. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  13. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not...

  14. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  15. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive... solution from high dextrose-equivalent corn starch hydrolysate by partial enzymatic conversion of...

  17. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  18. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not...

  19. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  1. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not...

  2. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  3. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  4. Utilization of corn fiber for production of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber is an abundant lignocellulosic biomass resource produced during the wet milling of corn. Although corn fiber is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, the fungus Schizophyllum commune was able to directly utilize corn fiber for production of the valuable bioproduct, schizophyllan. Schizophy...

  5. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  6. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. NAC transcription factor family genes are differentially expressed in rice during infections with Rice dwarf virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, and Rice transitory yellowing virus

    PubMed Central

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Sharoni, Akhter M.; Satoh, Kouji; Karim, Mohammad Rezaul; Harikrishna, Jennifer A.; Shimizu, Takumi; Sasaya, Takahide; Omura, Toshihiro; Haque, Mohammad A.; Hasan, Sayed M. Z.; Ahmad, Aziz; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    Expression levels of the NAC gene family were studied in rice infected with Rice dwarf virus (RDV), Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), and Rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV). Microarray analysis showed that 75 (68%) OsNAC genes were differentially regulated during infection with RDV, RBSDV, RGSV, and RRSV compared with the control. The number of OsNAC genes up-regulated was highest during RGSV infection, while the lowest number was found during RTYV infection. These phenomena correlate with the severity of the syndromes induced by the virus infections. Most of the genes in the NAC subgroups NAC22, SND, ONAC2, ANAC34, and ONAC3 were down-regulated for all virus infections. These OsNAC genes might be related to the health stage maintenance of the host plants. Interestingly, most of the genes in the subgroups TIP and SNAC were more highly expressed during RBSDV and RGSV infections. These results suggested that OsNAC genes might be related to the responses induced by the virus infection. All of the genes assigned to the TIP subgroups were highly expressed during RGSV infection when compared with the control. For RDV infection, the number of activated genes was greatest during infection with the S-strain, followed by the D84-strain and the O-strain, with seven OsNAC genes up-regulated during infection by all three strains. The Os12g03050 and Os11g05614 genes showed higher expression during infection with four of the five viruses, and Os11g03310, Os11g03370, and Os07g37920 genes showed high expression during at least three viral infections. We identified some duplicate genes that are classified as neofunctional and subfunctional according to their expression levels in different viral infections. A number of putative cis-elements were identified, which may help to clarify the function of these key genes in network pathways. PMID:26442000

  8. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  9. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open,...

  10. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open,...

  11. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%).

  12. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  13. Detection of rotaviruses and intestinal lesions in broiler chicks from flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS).

    PubMed

    Otto, Peter; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth M; Elschner, Mandy; Reetz, Jochen; Löhren, Ulrich; Diller, Roland

    2006-09-01

    The intestinal tract and intestinal contents were collected from 34 stunted, 5-to-14-day-old broiler chicks from eight flocks with runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in Northern Germany to investigate intestinal lesions and the presence of enteric pathogens with a special focus on rotaviruses (RVs). Seven chicks from a healthy flock were used as controls. Severe villous atrophy was seen in chicks from six flocks with RSS but not in the control flock. Lesions were often "regionally" distributed in the middle-to-distal small intestine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and seminested RT-PCR were used for detection and characterization of RVs. The PAGE allows discrimination of different RV groups, and the RT-PCR was used to verify the presence of group (gp) A RVs. RVs were detected (by all methods) in 32 of 34 chicks from the flocks with RSS. By TEM (negative staining), RV particles were observed in intestinal contents of 28 chicks from the flocks with RSS. PAGE analysis showed four RV groups: gpA, gpD, gpF, and gpG. Group A RVs were detected in four chicks from two flocks with RSS, without intestinal lesions. GpD RVs were detected in 12 chicks of five flocks with RSS, 10 of them with severe villous atrophy. GpF RVs were confirmed in four chicks from three flocks with RSS and in two birds in the control flock. GpG RVs were verified in two chicks from two flocks with RSS, one with, and one without, intestinal lesions. At present, PCR methods are only available for detection of gpA RVs. Using RT-PCR, gpA RVs were identified in samples from 22 chicks including samples of two chicks from the control flock. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between presence of gpD RV and severe villous atrophy in flocks with RSS. The results suggest that gpD RV plays a major role in the pathogenesis of RSS.

  14. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  15. Sickle cell trait (HbAS) and stunting in children below two years of age in an area of high malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kreuels, Benno; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Kreuzberg, Christina; Adjei, Samuel; Kobbe, Robin; Burchard, Gerd D; Ehmen, Christa; Ayim, Matilda; Adjei, Ohene; May, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background While the protective effects of sickle cell trait (HbAS) against severe malaria and the resulting survival advantage are well known, the impact on the physical development in young children remains unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between HbS carriage and stunting in children below two years of age in a cohort from the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Methods 1,070 children were recruited at three months of age and followed-up for 21 months with anthropometric measurements performed every three months. Incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by Poisson regression to estimate the association of β-globin genotypes with the number of malaria episodes. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for the association between the occurrence of β-globin genotypes and/or malaria episodes and stunting. The age-dependent between-group and within-group effects for the β-globin genotypes were assessed by population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimation equation with autoregressive correlation structure. Results Analyses showed a significantly lower age-dependent risk of stunting (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33–0.96) in carriers of the HbAS genotype (n = 102) in comparison to those with HbAA (n = 692). This effect was restricted to children who experienced malaria episodes during the observation period suggesting that the beneficial effect of the β-globin HbS variant on the incidence of stunting is closely linked to its protection from mild malaria episodes. Conclusion The lower risk of chronic malnutrition in early childhood, mediated by protection against mild malaria episodes, may contribute to the survival advantage of HbAS carriers in areas of high malaria transmission. PMID:19149873

  16. Stunting Is Associated with Food Diversity while Wasting with Food Insecurity among Underfive Children in East and West Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Motbainor, Achenef; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera

    2015-01-01

    Background Food insecurity has detrimental effects in protecting child undernutrition.This study sought to determine the level of child undernutrition and its association with food insecurity. Methods A community based comparative cross-sectional study design involving multistage sampling technique was implemented from 24th of May to 20th of July 2013. Using two population proportion formula, a total of 4110 randomly selected households were included in the study. Availability of the productive safety net programme was used for grouping the study areas. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the association between food insecurity and child malnutrition. Clustering effects of localities were controlled during analysis. Results Stunting (37.5%), underweight (22.0%) and wasting (17.1%) were observed in East Gojjam zone, while 38.3% stunting, 22.5% underweight, and 18.6% wasting for the West Gojjam zone. Food insecurity was significantly associated with wasting (β = - 0.108, P < 0.05).Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day significantly associated with stunting (β = 0.039, P < 0.01) and underweight (β = 0.035, P < 0.05) respectively. Residential area was the significant predictor of all indices. Conclusion The magnitude of child undernutrition was found to be very high in the study areas. Food insecurity was the significant determinant of wasting. Food diversity and number of meals the child ate per day were the significant determinants of stunting and underweight respectively. Child nutrition intervention strategies should take into account food security, dietary diversity, and carefully specified with regard to residential locations. Addressing food insecurity is of paramount importance. PMID:26285047

  17. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  18. Resistance Management Monitoring for the US Corn Crop to the Illinois Corn Growers Association

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  19. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  20. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  1. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1 expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 20...

  2. AgRISTARS: Supporting research. Classification of corn: Badhwar profile similarity technique. [us corn belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The same software programs used to classify spring wheat are applied to the classification of corn in 26 segments in the corn belt. Numerical results of the acreage estimation are given. Potential problem areas defined in an earlier application are examined.

  3. Open-Pollinated Corn Varietal Hybrids: Diverse Germplasm for Corn Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is some renewed interest in open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and open-pollinated varietal hybrids (OPVhs) of corn, especially among organic and low-input farmers, due to their stable yield and broad adaptation as compared with hybrid corn. In addition, open-pollinated varietal hybrids may have...

  4. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants as influenced by corn residue management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership corn stover project, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) field studies incorporating stover removal management practices (0 and 100% removal) were established in both Alabama and South Carolina. Plots in both states were representative of major soil types in t...

  5. Corn stover removal impacts on soil greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting corn stover for livestock feed or for cellulosic biofuel production may impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of high-yield irrigated corn. Soil emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured over the 2011 growing season at two irri...

  6. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  7. Suppression and enhancement of the Aspergillus nidulans medusa mutation by altered dosage of the bristle and stunted genes.

