Lawrence, Brian D; Marchant, Jeffrey K; Pindrus, Mariya A; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L
Biomaterials for corneal tissue engineering must demonstrate several critical features for potential utility in vivo, including transparency, mechanical integrity, biocompatibility and slow biodegradation. Silk film biomaterials were designed and characterized to meet these functional requirements. Silk protein films were used in a biomimetic approach to replicate corneal stromal tissue architecture. The films were 2 microm thick to emulate corneal collagen lamellae dimensions, and were surface patterned to guide cell alignment. To enhance trans-lamellar diffusion of nutrients and to promote cell-cell interaction, pores with 0.5-5.0 microm diameters were introduced into the silk films. Human and rabbit corneal fibroblast proliferation, alignment and corneal extracellular matrix expression on these films in both 2D and 3D cultures were demonstrated. The mechanical properties, optical clarity and surface patterned features of these films, combined with their ability to support corneal cell functions suggest that this new biomaterial system offers important potential benefits for corneal tissue regeneration.
Lawrence, Brian D.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; Pindrus, Mariya; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L.
Biomaterials for corneal tissue engineering must demonstrate several critical features for potential utility in vivo, including transparency, mechanical integrity, biocompatibility and slow biodegradation. Silk film biomaterials were designed and characterized to meet these functional requirements. Silk protein films were used in a biomimetic approach to replicate corneal stromal tissue architecture. The films were 2 μm thick to emulate corneal collagen lamellae dimensions, and were surface patterned to guide cell alignment. To enhance trans-lamellar diffusion of nutrients and to promote cell-cell interaction, pores with 0.5 to 5.0 μm diameters were introduced into the silk films. Human and rabbit corneal fibroblast proliferation, alignment and corneal extracellular matrix expression on these films in both 2D and 3D cultures was demonstrated. The mechanical properties, optical clarity and surface patterned features of these films, combined with their ability to support corneal cell functions suggest this new biomaterial system offers important potential benefits for corneal tissue regeneration. PMID:19059642
Levis, Hannah J; Kureshi, Alvena K; Massie, Isobel; Morgan, Louise; Vernon, Amanda J; Daniels, Julie T
Corneal blindness affects over 10 million people worldwide and current treatment strategies often involve replacement of the defective layer with healthy tissue. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage and the absence of suitable biological scaffolds, recent research has focused on the development of tissue engineering techniques to create alternative therapies. This review will detail how we have refined the simple engineering technique of plastic compression of collagen to a process we now call Real Architecture for 3D Tissues (RAFT). The RAFT production process has been standardised, and steps have been taken to consider Good Manufacturing Practice compliance. The evolution of this process has allowed us to create biomimetic epithelial and endothelial tissue equivalents suitable for transplantation and ideal for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro.
Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi
Our aim was to produce a natural, acellular matrix from porcine cornea for use as a scaffold in developing a tissue-engineered cornea replacement. Full-thickness, intact porcine corneas were decellularized by immersion in 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The resulting acellular matrices were then characterized and examined specifically for completeness of the decellularization process. Histological analyses of decellularized corneal stromas showed that complete cell and α-Gal removal was achieved, while the major structural proteins including collagen type I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin were retained. DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA within the matrix, and the DNA contents, which reflect the presence of cellular materials, were significantly diminished in the decellularized cornea. The collagen content of the decellularized cornea was well maintained compared with native tissues. Uniaxial tensile testing indicated that decellularization did not significantly compromise the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue (P > 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assays using rabbit corneal fibroblast cultures excluded the presence of soluble toxins in the biomaterial. In vivo implantation to rabbit interlamellar stromal pockets showed good biocompability. In summary, a full-thickness natural acellular matrix retaining the major structural components and strength of the cornea has been successfully developed. The matrix is biocompatible with cornea-derived cells and has potential for use in corneal transplantation and tissue-engineering applications.
Wilson, Samantha L.; El Haj, Alicia J.; Yang, Ying
Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation. PMID:24955637
Wilson, Samantha L; El Haj, Alicia J; Yang, Ying
Corneal structure is highly organized and unified in architecture with structural and functional integration which mediates transparency and vision. Disease and injury are the second most common cause of blindness affecting over 10 million people worldwide. Ninety percent of blindness is permanent due to scarring and vascularization. Scarring caused via fibrotic cellular responses, heals the tissue, but fails to restore transparency. Controlling keratocyte activation and differentiation are key for the inhibition and prevention of fibrosis. Ophthalmic surgery techniques are continually developing to preserve and restore vision but corneal regression and scarring are often detrimental side effects and long term continuous follow up studies are lacking or discouraging. Appropriate corneal models may lead to a reduced need for corneal transplantation as presently there are insufficient numbers or suitable tissue to meet demand. Synthetic optical materials are under development for keratoprothesis although clinical use is limited due to implantation complications and high rejection rates. Tissue engineered corneas offer an alternative which more closely mimic the morphological, physiological and biomechanical properties of native corneas. However, replication of the native collagen fiber organization and retaining the phenotype of stromal cells which prevent scar-like tissue formation remains a challenge. Careful manipulation of culture environments are under investigation to determine a suitable environment that simulates native ECM organization and stimulates keratocyte migration and generation.
Jay, Louis; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Goyer, Benjamin; Singh, Kanwarpal; Brunette, Isabelle; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Proulx, Stéphanie
Three-dimensional tissues, such as the cornea, are now being engineered as substitutes for the rehabilitation of vision in patients with blinding corneal diseases. Engineering of tissues for translational purposes requires a non-invasive monitoring to control the quality of the resulting biomaterial. Unfortunately, most current methods still imply invasive steps, such as fixation and staining, to clearly observe the tissue-engineered cornea, a transparent tissue with weak natural contrast. Second- and third-harmonic generation imaging are well known to provide high-contrast, high spatial resolution images of such tissues, by taking advantage of the endogenous contrast agents of the tissue itself. In this article, we imaged tissue-engineered corneal substitutes using both harmonic microscopy and classic histopathology techniques. We demonstrate that second- and third-harmonic imaging can non-invasively provide important information regarding the quality and the integrity of these partial-thickness posterior corneal substitutes (observation of collagen network, fibroblasts and endothelial cells). These two nonlinear imaging modalities offer the new opportunity of monitoring the engineered corneas during the entire process of production. PMID:25918849
Jay, Louis; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Goyer, Benjamin; Singh, Kanwarpal; Brunette, Isabelle; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Proulx, Stéphanie
Three-dimensional tissues, such as the cornea, are now being engineered as substitutes for the rehabilitation of vision in patients with blinding corneal diseases. Engineering of tissues for translational purposes requires a non-invasive monitoring to control the quality of the resulting biomaterial. Unfortunately, most current methods still imply invasive steps, such as fixation and staining, to clearly observe the tissue-engineered cornea, a transparent tissue with weak natural contrast. Second- and third-harmonic generation imaging are well known to provide high-contrast, high spatial resolution images of such tissues, by taking advantage of the endogenous contrast agents of the tissue itself. In this article, we imaged tissue-engineered corneal substitutes using both harmonic microscopy and classic histopathology techniques. We demonstrate that second- and third-harmonic imaging can non-invasively provide important information regarding the quality and the integrity of these partial-thickness posterior corneal substitutes (observation of collagen network, fibroblasts and endothelial cells). These two nonlinear imaging modalities offer the new opportunity of monitoring the engineered corneas during the entire process of production.
Wu, Zheng; Zhou, Qiang; Duan, Haoyun; Wang, Xiaoran; Xiao, Jianhui; Duan, Hucheng; Li, Naiyang; Li, Chaoyang; Wan, Pengxia; Liu, Ying; Song, Yiyue; Zhou, Chenjing; Huang, Zheqian; Wang, Zhichong
To construct an auto-tissue-engineered lamellar cornea (ATELC) for transplantation, based on acellular porcine corneal stroma and autologous corneal limbal explants, a dynamic culture process, which composed of a submersion culture, a perfusion culture and a dynamic air-liquid interface culture, was performed using appropriate parameters. The results showed that the ATELC-Dynamic possessed histological structure and DNA content that were similar to native lamellar cornea (NLC, p>0.05). Compared to NLC, the protein contents of zonula occludens-1, desmocollin-2 and integrin β4 in ATELC-Dynamic reached 93%, 89% and 73%, respectively. The basal cells of ATELC-Dynamic showed a better differentiation phenotype (K3-, P63+, ABCG2+) compared with that of ATELC in static air-lift culture (ATELC-Static, K3+, P63-, ABCG2-). Accordingly, the cell-cloning efficiency of ATELC-Dynamic (9.72±3.5%) was significantly higher than that of ATELC-Static (2.13±1.46%, p<0.05). The levels of trans-epithelial electrical resistance, light transmittance and areal modulus variation in ATELC-Dynamic all reached those of NLC (p>0.05). Rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the barrier function of ATELC-Dynamic was intact, and there were no signs of epithelial shedding or neovascularization. Furthermore, the ATELC-Dynamic group had similar optical properties and wound healing processes compared with the NLC group. Thus, the sequential dynamic culture process that was designed according to corneal physiological characteristics could successfully reconstruct an auto-lamellar cornea with favorable morphological characteristics and satisfactory physiological function.
Larouche, D; Lavoie, A; Proulx, S; Paquet, C; Carrier, P; Beauparlant, A; Auger, F A; Germain, L
Considering that there is a shortage of organ donor, the aim of tissue engineering is to develop substitutes for the replacement of wounded or diseased tissues. Autologous tissue is evidently a preferable transplant material for long-term graft persistence because of the unavoidable rejection reaction occuring against allogeneic transplant. For the production of such substitutes, it is essential to control the culture conditions for post-natal human stem cells. Furthermore, histological organization and functionality of reconstructed tissues must approach those of native organs. For self-renewing tissues such as skin and cornea, tissue engineering strategies must include the preservation of stem cells during the in vitro process as well as after grafting to ensure the long-term regeneration of the transplants. We described a tissue engineering method named the self-assembly approach allowing the production of autologous living organs from human cells without any exogenous biomaterial. This approach is based on the capacity of mesenchymal cells to create in vitro their own extracellular matrix and then reform a tissue. Thereafter, various techniques allow the reorganization of such tissues in more complex organ such as valve leaflets, blood vessels, skin or cornea. These tissues offer the hope of new alternatives for organ transplantation in the future. In this review, the importance of preserving stem cells during in vitro expansion and controlling cell differentiation as well as tissue organization to ensure quality and functionality of tissue-engineered organs will be discussed, while focusing on skin and cornea.
Proulx, Stéphanie; d'Arc Uwamaliya, Jeanne; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre; Audet, Caroline; Giasson, Claude J; Guérin, Sylvain L; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie
The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize human tissue-engineered corneas reconstructed using all three corneal cell types (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) by the self-assembly approach. Fibroblasts cultured in medium containing serum and ascorbic acid secreted their own extracellular matrix and formed sheets that were superposed to reconstruct a stromal tissue. Endothelial and epithelial cells were seeded on each side of the reconstructed stroma. After culturing at the air-liquid interface, the engineered corneas were fixed for histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunofluorescence labeling of epithelial keratins, basement membrane components, Na+/K+-ATPase α1, and collagen type I was also performed. Epithelial and endothelial cells adhered to the reconstructed stroma. After 10 days at the air-liquid interface, the corneal epithelial cells stratified (4 to 5 cell layers) and differentiated into well defined basal and wing cells that also expressed Na+/K+-ATPase α1 protein, keratin 3/12, and basic keratins. Basal epithelial cells from the reconstructed epithelium formed many hemidesmosomes and secreted a well defined basement membrane rich in laminin V and collagen VII. Endothelial cells formed a monolayer of tightly-packed cells and also expressed the function related protein Na+/K+-ATPase α1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing a complete tissue-engineered human cornea, similar to native corneas, using untransformed fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells, without the need for exogenous biomaterial.
Liu, Xian-Ning; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Jie; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Yin, Yong; Xiao, Xiang-Hua; Su, Xin; Kong, Bin; Pan, Shi-Yin; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Yan; An, Na; Mi, Sheng-Li
AIM To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs) had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC) transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft. PMID:27158598
Poché, Ross A; Saik, Jennifer E; West, Jennifer L; Dickinson, Mary E
The field of tissue engineering aims to recapitulate healthy human organs and 3-D tissue structures in vitro and then transplant these constructs in vivo where they can be effectively integrated within the recipient patient and become perfused by the host circulation. To improve the design of materials for artificial tissue scaffolds, it would be ideal to have a high-throughput imaging system that allows one to directly monitor transplanted tissue constructs in live animals over an extended period of time. By combining such an assay with transgenic, cell-specific fluorescent reporters, one could monitor such parameters as tissue construct perfusion, donor cell survival, and donor-host cell interaction/integration. Here, we describe a protocol for a modified version of the classical corneal micropocket angiogenesis assay, employing it as a live imaging "window" to monitor angiogenic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel tissue constructs.
Zhang, Yan Qing; Zhang, Wen Jie; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xiao Jie; Zhou, Guang Dong; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin
Previously, we successfully engineered a corneal stromal layer using corneal stromal cells. However, the limited source and proliferation potential of corneal stromal cells has driven us to search for alternative cell sources for corneal stroma engineering. Based on the idea that the tissue-specific environment may alter cell fate, we proposed that dermal fibroblasts could switch their phenotype to that of corneal stromal cells in the corneal environment. Thus, dermal fibroblasts were harvested from newborn rabbits, seeded on biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds, cultured in vitro for 1 week, and then implanted into adult rabbit corneas. After 8 weeks of implantation, nearly transparent corneal stroma was formed, with a histological structure similar to that of its native counterpart. The existence of cells that had been retrovirally labeled with green fluorescence protein (GFP) demonstrated the survival of implanted cells. In addition, all GFP-positive cells that survived expressed keratocan, a specific marker for corneal stromal cells, and formed fine collagen fibrils with a highly organized pattern similar to that of native stroma. However, neither dermal fibroblast-PGA construct pre-incubated in vitro for 3 weeks nor chondrocyte-PGA construct could form transparent stroma. The results demonstrated that neonatal dermal fibroblasts could switch their phenotype in the new tissue environment under restricted conditions. The functional restoration of corneal transparency using dermal fibroblasts suggests that they could be an alternative cell source for corneal stroma engineering.
Vázquez, Natalia; Chacón, Manuel; Meana, Álvaro; Menéndez-Menéndez, Yolanda; Ferrero-Gutierrez, Amaia; Cereijo-Martín, David; Naveiras, Miguel; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús
To study the attachment and growth of human corneal cells on keratin-chitosan membranes. The end goal is to develop a bioengineered cornea based on this material. Keratin-chitosan membranes were prepared as previously described by Tanabe et al., 2002. Briefly, 7.15 mg/cm2 of keratin dialysate was mixed with 10 wt% chitosan solution and 20 wt% glycerol. The solution was cast into a silicone mold and dried at 50ºC for 36 hours. Eyes were attained from a local eye bank after penetrant-keratoplastic surgery. Human epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells were obtained of the limbal, stromal and endothelial regions. Cells were cultured on keratin-chitosan membranes, as well as on plastic dishes as controls. When cultured cells reached confluence, they were fixed, incubated with primary antibodies (E-cadherin, cytokeratin high molecular weight (CK), vimentin and Na+/K+ ATPase) and visualized by indirect immunocytochemistry. Epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells were able to attach and grow on keratin-chitosan membranes. All the cells maintained their morphology and cellular markers, both in the membrane and on the culture plate. Epithelial cells stained positively for CK and E-cadherin. A positive vimentin stain was observed in all stromal cells, while endothelial cells were positive for vimentin and Na+/K+ ATPase, but negative for E-cadherin. Keratin-chitosan membranes have been shown to be a good scaffold for culturing epithelial, stromal and endothelial corneal cells; therefore, future applications of keratin-chitosan membranes may be developed for reconstruction of the cornea.
Fatimah, Simat Siti; Ng, Sook Luan; Chua, Kien Hui; Hayati, Abdul Rahman; Tan, Ay Eeng; Tan, Geok Chin
Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are potentially one of the key players in tissue engineering due to their easy availability. The aim of the present study was to develop an optimal isolation and transportation technique, as well as to determine the immunophenotype and epithelial gene expression of hAECs. Amnion was mechanically peeled off from the chorion and digested with trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The isolated hAECs were cultured in medium containing 10 ng/mL epidermal growth factor until P4. The epithelial gene expression, cell surface antigen and protein expression of hAECs were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. hAECs were also cultured in adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic induction media. The best cell yield of hAECs was seen in the digestion of 15 pieces of amnion (2 × 2 cm) and isolated 30 min after digestion with trypsin. F12:Dulbecco's modified eagle medium was the best medium for short term storage at 4 °C. hAECs expressed CD9, CD44, CD73 and CD90, and negligibly expressed CD31, CD34, CD45 and CD117. After serial passage, CK3, CK19 and involucrin gene expressions were upregulated, while p63, CK1 and CK14 gene expressions were downregulated. Sustained gene expressions of integrin β1 and CK18 were observed. At initial culture, these cells might have stem-like properties. However, they differentiated after serial passage. Nonetheless, hAECs have epithelial stem cell characteristics and have the potential to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells. Further investigations are still needed to elucidate the mechanism of differentiation involved and to optimize the culture condition for long term in vitro culture.
Szabó, Dóra Júlia; Noer, Agate; Nagymihály, Richárd; Josifovska, Natasha; Andjelic, Sofija; Veréb, Zoltán; Facskó, Andrea; Moe, Morten C; Petrovski, Goran
Long-term cultures of cornea limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) were developed and characterized for future tissue engineering and clinical applications. The limbal tissue explants were cultivated and expanded for more than 3 months in medium containing serum as the only growth supplement and without use of scaffolds. Viable 3D cell outgrowth from the explants was observed within 4 weeks of cultivation. The outgrowing cells were examined by immunofluorescent staining for putative markers of stemness (ABCG2, CK15, CK19 and Vimentin), proliferation (p63α, Ki-67), limbal basal epithelial cells (CK8/18) and differentiated cornea epithelial cells (CK3 and CK12). Morphological and immunostaining analyses revealed that long-term culturing can form stratified 3D tissue layers with a clear extracellular matrix deposition and organization (collagen I, IV and V). The LESCs showed robust expression of p63α, ABCG2, and their surface marker fingerprint (CD117/c-kit, CXCR4, CD146/MCAM, CD166/ALCAM) changed over time compared to short-term LESC cultures. Overall, we provide a model for generating stem cell-rich, long-standing 3D cultures from LESCs which can be used for further research purposes and clinical transplantation.
Nagymihály, Richárd; Josifovska, Natasha; Andjelic, Sofija; Veréb, Zoltán; Facskó, Andrea; Moe, Morten C.; Petrovski, Goran
Long-term cultures of cornea limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) were developed and characterized for future tissue engineering and clinical applications. The limbal tissue explants were cultivated and expanded for more than 3 months in medium containing serum as the only growth supplement and without use of scaffolds. Viable 3D cell outgrowth from the explants was observed within 4 weeks of cultivation. The outgrowing cells were examined by immunofluorescent staining for putative markers of stemness (ABCG2, CK15, CK19 and Vimentin), proliferation (p63α, Ki-67), limbal basal epithelial cells (CK8/18) and differentiated cornea epithelial cells (CK3 and CK12). Morphological and immunostaining analyses revealed that long-term culturing can form stratified 3D tissue layers with a clear extracellular matrix deposition and organization (collagen I, IV and V). The LESCs showed robust expression of p63α, ABCG2, and their surface marker fingerprint (CD117/c-kit, CXCR4, CD146/MCAM, CD166/ALCAM) changed over time compared to short-term LESC cultures. Overall, we provide a model for generating stem cell-rich, long-standing 3D cultures from LESCs which can be used for further research purposes and clinical transplantation. PMID:26580800
Chu, Ting; Wang, Lin-nong; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Ru-yang
To evaluate the current cornea donation awareness of tissue donors in the city of Nanjing, China. Altogether 2000 registered tissue donors in the Red Cross Eye Bank of Nanjing by the end of 2010 and 2000 control residents of Nanjing in February to June 2011 were randomly selected to participate in our field questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the understanding of cornea donation, the attitude toward cornea donation, and attitude toward legislation and free donation. The awareness of cornea donation between the registered tissue donors and residents was compared. Related factors of the willing-ness to donate corneas and to become a tissue donor were evaluated with univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 1867 (response rate: 93.4%) tissue donors and 1796 (response rate: 89.8%; effective questionnaires: 1697) residents participated in this survey. For the questions about the knowledge of cornea donation, 90.3% tissue donors (residents: 78.9%) knew that donated corneas could be used for transplantations; 71.2% tissue donors (residents: 47.6%) knew that the appearance would not be destroyed after cornea donation; 70.7% tissue donors (residents: 20.0%) knew the formalities to become a cornea donor. For attitude toward cornea donation, 82.2% tissue donors (residents: 45.1%) were willing to donate corneas or eyeballs after death; 84.0% tissue donors (residents: 30.2%) had discussed with their families about donation; 85.1% tissue donors (residents: 24.8%) supported their families' or friends' cornea donation. For attitude toward legislation and free donation, 88.3% tissue donors (residents: 61.3%) approved of legislation to regular cornea donation; 72.2% tissue donors (residents: 38.8%) thought that cornea or organ donation should be gratis. The difference between two groups was significant (P<0.001). However, some tissue donors did not know cornea donation well, some even opposed the legislation of cornea
Borzeniuk, S A; Komakh, Iu A; Moroz, Z I; Kalinnikov, Iu Iu; Kovshun, E V
Cadaveric human cornea transplantation is impossible without a specialized tissue donor service, Eye Tissue Bank. An original medical technological system of Eye Tissue Bank was developed at Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, a federal state institution. The system is still unique in the world; it is grounded upon the concept of the pharmacological protection of the graft and is oriented towards prevention of energodeficiency both in donor cornea and in the recipient's organism at all stages from the selection and preservation of cadaveric material till postoperative pharmacological correction of the recipient. The working experience of Eye Microsurgery Complex has shown the significance of the developed medical technological system for clinical ophthalmology and rehabilitation of the blind and patients with impaired vision in Russian Federation.
Langer, Robert; Vacanti, Joseph P.
The loss or failure of an organ or tissue is one of the most frequent, devastating, and costly problems in human health care. A new field, tissue engineering, applies the principles of biology and engineering to the development of functional substitutes for damaged tissue. This article discusses the foundations and challenges of this interdisciplinary field and its attempts to provide solutions to tissue creation and repair.
Dew, Lindsey; MacNeil, Sheila; Chong, Chuh Khiun
All tissue-engineered substitutes (with the exception of cornea and cartilage) require a vascular network to provide the nutrient and oxygen supply needed for their survival in vivo. Unfortunately the process of vascular ingrowth into an engineered tissue can take weeks to occur naturally and during this time the tissues become starved of essential nutrients, leading to tissue death. This review initially gives a brief overview of the processes and factors involved in the formation of new vasculature. It then summarizes the different approaches that are being applied or developed to overcome the issue of slow neovascularization in a range of tissue-engineered substitutes. Some potential future strategies are then discussed.
Rosen, Richard B.; Savage, Howard E.; Halder, Ramindra K.; Kartazayeu, Uladzimir; Gayen, Tapan K.; McCormick, Steven A.; Katz, Alvin; Perry, Henry D.; Alfano, Robert R.
In this study, an NIR fiber laser with an eye safe wavelength of 1.455 μm was used to successfully weld in vitro porcine cornea and sclera tissue. The emission wavelength overlaps an absorption band of water. The laser system was used in combination with a motorized translational system and shutter to control the laser exposure on the tissue being welded. Different welding conditions were analyzed for the porcine cornea and sclera. The welded tissues were examined using histopathology and tensile strength analysis. The NIR welding technique provides strong, full thickness welds and does not require the use of extrinsic dyes, chromophores, or solders. The NIR laser system used in this study can effectively weld cornea and sclera tissue, and this laser tissue welding (LTW) methodology typically causes minimal disruption of tissue, and thus, avoids opacities and irregularities in the tissue which may result in decreased visual acuity.
Blitvich, Bradley J; Wang, Tian; Saxena, Vandana; Zeng, Shemin; Harmon, Karen M; Raymond, Matthew D; Goins, Kenneth M; Reed, Cynthia R; Mullins, Robert F; Greiner, Mark A
The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro and ex vivo susceptibility of human corneal cells to West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate the ability of the virus to disseminate to the corneas of infected mice. Human corneal epithelial cells were challenged with WNV, incubated for 1-6 days, and tested for evidence of WNV infection. Viral RNA and antigen were detected at every time point, and the virus reached a peak titer of 2.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL at 3 days postinoculation (PI). Corneas procured from donors were incubated in culture dishes containing WNV for 1-5 days and tested for evidence of WNV. Viral RNA and antigen were detected, and the virus reached a mean peak titer of 4.9 × 10(4) pfu/mL at 5 days PI. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with WNV, and their eyes were harvested at 2, 5, and 8 days PI and tested for evidence of WNV. Viral RNA was detected in corneas of four of nine systemically infected mice as early as 2 days PI. We conclude that human corneal cells support WNV replication in vitro and ex vivo, and WNV may disseminate into the corneas of experimentally infected mice. These findings indicate that corneal transmission cannot be ruled out as a novel mode of human-to-human WNV transmission and additional experiments should be conducted to assess this risk further. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Mimura, Tatsuya; Yokoo, Seiichi; Yamagami, Satoru
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) do not replicate after wounding. Therefore, corneal endothelial deficiency can result in irreversible corneal edema. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) allows selective replacement of the diseased corneal endothelium. However, DSAEK requires a donor cornea and the worldwide shortage of corneas limits its application. This review presents current knowledge on the tissue engineering of corneal endothelium using cultured HCECs. We also provide our recent work on tissue engineering for DSAEK grafts using cultured HCECs. We reconstructed DSAEK grafts by seeding cultured DiI-labelled HCECs on collagen sheets. Then HCEC sheets were transplanted onto the posterior stroma after descemetorhexis in the DSAEK group. Severe stromal edema was detected in the control group, but not in the DSAEK group throughout the observation period. Fluorescein microscopy one month after surgery showed numerous DiI-labelled cells on the posterior corneal surface in the DSAEK group. Frozen sections showed a monolayer of DiI-labelled cells on Descemet’s membrane. These findings indicate that cultured adult HCECs, transplanted with DSAEK surgery, maintain corneal transparency after transplantation and suggest the feasibility of performing DSAEK with HCECs to treat endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24955745
Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J; Wolff, Rachel; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J M; Pels, Elisabeth
To validate tissue quality parameters for donor corneas designated for emergency grafting for corneal graft survival. In a longitudinal cohort follow-up study, 131 emergency penetrating grafts were studied. Grafts were performed with a pool of organ-cultured donor corneas designated for emergency grafting and prepared for immediate use with all safety tests performed. Assignation criteria were: corneas with a small superficial stromal opacity but meeting all selection criteria for PKP tissue and corneas without stromal opacity, but an endothelial cell density from 1800 to 2300 cells/mm(2) or mild polymegathism or pleomorphism. Cox multivariate regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival and log rank test were applied. Of the 131 keratoplasties, 115 could be followed. One eye was lost during surgery because of an expulsive bleeding. In 15 cases, a conjunctival transplantation finished off the penetrating graft. Corneal graft survival was not significantly related to the presence of PKP quality of the donor endothelium, neither with a cloudy graft nor with endothelial decompensation as the cause of failure. Main risk factors for a failed graft were vascularization of the host cornea (p=0.0001), the presence of a systemic auto immune disease in the recipient (p=0.003) and the disease leading to the (imminent) perforation and emergency graft (p=0.021). A selected pool of donor corneas designated for emergency grafting that does not interfere with the scheduled procedures allows more efficient and safe use of donor tissue in case of a(n) (imminent) perforation. Corneal graft survival rates justify the criteria for selection. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.
Zhang, Li; Aksan, Alptekin
This paper presents a study using in vitro Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis to determine the thermal damage induced to the human cornea by the conductive keratoplasty (CK) procedure. Human cornea tissues were treated with CK at different radiofrequency power (58-64%) and pulse duration (0.6-1.0 s) settings. The cornea tissues were cryo-sectioned and FT-IR analysis was performed to detect the extent of thermal damage by the second-derivative analysis of the infrared (IR) spectral bands corresponding to protein secondary structure. The protein amide I and II spectral bands measured in vitro mainly arose from collagen. The denatured cornea tissue showed a higher beta-sheet content than the native tissue. The extent of the thermal damage created by the CK treatment depended on power and duration settings, with the latter having a stronger effect. With clinical settings (60%, 0.6 s), the thermal damage area was confined within a radius of 100 microm. CK treatment duration had a more significant effect on the damage zone than the power setting.
Tissue engineering is a discipline of great promise. In some areas, such as the cornea, tissues engineered in the laboratory are already in clinical use. In other areas, where the tissue architecture is more complex, there are a number of obstacles to manoeuvre before clinically relevant tissues can be produced. However, even in areas where clinically relevant tissues are decades away, the tissues being produced at the moment provide powerful new models to aid the understanding of complex physiological processes. This article provides a personal view of the role of tissue engineering in advancing our understanding of physiology, with specific attention being paid to musculoskeletal tissues.
Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Enrique; Ribera, Vicente; Gorris, Javier; Alió, Jorge L
This paper reviews the different applicators and electrodes employed to create localized heating in the cornea by means of the application of radiofrequency (RF) currents. Thermokeratoplasty (TKP) is probably the best known of these techniques and is based on the principle that heating corneal tissue (particularly the central part of the corneal tissue, i.e. the central stroma) causes collagen to shrink, and hence changes the corneal curvature. Firstly, we point out that TKP techniques are a complex challenge from the engineering point of view, due to the fact that it is necessary to create very localized heating in a precise location (central stroma), within a narrow temperature range (from 58 to 76 masculineC). Secondly, we describe the different applicator designs (i.e. RF electrodes) proposed and tested to date. This review is planned from a technical point of view, i.e. the technical developments are classified and described taking into consideration technical criteria, such as energy delivery mode (monopolar versus bipolar), thermal conditions (dry versus cooled electrodes), lesion pattern (focal versus circular lesions), and application placement (surface versus intrastromal).
Berjano, Enrique J; Navarro, Enrique; Ribera, Vicente; Gorris, Javier; Alió, Jorge L
This paper reviews the different applicators and electrodes employed to create localized heating in the cornea by means of the application of radiofrequency (RF) currents. Thermokeratoplasty (TKP) is probably the best known of these techniques and is based on the principle that heating corneal tissue (particularly the central part of the corneal tissue, i.e. the central stroma) causes collagen to shrink, and hence changes the corneal curvature. Firstly, we point out that TKP techniques are a complex challenge from the engineering point of view, due to the fact that it is necessary to create very localized heating in a precise location (central stroma), within a narrow temperature range (from 58 to 76ºC). Secondly, we describe the different applicator designs (i.e. RF electrodes) proposed and tested to date. This review is planned from a technical point of view, i.e. the technical developments are classified and described taking into consideration technical criteria, such as energy delivery mode (monopolar versus bipolar), thermal conditions (dry versus cooled electrodes), lesion pattern (focal versus circular lesions), and application placement (surface versus intrastromal). PMID:19662131
Atala, Anthony; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G
Tissue engineering has emerged at the intersection of numerous disciplines to meet a global clinical need for technologies to promote the regeneration of functional living tissues and organs. The complexity of many tissues and organs, coupled with confounding factors that may be associated with the injury or disease underlying the need for repair, is a challenge to traditional engineering approaches. Biomaterials, cells, and other factors are needed to design these constructs, but not all tissues are created equal. Flat tissues (skin); tubular structures (urethra); hollow, nontubular, viscus organs (vagina); and complex solid organs (liver) all present unique challenges in tissue engineering. This review highlights advances in tissue engineering technologies to enable regeneration of complex tissues and organs and to discuss how such innovative, engineered tissues can affect the clinic.
MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA
This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue
Truskey, George A.
Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643
Langer, Robert; Vacanti, Joseph
Nearly 30 years ago, we reported on a concept now known as Tissue Engineering. Here, we report on some of the advances in this now thriving area of research. In particular, significant advances in tissue engineering of skin, liver, spinal cord, blood vessels, and other areas are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nearly 30 years ago, we reported on a concept now known as Tissue Engineering. Here, we report on some of the advances in this now thriving area of research. In particular, significant advances in tissue engineering of skin, liver, spinal cord, blood vessels, and other areas are discussed. PMID:26711689
Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Salih, Vehid M; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C
of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. The authors used "PUBMED" to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., "tissue engineering", "approaches", "strategies" "dentistry", "dental stem cells", "dentino-pulp complex", "guided tissue regeneration", "whole tooth", "TMJ", "condyle", "salivary glands", and "oral mucosa". Abstracts and full text articles were used to identify causes of craniofacial tissue loss, different approaches for craniofacial reconstructions, how the tissue engineering emerges, different strategies of tissue engineering, biomaterials employed for this purpose, the major attempts to engineer different dental structures, finally challenges and future of tissue engineering in dentistry. Only those articles that dealt with the tissue engineering in dentistry were selected. There have been a recent surge in guided tissue engineering methods to manage periodontal diseases beyond the traditional approaches. However, the predictable reconstruction of the innate organisation and function of whole teeth as well as their periodontal structures remains challenging. Despite some limited progress and minor successes, there remain distinct and important challenges in the development of reproducible and clinically safe approaches for oral tissue repair and regeneration. Clearly, there is a convincing body of evidence which confirms the need for this type of treatment, and public health data worldwide indicates a more than adequate patient resource. The future of these therapies involving more biological approaches and the use of dental tissue stem cells is promising and advancing. Also there may be a significant interest of their application and wider potential to treat disorders beyond the craniofacial region. Considering the
Almost 30 years have passed since a term ‘tissue engineering’ was created to represent a new concept that focuses on regeneration of neotissues from cells with the support of biomaterials and growth factors. This interdisciplinary engineering has attracted much attention as a new therapeutic means that may overcome the drawbacks involved in the current artificial organs and organ transplantation that have been also aiming at replacing lost or severely damaged tissues or organs. However, the tissues regenerated by this tissue engineering and widely applied to patients are still very limited, including skin, bone, cartilage, capillary and periodontal tissues. What are the reasons for such slow advances in clinical applications of tissue engineering? This article gives the brief overview on the current tissue engineering, covering the fundamentals and applications. The fundamentals of tissue engineering involve the cell sources, scaffolds for cell expansion and differentiation and carriers for growth factors. Animal and human trials are the major part of the applications. Based on these results, some critical problems to be resolved for the advances of tissue engineering are addressed from the engineering point of view, emphasizing the close collaboration between medical doctors and biomaterials scientists. PMID:16971328
Horst, Maya; Madduri, Srinivas; Gobet, Rita; Sulser, Tullio; Milleret, Vinzent; Hall, Heike; Atala, Anthony; Eberli, Daniel
End stage bladder disease can seriously affect patient quality of life and often requires surgical reconstruction with bowel tissue, which is associated with numerous complications. Bioengineering of functional bladder tissue using tissue-engineering techniques could provide new functional tissues for reconstruction. In this review, we discuss the current state of this field and address different approaches to enable physiologic voiding in engineered bladder tissues in the near future. In a collaborative effort, we gathered researchers from four institutions to discuss the current state of functional bladder engineering. A MEDLINE® and PubMed® search was conducted for articles related to tissue engineering of the bladder, with special focus on the cells and biomaterials employed as well as the microenvironment, vascularisation and innervation strategies used. Over the last decade, advances in tissue engineering technology have laid the groundwork for the development of a biological substitute for bladder tissue that can support storage of urine and restore physiologic voiding. Although many researchers have been able to demonstrate the formation of engineered tissue with a structure similar to that of native bladder tissue, restoration of physiologic voiding using these constructs has never been demonstrated. The main issues hindering the development of larger contractile tissues that allow physiologic voiding include the development of correct muscle alignment, proper innervation and vascularization. Tissue engineering of a construct that will support the contractile properties that allow physiologic voiding is a complex process. The combination of smart scaffolds with controlled topography, the ability to deliver multiple trophic factors and an optimal cell source will allow for the engineering of functional bladder tissues in the near future. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mohan, Rajiv R.; Sinha, Sunilima; Tandon, Ashish; Gupta, Rangan; Tovey, Jonathan C. K.; Sharma, Ajay
Untargeted and uncontrolled gene delivery is a major cause of gene therapy failure. This study aimed to define efficient and safe tissue-selective targeted gene therapy approaches for delivering genes into keratocytes of the cornea in vivo using a normal or diseased rabbit model. New Zealand White rabbits, adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5), and a minimally invasive hair-dryer based vector-delivery technique were used. Fifty microliters of AAV5 titer (6.5×1012 vg/ml) expressing green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) was topically applied onto normal or diseased (fibrotic or neovascularized) rabbit corneas for 2-minutes with a custom vector-delivery technique. Corneal fibrosis and neovascularization in rabbit eyes were induced with photorefractive keratectomy using excimer laser and VEGF (630 ng) using micropocket assay, respectively. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm fibrosis and neovascularization in rabbit corneas. The levels, location and duration of delivered-GFP gene expression in the rabbit stroma were measured with immunocytochemistry and/or western blotting. Slot-blot measured delivered-GFP gene copy number. Confocal microscopy performed in whole-mounts of cornea and thick corneal sections determined geometric and spatial localization of delivered-GFP in three-dimensional arrangement. AAV5 toxicity and safety were evaluated with clinical eye exam, stereomicroscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and H&E staining. A single 2-minute AAV5 topical application via custom delivery-technique efficiently and selectively transduced keratocytes in the anterior stroma of normal and diseased rabbit corneas as evident from immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Transgene expression was first detected at day 3, peaked at day 7, and was maintained up to 16 weeks (longest tested time point). Clinical and slit-lamp eye examination in live rabbits and H&E staining did not reveal any significant changes between AAV5-treated and
Yang, Peter J.
While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983
Feng, Xiaodi; Pi, Liya; Sriram, Sriniwas; Schultz, Gregory S.
We sought to determine if connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is necessary for the formation of corneal haze after corneal injury. Mice with post-natal, tamoxifen-induced, knockout of CTGF were subjected to excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) and the corneas were allowed to heal. The extent of scaring was observed in non-induced mice, heterozygotes, and full homozygous knockout mice and quantified by macrophotography. The eyes from these mice were collected after euthanization for re-genotyping to control for possible Cre-mosaicism. Primary corneal fibroblasts from CTGF knockout corneas were established in a gel plug assay. The plug was removed, simulating an injury, and the rate of hole closure and the capacity for these cells to form light reflecting cells in response to CTGF and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) were tested and compared to wild-type cells. We found that independent of genotype, each group of mice was still capable of forming light reflecting haze in the cornea after laser ablation (p = 0.40). Results from the gel plug closure rate in primary cell cultures of knockout cells were not statistically different from serum starved wild-type cells, independent of treatment. Compared to the serum starved wild-type cells, stimulation with PDGF-BB significantly increased the KO cell culture’s light reflection (p = 0.03). Most interestingly, both reflective cultures were positive for α-SMA, but the cellular morphology and levels of α-SMA were distinct and not in proportion to the light reflection seen. This new work demonstrates that corneas without CTGF can still form sub-epithelial haze, and that the light reflecting phenotype can be reproduced in culture. These data support the possibilities of growth factor redundancy and that multiple pro-haze pathways exist. PMID:28207886
Tissue engineering is the new science that has come to make possible the growth of new organ tissue from small fragments of healthy tissue, thus partially or totally restoring the lost functions of ill tissues or organs, as shown by the achievements made with the culture of skin, cornea or cartilage. Thus far, this new science is able to ensure the recovery of lost functions and, doubtlessly, in a near future will be capable of developing tissues and organs not unlike natural ones. In our laboratory we have began the development of tissue engineering techniques for the successful construction of in vitro skin with the aim at mid term of producing cornea and cartilage. In a first clinical trial, these techniques were applied in the treatment of chronic skin lesions and the advantages and reach of these new tools were demonstrated for the effective solution of problems with would otherwise not be easily solved through the use of conventional treatments.
Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad
Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe methodologies for successful differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards the cardiovascular cell lineages as they pertain to the field of cardiac tissue engineering. The emphasis will be placed on comparing the functional maturation in engineered cardiac tissues and developing heart and on methods to quantify cardiac electrical and mechanical function at different spatial scales. PMID:22397609
Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE
Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641
Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Ebisuno, Yukihiko; Kanda, Hidenobu; Umemoto, Eiji; Hayashi, Kozaburo; Miyasaka, Masayuki
The chemotactic signals regulating cell trafficking in the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected cornea are well documented, however, those in the cornea-associated tissues, such as the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and draining lymph nodes (LNs), are largely unknown. To examine chemokine expression and subsequent cell infiltration in the HSV-1 infected cornea and its associated tissues. Eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were infected with 10 mu l HSV-1 (CHR3 strain: 5 x 106 PFU/ml) by corneal scarification. Total RNAs were extracted from the corneas, TGs, and LNs at pre-inoculation, 3 days post-inoculation (P.I.) and 7 days P.I. The mRNA for 28 different chemokines in the extracts was amplified by RT-PCR. Infiltrating cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. After the HSV-1 infection, the corneal stroma became edematous by infiltrated cells under the eroded epithelium. The TG and LNs were markedly swollen. The cornea was infiltrated with granulocytes and CD11b+ cells at 3 days P.I., followed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 12 days P.I. In the TG, CD11b+ cells, but no granulocytes, infiltrated throughout the observation period. T cells migrated into the TG earlier than into the cornea. Gene expressions of neutrophil-attracting chemokines (CXCL1, 2, 3, and 5) increased in the cornea, but they did not enhance in the TG or LNs. On the other hand, gene expressions of chemokines which attract CD11b+ cells such as CCL2, 8, 7, 12, CCL3, 4, and CCL5, increased in the cornea and TG with its peak at 3 days P.I. Gene expressions of chemokines those work on T cells and B cells, such as CCL19, CCL21, CXCL9, CXCL13, CXCL10, XCL1, and CXCL16, were up-regulated and peaked at 3 days P.I. in the cornea and in the TG. Thus, pattern of chemokine gene expression was similar in the cornea and in the TG. On the contrary, gene expressions of chemokines in the draining LNs affecting CD11b+ cells and T cells were temporarily down-regulated. Upon HSV-1 infection, dynamic gene expression
Turner, Christopher G B; Fauza, Dario O
Attempts at harnessing the prospective benefits of the therapeutic use of fetal cells or tissues date many decades before the modern era of transplantation. The first reported transplantation of human fetal tissue took place in 1922. Fetal cells or tissues also have been used as helpful investigational tools since the 1930s. Still, it was only in the last three decades that fetal tissue transplantation in people has started to lead to favorable outcomes, yet by and large anecdotally. This article offers an outlook on a relatively new dimension in fetal cell-based therapies, namely the engineering of tissues in the laboratory, along with its prospective applications.
Lee, Esther J.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.
Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research. PMID:23820768
Lee, Esther J; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G
Biomaterials serve as an integral component of tissue engineering. They are designed to provide architectural framework reminiscent of native extracellular matrix in order to encourage cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Bone and cartilage represent two distinct tissues with varying compositional and mechanical properties. Despite these differences, both meet at the osteochondral interface. This article presents an overview of current biomaterials employed in bone and cartilage applications, discusses some design considerations, and alludes to future prospects within this field of research.
Ghezzi, Chiara E; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Kaplan, David L
To address the growing need for corneal transplants two main approaches are being pursued: allogenic and synthetic materials. Allogenic tissue from human donors is currently the preferred choice; however, there is a worldwide shortage in donated corneal tissue. In addition, tissue rejection often limits the long-term success of this approach. Alternatively, synthetic homologs to donor corneal grafts are primarily considered temporary replacements until suitable donor tissue becomes available, as they result in a high incidence of graft failure. Tissue engineered cornea analogs would provide effective cornea tissue substitutes and alternatives to address the need to reduce animal testing of commercial products. Recent progress toward these needs is reviewed here, along with future perspectives.
Ghezzi, Chiara E.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena
To address the growing need for corneal transplants two main approaches are being pursued: allogenic and synthetic materials. Allogenic tissue from human donors is currently the preferred choice; however, there is a worldwide shortage in donated corneal tissue. In addition, tissue rejection often limits the long-term success of this approach. Alternatively, synthetic homologs to donor corneal grafts are primarily considered temporary replacements until suitable donor tissue becomes available, as they result in a high incidence of graft failure. Tissue engineered cornea analogs would provide effective cornea tissue substitutes and alternatives to address the need to reduce animal testing of commercial products. Recent progress toward these needs is reviewed here, along with future perspectives. PMID:25434371
Razhev, Alexander M.; Bagayev, Sergei N.; Lebedeva, Lidya I.; Akhmametyeva, Elena M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.
In present paper the findings on chromosome mutations, the nature of damage and the repair of the cornea tissue after UV irradiation by excimer lasers at 193, 223 and 248 nm were made. Structural mutations induced by short-pulses UV irradiation were shown to be similar to spontaneous ones by the type, time of formation in the mitotic cycle and location of acentrics. Ten hours after irradiation of the cornea with doses of 0,09 to 1,5 J/cm2 the incidence of cells with chromosome aberrations increased linearly with dose and amounted to 11,7% at 248 nm, 5,5% at 223 nm and 2,6% at 193 nm per 1 J/cm2. No induced chromosome aberrations occurred 72 hour following irradiation. Within the dose range from 3,0 to 18 J/cm2 the cytogenesis effect of radiation was less manifest than that with the doses mentioned above, the frequency of chromosome aberrations being independent of either radiation wavelength or radiation dose and amounted of 2,5 to 3,0%. Thus, large doses of powerful short-pulse UV radiation are safe according to the structural mutation criterion.
Moreira-Teixeira, Liliana S; Georgi, Nicole; Leijten, Jeroen; Wu, Ling; Karperien, Marcel
Cartilage tissue engineering is the art aimed at repairing defects in the articular cartilage which covers the bony ends in the joints. Since its introduction in the early 1990s of the past century, cartilage tissue engineering using ACI has been used in thousands of patients to repair articular cartilage defects. This review focuses on emerging strategies to improve cartilage repair by incorporating fundamental knowledge of developmental and cell biology in the design of optimized strategies for cell delivery at the defect site and to locally stimulate cartilage repair responses. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J; Wolff, Rachel; Völker-Dieben, Hennie J; Pels, Elisabeth
To validate tissue quality parameters for donor corneas designated for emergency grafting to preserve the globe. In a longitudinal cohort follow-up study, 151 emergency grafts in the Netherlands were studied. Grafts were performed with a pool of organ-cultured donor corneas designated for emergency grafting and prepared for immediate use with all safety tests performed. Assignation criteria were corneas with a small superficial stromal opacity but meeting all selection criteria for penetrating keratoplasty tissue and corneas without stromal opacity but an endothelial cell density from 1800 to 2300 cells per square millimeter or mild polymegethism or pleomorphism. Cox multivariate regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival, and log rank test were applied. All requests for corneal tissue were honored within 24 hours. Ninety-one patients showed a complete and 60 an imminent perforation. One hundred thirty-one penetrating grafts and 20 lamellar grafts have been used. The globes were saved in 140 of the 151 patients (92.7%). Globe preservation was not significantly related to the absence of penetrating keratoplasty quality of the donor endothelium, the type of grafting, the degree of vascularization in the host cornea, or diabetic disease in the recipient. The main risk factor for globe preservation was the presence of a systemic autoimmune disease in the recipient (P = 0.0021). A selected pool of donor corneas designated for emergency grafting, that does not interfere with the scheduled procedures, allows more efficient and safe use of donor tissue in case of an imminent perforation. Globe preservation rates justify the quality criteria for designation of this tissue.
Sun, Michelle T; O'Connor, Andrea J; Wood, John; Casson, Robert; Selva, Dinesh
Bioengineering aims to produce functional tissue replacements to repair defects and has been widely investigated over the past few decades. We aimed to review the available literature on the application of tissue engineering in ophthalmology, with a particular focus on ophthalmic plastic surgery and potential applications for eyelid reconstruction. A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE database using the keywords "bioengineering," "tissue engineering," and "ophthalmology." Articles written in English were included. There is a substantial body of work on tissue engineering of the cornea. Other structures in ophthalmology investigated include the conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, and orbital bone. We also discuss the potential application of tissue engineering in eyelid reconstruction. Tissue engineering represents the future of regenerative and reconstructive medicine, with significant potential applications in ophthalmic plastic surgery.
Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J
Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.
Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerate adipose tissue in both structure and function. Recently, a number of studies have been designed to explore various methods to engineer human adipose tissue. This review will focus on these developments in the area of adipose tissue engineering for soft tissue replacement. The physiology of adipose tissue and current surgical therapies used to replace lost tissue volume, specifically in breast tissue, are introduced, and current biomaterials, cell sources, and tissue culture strategies are discussed. We discuss future areas of study in adipose tissue engineering. PMID:20166810
Parekh, Mohit; Ferrari, Stefano; Di Iorio, Enzo; Barbaro, Vanessa; Camposampiero, Davide; Karali, Marianthi; Ponzin, Diego; Salvalaio, Gianni
Enucleation is the process of retrieving the ocular globe from a cadaveric donor leaving the rest of the globe undisturbed. Excision refers to the retrieval of ocular tissues, especially cornea, by cutting it separate from the ocular globe. Evisceration is the process of removing the internal organs referred here as retina. The ocular globe consists of the cornea, the sclera, the vitreous body, the lens, the iris, the retina, the choroid, muscles etc (Suppl. Figure 1). When a patient is suffering from corneal damage, the cornea needs to be removed and a healthy one must be transplanted by keratoplastic surgeries. Genetic disorders or defects in retinal function can compromise vision. Human ocular globes can be used for various surgical procedures such as eye banking, transplantation of human cornea or sclera and research on ocular tissues. However, there is little information available on human corneal and retinal excision, probably due to the limited accessibility to human tissues. Most of the studies describing similar procedures are performed on animal models. Research scientists rely on the availability of properly dissected and well-conserved ocular tissues in order to extend the knowledge on human eye development, homeostasis and function. As we receive high amount of ocular globes out of which approximately 40% (Table 1) of them are used for research purposes, we are able to perform huge amount of experiments on these tissues, defining techniques to excise and preserve them regularly. The cornea is an avascular tissue which enables the transmission of light onto the retina and for this purpose should always maintain a good degree of transparency. Within the cornea, the limbus region, which is a reservoir of the stem cells, helps the reconstruction of epithelial cells and restricts the overgrowth of the conjunctiva maintaining corneal transparency and clarity. The size and thickness of the cornea are critical for clear vision, as changes in either of them
Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.
Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318
European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) ......................................................................... 117 German Cancer Research Center...National Cancer Center Research Institute...................................................................................... 173 National Institute for...Green in the United States, has been the focus of skin tissue engineering at Nagoya University. Work at the National Cancer Center Institute in Tokyo
Miotto, Martina; Gouveia, Ricardo M.; Connon, Che J.
The increasing interest in effort towards creating alternative therapies have led to exciting breakthroughs in the attempt to bio-fabricate and engineer live tissues. This has been particularly evident in the development of new approaches applied to reconstruct corneal tissue. The need for tissue-engineered corneas is largely a response to the shortage of donor tissue and the lack of suitable alternative biological scaffolds preventing the treatment of millions of blind people worldwide. This review is focused on recent developments in corneal tissue engineering, specifically on the use of self-assembling peptide amphiphiles for this purpose. Recently, peptide amphiphiles have generated great interest as therapeutic molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we introduce this rapidly developing field, and examine innovative applications of peptide amphiphiles to create natural bio-prosthetic corneal tissue in vitro. The advantages of peptide amphiphiles over other biomaterials, namely their wide range of functions and applications, versatility, and transferability are also discussed to better understand how these fascinating molecules can help solve current challenges in corneal regeneration. PMID:26258796
McCullen, Seth D; Chow, Andre G Y; Stevens, Molly M
Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues often involves the in vitro manipulation and culture of progenitor cells, growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds. Though in vitro tissue engineering has greatly increased our understanding of cellular behavior and cell-material interactions, this methodology is often unable to recreate tissue with the hierarchical organization and vascularization found within native tissues. Accordingly, investigators have focused on alternative in vivo tissue engineering strategies, whereby the traditional triad (cells, growth factors, scaffolds) or a combination thereof are directly implanted at the damaged tissue site or within ectopic sites capable of supporting neo-tissue formation. In vivo tissue engineering may offer a preferential route for regeneration of musculoskeletal and other tissues with distinct advantages over in vitro methods based on the specific location of endogenous cultivation, recruitment of autologous cells, and patient-specific regenerated tissues.
Porat, Yishai; Gabay, Ilan; Varssano, David; Barequet, Irina; Neudorfer, Meira; Rosner, Mordechai; Katzir, Abraham
Temperature controlled laser bonding of the cornea is analyzed in this paper using optical coherence tomography imaging, histological section evaluations and tensile strength measurements. The heat generated to obtain the bonding causes changes to the tissue structure, which appear as a bowl shaped lesion around the heated spot. Optical coherence tomography is established as an appropriate modality for the assessment of these lesions, using the other methods for validation. A quantitative analysis of the lesions attributes is produced, using a dedicated image processing algorithm. By means of this method we observed that the depth of the lesion is the most effective measure in estimating the extent of the tissue reaction to heat. A comparison of the measured lesion depth, produced by different heating profiles, is presented. This comparison shows a linear dependence on both the temperature and the exposure time, within the boundaries of the experiment. The bond strength was evaluated for several set temperatures (with 20 seconds heating time in each case) displaying an optimal value at 70°C. Yet if an incision was successfully bonded, it held a higher burst pressure for a higher temperature value. These findings demonstrate the plausibility of an integrated laser tissue bonding apparatus with an optical coherence tomography probe, which will provide, for the first time, a real time feedback of the tissue structural change, and indicate the bonding progress and end point.
Wan, Derrick C; Nacamuli, Randall P; Longaker, Michael T
Repair and reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton represents a significant biomedical burden, with thousands of procedures per-formed annually secondary to injuries and congenital malformations. Given the multitude of current approaches, the need for more effective strategies to repair these bone deficits is apparent. This article explores two major modalities for craniofacial bone tissue engineering: distraction osteogenesis and cellular based therapies. Current understanding of the guiding principles for each of these modalities is elaborated on along with the knowledge gained from clinical and investigative studies. By laying this foundation, future directions for craniofacial distraction and cell-based bone engineering have emerged with great promise for the advancement of clinical practice.
Yang, Ying; Ahearne, Mark; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Hu, Bin; Hampson, Karen; El Haj, Alicia J.
For tissue engineering of load-bearing tissues, such as bone, tendon, cartilage, and cornea, it is critical to generate a highly organized extracellular matrix. The major component of the matrix in these tissues is collagen, which usually forms a highly hierarchical structure with increasing scale from fibril to fiber bundles. These bundles are ordered into a 3D network to withstand forces such as tensile, compressive or shear. To induce the formation of organized matrix and create a mimic body environment for tissue engineering, in particular, tendon tissue engineering, we have fabricated scaffolds with features to support the formation of uniaxially orientated collagen bundles. In addition, mechanical stimuli were applied to stimulate tissue formation and matrix organization. In parallel, we seek a nondestructive tool to monitor the changes within the constructs in response to these external stimulations. Polarizationsensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is a non-destructive technique that provides functional imaging, and possesses the ability to assess in depth the organization of tissue. In this way, an engineered tissue construct can be monitored on-line, and correlated with the application of different stimuli by PSOCT. We have constructed a PSOCT using a superluminescent diode (FWHM 52nm) in this study and produced two types of tendon constructs. The matrix structural evolution under different mechanical stimulation has been evaluated by the PSOCT. The results in this study demonstrate that PSOCT was a powerful tool enabling us to monitor non-destructively and real time the progressive changes in matrix organization and assess the impact of various stimuli on tissue orientation and growth.
Luc, Guillaume; Durand, Marlène; Collet, Denis; Guillemot, Fabien; Bordenave, Laurence
Esophageal tissue engineering is still in an early state, and ideal methods have not been developed. Since the beginning of the 20th century, advances have been made in the materials that can be used to produce an esophageal substitute. Three approaches to scaffold-based tissue engineering have yielded good results. The first development concerned non-absorbable constructs based on silicone and collagen. The need to remove the silicone tube is the main disadvantage of this material. Polymeric absorbable scaffolds have been used since the 1990s. The main polymeric material used is poly (glycolic) acid combined with collagen. The problem of stenosis remains prevalent in most studies using an absorbable construct. Finally, decellularized scaffolds have been used since 2000. The promises of this new approach are unfulfilled. Indeed, stenosis occurs when the esophageal defect is circumferential regardless of the scaffold materials. Cell supplementation can decrease the rate of stenosis, but the type(s) of cells and their roles have not been defined. Finally, esophageal tissue engineering cannot provide a functional esophageal substitute, and further development is necessary prior to conducting human clinical studies.
Skoog, Shelby A; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J
Several recent research efforts have focused on use of computer-aided additive fabrication technologies, commonly referred to as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, or three-dimensional printing technologies, to create structures for tissue engineering. For example, scaffolds for tissue engineering may be processed using rapid prototyping technologies, which serve as matrices for cell ingrowth, vascularization, as well as transport of nutrients and waste. Stereolithography is a photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology that involves computer-driven and spatially controlled irradiation of liquid resin. This technology enables structures with precise microscale features to be prepared directly from a computer model. In this review, use of stereolithography for processing trimethylene carbonate, polycaprolactone, and poly(D,L-lactide) poly(propylene fumarate)-based materials is considered. In addition, incorporation of bioceramic fillers for fabrication of bioceramic scaffolds is reviewed. Use of stereolithography for processing of patient-specific implantable scaffolds is also discussed. In addition, use of photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology, known as two-photon polymerization, for production of tissue engineering scaffolds with smaller features than conventional stereolithography technology is considered.
Gonzalez-Andrades, Miguel; de la Cruz Cardona, Juan; Ionescu, Ana Maria; Campos, Antonio; Del Mar Perez, Maria; Alaminos, Miguel
Decellularization of animal corneas is a promising method for the development of artificial human corneas by tissue engineering. In this study, two different decellularization protocols were evaluated to determine which one is able to best preserve the histologic structure, composition, and optical behavior of decellularized porcine corneas. Then, these corneas were recellularized with human keratocytes to obtain a partial human corneal substitute. Two different decellularization protocols were applied, using NaCl and SDS, to determine which one is able to best preserve the histologic structure, composition, and optical behavior of the decellularized corneas. Then, those decellularized corneas that showed the most appropriate results were recellularized with human keratocytes and evaluated at the histologic, biochemical, and optical levels for use in regenerative medicine. The results showed that 1.5 M NaCl treatment of porcine corneas is able to generate an acellular corneal stroma with adequate histologic and optical properties and that human keratocytes are able to penetrate and spread within this scaffold with proper levels of cell differentiation. In contrast, 0.1% SDS treatment of porcine corneas resulted in high levels of fibril disorganization and poor optical behavior of these corneas. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the decellularization of animal corneas with 1.5 M NaCl represents a useful method for the development of human bioengineered corneas with therapeutic potential.
Zhang, Chao; Nie, Xin; Hu, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Deng, Zhihong; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan
Tissue-engineered replacement of diseased or damaged tissue has become a reality for some types of tissue, such as skin and cartilage. Tissue-engineered corneal stroma represents a promising concept to overcome the limitations of cornea replacement with allograft. In this study, porcine cornea was decellularized by a series of extraction methods, and the in vivo biocompatibility of the scaffold was measured subcutaneously in rabbits (n = 8). These were not acutely rejected and no abscesses were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining at the 8th week, indicating that the scaffolds had good biocompatibility. To investigate the potential value of clinical applications, rabbit stromal keratocytes were implanted onto decellularized scaffolds to fabricate tissue-engineered corneal stroma. Allograft, tissue-engineered corneal stroma, or scaffolds were implanted into a model of corneal ulcer. The survival and reconstruction of corneal transplantation were morphologically evaluated by light and electron microscopy until the 32nd week after implantation. Experiments involving transplantation indicated that the epithelial and stromal defect healed quickly, with improvement in corneal clarity. The integration of the graft was accompanied by neurite ingrowth from the host tissue. By 16 weeks after transplantation, the cornea had gradually regained an intact state similar to that of normal cornea. Our results demonstrate that the tissue-engineered corneal stroma with allogenetic cells is a promising therapeutic method for corneal injury.
The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing
Engel, O; Soave, A; Rink, M; Dahlem, R; Hellwinkel, O; Chun, F K; Fisch, M
The term tissue engineering incorporates various techniques for the production of replacement tissues and organs. In urology tissue engineering offers many promising possibilities for the reconstruction of the urinary tract. Currently, buccal mucosa and urothelial cells are most commonly used for tissue engineering of the urinary tract. Various materials have been tested for their suitability as tissue scaffolds. The ideal scaffold, however, has not yet been found. In addition to material sciences and cell culture methods, surgical techniques play an important role in reconstructive urology for the successful implantation of tissue engineered transplants.
Nichol, Jason W; Khademhosseini, Ali
Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of "bottom-up" approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units.
Bhatia, Sujata K
Tissue engineering is increasingly being recognized as a beneficial means for lessening the global disease burden. One strategy of tissue engineering is to replace lost tissues or organs with polymeric scaffolds that contain specialized populations of living cells, with the goal of regenerating tissues to restore normal function. Typical constructs for tissue engineering employ biocompatible and degradable polymers, along with organ-specific and tissue-specific cells. Once implanted, the construct guides the growth and development of new tissues; the polymer scaffold degrades away to be replaced by healthy functioning tissue. The ideal biomaterial for tissue engineering not only defends against disease and supports weakened tissues or organs, it also provides the elements required for healing and repair, stimulates the body's intrinsic immunological and regenerative capacities, and seamlessly interacts with the living body. Tissue engineering has been investigated for virtually every organ system in the human body. This review describes the potential of tissue engineering to alleviate disease, as well as the latest advances in tissue regeneration. The discussion focuses on three specific clinical applications of tissue engineering: cardiac tissue regeneration for treatment of heart failure; nerve regeneration for treatment of stroke; and lung regeneration for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Patel, Nimesh N; Butler, Peter E M; Buttery, Lee; Polak, Julia M; Tolley, Neil S
Tissue engineering is the development of biological substitutes for the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. We explain the principles of this emerging field of biotechology. The present and potential applications of tissue engineering technologies in ENT surgery are then reviewed.
Green, David W
Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.
Wang, Chong; Wang, Min
Tissue engineering holds great promises in providing successful treatments of human body tissue loss that current methods are unable to treat or unable to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, a highperformance scaffold underpins the success of a tissue engineering strategy and a major direction in the field is to create multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds for enhanced biological performance and for regenerating complex body tissues. Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that are highly desirable for tissue engineering. The enormous interest in electrospinning and electrospun fibrous structures by the science, engineering and medical communities has led to various developments of the electrospinning technology and wide investigations of electrospun products in many industries, including biomedical engineering, over the past two decades. It is now possible to create novel, multicomponent tissue engineering scaffolds with multiple functions. This article provides a concise review of recent advances in the R & D of electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds. It also presents our philosophy and research in the designing and fabrication of electrospun multicomponent scaffolds with multiple functions.
Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.
Christenson, L; Mikos, A G; Gibbons, D F; Picciolo, G L
This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.
Christenson, L.; Mikos, A. G.; Gibbons, D. F.; Picciolo, G. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)
This article summarizes presentations and discussion at the workshop "Enabling Biomaterial Technology for Tissue Engineering," which was held during the Fifth World Biomaterials Congress in May 1996. Presentations covered the areas of material substrate architecture, barrier effects, and cellular response, including analysis of biomaterials challenges involved in producing specific tissue-engineered products.
Li, Li; Zhou, Dilys; Wang, Xiu-mei; Wang, Xiao-ping; Cui, Fu-zhai; Lu, Yu-jie; Huang, Yi-fei
To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in rabbit corneas implanted with modified titanium skirt of keratoprosthesis in order to explore the potential roles. A total of 20 New Zealand white rabbits with corneal alkali burn in right eye rabbit corneas were divided into three groups. There were 6 animals in each group. Skirt of hydroxyapatite/Sandblast-Titanium and Sandblast-Titanium were inserted into the corneal stroma of rabbits in group A and group B. The group C did not insert skirt as surgical control.2 rabbits were as normal control D group. A total of 20 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups with the same way. The expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry at 1 month, 3 months. The expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNA level was determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction, and its protein level was determined by western blot. The optical cylinder was implanted to rabbit corneas, which were implanted with modified titanium skirt after 3 months. There was one case of corneal dissolution being found in group F. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 immunoreactivities were expressed in the normal corneas, predominantly in the corneal epithelium. After injury, immunoreactivities of both MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were increased notably in the healing corneal epithelium, infiltrating inflammatory cells, stromal fibroblasts and in growing vascular endothelial cells. The expression of MMP-2 was lower in group A and E than that in group B and F after 1 month and 3 months (t = 12.05, 2.93, 12.006, 3.781, P < 0.05). The Western blot revealed no significant differences of MMP-2 mRNA between group 3 months and 2 weeks (t = 2.104, P > 0.05); MMP-2 immunoreactivities were absent or lowly expressed predominantly in the corneal epithelium of normal corneas. The expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2 mRNA level was parallel that of protein level. The expression of MMP-2 was lower in
... who had several conditions, such as certain central nervous system conditions, infections, and prior eye surgery or eye conditions, or from people who died from an unknown cause. During your cornea transplant On the day of your cornea transplant, you' ...
Patel, Manish N.; Atala, Anthony
Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability. PMID:22235188
Sheahan, Timothy P.; Rice, Charles M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.
New insights in the study of virus and host biology in the context of viral infection are made possible by the development of model systems that faithfully recapitulate the in vivo viral life cycle. Standard tissue culture models lack critical emergent properties driven by cellular organization and in vivo–like function, whereas animal models suffer from limited susceptibility to relevant human viruses and make it difficult to perform detailed molecular manipulation and analysis. Tissue engineering techniques may enable virologists to create infection models that combine the facile manipulation and readouts of tissue culture with the virus-relevant complexity of animal models. Here, we review the state of the art in tissue engineering and describe how tissue engineering techniques may alleviate some common shortcomings of existing models of viral infection, with a particular emphasis on hepatotropic viruses. We then discuss possible future applications of tissue engineering to virology, including current challenges and potential solutions. PMID:25893203
Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may soon offer new hope for patients with serious injuries and end-stage reproductive organ failure. Scientists are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured reproductive tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is advancing, and new discoveries in this field will lead to new therapeutic strategies. For example, newly discovered types of stem cells have been retrieved from uterine tissues such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous adult cells have already entered the clinic. This article discusses these tissue engineering strategies for various organs in the male and female reproductive tract.
Patel, Neil S.; Savage, Howard E.; Rosen, Richard B.; Halder, Rabindra K.; Kartazayeu, Uladzimir; McCormick, Steven A.; Katz, Alvin; Perry, Henry D.; Alfano, Robert R.
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to delineate the role of local fluence rates and absorption in histologic success and tensile strength analysis of laser welding of ocular corneal tissue using an erbium fiber laser system operating at 1455nm wavelength. Porcine cornea was used for in vitro welding, while varying power, scan time, and irradiance. Immediate histologic analysis was performed, as well as tensile strength studies. Simulations were performed using MCML code, with a total of 109 photons started. CONV code was used to convolve the output from MCML for a flat photon beam of 80-800 μ focal spot size and power specified by the experiment. The absorption coefficient, μa, was assumed to reflect that of water, 28.6 cm-1. The scattering coefficient, μs, and anisotropy factor, g, were both neglected due to the poor scattering capabilities of water in the wavelength of the laser beam. Fluence rates were determined and were within 0.3%-4% of surface dose calculations for a beam diameter of 80 μ. Interactive Data Language (IDL) was used to sum the dose for one convolved beam to an experiment with multiple scans across the porcine cornea. Achieving optimal usage of the laser system requires maximal use of the variables (power, scan patterns, scan time, irradiance) available to use, and the correlation between Monte Carlo-aided dosimetry and the histopathological and tensile strength studies was performed. Optimal parameters for use in this 1455 nm laser system can be studied, and will allow users the ability to predict histology scores of welding success and tissue injury based on absorption values. These results can refine our experience with laser tissue welding of porcine cornea and aid in determining optimal delivered dose for successful tissue apposition and minimal adverse thermal heating.
Huang, Yi-Hsun; Tseng, Fan-Wei; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Peng, I-Chen; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wu, Shu-Wei; Yeh, Ming-Long
In this study, we developed a novel method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to prepare acellular porcine cornea (APC). Under gentle extraction conditions using SCCO2 technology, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that cells were completely lysed, and cell debris, including nuclei, was efficiently removed from the porcine cornea. The SCCO2-treated corneas exhibited intact stromal structures and appropriate mechanical properties. Moreover, no immunological reactions and neovascularization were observed after lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. All transplanted grafts and animals survived without complications. The transplanted APCs were opaque after the operation but became transparent within 2weeks. Complete re-epithelialization of the transplanted APCs was observed within 4weeks. In conclusion, APCs produced by SCCO2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal tissue engineering. We decellularized the porcine cornea using SCCO2 extraction technology and investigated the characteristics, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of the decellularized porcine cornea by lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of SCCO2 extraction technology for preparation of acellular corneal scaffold. We proved that the cellular components of porcine corneas had been efficiently removed, and the biomechanical properties of the scaffold were well preserved by SCCO2 extraction technology. SCCO2-treated corneas maintained optical transparency and exhibited appropriate strength to withstand surgical procedures. In vivo, the transplanted corneas showed no evidence of immunological reactions and exhibited good biocompatibility and long-term stability. Our results suggested that the APCs developed by SCCO2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal replacement and corneal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd
Huang, Guo You; Zhou, Li Hong; Zhang, Qian Cheng; Chen, Yong Mei; Sun, Wei; Xu, Feng; Lu, Tian Jian
With advanced properties similar to the native extracellular matrix, hydrogels have found widespread applications in tissue engineering. Hydrogel-based cellular constructs have been successfully developed to engineer different tissues such as skin, cartilage and bladder. Whilst significant advances have been made, it is still challenging to fabricate large and complex functional tissues due mainly to the limited diffusion capability of hydrogels. The integration of microfluidic networks and hydrogels can greatly enhance mass transport in hydrogels and spatiotemporally control the chemical microenvironment of cells, mimicking the function of native microvessels. In this review, we present and discuss recent advances in the fabrication of microfluidic hydrogels from the viewpoint of tissue engineering. Further development of new hydrogels and microengineering technologies will have a great impact on tissue engineering.
Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Tandon, Nina; Godier, Amandine; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Martens, Timothy P; Radisic, Milica
Cardiac tissue engineering aims to create functional tissue constructs that can reestablish the structure and function of injured myocardium. Engineered constructs can also serve as high-fidelity models for studies of cardiac development and disease. In a general case, the biological potential of the cell-the actual "tissue engineer"-is mobilized by providing highly controllable three-dimensional environments that can mediate cell differentiation and functional assembly. For cardiac regeneration, some of the key requirements that need to be met are the selection of a human cell source, establishment of cardiac tissue matrix, electromechanical cell coupling, robust and stable contractile function, and functional vascularization. We review here the potential and challenges of cardiac tissue engineering for developing therapies that could prevent or reverse heart failure.
Kao, Richard T; Conte, Greg; Nishimine, Dee; Dault, Scott
As a result of periodontal regeneration research, a series of clinical techniques have emerged that permit tissue engineering to be performed for more efficient regeneration and repair of periodontal defects and improved implant site development. Historically, periodontal regeneration research has focused on a quest for "magic filler" material. This search has led to the development of techniques utilizing autologous bone and bone marrow, allografts, xenografts, and various man-made bone substitutes. Though these techniques have had limited success, the desire for a more effective regenerative approach has resulted in the development of tissue engineering techniques. Tissue engineering is a relatively new field of reconstructive biology which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biologic mediators to facilitate reconstruction/regeneration of a particular tissue. In periodontology, the concept of tissue engineering had its beginnings with guided tissue regeneration, a mechanical approach utilizing nonresorbable membranes to obtain regeneration in defects. In dental implantology, guided bone regeneration membranes +/- mechanical support are used for bone augmentation of proposed implant placement sites. With the availability of partially purified protein mixture from developing teeth and growth factors from recombinant technology, a new era of tissue engineering whereby biologic mediators can be used for periodontal regeneration. The advantage of recombinant growth factors is this tissue engineering device is consistent in its regenerative capacity, and variations in regenerative response are due to individual healing response and/or poor surgical techniques. In this article, the authors review how tissue engineering has advanced and discuss its impact on the clinical management of both periodontal and osseous defects in preparation for implant placement. An understanding of these new tissue engineering techniques is essential for comprehending today's ever
Ma, Peter X
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an exciting research area that aims at regenerative alternatives to harvested tissues for transplantation. Biomaterials play a pivotal role as scaffolds to provide three-dimensional templates and synthetic extracellular-matrix environments for tissue regeneration. It is often beneficial for the scaffolds to mimic certain advantageous characteristics of the natural extracellular matrix, or developmental or would healing programs. This article reviews current biomimetic materials approaches in tissue engineering. These include synthesis to achieve certain compositions or properties similar to those of the extracellular matrix, novel processing technologies to achieve structural features mimicking the extracellular matrix on various levels, approaches to emulate cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and biologic delivery strategies to recapitulate a signaling cascade or developmental/would-healing program. The article also provides examples of enhanced cellular/tissue functions and regenerative outcomes, demonstrating the excitement and significance of the biomimetic materials for tissue engineering and regeneration. PMID:18045729
Ma, Peter X
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an exciting research area that aims at regenerative alternatives to harvested tissues for transplantation. Biomaterials play a pivotal role as scaffolds to provide three-dimensional templates and synthetic extracellular matrix environments for tissue regeneration. It is often beneficial for the scaffolds to mimic certain advantageous characteristics of the natural extracellular matrix, or developmental or wound healing programs. This article reviews current biomimetic materials approaches in tissue engineering. These include synthesis to achieve certain compositions or properties similar to those of the extracellular matrix, novel processing technologies to achieve structural features mimicking the extracellular matrix on various levels, approaches to emulate cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and biologic delivery strategies to recapitulate a signaling cascade or developmental/wound healing program. The article also provides examples of enhanced cellular/tissue functions and regenerative outcomes, demonstrating the excitement and significance of the biomimetic materials for tissue engineering and regeneration.
Hukins, David W. L.
A material-cell hybrid device that mimics the anatomic shape of the intervertebral disc has been made and successfully implanted into mice to show that tissue engineering may, in the future, benefit sufferers from back pain.
Dahlin, Rebecca L.; Kasper, F. Kurtis
Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed. PMID:21699434
Naito, Yuji; Rocco, Kevin; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Maxfield, Mark; Breuer, Christopher; Shinoka, Toshiharu
Tissue engineering holds great promise to address complications and limitations encountered with the use of traditional prosthetic materials, such as thrombogenicity, infection, and future degeneration which represent the major morbidity and mortality after device implant surgery. The general concept of tissue engineering consists of three main components: a scaffold material, a cell type for seeding the scaffold, and biochemical, physio-chemical signaling and remodeling process. This remodeling process is guided by cell signals derived from both seeded cells and host inflammatory cells that infiltrate the scaffold and deposit extracellular matrix, forming the neotissue. Vascular tissue engineering is at the forefront in the translation of this technology to clinical practice, as tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) have now been successfully implanted in children with congenital heart disease. In this report, we review the history, advances, and state of the art in TEVGs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dahlin, Rebecca L; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G
Polymeric nanofibers can be produced using methods such as electrospinning, phase separation, and self-assembly, and the fiber composition, diameter, alignment, degradation, and mechanical properties can be tailored to the intended application. Nanofibers possess unique advantages for tissue engineering. The small diameter closely matches that of extracellular matrix fibers, and the relatively large surface area is beneficial for cell attachment and bioactive factor loading. This review will update the reader on the aspects of nanofiber fabrication and characterization important to tissue engineering, including control of porous structure, cell infiltration, and fiber degradation. Bioactive factor loading will be discussed with specific relevance to tissue engineering. Finally, applications of polymeric nanofibers in the fields of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon, cardiovascular, and neural tissue engineering will be reviewed.