    PubMed

    Busby, T M; Miller, K Y; Miller, B L

    1996-05-01

    Asexual reproduction in Aspergillus nidulans is characterized by the orderly differentiation of multicellular reproductive structures (conidiophores) and chains of uninucleate conidia (spores). Mutations in the developmental modifier medusa (medA) result in aberrant conidiophores with branching chains of reiterated reproductive cells (metulae), delayed conidial differentiation and frequent reinitiation of secondary conidiophores. We show that incorrect morphology is in part a consequence of modified bristle (brlA) and abacus (abaA) expression, key regulators of the core genetic pathway directing conidial differentiation. First, correct temporal expression of both brlA transcripts (brlA alpha and brlA beta) requires MedAp. Second, MedAp functions as a coactivator required for normal levels of abaA expression. Finally, we show that wild-type morphology results from a finely tuned balance in the expression of brlA, medA and the developmental modifier stunted (stuA). One extra copy of brlA suppresses medA mutations and restores normal abaA mRNA abundance. In contrast, an extra copy of stuA in a medA- strain results in an enhanced medusoid phenotype with extensive metulae proliferation and nearly complete absence of conidia. abaA and brlA alpha transcription are completely repressed in these strains. In general, low stuA:brlA ratios promoted conidiation while high ratios caused proliferation of unicellular sterigmata and inhibited conidiation.

  8. Suppression and Enhancement of the Aspergillus Nidulans Medusa Mutation by Altered Dosage of the Bristle and Stunted Genes

    PubMed Central

    Busby, T. M.; Miller, K. Y.; Miller, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Asexual reproduction in Aspergillus nidulans is characterized by the orderly differentiation of multicellular reproductive structures (conidiophores) and chains of uninucleate conidia (spores). Mutations in the developmental modifier medusa (medA) result in aberrant conidiophores with branching chains of reiterated reproductive cells (metulae), delayed conidial differentiation and frequent reinitiation of secondary conidiophores. We show that incorrect morphology is in part a consequence of modified bristle (brlA) and abacus (abaA) expression, key regulators of the core genetic pathway directing conidial differentiation. First, correct temporal expression of both brlA transcripts (brlAα and brlAβ) requires MedAp. Second, MedAp functions as a coactivator required for normal levels of abaA expression. Finally, we show that wild-type morphology results from a finely tuned balance in the expression of brlA, medA and the developmental modifier stunted (stuA). One extra copy of brlA suppresses medA mutations and restores normal abaA mRNA abundance. In contrast, an extra copy of stuA in a medA(-) strain results in an enhanced medusoid phenotype with extensive metulae proliferation and nearly complete absence of conidia. abaA and brlAα transcription are completely repressed in these strains. In general, low stuA:brlA ratios promoted conidiation while high ratios caused proliferation of unicellular sterigmata and inhibited conidiation. PMID:8722771

  9. Complete genome sequence and biological characterization of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and reclassification of Lettuce necrotic stunt virus as MPV.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Hladky, Laura L

    2013-05-01

    Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) have been steadily increasing in prevalence in central Asia and western North America, respectively, over the past decade. Recent sequence analysis of LNSV demonstrated a close relationship between the coat proteins of LNSV and MPV. To determine the full extent of the relationship between LNSV and MPV, the genomes of three MPV isolates were sequenced and compared with that of LNSV. Sequence analysis demonstrated that genomic nucleotide sequences as well as virus-encoded proteins of the three MPV isolates and LNSV shared 97% or greater identity. A full-length clone of a California LNSV isolate was developed and virus derived from infectious transcripts was used to evaluate host plant reactions under controlled conditions. Symptoms of LNSV matched those described previously for MPV on most of a select series of host plants, although some differences were observed. Collectively, these molecular and biological results demonstrate that LNSV should be classified as MPV within the family Tombusviridae, genus Tombusvirus, and confirm the presence of MPV in North America.

  10. Relocalization of nuclear ALY proteins to the cytoplasm by the tomato bushy stunt virus P19 pathogenicity protein.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Joachim F; Canto, Tomas; Marshall, David; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2004-08-01

    The P19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a multifunctional pathogenicity determinant involved in suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing, virus movement, and symptom induction. Here, we report that P19 interacts with the conserved RNA-binding domain of an as yet uncharacterized family of plant ALY proteins that, in animals, are involved in export of RNAs from the nucleus and transcriptional coactivation. We show that the four ALY proteins encoded by the Arabidopsis genome and two ALY proteins from Nicotiana benthamiana are localized to the nucleus. Moreover, and in contrast to animal ALY, all but one of the proteins are also in the nucleolus, with distinct subnuclear localizations. Infection of plants by TBSV or expression of P19 from Agrobacterium results in relocation of three of the six ALY proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm demonstrating specific targeting of the ALY proteins by P19. The differential effects on subcellular localization indicate that, in plants, the various ALY proteins may have different functions. Interaction with and relocalization of ALY is prevented by mutation of P19 at residues previously shown to be important for P19 function in plants. Down-regulation of expression of two N. benthamiana ALY genes by virus-induced gene silencing did not interfere with posttranscriptional gene silencing. Targeting of ALY proteins during TBSV infection may therefore be related to functions of P19 in addition to its silencing suppression activity.

  11. Imbalance in expression of hop (Humulus lupulus) chalcone synthase H1 and its regulators during hop stunt viroid pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Füssy, Zoltán; Patzak, Josef; Stehlík, Jan; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2013-05-01

    Viroid-derived small RNAs generated during hop stunt viroid (HSVd) pathogenesis may induce the symptoms found in the hop cultivar "Admiral", including observed shifts in phenylpropanoid metabolites and changes in petiole coloration. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we examined hop lupulin gland-specific genes that have been shown to be involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism, for altered expression in response to infection with two HSVd isolates, HSVd-g and CPFVd. Most notably, the expression of a gene encoding a key enzyme for phenylpropanoid synthesis, naringenin-chalcone synthase H1 (chs_H1), decreased up to 40-fold in infected samples. In addition, a marked decrease in the expression of HlbHLH2 and an increase in the expression of HlMyb3 were observed. These two genes encode transcription factors that form a ternary complex with HlWDR1 for chs_H1 promoter activation. In a transient expression assay, a decrease in the ternary complex potential to activate the chs_H1 promoter was observed upon the decrease of HlbHLH2 expression. In addition, targeting of the chs_H1 transcript by vd-sRNAs may contribute to these expression changes. Our data show that HSVd infection causes a significant imbalance in the expression of phenylpropanoid metabolite-affecting genes via a complex mechanism, possibly involving regulatory disorders and direct targeting by vd-sRNA.

  12. A Long-Distance Translocatable Phloem Protein from Cucumber Forms a Ribonucleoprotein Complex In Vivo with Hop Stunt Viroid RNA†

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Gustavo; Pallás, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Viroids are highly structured plant pathogenic RNAs that do not code for any protein, and thus, their long-distance movement within the plant must be mediated by direct interaction with cellular factors, the nature of which is presently unknown. In addition to this type of RNAs, recent evidence indicates that endogenous RNAs move through the phloem acting as macromolecular signals involved in plant defense and development. The form in which these RNA molecules are transported to distal parts of the plant is unclear. Viroids can be a good model system to try to identify translocatable proteins that could assist the vascular movement of RNA molecules. Here, we demonstrate by use of immunoprecipitation experiments, that the phloem protein 2 from cucumber (CsPP2) is able to interact in vivo with a viroid RNA. Intergeneric graft assays revealed that both the CsPP2 and the Hop stunt viroid RNA were translocated to the scion. The translocated viroid is symptomatic in the nonhost scion, indicating that the translocated RNA is functional. The CsPP2 gene was cloned and sequenced. The analysis of its primary structure revealed the existence of a potential double-spaced-RNA-binding motif, previously identified in a set of proteins that bind to highly structured RNAs, which could explain its RNA-binding properties. The possible involvement of this phloem protein in assisting the long-distance movement of the viroid RNA within the plant is discussed. PMID:15331743

  13. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ying; Xie, Xiujuan; Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P < 0.05). qPCR validation results displayed similar patterns. The differentially expressed genes were primarily involved in energy metabolism pathways. The antisense transcripts were extensively expressed in chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3'UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age.

  14. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-05-25

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NDELTA52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  15. Effect of processing on the fumonisins content of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.A.; Hendrich, S.; Hopmans, E.C.

    1995-12-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, predominant corn pathogens, and are found in most corn-containing foods. The FBs are heat stable, resistant to ammoniation and, unlike most mycotoxins, are water-soluble. The levels in corn and corn-containing foods will be presented ranging from <20 ppb to >2 ppm. The effects of water washing contaminated FB-corn does not reduce the levels significantly. Fermentation of corn to ethanol does not alter FB but distillation yielded FB-free ethanol.

  16. Assessment Of Product In Corn And Soybean Intercropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad Mehdi; Yadegari, Mehrab

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in research station of Fars in 2004, in a piece of Land with a clay texture. In order to evaluate the different ratios of CORN and SOYBEAN intercropping, in comparison to pure culture, a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was adapted. Treatments consist of: p1 = pure corn, p2 = pure soybean, p3 = 50% corn+50% soybean, p4 = %75 corn+%25 soybean, p5 = %75 soybean+%25 corn. This Experiment was conducted by using replacement system. Evaluated factors are as the following Soybean and corn seed yield in pure culture and intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Relative corn yield, Relative soybean yield, aggressively. Results showed that the treatment with %75 SOYBEAN+%25 CORN with LER = 1.19 and also the treatment with %50 soybean+%50 corn with LER—1.11 have preference %19 and %11 respectively higher yield compared to pure culture. Also in relation to the aggressively in treatment with %50corn+%50 soybean and also with %75corn+%25soybean, corn was dominant. Finally the best treatment was %75 soybean+%25corn with %19 efficiency compared to pure culture.