Weber, Joanna F; Perez, Roman; Waldman, Stephen D
Mechanical stimulation is an effective method to increase extracellular matrix synthesis and to improve the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. In this chapter, we describe valuable methods of imposing direct mechanical stimuli (compression or shear) to tissue-engineered cartilage constructs as well as some common analytical methods used to quantify the effects of mechanical stimuli after short-term or long-term loading.
11, 305, 2002. 5. Shin’oka, T., Matsumura, G., Hibino, N., Naito, Y., Watanabe, M., Konuma, T., Sakamoto, T., Nagatsu, M., and Kurosawa , H. Midterm...Ikada, Y., Kurosawa , H., and Shin’oka, T. Successful application of tissue engineered vas- cular autografts: clinical experience. Biomaterials 24...2303, 2003. 35. Matsumura, G., Ishihara, Y., Miyagawa-Tomita, S., Ikada, Y., Matsuda, S., Kurosawa , H., and Shin’oka, T. Evaluation of tissue-engineered
Tandon, Nina; Godier, Amandine; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Martens, Timothy P.; Radisic, Milica
Cardiac tissue engineering aims to create functional tissue constructs that can reestablish the structure and function of injured myocardium. Engineered constructs can also serve as high-fidelity models for studies of cardiac development and disease. In a general case, the biological potential of the cell—the actual “tissue engineer”—is mobilized by providing highly controllable three-dimensional environments that can mediate cell differentiation and functional assembly. For cardiac regeneration, some of the key requirements that need to be met are the selection of a human cell source, establishment of cardiac tissue matrix, electromechanical cell coupling, robust and stable contractile function, and functional vascularization. We review here the potential and challenges of cardiac tissue engineering for developing therapies that could prevent or reverse heart failure. PMID:19698068
Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024
Ge, Yang; Gong, Yi Yi; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Yanan; Fu, Wei
Cartilage tissue engineering started to act as a promising, even essential alternative method in the process of cartilage repair and regeneration, considering adult avascular structure has very limited self-renewal capacity of cartilage tissue in adults and a bottle-neck existed in conventional surgical treatment methods. Recent progressions in tissue engineering realized the development of more feasible strategies to treat cartilage disorders. Of these strategies, cell sheet technology has shown great clinical potentials in the regenerative areas such as cornea and esophagus and is increasingly considered as a potential way to reconstruct cartilage tissues for its non-use of scaffolds and no destruction of matrix secreted by cultured cells. Acellular matrix sheet technologies utilized in cartilage tissue engineering, with a sandwich model, can ingeniously overcome the drawbacks that occurred in a conventional acellular block, where cells are often blocked from migrating because of the non-nanoporous structure. Electrospun-based sheets with nanostructures that mimic the natural cartilage matrix offer a level of control as well as manipulation and make them appealing and widely used in cartilage tissue engineering. In this review, we focus on the utilization of these novel and promising sheet technologies to construct cartilage tissues with practical and beneficial functions.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961
Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties that are absent in the bulk material because decreasing material size leads to an exponential increase in surface area, surface area to volume ratio, and effective stiffness, resulting in altered physiochemical properties. Diverse categories of nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanoporous scaffolds, nanopatterned surfaces, nanofibers and carbon nanotubes can be generated using advanced fabrication and processing techniques. These materials are being increasingly incorporated in tissue engineering scaffolds to facilitate the development of biomimetic substitutes to replace damaged tissues and organs. Long term success of nanomaterials in tissue engineering is contingent upon the inflammatory responses they elicit in vivo. This review seeks to summarize the recent developments in our understanding of biochemical and biophysical attributes of nanomaterials and the inflammatory responses they elicit, with a focus on strategies for nanomaterial design in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25421333
Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Utoh, Rie; Nagase, Kenichi; Okano, Teruo
After the biotech medicine era, regenerative medicine is expected to be an advanced medicine that is capable of curing patients with difficult-to-treat diseases and physically impaired function. Our original scaffold-free cell sheet-based tissue engineering technology enables transplanted cells to be engrafted for a long time, while fully maintaining their viability. This technology has already been applied to various diseases in the clinical setting, including the cornea, esophagus, heart, periodontal ligament, and cartilage using autologous cells. Transplanted cell sheets not only replace the injured tissue and compensate for impaired function, but also deliver growth factors and cytokines in a spatiotemporal manner over a prolonged period, which leads to promotion of tissue repair. Moreover, the integration of stem cell biology and cell sheet technology with sufficient vascularization opens possibilities for fabrication of human three-dimensional vascularized dense and intact tissue grafts for regenerative medicine to parenchymal organs.
Oliveira, Ana Celeste; Garzón, Ingrid; Ionescu, Ana Maria; Carriel, Victor; Cardona, Juan de la Cruz; González-Andrades, Miguel; Pérez, María del Mar; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio
Advances in the development of cornea substitutes by tissue engineering techniques have focused on the use of decellularized tissue scaffolds. In this work, we evaluated different chemical and physical decellularization methods on small intestine tissues to determine the most appropriate decellularization protocols for corneal applications. Our results revealed that the most efficient decellularization agents were the SDS and triton X-100 detergents, which were able to efficiently remove most cell nuclei and residual DNA. Histological and histochemical analyses revealed that collagen fibers were preserved upon decellularization with triton X-100, NaCl and sonication, whereas reticular fibers were properly preserved by decellularization with UV exposure. Extracellular matrix glycoproteins were preserved after decellularization with SDS, triton X-100 and sonication, whereas proteoglycans were not affected by any of the decellularization protocols. Tissue transparency was significantly higher than control non-decellularized tissues for all protocols, although the best light transmittance results were found in tissues decellularized with SDS and triton X-100. In conclusion, our results suggest that decellularized intestinal grafts could be used as biological scaffolds for cornea tissue engineering. Decellularization with triton X-100 was able to efficiently remove all cells from the tissues while preserving tissue structure and most fibrillar and non-fibrillar extracellular matrix components, suggesting that this specific decellularization agent could be safely used for efficient decellularization of SI tissues for cornea TE applications.
Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike
Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age.
De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Fuentes-Julian, Sherezade; de Benito-Llopis, Laura; Amparo, Francisco; Bataille, Laurent
In addition to being a protective shield, the cornea represents two thirds of the eye's refractive power. Corneal pathology can affect one or all of the corneal layers, producing corneal opacity. Although full corneal thickness keratoplasty has been the standard procedure, the ideal strategy would be to replace only the damaged layer. Current difficulties in corneal transplantation, mainly immune rejection and shortage of organ supply, place more emphasis on the development of artificial corneas. Bioengineered corneas range from prosthetic devices that solely address the replacement of the corneal function, to tissue-engineered hydrogels that allow regeneration of the tissue. Recently, major advances in the biology of corneal stem cells have been achieved. However, the therapeutic use of these stem cell types has the disadvantage of needing an intact stem cell compartment, which is usually damaged. In addition, long ex vivo culture is needed to generate enough cell numbers for transplantation. In the near future, combination of advanced biomaterials with cells from abundant outer sources will allow advances in the field. For the former, magnetically aligned collagen is one of the most promising ones. For the latter, different cell types will be optimal: 1) for epithelial replacement: oral mucosal epithelium, ear epidermis, or bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells, 2) for stromal regeneration: adipose-derived stem cells and 3) for endothelial replacement, the possibility of in vitro directed differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells towards endothelial cells provides an exciting new approach.
Ballyns, Jeffrey J; Bonassar, Lawrence J
Replication of anatomic shape is a significant challenge in developing implants for regenerative medicine. This has lead to significant interest in using medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to design tissue engineered constructs. Implementation of medical imaging and computer aided design in combination with technologies for rapid prototyping of living implants enables the generation of highly reproducible constructs with spatial resolution up to 25 μm. In this paper, we review the medical imaging modalities available and a paradigm for choosing a particular imaging technique. We also present fabrication techniques and methodologies for producing cellular engineered constructs. Finally, we comment on future challenges involved with image guided tissue engineering and efforts to generate engineered constructs ready for implantation. PMID:19583811
Femtosecond laser multiphoton tomography has been employed in the field of tissue engineering to perform 3D high-resolution imaging of the extracellular matrix proteins elastin and collagen as well as of living cells without any fixation, slicing, and staining. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses are able to excite the endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin via a non-resonant two-photon excitation process. In addition, collagen can be imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Multiphoton tomography has been used to optimize the tissue engineering of heart valves and vessels in bioincubators as well as to characterize artificial skin. Stem cell characterization and manipulation are of major interest for the field of tissue engineering. Using the novel sub-20 femtosecond multiphoton nanoprocessing laser microscope FemtOgene, the differentiation of human stem cells within spheroids has been in vivo monitored with submicron resolution. In addition, the efficient targeted transfection has been demonstrated. Clinical studies on the interaction of tissue-engineered products with the natural tissue environment can be performed with in vivo multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect.
Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise
Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.
Davies, Jamie A.; Cachat, Elise
Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the ‘embryological cycle’ of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. PMID:27284030
Lovett, Michael; Lee, Kyongbum; Edwards, Aurelie
Tissue engineering is currently limited by the inability to adequately vascularize tissues in vitro or in vivo. Issues of nutrient perfusion and mass transport limitations, especially oxygen diffusion, restrict construct development to smaller than clinically relevant dimensions and limit the ability for in vivo integration. There is much interest in the field as researchers have undertaken a variety of approaches to vascularization, including material functionalization, scaffold design, microfabrication, bioreactor development, endothelial cell seeding, modular assembly, and in vivo systems. Efforts to model and measure oxygen diffusion and consumption within these engineered tissues have sought to quantitatively assess and improve these design strategies. This review assesses the current state of the field by outlining the prevailing approaches taken toward producing vascularized tissues and highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:19496677
Rossello, Ricardo A; H, David
Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is ubiquitous in the majority of cells and is indispensable for proper development and function of most tissues. The loss of gap junction mediated cell to cell communication leads to compromised development in many tissues and organs, and also facilitates tumorigenesis and autonomous cell behavior in cancerous cells. Because cells embedded in an extracellular matrix constantly interact through gap junctions to coordinate normal tissue functions and homeostasis, our group hypothesized that increasing cell to cell communication, via genetically engineering cells to overexpress gap junction proteins, could improve cell signaling and increase differentiation in interior regions of engineered tissue equivalents. In a recent paper,1 we presented a platform to regenerate full 3D equivalents of engineered tissue, providing a strategy to overcome a barrier in regenerative medicine. These findings suggest that both targeted delivery and cell-based strategies can be used as treatments to enhance communication in 3D living tissue.2 In this addendum, we address the effects of extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) (e)) on intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) (i)), GJIC and osteogenic differentiation under conditions in which bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) also exhibit higher cell-to-cell communication. As a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, the levels of Ca(2+) (e) and Ca(2+) (i) play a role in cell differentiation and may be a tunable signal in tissue regeneration. Higher cell-to-cell communication was achieved by both genetically engineering cells to overexpress connexin 43 (Cx43) and by a high density cell seeding technique, denoted micromass seeding (MM). The results presented in this addendum show that the intensity and duration of a second messenger, like calcium, can be augmented in a platform that enables higher cell-to-cell communication. The ability to modulate calcium signaling, combined with our previous
Ruberti, Jeffrey W.; Zieske, James D.
By most standard engineering practice principles, it is premature to credibly discuss the “engineering” of a human cornea. A professional design engineer would assert that we still do not know what a cornea is (and correctly so), therefore we cannot possibly build one. The proof resides in the fact that there are no clinically viable corneas based on classical tissue engineering methods available. This is possibly because tissue engineering in the classical sense (seeding a degradable scaffolding with a population synthetically active cells) does not produce conditions which support the generation of organized tissue. Alternative approaches to the problem are in their infancy and include the methods which attempt to recapitulate development or to produce corneal stromal analogs de novo which require minimal remodeling. Nonetheless, tissue engineering efforts, which have been focused on producing the fundamental functional component of a cornea (organized alternating arrays of collagen or “lamellae”) may have already provided valuable new insights and tools relevant to development, growth, remodeling and pathologies associated with connective tissue in general. This is because engineers ask a fundamentally different question (How can that be done?) than do biological scientists (How is that done?). The difference in inquiry has prompted us to closely examine (and to mimic) development as well as investigate collagen physicochemical behavior so that we may exert control over organization both in cell-culture (in vitro) and on the benchtop (de novo). Our initial results indicate that reproducing corneal stroma-like local and long-range organization of collagen may be simpler than we anticipated while controlling spacing and fibril morphology remains difficult, but perhaps not impossible in the (reasonably) near term. PMID:18775789
Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.
This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084
Peter, S J; Miller, M J; Yasko, A W; Yaszemski, M J; Mikos, A G
Traumatic injuries, cancer treatment, and congenital abnormalities are often associated with abnormal bone shape or segmental bone loss. Restoration of normal structure and function in these cases requires replacement of the missing bone that may be accomplished by surgical transfer of natural tissue from an uninjured location elsewhere in the body. However, this procedure is limited by availability, adequate blood supply, and secondary deformities at the donor site. One strategy to overcome these problems is to develop living tissue substitutes based on synthetic biodegradable polymers. Three methods of bone regeneration using biodegradable polymers are being studied in our laboratory: tissue induction, cell transplantation, and fabrication of vascularized bone flaps. Injectable polymers are used for filling skeletal defects and guiding bone tissue growth. Their main advantage is minimizing the surgical intervention or the severity of the surgery. Polymer-cell constructs also hold great promise in the field of tissue engineering. They provide a scaffold on which cells grow and organize themselves. As the cells begin to secrete their own extracellular matrix, the polymer degrades and is eventually eliminated from the body, resulting in completely natural tissue replacement. Bone flaps can be fabricated ectopically into precise shapes and sizes. With an attached vascular supply, these flaps can be transferred into areas deficient in vascularity. This article discusses polymer concepts regarding bone tissue engineering and reviews recent advances of our laboratory on guided bone regeneration using biodegradable polymer scaffolds.
Leong, K F; Chua, C K; Sudarmadji, N; Yeong, W Y
Tissue Engineering (TE) aims to create biological substitutes to repair or replace failing organs or tissues due to trauma or ageing. One of the more promising approaches in TE is to grow cells on biodegradable scaffolds, which act as temporary supports for the cells to attach, proliferate and differentiate; after which the scaffold will degrade, leaving behind a healthy regenerated tissue. Tissues in nature, including human tissues, exhibit gradients across a spatial volume, in which each identifiable layer has specific functions to perform so that the whole tissue/organ can behave normally. Such a gradient is termed a functional gradient. A good TE scaffold should mimic such a gradient, which fulfils the biological and mechanical requirements of the target tissue. Thus, the design and fabrication process of such scaffolds become more complex and the introduction of computer-aided tools will lend themselves well to ease these challenges. This paper reviews the needs and characterization of these functional gradients and the computer-aided systems used to ease the complexity of the scaffold design stage. These include the fabrication techniques capable of building functionally graded scaffolds (FGS) using both conventional and rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. They are able to fabricate both continuous and discrete types of FGS. The challenge in fabricating continuous FGS using RP techniques lies in the development of suitable computer aided systems to facilitate continuous FGS design. What have been missing are the appropriate models that relate the scaffold gradient, e.g. pore size, porosity or material gradient, to the biological and mechanical requirements for the regeneration of the target tissue. The establishment of these relationships will provide the foundation to develop better computer-aided systems to help design a suitable customized FGS.
Fauza, D O; Marler, J J; Koka, R; Forse, R A; Mayer, J E; Vacanti, J P
Prosthetic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been associated with high complication rates. This study was aimed at applying fetal tissue engineering to diaphragmatic replacement. Fetal lambs underwent harvest of skeletal muscle specimens. Once expanded in vitro, fetal myoblasts were suspended in a collagen hydrogel submitted to controlled radial tension. The construct was then placed in a bioreactor. After birth, all animals underwent creation of 2 diaphragmatic defects. One defect was repaired with the autologous-engineered construct placed in between 2 acellular supporting membranes and the other with an identical construct but without any cells. Each animal was its own control (graft, n = 10). Animals were killed at different time-points postimplantation for histologic examination. Statistical analysis was by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fetal myoblasts expanded up to twice as fast as neonatal cells. Hydrogel-based radial tension enhanced construct architecture by eliciting cell organization within the scaffold. No eventration was present in 4 of 5 engineered constructs but in 0 of 5 acellular grafts (P<.05). At harvest, engineered constructs were thick and histologically resembled normal skeletal muscle, whereas acellular grafts were thin, floppy, and showed low cell density with increased fibrosis. Unlike acellular grafts, engineered cellular diaphragmatic constructs are anatomically and histologically similar to normal muscle. Fetal tissue engineering may be a viable alternative for diaphragmatic replacement.
Baguneid, M S; Seifalian, A M; Salacinski, H J; Murray, D; Hamilton, G; Walker, M G
Tissue engineering techniques have been employed successfully in the management of wounds, burns and cartilage repair. Current prosthetic alternatives to autologous vascular bypass grafts remain poor in terms of patency and infection risk. Growing biological blood vessels has been proposed as an alternative. This review is based on a literature search using Medline, PubMed, ISIS and CAS of original articles and reviews, and unpublished material and abstracts. Complete incorporation into host tissues and the maintenance of a viable and self-renewing endothelial layer are the fundamental goals to be achieved when developing a tissue-engineered blood vessel. Sourcing of cells and modulating their interaction with extracellular matrix and supporting scaffold have been the focus of intense research. Although the use of tissue-engineered blood vessels in humans is so far limited, advances in our knowledge of stem cell precursors and the development of new biomaterials should enable this technology to reach routine clinical practice within a decade. Copyright (c) 2006 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sakai, Yasuyuki; Nishikawa, M; Evenou, F; Hamon, M; Huang, H; Montagne, K P; Kojima, N; Fujii, T; Niino, T
In this chapter, from the engineering point of view, we introduce the results from our group and related research on three typical configurations of engineered liver tissues; cell sheet-based tissues, sheet-like macroporous scaffold-based tissues, and tissues based on special scaffolds that comprise a flow channel network. The former two do not necessitate in vitro prevascularization and are thus promising in actual human clinical trials for liver diseases that can be recovered by relatively smaller tissue mass. The third approach can implant a much larger mass but is still not yet feasible. In all cases, oxygen supply is the key engineering factor. For the first configuration, direct oxygen supply using an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane membrane enables various liver cells to exhibit distinct behaviors, complete double layers of mature hepatocytes and fibroblasts, spontaneous thick tissue formation of hepatocarcinoma cells and fetal hepatocytes. Actual oxygen concentration at the cell level can be strictly controlled in this culture system. Using this property, we found that initially low then subsequently high oxygen concentrations were favorable to growth and maturation of fetal cells. For the second configuration, combination of poly-L: -lactic acid 3D scaffolds and appropriate growth factor cocktails provides a suitable microenvironment for the maturation of cells in vitro but the cell growth is limited to a certain distance from the inner surfaces of the macropores. However, implantation to the mesentery leaves of animals allows the cells again to proliferate and pack the remaining spaces of the macroporous structure, suggesting the high feasibility of 3D culture of hepatocyte progenitors for liver tissue-based therapies. For the third configuration, we proposed a design criterion concerning the dimensions of flow channels based on oxygen diffusion and consumption around the channel. Due to the current limitation in the resolution of 3D
Vaegler, Martin; Maurer, Sabine; Toomey, Patricia; Amend, Bastian; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich
The development of therapeutic treatments to regenerate urothelium, manufacture tissue equivalents or neourethras for in-vivo application is a significant challenge in the field of tissue engineering. Many studies have focused on urethral defects that, in most cases, inadequately address current therapies. This article reviews the primary tissue engineering strategies aimed at the clinical requirements for urothelium regeneration while concentrating on promising investigations in the use of grafts, cellular preparations, as well as seeded or unseeded natural and synthetic materials. Despite significant progress being made in the development of scaffolds and matrices, buccal mucosa transplants have not been replaced. Recently, graft tissues appear to have an advantage over the use of matrices. These therapies depend on cell isolation and propagation in vitro that require, not only substantial laboratory resources, but also subsequent surgical implant procedures. The choice of the correct cell source is crucial when determining an in-vivo application because of the risks of tissue changes and abnormalities that may result in donor site morbidity. Addressing an appropriately-designed animal model and relevant regulatory issues is of fundamental importance for the principal investigators when a therapy using cellular components has been developed for clinical use.
Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B.; Park, Sang-Hyug; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Kaplan, David L.
RGD-coupled silk protein-biomaterial lamellar systems were prepared and studied with human cornea fibroblasts (hCFs) to match functional requirements. A strategy for corneal tissue engineering was pursued to replicate the structural hierarchy of human corneal stroma within thin stacks of lamellae-like tissues, in this case constructed from scaffolds constructed with RGD-coupled, patterned, porous, mechanically robust and transparent silk films. The influence of RGD-coupling on the orientation, proliferation, ECM organization, and gene expression of hCFs was assessed. RGD surface modification enhanced cell attachment, proliferation, alignment and expression of both collagens (type I and V) and proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan). Confocal and histological images of the lamellar systems revealed that the bio-functionalized silk human cornea 3D constructs exhibited integrated corneal stroma tissue with helicoidal multi-lamellar alignment of collagen-rich and proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix, with transparency of the construct. This biomimetic approach to replicate corneal stromal tissue structural hierarchy and architecture demonstrates a useful strategy for engineering human cornea. Further, this approach can be exploited for other tissue systems due to the pervasive nature of such helicoids in most human tissues. PMID:20801503
Chen, Jia; Ma, Dongyang; Ren, Liling
To review the development of cell sheet engineering technology in engineering vascularized tissue. The literature about cell sheet engineering technology and engineering vascularized tissue was reviewed, analyzed, and summarized. Although there are many methods to engineer vascularized tissue, cell sheet engineering technology provides a promising potential to develop a vascularized tissue. Recently, cell sheet engineering technology has become a hot topic in engineering vascularized tissue. Co-culturing endothelial cells on a cell sheet, endothelial cells are able to form three-dimensional prevascularized networks and microvascular cavities in the cell sheet, which facilitate the formation of functional vascular networks in the transplanted tissue. Cell sheet engineering technology is a promising strategy to engineer vascularized tissue, which is still being studied to explore more potential.
Marga, Francoise; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor
Morphogenesis implies the controlled spatial organization of cells that gives rise to tissues and organs in early embryonic development. While morphogenesis is under strict genetic control, the formation of specialized biological structures of specific shape hinges on physical processes. Tissue engineering (TE) aims at reproducing morphogenesis in the laboratory, i.e., in vitro, to fabricate replacement organs for regenerative medicine. The classical approach to generate tissues/organs is by seeding and expanding cells in appropriately shaped biocompatible scaffolds, in the hope that the maturation process will result in the desired structure. To accomplish this goal more naturally and efficiently, we set up and implemented a novel TE method that is based on principles of developmental biology and employs bioprinting, the automated delivery of cellular composites into a three-dimensional (3D) biocompatible environment. The novel technology relies on the concept of tissue liquidity according to which multicellular aggregates composed of adhesive and motile cells behave in analogy with liquids: in particular, they fuse. We emphasize the major role played by tissue fusion in the embryo and explain how the parameters (surface tension, viscosity) that govern tissue fusion can be used both experimentally and theoretically to control and simulate the self-assembly of cellular spheroids into 3D living structures. The experimentally observed postprinting shape evolution of tube- and sheet-like constructs is presented. Computer simulations, based on a liquid model, support the idea that tissue liquidity may provide a mechanism for in vitro organ building.
Zhang, Liying; Zou, Dulei; Li, Sanming; Wang, Junqi; Qu, Yangluowa; Ou, Shangkun; Jia, Changkai; Li, Juan; He, Hui; Liu, Tingting; Yang, Jie; Chen, Yongxiong; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei
Amniotic membranes (AMs) are widely used as a corneal epithelial tissue carrier in reconstruction surgery. However, the engineered tissue transparency is low due to the translucent thick underlying AM stroma. To overcome this drawback, we developed an ultra-thin AM (UAM) by using collagenase IV to strip away from the epithelial denuded AM (DAM) some of the stroma. By thinning the stroma to about 30 μm, its moist and dry forms were rendered acellular, optically clear and its collagen framework became compacted and inerratic. Engineered rabbit corneal epithelial cell (RCEC) sheets generated through expansion of limbal epithelial cells on UAM were more transparent and thicker than those expanded on DAM. Moreover, ΔNp63 and ABCG2 gene expression was greater in tissue engineered cell sheets expanded on UAM than on DAM. Furthermore, 2 weeks after surgery, the cornea grafted with UAM based cell sheets showed higher transparency and more stratified epithelium than the cornea grafted with DAM based cell sheets. Taken together, tissue engineered corneal epithelium generated on UAM has a preferable outcome because the transplanted tissue is more transparent and better resembles the phenotype of the native tissue than that obtained by using DAM for this procedure. UAM preserves compact layer of the amniotic membrane and maybe an ideal substrate for corneal epithelial tissue engineering.
Jain, Era; Damania, Apeksha; Kumar, Ashok
Liver extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, topography and biomechanical properties influence cell-matrix interactions. The ECM presents guiding cues for hepatocyte phenotype maintenance, differentiation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Current understanding of such cell-guiding cues along with advancement of techniques for scaffold fabrication has led to evolution of matrices for liver tissue culture from simple porous scaffolds to more complex 3D matrices with microarchitecture similar to in vivo. Natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials fabricated in different topographies and porous matrices have been used for hepatocyte culture. Heterotypic and homotypic cell interactions are necessary for developing an adult liver as well as an artificial liver. A high oxygen demand of hepatocytes as well as graded oxygen distribution in liver is another challenging attribute of the normal liver architecture that further adds to the complexity of engineered substrate design. A balanced interplay of cell-matrix interactions along with cell-cell interactions and adequate supply of oxygen and nutrient determines the success of an engineered substrate for liver cells. Techniques devised to incorporate these features of hepatic function and mimic liver architecture range from maintaining liver cells in mm-sized tailor-made scaffolds to a more bottoms up approach that starts from building the microscopic subunit of the whole tissue. In this review, we discuss briefly various biomaterials used for liver tissue engineering with respect to design parameters such as scaffold composition and chemistry, biomechanical properties, topography, cell-cell interactions and oxygenation.
The last two years have seen new tissue-engineered skin substitutes come onto the market and begin to resolve the various roles to which each is best suited. It is becoming evident that some of the very expensive cell-based products have cost-benefit advantage despite their high price and are valuable within the restricted applications for which they are intended. The use of skin substitutes for testing purposes has extended from epidermal keratinocytes to other integumentary epithelia and into preparations containing multiple cell types in which reactions resulting from paracrine interactions can be examined. Challenges remain in the application of gene therapy techniques to skin substitutes, both the control of transgene expression and in the selection of suitable genes to transfect. A coming challenge is the production of tissue-engineered products without the use of animal products other than human cells. A challenge that may be diminishing is the importance of acute rejection of allogeneic tissue-engineered skin substitutes.
Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525
Reis, Lewis A; Chiu, Loraine L Y; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternative sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augmenting injured or impaired myocardium, with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds - composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials or decellularized extracellular matrix - that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue; and finally, injectable biomaterials (hydrogels) designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ueda, M; Tohnai, I; Nakai, H
In this article, we introduce some of the more extensively evaluated technologies using concepts of tissue engineering. We report on hard tissue engineering and soft tissue engineering and their utility for dental implant therapy. For hard tissue engineering, we evaluated human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 and marrow mesenchymal stem cells using a model of sinus augmentation procedure in rabbit. We also describe distraction osteogenesis as another category for hard tissue engineering. In addition, we evaluate soft tissue management using cultured epithelial grafting for soft tissue engineering. The results of our tissue regeneration materials and methods in this study are positive. When the tissue engineering materials are used in clinics in the future, implant surgery could be the leading field.
Landis, W J; Chubinskaya, S; Tokui, T; Wada, Y; Isogai, N; Jacquet, R
A principal purpose of tissue engineering is the augmentation, repair or replacement of diseased or injured human tissue. This study was undertaken to determine whether human biopsies as a cell source could be utilized for successful engineering of human phalanges consisting of both bone and cartilage. This paper reports the use of cadaveric human chondrocytes and periosteum as a model for the development of phalanx constructs. Two factors, osteogenic protein-1 [OP-1/bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7)], alone or combined with insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), were examined for their potential enhancement of chondrocytes and their secreted extracellular matrices. Design of the study included culture of chondrocytes and periosteum on biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds and subsequent implantation in athymic nu/nu (nude) mice for 5, 20, 40 and 60 weeks. Engineered constructs retrieved from mice were characterized with regard to genotype and phenotype as a function of developmental (implantation) time. Assessments included gross observation, X-ray radiography or microcomputed tomography, histology and gene expression. The resulting data showed that human cell-scaffold constructs could be successfully developed over 60 weeks, despite variability in donor age. Cartilage formation of the distal phalanx models enhanced with both OP-1 and IGF-1 yielded more cells and extracellular matrix (collagen and proteoglycans) than control chondrocytes without added factors. Summary data demonstrated that human distal phalanx models utilizing cadaveric chondrocytes and periosteum were successfully fabricated and OP-1 and OP-1/IGF-1 accelerated construct development and mineralization. The results suggest that similar engineering and transplantation of human autologous tissues in patients are clinically feasible. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, Wen Jie; Liu, Wei; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin
Abstract Vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass surgeries. Although synthetic grafts have been developed, replacement of vessels with purely synthetic polymeric conduits often leads to the failure of such graft, especially in the grafts less than 6 mm in diameter or in the areas of low blood flow, mainly due to the early formation of thrombosis. Moreover, the commonly used materials lack growth potential, and long-term results have revealed several material-related failures, such as stenosis, thromboembolization, calcium deposition and infection. Tissue engineering has become a promising approach for generating a bio-compatible vessel graft with growth potential. Since the first success of constructing blood vessels with collagen and cultured vascular cells by Weinberg and Bell, there has been considerable progress in the area of vessel engineering. To date, tissue- engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) could be successfully constructed in vitro, and be used to repair the vascular defects in animal models. This review describes the major progress in the field, including the seeding cell sources, the biodegradable scaffolds, the construction technologies, as well as the encouraging achievements in clinical applications. The remaining challenges are also discussed. PMID:17979876
Moon, Kyung Hyun; Ko, In Kap; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony
Kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem. Renal failure follows several disease stages including acute and chronic kidney symptoms. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which can progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with a mortality rate. Current treatment options are limited to dialysis and kidney transplantation; however, problems such as donor organ shortage, graft failure and numerous complications remain a concern. To address this issue, cell-based approaches using tissue engineering (TE) and regenerative medicine (RM) may provide attractive approaches to replace the damaged kidney cells with functional renal specific cells, leading to restoration of normal kidney functions. While development of renal tissue engineering is in a steady state due to the complex composition and highly regulated functionality of the kidney, cell therapy using stem cells and primary kidney cells has demonstrated promising therapeutic outcomes in terms of restoration of renal functions in AKI and CKD. In this review, basic components needed for successful renal kidney engineering are discussed, and recent TE and RM approaches to treatment of specific kidney diseases will be presented.
Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Stamm, Christof; Hammer, Peter E.; Kwaku, Kevin F.; Marler, Jennifer J.; Friehs, Ingeborg; Jones, Mara; Rader, Christine M.; Roy, Nathalie; Eddy, Mau-Thek; Triedman, John K.; Walsh, Edward P.; McGowan, Francis X.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Cowan, Douglas B.
In children, interruption of cardiac atrioventricular (AV) electrical conduction can result from congenital defects, surgical interventions, and maternal autoimmune diseases during pregnancy. Complete AV conduction block is typically treated by implanting an electronic pacemaker device, although long-term pacing therapy in pediatric patients has significant complications. As a first step toward developing a substitute treatment, we implanted engineered tissue constructs in rat hearts to create an alternative AV conduction pathway. We found that skeletal muscle-derived cells in the constructs exhibited sustained electrical coupling through persistent expression and function of gap junction proteins. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction analyses, myogenic cells in the constructs were shown to survive in the AV groove of implanted hearts for the duration of the animal’s natural life. Perfusion of hearts with fluorescently labeled lectin demonstrated that implanted tissues became vascularized and immunostaining verified the presence of proteins important in electromechanical integration of myogenic cells with surrounding recipient rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, using optical mapping and electrophysiological analyses, we provide evidence of permanent AV conduction through the implant in one-third of recipient animals. Our experiments provide a proof-of-principle that engineered tissue constructs can function as an electrical conduit and, ultimately, may offer a substitute treatment to conventional pacing therapy. PMID:16816362
Ravi, Swathi; Chaikof, Elliot L
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the USA. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. While synthetic polymers have been extensively studied as substitutes in vascular engineering, they fall short of meeting the biological challenges at the blood-material interface. Various tissue engineering strategies have emerged to address these flaws and increase long-term patency of vascular grafts. Vascular cell seeding of scaffolds and the design of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This article describes the advances made in biomaterials design to generate suitable materials that not only match the mechanical properties of native vasculature, but also promote cell growth, facilitate extracellular matrix production and inhibit thrombogenicity.
Ravi, Swathi; Chaikof, Elliot L
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the USA. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. While synthetic polymers have been extensively studied as substitutes in vascular engineering, they fall short of meeting the biological challenges at the blood–material interface. Various tissue engineering strategies have emerged to address these flaws and increase long-term patency of vascular grafts. Vascular cell seeding of scaffolds and the design of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This article describes the advances made in biomaterials design to generate suitable materials that not only match the mechanical properties of native vasculature, but also promote cell growth, facilitate extracellular matrix production and inhibit thrombogenicity. PMID:20017698
Ding, Li; Knox, Wayne H.; Bühren, Jens; Nagy, Lana J.; Huxlin, Krystel R.
Purpose To assess the optical effect of high-repetition-rate, low energy femtosecond laser pulses on lightly-fixed corneas and lenses. Methods Eight corneas and eight lenses were extracted post-mortem from normal, adult cats. They were lightly fixed and stored in a solution that minimized swelling and opacification. An 800nm Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser oscillator with a 27fs pulse duration and 93MHz repetition rate was used to inscribe gratings consisting of 20-40 lines, each 1μm wide, 100μm long and 5μm apart, 100μm below the tissue surface. Refractive index changes in the micromachined regions were calculated immediately and after one month of storage by measuring the intensity distribution of diffracted light when the gratings were irradiated with a 632.8nm He-Ne laser. Results Periodic gratings were created into the stromal layer of the corneas and the cortex of the lenses by adjusting the laser pulse energy until visible plasma luminescence and bubbles were no longer generated. The gratings had low scattering loss and could only be visualized using phase microscopy. Refractive index changes measured 0.005±0.001 to 0.01±0.001 in corneal tissue and 0.015±0.001 to 0.021±0.001 in the lenses. The gratings and refractive index changes were preserved after storing the micromachined corneas and lenses for one month. Conclusions These pilot experiments demonstrate a novel application of low-pulse-energy, MHz femtosecond lasers in modifying the refractive index of transparent ocular tissues without apparent tissue destruction. Although it remains to be verified in living tissues, the stability of this effect suggests that the observed modifications are due to long-term molecular and/or structural changes. PMID:18641284
Chang, Yu-Han; Wu, Min-Hsien
In tissue engineering research, cell-based assays are widely utilized to fundamentally explore cellular responses to extracellular conditions. Nevertheless, the simplified cell culture models available at present have several inherent shortcomings and limitations. To tackle the issues, a wide variety of microbioreactors for cell culture have been actively proposed, especially during the past decade. Among these, micro-scale cell culture devices based on microfluidic biochip technology have particularly attracted considerable attention. In this chapter, we not only discuss the advantageous features of using micro-scale cell culture devices for cell-based assays, but also describe their fabrication, experimental setup, and application.
Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L; Goldstein, Steven A; Baaijens, Frank P T
The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of "functional tissue engineering" has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements.
Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C
Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Langer, Robert
Tissue engineering aims at developing functional substitutes for damaged tissues and organs. Before transplantation, cells are generally seeded on biomaterial scaffolds that recapitulate the extracellular matrix and provide cells with information that is important for tissue development. Here we review the nanocomposite nature of the extracellular matrix, describe the design considerations for different tissues and discuss the impact of nanostructures on the properties of scaffolds and their uses in monitoring the behaviour of engineered tissues. We also examine the different nanodevices used to trigger certain processes for tissue development, and offer our view on the principal challenges and prospects of applying nanotechnology in tissue engineering. PMID:21151110
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Langer, Robert
Tissue engineering aims at developing functional substitutes for damaged tissues and organs. Before transplantation, cells are generally seeded on biomaterial scaffolds that recapitulate the extracellular matrix and provide cells with information that is important for tissue development. Here we review the nanocomposite nature of the extracellular matrix, describe the design considerations for different tissues and discuss the impact of nanostructures on the properties of scaffolds and their uses in monitoring the behaviour of engineered tissues. We also examine the different nanodevices used to trigger certain processes for tissue development, and offer our view on the principal challenges and prospects of applying nanotechnology in tissue engineering.
Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Baaijens, Frank P.T.
The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of “functional tissue engineering” has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. PMID:24818797
Sahoo, Sambit; Teh, Thomas Kh; He, Pengfei; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Ch
Increasing incidence of musculoskeletal injuries coupled with limitations in the current treatment options have necessitated tissue engineering and regenerative medicine- based approaches. Moving forward from engineering isolated musculoskeletal tissues, research strategies are now being increasingly focused on repairing and regenerating the interfaces between dissimilar musculoskeletal tissues with the aim to achieve seamless integration of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in the tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a focus on Singapore's contribution in this emerging field. Various biomimetic scaffold and cellbased strategies, the use of growth factors, gene therapy and mechanical loading, as well as animal models for functional validation of the tissue engineering strategies are discussed.
Masuda, Shinako; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo
Recently, myocardial tissue engineering has emerged as one of the most promising therapies for patients suffering from severe heart failure. Nevertheless, conventional methods in tissue engineering involving the seeding of cells into biodegradable scaffolds have intrinsic shortcomings, such as inflammatory reactions and fibrous tissue formation caused by scaffold degradation. On the other hand, we have developed cell sheet engineering as scaffoldless tissue engineering, and applied it for myocardial tissue engineering. Using temperature-responsive culture surfaces, cells can be harvested as intact sheets and cell-dense thick tissues are constructed by layering these cell sheets. Myocardial cell sheets non-invasively harvested from temperature-responsive culture surfaces are successfully layered, resulting in electrically communicative 3-dimensional (3-D) cardiac constructs. Transplantation of cell sheets onto damaged hearts improved heart function in several animal models. In this review, we summarize the development of myocardial tissue engineering using cell sheets harvested from temperature-responsive culture surfaces and discuss about future views.
Liu, Yongsong; Sun, Hong; Hu, Min; Zhu, Min; Tighe, Sean; Chen, Shuangling; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Chenwei; Cai, Subo; Guo, Ping
Human corneal endothelial cells have two major functions: barrier function mediated by proteins such as ZO-1 and pump function mediated by Na-K-ATPase which help to maintain visual function. However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells. Due to the global shortage of donor corneas, it is vital to engineer corneal tissue in vitro that could potentially be transplanted clinically. In this review, we summarize the advances in understanding the behavior of human corneal endothelial cells, their current engineering strategy in vitro and their potential applications.
Liu, Yongsong; Sun, Hong; Hu, Min; Zhu, Min; Tighe, Sean; Chen, Shuangling; Zhang, Yuan; Su, Chenwei; Cai, Subo; Guo, Ping
Human corneal endothelial cells have two major functions: barrier function mediated by proteins such as ZO-1 and pump function mediated by Na-K-ATPase which help to maintain visual function. However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells. Due to the global shortage of donor corneas, it is vital to engineer corneal tissue in vitro that could potentially be transplanted clinically. In this review, we summarize the advances in understanding the behavior of human corneal endothelial cells, their current engineering strategy in vitro and their potential applications. PMID:28260988
Zhang, Mingle; Li, Yachai; Huang, Xianghua
To summarize the research and development of vaginal reconstruction with tissue engineering technology. The recent literature concerning vaginal reconstruction with tissue engineering technology at home and abroad was extensively reviewed and the research and development were summarized. Tissue engineering provides an ideal material as the inner tissue in vaginoplasty. The reconstructed tissue closely resembles native vaginal tissue in the cellular organization and physical properties. The clinical use of the tissue engineered vagina in vaginoplasty can not be harmful to an organism, and the neovagina has sufficient length and depth. However, the long-term follow-up is needed. Vaginal reconstruction with tissue engineering technology may have good application prospects, but further research is required.
Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.
Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed. PMID:24300178
McHugh, Kevin J.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Tao, Sarah L.
Visual impairment affects over 285 million people worldwide and has a major impact on an individual’s quality of life. Tissue engineering has the potential to increase quality of life for many of these patients by preventing vision loss or restoring vision using cell-based therapies. However, these strategies will require an understanding of the microenvironmental factors that influence cell behavior. The eye is a well-organized organ whose structural complexity is essential for proper function. Interactions between ocular cells and their highly ordered extracellular matrix are necessary for maintaining key tissue properties including corneal transparency and retinal lamination. Therefore, it is not surprising that culturing these cells in vitro on traditional flat substrates result in irregular morphology. Instead, topographically patterned biomaterials better mimic native extracellular matrix and have been shown to elicit in vivo-like morphology and gene expression which is essential for tissue engineering. Herein we review multiple methods for producing well-controlled topography and discuss optimal biomaterial scaffold design for cells of the cornea, retina, and lens. PMID:23744715
McHugh, Kevin J; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Tao, Sarah L
Visual impairment affects over 285 million people worldwide and has a major impact on an individual's quality of life. Tissue engineering has the potential to increase the quality of life for many of these patients by preventing vision loss or restoring vision using cell-based therapies. However, these strategies will require an understanding of the microenvironmental factors that influence cell behavior. The eye is a well-organized organ whose structural complexity is essential for proper function. Interactions between ocular cells and their highly ordered extracellular matrix are necessary for maintaining key tissue properties including corneal transparency and retinal lamination. Therefore, it is not surprising that culturing these cells in vitro on traditional flat substrates result in irregular morphology. Instead, topographically patterned biomaterials better mimic native extracellular matrix and have been shown to elicit in vivo-like morphology and gene expression which is essential for tissue engineering. Herein we review multiple methods for producing well-controlled topography and discuss optimal biomaterial scaffold design for cells of the cornea, retina, and lens. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Iovino, F; Armano, G; Auriemma, P P; Sergio, R; De Sena, G; Capuozzo, V; Rosso, F; Marino, G; Papale, F; Grimaldi, A; Barbarisi, A
The postoperative hypoparathyroidism is a not rare complication after total thyroidectomy and/or total parathyroidectomy. Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing. However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made. Bioengineered device, actively secreting PTH, for transplant in patients with iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is unavailable. Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Cell cultures in RPMI medium were subsequently seeded on collagen scaffold (three-dimensional matrix with slow biodegradation). Collagen is the major component of the extracellular matrix and thus is a good substrate for cell adhesion and growth. Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion. Cell cultures were morphologically observed in optical and electron (ESEM) microscopy and metabolically assayed by MTT method until the tenth week. Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks. After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization. The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%). On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone. The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model. The bioengineered scaffolds when
The liver is a target of in vitro tissue engineering despite its capability to regenerate in vivo. The construction of liver tissues in vitro remains challenging. In this review, conventional 3D cultures of hepatocytes are first discussed. Recent advances in the 3D culturing of liver cells are then summarized in the context of in vitro liver tissue reconstruction at the micro- and macroscales. The application of microfluidics technology to liver tissue engineering has been introduced as a bottom-up approach performed at the microscale, whereas whole-organ bioengineering technology was introduced as a top-down approach performed at the macroscale. Mesoscale approaches are also discussed in considering the integration of micro- and macroscale approaches. Multiple parallel multiscale liver tissue engineering studies are ongoing; however, no tissue-engineered liver that is appropriate for clinical use has yet been realized. The integration of multiscale tissue engineering studies is essential for further understanding of liver reconstruction strategies.
Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M.; Suggs, Laura J.
Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies. PMID:25012069
Nam, Seung Yun; Ricles, Laura M; Suggs, Laura J; Emelianov, Stanislav Y
Tissue engineering has evolved with multifaceted research being conducted using advanced technologies, and it is progressing toward clinical applications. As tissue engineering technology significantly advances, it proceeds toward increasing sophistication, including nanoscale strategies for material construction and synergetic methods for combining with cells, growth factors, or other macromolecules. Therefore, to assess advanced tissue-engineered constructs, tissue engineers need versatile imaging methods capable of monitoring not only morphological but also functional and molecular information. However, there is no single imaging modality that is suitable for all tissue-engineered constructs. Each imaging method has its own range of applications and provides information based on the specific properties of the imaging technique. Therefore, according to the requirements of the tissue engineering studies, the most appropriate tool should be selected among a variety of imaging modalities. The goal of this review article is to describe available biomedical imaging methods to assess tissue engineering applications and to provide tissue engineers with criteria and insights for determining the best imaging strategies. Commonly used biomedical imaging modalities, including X-ray and computed tomography, positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, optical imaging, and emerging techniques and multimodal imaging, will be discussed, focusing on the latest trends of their applications in recent tissue engineering studies.
Kim, Roderick Y; Fasi, Anthony C; Feinberg, Stephen E
Craniofacial soft tissue reconstruction may be required following trauma, tumor resection, and to repair congenital deformities. Recent advances in the field of tissue engineering have significantly widened the reconstructive armamentarium of the surgeon. The successful identification and combination of tissue engineering, scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules has enabled the surgeon to design, recreate the missing tissue in its near natural form. This has resolved the issues like graft rejection, wound dehiscence, or poor vascularity. Successfully reconstructed tissue through soft tissue engineering protocols would help surgeon to restore the form and function of the lost tissue in its originality. This manuscript intends to provide a glimpse of the basic principle of tissue engineering, contemporary, and future direction of this field as applied to craniofacial surgery. PMID:24987591
Amezcua, Rodolfo; Shirolkar, Ajay; Fraze, Carolyn; Stout, David A
Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials.
Amezcua, Rodolfo; Shirolkar, Ajay; Fraze, Carolyn; Stout, David A.
Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials. PMID:28335261
Fauza, Dario O
Despite several, mostly isolated successes, few controlled, prospective trials have yet validated clinical tissue engineering applications. Although this may, at least in part, be explained by the very young age of this field, tissue engineering involves the need for an elaborate and expensive infrastructure, not to mention qualified personnel. This translates into an inherent difficulty in establishing multicenter trials. Moreover, companies mostly devoted to tissue engineering have yet to prove themselves economically viable. On the other hand, although very few engineered tissues have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), more than 70 companies have recently been developing new products. Many challenges are yet to be overcome before "off-the-shelf" tissues can be offered commercially. Nevertheless, given the scientific promise, potential social impact, and young age of the field, many believe that it should be only a matter of time until tissue engineering reaches the mainstream of surgical practice.
Tilkorn, Daniel J; Lokmic, Zerina; Chaffer, Christine L; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Morrison, Wayne A; Thompson, Erik W
Recreating an environment that supports and promotes fundamental homeostatic mechanisms is a significant challenge in tissue engineering. Optimizing cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and providing suitable stromal support and signalling cues are keys to successfully generating clinically useful tissues. Interestingly, those components are often subverted in the cancer setting, where aberrant angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, cell signalling and resistance to apoptosis drive malignant growth. In contrast to tissue engineering, identifying and inhibiting those pathways is a major challenge in cancer research. The recent discovery of adult tissue-specific stem cells has had a major impact on both tissue engineering and cancer research. The unique properties of these cells and their role in tissue and organ repair and regeneration hold great potential for engineering tissue-specific constructs. The emerging body of evidence implicating stem cells and progenitor cells as the source of oncogenic transformation prompts caution when using these cells for tissue-engineering purposes. While tissue engineering and cancer research may be considered as opposed fields of research with regard to their proclaimed goals, the compelling overlap in fundamental pathways underlying these processes suggests that cross-disciplinary research will benefit both fields. In this review article, tissue engineering and cancer research are brought together and explored with regard to discoveries that may be of mutual benefit.
Karamichos, Dimitrios; Hjortdal, Jesper
Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral, asymmetric, corneal disorder that is characterized by progressive thinning, steepening, and potential scarring. The prevalence of KC is stated to be 1 in 2000 persons worldwide; however, numbers vary depending on size of the study and regions. KC appears more often in South Asian, Eastern Mediterranean, and North African populations. The cause remains unknown, although a variety of factors have been considered. Genetics, cellular, and mechanical changes have all been reported; however, most of these studies have proven inconclusive. Clearly, the major problem here, like with any other ocular disease, is quality of life and the threat of vision loss. While most KC cases progress until the third or fourth decade, it varies between individuals. Patients may experience periods of several months with significant changes followed by months or years of no change, followed by another period of rapid changes. Despite the major advancements, it is still uncertain how to treat KC at early stages and prevent vision impairment. There are currently limited tissue engineering techniques and/or “smart” biomaterials that can help arrest the progression of KC. This review will focus on current treatments and how biomaterials may hold promise for the future. PMID:25215423
Li, Haoyi; Liu, Yong; He, Xuetao; Ding, Yumei; Yan, Hua; Xie, Pengcheng; Yang, Weimin
Tissue engineering technology provides a new method to repair ill tissue and worn-out organs. In tissue engineering, scaffolds play an important role in supporting cell growth, inducing tissue regeneration, controlling tissue structure and releasing active factor. In the last decade, electrospinning technology developed rapidly and opened vast application fields for scaffolds. In this review, we summarized the technological conditions of electrospinning for scaffolds, the study of electrospun fiber scaffolds applied in tissue cell cultivation, and some new directions of electrospinning technology for scaffolds. We also addressed development directions of electrospinning research for scaffolds.
Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine
Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering
Lee, Nancy; Robinson, Jennifer; Lu, Helen
The formation of multiple tissue types and their integration into composite tissue units presents a frontier challenge in regenerative engineering. Tissue-tissue synchrony is crucial in providing structural support for internal organs and enabling daily activities. This review highlights the state-of-the-art in composite tissue scaffold design, and explores how biomimicry can be strategically applied to avoid over-engineering the scaffold. Given the complexity of biological tissues, determining the most relevant parameters for recapitulating native structure-function relationships through strategic biomimicry will reduce the burden for clinical translation. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts in composite tissue engineering will enable integrative and functional repair of common soft tissue injuries and lay the foundation for total joint or limb regeneration.
Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying
Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication. PMID:26869728
Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying
Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host tissue integration (e.g., cellular infiltration, vascularization, and active remodeling). This review will cover several approaches that have advanced the field of 3D printing through novel fabrication methods of tissue engineering constructs. It will also discuss the applications of synthetic and natural materials for 3D printing facilitated tissue fabrication.
Glybochko, P V; Alaev, Ju G; Vinarov, A Z; Butnaru, D V; Titov, A S; Bibikova, E E; Sevostjanova, S I
A broad range of pathologic conditions of the ureter (strictures, obliterations, fistulas, and so on) requiring reconstructive plastic surgery is a challenging urological problem. A variety of approaches to solve the problem indicates the need of searching for new opportunities. A new direction in reconstructive surgery of the ureter is the tissue engineering. Tissue engineering involves the usage of matrices and cells. The matrices can be used both with cultured cells, and without them. This review represents the results of preclinical studies on feasibility of tissue engineering using as a matrix both natural and synthetic materials for different ureter impairments. Presently, there are no data on the use of tissue-engineering for the ureter reconstruction in clinical trials (i.e. involving human subjects). The results of studies presented in the review inspire certain optimism, but ureteral tissue-engineering is a difficult task requiring a balanced approach and well-thought-out design of preclinical studies.
success of bridging a lateral hemisection in the rat spinal cord with engineered (“stretch-grown”) living nervous tissue constructs 2 . For the current...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered...SUBTITLE Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0941 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye; Reis, Rui L
Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to create biological alternatives to repair or restore function of damaged or diseased tissues. To obtain three-dimensional tissue constructs, stem or progenitor cells must be combined with a highly porous three-dimensional scaffold, but many of the structures purposed for tissue engineering cannot meet all the criteria required by an adequate scaffold because of lack of mechanical strength and interconnectivity, as well as poor surface characteristics. Fiber-based structures represent a wide range of morphological and geometric possibilities that can be tailored for each specific tissue-engineering application. The present article overviews the research data on tissue-engineering therapies based on the use of biodegradable fiber architectures as a scaffold.
Georgiou, Melanie; Bunting, Stephen C J; Davies, Heather A; Loughlin, Alison J; Golding, Jonathan P; Phillips, James B
A new combination of tissue engineering techniques provides a simple and effective method for building aligned cellular biomaterials. Self-alignment of Schwann cells within a tethered type-1 collagen matrix, followed by removal of interstitial fluid produces a stable tissue-like biomaterial that recreates the aligned cellular and extracellular matrix architecture associated with nerve grafts. Sheets of this engineered neural tissue supported and directed neuronal growth in a co-culture model, and initial in vivo tests showed that a device containing rods of rolled-up sheets could support neuronal growth during rat sciatic nerve repair (5 mm gap). Further testing of this device for repair of a critical-sized 15 mm gap showed that, at 8 weeks, engineered neural tissue had supported robust neuronal regeneration across the gap. This is, therefore, a useful new approach for generating anisotropic engineered tissues, and it can be used with Schwann cells to fabricate artificial neural tissue for peripheral nerve repair.
Bajpai, Vivek K.; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Murry, Charles E.
Heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and regenerative therapies that replace damaged myocardium could benefit millions of patients annually. The many cell types in the heart, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and cardiac fibroblasts, communicate via intercellular signaling and modulate each other’s function. Although much progress has been made in generating cells of the cardiovascular lineage from human pluripotent stem cells, a major challenge now is creating the tissue architecture to integrate a microvascular circulation and afferent arterioles into such an engineered tissue. Recent advances in cardiac and vascular tissue engineering will move us closer to the goal of generating functionally mature tissue. Using the biology of the myocardium as the foundation for designing engineered tissue and addressing the challenges to implantation and integration, we can bridge the gap from bench to bedside for a clinically tractable engineered cardiac tissue. PMID:24819474
Nakamura, Takahiro; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Sotozono, Chie; Koizumi, Noriko; Kinoshita, Shigeru
Most human sensory information is gained through eyesight, and integrity of the ocular surface, including cornea and conjunctiva, is known to be indispensable for good vision. It is believed that severe damage to corneal epithelial stem cells results in devastating ocular surface disease, and many researchers and scientists have tried to reconstruct the ocular surface using medical and surgical approaches. Ocular surface reconstruction via regenerative therapy is a newly developed medical field that promises to be the next generation of therapeutic modalities, based on the use of tissue-specific stem cells to generate biological substitutes and improve tissue functions. The accomplishment of these objectives depends on three key factors: stem cells, which have highly proliferative capacities and longevities; the substrates determining the environmental niche; and growth factors that support them appropriately. This manuscript describes the diligent development of ocular surface reconstruction using tissue engineering techniques, both past and present, and discusses and validates their future use for regenerative therapy in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fujita, Buntaro; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus
This review provides an overview of the current state of tissue-engineered heart repair with a special focus on the anticipated modes of action of tissue-engineered therapy candidates and particular implications as to transplant immunology. Myocardial tissue engineering technologies have made tremendous advances in recent years. Numerous different strategies are under investigation and have reached different stages on their way to clinical translation. Studies in animal models demonstrated that heart repair requires either remuscularization by delivery of bona fide cardiomyocytes or paracrine support for the activation of endogenous repair mechanisms. Tissue engineering approaches result in enhanced cardiomyocyte retention and sustained remuscularization, but may also be explored for targeted paracrine or mechanical support. Some of the more advanced tissue engineering approaches are already tested clinically; others are at late stages of pre-clinical development. Process optimization towards cGMP compatibility and clinical scalability of contractile engineered human myocardium is an essential step towards clinical translation. Long-term allograft retention can be achieved under immune suppression. HLA matching may be an option to enhance graft retention and reduce the need for comprehensive immune suppression. Tissue-engineered heart repair is entering the clinical stage of the translational pipeline. Like in any effective therapy, side effects must be anticipated and carefully controlled. Allograft implantation under immune suppression is the most likely clinical scenario. Strategies to overcome transplant rejection are evolving and may further boost the clinical acceptance of tissue-engineered heart repair.
Rustad, Kristine C; Sorkin, Michael; Levi, Benjamin; Longaker, Michael T
The field of tissue engineering has made considerable strides since it was first described in the late 1980s. The advent and subsequent boom in stem cell biology, emergence of novel technologies for biomaterial development and further understanding of developmental biology have contributed to this accelerated progress. However, continued efforts to translate tissue-engineering strategies into clinical therapies have been hampered by the problems associated with scaling up laboratory methods to produce large, complex tissues. The significant challenges faced by tissue engineers include the production of an intact vasculature within a tissue-engineered construct and recapitulation of the size and complexity of a whole organ. Here we review the basic components necessary for bioengineering organs—biomaterials, cells and bioactive molecules—and discuss various approaches for augmenting these principles to achieve organ level tissue engineering. Ultimately, the successful translation of tissue-engineered constructs into everyday clinical practice will depend upon the ability of the tissue engineer to “scale up” every aspect of the research and development process. PMID:21197216
Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S
Developing scaffolds that mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale is one of the major challenges in the field of tissue engineering. The development of nanofibers has greatly enhanced the scope for fabricating scaffolds that can potentially meet this challenge. Currently, there are three techniques available for the synthesis of nanofibers: electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation. Of these techniques, electrospinning is the most widely studied technique and has also demonstrated the most promising results in terms of tissue engineering applications. The availability of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials has broadened the scope for development of nanofibrous scaffolds, especially using the electrospinning technique. The three dimensional synthetic biodegradable scaffolds designed using nanofibers serve as an excellent framework for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, nanofibers, irrespective of their method of synthesis, have been used as scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering (including bone, cartilage, ligament, and skeletal muscle), skin tissue engineering, vascular tissue engineering, neural tissue engineering, and as carriers for the controlled delivery of drugs, proteins, and DNA. This review summarizes the currently available techniques for nanofiber synthesis and discusses the use of nanofibers in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. PMID:17722259
In this chapter the basic premises, the recent findings and the future challenges in the use of amelogenin for enamel tissue engineering are being discoursed on. Results emerging from the experiments performed to assess the fundamental physicochemical mechanisms of the interaction of amelogenin, the main protein of the enamel matrix, and the growing crystals of apatite, are mentioned, alongside a moderately comprehensive literature review of the subject at hand. The clinical importance of understanding this protein/mineral interaction at the nanoscale are highlighted as well as the potential for tooth enamel to act as an excellent model system for studying some of the essential aspects of biomineralization processes in general. The dominant paradigm stating that amelogenin directs the uniaxial growth of apatite crystals in enamel by slowing down the growth of (hk0) faces on which it adheres is being questioned based on the results demonstrating the ability of amelogenin to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of apatite under constant titration conditions designed to mimic those present in the developing enamel matrix. The role of numerous minor components of the enamel matrix is being highlighted as essential and impossible to compensate for by utilizing its more abundant ingredients only. It is concluded that the three major aspects of amelogenesis outlined hereby--(1) the assembly of amelogenin and other enamel matrix proteins, (2) the proteolytic activity, and (3) crystallization--need to be in precise synergy with each other in order for the grounds for the proper imitation of amelogenesis in the lab to be created.
In this chapter the basic premises, the recent findings and the future challenges in the use of amelogenin for enamel tissue engineering are being discoursed on. Results emerging from the experiments performed to assess the fundamental physicochemical mechanisms of the interaction of amelogenin, the main protein of the enamel matrix, and the growing crystals of apatite, are mentioned, alongside a moderately comprehensive literature review of the subject at hand. The clinical importance of understanding this protein/mineral interaction at the nanoscale are highlighted as well as the potential for tooth enamel to act as an excellent model system for studying some of the essential aspects of biomineralization processes in general. The dominant paradigm stating that amelogenin directs the uniaxial growth of apatite crystals in enamel by slowing down the growth of (hk0) faces on which it adheres is being questioned based on the results demonstrating the ability of amelogenin to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of apatite under constant titration conditions designed to mimic those present in the developing enamel matrix. The role of numerous minor components of the enamel matrix is being highlighted as essential and impossible to compensate for by utilizing its more abundant ingredients only. It is concluded that the three major aspects of amelogenesis outlined hereby – (1) the assembly of amelogenin and other enamel matrix proteins, (2) the proteolytic activity, and (3) crystallization – need to be in precise synergy with each other in order for the grounds for the proper imitation of amelogenesis in the lab to be created. PMID:26545753
platform. Outcomes by milestone: (1) Develop integrated tissue culture bioreactor systems: completed all but bulk perfusion (2) Develop appropriate...tissue culture perfusion bioreactors (B) Second generation cm-scale hybrid swimming robotic platform & control methodologies (C) Guidance of engineered...integrated tissue culture perfusion bioreactors 1. Employ rapid manufacturing techniques for bioreactors 1. accelerate system development 2. increase number
Zhao, Youbo; Yang, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.; Boppart, Stephen A.
Tissue engineering holds the promise for a therapeutic solution in regenerative medicine. The primary goal of tissue engineering is the development of physiologically functional and biocompatible tissues/organs being implanted for the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased ones. Given the complexity in the developing processes of engineered tissues, which involves multi-dimensional interactions among cells of different types, three-dimensionally constructed scaffolds, and actively intervening bioreactors, a capable real-time imaging tool is critically required for expanding our knowledge about the developing process of desired tissues or organs. It has been recognized that optical coherence tomography (OCT), an emerging noninvasive imaging technique that provides high spatial resolution (up to the cellular level) and three-dimensional imaging capability, is a promising investigative tool for tissue engineering. This chapter discusses the existing and potential applications of OCT in tissue engineering. Example OCT investigations of the three major components of tissue engineering, i.e., cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors are overviewed. Imaging examples of OCT and its enabling functions and variants, e.g., Doppler OCT, polarization-sensitive OCT, optical coherence microscopy are emphasized. Remaining challenges in the application of OCT to tissue engineering are discussed, and the prospective solutions including the combination of OCT with other high-contrast and high-resolution modalities such as two-photon fluorescence microscopy are suggested as well. It is expected that OCT, along with its functional variants, will make important contributions toward revealing the complex cellular dynamics in engineered tissues as well as help us culture demanding tissue/organ implants that will advance regenerative medicine.
Seyed-Razavi, Yashar; Chinnery, Holly R; McMenamin, Paul G
To characterize the interactions between resident macrophage populations and nerves in naïve and injured corneas of the mouse eye. Corneas from wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and transgenic Cx3cr1-eGFP mice were subjected to a 1-mm central epithelial debridement injury. The eyes were fixed and immunostained as flat mounts with a range of antibodies to identify macrophages, neurons, and Schwann cells. Interactions between nerves and immune cells were analyzed and quantitated using three-dimensional reconstructions of confocal microscopy images. Naïve eyes acted as controls. A distinctive association between resident immune cells and corneal nerves was noted in the peripheral or perilimbal stromal nerve trunks. These epineurial cells were mostly Cx3cr1(+) Iba-1(+) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+) macrophages. The number of nerve-associated macrophages was greater in WT BALB/c mice than in C57BL/6J mice. There were no qualitative or quantitative differences in the circumferential distribution of nerve-associated macrophages in the cornea. Sterile corneal epithelial debridement led to a dissociation of macrophages from peripheral nerve trunks as early as 2 hours postinjury, with numbers returning to baseline after 72 hours. This dissociation was Cx3cr1 dependent. This study is the first to highlight a direct physical association between nerves and resident immune cells in the murine cornea. Furthermore, we reveal that this association in normal eyes is responsive to central corneal epithelial injury and is partly mediated by Cx3cr1 signaling. This association may serve as an indicator of malfunctioning neuroimmune communication in disease states such as neurotrophic keratitis and peripheral neuropathy.
Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo
Regenerative therapies, including cell injection and bioengineered tissue transplantation, have the potential to treat severe heart failure. Direct implantation of isolated skeletal myoblasts and bone-marrow-derived cells has already been clinically performed and research on fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac grafts using tissue engineering technologies has also now been initiated. In contrast to conventional scaffold-based methods, we have proposed cell sheet-based tissue engineering, which involves stacking confluently cultured cell sheets to construct 3-D cell-dense tissues. Upon layering, individual cardiac cell sheets integrate to form a single, continuous, cell-dense tissue that resembles native cardiac tissue. The transplantation of layered cardiac cell sheets is able to repair damaged hearts. As the next step, we have attempted to promote neovascularization within bioengineered myocardial tissues to overcome the longstanding limitations of engineered tissue thickness. Finally, as a possible advanced therapy, we are now trying to fabricate functional myocardial tubes that may have a potential for circulatory support. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering technologies therefore show an enormous promise as a novel approach in the field of myocardial tissue engineering.
Hirt, Marc N; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas
The engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) heart muscles has undergone exciting progress for the past decade. Profound advances in human stem cell biology and technology, tissue engineering and material sciences, as well as prevascularization and in vitro assay technologies make the first clinical application of engineered cardiac tissues a realistic option and predict that cardiac tissue engineering techniques will find widespread use in the preclinical research and drug development in the near future. Tasks that need to be solved for this purpose include standardization of human myocyte production protocols, establishment of simple methods for the in vitro vascularization of 3D constructs and better maturation of myocytes, and, finally, thorough definition of the predictive value of these methods for preclinical safety pharmacology. The present article gives an overview of the present state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives of cardiac tissue engineering for cardiac repair and in vitro testing.
Wusteman, M C; Armitage, J W; Wang, L H; Busza, A L; Pegg, D E
A new technique for the cryopreservation of rabbit corneas in 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, which has been shown to preserve significant structural and functional integrity of the endothelium, was tested in porcine corneas. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide into porcine corneas were measured using proton ( 1 H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effect on structural integrity of exposure to 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide without freezing was first assessed using vital staining (acridine orange and propidium iodide), and optimum temperature conditions for addition and removal of the cryoprotectant were derived. The effects on structural integrity of cryopreservation in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, and of reducing the degree of cell swelling during cryoprotectant removal following cryopreservation, were then evaluated. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide from a 10% w/w solution fitted a single exponential, resulting in a maximum tissue concentration of 14.6% when the addition occurred on ice, and 18.5% when the addition took place at room temperature. The toxic effects of dimethylsulfoxide in porcine corneas were highly temperature dependent and only evident after removal of the cryoprotectant. Unlike rabbit corneas, cryopreservation of porcine corneas in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide induced substantial endothelial injury which was not improved by reducing the degree of cell swelling that occurred during removal of the cryoprotectant. Porcine corneas were substantially more susceptible to the toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, and to cryopreservation injury, than rabbit corneas. These results underline the importance of species variation in animal studies aimed at the cryopreservation of human tissue for transplantation.
Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:28216559
Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Ndreu, A; Nikkola, L; Wimpenny, I; Yang, Y
Electrospinning is a versatile technique that enables the development of nanofiber-based scaffolds, from a variety of polymers that may have drug-release properties. Using nanofibers, it is now possible to produce biomimetic scaffolds that can mimic the extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. Interestingly, nanofibers can guide cell growth along their direction. Combining factors like fiber diameter, alignment and chemicals offers new ways to control tissue engineering. In vivo evaluation of nanomats included their degradation, tissue reactions and engineering of specific tissues. New advances made in electrospinning, especially in drug delivery, support the massive potential of these nanobiomaterials. Nevertheless, there is already at least one product based on electrospun nanofibers with drug-release properties in a Phase III clinical trial, for wound dressing. Hopefully, clinical applications in tissue engineering will follow to enhance the success of regenerative therapies.
Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan
Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.
Phelps, Edward A.; García, Andrés J.
Summary Host integration and performance of engineered tissues have been severely limited by the lack of robust strategies to generate patent vascularization and tissue perfusion. This review highlights a selection of exciting developments in vascularization approaches for tissue engineering research. Current strategies for vascularization in tissue engineering are related to growth factor signaling and delivery, cell transplantation, bioactive smart matrix materials, and directed fabrication. Application of these techniques to in vivo models has resulted in a number of robust host vascular responses, especially with synergistic and engineered bioactive systems. The future outlook of the field includes refinement and development of new technologies for vascularization and combining these techniques with functional repair models for metabolically active tissues and relevant disease states. PMID:20638268
Balasubramanian, Preethi; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Sireesha, Merum; Ramakrishna, Seeram
The extracellular matrix is a complex biological structure encoded with various proteins, among which the collagen family is the most significant and abundant of all, contributing 30-35% of the whole-body protein. "Collagen" is a generic term for proteins that forms a triple-helical structure with three polypeptide chains, and around 29 types of collagen have been identified up to now. Although most of the members of the collagen family form such supramolecular structures, extensive diversity exists between each type of collagen. The diversity is not only based on the molecular assembly and supramolecular structures of collagen types but is also observed within its tissue distribution, function, and pathology. Collagens possess complex hierarchical structures and are present in various forms such as collagen fibrils (1.5-3.5 nm wide), collagen fibers (50-70 nm wide), and collagen bundles (150-250 nm wide), with distinct properties characteristic of each tissue providing elasticity to skin, softness of the cartilage, stiffness of the bone and tendon, transparency of the cornea, opaqueness of the sclera, etc. There exists an exclusive relation between the structural features of collagen in human tissues (such as the collagen composition, collagen fibril length and diameter, collagen distribution, and collagen fiber orientation) and its tissue-specific mechanical properties. In bone, a transverse collagen fiber orientation prevails in regions of higher compressive stress whereas longitudinally oriented collagen fibers correlate to higher tensile stress. The immense versatility of collagen compels a thorough understanding of the collagen types and this review discusses the major types of collagen found in different human tissues, highlighting their tissue-specific uniqueness based on their structure and mechanical function. The changes in collagen during a specific tissue damage or injury are discussed further, focusing on the many tissue engineering applications for
Moutos, Franklin T; Guilak, Farshid
Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that functions as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a crucial role in determining the functional properties of engineered tissues, including biomechanical characteristics such as inhomogeneity, anisotropy, nonlinearity or viscoelasticity. While single-phase, homogeneous materials have been used extensively to create numerous types of tissue constructs, there continue to be significant challenges in the development of scaffolds that can provide the functional properties of load-bearing tissues such as articular cartilage. In an attempt to create more complex scaffolds that promote the regeneration of functional engineered tissues, composite scaffolds comprising two or more distinct materials have been developed. This paper reviews various studies on the development and testing of composite scaffolds for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage, using techniques such as embedded fibers and textiles for reinforcement, embedded solid structures, multi-layered designs, or three-dimensionally woven composite materials. In many cases, the use of composite scaffolds can provide unique biomechanical and biological properties for the development of functional tissue engineering scaffolds.
Moutos, Franklin T.; Guilak, Farshid
Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that function as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a crucial role in determining the functional properties of engineered tissues, including biomechanical characteristics such as inhomogeneity, anisotropy, nonlinearity, or viscoelasticity. While single-phase, homogenous materials have been used extensively to create numerous types of tissue constructs, there continue to be significant challenges in the development of scaffolds that can provide the functional properties of load-bearing tissues such as articular cartilage. In an attempt to create more complex scaffolds that promote the regeneration of functional engineered tissues, composite scaffolds comprising two or more distinct materials have been developed. This paper reviews various studies on the development and testing of composite scaffolds for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage, using techniques such as embedded fibers and textiles for reinforcement, embedded solid structures, multi-layered designs, or three-dimensionally woven composite materials. In many cases, the use of composite scaffolds can provide unique biomechanical and biological properties for the development of functional tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:18836249
Gundorova, R A; Chentsova, E V; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A É; Rakova, A V
Sometimes an urgent lamellar keratoplasty remains the only treatment option for corneal defect closure. When fresh donor tissue is absent as it is regular in recent years dried cornea transplantation becomes reasonable. In recent years in ocular trauma department 320 transplantations of dried on silicagel cornea were performed. Analysis of results allows to conclude that use of dried cornea is a promising surgical procedure to preserve the globe and in some cases to prepare the eye with severe trauma for subsequent optic surgery.
Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y
Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.
Chen, Haiping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Zhenglong; Chen, Weihua; Yu, Yongzhe; Hu, Qingxi
The structure of a tissue engineering scaffold plays an important role in modulating tissue growth. A novel gelatin-chitosan (Gel-Cs) scaffold with a unique structure produced by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology combining with vacuum freeze-drying has been developed for tissue-engineering applications. The scaffold composed of overall construction, micro-pore, surface morphology, and effective mechanical property. Such a structure meets the essential design criteria of an ideal engineered scaffold. The favorable cell-matrix interaction supports the active biocompatibility of the structure. The structure is capable of supporting cell attachment and proliferation. Cells seeded into this structure tend to maintain phenotypic shape and secreted large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell growth decreased the mechanical properties of scaffold. This novel biodegradable scaffold has potential applications for tissue engineering based upon its unique structure, which acts to support cell growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho
The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.
Shin, Su Ryon; Li, Yi-Chen; Jang, Hae Lin; Khoshakhlagh, Parastoo; Akbari, Mohsen; Nasajpour, Amir; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali
Graphene and its chemical derivatives have been a pivotal new class of nanomaterials and a model system for quantum behavior. The material's excellent electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, surface area and thermal properties are of much interest to the scientific community. Two-dimensional graphene materials have been widely used in various biomedical research areas such as bioelectronics, imaging, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. In this review, we will highlight the recent applications of graphene-based materials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In particular, we will discuss the application of graphene-based materials in cardiac, neural, bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle, and skin/adipose tissue engineering. We will also discuss the potential risk factors of graphene-based materials in tissue engineering. In conclusion, we will outline the opportunities in the usage of graphene-based materials for clinical applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Steward, Andrew J.; Liu, Yongxing; Wagner, Diane R.
One of the challenges of tissue engineering, a promising cell-based treatment for damaged or diseased cartilage, is designing the scaffold that provides structure while the tissue regenerates. In addition to the scaffold material's biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and ease of manufacturing, scaffold interactions with the cells must also be considered. In cartilage tissue engineering, a range of scaffolds with various degrees of cell attachment have been proposed, but the attachment density and type have yet to be optimized. Several techniques have been developed to modulate cell adhesion to the scaffold. These studies suggest that the need for cell attachment in cartilage tissue engineering may vary with cell type, stage of differentiation, culture condition, and scaffold material. Further studies will elucidate the role of cell attachment in cartilage regeneration and enhance efforts to engineer cell-based cartilage therapies.
Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.; Covington, H.I.; Macarak, E.J.