  17. Composition of grain and forage from corn rootworm-protected corn event MON 863 is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays l.).

    PubMed

    George, Cherian; Ridley, William P; Obert, Janet C; Nemeth, Margaret A; Breeze, Matthew L; Astwood, James D

    2004-06-30

    Insect-protected corn hybrids containing event MON 863 protect corn plants against feeding damage from corn rootworm (Diabrotica), a major North American insect pest. Corn event MON 863 contains a gene that expresses an amino acid sequence variant of the wild-type Cry3Bb1 insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. The purpose of this study was to compare the composition of corn containing event MON 863 with that of conventional nontransgenic corn. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure proximates, fiber, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, folic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin E, antinutrients, and certain secondary metabolites in grain and proximates and fiber content in forage collected from a total of eight field sites in the U.S. and Argentina. Compositional analyses demonstrated that the grain and forage of event MON 863 are comparable in their nutritional content to the control corn hybrid and conventional corn. These comparisons, together with the history of the safe use of corn as a common component of animal feed and human food, support the conclusion that corn event MON 863 is compositionally equivalent to, and as safe and nutritious as, conventional corn hybrids grown commercially today.

  18. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Josiah J.; Boyles, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  19. Agroecology of corn production in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, M.A.; Trujillo, J.

    1987-06-01

    The primary components of Tlaxcalan corn agriculture are described, including cropping patterns employed, resource management strategies, and interactions of human and biological factors. Tlaxcalan farmers grow corn in an array of polyculture and agroforestry designs that result in a series of ecological processes important for insect pest and soil fertility management. Measurements derived from a few selected fields show that trees integrated into cropping systems modify the aerial and soil environment of associated understory corn plants, influencing their growth and yields. With decreasing distance from trees, surface concentrations of most soil nutrients increase. Certain tree species affect corn yields more than others. Arthropod abundance also varies depending on their degree of association with one or more of the vegetational components of the system. Densities of predators and the corn pest Macrodactylus sp. depend greatly on the presence and phenology of adjacent alfalfa strips. Although the data were derived from nonreplicated fields, they nevertheless point out some important trends, information that can be used to design new crop association that will achieve sustained soil fertility and low pest potentials.

  20. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    PubMed

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-06

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  1. 2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing doubletrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing double-track rail system leading to upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  2. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Jiang, Hongxin; Blanco, Michael; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-01-16

    Objectives of this study were to compare ethanol production between normal and waxy corn using a cold fermentation process and to understand effects of starch structures and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields positively correlated (p < 0.01) with starch contents of kernels of the normal and waxy corn. The average starch-ethanol conversion efficiency of waxy corn (93.0%) was substantially greater than that of normal corn (88.2%). Waxy corn starch consisted of very little amylose and mostly amylopectin that had a shorter average branch chain length than normal corn amylopectin. Regression analyses showed that average amylopectin branch chain lengths and percentage of long branch chains (DP > 37) of waxy corn starch negatively correlated with the starch hydrolysis rate and the ethanol yield. These results indicated that starch structures and properties of the normal and waxy corn had significant effects on the ethanol yield using a cold fermentation process.

  3. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  4. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  5. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  6. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  7. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  8. A method for sampling waste corn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  9. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  10. Stunting and Wasting Are Associated with Poorer Psychomotor and Mental Development in HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Infants12

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christine M.; Manji, Karim P.; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C.; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development. PMID:23256148

  11. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  12. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    PubMed

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product.

  13. Evidence of resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn by western corn rootworm: root injury in the field and larval survival in plant-based bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 c...

  14. 1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the southwest looking past the corn crib toward the north elevation of the chicken coop, showing the spatial relationship of the outbuildings to one another - Chellberg Farm, Corn Crib, 900 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Porter County, IN

  15. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  16. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  17. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55...

  19. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  20. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  1. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  4. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  5. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55...

  7. Corn Clubs: Building the Foundation for Agricultural and Extension Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uricchio, Cassandra; Moore, Gary; Coley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Corn clubs played an important role in improving agriculture at the turn of the 20th century. Corn clubs were local organizations consisting of boys who cultivated corn on one acre of land under the supervision of a local club leader. The purpose of this historical research study was to document the organization, operation, and outcomes of corn…

  8. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture containing either approximately 42 or 55...

  10. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  11. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  12. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  13. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  14. Detection of matrix-bound fumonisins in nixtamalized corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn and corn-based foods worldwide. They are produced by Fusarium, most notably F. verticillioides. Nixtamalization involves cooking and steeping corn in an alkaline solution and has been shown to reduce the amount of detectable fumonisins in the cooked products....

  15. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  16. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  17. Corn residue utilization by livestock in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock. Limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA-ERS surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain ...

  18. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  19. Wisconsin - Increased corn silage protein with intercropped lablab bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein supplements for livestock are costly. In recent research in southern WI, lablab bean grown with corn increased forage CP concentration over monoculture corn without compromising forage yield or potential milk production per acre. Corn was intercropped with each of three climbing beans: lab...

  20. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  1. Holograms with corn honey and erioglaucine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande-Grande, A.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Paez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    We present a comparative analysis between the diffraction gratings efficiencies recorded on films corn honey and corn honey whit ereoglaucine dye (Blue ® No. 1). For recording the diffraction gratings in the films using the technique of lithography pattern obtained by computer and exposure of the samples to ultraviolet radiation. Although the main reason of the addition of dye to the honey was the one of increasing its diffraction efficiency, the experimental results demonstrated that the gratings recorded in honey had bigger diffraction efficiency than those recorded in honey with dye.

  2. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  3. Greenhouse-Selected Resistance to Cry3Bb1-Producing Corn in Three Western Corn Rootworm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  4. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Wang, Michael Q.

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  5. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  6. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  7. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  8. Corn processing method in finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed.

    PubMed

    Scott, T L; Milton, C T; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2003-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of corn processing method on performance and carcass traits in steers fed finishing diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). In Trial 1, 480 steer calves (303 kg initial BW) were fed eight finishing diets: 1) dry-rolled corn (DRC) without; and 2) with 32% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) steam-flaked corn (SFC) without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) a combination of DRC and SFC without WCGF; 6) finely-ground corn (FGC) with WCGF; 7) high-moisture corn (HMC) with WCGF; and 8) whole corn (WC) with WCGF. Feeding WC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased gain:feed compared with all other treatments. Feeding DRC + WCGF increased (P < 0.10) DMI and decreased (P < 0.10) gain:feed compared with treatments other than WC + WCGF. Steers on treatments that included WCGF gained similarly, regardless of corn processing method, and at a rate 6% faster (P < 0.10) than steers fed diets that did not include WCGF. Gain:feed did not differ among steers fed SFC, SFC + WCGF, SFC + DRC, and HMC + WCGF. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF were more efficient (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC or FGC + WCGF. In Trial 2, 288 steer calves (382 kg initial BW) were fed six finishing diets: 1) DRC without; and 2) with 22% (DM basis) WCGF; 3) SFC without; and 4) with WCGF; 5) finely rolled corn (FRC) with WCGF; and 6) HMC corn with WCGF. Steers fed DRC + WCGF or FRC + WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) than steers fed DRC, SFC, or SFC + WCGF. Feed intake did not differ between steers fed SFC + WCGF and HMC + WCGF. All treatment groups receiving WCGF consumed more DM (P < 0.10) feed than steers fed DRC or SFC without WCGF. Steers fed SFC + WCGF gained 8% faster (P < 0.10), and steers fed DRC 9.5% slower (P < 0.10) than steers receiving all other treatments. Daily gains did not differ among other treatment groups. Steers fed SFC or SFC + WCGF gained 10% more (P < 0.10) efficiently than all other treatment groups. Feed efficiency did not differ among steers fed DRC, DRC

  9. AmeriFlux US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn. Site Description - The Twitchell Corn site is a corn field on peat soil. The tower was installed on May 17, 2012 and was equipped to analyze energy, H2O and CO2 fluxes. The field was planted in early May 2012 and harvested in early November 2012. The field was fallow during the non-growing season. The variety of corn used was ES-7477 hybrid corn commercialized by Eureka seeds. The site is near US-Tw1, US-Tw3 and US-Twt sites.

  10. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-01-06

    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  11. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  12. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage and silage-containing feed on dairy farms have recently been identified as a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, we present measurements of ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage samples made using a wind tunnel system. Flux of ethanol f...

  13. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  14. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  15. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.100... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  16. Temporal spectral response of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Kimes, D. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed for the prediction of winter wheat yields from remotely sensed data indicating crop status over the growing season are tested for their applicability to corn. Ground-based spectral measurements in the Landsat Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.62-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) were performed at one-week intervals throughout the growing season for 24 plots of corn, and analyzed to derive spectral ratios and normalized spectral differences of the IR and shortwave IR bands with the red. The ratios of the near IR and shortwave IR bands are found to provide the highest and most consistent correlations with corn yield and dry matter accumulation, however the value of band 5 could not be tested due to the absence of water stress conditions. Integration of spectral ratios over several dates improved the correlations over those of any single date by achieving a seasonal, rather than instantaneous, estimate of crop status. Results point to the desirability of further tests under other growth conditions to determine whether satellite-derived data will be useful in providing corn yield information.

  17. US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results from the U.S. corn/soybeans exploratory experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are summarized. The experiment consisted of two parts: the classification procedures verification test and the simulated aggregation test. Evaluations of labeling, proportion estimation, and aggregation procedures are presented.

  18. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  19. How safe is Capreno on sweet corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn hybrid sensitivity to postemergence herbicides was reported in the early 1990s with use of acetolactate-synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Despite introduction of newer postemergence herbicides since that time, hybrid sensitivity has remained a problem. Recently a mutant cytochrome P45...

  20. Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability.

  1. Implications of corn prices on water footprints of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kyo; Suh, Sangwon; Smith, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Previously reported water footprints (WFPs) of corn ethanol have been estimated based on the assumption that corn ethanol feedstock could be supplied by the same states where the corn is grown. However, ethanol conversion facilities may choose out-of-state feedstock suppliers depending on the total price of feedstock they have to pay including both the corn price and transportation costs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the WFPs and total water use (TWU) of corn ethanol considering an optimal allocation of corn with heterogeneous corn feedstock prices across states. The results show that the WFPs of corn ethanol are less than 100 l of water per liter of ethanol (Lw/Le) for all ethanol-producing states based on both the 2008 corn price and transportation costs for rail and truck. Results also reveal that WFPs are very sensitive to the market price of corn and that additional greenhouse gas emissions due to corn trade between states are not significant.

  2. Hyperspectral imagery for characterization of different corn genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; DiCrispino, Kevin; Lewis, David; Beach, James; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2004-11-01

    USDA and the Institute for Technology Development are currently collaborating on a project using hyperspectral imagery to detect pathogens such as mycotoxin producing molds in grain products. The initial experiments are being implemented on corn kernels. When molds appear on corn, reflectance spectra from the molds and corn are mixed. Therefore, it is important to characterize the corn reflectance, which is the background reflectance in the image. The objective of this study was to qualitatively identify and quantify kernel signatures of several corn genotypes. Four different corn genotypes (genetically distinct corn lines) and four near isogenic corn lines were prepared at the USDA laboratory. The study used a visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system for data acquisition. The imaging system utilizes focal plane pushbroom scanning for high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging. Procedures were developed for optimum image calibration and image processing. It was expected that the results would be useful for reducing the background influence of corn in mold detection and would also be applicable in corn genotype identification, especially among corn lines with different resistance levels to molds.

  3. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non‐nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision‐making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre‐conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition‐specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909

  4. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results Based on Zinc Availability in National Food Supplies and the Prevalence of Stunting

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1) estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2) investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. Methodology and Principal Findings National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world’s population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001). Conclusions and Significance These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine the need for

  5. Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3-23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick; Roberfroid, Dominique; Tatala, Simon; Opsomer, Ann S; Van Camp, John H

    2005-09-01

    Infants in Tanzania are particularly vulnerable to under-nutrition during transition from breastmilk (as the only source of nourishment) to solid foods. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Kilosa district in Tanzania to determine the feeding practices and the extent of wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia. The study was done in two stages: in the first stage, a 24-hour dietary assessment was conducted to identify the type of complementary foods given and the eating habits according to age for 378 children aged 3-23 months. In the second stage, a progressive recruitment of 309 infants aged six months was made to measure weight, length, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin concentration, and malaria parasitaemia. Birth-weight, the potential contributing factor to under-nutrition and iron-deficiency anaemia, was obtained from the children's clinic cards. The 24-hour dietary assessment revealed that children consumed mainly a thin porridge prepared from maize flour as complementary food. Carbohydrates contributed most energy (on average 69%), followed by fats (18.6%) and protein (on average 12.1%). The complementary food co-vered only 15%, 20%, and 27% of the recommended iron intake for children aged 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months respectively. The mean Hb concentration was 9.3 +/- 1.9 g/dL, 68% of the infants were moderately anaemic (7 < or =11 g/dL), and about 11% were severely anaemic with Hb below 7 g/dL, while 21% were non-anaemic Hb (> or =11 g/dL). Equally, the mean zinc protoporphyrin concentration was 10.0 +/- 6.2 microg/g Hb, and 76% of the infants were iron-deficient (>5 microg/g Hb). The prevalence of stunting was 35%, while wasting was only 1.3%. Low birth-weight and low body mass index of mothers were the strong predictors of stunting, whereas low birth-weight and iron-deficiency were the strong predictors of anaemia. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was high, affecting 50% of the infants. Having malaria was the only

  6. Rapid Delivery of Foreign Genes into Plants by Direct Rub-Inoculation with Intact Plasmid DNA of a Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Gene Vector

    PubMed Central

    Scholthof, Herman B.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) cDNA, positioned between a modified cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the hepatitis delta virus antigenomic ribozyme with a downstream nopaline synthase gene polyadenylation signal, established infections upon rub-inoculation of plants with intact plasmids. Application of this methodology produced a TBSV DNA-based gene vector which yielded readily detectable levels of localized foreign gene expression in inoculated leaves. This is the first demonstration of an infectious DNA from a member of the Tombusviridae which permits rapid TBSV-mediated foreign-gene expression upon direct rub-inoculation of miniprep DNA onto a variety of plant species. PMID:10438874

  7. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P < 0.01). In mothers who had completed primary school, the reverse was found: a doubling in wealth score was associated with improved child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P < 0.01) but not with mother's weight. As a result, a 100% increase in wealth among households with less schooled mothers was associated with a 4.5 percentage point increase (P < 0.05) in double-burden pairs; in households with mothers with primary schooling or more, it was not associated with the occurrence of double-burden pairs. Maternal schooling effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low

  8. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  9. Optimal wet corn gluten and protein levels in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets for steer calves.

    PubMed

    Block, H C; Macken, C N; Klopfenstein, T J; Erickson, G E; Stock, R A

    2005-12-01

    A feeding trial evaluated the hypothesis that wet corn gluten feed would improve growth performance of cattle fed steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets and supply required degradable intake protein (DIP). The trial used 360 steer calves (initial BW = 288 +/- 11 kg) housed in 36 pens for 166 d in an incomplete 4 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Pens of steers were assigned to treatments according to a completely randomized design (four replicates per treatment combination). Treatments were wet corn gluten feed (0, 20, 30, or 40% of dietary DM) and CP (13.0, 13.7, or 14.4% of dietary DM) via supplemental urea as DIP. The 0% wet corn gluten feed treatment included only the 13.7% CP diet, and the 40% wet corn gluten feed treatment included only the 13.7 and 14.4% CP diets. Final dietary DIP concentration was 9.0% for 0% wet corn gluten feed; 8.7, 9.5, and 10.2% for 20% wet corn gluten feed; 9.0, 9.7, and 10.3% DIP for 30% wet corn gluten feed; and 10.0 and 10.6% for 40% wet corn gluten feed. Hot carcass weight, ADG, DMI, and G:F responded quadratically (P < or = 0.05) to wet corn gluten feed. The 20, 30, and 40% wet corn gluten feed treatments increased ADG by 7, 6, and 3% and increased DMI by 4, 5, and 5%, respectively, relative to the 0% wet corn gluten feed treatment. Feed efficiency was 102, 101, and 98% of the 0% wet corn gluten feed treatment for 20, 30, and 40% wet corn gluten feed, respectively. Hot carcass weight, ADG, and G:F increased linearly (P < or = 0.05) in response to increased DIP. Nonlinear analysis for DIP over the combined 20 and 30% wet corn gluten feed treatments indicated a DIP requirement of 9.6% of DM for ADG and 9.2% of DM for G:F, corresponding to 14.6 and 14.3% CP for 20% wet corn gluten feed and 14.8 and 14.5% CP for 30% wet corn gluten feed, respectively. Fat thickness, marbling, LM area, and USDA yield grade were not affected (P = 0.12 to 0.99) by wet corn gluten feed or CP. These results show that the inclusion rate of wet

  10. Composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in corn.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2010-12-01

    The species composition and abundance of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in corn, Zea mays L., was determined in this on-farm study in Georgia. Seven species of phytophagous stink bugs were found on corn with the predominant species being Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say). All developmental stages of these two pests were found, indicating they were developing on the corn crop. The remaining five species, Oebalus pugnax pugnax (F.), Euschistus quadrator (Rolston), Euschistus tristigmus (Say), Euschistus ictericus (L.), and Acrosternum hilare (Say), were found in relatively low numbers. Adult N. viridula were parasitized by the tachinid parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.). There was a pronounced edge effect in distribution of stink bugs in corn. Population dynamics of N. viridula and E. servus were different on early and late-planted corn. Oviposition by females of both stink bug species occurred in mid-to-late-May and again mid-to-late-June in corn, regardless of planting date. In early planted fields, if stink bug females oviposited on corn in mid-July, the resulting nymphs did not survive to the adult stage in corn because ears were close to physiological maturity and leaves were senescing. Density of stink bug adults in early planted corn was relatively low throughout the growing season. In late-planted corn, females of both stink bug species consistently laid eggs in mid-to-late-July on corn with developing ears. This habitat favored continued nymph development, and the resulting adult population reached high levels. These results indicate that corn management practices play a key role in the ecology of stink bugs in corn agroecosystems and provide information for designing management strategies to suppress stink bugs in farmscapes with corn.