Whole neonate rabbit corneas and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were incubated in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine. Radiolabeled collagen extracted from the corneas and scar tissue were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to determine the types and relative quantity of collagen polypeptides present and synthesized by these tissues. In addition to other collagen types, type III was found in both neonate cornea and scar tissue from adult cornea, albeit in relatively small quantities. Type III collagen in normal cornea was associated with the residue after pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction of the tissue, and the same type of collagen was extracted from scar tissue after similar treatment. Type III collagen-specific monoclonal antibody bound to developing normal corneas and healing adult tissue sections, as determined by immunofluorescence. Antibody binding was localized to the endothelium and growing Descemet's membrane in fetal and neonate corneas, and restricted to the most posterior region of the corneal scar tissue. Although monoclonal antibody to keratan sulfate, used as a marker for stromal fibroblasts, bound to most of the scar tissue, the antibody failed to bind to the posterior scar tissue positive for type III collagen. We conclude that endothelial cells from fetal and neonate rabbit cornea and endothelium-derived fibroblasts from healing wounds of adult cornea synthesize and deposit type III collagen. Moreover, this collagen appears to be incorporated into the growing Descemet's membrane of normal corneas and narrow posterior portion of the scar tissue.
Monteiro, Nelson; Martins, Albino; Reis, Rui L.; Neves, Nuno M.
Liposomes are vesicular structures made of lipids that are formed in aqueous solutions. Structurally, they resemble the lipid membrane of living cells. Therefore, they have been widely investigated, since the 1960s, as models to study the cell membrane, and as carriers for protection and/or delivery of bioactive agents. They have been used in different areas of research including vaccines, imaging, applications in cosmetics and tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is defined as a strategy for promoting the regeneration of tissues for the human body. This strategy may involve the coordinated application of defined cell types with structured biomaterial scaffolds to produce living structures. To create a new tissue, based on this strategy, a controlled stimulation of cultured cells is needed, through a systematic combination of bioactive agents and mechanical signals. In this review, we highlight the potential role of liposomes as a platform for the sustained and local delivery of bioactive agents for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. PMID:25401172
Amini, Ami R.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.
The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field. PMID:23339648
Amini, Ami R; Laurencin, Cato T; Nukavarapu, Syam P
The worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions has trended steeply upward and is expected to double by 2020, especially in populations where aging is coupled with increased obesity and poor physical activity. Engineered bone tissue has been viewed as a potential alternative to the conventional use of bone grafts, due to their limitless supply and no disease transmission. However, bone tissue engineering practices have not proceeded to clinical practice due to several limitations or challenges. Bone tissue engineering aims to induce new functional bone regeneration via the synergistic combination of biomaterials, cells, and factor therapy. In this review, we discuss the fundamentals of bone tissue engineering, highlighting the current state of this field. Further, we review the recent advances of biomaterial and cell-based research, as well as approaches used to enhance bone regeneration. Specifically, we discuss widely investigated biomaterial scaffolds, micro- and nano-structural properties of these scaffolds, and the incorporation of biomimetic properties and/or growth factors. In addition, we examine various cellular approaches, including the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and their clinical application strengths and limitations. We conclude by overviewing the challenges that face the bone tissue engineering field, such as the lack of sufficient vascularization at the defect site, and the research aimed at functional bone tissue engineering. These challenges will drive future research in the field.
Hertsenberg, Andrew J.; Funderburgh, James L.
The cornea is the tough, transparent tissue through which light first enters the eye and functions as a barrier to debris and infection as well as two-thirds of the refractive power of the eye. Corneal damage that is not promptly treated will often lead to scarring and vision impairment. Due to the limited options currently available to treat corneal scars, the identification and isolation of stem cells in the cornea has received much attention, as they may have potential for autologous, cell-based approaches to the treatment of damaged corneal tissue. PMID:26310147
funded grant, we demonstrated proof-of-concept success of bridging a lateral hemisection of the rat spinal cord with engineered (“stretch-grown...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0941 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR
Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Karlsson, Jon; Egol, Kenneth A; Jazrawi, Laith M; Coelho, Paulo G; Martinez, Amaury; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Owens, Brett D; Ochi, Mitsuo; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Atala, Anthony; Fu, Freddie H; Lu, Helen H; Rodeo, Scott A
The purpose of this study was to summarize the recent developments in the field of tissue engineering as they relate to multilayer scaffold designs in musculoskeletal regeneration. Clinical and basic research studies that highlight the current knowledge and potential future applications of the multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering were evaluated and the best evidence collected. Studies were divided into three main categories based on tissue types and interfaces for which multilayer scaffolds were used to regenerate: bone, osteochondral junction and tendon-to-bone interfaces. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the use of stratified scaffolds composed of multiple layers with distinct compositions for regeneration of distinct tissue types within the same scaffold and anatomic location is feasible. This emerging tissue engineering approach has potential applications in regeneration of bone defects, osteochondral lesions and tendon-to-bone interfaces with successful basic research findings that encourage clinical applications. Present data supporting the advantages of the use of multilayer scaffolds as an emerging strategy in musculoskeletal tissue engineering are promising, however, still limited. Positive impacts of the use of next generation scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering can be expected in terms of decreasing the invasiveness of current grafting techniques used for reconstruction of bone and osteochondral defects, and tendon-to-bone interfaces in near future.
Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Uriel, Shiri; Brey, Eric M
Loss of adipose tissue can occur due to congenital and acquired lipoatrophies, trauma, tumor resection, and chronic disease. Clinically, it is difficult to regenerate or reconstruct adipose tissue. The extensive microvsacular network present in adipose, and the sensitivity of adipocytes to hypoxia, hinder the success of typical tissue transfer procedures. Materials that promote the formation of vascularized adipose tissue may offer alternatives to current clinical treatment options. A number of synthetic and natural biomaterials common in tissue engineering have been investigated as scaffolds for adipose regeneration. While these materials have shown some promise they do not account for the unique extracellular microenvironment of adipose. Adipose derived hydrogels more closely approximate the physical and chemical microenvironment of adipose tissue, promote preadipocyte differentiation and vessel assembly in vitro, and stimulate vascularized adipose formation in vivo. The combination of these materials with techniques that promote rapid and stable vascularization could lead to new techniques for engineering stable, vascularized adipose tissue for clinical application. In this review we discuss materials used for adipose tissue engineering and strategies for vascularization of these scaffolds. Materials that promote formation of vascularized adipose tissue have the potential to serve as alternatives or supplements to existing treatment options, for adipose defects or deficiencies resulting from chronic disease, lipoatrophies, trauma, and tumor resection. Copyright © 2009 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Butler, D L; Goldstein, S A; Guilak, F
"Tissue engineering" uses implanted cells, scaffolds, DNA, protein, and/or protein fragments to replace or repair injured or diseased tissues and organs. Despite its early success, tissue engineers have faced challenges in repairing or replacing tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. An evolving discipline called "functional tissue engineering" (FTE) seeks to address these challenges. In this paper, the authors present principles of functional tissue engineering that should be addressed when engineering repairs and replacements for load-bearing structures. First, in vivo stress/strain histories need to be measured for a variety of activities. These in vivo data provide mechanical thresholds that tissue repairs/replacements will likely encounter after surgery. Second, the mechanical properties of the native tissues must be established for subfailure and failure conditions. These "baseline data" provide parameters within the expected thresholds for different in vivo activities and beyond these levels if safety factors are to be incorporated. Third, a subset of these mechanical properties must be selected and prioritized. This subset is important, given that the mechanical properties of the designs are not expected to completely duplicate the properties of the native tissues. Fourth, standards must be set when evaluating the repairs/replacements after surgery so as to determine, "how good is good enough?" Some aspects of the repair outcome may be inferior, but other mechanical characteristics of the repairs and replacements might be suitable. New and improved methods must also be developed for assessing the function of engineered tissues. Fifth, the effects of physical factors on cellular activity must be determined in engineered tissues. Knowing these signals may shorten the iterations required to replace a tissue successfully and direct cellular activity and phenotype toward a desired end goal. Finally, to effect a better repair outcome, cell
Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Fradette, Julie; Fortin, Véronique; Tomasetig, Florence; Roberge, Charles J; Baker, Kathleen; Berthod, François; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie
The survival of thick tissues/organs produced by tissue engineering requires rapid revascularization after grafting. Although capillary-like structures have been reconstituted in some engineered tissues, little is known about the interaction between normal epithelial cells and endothelial cells involved in the in vitro angiogenic process. In the present study, we used the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering to examine this relationship. An endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute was produced by adding endothelial cells to the tissue-engineered dermal substitute produced by the self-assembly approach. The latter consists in culturing fibroblasts in the medium supplemented with serum and ascorbic acid. A network of tissue-engineered capillaries (TECs) formed within the human extracellular matrix produced by dermal fibroblasts. To determine whether epithelial cells modify TECs, the size and form of TECs were studied in the endothelialized tissue-engineered dermal substitute cultured in the presence or absence of epithelial cells. In the presence of normal keratinocytes from skin, cornea or uterine cervix, endothelial cells formed small TECs (cross-sectional area estimated at less than 50 microm(2)) reminiscent of capillaries found in the skin's microcirculation. In contrast, TECs grown in the absence of epithelial cells presented variable sizes (larger than 50 microm(2)), but the addition of keratinocyte-conditioned media or exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor induced their normalization toward a smaller size. Vascular endothelial growth factor neutralization inhibited the effect of keratinocyte-conditioned media. These results provide new direct evidence that normal human epithelial cells play a role in the regulation of the underlying TEC network, and advance our knowledge in tissue engineering for the production of TEC networks in vitro.
Hendriks, Jeanine; Riesle, Jens; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A
For biotechnological research in vitro in general and tissue engineering specifically, it is essential to mimic the natural conditions of the cellular environment as much as possible. In choosing a model system for in vitro experiments, the investigator always has to balance between being able to observe, measure or manipulate cell behaviour and copying the in situ environment of that cell. Most tissues in the body consist of more than one cell type. The organization of the cells in the tissue is essential for the tissue's normal development, homeostasis and repair reaction. In a co-culture system, two or more cell types brought together in the same culture environment very likely interact and communicate. Co-culture has proved to be a powerful in vitro tool in unravelling the importance of cellular interactions during normal physiology, homeostasis, repair and regeneration. The first co-culture studies focused mainly on the influence of cellular interactions on oocytes maturation to a pre-implantation blastocyst. Therefore, a brief overview of these studies is given here. Later on in the history of co-culture studies, it was applied to study cell-cell communication, after which, almost immediately as the field of tissue engineering was recognized, it was introduced in tissue engineering to study cellular interactions and their influence on tissue formation. This review discusses the introduction and applications of co-culture systems in cell biology research, with the emphasis on tissue engineering and its possible application for studying cartilage regeneration.
Weber, Benedikt; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Schoenauer, Roman; Brokopp, Chad; Baumgartner, Laura; Hoerstrup, Simon P
Tissue engineering aims at the creation of living neo-tissues identical or close to their native human counterparts. As basis of this approach, temporary biodegradable supporter matrices are fabricated in the shape of a desired construct, which promote tissue strength and provide functionality until sufficient neo-tissue is formed. Besides fully synthetic polymer-based scaffolds, decellularized biological tissue of xenogenic or homogenic origin can be used. In a second step, these scaffolds are seeded with autologous cells attaching to the scaffold microstructure. In order to promote neo-tissue formation and maturation, the seeded scaffolds are exposed to different forms of stimulation. In cardiovascular tissue engineering, this "conditioning" can be achieved via culture media and biomimetic in vitro exposure, e.g., using flow bioreactors. This aims at adequate cellular differentiation, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production to form a living tissue called the construct. These living autologous constructs, such as heart valves or vascular grafts, are created in vitro, comprising a viable interstitium with repair and remodeling capabilities already prior to implantation. In situ further in vivo remodeling is intended to recapitulate physiological vascular architecture and function. The remodeling mechanisms were shown to be dominated by monocytic infiltration and chemotactic host-cell attraction leading into a multifaceted inflammatory process and neo-tissue formation. Key molecules of these processes can be integrated into the scaffold matrix to direct cell and tissue fate in vivo.
Fauza, Dario O
Engineered diaphragmatic repair is emblematic of perinatal regenerative medicine and of the fetal tissue engineering concept. The alternative of a cellularized graft for the repair of a congenital diaphragmatic defect in the neonatal period is both biologically justifiable by the mechanisms behind diaphragmatic hernia recurrence as well as an ideal match for fetal mesenchymal stem cell-based constructs. It has been among the most developed experimental pursuits in neonatal tissue engineering, of which clinical application should be forthcoming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rai, Raj; Raval, Rushik; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Chidrawar, Swati K; Khan, Abdul Ahad; Ganpat, Makne Sachin
Within the precedent decade, a new field of “tissue engineering” or “tissue regeneration” emerge that offers an innovative and exhilarating substitute for maxillofacial reconstruction. It offers a new option to supplement existing treatment regimens for reconstruction/regeneration of the oral and craniofacial complex, which includes the teeth, periodontium, bones, soft tissues (oral mucosa, conjunctiva, skin), salivary glands, and the temporomandibular joint (bone and cartilage), as well as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and nerves. Tissue engineering is based on harvesting the stem cells which are having potential to form an organ. Harvested cells are then transferred into scaffolds that are manufactured in a laboratory to resemble the structure of the desired tissue to be replaced. This article reviews the principles of tissue engineering and its various applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26435634
Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L
The musculoskeletal system is comprised of three distinct tissue categories: structural mineralized tissues, actuating muscular soft tissues, and connective tissues. Where connective tissues - ligament, tendon and cartilage - meet with bones, a graded interface in mechanical properties occurs that allows the transmission of load without creating stress concentrations that would cause tissue damage. This interface typically occurs over less than 1 mm and contains a three order of magnitude difference in elastic stiffness, in addition to changes in cell type and growth factor concentrations among others. Like all engineered tissues, the replication of these interfaces requires the production of scaffolds that will provide chemical and mechanical cues, resulting in biologically accurate cellular differentiation. For interface tissues however, the scaffold must provide spatially graded chemical and mechanical cues over sub millimetre length scales. Naturally, this complicates the manufacture of the scaffolds and every stage of their subsequent cell seeding and growth, as each region has different optimal conditions. Given the higher degree of difficulty associated with replicating interface tissues compared to surrounding homogeneous tissues, it is likely that the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems will continue to be limited by the engineering of connective tissues interfaces with bone.
Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Boccaccini, Aldo R
Stratified scaffolds are promising devices finding application in the field of osteochondral tissue engineering. In this scaffold type, different biomaterials are chosen to fulfill specific features required to mimic the complex osteochondral tissue interface, including cartilage, interlayer tissue, and subchondral bone. Here, the biomaterials and fabrication methods currently used to manufacture stratified multilayered scaffolds as well as cell seeding techniques for their characterization are presented.
Alaminos, Miguel; Del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, María; Muñoz-Avila, José Ignacio; Serrano, Daniel; Medialdea, Santiago; Carreras, Ignacio; Campos, Antonio
To construct a full-thickness biological substitute of the rabbit cornea by tissue engineering. Ten rabbit corneas were surgically excised, and the three main cell types of the cornea (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) were cultured. Genetic profiling of the cultured cells was performed by RT-PCR for the genes COL8 and KRT12. To develop an organotypic rabbit cornea equivalent, we used a sequential culture technique on porous culture inserts. First, endothelial cells were seeded on the base of the inserts. Then, a stroma substitute made of cultured keratocytes entrapped in a gel of human fibrin and 0.1% agarose was developed. Finally, cultured corneal epithelial cells were grown on the surface of the scaffold. Stratification of the epithelial cell layer was promoted by using an air-liquid culture technique. Corneal substitutes were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. All three types of corneal cells were efficiently cultured in the laboratory, expanded, and used to construct a full-thickness cornea substitute. Gene expression analyses confirmed that cultured endothelial cells expressed the COL8 gene, whereas epithelial cells expressed KRT12. Microscopic evaluation of the cornea substitutes demonstrated that epithelial cells tended to form a normal stratified layer and that stromal keratocytes proliferated rapidly in the stromal substitute. The endothelial monolayer exhibited a pattern similar to a normal corneal endothelium. These findings suggest that development of a full-thickness rabbit cornea model is possible in the laboratory and may open new avenues for research.
Huang, Zhong-Bing; Yin, Guang-Fu; Liao, Xiao-Ming; Gu, Jian-Wen
Polypyrrole (PPy), the earliest prepared conducting polymer, has good biocompatibility, easy synthesis and flexibility in processing. Compared with metal and inorganic materials, doped PPy has better mechanical match with live tissue, resulting in its many applications in biomedical field. This mini-review presents some information on specific PPy properties for tissue engineering applications, including its synthesis, doping, bio-modification. Although some challenges and unanswered problems still remain, PPy as novel biomaterial has promoted the development tissue engineering for its clinical application in the future.
Rosa, Vinicius; Bona, Alvaro Della; Cavalcanti, Bruno Neves; Nör, Jacques Eduardo
Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that combines the principles of engineering, material and biological sciences toward the development of therapeutic strategies and biological substitutes that restore, maintain, replace or improve biological functions. The association of biomaterials, stem cells, growth and differentiation factors have yielded the development of new treatment opportunities in most of the biomedical areas, including Dentistry. The objective of this paper is to present the principles underlying tissue engineering and the current scenario, the challenges and the perspectives of this area in Dentistry. Significance The growth of tissue engineering as a research field have provided a novel set of therapeutic strategies for biomedical applications. The emerging knowledge arisen from studies in the dental area may translate into new methods for caring or improving the alternatives used to treat patients in the daily clinic. PMID:22240278
Johnson, P. J.; Wood, M. D.; Moore, A. M.; Mackinnon, S. E.
Summary Background Tissue engineering has been defined as “an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ”. Traumatic peripheral nerve injury resulting in significant tissue loss at the zone of injury necessitates the need for a bridge or scaffold for regenerating axons from the proximal stump to reach the distal stump. Methods A review of the literature was used to provide information on the components necessary for the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute. Then, a comprehensive review of the literature is presented composed of the studies devoted to this goal. Results Extensive research has been directed toward the development of a tissue engineered peripheral nerve substitute to act as a bridge for regenerating axons from the proximal nerve stump seeking the distal nerve. Ideally this nerve substitute would consist of a scaffold component that mimics the extracellular matrix of the peripheral nerve and a cellular component that serves to stimulate and support regenerating peripheral nerve axons. Conclusions The field of tissue engineering should consider its challenge to not only meet the autograft “gold standard” but also to understand what drives and inhibits nerve regeneration in order to surpass the results of an autograft. PMID:24385980
Yao, Danyu; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo
The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.
Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Li, Bingyun
Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking important features of the native extracellular matrix provide a promising strategy to restore functions or achieve favorable responses for tissue regeneration. This review provides a brief overview of current state-of-the-art research designing and using biomimetic electrospun nanofibers as scaffolds for tissue engineering. It begins with a brief introduction of electrospinning and nanofibers, with a focus on issues related to the biomimetic design aspects. The review next focuses on several typical biomimetic nanofibrous structures (e.g. aligned, aligned to random, spiral, tubular, and sheath membrane) that have great potential for tissue engineering scaffolds, and describes their fabrication, advantages, and applications in tissue engineering. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for design, fabrication, and utilization of scaffolds based on electrospun nanofibers. PMID:25125992
The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26445979
Perkins, Brian Lee; Naderi, Naghmeh
Background: Recent advances in developing biocompatible materials for treating bone loss or defects have dramatically changed clinicians’ reconstructive armory. Current clinically available reconstructive options have certain advantages, but also several drawbacks that prevent them from gaining universal acceptance. A wide range of synthetic and natural biomaterials is being used to develop tissue-engineered bone. Many of these materials are currently in the clinical trial stage. Methods: A selective literature review was performed for carbon nanostructure composites in bone tissue engineering. Results: Incorporation of carbon nanostructures significantly improves the mechanical properties of various biomaterials to mimic that of natural bone. Recently, carbon-modified biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have been extensively investigated to potentially revolutionize biomaterials for bone regeneration. Conclusion: This review summarizes the chemical and biophysical properties of carbon nanostructures and discusses their functionality in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:28217212
Ng, Johnathan; Bernhard, Jonathan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of major interest to regenerative medicine, because of the ease of harvesting from a variety of sources (including bone marrow and fat aspirates) and ability to form a range of mesenchymal tissues, in vitro and in vivo. We focus here on the use of MSCs for engineering of cartilage, bone, and complex osteochondral tissue constructs, using protocols that replicate some aspects of the natural mesodermal development. For engineering of human bone, we discuss some of the current advances, and highlight the use of perfusion bioreactors for supporting anatomically exact human bone grafts. For engineering of human cartilage, we discuss limitations of current approaches, and highlight engineering of stratified, mechanically functional human cartilage interfaced with bone by mesenchymal condensation of MSCs. Taken together, the current advances enable engineering physiologically relevant bone, cartilage and osteochondral composites, and physiologically relevant studies of osteochondral development and disease. PMID:27236665
Chen, Tony; Hilton, Matthew J; Brown, Edward B; Zuscik, Michael J; Awad, Hani A
A major challenge in cartilage tissue engineering is the need to recreate the native tissue's anisotropic extracellular matrix structure. This anisotropy has important mechanical and biological consequences and could be crucial for integrative repair. Here, we report that hydrodynamic conditions that mimic the motion-induced flow fields in between the articular surfaces in the synovial joint induce the formation of a distinct superficial layer in tissue engineered cartilage hydrogels, with enhanced production of cartilage matrix proteoglycan and Type II collagen. Moreover, the flow stimulation at the surface induces the production of the surface zone protein Proteoglycan 4 (aka PRG4 or lubricin). Analysis of second harmonic generation signature of collagen in this superficial layer reveals a highly aligned fibrillar matrix that resembles the alignment pattern in native tissue's surface zone, suggesting that mimicking synovial fluid flow at the cartilage surface in hydrodynamic bioreactors could be key to creating engineered cartilage with superficial zone features.
Nemeno-Guanzon, Judee Grace; Lee, Soojung; Berg, Johan Robert; Jo, Yong Hwa; Yeo, Jee Eun; Nam, Bo Mi; Koh, Yong-Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik
Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering. PMID:23251085
Nemeno-Guanzon, Judee Grace; Lee, Soojung; Berg, Johan Robert; Jo, Yong Hwa; Yeo, Jee Eun; Nam, Bo Mi; Koh, Yong-Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik
Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.
Holmes, Anthony; Brown, Robert; Shakesheff, Kevin
The focus for the rapid progress in the field of tissue engineering has been the clinical potential of the technology to repair, replace, maintain or enhance the function of a particular tissue or organ. However, tissue engineering has much wider applicability in basic research and safety testing, which is often not recognized owing to the clinical focus of tissue engineers. Using examples from a recent National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council symposium, which brought together tissue engineers and scientists from other research communities, this review highlights the potential of tissue engineering to provide scientifically robust alternatives to animals to address basic research questions and improve drug and chemical development in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Khademhosseini, Ali
The field of tissue engineering has been growing in the recent years as more products have made it to the market and as new uses for the engineered tissues have emerged, motivating many researchers to engage in this multidisciplinary field of research. Engineered tissues are now not only considered as end products for regenerative medicine, but also have emerged as enabling technologies for other fields of research ranging from drug discovery to biorobotics. This widespread use necessitates a variety of methodologies for production of tissue engineered constructs. In this review, these methods together with their non-clinical applications will be described. First, we will focus on novel materials used in tissue engineering scaffolds; such as recombinant proteins and synthetic, self assembling polypeptides. The recent advances in the modular tissue engineering area will be discussed. Then scaffold-free production methods, based on either cell sheets or cell aggregates will be described. Cell sources used in tissue engineering and new methods that provide improved control over cell behavior such as pathway engineering and biomimetic microenvironments for directing cell differentiation will be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the emerging uses of engineered constructs such as model tissues for drug discovery, cancer research and biorobotics applications. PMID:23268388
Zorlutuna, Pinar; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Khademhosseini, Ali
The field of tissue engineering has been growing in the recent years as more products have made it to the market and as new uses for the engineered tissues have emerged, motivating many researchers to engage in this multidisciplinary field of research. Engineered tissues are now not only considered as end products for regenerative medicine, but also have emerged as enabling technologies for other fields of research ranging from drug discovery to biorobotics. This widespread use necessitates a variety of methodologies for production of tissue engineered constructs. In this review, these methods together with their non-clinical applications will be described. First, we will focus on novel materials used in tissue engineering scaffolds; such as recombinant proteins and synthetic, self assembling polypeptides. The recent advances in the modular tissue engineering area will be discussed. Then scaffold-free production methods, based on either cell sheets or cell aggregates will be described. Cell sources used in tissue engineering and new methods that provide improved control over cell behavior such as pathway engineering and biomimetic microenvironments for directing cell differentiation will be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the emerging uses of engineered constructs such as model tissues for drug discovery, cancer research and biorobotics applications.
van Geemen, Daphne; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Grootzwagers, Leonie G M; Soekhradj-Soechit, R Sarita; Riem Vis, Paul W; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C
Clinical application of tissue engineered heart valves requires precise control of the tissue culture process to predict tissue composition and mechanical properties prior to implantation, and to understand the variation in tissue outcome. To this end we investigated cellular phenotype and tissue properties of ovine (n = 8) and human (n = 7) tissue engineered heart valve constructs to quantify variations in tissue outcome within species, study the differences between species and determine possible indicators of tissue outcome. Tissue constructs consisted of polyglycolic acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate scaffolds, seeded with myofibroblasts obtained from the jugular vein (sheep) or the saphenous vein (from humans undergoing cardiac surgery) and cultured under static conditions. Prior to seeding, protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, nonmuscle myosin heavy chain and heat shock protein 47 were determined to identify differences at an early stage of the tissue engineering process. After 4 weeks of culture, tissue composition and mechanical properties were quantified as indicators of tissue outcome. After 4 weeks of tissue culture, tissue properties of all ovine constructs were comparable, while there was a larger variation in the properties of the human constructs, especially the elastic modulus and collagen content. In addition, ovine constructs differed in composition from the human constructs. An increased number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells before seeding was correlated with the collagen content in the engineered heart valve constructs. Moreover, tissue stiffness increased with increasing collagen content. The results suggest that the culture process of ovine tissues can be controlled, whereas the mechanical properties, and hence functionality, of tissues originating from human material are more difficult to control. On-line evaluation of tissue properties during culture or more early cellular markers to predict the properties of autologous
Hosseinkhani, Mohsen; Mehrabani, Davood; Karimfar, Mohammad Hassan; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Manafi, Amir; Shirazi, Reza
Stem cells are self-renewing cells that can be differentiated into other cell types. Conventional in vitro models for studying stem cells differentiation are usually preformed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. The design of three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models which ideally are supposed to mimic the in vivo stem cells microenvironment is potentially useful for inducing stem cell derived tissue formation. Biodegradable scaffolds play an important role in creating a 3D environment to induce tissue formation. The application of scaffolding materials together with stem cell technologies are believed to hold enormous potential for tissue regeneration. In this review, we provide an overview of application of tissue engineered scaffolds and stem cells for the development of stem cell-based engineered tissue replacements. In particular, we focus on bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) due to their extensive clinical applications.
Grayson, Warren L.; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Marolt, Darja; Kaplan, David L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Tissue engineering is expected to help us outlive the failure of our organs by enabling the creation of tissue substitutes capable of fully restoring the original tissue function. Degenerative joint disease, which affects one-fifth of the US population and is the country’s leading cause of disability, drives current research of actively growing, functional tissue grafts for joint repair. Toward this goal, living cells are used in conjunction with bio-material scaffolds (serving as instructive templates for tissue development) and bioreactors (providing environmental control and molecular and physical regulatory signals). In this review, we discuss the requirements for engineering customized, anatomically-shaped, stratified grafts for joint repair and the challenges of designing these grafts to provide immediate functionality (load bearing, structural support) and long-term regeneration (maturation, integration, remodeling). PMID:18299159
Holzapfel, B M; Rudert, M; Hutmacher, D W
Tissue engineering provides the possibility of regenerating damaged or lost osseous structures without the need for permanent implants. Within this context, biodegradable and bioresorbable scaffolds can provide structural and biomechanical stability until the body's own tissue can take over their function. Additive biomanufacturing makes it possible to design the scaffold's architectural characteristics to specifically guide tissue formation and regeneration. Its nano-, micro-, and macro-architectural properties can be tailored to ensure vascularization, oxygenation, nutrient supply, waste exchange, and eventually ossification not only in its periphery but also in its center, which is not in direct contact with osteogenic elements of the surrounding healthy tissue. In this article we provide an overview about our conceptual design and process of the clinical translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications.
Sack, Bryan S.; Mauney, Joshua R.; Estrada, Carlos R.
Urologic tissue engineering efforts have been largely focused on bladder and urethral defect repair. The current surgical gold standard for treatment of poorly compliant pathological bladders and severe urethral stricture disease is enterocystoplasty and onlay urethroplasty with autologous tissue, respectively. The complications associated with autologous tissue use and harvesting have led to efforts to develop tissue-engineered alternatives. Natural and synthetic materials have been used with varying degrees of success, but none has proved consistently reliable for urologic tissue defect repair in humans. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds have been tested in bladder and urethral repair because of their favorable biomechanical properties including structural strength, elasticity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. SF scaffolds have been used in multiple animal models, and have demonstrated robust regeneration of smooth muscle and urothelium. The pre-clinical data involving SF scaffolds in urologic defect repair are encouraging and suggest that they hold potential for future clinical use. PMID:26801192
Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Masuda, Shinako; Shimizu, Tatsuya
Tissue engineering is indispensable for the advancement of regenerative medicine and the development of tissue models. Cell sheet-based method is one the promising strategies for cardiac tissue engineering. To date, cell sheet transplantation using wide variety of cells has been performed for the treatment of various heart diseases. These cell sheet transplantations have shown to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction and improve symptoms of heart failure. Recent progress of the technologies on the layering of cardiac cell sheets accompanied with vascularization and the large scale cultivation system of embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell is about to turn the fabrication of thickened human cardiac tissue for transplant and tissue models into reality. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Appel, Alyssa A; Anastasio, Mark A; Larson, Jeffery C; Brey, Eric M
Biomaterials are employed in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) in order to enhance the regeneration or replacement of tissue function and/or structure. The unique environments resulting from the presence of biomaterials, cells, and tissues result in distinct challenges in regards to monitoring and assessing the results of these interventions. Imaging technologies for three-dimensional (3D) analysis have been identified as a strategic priority in TERM research. Traditionally, histological and immunohistochemical techniques have been used to evaluate engineered tissues. However, these methods do not allow for an accurate volume assessment, are invasive, and do not provide information on functional status. Imaging techniques are needed that enable non-destructive, longitudinal, quantitative, and three-dimensional analysis of TERM strategies. This review focuses on evaluating the application of available imaging modalities for assessment of biomaterials and tissue in TERM applications. Included is a discussion of limitations of these techniques and identification of areas for further development.
Parveen, S; Krishnakumar, K; Sahoo, SK
Abstract Tissue engineering is a rapidly expanding field, which applies the principles and methods of physical sciences, life sciences and engineering to understand physiological and pathological systems and to modify and create cells and tissues for therapeutic applications. It has emerged as a rapidly expanding ‘interdisciplinary field’ that is a significant potential alternative wherein tissue and organ failure is addressed by implanting natural, synthetic, or semi synthetic tissue or organ mimics that grow into the required functionality or that are fully functional from the start. This review presents in a comprehensive manner the various considerations for the reconstruction of various tissues and organs as well as the various applications of this young emerging field in different disciplines. PMID:24692857
Glass, Zachary A.; Schiele, Nathan R.; Kuo, Catherine K.
Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering. PMID:24484642
Glass, Zachary A; Schiele, Nathan R; Kuo, Catherine K
Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering.
Soh, Yu Qiang; Peh, Gary S L; Mehta, Jodhbir S
Corneal endothelial disorders collectively represent a significant healthcare burden in most developed nations, and corneal transplantation is currently the only treatment available for patients with poor visual acuity and corneal blindness secondary to endothelial failure. Although vision in these patients can be restored by transplantation, the global demand for donor human corneas is far in excess of what can be provided for by eye banks around the world, and this deficit is set to increase with an ageing global population. As such, there has been a pressing need to explore novel and more sustainable options for the treatment of corneal endothelial diseases. In recent years, significant progress has been made not only in the development of corneal endothelial cell culture techniques, but also in the exploration of various translational strategies. Considered together, we are now much closer to attaining success in the treatment of corneal endothelial diseases via a cell-based, tissue-engineering approach. The aim of this review article is to provide an update of the translational issues currently facing human corneal endothelial cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z; Boushell, Margaret K; Lu, Helen H
The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, wherein overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e.g., bone, ligament), composite tissue scaffold designs for the regeneration of functional connective tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone) are being actively investigated. Closely related is the effort to re-establish tissue-tissue interfaces, which is essential for joining these tissue building blocks and facilitating host integration. Much of the research at the forefront of the field has centered on bioinspired stratified or gradient scaffold designs which aim to recapitulate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity inherent across distinct tissue regions. As such, given the complexity of these musculoskeletal tissue units, the key question is how to identify the most relevant parameters for recapitulating the native structure-function relationships in the scaffold design. Therefore, the focus of this review, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art in complex scaffold design, is to explore how strategic biomimicry can be applied in engineering tissue connectivity. The objective of strategic biomimicry is to avoid over-engineering by establishing what needs to be learned from nature and defining the essential matrix characteristics that must be reproduced in scaffold design. Application of this engineering strategy for the regeneration of the most common musculoskeletal tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone, muscle-tendon-bone, cartilage-bone) will be discussed in this review. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts will
Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Lu, Helen H.
The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, whereby overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e.g. bone, ligament), composite tissue scaffold designs for the regeneration of functional connective tissue units (e.g. bone-ligament-bone) are being actively investigated. Closely related is the effort to re-establish tissue-tissue interfaces, which is essential for joining these tissue building blocks and facilitating host integration. Much of the research at the forefront of the field has centered on bioinspired stratified or gradient scaffold designs which aim to recapitulate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity inherent across distinct tissue regions. As such, given the complexity of these musculoskeletal tissue units, the key question is how to identify the most relevant parameters for recapitulating the native structure-function relationships in the scaffold design. Therefore, the focus of this review, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art in complex scaffold design, is to explore how strategic biomimicry can be applied in engineering tissue connectivity. The objective of strategic biomimicry is to avoid over-engineering by establishing what needs to be learned from nature and defining the essential matrix characteristics that must be reproduced in scaffold design. Application of this engineering strategy for the regeneration of the most common musculoskeletal tissue units (e.g. bone-ligament-bone, muscle-tendon-bone, cartilage-bone) will be discussed in this review. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts will
Tereshchenko, V. P.; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Larionov, P. M.
Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone.
Tereshchenko, V. P. Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Larionov, P. M.
Bone tissue engineering looking for an alternative solution to the problem of skeletal injuries. The method is based on the creation of tissue engineered bone tissue equivalent with stem cells, osteogenic factors, and scaffolds - the carriers of these cells. For production of tissue engineered bone equivalent is advisable to create scaffolds similar in composition to natural extracellular matrix of the bone. This will provide optimal conditions for the cells, and produce favorable physico-mechanical properties of the final construction. This review article gives an analysis of the most promising materials for the manufacture of cell scaffolds. Biodegradable synthetic polymers are the basis for the scaffold, but it alone cannot provide adequate physical and mechanical properties of the construction, and favorable conditions for the cells. Addition of natural polymers improves the strength characteristics and bioactivity of constructions. Of the inorganic compounds, to create cell scaffolds the most widely used calcium phosphates, which give the structure adequate stiffness and significantly increase its osteoinductive capacity. Signaling molecules do not affect the physico-mechanical properties of the scaffold, but beneficial effect is on the processes of adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Biodegradation of the materials will help to fulfill the main task of bone tissue engineering - the ability to replace synthetic construct by natural tissues that will restore the original anatomical integrity of the bone.
Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Moretti, Silvia; Pinna, Roberto; Milia, Egle; Torre, Luigi; Eramo, Stefano
The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues. Some scaffoldless techniques used in TE are also presented. Then actual and future roles of nanotechnologies about TE in dentistry are presented. PMID:28335262
Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Lu; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Qingling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Watari, Fumio
It has been demonstrated that nanostructured materials, compared with conventional materials, may promote greater amounts of specific protein interactions, thereby more efficiently stimulating new bone formation. It has also been indicated that, when features or ingredients of scaffolds are nanoscaled, a variety of interactions can be stimulated at the cellular level. Some of those interactions induce favorable cellular functions while others may leads to toxicity. This review presents the mechanism of interactions between nanoscaled materials and cells and focuses on the current research status of nanostructured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Firstly, the main requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds were discussed. Then, the mechanism by which nanoscaled materials promote new bone formation was explained, following which the current research status of main types of nanostructured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a heterogeneous, connective network composed of fibrous glycoproteins that coordinate in vivo to provide the physical scaffolding, mechanical stability, and biochemical cues necessary for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. This review highlights some of the recently raised aspects of the roles of the ECM as related to the fields of biophysics and biomedical engineering. Fundamental aspects of focus include the role of the ECM as a basic cellular structure, for novel spontaneous network formation, as an ideal scaffold in tissue engineering, and its essential contribution to cell sheet technology. As these technologies move from the laboratory to clinical practice, they are bound to shape the vast field of tissue engineering for medical transplantations. PMID:27230457
Guller, A.E.; Grebenyuk, P.N.; Shekhter, A.B.; Zvyagin, A.V.; Deyev, S. M.