  11. Noncanonical role for the host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT protein in the formation of Tomato bushy stunt virus replicase.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Daniel; Martín, Isabel Fernández de Castro; Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation.

  12. A few sequence polymorphisms among isolates of Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma associate with organ proliferation symptoms of infected maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Canale, Maria Cristina; Haryono, Mindia; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) is a bacterial pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.) across Latin America. MBSP belongs to the 16SrI-B sub-group within the genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’. MBSP and its insect vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are restricted to maize; both are thought to have coevolved with maize during its domestication from a teosinte-like ancestor. MBSP-infected maize plants show a diversity of symptoms. and it is likely that MBSP is under strong selection for increased virulence and insect transmission on maize hybrids that are widely grown in Brazil. In this study it was investigated whether the differences in genome sequences of MBSP isolates from two maize-growing regions in South-east Brazil explain variations in symptom severity of the MBSP isolates on various maize genotypes. Methods MBSP isolates were collected from maize production fields in Guaíra and Piracicaba in South-east Brazil for infection assays. One representative isolate was chosen for de novo whole-genome assembly and for the alignment of sequence reads from the genomes of other phytoplasma isolates to detect polymorphisms. Statistical methods were applied to investigate the correlation between variations in disease symptoms of infected maize plants and MBSP sequence polymorphisms. Key Results MBSP isolates contributed consistently to organ proliferation symptoms and maize genotype to leaf necrosis, reddening and yellowing of infected maize plants. The symptom differences are associated with polymorphisms in a phase-variable lipoprotein, which is a candidate effector, and an ATP-dependent lipoprotein ABC export protein, whereas no polymorphisms were observed in other candidate effector genes. Lipoproteins and ABC export proteins activate host defence responses, regulate pathogen attachment to host cells and activate effector secretion systems in other pathogens. Conclusions Polymorphisms in two putative virulence genes among MBSP isolates

  13. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2015-01-01

    fits size variation of O. universa. From the presence of Halimeda bioherms intercalated with the sapropel cycles, we infer cyclic photic zone anoxia and at least some sections with sapropel couplets to have formed in the neritic zone. We also suggest further testing of stunted growth of O. universa as a proxy for enhanced nutrient availability in future palaeoceanographic studies.

  14. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-09-01

    fits size variation of O. universa. From the presence of Halimeda bioherms intercalated with the sapropel cycles, we infer cyclic photic zone anoxia and at least some sections with sapropel couplets to have formed in the neritic zone. We also suggest further testing of stunted growth of O. universa as a proxy for enhanced nutrient availability in future palaeoceanographic studies.

  15. Noncanonical Role for the Host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT Protein in the Formation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation. PMID:24763736

  16. Glyphosate-tolerant corn: the composition and feeding value of grain from glyphosate-tolerant corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, R S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L; Mutz, J N; Holden, L R; George, B; Olson, T

    2000-06-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) corn line GA21 has been developed by genetic modification to tolerate glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compositional and nutritional safety of corn line GA21 compared to that of conventional corn. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure proximate, fiber, amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral contents of grain and proximate, fiber, and mineral contents of forage collected from 16 field sites over two growing seasons. The nutritional safety of corn line GA21 was evaluated in a poultry feeding study conducted with 2-day old, rapidly growing broiler chickens, at a dietary concentration of 50-60% w/w. Compositional analysis results showed that, except for a few minor differences that are unlikely to be of biological significance, the grain and forage of GA21 corn were comparable in their composition to that of the control corn line and to conventional corn. Results from the poultry feeding study showed that there were no differences in growth, feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, and fat pad weights between chickens fed with GA21 grain or with parental control grain. These data taken together demonstrate that Roundup Ready corn is as safe and nutritious as conventional corn for food and feed use.

  17. Stunted by climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-11-01

    With expertise in geography and human health, Marta Jankowska and David López-Carr worked with a team of specialists in climate science, statistics, demography and policy to study climate change impacts on child malnutrition in Mali.

  18. Changes in the solubility of corn proteins through interaction with the arabinoxylans in extruded nixtamalized corn flour treated with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rivas, Silvia Carolina; Medina-Rodríguez, Concepción Lorenia; Torres-Chávez, Patricia Isabel; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The extrusion process allows the production of nixtamalized corn flour rich in arabinoxylans, which help to prevent cardiovascular and intestinal diseases. During extrusion, physiochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flour are negatively modified. The use of enzymes such as xylanase in order to obtain nixtamalized corn flour using extrusion has been studied as an alternative to reduce these changes in corn flour tortilla. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in protein solubility of extruded nixtamalized corn flour with and without different concentrations of xylanase enzyme (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%, w/w). Soluble proteins of each corn flour were extracted and analyzed by SE-HPLC, while insoluble proteins were determined by the combustion method. In addition, each corn flour was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the extruded nixtamalized corn flour, with and without xylanase, increased the protein solubility, and this effect was lower in extruded nixtamalized corn flour with xylanase. Insoluble protein diminished in corn flours either with or without xylanase enzyme. The addition of xylanase reduces the effect that the extrusion process has on the solubility proteins of extruded nixtamalized corn flour.

  19. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    PubMed

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas.

  20. Implications of acquired environmental enteric dysfunction for growth and stunting in infants and children living in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Keusch, Gerald T.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Denno, Donna M.; Duggan, Christopher; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lavery, James V.; Tarr, Philip I.; Ward, Honorine D.; Black, Robert E.; Nataro, James P.; Ryan, Edward T.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Coovadia, Hoosen; Lima, Aldo; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Hay Burgess, Deborah C.; Brewer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Changes in small bowel function early in infancy in developing countries are increasingly being demonstrated, probably accompanied by altered mucosal architecture in most individuals, including reduced enterocyte mass and evidence of immune activation and inflammation in the mucosa. These alterations appear to be the result of factors of uncertain nature in the environment, and may be a cause of growth faltering and stunting in young children. For these reasons, this constellation of findings is being referred to as environmental enteropathy, or as we propose herein, environmental enteric dysfunction. If the causes were known and effective interventions were available, strategies and policies to intervene at—or possibly before—birth could be developed and promoted in order to prevent subsequent malnutrition and recurrent infection, which are known to interact in a cyclical and synergistic manner in a downward clinical course often ending in death. Resources would be mobilized and applied differently, and the emphasis would change from treatment to prevention. In order to move in this highly desired direction, investments in research will be required to establish the criteria to assess environmental enteric dysfunction, determine its predictive value for growth faltering and stunting, identify the causes, and propose and test potential interventions. The concepts and tools are available. What is required is the decision to move forward along this pathway to better health for infants and children in low-income countries. PMID:24167916

  1. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders.

  2. 78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... engineered for resistance to corn rootworm, an insect pest of corn, is no longer considered a regulated..., which has been genetically engineered for resistance to corn rootworm, an insect pest of corn....

  3. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  4. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  5. Effects of concentration and composition of wet corn gluten feed in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2004-09-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (299 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain efficiency and ADG were similar (P > 0.25) among treatments. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.10) with 0% wet corn gluten feed than with concentrations of 20, 25, and 35% WCGF. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments containing wet corn gluten feed. In Exp. 2, 160 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (315 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (four pens/treatment). Treatments were assigned based on four ratios of steep to corn bran/germ meal mix in wet corn gluten feed plus a negative control (CON). Wet corn gluten feed was fed at 25% of the dietary DM and was made by mixing steep and corn bran/germ meal into the diet. The four concentrations of steep in wet corn gluten feed that comprised the ratios were 37.5, 41.7, 45.8, and 50% (DM basis), with the remaining proportion being the bran/germ meal mix. Bran/germ meal mix was comprised of 60% dry corn bran, 24% germ meal, and 16% fine-cracked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Daily gain did not differ (P = 0.18) among treatments. Gain efficiency did not differ between CON and 50% steep; however, G:F was decreased (P < 0.05) for concentrations of 37.5, 41.7, and 45.8% steep compared with CON. A linear improvement (P < 0.05) was observed for G:F as concentration of steep

  6. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  7. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events.

    PubMed

    Wangila, David S; Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; French, B Wade; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1-expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to characterize the susceptibility of western corn rootworm populations to the rootworm-active proteins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and Cry34/35Ab1. Results demonstrate that there are heritable differences in susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm populations to rootworm-active Bt traits. Proportional survival and corrected survival data coupled with field histories collectively support the conclusion that a level of field resistance to Cry3Bb1 has evolved in some Nebraska populations in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance exists between Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Cry34/35Ab1 and either Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A. The potential implications of these results on current and future corn rootworm management strategies are discussed.

  8. Deterioration of High-Moisture Corn1

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Michael E.; Hartman, Paul A.; Saul, Robert A.; Tiffany, Lois H.

    1975-01-01

    Two small, leaky silos were filled with normal high-moisture corn (HMC), and two with HMC severely infested by Helminthosporium maydis. Counts of mesophilic bacteria, lactobacilli, coliforms, yeasts, and molds were made on corn samples as received and periodically thereafter during 220 days of storage. Temperature and gas levels also were monitored. Sequential changes in the populations of lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds were determined during spoilage of HMC. These population changes were compared on the basis of the variables encountered in the present study as well as with the results of previous studies conducted on normal HMC stored under adequate conditions. Heavy infestation by H. maydis had no appreciable effect on HMC preservation. PMID:1147609

  9. Glutathione conjugation: atrazine detoxication mechanism in corn.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, R H; Swanson, H R; Walsh, W C

    1970-07-01

    Glutathione conjugation (GS-atrazine) of the herbicide, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) is another major detoxication mechanism in leaf tissue of corn (Zea mays, L.). The identification of GS-atrazine is the first example of glutathione conjugation as a biotransformation mechanism of a pesticide in plants. Recovery of atrazine-inhibited photosynthesis was accompanied by a rapid conversion of atrazine to GS-atrazine when the herbicide was introduced directly into leaf tissue. N-De-alkylation pathway is relatively inactive in both roots and shoots. The nonenzymatic detoxication of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine is negligible in leaf tissue. The hydroxylation pathway contributed significantly to the total detoxication of atrazine only when the herbicide was introduced into the plant through the roots. The metabolism of atrazine to GS-atrazine may be the primary factor in the resistance of corn to atrazine.

  10. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  11. Calcium Transport by Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marco Aurelio P.; Carnieri, Eva G. S.; Vercesi, Anibal E.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondria from some plant tissues possess the ability to take up Ca2+ by a phosphate-dependent mechanism associated with a decrease in membrane potential, H+ extrusion, and increase in the rate of respiration (AE Vercesi, L Pereira da Silva, IS Martins, CF Bernardes, EGS Carnieri, MM Fagian [1989] In G Fiskum, ed, Cell Calcium Metabolism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 103-111). The present study reexamined the nature of the phosphate requirement in this process. The main observations are: (a) Respiration-coupled Ca2+ uptake by isolated corn (Zea mays var Maya Normal) mitochondria or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-induced efflux of the cation from such mitochondria are sensitive to mersalyl and cannot be dissociated from the silmultaneous movement of phosphate in the same direction. (b) Ruthenium red-induced efflux is not affected by mersalyl and can occur in the absence of phosphate movement. (c) In Ca2+-loaded corn mitochondria, mersalyl causes net Ca2+ release unrelated to a decrease in membrane potential, probably due to an inhibition of Ca2+ cycling at the level of the influx pathway. It is concluded that corn mitochondria (and probably other plant mitochondria) do possess an electrophoretic influx pathway that appears to be a mersalyl-sensitive Ca2+/inorganic phosphate-symporter and a phosphate-independent efflux pathway possibly similar to the Na2+-independent Ca2+ efflux mechanism of vertebrate mitochondria, because it is not stimulated by Na+. PMID:16668661

  12. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required.

  13. Research and simulation on the rollover system of corn harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun

    2017-01-01

    The structural characteristics of our country's corn harvester are narrow-track, high centroid and existence of eccentric distance, so rollover accident is easily to occur when driving in mountainous and hilly regions. In order to improve the design quality of corn harvester and enhance the security of operation, it is of great significance to research the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester. Hydro-pneumatic suspension has powerful function of adjusting the balance of automobile body and good shock absorption function. In this paper, hydro-pneumatic suspension is applied to the rollover prevention system of the corn harvester to improve the ability of anti-rollover. At last using ADAMS simulation technology to simulate the roll stability of traditional corn harvester and the corn harvester with hydro pneumatic suspension, then calculating the heeling angle in both cases.

  14. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process.

  15. Calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal by growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bohlke, R A; Thaler, R C; Stein, H H

    2005-10-01

    Nine growing barrows were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used to determine apparent ileal (AID) and apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) coefficients of Ca and P in low-phytate corn, normal corn, soybean meal, and in diets where soybean meal was mixed with low-phytate corn or normal corn. The AID and the standardized ileal digestibility coefficients (SID) of CP and AA also were determined. The animals (initial BW = 29.3 +/- 1 kg) were allotted to a 9 x 9 Latin square with nine diets and nine periods. Three diets contained low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal as their sole source of CP, AA, Ca, and P, respectively. Three additional diets were identical to these diets except that limestone and monosodium phosphate were added. Two diets contained low-phytate corn or normal corn and soybean meal, limestone, and monosodium phosphate, and the final diet was a N-free diet. The AID and ATTD of Ca were higher (P < 0.05) for low-phytate corn than for normal corn (70.0 and 69.1% vs. 47.4 and 49.6%, respectively). The AID and ATTD for Ca in soybean meal (50.9 and 46.7%, respectively) did not differ from values for normal corn but were lower (P < 0.05) than for low-phytate corn. The AID and ATTD for P from low-phytate corn (56.5 and 54.5%, respectively) were greater (P < 0.05) than from normal corn (28.3 and 28.8%, respectively), whereas soybean meal had intermediate AID and ATTD for P (37.2 and 38.0%, respectively). The AID and ATTD of P increased (P < 0.05) when monosodium phosphate was added to normal corn (44.9 and 49.8%, respectively) and soybean meal (49.6 and 46.2%, respectively), but adding monosodium phosphate to low-phytate corn, did not alter either AID (49.7%) or ATTD (50.7%) of P. No differences between AID and ATTD for Ca or P within the same diet were observed. The AID of Arg, Asp, Gly, Ile, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val were greater (P < 0.05) in low-phytate corn than in normal corn. The AID of all AA in soybean meal were greater (P

  16. Measurement of fumonisins in corn with a fiber optic fluoroimmunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Maragos, Chris M.

    1997-05-01

    A fiber-optic immunosensor was used to determine concentrations of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1(FB1) in both spiked and naturally contaminated corn samples. Samples were extracted with a mixture of methanol/water. Two methods were used to prepare the methanolic corn extracts before introduction to the immunosensor: (1) simple dilution of the methanolic corn extract; or (2) affinity column cleanup. The sensor displayed an IC50 of 70 ng FB1/mL when toxin was introduced in phosphate buffered saline. Simple dilution of methanolic corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 equivalent to 25 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 3.2 (mu) g/g corn, while affinity cleanup of corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 of 5 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 0.4 (mu) gFB1/g corn. The difference in sensitivity between the two cleanup techniques was due to concentration of fumonisins obtained from the affinity cleanup procedure. Naturally contaminated corn samples were also analyzed after either simple dilution or affinity column cleanup. For comparison the naturally contaminated corn samples were analyzed with an HPLC method after isolation of the fumonisins with strong anion exchange (SAX) solid phase extraction cartridges. The SAX/HPLC method and the immunosensor method agreed well except when large amounts of other fumonisins (i.e. fumonisin B2) were present. This was due in part to the cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody with other fumonisins. The immunosensor has the potential to screen individual corn samples for fumonisins within six minutes, and is among the fastest of the currently available FB1 detection methods.

  17. Co-production of schizophyllan and arabinoxylan from corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P

    2006-05-01

    Schizophyllum commune strain ATCC 38548 grew well on a medium containing alkaline H2O2 -pretreated corn fiber as a sole carbon source, and clarified the culture medium within 7 days. The strain preferentially utilized the starch component of corn fiber for growth and production of schizophyllan. Culture supernatants contained approx. 50 mg schizophyllan and 200 mg arabinoxylan per g corn fiber. These polysaccharides were recovered separately by differential precipitation with ethanol.

  18. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  19. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  20. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality.

  1. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  2. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  3. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from corn stalk catalyzed by corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lulu; Liu, Nian; Wang, Yu; Machida, Hiroshi; Qi, Xinhua

    2014-12-01

    A carbonaceous solid acid was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk followed by sulfonation and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis techniques. The as-prepared corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst contained SO3H, COOH, and phenolic OH groups, and was used for the one-step conversion of intact corn stalk to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), where a 5-HMF yield of 44.1% was achieved at 150 °C in 30 min reaction time. The catalytic system was applicable to initial corn stalk concentration of up to ca. 10 wt.% for the production of 5-HMF. The synthesized catalyst and the developed process of using corn stalk-derived carbon catalyst for corn stalk conversion provide a green and efficient strategy for crude biomass utilization.