This review focuses on modeling of cancer tumors using tissue engineering technology. Tumor tissue engineering (TTE) is a new method of three-dimensional (3D) simulation of malignant neoplasms. Design and development of complex tissue engineering constructs (TECs) that include cancer cells, cell-bearing scaffolds acting as the extracellular matrix, and other components of the tumor microenvironment is at the core of this approach. Although TECs can be transplanted into laboratory animals, the specific aim of TTE is the most realistic reproduction and long-term maintenance of the simulated tumor properties in vitro for cancer biology research and for the development of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms. Successful implementation of this challenging idea depends on bioreactor technology, which will enable optimization of culture conditions and control of tumor TECs development. In this review, we analyze the most popular bioreactor types in TTE and the emerging applications. PMID:27795843
Maughan, Elizabeth; Lesage, Flore; Butler, Colin R; Hynds, Robert E; Hewitt, Richard; Janes, Sam M; Deprest, Jan A; Coppi, Paolo De
Regenerative medicine offers hope of a sustainable solution for severe airway disease by the creation of functional, immunocompatible organ replacements. When considering fetuses and newborns, there is a specific spectrum of airway pathologies that could benefit from cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. While hypoplastic lungs associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) could benefit from cellular based treatments aimed at ameliorating lung function, patients with upper airway obstruction could take advantage from a de novo tissue engineering approach. Moreover, the international acceptance of the EXIT procedure as a means of securing the precarious neonatal airway, together with the advent of fetal surgery as a method of heading off postnatal co-morbidities, offers the revolutionary possibility of extending the clinical indication for tissue-engineered airway transplantation to infants affected by diverse severe congenital laryngotracheal malformations. This article outlines the necessary basic components for regenerative medicine solutions in this potential clinical niche. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wei, Xiaojuan; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng
To analyze the progress in biological tissue engineering scaffold materials and the clinical application, as well as product development status. Based on extensive investigation in the status of research and application of biological tissue engineering scaffold materials, a comprehensive analysis was made. Meanwhile, a detailed analysis of research and product development was presented. Considerable progress has been achieved in research, products transformation, clinical application, and supervision of biological scaffold for tissue engineering. New directions, new technology, and new products are constantly emerging. With the continuous progress of science and technology and continuous improvement of life sciences theory, the new direction and new focus still need to be continuously adjusted in order to meet the clinical needs. From the aspect of industrial transformation feasibility, acellular scaffolds and extracellular matrix are the most promising new growth of both research and product development in this field.
Reed, Courtney R; Han, Li; Andrady, Anthony; Caballero, Montserrat; Jack, Megan C; Collins, James B; Saba, Salim C; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Cairns, Bruce A; van Aalst, John A
Tissue engineering has largely focused on single tissue-type reconstruction (such as bone); however, the basic unit of healing in any clinically relevant scenario is a compound tissue type (such as bone, periosteum, and skin). Nanofibers are submicron fibrils that mimic the extracellular matrix, promoting cellular adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Stem cell manipulation on nanofiber scaffolds holds significant promise for future tissue engineering. This work represents our initial efforts to create the building blocks for composite tissue reflecting the basic unit of healing. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun using standard techniques. Human foreskin fibroblasts, murine keratinocytes, and periosteal cells (4-mm punch biopsy) harvested from children undergoing palate repair were grown in appropriate media on PCL nanofibers. Human fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinduced on PCL nanofibers. Cell growth was assessed with fluorescent viability staining; cocultured cells were differentiated using antibodies to fibroblast- and keratinocyte-specific surface markers. Osteoinduction was assessed with Alizarin red S. PCL nanofiber scaffolds supported robust growth of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and periosteal cells. Cocultured periosteal cells (with fibroblasts) and keratinocytes showed improved longevity of the keratinocytes, though growth of these cell types was randomly distributed throughout the scaffold. Robust osteoinduction was noted on PCL nanofibers. Composite tissue engineering using PCL nanofiber scaffolds is possible, though the major obstacles to the trilaminar construct are maintaining an appropriate interface between the tissue types and neovascularization of the composite structure.
Vig, Komal; Chaudhari, Atul; Tripathi, Shweta; Dixit, Saurabh; Sahu, Rajnish; Pillai, Shreekumar; Dennis, Vida A.; Singh, Shree R.
Tissue engineered skin substitutes for wound healing have evolved tremendously over the last couple of years. New advances have been made toward developing skin substitutes made up of artificial and natural materials. Engineered skin substitutes are developed from acellular materials or can be synthesized from autologous, allograft, xenogenic, or synthetic sources. Each of these engineered skin substitutes has their advantages and disadvantages. However, to this date, a complete functional skin substitute is not available, and research is continuing to develop a competent full thickness skin substitute product that can vascularize rapidly. There is also a need to redesign the currently available substitutes to make them user friendly, commercially affordable, and viable with longer shelf life. The present review focuses on providing an overview of advances in the field of tissue engineered skin substitute development, the availability of various types, and their application. PMID:28387714
Hogan, MaCalus V; Kawakami, Yohei; Murawski, Christopher D; Fu, Freddie H
The use of musculoskeletal bioengineering and regenerative medicine applications in orthopaedic surgery has continued to evolve. The aim of this systematic review was to address tissue-engineering strategies for knee ligament reconstruction. A systematic review of PubMed/Medline using the terms "knee AND ligament" AND "tissue engineering" OR "regenerative medicine" was performed. Two authors performed the search, independently assessed the studies for inclusion, and extracted the data for inclusion in the review. Both preclinical and clinical studies were reviewed, and the articles deemed most relevant were included in this article to provide relevant basic science and recent clinical translational knowledge concerning "tissue-engineering" strategies currently used in knee ligament reconstruction. A total of 224 articles were reviewed in our initial PubMed search. Non-English-language studies were excluded. Clinical and preclinical studies were identified, and those with a focus on knee ligament tissue-engineering strategies including stem cell-based therapies, growth factor administration, hybrid biomaterial, and scaffold development, as well as mechanical stimulation modalities, were reviewed. The body of knowledge surrounding tissue-engineering strategies for ligament reconstruction continues to expand. Presently, various tissue-engineering techniques have some potential advantages, including faster recovery, better ligamentization, and possibly, a reduction of recurrence. Preclinical research of these novel therapies continues to provide promising results. There remains a need for well-designed, high-powered comparative clinical studies to serve as a foundation for successful translation into the clinical setting going forward. Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chiara, Gardin; Letizia, Ferroni; Lorenzo, Favero; Edoardo, Stellini; Diego, Stomaci; Stefano, Sivolella; Eriberto, Bressan; Barbara, Zavan
Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering. PMID:22312283
Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony
Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are now applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. In addition, the stem cell field is a rapidly advancing part of regenerative medicine, and new discoveries in this field create new options for this type of therapy. For example, new types of stem cells, such as amniotic fluid and placental stem cells that can circumvent the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem cells, have been discovered. The process of therapeutic cloning and the creation of induced pluripotent cells provide still other potential sources of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering applications. Although stem cells are still in the research phase, some therapies arising from tissue engineering endeavors that make use of autologous, adult cells have already entered the clinical setting, indicating that regenerative medicine holds much promise for the future. PMID:22111050
Miller, Kyle J; Brown, David A; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Ramchal, Talisha D; Levinson, Howard
35.2 million annual cases in the U.S. require clinical intervention for major skin loss. To meet this demand, the field of skin tissue engineering has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. Traditionally, skin tissue engineering relies on the "cell-scaffold-signal" approach, whereby isolated cells are formulated into a three-dimensional substrate matrix, or scaffold, and exposed to the proper molecular, physical, and/or electrical signals to encourage growth and differentiation. However, clinically available bioengineered skin equivalents (BSEs) suffer from a number of drawbacks, including time required to generate autologous BSEs, poor allogeneic BSE survival, and physical limitations such as mass transfer issues. Additionally, different types of skin wounds require different BSE designs. MicroRNA has recently emerged as a new and exciting field of RNA interference that can overcome the barriers of BSE design. MicroRNA can regulate cellular behavior, change the bioactive milieu of the skin, and be delivered to skin tissue in a number of ways. While it is still in its infancy, the use of microRNAs in skin tissue engineering offers the opportunity to both enhance and expand a field for which there is still a vast unmet clinical need. Here we give a review of skin tissue engineering, focusing on the important cellular processes, bioactive mediators, and scaffolds. We further discuss potential microRNA targets for each individual component, and we conclude with possible future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shinoka, Toshiharu; Miyachi, Hideki
The development of surgically implantable heart valve prostheses has contributed to improved outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, there are drawbacks, such as risk of infection and lack of growth potential. Tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) holds great promise to address these drawbacks as the ideal TEHV is easily implanted, biocompatible, non-thrombogenic, durable, degradable, and ultimately remodels into native-like tissue. In general, three main components used in creating a tissue-engineered construct are (1) a scaffold material, (2) a cell type for seeding the scaffold, and (3) a subsequent remodeling process driven by cell accumulation and proliferation, and/or biochemical and mechanical signaling. Despite rapid progress in the field over the past decade, TEHVs have not been translated into clinical applications successfully. To successfully utilize TEHVs clinically, further elucidation of the mechanisms for TEHV remodeling and further translational research outcome evaluations will be required. Tissue engineering is a major breakthrough in cardiovascular medicine that holds amazing promise for the future of reconstructive surgical procedures. In this article, we review the history of regenerative medicine, advances in the field, and state-of-the-art in valvular tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sacks, Michael S; Schoen, Frederick J; Mayer, John E
Surgical replacement of diseased heart valves by mechanical and tissue valve substitutes is now commonplace and enhances survival and quality of life for many patients. However, repairs of congenital deformities require very small valve sizes not commercially available. Further, a fundamental problem inherent to the use of existing mechanical and biological prostheses in the pediatric population is their failure to grow, repair, and remodel. It is believed that a tissue engineered heart valve can accommodate many of these requirements, especially those pertaining to somatic growth. This review provides an overview of the field of heart valve tissue engineering, including recent trends, with a focus on the bioengineering challenges unique to heart valves. We believe that, currently, the key bioengineering challenge is to determine how biological, structural, and mechanical factors affect extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and in vivo functionality. These factors are fundamental to any approach toward developing a clinically viable tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV), regardless of the particular approach. Critical to the current approaches to TEHVs is scaffold design, which must simultaneously provide function (valves must function from the time of implant) as well as stress transfer to the new ECM. From a bioengineering point of view, a hierarchy of approaches will be necessary to connect the organ-tissue relationships with underpinning cell and sub-cellular events. Overall, such approaches need to be structured to address these fundamental issues to lay the basis for TEHVs that can be developed and designed according to truly sound scientific and engineering principles.
Govoni, Marco; Muscari, Claudio; Guarnieri, Carlo; Giordano, Emanuele
Owing to the inability of self-replacement by a damaged myocardium, alternative strategies to heart transplantation have been explored within the last decades and cardiac tissue engineering/regenerative medicine is among the present challenges in biomedical research. Hopefully, several studies witness the constant extension of the toolbox available to engineer a fully functional, contractile, and robust cardiac tissue using different combinations of cells, template bioscaffolds, and biophysical stimuli obtained by the use of specific bioreactors. Mechanical forces influence the growth and shape of every tissue in our body generating changes in intracellular biochemistry and gene expression. That is why bioreactors play a central role in the task of regenerating a complex tissue such as the myocardium. In the last fifteen years a large number of dynamic culture devices have been developed and many results have been collected. The aim of this brief review is to resume in a single streamlined paper the state of the art in this field.
Govoni, Marco; Muscari, Claudio; Guarnieri, Carlo; Giordano, Emanuele
Owing to the inability of self-replacement by a damaged myocardium, alternative strategies to heart transplantation have been explored within the last decades and cardiac tissue engineering/regenerative medicine is among the present challenges in biomedical research. Hopefully, several studies witness the constant extension of the toolbox available to engineer a fully functional, contractile, and robust cardiac tissue using different combinations of cells, template bioscaffolds, and biophysical stimuli obtained by the use of specific bioreactors. Mechanical forces influence the growth and shape of every tissue in our body generating changes in intracellular biochemistry and gene expression. That is why bioreactors play a central role in the task of regenerating a complex tissue such as the myocardium. In the last fifteen years a large number of dynamic culture devices have been developed and many results have been collected. The aim of this brief review is to resume in a single streamlined paper the state of the art in this field. PMID:23936858
Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures.
Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures. PMID:19180087
Li, Qiyao; Chang, Zhen; Oliveira, Gisele; Xiong, Maiyer; Smith, Lloyd M.; Frey, Brian L.; Welham, Nathan V.
Repopulating acellular biological scaffolds with phenotypically appropriate cells is a promising approach for regenerating functional tissues and organs. Under this tissue engineering paradigm, reseeded cells are expected to remodel the scaffold by active protein synthesis and degradation; however, the rate and extent of this remodeling remain largely unknown. Here, we present a technique to measure dynamic proteome changes during in vitro remodeling of decellularized tissue by reseeded cells, using vocal fold mucosa as the model system. Decellularization and recellularization were optimized, and a stable isotope labeling strategy was developed to differentiate remnant proteins constituting the original scaffold from proteins newly synthesized by reseeded cells. Turnover of matrix and cellular proteins and the effects of cell-scaffold interaction were elucidated. This technique sheds new light on in vitro tissue remodeling and the process of tissue regeneration, and is readily applicable to other tissue and organ systems. PMID:26724458
Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J.; Ma, Peter X.
Importance of the field Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation, and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Areas covered in this review In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niche are summarized. Recent progress in using these bio-instructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. What the reader will gain Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical, and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. Take home message The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering. PMID:23327471
Zhang, Zhanpeng; Gupte, Melanie J; Ma, Peter X
Organ failure and tissue loss are challenging health issues due to widespread injury, the lack of organs for transplantation and limitations of conventional artificial implants. The field of tissue engineering aims to provide alternative living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve tissue function. In this paper, a wide range of porous scaffolds are reviewed, with an emphasis on phase-separation techniques that generate advantageous nanofibrous 3D scaffolds for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. In addition, methods for presentation and delivery of bioactive molecules to mimic the properties of stem cell niches are summarized. Recent progress in using these bioinstructive scaffolds to support stem cell differentiation and tissue regeneration is also presented. Stem cells have great clinical potential because of their capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. Biomaterials have served as artificial extracellular environments to regulate stem cell behavior. Biomaterials with various physical, mechanical and chemical properties can be designed to control stem cell development for regeneration. The research at the interface of stem cell biology and biomaterials has made and will continue to make exciting advances in tissue engineering.
Heyde, Mieke; Partridge, Kris A; Oreffo, Richard O C; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Garnett, Martin C
This review highlights the advances at the interface between tissue engineering and gene therapy. There are a large number of reports on gene therapy in tissue engineering, and these cover a huge range of different engineered tissues, different vectors, scaffolds and methodology. The review considers separately in-vitro and in-vivo gene transfer methods. The in-vivo gene transfer method is described first, using either viral or non-viral vectors to repair various tissues with and without the use of scaffolds. The use of a scaffold can overcome some of the challenges associated with delivery by direct injection. The ex-vivo method is described in the second half of the review. Attempts have been made to use this therapy for bone, cartilage, wound, urothelial, nerve tissue regeneration and for treating diabetes using viral or non-viral vectors. Again porous polymers can be used as scaffolds for cell transplantation. There are as yet few comparisons between these many different variables to show which is the best for any particular application. With few exceptions, all of the results were positive in showing some gene expression and some consequent effect on tissue growth and remodelling. Some of the principal advantages and disadvantages of various methods are discussed.
Fauza, D O; Fishman, S J; Mehegan, K; Atala, A
Treatment of several congenital anomalies is frequently hindered by lack of enough tissue for surgical reconstruction in the neonatal period. Minimally invasive harvest of fetal tissue, which is then processed through tissue engineering techniques in vitro while pregnancy is allowed to continue so that at delivery a newborn with a prenatally diagnosed congenital anomaly can benefit from having autologous, expanded tissue promptly available for surgical reconstruction at birth. This concept was applied to a bladder defect. Bladder exstrophy was surgically created in ten 90- to 95-day gestation fetal lambs, which were divided in two groups. In group I, a small fetal bladder specimen was harvested through a minimally invasive technique (videofetoscopy). Urothelial and smooth muscle cells were then separately cultivated and expanded in vitro for 55 to 60 days, resulting in a total of approximately 200 million cells. Seven to 10 days before delivery, the cells were seeded in two layers in a 16- to 20-cm2, 3-mm thick biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer matrix. One to 4 days after delivery, autologous engineered tissue was used for surgical augmentation of the exstrophic bladder. In group II, no harvest was performed, and the bladder exstrophy was primarily closed after delivery. In both groups, a catheter was left inside the bladder for 3 weeks, at which time a cystogram was performed and the catheter then removed. In all animals, at 60 days, another cystogram was performed and urodynamic studies of the bladder were performed. The bladder was then removed for histological analysis. Fetal survival rate was 100%. One newborn died immediately after the implantation of the engineered bladder from an anesthetic accident. The other nine (four in group I and five in group II) survived. One of the animals from group I lost its bladder catheter prematurely and had a urinary leak detected only at the time of death. There were no other complications. The engineered bladders
Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge; Jonas, Jost B
Working at the nanoscale means to completely rethink how to approach engineering in the body in general and in the eye in particular. In nanomedicine, tissue engineering is the ability to influence an environment either by adding, subtracting or manipulating that environment to allow it to be more conducive for its purpose. The goal is to function at the optimum state, or to return to that optimum state. Additive tissue engineering replaces cells or tissue, or tries to get something to grow that is no longer there. Arrestive tissue engineering tries to stop aberrant growth which, if left uncontrolled, would result in a decrease in function. Nano delivery of therapeutics can perform both additive and arrestive functions influencing the environment either way, depending on the targeting. By manipulating the environment at the nanoscale, the rate and distribution of healing can be controlled. It infers that potential applications of nanomedicine in ophthalmology include procedures, such as corneal endothelial cell transplantation, single retinal ganglion cell repair, check of retinal ganglion cell viability, building of nanofibre scaffolds, such as self-assembling peptides, to create a scaffold-like tissue-bridging structure to provide a framework for axonal regeneration in the case of optic nerve reconnection or eye transplantation, and ocular drug delivery. Examples of potential arrestive therapies include gene-related treatment modalities to inhibit intraocular neovascularization and to block retinal cell apoptosis. Looking towards the future, this review focuses on how nanoscale tissue engineering can be and is being used to influence that local environment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.
Patel, Neel; Kim, Beomjune; Zaid, Waleed; Spagnoli, Daniel
This article provides an overview of basic tissue engineering principles as they are applied to vertical ridge defects and reconstructive techniques for these types of deficiencies. Presented are multiple clinical cases ranging from office-based dentoalveolar procedures to the more complex reconstruction of postresection mandibular defects. Several different types of regenerative tissue constructs are presented; either used alone or in combination with traditional reconstructive techniques and procedures, such as maxillary sinus augmentation, Le Fort I osteotomy, and microvascular free tissue transfer. The goal is to also familiarize the reconstructive surgeon to potential future strategies in vertical alveolar ridge augmentation. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.
Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.
Chen, Haiping; Liu, Yuanyuan Jiang, Zhenglong; Chen, Weihua; Yu, Yongzhe; Hu, Qingxi
The structure of a tissue engineering scaffold plays an important role in modulating tissue growth. A novel gelatin–chitosan (Gel–Cs) scaffold with a unique structure produced by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology combining with vacuum freeze-drying has been developed for tissue-engineering applications. The scaffold composed of overall construction, micro-pore, surface morphology, and effective mechanical property. Such a structure meets the essential design criteria of an ideal engineered scaffold. The favorable cell–matrix interaction supports the active biocompatibility of the structure. The structure is capable of supporting cell attachment and proliferation. Cells seeded into this structure tend to maintain phenotypic shape and secreted large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell growth decreased the mechanical properties of scaffold. This novel biodegradable scaffold has potential applications for tissue engineering based upon its unique structure, which acts to support cell growth. - Highlights: • The scaffold is not only for providing a surface for cell residence but also for determining cell phenotype and retaining structural integrity. • The mechanical property of scaffold can be affected by activities of cell. • The scaffold provides a microenvironment for cell attachment, growth, and migration.
Both tissue engineering and biomaterials have made tremendous strides recently, yet major questions remain unanswered. Tissue-engineered products have come to the market; others are in development. A fundamental issue that informatics could address for tissue engineering is to describe and to predict the cascade of biochemical and cellular reactions that occur as a function of time and implant material: surface texture, microporosity; pore size, density, and connectivity; and three-dimensional configuration. Behavior of ceramics, a subset of tissue-engineering scaffold materials and a mainstay of dental restorations, has been studied extensively for very thin layers and for thicknesses greater than 2 mm. Until recently, little has been known about dentally relevant thickness of 1-2 mm. Results have been surprising and are continuing to develop. Still, at least one fundamental question remains that could be addressed by informatics techniques: Where, along the spectrum of flat-polished material to 10-year clinical in vivo study, can we test to predict clinical performance of all-ceramic crowns accurately?
in order to minimize scarring and injected dissociated adult DRGs rostral to a dorsal column transection of the spinal cord. From the sensory... columns were dissected and post-fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then spinal cords were dissected from spinal columns and cryoprotected...AD______________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0941 TITLE: Spinal Cord Repair with Engineered Nervous Tissue
Katori, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Nishida, Kohji
Clinical trials have been performed using autologous tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets for corneal regenerative medicine. To improve stem cell-based therapy for convenient clinical practice, new techniques are required for preserving reconstructed tissues and their stem/progenitor cells until they are ready for use. In the present study, we screened potential preservative agents and developed a novel medium for preserving the cell sheets and their stem/progenitor cells; the effects were evaluated with a luciferase-based viability assay. Nrf2 activators, specifically ebselen, could maintain high ATP levels during preservation. Ebselen also showed a strong influence on maintenance of the viability, morphology, and stem cell function of the cell sheets preserved under hypothermia by protecting them from reactive oxygen species-induced damage. Furthermore, ebselen drastically improved the preservation performance of human cornea tissues and their stem cells. Therefore, ebselen shows good potential as a useful preservation agent in regenerative medicine as well as in cornea transplantation. PMID:27966584
Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne
Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering.
Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering. PMID:26545748
Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Stahl, Alexander M.; Shanjani, Yaser; Yang, Yunzhi
Vascularization of large bone grafts is one of the main challenges of bone tissue engineering (BTE), and has held back the clinical translation of engineered bone constructs for two decades so far. The ultimate goal of vascularized BTE constructs is to provide a bone environment rich in functional vascular networks to achieve efficient osseointegration and accelerate restoration of function after implantation. To attain both structural and vascular integration of the grafts, a large number of biomaterials, cells, and biological cues have been evaluated. This review will present biological considerations for bone function restoration, contemporary approaches for clinical salvage of large bone defects and their limitations, state-of-the-art research on the development of vascularized bone constructs, and perspectives on evaluating and implementing novel BTE grafts in clinical practice. Success will depend on achieving full graft integration at multiple hierarchical levels, both between the individual graft components as well as between the implanted constructs and their surrounding host tissues. The paradigm of vascularized tissue constructs could not only revolutionize the progress of bone tissue engineering, but could also be readily applied to other fields in regenerative medicine for the development of new innovative vascularized tissue designs. PMID:25616591
Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P
Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A
Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142
Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek
Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration. PMID:24596804
Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek
Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration.
Veetil, Jithesh V.; Ye, Kaiming
A decade of aggressive researches on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has paved way for extending these unique nanomaterials into a wide range of applications. In the relatively new arena of nanobiotechnology, a vast majority of applications are based on CNTs, ranging from miniaturized biosensors to organ regeneration. Nevertheless, the complexity of biological systems poses a significant challenge in developing CNT-based tissue engineering applications. This review focuses on the recent developments of CNT-based tissue engineering, where the interaction between living cells/tissues and the nanotubes have been transformed into a variety of novel techniques. This integration has already resulted in a revaluation of tissue engineering and organ regeneration techniques. Some of the new treatments that were not possible previously become reachable now. Because of the advent of surface chemistry, the CNT’s biocompatibility has been significantly improved, making it possible to serve as tissue scaffolding materials to enhance the organ regeneration. The superior mechanic strength and chemical inert also makes it ideal for blood compatible applications, especially for cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The applications of CNTs in these cardiovascular surgeries led to a remarkable improvement in mechanical strength of implanted catheters and reduced thrombogenecity after surgery. Moreover, the functionalized CNTs have been extensively explored for in vivo targeted drug or gene delivery, which could potentially improve the efficiency of many cancer treatments. However, just like other nanomaterials, the cytotoxicity of CNTs has not been well established. Hence, more extensive cytotoxic studies are warranted while converting the hydrophobic CNTs into biocompatible nanomaterials. PMID:19496152
Holzwarth, Jeremy M.; Ma, Peter X.
Bone tissue engineering is a highly interdisciplinary field that seeks to tackle the most challenging bone-related clinical issues. The major components of bone tissue engineering are the scaffold, cells, and growth factors. This review will focus on the scaffold and recent advancements in developing scaffolds that can mimic the natural extracellular matrix of bone. Specifically, these novel scaffolds mirror the nanofibrous collagen network that comprises the majority of the non-mineral portion of bone matrix. Using two main fabrication techniques, electrospinning and thermally-induced phase separation, and incorporating bone-like minerals, such as hydroxyapatite, composite nanofibrous scaffolds can improve cell adhesion, stem cell differentiation, and tissue formation. This review will cover the two main processing techniques and how they are being applied to fabricate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It will then cover how these scaffolds can enhance the osteogenic capabilities of a variety of cell types and survey the ability of the constructs to support the growth of clinically relevant bone tissue. PMID:21944829
Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A
Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date.
Zhan, Weiqing; Marre, Diego; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Morrison, Wayne A; Lim, Shiang Y
In reconstructive surgery, there is a clinical need for an alternative to the current methods of autologous reconstruction which are complex, costly and trade one defect for another. Tissue engineering holds the promise to address this increasing demand. However, most tissue engineering strategies fail to generate stable and functional tissue substitutes because of poor vascularization. This paper focuses on an in vivo tissue engineering chamber model of intrinsic vascularization where a perfused artery and a vein either as an arteriovenous loop or a flow-through pedicle configuration is directed inside a protected hollow chamber. In this chamber-based system angiogenic sprouting occurs from the arteriovenous vessels and this system attracts ischemic and inflammatory driven endogenous cell migration which gradually fills the chamber space with fibro-vascular tissue. Exogenous cell/matrix implantation at the time of chamber construction enhances cell survival and determines specificity of the engineered tissues which develop. Our studies have shown that this chamber model can successfully generate different tissues such as fat, cardiac muscle, liver and others. However, modifications and refinements are required to ensure target tissue formation is consistent and reproducible. This article describes a standardized protocol for the fabrication of two different vascularized tissue engineering chamber models in vivo.
The therapeutic use of stem cells and tissue engineering techniques are emerging in urology. Here, stem cell types, their differentiating potential and fundamental characteristics are illustrated. The cancer stem cell hypothesis is reported with reference to the role played by stem cells in the origin, development and progression of neoplastic lesions. In addition, recent reports of results obtained with stem cells alone or seeded in scaffolds to overcome problems of damaged urinary tract tissue are summarized. Among others, the application of these biotechnologies in urinary bladder, and urethra are delineated. Nevertheless, apart from the ethical concerns raised from the use of embryonic stem cells, a lot of questions need to be solved concerning the biology of stem cells before their widespread use in clinical trials. Further investigation is also required in tissue engineering utilizing animal models.
Fauza, D O; Fishman, S J; Mehegan, K; Atala, A
Treatment of several congenital anomalies is frequently hindered by lack of enough tissue for surgical reconstruction in the neonatal period. The purposes of this study were (1) introduction of a novel concept in perinatal surgery, involving minimally invasive harvest of fetal tissue, which is then processed through tissue engineering techniques in vitro while pregnancy is allowed to continue, so that, at delivery, the newborn can benefit from having autologous, expanded tissue promptly available for surgical implantation at birth; (2) analysis of the progress of an engineered fetal skin graft with time, after implantation in the neonate; and (3) study of the effects of current tissue engineering techniques on fetal keratinocytes and fetal dermal fibroblasts. Ten 90- to 95-day-gestation fetal lambs underwent surgical creation of two large paramedian excisional skin defects on the posterior body wall. Subsequently, fetal skin specimens no larger than 1.5 x 1.5 cm were videofetoscopically harvested. Fetal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were then separately cultivated and expanded in vitro for 45 to 50 days, resulting in a total of approximately 250 to 300 million cells. Seven to 10 days before fetal delivery, all cells were seeded in two layers on a 16 to 20-cm2, 3-mm thick biodegradable polyglycolic acid polymer matrix. One to 4 days after delivery, the autologous engineered skin was implanted over one of two previously created skin defects. The second skin defect region received an absorbable polymer scaffold without cells as a control. If necessary, the original skin wounds were further amplified before implantation. Each animal provided at least one time-point for histological analysis of both types of repair through excisional biopsies performed at weekly intervals, up to 8 weeks postimplantation. Normal skin specimens were also used as controls. Fetal and neonatal survival rates were 100%. Based on previous postnatal skin engineering studies, fetal dermal
Spörl, E; Genth, U; Schmalfuss, K; Seiler, T
Shrinkage of corneal collagen is used during thermokeratoplasty, a method to remodel the corneal curvature. The goal of our investigations was to determine the optimal temperature range for maximal shrinkage of the collagen fibers with minimal damage. By means of a commercially available stress-strain-measuring device including a paraffin oil bath at temperatures varying from 35 degrees to 120 degrees C, strips of pig cornea measuring 5 mm in width and 9 mm in length were investigated in the stress range of sigma = (0.5-12.5) x10(4) N/m2 by stress-strain, stress-relaxation, and creep measurements. The biomechanical properties of the cornea remained unchanged in the temperature range of 30-50 degrees C. Starting at 60 degrees C, shrinkage occurred that increased up to a temperature of 90 degrees C. The maximal rate of shrinkage of 57 +/- 12% was determined at temperatures of 75 degrees and 80 degrees C. At above 100 degrees C the shrinkage effect decreased because of the destruction of intermolecular bonds between the collagen fibers. The stress-strain curves generated for shrunken corneas were flatter than those generated for native corneas, which means that Young's modulus is significantly reduced. For the achievement of optimal shrinkage during thermokeratoplasty, temperatures of 70-85 degrees C should be reached in the tissue to be coagulated. Higher temperatures are capable of causing a shrinkage effect but also induce the destruction of tissue.
Mandal, Biman B; Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok; Kaplan, David L
Knee meniscus, a fibrocartilaginous tissue, is characterized by heterogeneity in extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomechanical properties, and critical for orthopedic stability, load transmission, shock absorption, and stress distribution within the knee joint. Most damage to the meniscus cannot be effectively healed by the body due to its partial avascular nature; thus, damage caused by injury or age impairs normal knee function, predisposing patients to osteoarthritis. Meniscus tissue engineering offers a possible solution to this problem by generating replacement tissue that may be implanted into the defect site to mimic the function of natural meniscal tissue. To address this need, a multiporous, multilamellar meniscus was formed using silk protein scaffolds and stem cells. The silk scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow stem cells and differentiated over time in chondrogenic culture in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 3 to generate meniscus-like tissue in vitro. High cellularity along with abundant ECM leading to enhanced biomechanics similar to native tissue was found. Higher levels of collagen type I and II, sulfated glycosaminoglycans along with enhanced collagen 1-α1, aggrecan, and SOX9 gene expression further confirmed differentiation and matured cell phenotype. The results of this study are a step forward toward biomechanically competent meniscus engineering, reconstituting both form and function of the native meniscus.
Mandal, Biman B; Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun S; Kaplan, David L
Removal of injured/damaged meniscus, a vital fibrocartilaginous load-bearing tissue, impairs normal knee function and predisposes patients to osteoarthritis. Meniscus tissue engineering solution is one option to improve outcomes and relieve pain. In an attempt to fabricate knee meniscus grafts three layered wedge shaped silk meniscal scaffold system was engineered to mimic native meniscus architecture. The scaffolds were seeded with human fibroblasts (outside) and chondrocytes (inside) in a spatial separated mode similar to native tissue, in order to generate meniscus-like tissue in vitro. In chondrogenic culture in the presence of TGF-b3, cell-seeded constructs increased in cellularity and extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Histology and Immunohistochemistry confirmed maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype with higher levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen types I and II. Improved scaffold mechanical properties along with ECM alignment with time in culture suggest this multiporous silk construct as a useful micro-patterned template for directed tissue growth with respect to form and function of meniscus-like tissue.
Hoerstrup, S P; Zünd, G; Sodian, R; Schnell, A M; Grünenfelder, J; Turina, M I
Previous tissue engineering approaches to create small caliber vascular grafts have been limited by the structural and mechanical immaturity of the constructs. This study uses a novel in vitro pulse duplicator system providing a 'biomimetic' environment during tissue formation to yield more mature, implantable vascular grafts. Vascular grafts (I.D. 0.5 cm) were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers (polyglycolic-acid/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate) and sequentially seeded with ovine vascular myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. After 4 days static culture, the grafts (n=24) were grown in vitro in a pulse duplicator system (bioreactor) for 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Controls (n=24) were grown in static culture conditions. Analysis of the neo-tissue included histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and biochemical assays (DNA for cell content, 5-hydroxyproline for collagen). Mechanical testing was performed measuring the burst pressure and the suture retention strength. Histology showed viable, dense tissue in all samples. SEM demonstrated confluent smooth inner surfaces of the grafts exposed to pulsatile flow after 14 days. Biochemical analysis revealed a continuous increase of cell mass and collagen to 21 days compared to significantly lower values in the static controls. The mechanical properties of the pulsed vascular grafts comprised supra-physiological burst strength and suture retention strength appropriate for surgical implantation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of tissue engineering of viable, surgically implantable small caliber vascular grafts and the important effect of a 'biomimetic' in vitro environment on tissue maturation and extracellular matrix formation.
Mandal, Biman B.; Park, Sang-Hyug; Gil, Eun Seok
Removal of injured/damaged meniscus, a vital fibrocartilaginous load-bearing tissue, impairs normal knee function and predisposes patients to osteoarthritis. Meniscus tissue engineering solution is one option to improve outcomes and relieve pain. In an attempt to fabricate knee meniscus grafts three layered wedge shaped silk meniscal scaffold system was engineered to mimic native meniscus architecture. The scaffolds were seeded with human fibroblasts (outside) and chondrocytes (inside) in a spatial separated mode similar to native tissue, in order to generate meniscus-like tissue in vitro. In chondrogenic culture in the presence of TGF-b3, cell seeded constructs increased in cellularity and extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Histology and Immunohistochemistry confirmed maintenance of chondrocytic phenotype with higher levels of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen types I and II. Improved scaffold mechanical properties along with ECM alignment with time in culture suggest this multiporous silk construct as a useful micro-patterned template for directed tissue growth with respect to form and function of meniscus-like tissue. PMID:20926132
Best, Cameron; Onwuka, Ekene; Pepper, Victoria; Sams, Malik; Breuer, Jake
Advancements in biomaterial science and available cell sources have spurred the translation of tissue-engineering technology to the bedside, addressing the pressing clinical demands for replacement cardiovascular tissues. Here, the in vivo status of tissue-engineered blood vessels, heart valves, and myocardium is briefly reviewed, illustrating progress toward a tissue-engineered heart for clinical use. PMID:26661524
Ivanovski, S.; Vaquette, C.; Gronthos, S.; Hutmacher, D.W.; Bartold, P.M.
For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor–based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials. PMID:25139362
Ivanovski, S; Vaquette, C; Gronthos, S; Hutmacher, D W; Bartold, P M
For a successful clinical outcome, periodontal regeneration requires the coordinated response of multiple soft and hard tissues (periodontal ligament, gingiva, cementum, and bone) during the wound-healing process. Tissue-engineered constructs for regeneration of the periodontium must be of a complex 3-dimensional shape and adequate size and demonstrate biomechanical stability over time. A critical requirement is the ability to promote the formation of functional periodontal attachment between regenerated alveolar bone, and newly formed cementum on the root surface. This review outlines the current advances in multiphasic scaffold fabrication and how these scaffolds can be combined with cell- and growth factor-based approaches to form tissue-engineered constructs capable of recapitulating the complex temporal and spatial wound-healing events that will lead to predictable periodontal regeneration. This can be achieved through a variety of approaches, with promising strategies characterized by the use of scaffolds that can deliver and stabilize cells capable of cementogenesis onto the root surface, provide biomechanical cues that encourage perpendicular alignment of periodontal fibers to the root surface, and provide osteogenic cues and appropriate space to facilitate bone regeneration. Progress on the development of multiphasic constructs for periodontal tissue engineering is in the early stages of development, and these constructs need to be tested in large animal models and, ultimately, human clinical trials.
Sarraf, C E; Harris, A B; McCulloch, A D; Eastwood, M
In the industrialized world, cardiovascular disease alone is responsible for almost half of all deaths. Many of the conditions can be treated successfully with surgery, often using transplantation techniques; however, autologous vessels or human-donated organs are in short supply. Tissue engineering aims to create specific, matching grafts by growing cells on appropriate matrices, but there are many steps between the research laboratory and the operating theatre. Neo-tissues must be effective, durable, non-thrombogenic and non-immunogenic. Scaffolds should be bio-compatible, porous (to allow cell/cell communication) and amenable to surgery. In the early days of cardiovascular tissue engineering, autologous or allogenic cells were grown on inert matrices, but patency and thrombogenicity of grafts were disappointing. The current ethos is toward appropriate cell types grown in (most often) a polymeric matrix that degrades at a rate compatible with the cells' production of their own extracellular matrical proteins, thus gradually replacing the graft with a living counterpart. The geometry is crucial. Computer models have been made of valves, and these are used as three-dimensional patterns for mass-production of implant scaffolds. Vessel walls have integral connective tissue architecture, and application of physiological level mechanical forces conditions bio-engineered components to align in precise orientation. This article reviews the concepts involved and successes achieved to date.