  4. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  5. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  6. Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing Roundup Ready corn (event nk603), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn lines.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Y; Bressner, G E; Ellis, M; Lewis, A J; Fischer, R; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2004-02-01

    Two studies were conducted at two locations to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing either glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready (event nk603) corn, a nontransgenic genetically similar control corn (RX670), or two conventional sources of nontransgenic corn (RX740 and DK647). A randomized complete block design (three and four blocks in Studies 1 and 2, respectively) with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments (two genders and four corn lines) was used. Study 1 used 72 barrows and 72 gilts (housed in single-gender groups of six; six pens per dietary treatment) with initial and final BW of approximately 22 and 116 kg, respectively. Study 2 used 80 barrows and 80 gilts (housed in single-gender groups of five; eight pens per dietary treatment) with initial and final BW of approximately 30 and 120 kg, respectively. Pigs were housed in a modified open-front building in Study 1 and in an environmentally controlled finishing building in Study 2. The test corns were included at a fixed proportion of the diet in both studies. Animals had ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were slaughtered using standard procedures and carcass measurements were taken. In Study 1, overall ADG, ADFI (as-fed basis), and gain:feed (G:F) were not affected (P > 0.05) by corn line. In Study 2, there was no effect of corn line on overall ADFI (as-fed basis) or G:F ratio. In addition, overall ADG of barrows fed the four corn lines did not differ (P > 0.05); however, overall ADG of gilts fed corn DK647 was greater (P < 0.05) than that of pigs fed the other corn lines. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of corn line on carcass yield or fatness measurements in either study. Differences between barrows and gilts for growth and carcass traits were generally similar for both studies and in line with previous research. Overall, these results indicate that Roundup Ready corn (nk603) gives equivalent animal performance to conventional corn

  7. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING WITH FORTIFIED SPREAD IS LIKELY TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF SEVERE STUNTING AMONG 6–18 MONTH OLD RURAL MALAWIAN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Phuka, John C.; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J.; Ashorn, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare growth and incidence of malnutrition among infants receiving long-term dietary complementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient fortified maize-soy flour (LP). Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial Setting Rural Malawian population with high incidence of malnutrition Participants 182 six-month-old infants. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive 1-year-long daily supplementation with either 71g of LP (282 kcal energy / day), 50g FS50 (256 kcal), or 25g FS25 (127 kcal). Main outcome measures Weight and length gain, incidence of severe stunting, underweight, and wasting. Results The mean weight and length gains in LP, FS50 and FS25 groups were 2.37, 2.47, and 2.37 kg (p= 0.658) and 12.7, 13.5, and 13.2 cm (p=0.234), respectively. In the same groups, cumulative 12-month incidence of severe stunting was 14.0%, 0.0% and 4.0% (p=0.011), severe underweight 15.0%, 22.5% and 16.9% (p=0.706), and severe wasting 1.8%, 1.9% and 1.8% (p=0.999). Compared to LP-supplemented infants, those given FS50 gained on average (95%CI;p) 100 g (−143 to 343; p=0.419) more weight and 0.8 cm (−0.1 to 1.7; p=0.091) more length. There was a significant interaction between baseline length and intervention (p=0.042); among children with below-median length at enrolment, those given FS50 gained on average 1.9 cm (0.3 to 3.5; p=0.020) more than individuals receiving LP. Conclusions One-year-long complementary feeding with FS does not have significantly larger effect than maize-soy flour on the average weight gain of all infants, but it seems to boost linear growth in the disadvantaged individuals and hence decrease the incidence of severe stunting. PMID:18606932

  8. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn grain with insect-protected (corn rootworm and European corn borer) and herbicide-tolerant (glyphosate) traits, control corn, or commercial reference corn--revisited.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Karunanandaa, K; George, B

    2005-12-01

    A 42-d feeding experiment with growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers showed that the nutritional value of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn was comparable to that of the genetically similar control and 5 commercial reference corn hybrids. MON 88017 provides protection from feeding damage by coleopteran pest corn rootworm and is tolerant to the action of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the Roundup family of agricultural herbicides. MON 88017 x MON 810 was developed by the traditional breeding of MON 88017 with MON 810, which provides protection from the European corn borer and other lepidopteran pests. A randomized complete block design was used with 8 dietary treatments in each of 5 replicated blocks of pens. No differences among diets were observed (P > 0.05) in performance (final live weights, feed intake, feed conversion, and adjusted feed conversion), carcass yield (chill, fat pad, breast, thigh, wing, and drum weight), or percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in breast meat and moisture and fat in thigh meat. Thigh protein was similar (P > 0.05) in broilers fed diets containing MON 88017 x MON 810 and conventional control or all commercial reference corns; however, differences (P < 0.05) were noted for the percentage of thigh protein among broilers fed the control and 2 of the 5 reference diets, attributable to biological variability among the conventional corn hybrids. Broilers overall performed consistently and had similar carcass yield and meat composition when fed diets containing MON 88017 or MON 88017 x MON 810 as compared with those fed the conventional control and commercial diets, supporting a conclusion of nutritional equivalence.

  9. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing corn grain with insect-protected (corn rootworm and European corn borer) and herbicide-tolerant (glyphosate) traits, control corn, or commercial reference corn.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M L; Hartnell, G; Nemeth, M; Karunanandaa, K; George, B

    2005-04-01

    A 42-d feeding experiment with growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers showed that the nutritional value of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn was comparable to that of the genetically similar control and 5 commercial reference corn hybrids. MON 88017 provides protection from feeding damage by coleopteran pest corn rootworm and is tolerant to the action of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the Roundup family of agricultural herbicides. MON 88017 x MON 810 was developed by the traditional breeding of MON 88017 with MON 810, which provides protection from the European corn borer and other lepidopteran pests. A randomized complete block design was used with 8 dietary treatments in each of 5 replicated blocks of pens. No differences among diets were observed (P > 0.05) in performance (final live weights, feed intake, feed conversion, and adjusted feed conversion), carcass yield (chill, fat pad, breast, thigh, wing, and drum weight), or percentage of moisture, protein, and fat in breast meat and moisture and fat in thigh meat. Thigh protein was similar (P > 0.05) in broilers fed diets containing MON 88017 x MON 810 and conventional control or all commercial reference corns; however, differences (P < 0.05) were noted for the percentage of thigh protein among broilers fed the control and 2 of the 5 reference diets, attributable to biological variability among the conventional corn hybrids. Broilers overall performed consistently and had similar carcass yield and meat composition when fed diets containing MON 88017 or MON 88017 x MON 810 as compared with those fed the conventional control and commercial diets, supporting a conclusion of nutritional equivalence.

  10. Effect of timing of glyphosate application to a winter wheat cover crop on stunting of spring-sown onions caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of patches of stunted onion plants caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an emerging problem in onion bulb crops planted in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Cereals such as winter wheat are used as cover crops to protect onion seedlin...

  11. Adult activity and oviposition of corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Miscanthus, corn, and switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the biomass crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize) to support larval development for both United States (U.S.) and European populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggests an avenue for potential i...

  12. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-11-04

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008-2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  13. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008–2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth.

  14. Rapid corn and soybean mapping in US Corn Belt and neighboring areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liheng; Yu, Le; Li, Xuecao; Hu, Lina; Gong, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to promptly map the extent of corn and soybeans early in the growing season. A classification experiment was conducted for the US Corn Belt and neighboring states, which is the most important production area of corn and soybeans in the world. To improve the timeliness of the classification algorithm, training was completely based on reference data and images from other years, circumventing the need to finish reference data collection in the current season. To account for interannual variability in crop development in the cross-year classification scenario, several innovative strategies were used. A random forest classifier was used in all tests, and MODIS surface reflectance products from the years 2008–2014 were used for training and cross-year validation. It is concluded that the fuzzy classification approach is necessary to achieve satisfactory results with R-squared ~0.9 (compared with the USDA Cropland Data Layer). The year of training data is an important factor, and it is recommended to select a year with similar crop phenology as the mapping year. With this phenology-based and cross-year-training method, in 2015 we mapped the cropping proportion of corn and soybeans around mid-August, when the two crops just reached peak growth. PMID:27811989

  15. Adaptation by western corn rootworm to Bt corn: characterizing inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a laboratory-selected, Bt-resistant strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte, to characterize inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs associated with resistance to maize producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3...

  16. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management.

  17. Detoxification of corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors by ligninolytic enzymes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Khiyami, Mohammad A; Pometto, Anthony L; Brown, Robert C

    2005-04-20

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) shake flask culture with 3 mM veratryl alcohol addition on day 3 was able to grow and detoxify different concentrations of diluted corn stover (Dcs) and diluted corn starch (Dst) pyrolysis liquors [10, 25, and 50% (v/v)] in defined media. GC-MS analysis of reaction products showed a decrease and change in some compounds. In addition, the total phenolic assay with Dcs samples demonstrated a decrease in the phenolic compounds. A bioassay employing Lactobacillus casei growth and lactic acid production was developed to confirm the removal of toxic compounds from 10 and 25% (v/v) Dcs and Dst by the lignolytic enzymes, but not from 50% (v/v) Dcs and Dst. The removal did not occur when sodium azide or cycloheximide was added to Ph. chrysosporium culture media, confirming the participation of lignolytic enzymes in the detoxification process. A concentrated enzyme preparation decreased the phenolic compounds in 10% (v/v) corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors to the same extent as the fungal cultures.

  18. Production response to corn silage produced from normal, brown midrib, or waxy corn hybrids.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J S; Bernard, J K; Mullis, N A

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the nutrient intake and digestibility and milk production response of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on corn silage produced from 3 different types of corn hybrids. Experimental diets contained 36.4% of the dietary dry matter (DM) from corn silage produced from normal (Agratech 1021, AgraTech Seeds Inc., Atlanta, GA), brown midrib (BMR; Mycogen F2F797, Mycogen Seeds, Indianapolis, IN), or waxy (Master's Choice 590, Master's Choice Hybrids, Ullin, IL) hybrids. Thirty-six multiparous and primiparous Holstein cows (66 ± 22 d in milk, 41 ± 8 kg/d of milk) were used in an 11-wk completely randomized design trial during the fall of 2009. All cows were fed a diet containing normal corn silage during the first 2wk of the trial before being assigned to 1 of 3 treatments for the following 9 wk. Data collected during the first 2 wk were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. No difference was observed in dry matter intake (DMI) among treatments, which averaged 22.6 kg/d. Milk yield was higher for cows fed BMR (37.6 kg/d) compared with waxy (35.2 kg/d) but was similar to that of cows fed control (36.2 kg/d). Milk fat percentage tended to be lower for cows fed control (3.28%) compared with those fed BMR (3.60%) or waxy (3.55%) corn silage. Milk protein percentage tended to be lower for cows fed control (2.79%) compared with waxy (2.89%) but similar to that of those fed BMR (2.85%). No differences were observed in yield of milk components. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and dairy efficiency (ECM:DMI) did not differ among treatments. Cows fed BMR tended to gain more body weight compared with those fed control and waxy. Results of this trial are consistent with previous reports in which cows fed diets based on corn silage produced from BMR hybrids have higher milk yield compared with those fed other hybrids. Corn silage produced from the waxy hybrid supported a similar yield of ECM because of higher milk components, but milk yield

  19. Overweight is more prevalent than stunting and is associated with socioeconomic status, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern in school children from Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; Baylin, Ana; Arsenault, Joanne E; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Villamor, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight in school-aged children from Bogotá, Colombia and to examine its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, dietary patterns, and indicators of physical activity. We measured height and weight in 3075 children between 5 and 12 y of age who attended public primary schools in 2006 and we obtained information on maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. The survey was representative of children from low and middle socioeconomic backgrounds. The prevalences of child overweight (including obesity) and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria were 11.1 and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 9.8%. In multivariate analysis, child overweight was positively associated with indicators of higher socioeconomic status (SES), including low maternal parity and ownership of household assets. The prevalence of overweight was 3.6 times greater in children whose mothers were obese compared with children whose mothers had an adequate BMI (adjusted prevalence ratio = 3.61; 95% CI = 2.64, 4.93). Child overweight was positively associated with adherence to a "snacking" dietary pattern (P-trend = 0.06) and to frequent intake of hamburgers or hot dogs (adjusted prevalence ratio for at least once per week vs. never = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.62), independent of total energy intake and other potential confounders. Time spent viewing television or playing outside the household were not significantly related to the prevalence of child overweight. In conclusion, child overweight in Bogotá is more common than stunting and is associated with higher SES, maternal obesity, and a snacking dietary pattern.

  20. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  1. The future of coproducts from corn processing.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Kent D; Belyea, Ronald L

    2006-01-01

    Increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive has resulted in dramatic growth in ethanol production. Ethanol is produced from corn by either wet milling or dry-grind processing. In wet milling, the corn kernel is fractionated into different components, resulting in several coproducts. Wet-milling plants are capital intensive because of equipment requirements; they produce large volumes of ethanol and are corporate owned. In dry-grind processing, the corn kernel is not fractionated and only one coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), is generated. Dry-grind plants require less equipment and capital than wet mills. They generate smaller volumes of ethanol, are producer owned, and add direct benefits to rural economies. Most of the increase in ethanol production during the past decade is attributed to growth in the dry-grind industry. The marketing of coproducts provides income to offset processing costs. For dry-grind plants, this is especially important, because only one coproduct is available. Several issues could affect DDGS marketing. The increasing volume of DDGS accompanying ethanol production could reduce market value; high phosphorous content could limit the use of DDGS, because of animal waste disposal issues. Water removal is a costly processing step and affects the economics of ethanol processing. Technologies to remove germ and fiber from DDGS could produce a new coproduct suitable for feeding to nonruminants; this would expand the markets for DDGS. Reducing phosphorus in DDGS would sustain markets for conventional DDGS. The development of more efficient methods of water removal would increase the efficiency of ethanol processing and reduce the costs of processing. New technologies could contribute to greater stability of dry-grind plants.

  2. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Joachim

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  3. Potassium Transport in Corn Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Kochian, Leon V.; Lucas, William J.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been reported that plasmalemma electron transport may be involved in the generation of H+ gradients and the uptake of ions into root tissue. We report here on the influence of extracellular NADH and ferricyanide on K+ (86Rb+) influx, K+ (86Rb+) efflux, net apparent H+ efflux, and O2 consumption in 2-centimeter corn (Zea mays [A632 × Oh43]) root segments and intact corn roots. In freshly excised root segments, NADH had no effect on O2 consumption and K+ uptake. However, after the root segments were given a 4-hour wash in aerated salt solution, NADH elicited a moderate stimulation in O2 consumption but caused a dramatic inhibition of K+ influx. Moreover, net apparent H+ efflux was significantly inhibited following NADH exposure in 4-hour washed root segments. Exogenous ferricyanide inhibited K+ influx in a similar fashion to that caused by NADH, but caused a moderate stimulation of net H+ efflux. Additionally, both reagents substantially altered K+ efflux at both the plasmalemma and tonoplast. These complex results do not lend themselves to straightforward interpretation and are in contradiction with previously published results. They suggest that the interaction between cell surface redox reactions and membrane transport are more complex than previously considered. Indeed, more than one electron transport system may operate in the plasmalemma to influence, or regulate, a number of transport functions and other cellular processes. The results presented here suggest that plasmalemma redox reactions may be involved in the regulation of ion uptake and the `wound response' exhibited by corn roots. PMID:16664070

  4. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  5. Amyloplast Sedimentation Kinetics in Corn Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Sack, F.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the parameters of amyloplast sedimentation is crucial for an evaluation of proposed mechanisms of root graviperception. Early estimates of the rate of root amyloplast sedimentation were as low as 1.2 micron/min which may be too slow for many amyloplasts to reach the vicinity of the new lower wall within the presentation time. On this basis, Haberlandt's classical statolith hypothesis involving amyloplast stimulation of a sensitive surface near the new lower wall was questioned. The aim was to determine the kinetics of amyloplast sedimentation with reference to the presentation time in living and fixed corn rootcap cells as compared with coleoptiles of the same variety.

  6. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  7. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  8. 8. VIEW OF 'TRIUMPH' CORN SHELLER (C. O. Bartlett & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF 'TRIUMPH' CORN SHELLER (C. O. Bartlett & Snow Co., Cleveland), LOCATED IN THE BASEMENT, USED TO REMOVE CORN KENNELS FROM THE COB. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  10. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  12. Corn Stover for Bioethanol: Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production—without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  13. Development of sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. EPA identified corn (Zea mays L.) stover as “the most economical agricultural feedstock…to meet the 16 billion gallon cellulosic biofuel requirement.” They estimated that 7.8 billion gallons of ethanol would come from 82 million tons of corn stover by 2022. POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels is con...

  14. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamic after corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel production from plant biomass seems to be a suitable solution to mitigate fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Corn (Zea mays) is a highly promising crop for biomass production. However, stover harvest could negatively impact soil properties. Changes in the quantity of corn r...

  15. Evidence for fumonisin-corn matrix binding during nixtamalization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticilliodes. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) reduces detectable fumonisins; however, their concentrations in foods can be underestimated if fumonisin-matrix binding occurs. The purpose of this ...

  16. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  17. Resistance Management Monitoring For the US Corn Crop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  18. An evaluation of corn earworm damage and thresholds in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Brian Patrick

    Interactions between corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean, Glycine max L. (Merrill), were investigated in the Mid-South to evaluate thresholds and damage levels. Field studies were conducted in both indeterminate and determinate modern cultivars to evaluate damage, critical injury levels, and soybean response to simulated corn earworm injury. Field studies were also conducted to evaluate the response of indeterminate cultivars to infestations of corn earworm. Field studies were also conducted to investigate the relationship between pyrethroid insecticide application and corn earworm oviposition in soybean. Results of field studies involving simulated corn earworm damage indicated the need for a dynamic threshold that becomes more conservative as soybean phenology progressed through the reproductive growth stages. This suggested that soybean was more tolerant to fruit loss during the earlier reproductive stages and was able to compensate for fruit loss better during this time than at later growth stages. Results of field studies involving infestations of corn earworm indicated that current thresholds are likely too liberal. This resulted in economic injury level tables being constructed based upon a range of crop values and control costs, however, a general action threshold was also recommended for indeterminate soybean in the Mid-South. Field study results investigating the relationship of pyrethroid application and corn earworm oviposition indicated that even in the presence of an insecticide, corn earworm prefers to oviposit in the upper portion of the canopy, as well as on the leaves as opposed to all other plant parts, consistent with all previous literature.

  19. Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (18-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing pro...

  20. Survey of nitrogen fertilizer use on corn in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in the spring of 2010 to characterize the use of N fertilizer on corn (Zea mays L.) by Minnesota farmers in the 2009 growing season. Detailed information on N fertilizer management practices was collected from interviews with 1496 farmers distributed across all of the corn gro...