Nukavarapu, Syam P; Dorcemus, Deborah L
Osteochondral defect management and repair remain a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Osteochondral defects contain damage to both the articular cartilage as well as the underlying subchondral bone. In order to repair an osteochondral defect the needs of the bone, cartilage and the bone-cartilage interface must be taken into account. Current clinical treatments for the repair of osteochondral defects have only been palliative, not curative. Tissue engineering has emerged as a potential alternative as it can be effectively used to regenerate bone, cartilage and the bone-cartilage interface. Several scaffold strategies, such as single phase, layered, and recently graded structures have been developed and evaluated for osteochondral defect repair. Also, as a potential cell source, tissue specific cells and progenitor cells are widely studied in cell culture models, as well with the osteochondral scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. Novel factor strategies being developed, including single factor, multi-factor, or controlled factor release in a graded fashion, not only assist bone and cartilage regeneration, but also establish osteochondral interface formation. The field of tissue engineering has made great strides, however further research needs to be carried out to make this strategy a clinical reality. In this review, we summarize current tissue engineering strategies, including scaffold design, bioreactor use, as well as cell and factor based approaches and recent developments for osteochondral defect repair. In addition, we discuss various challenges that need to be addressed in years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fuchs, Julie R; Terada, Shinichi; Hannouche, Didier; Ochoa, Erin R; Vacanti, Joseph P; Fauza, Dario O
This study was aimed at applying fetal tissue engineering to chest wall reconstruction. Fetal lambs underwent harvest of elastic and hyaline cartilage specimens. Once expanded in vitro, fetal chondrocytes were seeded onto synthetic scaffolds, which then were placed in a bioreactor. After birth, fetal cartilage constructs (n = 10) were implanted in autologous fashion into the ribs of all lambs (n = 6) along with identical, but acellular scaffolds, as controls (n = 6). Engineered and acellular specimens were harvested for analysis at 4 to 12 weeks postimplantation. Standard histology and matrix-specific staining were performed both before implantation and after harvest on all constructs. Regardless of the source of chondrocytes, all fetal constructs resembled hyaline cartilage, both grossly and histologically, in vitro. In vivo, engineered implants retained hyaline characteristics for up to 10 weeks after implantation but remodeled into fibrocartilage by 12 weeks postoperatively. Mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates surrounding residual PGA/PLLA polymer fibers were noted in all specimens but most prominently in the acellular controls. Engineered fetal cartilage can provide structural replacement for at least up to 10 weeks after autologous, postnatal implantation in the chest wall. Fetal tissue engineering may prove useful for the treatment of severe congenital chest wall defects at birth.
Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel
Emerging trends for cardiac tissue engineering are focused on increasing the biocompatibility and tissue regeneration ability of artificial heart tissue by incorporating various cell sources and bioactive molecules. Although primary cardiomyocytes can be successfully implanted, clinical applications are restricted due to their low survival rates and poor proliferation. To develop successful cardiovascular tissue regeneration systems, new technologies must be introduced to improve myocardial regeneration. Electrospinning is a simple, versatile technique for fabricating nanofibers. Here, we discuss various biodegradable polymers (natural, synthetic, and combinatorial polymers) that can be used for fiber fabrication. We also describe a series of fiber modification methods that can increase cell survival, proliferation, and migration and provide supporting mechanical properties by mimicking micro-environment structures, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, the applications and types of nanofiber-based scaffolds for myocardial regeneration are described. Finally, fusion research methods combined with stem cells and scaffolds to improve biocompatibility are discussed.
Kane, Robert J.
Scaffolds have been fabricated from a wide variety of materials and most have showed some success, either as bone graft substitutes or as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, all current scaffold compositions and architectures suffer from one or more flaws including poor mechanical properties, lack of biological response, nondegradability, or a scaffold architecture not conducive to osteointegration. Biomimetic approaches to scaffold design using the two main components of bone tissue, collagen and hydroxyapatite, resulted in scaffolds with superior biological properties but relatively poor mechanical properties and scaffold architecture. It was hypothesized that by optimizing scaffold composition and architecture, HA-collagen bone tissue engineering scaffolds could provide both an excellent biological response along with improved structural properties. The mechanical properties of freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds, the most common type of porous HA-collagen material, were first shown to be increased by the addition of HA reinforcements, but scaffold stiffness still fell far short of the desired range. Based on limitations inherent in the freeze-dried process, a new type of leached-porogen scaffold fabrication process was developed. Proof-of-concept scaffolds demonstrated the feasibility of producing leached-porogen HA-collagen materials, and the scaffold architecture was optimized though careful selection of porogen particle size and shape along with an improved crosslinking technique. The final scaffolds exhibited substantially increased compressive modulus compared to previous types HA-collagen scaffolds, while the porosity, pore size, and scaffold permeability were tailored to be suitable for bone tissue ingrowth. An in vitro study demonstrated the capacity of the leached-porogen scaffolds to serve as a substrate for the differentiation of osteoblasts and subsequent production of new bone tissue. The new leached-porogen scaffold HA-collagen scaffolds were
Schein, O. D.
The cornea is sensitive to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and can suffer both acute and chronic toxicity. Ultraviolet keratitis is associated with relatively short exposures to light sources such as welding arcs or tanning lamps. The corneal effects are seen within a few hours following exposure and typically will resolve within 72 hours. Chronic exposure to environmental UV light may lead to a variety of ocular surface abnormalities that rarely resolve in the absence of therapy. Ultraviolet light, while potentially destructive, also can be used therapeutically. Recently, the photoablative properties of the excimer laser have been used in corneal refractive surgery. This laser uses UV light to break chemical bonds and remove tissue. Corneal phototoxicity is a reflection of the sensitivity of the ocular surface to photochemical injury. Fortunately, effective protection in the form of UV-blocking lenses is widely available. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1629921
Schein, O D
The cornea is sensitive to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and can suffer both acute and chronic toxicity. Ultraviolet keratitis is associated with relatively short exposures to light sources such as welding arcs or tanning lamps. The corneal effects are seen within a few hours following exposure and typically will resolve within 72 hours. Chronic exposure to environmental UV light may lead to a variety of ocular surface abnormalities that rarely resolve in the absence of therapy. Ultraviolet light, while potentially destructive, also can be used therapeutically. Recently, the photoablative properties of the excimer laser have been used in corneal refractive surgery. This laser uses UV light to break chemical bonds and remove tissue. Corneal phototoxicity is a reflection of the sensitivity of the ocular surface to photochemical injury. Fortunately, effective protection in the form of UV-blocking lenses is widely available.
Sapir, Yulia; Polyak, Boris; Cohen, Smadar
Cardiac tissue engineering offers new possibilities for the functional and structural restoration of damaged or lost heart tissue by applying cardiac patches created in vitro. Engineering such functional cardiac patches is a complex mission, involving material design on the nano- and microscale as well as the application of biological cues and stimulation patterns to promote cell survival and organization into a functional cardiac tissue. Herein, we present a novel strategy for creating a functional cardiac patch by combining the use of a macroporous alginate scaffold impregnated with magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNPs) and the application of external magnetic stimulation. Neonatal rat cardiac cells seeded within the magnetically responsive scaffolds and stimulated by an alternating magnetic field of 5 Hz developed into matured myocardial tissue characterized by anisotropically organized striated cardiac fibers, which preserved its features for longer times than non-stimulated constructs. A greater activation of AKT phosphorylation in cardiac cell constructs after applying a short-term (20 min) external magnetic field indicated the efficacy of magnetic stimulation to actuate at a distance and provided a possible mechanism for its action. Our results point to a synergistic effect of magnetic field stimulation together with nanoparticulate features of the scaffold surface as providing the regenerating environment for cardiac cells driving their organization into functionally mature tissue.
Bjork, Jason W.; Tranquillo, Robert T.
Nutrient transport limitation remains a fundamental issue for in vitro culture of engineered tissues. In this study, perfusion bioreactor configurations were investigated to provide uniform delivery of oxygen to media equivalents (MEs) being developed as the basis for tissue-engineered arteries. Bioreactor configurations were developed to evaluate oxygen delivery associated with complete transmural flow (through the wall of the ME), complete axial flow (through the lumen), and a combination of these flows. In addition, transport models of the different flow configurations were analyzed to determine the most uniform oxygen profile throughout the tissue, incorporating direct measurements of tissue hydraulic conductivity, cellular O2 consumption kinetics, and cell density along with ME physical dimensions. Model results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO) uniformity is improved when a combination of transmural and axial flow is implemented; however, detrimental effects could occur due to lumenal pressure exceeding the burst pressure or damaging interstitial shear stress imparted by excessive transmural flow rates or decreasing hydraulic conductivity due to ME compaction. The model was verified by comparing predicted with measured outlet DO concentrations. Based on these results, the combination of a controlled transmural flow coupled with axial flow presents an attractive means to increase the transport of nutrients to cells within the cultured tissue to improve growth (increased cell and extracellular matrix concentrations) as well as uniformity. PMID:19603425
Panetta, N J; Gupta, D M; Quarto, N; Longaker, M T
Today, surgical intervention remains the mainstay of treatment to intervene upon a multitude of skeletal deficits and defects attributable to congenital malformations, oncologic resection, pathologic degenerative bone destruction, and post-traumatic loss. Despite this significant demand, the tools with which surgeons remain equipped are plagued with a surfeit of inadequacies, often resulting in less than ideal patient outcomes. The failings of current techniques largely arise secondary to their inability to produce a regenerate which closely resembles lost tissue. As such, focus has shifted to the potential of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based skeletal tissue engineering. The successful development of such techniques would represent a paradigm shift from current approaches, carrying with it the potential to regenerate tissues which mimic the form and function of endogenous bone. Lessons learned from investigations probing the endogenous regenerative capacity of skeletal tissues have provided direction to early studies investigating the osteogenic potential of MSC. Additionally, increasing attention is being turned to the role of targeted molecular manipulations in augmenting MSC osteogenesis, as well as the development of an ideal scaffold ''vehicle'' with which to deliver progenitor cells. The following discussion presents the authors' current working knowledge regarding these critical aspects of MSC application in cell-based skeletal tissue engineering strategies, as well as provides insight towards what future steps must be taken to make their clinical translation a reality.
Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.
Tissue engineering (TE) has promise as a biological solution and a disease modifying treatment for arthritis. Although cartilage can be generated by TE, substantial inter- and intra-donor variability makes it impossible to guarantee optimal, reproducible results. TE cartilage must be able to perform the functions of native tissue, thus mechanical and biological properties approaching those of native cartilage are likely a pre-requisite for successful implantation. A quality-control assessment of these properties should be part of the implantation release criteria for TE cartilage. Release criteria should certify that selected tissue properties have reached certain target ranges, and should be predictive of the likelihood of success of an implant in vivo. Unfortunately, it is not currently known which properties are needed to establish release criteria, nor how close one has to be to the properties of native cartilage to achieve success. Achieving properties approaching those of native cartilage requires a clear understanding of the target properties and reproducible assessment methodology. Here, we review several main aspects of quality control as it applies to TE cartilage. This includes a look at known mechanical and biological properties of native cartilage, which should be the target in engineered tissues. We also present an overview of the state of the art of tissue assessment, focusing on native articular and TE cartilage. Finally, we review the arguments for developing and validating non-destructive testing methods for assessing TE products. PMID:23606823
Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho
Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Chang, David W.; Zhang, Qixu
Ideal scaffolds that represent native extracellular matrix (ECM) properties of musculofascial tissues have great importance in musculofascial tissue engineering. However, detailed characterization of musculofascial tissues’ ECM (particularly, of fascia) from large animals is still lacking. In this study, we developed a decellularization protocol for processing pig composite musculofascial tissues. Decellularized muscle (D-muscle) and decellularized fascia (D-fascia), which are two important components of decellularized musculofascial extracellular matrix (DMM), were comprehensively characterized. D-muscle and D-fascia retained intact three-dimensional architecture, strong mechanical properties, and bioactivity of compositions such as collagen, laminin, glycosaminoglycan, and vascular endothelial growth factor. D-muscle and D-fascia provided a compatible niche for human adipose-derived stem cell integration and proliferation. Heterotopic and orthotopic implantation of D-muscle and D-fascia in a rodent model further proved their biocompatibility and myogenic properties during the remodeling process. The differing characteristics of D-muscle from D-fascia (e.g., D-muscle’s strong pro-angiogenic and pro-myogenic properties vs. D-fascia’s strong mechanical properties) indicate different clinical application opportunities of D-muscle vs. D-fascia scaffolds. DMM comprising muscle and fascia ECM as a whole unit can thus provide not only a clinically translatable platform for musculofascial tissue repair and regeneration but also a useful standard for scaffold design in musculofascial tissue engineering. PMID:23347834
Appel, Alyssa A.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Larson, Jeffery C.; Brey, Eric M.
Biomaterials are employed in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) in order to enhance the regeneration or replacement of tissue function and/or structure. The unique environments resulting from the presence of biomaterials, cells, and tissues result in distinct challenges in regards to monitoring and assessing the results of these interventions. Imaging technologies for three-dimensional (3D) analysis have been identified as a strategic priority in TERM research. Traditionally, histological and immunohistochemical techniques have been used to evaluate engineered tissues. However, these methods do not allow for an accurate volume assessment, are invasive, and do not provide information on functional status. Imaging techniques are needed that enable non-destructive, longitudinal, quantitative, and three-dimensional analysis of TERM strategies. This review focuses on evaluating the application of available imaging modalities for assessment of biomaterials and tissue in TERM applications. Included is a discussion of limitations of these techniques and identification of areas for further development. PMID:23768903
Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho
Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. PMID:26724184
Jeong, Claire G; Atala, Anthony
Cell-based direct biofabrication and 3D bioprinting is becoming a dominant technological platform and is suggested as a new paradigm for twenty-first century tissue engineering. These techniques may be our next step in surpassing the hurdles and limitations of conventional scaffold-based tissue engineering, and may offer the industrial potential of tissue engineered products especially for load bearing tissues. Here we present a topically focused review regarding the fundamental concepts, state of the art, and perspectives of this new technology and field of biofabrication and 3D bioprinting, specifically focused on tissue engineering of load bearing tissues such as bone, cartilage, osteochondral and dental tissue engineering.
Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Meier, Lee A.; Reimer, Jay; Tranquillo, Robert T.
A novel tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) was fabricated from a decellularized tissue tube mounted on a frame with three struts, which upon back-pressure cause the tube to collapse into three coapting “leaflets”. The tissue was completely biological, fabricated from ovine fibroblasts dispersed within a fibrin gel, compacted into a circumferentially-aligned tube on a mandrel, and matured using a bioreactor system that applied cyclic distension. Following decellularization, the resulting tissue possessed tensile mechanical properties, mechanical anisotropy, and collagen content that were comparable to native pulmonary valve leaflets. When mounted on a custom frame and tested within a pulse duplicator system, the tubular TEHV displayed excellent function under both aortic and pulmonary conditions, with minimal regurgitant fractions and transvalvular pressure gradients at peak systole, as well as well as effective orifice areas exceeding those of current commercially available valve replacements. Short-term fatigue tests of one million cycles with pulmonary pressure gradients was conducted without significant change in mechanical properties and no observable macroscopic tissue deterioration. This study presents an attractive potential alternative to current tissue valve replacements due to its avoidance of chemical fixation and utilization of a tissue conducive to recellularization by host cell infiltration. PMID:23897047
Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955
Cleary, Muriel A; Geiger, Erik; Grady, Conor; Best, Cameron; Naito, Yuji; Breuer, Christopher
It is the ultimate goal of tissue engineering: an autologous tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) that is immunologically compatible, nonthrombogenic, and can grow and remodel. Currently, native vessels are the preferred vascular conduit for procedures such as coronary artery bypass (CABG) or peripheral bypass surgery. However, in many cases these are damaged, have already been harvested, or are simply unusable. The use of synthetic conduits is severely limited in smaller diameter vessels due to increased incidence of thrombosis, infection, and graft failure. Current research has therefore energetically pursued the development of a TEVG that can incorporate into a patient's circulatory system, mimic the vasoreactivity and biomechanics of the native vasculature, and maintain long-term patency. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The physiological roles of the cornea are to conduct external light into the eye, focus it, together with the lens, onto the retina, and to provide rigidity to the entire eyeball. Good vision thus requires maintenance of the transparency and proper refractive shape of the cornea. Although the cornea appears to be a relatively static structure, dynamic processes operate within and around the cornea at the tissue, cell, and molecular level. In this article, I review the mechanisms responsible for maintenance of corneal homeostasis as well as the development of new modes of treatment for various corneal diseases. I. The static cornea: structure and physiological functions. The cornea is derived from ectoderm, so that it can be considered as transparent skin. It is devoid of blood vessels and manifests the highest sensitivity in the entire body. The surface of the cornea is covered by tear fluid, which serves both as a lubricant and as a conduit for regulatory molecules. The cornea is also supplied with oxygen and various nutrients by the aqueous humor and a loop vascular system in addition to tear fluid. The cornea interacts with its surrounding tissues directly as well as indirectly through tear fluid or aqueous humor, with such interactions playing an important role in the regulation of corneal structure and functions. The resident cells of the cornea-epithelial cells, fibroblasts (keratocytes), and endothelial cells--also engage in mutual interactions through network systems. These interactions as well as those with infiltrated cells and regulation by nerves contribute to the maintenance of the normal structure and functions of the cornea as well as to the repair of corneal injuries. II. The dynamic cornea: maintenance of structure and functions by network systems. Developments in laser and computer technology have allowed observation of the cells and collagen fibers within the cornea. Furthermore, progress in cell and molecular biology has allowed characterization
Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Underhill, Gregory H; Zaret, Kenneth S; Fox, Ira J
Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver's structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near- and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation.
Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Underhill, Gregory H.; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Fox, Ira J.
Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver’s structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation. PMID:25031271
Treatment of extensive bone defects requires autologous bone grafting or implantation of bone substitute materials. An attractive alternative has been to engineer fully viable, biological bone grafts in vitro by culturing osteogenic cells within three-dimensional scaffolds, under conditions supporting bone formation. Such grafts could be used for implantation, but also as physiologically relevant models in basic and translational studies of bone development, disease and drug discovery. A source of human cells that can be derived in large numbers from a small initial harvest and predictably differentiated into bone forming cells is critically important for engineering human bone grafts. We discuss the characteristics and limitations of various types of human embryonic and adult stem cells, and their utility for bone tissue engineering. PMID:20637059
Zhang, Lei; Guan, Zheng; Ye, Jun-Song; Yin, Yan-Feng; Stoltz, Jean-François; de Isla, Natalia
Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases (ESLD). However, it is hampered by shortage of liver donor. Liver tissue engineering, aiming at fabricating new livers in vitro, provides a potential resolution for donor shortage. Three elements need to be considered in liver tissue engineering: seeding cell resources, scaffolds and bioreactors. Studies have shown potential cell sources as hepatocytes, hepatic cell line, mesenchymal stem cells and others. They need scaffolds with perfect biocompatiblity, suitable micro-structure and appropriate degradation rate, which are essential charateristics for cell attachment, proliferation and secretion in forming extracellular matrix. The most promising scaffolds in research include decellularized whole liver, collagens and biocompatible plastic. The development and function of cells in scaffold need a microenvironment which can provide them with oxygen, nutrition, growth factors, et al. Bioreactor is expected to fulfill these requirements by mimicking the living condition in vivo. Although there is great progress in these three domains, a large gap stays still between their researches and applications. Herein, we summarized the recent development in these three major fields which are indispensable in liver tissue engineering.
Konopnicki, Sandra; Troulis, Maria J
Almost 2 decades ago, the senior author's (M.T.J.) first article was with our mentor, Dr Leonard B. Kaban, a review article titled "Distraction Osteogenesis: Past, Present, Future." In 1998, many thought it would be impossible to have a remotely activated, small, curvilinear distractor that could be placed using endoscopic techniques. Currently, a U.S. patent for a curvilinear automated device and endoscopic techniques for minimally invasive access for jaw reconstruction exist. With minimally invasive access for jaw reconstruction, the burden to decrease donor site morbidity has increased. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an in vivo form of tissue engineering. The DO technique eliminates a donor site, is less invasive, requires a shorter operative time than usual procedures, and can be used for multiple reconstruction applications. Tissue engineering could further reduce morbidity and cost and increase treatment availability. The purpose of the present report was to review our experience with tissue engineering of bone: the past, present, and our vision for the future. The present report serves as a tribute to our mentor and acknowledges Dr Kaban for his incessant tutelage, guidance, wisdom, and boundless vision.
Calle, Elizabeth A.; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Sundaram, Sumati; Sivarapatna, Amogh; Tseng, Michelle K.
Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using decellularized lung extracellular matrix scaffolds to support the engineering of functional lung tissue in vitro. Rendered acellular through the use of detergents and other reagents, the scaffolds are mounted in organ-specific bioreactors where cells in the scaffold are provided with nutrients and appropriate mechanical stimuli such as ventilation and perfusion. Though initial studies are encouraging, a great deal remains to be done to advance the field and transition from rodent lungs to whole human tissue engineered lungs. To do so, a variety of hurdles must be overcome. In particular, a reliable source of human-sized scaffolds, as well as a method of terminal sterilization of scaffolds, must be identified. Continued research in lung cell and developmental biology will hopefully help identify the number and types of cells that will be required to regenerate functional lung tissue. Finally, bioreactor designs must be improved in order to provide more precise ventilation stimuli and vascular perfusion in order to avoid injury to or death of the cells cultivated within the scaffold. Ultimately, the success of efforts to engineer a functional lung in vitro will critically depend on the ability to create a fully endothelialized vascular network that provides sufficient barrier function and alveolar-capillary surface area to exchange gas at rates compatible with healthy lung function. PMID:24691527
Kawasaki, Takanori; Kirita, Yuhei; Kami, Daisuke; Kitani, Tomoya; Ozaki, Chisa; Itakura, Yoko; Toyoda, Masashi; Gojo, Satoshi
Whole organ tissue engineering for various organs, including the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, has demonstrated promising results for end-stage organ failure. However, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-based protocol for standard decellularization has drawbacks such as clot formation in vascularized transplantation and poor cell engraftment in recellularization procedures. Preservation of the surface milieu of extracellular matrices (ECMs) might be crucial for organ generation based on decellularization/recellularization engineering. We examined a novel detergent, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), to determine whether it could overcome the drawbacks associated with SDS using rat heart and kidney. Both organs were perfused in an antegrade fashion with either SLES or SDS. Although immunohistochemistry for collagen I, IV, laminin, and fibronectin showed similar preservation in both detergents, morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy and an assay of glycosaminoglycan content on ECMs showed that SLES-treated tissues had better-preserved ECMs than SDS-treated tissues. Mesenteric transplantation revealed SLES did not induce significant inflammation, as opposed to SDS. Platelet adhesion to decellularized tissues was significantly reduced with SLES. Overall, SLES could replace older detergents such as SDS in the decellularization process for generation of transplantable recellularized organs.
Pirraco, R P; Marques, A P; Reis, R L
Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and new bottom-up approaches are needed. The study of the cellular interactions between the cells relevant for bone biology can be of essential importance to that. In living bone, cells are in a context where communication with adjacent cells is almost permanent. Many fundamental works have been addressing these communications nonetheless, in a bone TE approach, the 3D perspective, being part of the microenvironment of a bone cell, is as crucial. Works combining the study of cell-to-cell interactions in a 3D environment are not as many as expected. Therefore, the bone TE field should not only gain knowledge from the field of fundamental Biology but also contribute for further understanding the biology of bone. In this review, a summary of the main works in the field of bone TE, aiming at studying cellular interactions in a 3D environment, and how they contributed towards the development of a functional engineered bone tissue, is presented.
Yilgor, Caglar; Yilgor Huri, Pinar; Huri, Gazi
Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to other bones and their injuries are frequently encountered in the clinic. The current clinical approaches in ligament repair and regeneration are limited to autografts, as the gold standard, and allografts. Both of these techniques have their own drawbacks that limit the success in clinical setting; therefore, new strategies are being developed in order to be able to solve the current problems of ligament grafting. Tissue engineering is a novel promising technique that aims to solve these problems, by producing viable artificial ligament substitutes in the laboratory conditions with the potential of transplantation to the patients with a high success rate. Direct cell and/or growth factor injection to the defect site is another current approach aiming to enhance the repair process of the native tissue. This review summarizes the current approaches in ligament tissue engineering strategies including the use of scaffolds, their modification techniques, as well as the use of bioreactors to achieve enhanced regeneration rates, while also discussing the advances in growth factor and cell therapy applications towards obtaining enhanced ligament regeneration. PMID:22242032
Farris, Ashley L.; Rindone, Alexandra N.; Grayson, Warren L.
Tissue engineering (TE) has provided promising strategies for regenerating tissue defects, but few TE approaches have been translated for clinical applications. One major barrier in TE is providing adequate oxygen supply to implanted tissue scaffolds, since oxygen diffusion from surrounding vasculature in vivo is limited to the periphery of the scaffolds. Moreover, oxygen is also an important signaling molecule for controlling stem cell differentiation within TE scaffolds. Various technologies have been developed to increase oxygen delivery in vivo and enhance the effectiveness of TE strategies. Such technologies include hyperbaric oxygen therapy, perfluorocarbon- and hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, and oxygen-generating, peroxide-based materials. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms and how these technologies have been utilized for in vivo TE applications. Emerging technologies and future prospects for oxygen delivery in TE are also discussed to evaluate the progress of this field towards clinical translation. PMID:27453782
Boland, Thomas; Xu, Tao; Damon, Brook; Cui, Xiaofeng
Recent advances in organ printing technology for applications relating to medical interventions and organ replacement are described. Organ printing refers to the placement of various cell types into a soft scaffold fabricated according to a computer-aided design template using a single device. Computer aided scaffold topology design has recently gained attention as a viable option to achieve function and mass transport requirements within tissue engineering scaffolds. An exciting advance pioneered in our laboratory is that of simultaneous printing of cells and biomaterials, which allows precise placement of cells and proteins within 3-D hydrogel structures. This advance raises the possibility of spatially controlling not only the scaffold structure, but also the type of tissue that can be grown within the scaffold and the thickness of the tissue as capillaries and vessels could be constructed within the scaffolds. Here we summarize recent advances in printing cells and materials using the same device.
Mohamed, Aezeden; Xing, Malcolm (Mengqiu)
A recent literature review of the field shows that tissue-engineered skin has been in clinical use for the last several decades and that, over this time the technology has advanced rapidly. Despite this progress no synthetic skin yet produced has completely replicated normal, healthy skin. Therefore, researchers must continue to develop materials that successfully overcome the problems with current skin tissue substitutes. This paper is a comprehensive review of the prospects for nanotechnology and nanomaterials to close this gap by mimicking surface properties for reconstruction of a variety of skin tissues. In addition, a number of commercially available products that regenerate different layers of the burn-damaged or chronically wounded skin are reviewed. PMID:22928165
SCHELLER, E. L.; KREBSBACH, P. H.; KOHN, D. H.
SUMMARY More than 85% of the global population requires repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. These defects range from simple tooth decay to radical oncologic craniofacial resection. Regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science and engineering technology. Identification of appropriate scaffolds, cell sources and spatial and temporal signals (the tissue engineering triad) is necessary to optimize development of a single tissue, hybrid organ or interface. Furthermore, combining the understanding of the interactions between molecules of the extracellular matrix and attached cells with an understanding of the gene expression needed to induce differentiation and tissue growth will provide the design basis for translating basic science into rationally developed components of this tissue engineering triad. Dental tissue engineers are interested in regeneration of teeth, oral mucosa, salivary glands, bone and periodontium. Many of these oral structures are hybrid tissues. For example, engineering the periodontium requires growth of alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament. Recapitulation of biological development of hybrid tissues and interfaces presents a challenge that exceeds that of engineering just a single tissue. Advances made in dental interface engineering will allow these tissues to serve as model systems for engineering other tissues or organs of the body. This review will begin by covering basic tissue engineering principles and strategic design of functional biomaterials. We will then explore the impact of biomaterials design on the status of craniofacial tissue engineering and current challenges and opportunities in dental tissue engineering. PMID:19228277
Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iràm Pablo; Garza-Rodríguez, Maria Lourdes; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Tejero, Maria Elizabeth; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Ibave, Diana Cristina Perez; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L; Reséndez-Pérez, Diana; Cole, Shelley A; Cavazos-Adame, Humberto; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto
Background Olfactomedin-like is a polyfunctional polymeric glycoprotein. This family has at least four members. One member of this family is OLFML3, which is preferentially expressed in placenta but is also detected in other adult tissues including the liver and heart. However, the orthologous rat gene is expressed in the iris, sclera, trabecular meshwork, retina, and optic nerve. Methods OLFML3 amplification was performed by RT-PCR from human and baboon ocular tissues. The products were cloned and sequenced. Results We report OFML3 expression in human and baboon eye. The full CDS has 1221 bp, from which a OFR of 406 amino acid was obtained. The baboon OLFML3 gene nucleotidic sequence has 98%, and amino acidic 99% similarity with humans. Conclusions OLFML3 expression in human and baboon ocular tissues and its high similarity make the baboon a powerful model to deduce the physiological and/or metabolic function of this protein in the eye. PMID:23398349
Over the past 30 years, an enormous array of biomaterials proposed as ideal scaffolds for cell growth have emerged, yet few have demonstrated clinical efficacy. Biomaterials, regardless of whether they are permanent or biodegradable, naturally occurring or synthetic, need to be biocompatible, ideally osteoinductive, osteoconductive, integrative, porous and mechanically compatible with native bone to fulfill their desired role in bone tissue engineering. These materials provide cell anchorage sites, mechanical stability and structural guidance and in vivo, provide the interface to respond to physiologic and biologic changes as well as to remodel the extracellular matrix in order to integrate with the surrounding native tissue. Calcium phosphate ceramics and bioactive glasses were introduced more than 30 years ago as bone substitutes. These materials are considered bioactive as they bond to bone and enhance bone tissue formation. The bioactivity property has been attributed to the similarity between the surface composition and structure of bioactive materials, and the mineral phase of bone. The drawback in using bioactive glasses and calcium phosphate ceramics is that close proximity to the host bone is necessary to achieve osteoconduction. Even when this is achieved, new bone growth is often strictly limited because these materials are not osteoinductive in nature. Bone has a vast capacity for regeneration from cells with stem cell characteristics. Moreover, a number of different growth factors including bone morphogenetic proteins, have been demonstrated to stimulate bone growth, collagen synthesis and fracture repair both in vitro and in vivo. Attempts to develop a tissue-engineering scaffold with both osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity have included loading osteoinductive proteins and/or osteogenic cells on the traditional bioactive materials. Yet issues that must be considered for the effective application of bioceramics in the field of tissue engineering
Horch, Raymund E; Kopp, Jürgen; Kneser, Ulrich; Beier, Justus; Bach, Alexander D
Skin replacement has been a challenging task for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts by Reverdin in 1871. Recently, skin grafting has evolved from the initial autograft and allograft preparations to biosynthetic and tissue-engineered living skin replacements. This has been fostered by the dramatically improved survival rates of major burns where the availability of autologous normal skin for grafting has become one of the limiting factors. The ideal properties of a temporary and a permanent skin substitute have been well defined. Tissue-engineered skin replacements: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular biological matrices, and cellular matrices including such biological substances as fibrin sealant and various types of collagen, hyaluronic acid etc. have opened new horizons to deal with such massive skin loss. In extensive burns it has been shown that skin substitution with cultured grafts can be a life-saving measure where few alternatives exist. Future research will aim to create skin substitutes with cultured epidermis that under appropriate circumstances may provide a wound cover that could be just as durable and esthetically acceptable as conventional split-thickness skin grafts. Genetic manipulation may in addition enhance the performance of such cultured skin substitutes. If cell science, molecular biology, genetic engineering, material science and clinical expertise join their efforts to develop optimized cell culture techniques and synthetic or biological matrices then further technical advances might well lead to the production of almost skin like new tissue-engineered human skin products resembling natural human skin.
Ringel, Robert L.; Kahane, Joel C.; Hillsamer, Peter J.; Lee, Annie S.; Badylak, Stephen F.
The field of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine combines the quantitative principles of engineering with the principles of the life sciences toward the goal of reconstituting structurally and functionally normal tissues and organs. There has been relatively little application of tissue engineering efforts toward the organs of speech, voice,…
Ringel, Robert L.; Kahane, Joel C.; Hillsamer, Peter J.; Lee, Annie S.; Badylak, Stephen F.
The field of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine combines the quantitative principles of engineering with the principles of the life sciences toward the goal of reconstituting structurally and functionally normal tissues and organs. There has been relatively little application of tissue engineering efforts toward the organs of speech, voice,…
Spoerke, Erik David
The World Health Organization has estimated that one out of seven Americans suffers from a musculoskeletal impairment, annually incurring 28.6 million musculoskeletal injuries---more than half of all injuries. Bone tissue engineering has evolved rapidly to address this continued health concern. In the last decade, the focus of orthopedic biomaterials design has shifted from the use of common engineering metals and plastics to smart materials designed to mimic nature and elicit favorable bioresponse. Working within this new paradigm, this thesis explores unique chemical and materials systems for orthopedic tissue engineering. Improving on current titanium implant technologies, porous titanium scaffolds were utilized to better approximate the mechanical and structural properties of natural bone. These foam scaffolds were enhanced with bioactive coatings, designed to enhance osteoblastic implant colonization. The biopolymer poly(L-lysine) was incorporated into both hydroxypatite and octacalcium phosphate mineral phases to create modified organoapatite and pLys-CP coatings respectively. These coatings were synthesized and characterized on titanium surfaces, including porous structures such as titanium mesh and titanium foam. In addition, in vitro osteoblastic cell culture experiments probed the biological influences of these coatings. Organoapatite (OA) accelerated preosteoblastic colonization of titanium mesh and improved cellular ingrowth into titanium foam. Alternatively, the thin, uniform pLys-CP coating demonstrated significant potential as a substrate for chemically binding biological molecules and supramolecular assemblies. Biologically, pLys-CP demonstrated enhanced cellular attachment over titanium and inorganic calcium phosphate controls. Supramolecular self-assembled nanofiber assemblies were also explored both as stand-alone tissue engineering gels and as titanium coatings. Self-supporting nanofiber gels induced accelerated, biomimetic mineralization
Mao, J.J.; Giannobile, W.V.; Helms, J.A.; Hollister, S.J.; Krebsbach, P.H.; Longaker, M.T.; Shi, S.
Craniofacial tissue engineering promises the regeneration or de novo formation of dental, oral, and craniofacial structures lost to congenital anomalies, trauma, and diseases. Virtually all craniofacial structures are derivatives of mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are the offspring of mesenchymal cells following asymmetrical division, and reside in various craniofacial structures in the adult. Cells with characteristics of adult stem cells have been isolated from the dental pulp, the deciduous tooth, and the periodontium. Several craniofacial structures—such as the mandibular condyle, calvarial bone, cranial suture, and subcutaneous adipose tissue—have been engineered from mesenchymal stem cells, growth factor, and/or gene therapy approaches. As a departure from the reliance of current clinical practice on durable materials such as amalgam, composites, and metallic alloys, biological therapies utilize mesenchymal stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate craniofacial structures in temporary scaffolding biomaterials. Craniofacial tissue engineering is likely to be realized in the foreseeable future, and represents an opportunity that dentistry cannot afford to miss. PMID:17062735
Dickson, Glenn; Buchanan, Fraser; Marsh, David; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Little, Uel; McCaigue, Mervyn
Orthopaedic tissue engineering combines the application of scaffold materials, cells and the release of growth factors. It has been described as the science of persuading the body to reconstitute or repair tissues that have failed to regenerate or heal spontaneously. In the case of bone regeneration 3-D scaffolds are used as a framework to guide tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal cells obtained from the patient via biopsy are grown on biomaterials in vitro and then implanted at a desired site in the patient's body. Medical implants that encourage natural tissue regeneration are generally considered more desirable than metallic implants that may need to be removed by subsequent intervention. Numerous polymeric materials, from natural and artificial sources, are under investigation as substitutes for skeletal elements such as cartilage and bone. For bone regeneration, cells (obtained mainly from bone marrow aspirate or as primary cell outgrowths from bone biopsies) can be combined with biodegradable polymeric materials and/or ceramics and absorbed growth factors so that osteoinduction is facilitated together with osteoconduction; through the creation of bioactive rather than bioinert scaffold constructs. Relatively rapid biodegradation enables advantageous filling with natural tissue while loss of polymer strength before mass is disadvantageous. Innovative solutions are required to address this and other issues such as the biocompatibility of material surfaces and the use of appropriate scaffold topography and porosity to influence bone cell gene expression.
George, Anne; Ravindran, Sriram
Biomineralization processes such as formation of bones and teeth require controlled mineral deposition and self-assembly into hierarchical biocomposites with unique mechanical properties. Ideal biomaterials for regeneration and repair of hard tissues must be biocompatible, possess micro and macroporosity for vascular invasion, provide surface chemistry and texture that facilitate cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation of lineage specific progenitor cells, and induce deposition of calcium phosphate mineral. To expect in-vivo like cellular response several investigators have used extracellular matrix proteins as templates to recreate in-vivo microenvironment for regeneration of hard tissues. Recently, several novel methods of designing tissue repair and restoration materials using bioinspired strategies are currently being formulated. Nanoscale structured materials can be fabricated via the spontaneous organization of self-assembling proteins to construct hierarchically organized nanomaterials. The advantage of such a method is that polypeptides can be specifically designed as building blocks incorporated with molecular recognition features and spatially distributed bioactive ligands that would provide a physiological environment for cells in-vitro and in-vivo. This is a rapidly evolving area and provides a promising platform for future development of nanostructured templates for hard tissue engineering. In this review we try to highlight the importance of proteins as templates for regeneration and repair of hard tissues as well as the potential of peptide based nanomaterials for regenerative therapies. PMID:20802848
de Rosa, Enrica
Tissue processing in vitro requires an effective trafficking of biologically active agents within three-dimensional constructs for induction of appropriate and enhanced cellular growth, biosynthesis and tissue remodeling. Moreover, nutrients and waste products need to move freely through the cellular constructs to minimize the presence of regions with necrotic and/or apoptotic cells. In tissue-engineered cartilage, for example, during the time of culture, cells seeded within the three-dimensional constructs lay-down their own extracellular matrix and this may lead to a heterogeneous distribution of transport properties both in time and space. In this work the diffusion coefficient of BSA and 500kDa dextran has been measured with FRAP thecnique in agarose gel chondrocytes constructs at different position and time during the culture. The diffusion coefficient of both molecular probes within the developing tissue well correlated with the ECM production and assembly. Moreover the comparision between BSA and dextran transport parameters revealed a selective hindrance effect of the neo tissue on high interacting molecules.
is absorbed in the first 50 microns of the tissue. One of the major differences between these two structures is to be found in their sensory receptor...UNCLASSIFIED RANDOLPH & STUCK is an example of the data at the 200 mw/cm2 CO2 irzadiance level. The intervals between pen deflections in the top line represent...20- second time periods. The second line shows the. actual bar presses which the animal made during each 20-second interval. Shutter open- ing to
Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J
Advances in tissue engineering have been accomplished for years by employing biomimetic strategies to provide cells with aspects of their original microenvironment necessary to reconstitute a unit of both form and function for a given tissue.We believe that the most critical hallmark of cancer is loss of integration of architecture and function; thus, it stands to reason that similar strategies could be employed to understand tumor biology. In this commentary, we discuss work contributed by Fischbach-Teschl and colleagues to this special issue of Tissue Engineering in the context of 'tumor engineering', that is, the construction of complex cell culture models that recapitulate aspects of the in vivo tumor microenvironment to study the dynamics of tumor development, progression, and therapy on multiple scales. We provide examples of fundamental questions that could be answered by developing such models, and encourage the continued collaboration between physical scientists and life scientists not only for regenerative purposes, but also to unravel the complexity that is the tumor microenvironment. In 1993, Vacanti and Langer cast a spotlight on the growing gap between patients in need of organ transplants and the amount of available donor organs; they reaffirmed that tissue engineering could eventually address this problem by 'applying principles of engineering and the life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes. Mortality figures and direct health care costs for cancer patients rival those of patients who experience organ failure. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States (Source: American Cancer Society) and it is estimated that direct medical costs for cancer patients approach $100B yearly in the United States alone (Source: National Cancer Institute). In addition, any promising therapy that emerges from the laboratory costs roughly $1.7B to take from bench to bedside. Whereas we have indeed waged war on cancer, the
Czajka, Caitlin A; Mehesz, Agnes Nagy; Trusk, Thomas C; Yost, Michael J; Drake, Christopher J
Work described herein characterizes tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems and investigates their utility in modular approaches to tissue engineering. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that all tissues formed using scaffold-free, non-adherent systems organize tissue cortical cytoskeletons that appear to be under tension. Tension in these tissues was also evident when modules (spheroids) were used to generate larger tissues. Real-time analysis of spheroid fusion in unconstrained systems illustrated modular motion that is compatible with alterations in tensions, due to the process of disassembly/reassembly of the cortical cytoskeletons required for module fusion. Additionally, tissues generated from modules placed within constrained linear molds, which restrict modular motion, deformed upon release from molds. That tissue deformation is due in full or in part to imbalanced cortical actin cytoskeleton tensions resulting from the constraints imposed by mold systems is suggested from our finding that treatment of forming tissues with Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of ROCK phosphorylation, reduced tissue deformation. Our studies suggest that the deformation of scaffold-free tissues due to tensions mediated via the tissue cortical cytoskeleton represents a major and underappreciated challenge to modular tissue engineering.
Moura, Renata Mendes; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar
Today, nanobiomaterials represent a very important class of biomaterials because they differ dramatically in their bulk precursors. The properties of these materials are determined by the size and morphology, thus creating a fascinating line in their physicochemical properties. Polyaniline nanotubes (PANINTs) are one of the most promising nanobiomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering applications due to their electroactive properties. The biocompatibility and low hydrophilic properties of PANINTs can be improved by their functionalization with the highly hydrophilic polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLDs). Hydrophilicity plays a fundamental role in tissue regeneration and fundamental forces that govern the process of cell adhesion and proliferation. In this work, the biocompatible properties and cardiomyocyte proliferation onto PANINTs modified by PGLD are described. PGLDs were immobilized onto PANINTs via surface-initiated anionic ring-opening polymerization of glycidol. The microstructure and morphology of PGLD-PANINTs was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The cardiac cell growth on the PGLD-PANINTs was investigated. The PGLD-coated PANINTs showed noncytotoxic effects to Chinese hamster ovary cells. It was observed that the application of microcurrent stimulates the differentiation of cardiac cells cultured on PGLD-PANINTs scaffolds. The electroactive and biocompatible results of PGLD-PANINTs observed in this work demonstrate the potential of this nanobiomaterial for the culture of cardiac cells and open the possibility of using this material as a biocompatible electroactive three-dimensional matrix in cardiac tissue engineering.
Edgar, Lauren; McNamara, Kyle; Wong, Theresa; Tamburrini, Riccardo; Katari, Ravi; Orlando, Giuseppe
Tissue engineering (TE) offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal. PMID:28773457
Ku, Sook Hee; Lee, Minah; Park, Chan Beum
Carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes possess unique mechanical, electrical, and optical properties that present new opportunities for tissue engineering, a key field for the development of biological alternatives that repair or replace whole or a portion of tissue. Carbon nanomaterials can also provide a similar microenvironment as like a biological extracellular matrix in terms of chemical composition and physical structure, making them a potential candidate for the development of artificial scaffolds. In this review, we summarize recent research advances in the effects of carbon nanomaterial-based substrates on cellular behaviors, including cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteo- or neural- lineages. The development of 3D scaffolds based on carbon nanomaterials (or their composites with polymers and inorganic components) is introduced, and the potential of these constructs in tissue engineering, including toxicity issues, is discussed. Future perspectives and emerging challenges are also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kim, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Kim, Hyun Suk; Li, Chunmei; Wada, Masahisa; Leisk, Gary G.; Kaplan, David L.
Silks fibroin biomaterials are being explored as novel protein-based systems for cell and tissue culture. In the present study, biomimetic growth of calcium phosphate on porous silk fibroin polymeric scaffolds was explored to generate organic/inorganic composites as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Aqueous-derived silk fibroin scaffolds were prepared with the addition of polyaspartic acid during processing, followed by the controlled deposition of calcium phosphate by exposure to CaCl2 and Na2HPO4. These mineralized protein-composite scaffolds were subsequently seeded with human bone marrow stem cells (hMSC) and cultured in vitro for 6 weeks under osteogenic conditions with or without BMP-2. The extent of osteoconductivity was assessed by cell numbers, alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition, along with immunohistochemistry for bone related outcomes. The results suggest increased osteoconductive outcomes with an increase in initial content of apatite and BMP-2 in the silk fibroin porous scaffolds. The premineralization of these highly porous silk fibroin protein scaffolds provided enhanced outcomes for the bone tissue engineering. PMID:18387349
Honda, M J; Shinohara, Y; Sumita, Y; Tonomura, A; Kagami, H; Ueda, M
Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of shear stress on osteoblasts, but its effect on odontogenic cells has never been reported. In this study, we focused on the effect of shear stress on facilitating tissue-engineered odontogenesis by dissociated single cells. Cells were harvested from the porcine third molar tooth at the early stage of crown formation, and the isolated heterogeneous cells were seeded on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber mesh. Then, cell-polymer constructs with and without exposure to shear stress were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies, the expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic-related mRNAs was significantly enhanced by shear stress for 2 h. At 12 h after exposure to shear stress, the expression of amelogenin, bone sialoprotein and vimentin protein was significantly enhanced compared with that of control. Moreover, after 7 days, alkaline phosphatase activity exhibited a significant increase without any significant effect on cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, enamel and dentin tissues formed after 15 weeks of in vivo implantation in constructs exposure to in vitro shear stress for 12 h. Such was not the case in controls. We concluded that shear stress facilitates odontogenic cell differentiation in vitro as well as the process of tooth tissue engineering in vivo.
Advances in tissue engineering have been accomplished for years by employing biomimetic strategies to provide cells with aspects of their original microenvironment necessary to reconstitute a unit of both form and function for a given tissue. We believe that the most critical hallmark of cancer is loss of integration of architecture and function; thus, it stands to reason that similar strategies could be employed to understand tumor biology. In this commentary, we discuss work contributed by Fischbach-Teschl and colleagues to this special issue of Tissue Engineering in the context of ‘tumor engineering’, that is, the construction of complex cell culture models that recapitulate aspects of the in vivo tumor microenvironment to study the dynamics of tumor development, progression, and therapy on multiple scales. We provide examples of fundamental questions that could be answered by developing such models, and encourage the continued collaboration between physical scientists and life scientists not only for regenerative purposes, but also to unravel the complexity that is the tumor microenvironment. PMID:20214448
Nover, Adam B.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Georgescu, Maria S.; Howard, Daniel R.; Saunders, Reuben A.; Yu, William T.; Klein, Robert W.; Napolitano, Anthony P.; Ateshian, Gerard A.
Tissue engineering of osteochondral grafts may offer a cell-based alternative to native allografts, which are in short supply. Previous studies promote the fabrication of grafts consisting of a viable cell-seeded hydrogel integrated atop a porous, bone-like metal. Advantages of the manufacturing process have led to the evaluation of porous titanium as the bone-like base material. Here, porous titanium was shown to support the growth of cartilage to produce native levels of Young’s modulus, using a clinically relevant cell source. Mechanical and biochemical properties were similar or higher for the osteochondral constructs compared to chondral-only controls. Further investigation into the mechanical influence of the base on the composite material suggests that underlying pores may decrease interstitial fluid pressurization and applied strains, which may be overcome by alterations to the base structure. Future studies aim to optimize titanium-based tissue engineered osteochondral constructs to best match the structural architecture and strength of native grafts. Statement of Significance The studies described in this manuscript follow up on previous studies from our lab pertaining to the fabrication of osteochondral grafts that consist of a bone-like porous metal and a chondrocyte-seeded hydrogel. Here, tissue engineered osteochondral grafts were cultured to native stiffness using adult chondrocytes, a clinically relevant cell source, and a porous titanium base, a material currently used in clinical implants. This porous titanium is manufactured via selective laser melting, offering the advantages of precise control over shape, pore size, and orientation. Additionally, this manuscript describes the mechanical influence of the porous base, which may have applicability to porous bases derived from other materials. PMID:26320541
Kaviani, Amir; Guleserian, Kristine; Perry, Tjörvi E; Jennings, Russell W; Ziegler, Moritz M; Fauza, Dario O
We have recently shown, in an animal model, that amniotic fluid can be a source of cells for fetal tissue engineering. This study was aimed at determining whether fetal tissue constructs could also be engineered from cells normally found in human amniotic fluid. Cells obtained from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women at 15 to 19 weeks of gestation (n=6) were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (Sigma Chemical, St Louis, MO) containing 20% fetal bovine serum and 5 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor in a 95% humidified, 5% CO(2) chamber at 37 degrees C. A subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells was then mechanically isolated from the rest and selectively expanded. The lineage of this subpopulation of amniocytes was determined by immunofluorescent staining with antibodies against standard intermediate filaments and surface antigens. Cell proliferation rates were determined by oxidation assay. After cell expansion, colonies of amniocytes were statically and dynamically seeded onto both unwoven, 1-mm-thick polyglycolic acid polymer scaffold and acellular human dermis for 72 hours. The resulting constructs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Amniocytes stained positively for smooth muscle actin, vimentin, cytokeratin 18, and fibroblast surface protein, and negatively for desmin, cluster of differentiation 31, and von Willebrand's factor (Dako, Carpenteria, CA). These findings are consistent with a mesenchymal, fibroblast-myofibroblast cell lineage. Mesenchymal amniocytes could be rapidly expanded in culture, based on results of the proliferation assay. Scanning electron microscopy of amniocyte constructs revealed dense, confluent layers of cells surrounding the polymer matrices and firm cell adhesion to both PGA and Alloderm (Lifecell Corp, Branchburg, NJ) scaffolds. No evidence of cell death was observed. Subpopulations of fetal mesenchymal cells can be consistently isolated from human amniotic fluid and rapidly expanded in vitro. Human
Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro
Li, Yuan-Sheng; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Wen, Tung-Chou; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Sun, Li-Yi; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen
Liver transplantation is currently the most efficacious treatment for end-stage liver diseases. However, one main problem with liver transplantation is the limited number of donor organs that are available. Therefore, liver tissue engineering based on cell transplantation that combines materials to mimic the liver is under investigation with the goal of restoring normal liver functions. Tissue engineering aims to mimic the interactions among cells with a scaffold. Particular materials or a matrix serve as a scaffold and provide a three-dimensional environment for cell proliferation and interaction. Moreover, the scaffold plays a role in regulating cell maturation and function via these interactions. In cultures of hepatic lineage cells, regulation of cell proliferation and specific function using biocompatible synthetic, biodegradable bioderived matrices, protein-coated materials, surface-modified nanofibers, and decellularized biomatrix has been demonstrated. Furthermore, beneficial effects of addition of growth factor cocktails to a flow bioreactor or coculture system on cell viability and function have been observed. In addition, a system for growing stem cells, liver progenitor cells, and primary hepatocytes for transplantation into animal models was developed, which produces hepatic lineage cells that are functional and that show long-term proliferation following transplantation. The major limitation of cells proliferated with matrix-based transplantation systems is the high initial cell loss and dysfunction, which may be due to the absence of blood flow and the changes in nutrients. Thus, the development of vascular-like scaffold structures, the formation of functional bile ducts, and the maintenance of complex metabolic functions remain as major problems in hepatic tissue engineering and will need to be addressed to enable further advances toward clinical applications.
Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d’Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell
To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492. PMID:26325674
Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell
To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492.
Ogle, Brenda M.; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or “big questions” were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state-of-the-art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. PMID:27280684
Douglass, Gordon L
Periodontics has a long history of utilizing advances in science to expand and improve periodontal therapies. Recently the American Academy of Periodontology published the findings of the Contemporary Science Workshop, which conducted state-of-the-art evidence-based reviews of current and emerging areas in periodontics. The findings of this workshop provide the basis for an evidence-based approach to periodontal therapy. While the workshop evaluated all areas of periodontics, it is in the area of tissue engineering that the most exciting advances are becoming a reality.
Ogle, Brenda M; Bursac, Nenad; Domian, Ibrahim; Huang, Ngan F; Menasché, Philippe; Murry, Charles E; Pruitt, Beth; Radisic, Milica; Wu, Joseph C; Wu, Sean M; Zhang, Jianyi; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
The promise of cardiac tissue engineering is in the ability to recapitulate in vitro the functional aspects of a healthy heart and disease pathology as well as to design replacement muscle for clinical therapy. Parts of this promise have been realized; others have not. In a meeting of scientists in this field, five central challenges or "big questions" were articulated that, if addressed, could substantially advance the current state of the art in modeling heart disease and realizing heart repair. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris
We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology.
Biedermann, Thomas; Boettcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Reichmann, Ernst
Over the past few decades, important milestones have been reached in the field of skin tissue engineering, bringing the ultimate goal of fabricating an autologous dermoepidermal skin substitute with all its cellular components and skin appendages closer to reality. Yet, scientific progress alone is not enough, clinical demands must be addressed and commercial interests need to be fulfilled. This review gives an overview of commercially available skin substitutes for skin replacement therapies and an insight into the recent development of an autologous full-thickness skin substitute that can readily be transplanted in large quantities onto the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; DelTatto, M.; Lee, P.; Meir, J.
Long-term manned space flight requires a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity. Atrophy most likely results from changes at both the systemic level (e.g. decreased circulating growth hormone, increased circulating glucocorticoids) and locally (e.g. decreased myofiber resting tension). Differentiated skeletal myofibers in tissue culture have provided a model system over the last decade for gaining a better understanding of the interactions of exogenous growth factors, endogenous growth factors, and muscle fiber tension in regulating protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Tissue engineering these cells into three dimensional bioartificial muscle (BAM) constructs has allowed us to extend their use to Space flight studies for the potential future development of countermeasures.
Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A
Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liberski, Albert Ryszard; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Ayad, Nadia; Wojciechowska, Dorota; Sathappan, Abbirami
Tissue engineering (TE) depends on the population of scaffolds with appropriate cells, arranged in a specific physiological direction using a variety of techniques. Here, a novel technique of creating "living threads" is described based on thin (poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers of different diameters (23-243 μm). The fibers readily attract human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are firmly adhered. These versatile fibers can be used to produce dimensional shapes identical in shape to the cup-like structure of a normal human valve, while preserving the specific orientation of both the cells and the fibers. The MSCs on leaflets and the cells cultured in flask shown similar epitopes expression when analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting. Together, these characteristics have important functional implications as living absorbable fibers can be a valuable resource in TE of living tissues, including heart valves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Acker, Jason P
The development of effective preservation and long-term storage techniques is a critical requirement for the successful clinical and commercial application of emerging cell-based technologies. Biopreservation is the process of preserving the integrity and functionality of cells, tissues and organs held outside the native environment for extended storage times. Biopreservation can be categorized into four different areas on the basis of the techniques used to achieve biological stability and to ensure a viable state following long-term storage. These include in vitro culture, hypothermic storage, cryopreservation and desiccation. In this chapter, an overview of these four techniques is presented with an emphasis on the recent developments that have been made using these technologies for the biopreservation of cells and engineered tissues.
Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; DelTatto, M.; Lee, P.; Meir, J.
Long-term manned space flight requires a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity. Atrophy most likely results from changes at both the systemic level (e.g. decreased circulating growth hormone, increased circulating glucocorticoids) and locally (e.g. decreased myofiber resting tension). Differentiated skeletal myofibers in tissue culture have provided a model system over the last decade for gaining a better understanding of the interactions of exogenous growth factors, endogenous growth factors, and muscle fiber tension in regulating protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Tissue engineering these cells into three dimensional bioartificial muscle (BAM) constructs has allowed us to extend their use to Space flight studies for the potential future development of countermeasures.
Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya
Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373
Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sencadas, Vítor; Correia, Daniela M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu
Tissue engineering often rely on scaffolds for supporting cell differentiation and growth. Novel paradigms for tissue engineering include the need of active or smart scaffolds in order to properly regenerate specific tissues. In particular, as electrical and electromechanical clues are among the most relevant ones in determining tissue functionality in tissues such as muscle and bone, among others, electroactive materials and, in particular, piezoelectric ones, show strong potential for novel tissue engineering strategies, in particular taking also into account the existence of these phenomena within some specific tissues, indicating their requirement also during tissue regeneration. This referee reports on piezoelectric materials used for tissue engineering applications. The most used materials for tissue engineering strategies are reported together with the main achievements, challenges and future needs for research and actual therapies. This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and a start point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions.
Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Je-Yoel
Emerging trends for cardiac tissue engineering are focused on increasing the biocompatibility and tissue regeneration ability of artificial heart tissue by incorporating various cell sources and bioactive molecules. Although primary cardiomyocytes can be successfully implanted, clinical applications are restricted due to their low survival rates and poor proliferation. To develop successful cardiovascular tissue regeneration systems, new technologies must be introduced to improve myocardial regeneration. Electrospinning is a simple, versatile technique for fabricating nanofibers. Here, we discuss various biodegradable polymers (natural, synthetic, and combinatorial polymers) that can be used for fiber fabrication. We also describe a series of fiber modification methods that can increase cell survival, proliferation, and migration and provide supporting mechanical properties by mimicking micro-environment structures, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, the applications and types of nanofiber-based scaffolds for myocardial regeneration are described. Finally, fusion research methods combined with stem cells and scaffolds to improve biocompatibility are discussed. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(1): 26-36] PMID:26497579
Macadangdang, Jesse; Lee, Hyun Jung; Carson, Daniel; Jiao, Alex; Fugate, James; Pabon, Lil; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles; Kim, Deok-Ho
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide1. Cardiac tissue engineering holds much promise to deliver groundbreaking medical discoveries with the aims of developing functional tissues for cardiac regeneration as well as in vitro screening assays. However, the ability to create high-fidelity models of heart tissue has proven difficult. The heart’s extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure consisting of both biochemical and biomechanical signals ranging from the micro- to the nanometer scale2. Local mechanical loading conditions and cell-ECM interactions have recently been recognized as vital components in cardiac tissue engineering3-5. A large portion of the cardiac ECM is composed of aligned collagen fibers with nano-scale diameters that significantly influences tissue architecture and electromechanical coupling2. Unfortunately, few methods have been able to mimic the organization of ECM fibers down to the nanometer scale. Recent advancements in nanofabrication techniques, however, have enabled the design and fabrication of scalable scaffolds that mimic the in vivo structural and substrate stiffness cues of the ECM in the heart6-9. Here we present the development of two reproducible, cost-effective, and scalable nanopatterning processes for the functional alignment of cardiac cells using the biocompatible polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)8 and a polyurethane (PU) based polymer. These anisotropically nanofabricated substrata (ANFS) mimic the underlying ECM of well-organized, aligned tissues and can be used to investigate the role of nanotopography on cell morphology and function10-14. Using a nanopatterned (NP) silicon master as a template, a polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold is fabricated. This PUA mold is then used to pattern the PU or PLGA hydrogel via UV-assisted or solvent-mediated capillary force lithography (CFL), respectively15,16. Briefly, PU or PLGA pre-polymer is drop dispensed onto a glass coverslip and the PUA
Halili, Albana Ndreu; Hasirci, Nesrin; Hasirci, Vasif
Various methods have been tried to treat the main meniscus problem, meniscal tears, for which we believe tissue engineering could be a viable solution. In this study, a three dimensional, collagen-based meniscus substitute was prepared by tissue engineering using human fibrochondrocytes and a collagen based-scaffold. This construct was made with 3 different collagen-based foams interspaced with two electrospun nano/microfibrous mats. The top layer was made of collagen type I-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronic acid (Coll-CS-HA), and the middle and the bottom layers were made of only collagen type I with different porosities and thus with different mechanical properties. The mats of aligned fibers were a blend of collagen type I and poly(L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). After seeding with human fibrochondrocytes, cell attachment, proliferation, and production of extracellular matrix and glucoseaminoglycan were studied. Cell seeding had a positive effect on the compressive properties of foams and the 3D construct. The 3D construct with all its 5 layers had better mechanical properties than the individual foams.
Sobajo, Cassandra; Behzad, Farhad; Yuan, Xue-Feng; Bayat, Ardeshir
Objective: Human skin is a complex bilayered organ that serves as a protective barrier against the environment. The loss of integrity of skin by traumatic experiences such as burns and ulcers may result in considerable disability or ultimately death. Therefore, in skin injuries, adequate dermal substitutes are among primary care targets, aimed at replacing the structural and functional properties of native skin. To date, there are very few single application tissue-engineered dermal constructs fulfilling this criterion. Silk produced by the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, has a long history of use in medicine. It has recently been increasingly investigated as a promising biomaterial for dermal constructs. Silk contains 2 fibrous proteins, sericin and fibroin. Each one exhibits unique mechanical and biological properties. Methods: Comprehensive review of randomized-controlled trials investigating current dermal constructs and the structures and properties of silk-based constructs on wound healing. Results: This review revealed that silk-fibroin is regarded as the most promising biomaterial, providing options for the construction of tissue-engineered skin. Conclusion: The research available indicates that silk fibroin is a suitable biomaterial scaffold for the provision of adequate dermal constructs. PMID:18997857
Galler, K M; D'Souza, R N; Hartgerink, J D; Schmalz, G
For tissue engineering strategies, the choice of an appropriate scaffold is the first and certainly a crucial step. A vast variety of biomaterials is available: natural or synthetic polymers, extracellular matrix, self-assembling systems, hydrogels, or bioceramics. Each material offers a unique chemistry, composition and structure, degradation profile, and possibility for modification. The role of the scaffold has changed from passive carrier toward a bioactive matrix, which can induce a desired cellular behavior. Tailor-made materials for specific applications can be created. Recent approaches to generate dental pulp rely on established materials, such as collagen, polyester, chitosan, or hydroxyapatite. Results after transplantation show soft connective tissue formation and newly generated dentin. For dentin-pulp-complex engineering, aspects including vascularization, cell-matrix interactions, growth-factor incorporation, matrix degradation, mineralization, and contamination control should be considered. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels are an example of a smart material that can be modified to create customized matrices. Rational design of the peptide sequence allows for control of material stiffness, induction of mineral nucleation, or introduction of antibacterial activity. Cellular responses can be evoked by the incorporation of cell adhesion motifs, enzyme-cleavable sites, and suitable growth factors. The combination of inductive scaffold materials with stem cells might optimize the approaches for dentin-pulp complex regeneration.
Teh, Bing Mei; Marano, Robert J; Shen, Yi; Friedland, Peter L; Dilley, Rodney J; Atlas, Marcus D
Tympanic membrane (TM) perforations are common, with current treatments for chronic perforations involving surgery, using various graft materials, from autologous cartilage or fascia through to paper patch. Recent research developments in this field have begun applying the principles of tissue engineering, with appropriate scaffolds, cells, and bioactive molecules (BMs). This has revolutionized the therapeutic approach due to the availability of a wide range of materials with appropriate compatibility and mechanical properties to regenerate the membrane acoustics and may also represent a paradigm shift in the management of TM perforations in an outpatient setting without surgery. However, many factors need to be considered in the fabrication of a bioengineered TM. This review discusses the issues associated with current treatment and examines TM wound healing relevant to the construction of a bioengineered TM. It also describes the tissue-engineering approach to TM regeneration by summarizing currently used scaffolds, BMs, and cells in TM wound healing. Finally, it considers the design of scaffolds, delivery of BMs, and cell engraftment toward potential clinical application.
Dalton, Paul D; Joergensen, Nanna T; Groll, Juergen; Moeller, Martin
Tissue engineering scaffolds can be built with patterning techniques that allow discrete placement of structures. In this study, electrospun fibres are collected in focused spots; the patterning and drawing of a cell adhesive scaffold is shown. Blends of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) and PCL were melt electrospun onto glass collectors, and the optimal electrospinning parameters determined. The quality of the fibre was largely influenced by the flow rate of the melt to the spinneret; however, this can be adjusted with the voltage. A collection distance between 3 cm and 5 cm was optimal, and at 10 cm the fibres became unfocused in their deposition although the diameter remained similar (0.96 +/- 0.19 microm). Aligned lines of electrospun fibres 200-400 microm in width could be applied onto the slide with an x-y stage, continuously and discretely. Lines of electrospun fibres could be applied on top of one another and were very uniform in diameter. Fibroblasts adhered primarily in the fibre region, due to the poor cell adhesion to the PEG substrate. Improvements in depositing hydrophilic electrospun fibres that wet and adhere to in vitro substrates and the use of stage automation for the writing interface could provide scaffold-building devices suitable for tissue engineering applications.
Rao, Rohit T; Browe, Daniel P; Lowe, Christopher J; Freeman, Joseph W
Interface tissue engineering involves the development of engineered grafts that promote integration between multiple tissue types. Musculoskeletal tissue interfaces are critical to the safe and efficient transmission of mechanical forces between multiple musculoskeletal tissues, e.g., between ligament and bone tissue. However, these interfaces often do not physiologically regenerate upon injury, resulting in impaired tissue function. Therefore, interface tissue engineering approaches are considered to be particularly relevant for the structural restoration of musculoskeletal tissues interfaces. In this article, we provide an overview of the various strategies used for engineering musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a specific focus on the recent important patents that have been issued for inventions that were specifically designed for engineering musculoskeletal interfaces as well as those that show promise to be adapted for this purpose.
Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.
With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.
Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali
Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gomes, Sílvia; Leonor, Isabel B.; Mano, João F.; Reis, Rui L.
To overcome the limitations of traditionally used autografts, allografts and, to a lesser extent, synthetic materials, there is the need to develop a new generation of scaffolds with adequate mechanical and structural support, control of cell attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation and with bio-resorbable features. This suite of properties would allow the body to heal itself at the same rate as implant degradation. Genetic engineering offers a route to this level of control of biomaterial systems. The possibility of expressing biological components in nature and to modify or bioengineer them further, offers a path towards multifunctional biomaterial systems. This includes opportunities to generate new protein sequences, new self-assembling peptides or fusions of different bioactive domains or protein motifs. New protein sequences with tunable properties can be generated that can be used as new biomaterials. In this review we address some of the most frequently used proteins for tissue engineering and biomedical applications and describe the techniques most commonly used to functionalize protein-based biomaterials by combining them with bioactive molecules to enhance biological performance. We also highlight the use of genetic engineering, for protein heterologous expression and the synthesis of new protein-based biopolymers, focusing the advantages of these functionalized biopolymers when compared with their counterparts extracted directly from nature and modified by techniques such as physical adsorption or chemical modification. PMID:22058578
Freed, Lisa E.; Langer, Robert; Martin, Ivan; Pellis, Neal R.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Tissue engineering of cartilage, i.e., the in vitro cultivation of cartilage cells on synthetic polymer scaffolds, was studied on the Mir Space Station and on Earth. Specifically, three-dimensional cell-polymer constructs consisting of bovine articular chondrocytes and polyglycolic acid scaffolds were grown in rotating bioreactors, first for 3 months on Earth and then for an additional 4 months on either Mir (10−4–10−6 g) or Earth (1 g). This mission provided a unique opportunity to study the feasibility of long-term cell culture flight experiments and to assess the effects of spaceflight on the growth and function of a model musculoskeletal tissue. Both environments yielded cartilaginous constructs, each weighing between 0.3 and 0.4 g and consisting of viable, differentiated cells that synthesized proteoglycan and type II collagen. Compared with the Earth group, Mir-grown constructs were more spherical, smaller, and mechanically inferior. The same bioreactor system can be used for a variety of controlled microgravity studies of cartilage and other tissues. These results may have implications for human spaceflight, e.g., a Mars mission, and clinical medicine, e.g., improved understanding of the effects of pseudo-weightlessness in prolonged immobilization, hydrotherapy, and intrauterine development. PMID:9391122
Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein
Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, pore size and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important role in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted. PMID:26924450
Dalecki, Diane; Mercado, Karla P; Hocking, Denise C
Non-invasive, non-destructive technologies for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the development of artificial tissues are critical for the advancement of tissue engineering. Current standard techniques for evaluating engineered tissues, including histology, biochemical assays and mechanical testing, are destructive approaches. Ultrasound is emerging as a valuable tool for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered tissues and biomaterials longitudinally during fabrication and post-implantation. Ultrasound techniques are rapid, non-invasive, non-destructive and can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of ultrasound imaging, quantitative ultrasound techniques, and elastography, with representative examples of applications of these ultrasound-based techniques to the field of tissue engineering.
Dalecki, Diane; Mercado, Karla P.; Hocking, Denise C.
Non-invasive, non-destructive technologies for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the development of artificial tissues are critical for the advancement of tissue engineering. Current standard techniques for evaluating engineered tissues, including histology, biochemical assays and mechanical testing, are destructive approaches. Ultrasound is emerging as a valuable tool for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered tissues and biomaterials longitudinally during fabrication and post-implantation. Ultrasound techniques are rapid, non-invasive, non-destructive and can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of ultrasound imaging, quantitative ultrasound techniques, and elastography, with representative examples of applications of these ultrasound-based techniques to the field of tissue engineering. PMID:26581347
Oragui, Emeka; Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Khan, Wasim S
Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a ‘neotissue’ that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a biocompatible scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. We discuss the role of bioreactors in tissue engineering and evaluate the principles of bioreactor design. We evaluate the methods of cell stimulation and review the bioreactors in common use today. PMID:21886691
Chainani, Abby; Hippensteel, Kirk J.; Kishan, Alysha; Garrigues, N. William; Ruch, David S.; Guilak, Farshid
Full-thickness rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in people over the age of 65. High retear rates and poor functional outcomes are common after surgical repair, and currently available extracellular matrix scaffold patches have limited abilities to enhance new tendon formation. In this regard, tissue-engineered scaffolds may provide a means to improve repair of rotator cuff tears. Electrospinning provides a versatile method for creating nanofibrous scaffolds with controlled architectures, but several challenges remain in its application to tissue engineering, such as cell infiltration through the full thickness of the scaffold as well as control of cell growth and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that ligament-derived extracellular matrix may enhance differentiation toward a tendon or ligament phenotype by human adipose stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we investigated the use of tendon-derived extracellular matrix (TDM)-coated electrospun multilayered scaffolds compared to fibronectin (FN) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coating for use in rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Multilayered poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds were prepared by sequentially collecting electrospun layers onto the surface of a grounded saline solution into a single scaffold. Scaffolds were then coated with TDM, FN, or PBS and seeded with hASCs. Scaffolds were maintained without exogenous growth factors for 28 days in culture and evaluated for protein content (by immunofluorescence and biochemical assay), markers of tendon differentiation, and tensile mechanical properties. The collagen content was greatest by day 28 in TDM-scaffolds. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenascin C increased over time, with no effect of scaffold coating. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan and dsDNA contents increased over time in culture, but there was no effect of scaffold coating. The Young's modulus did not change over time, but yield strain
Leung, Brendan M.
Functional cardiac tissue was prepared using a modular tissue engineering approach with the goal of creating vascularized tissue. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were seeded onto submillimeter-sized modules made of type I bovine collagen supplemented with Matrigel™ (25% v/v) embedded with cardiomyocyte (CM)-enriched neonatal rat heart cells and assembled into a contractile, macroporous, sheet-like construct. Modules (without RAEC) cultured in 10% bovine serum (BS) were more contractile and responsive to external stimulus (lower excitation threshold, higher maximum capture rate, and greater en face fractional area changes) than modules cultured in 10% fetal BS. Incorporating 25% Matrigel in the matrix reduced the excitation threshold and increased the fractional area change relative to collagen only modules (without RAEC). A coculture medium, containing 10% BS, low Mg2+ (0.814 mM), and normal glucose (5.5 mM), was used to maintain RAEC junction morphology (VE-cadherin) and CM contractility, although the responsiveness of CM was attenuated with RAEC on the modules. Macroporous, sheet-like module constructs were assembled by partially immobilizing a layer of modules in alginate gel until day 8, with or without RAEC. RAEC/CM module sheets were electrically responsive; however, like modules with RAEC this responsiveness was attenuated relative to CM-only sheets. Muscle bundles coexpressing cardiac troponin I and connexin-43 were evident near the perimeter of modules and at intermodule junctions. These results suggest the potential of the modular approach as a platform for building vascularized cardiac tissue. PMID:20504074
Leung, Brendan M; Sefton, Michael V
Functional cardiac tissue was prepared using a modular tissue engineering approach with the goal of creating vascularized tissue. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) were seeded onto submillimeter-sized modules made of type I bovine collagen supplemented with Matrigel™ (25% v/v) embedded with cardiomyocyte (CM)-enriched neonatal rat heart cells and assembled into a contractile, macroporous, sheet-like construct. Modules (without RAEC) cultured in 10% bovine serum (BS) were more contractile and responsive to external stimulus (lower excitation threshold, higher maximum capture rate, and greater en face fractional area changes) than modules cultured in 10% fetal BS. Incorporating 25% Matrigel in the matrix reduced the excitation threshold and increased the fractional area change relative to collagen only modules (without RAEC). A coculture medium, containing 10% BS, low Mg2+ (0.814mM), and normal glucose (5.5mM), was used to maintain RAEC junction morphology (VE-cadherin) and CM contractility, although the responsiveness of CM was attenuated with RAEC on the modules. Macroporous, sheet-like module constructs were assembled by partially immobilizing a layer of modules in alginate gel until day 8, with or without RAEC. RAEC/CM module sheets were electrically responsive; however, like modules with RAEC this responsiveness was attenuated relative to CM-only sheets. Muscle bundles coexpressing cardiac troponin I and connexin-43 were evident near the perimeter of modules and at intermodule junctions. These results suggest the potential of the modular approach as a platform for building vascularized cardiac tissue.
Araújo, Aline Lütz de; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Sakai, Vivian Naomi; Barros, Jeison Nadai de; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira
To describe corneal changes seen on in vivo confocal microscopy in patients with total limbal stem cell deficiency and to correlate them with cytological findings. A prospective case series including 13 eyes (8 patients) with total limbal deficiency was carried out. Stem cell deficiency was diagnosed clinically and by corneal impression cytology. Confocal images of the central cornea were taken with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II, Rostock Corneal Module (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Impression cytology of the cornea revealed conjunctival epithelial cells and goblet cells in all cases. In vivo confocal microscopy showed disruption of normal layers of the corneal epithelium in all eyes. Confocal images showed cells with characteristics of conjunctival epithelium at the cornea in 76.9% of the total. These findings on confocal microscopy were compatible to limbal stem cell deficiency. Additionally, goblet cells, squamous metaplasia, inflammatory cells and dendritic cells were observed. The sub-basal nerve plexus was not identified in any of the corneas. Corneal neovessels were observed at the epithelium and stroma. All cases showed diffuse hyper-reflective images of the stroma corresponding to opacity of the tissue. Limbal stem cell deficiency had been confirmed by impression cytology in all cases, and 76.9% of the cases could also be diagnosed by in vivo confocal microscopy through the conjunctival epithelial cell visualization on the corneal surface. Frequent confocal microscopy findings were abnormal cells at the cornea (conjunctival epithelial, goblet and inflammatory cells), corneal neovessels and diffuse hyper-reflection of the stroma.
Griffith, Linda G.; Naughton, Gail
Tissue engineering can be used to restore, maintain, or enhance tissues and organs. The potential impact of this field, however, is far broader-in the future, engineered tissues could reduce the need for organ replacement, and could greatly accelerate the development of new drugs that may cure patients, eliminating the need for organ transplants altogether.
de Vries, Rob B M; Oerlemans, Anke; Trommelmans, Leen; Dierickx, Kris; Gordijn, Bert
Tissue engineering (TE) is a promising new field of medical technology. However, like other new technologies, it is not free of ethical challenges. Identifying these ethical questions at an early stage is not only part of science's responsibility toward society, but also in the interest of the field itself. In this review, we map which ethical issues related to TE have already been documented in the scientific literature. The issues that turn out to dominate the debate are the use of human embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning. Nevertheless, a variety of other ethical aspects are mentioned, which relate to different phases in the development of the field. In addition, we discuss a number of ethical issues that have not yet been raised in the literature.
Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Ali, Naushad; Kotturi, Hari Shankar R; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Smay, Jim; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat
It is known that there is a correlation between a cell membrane potential and the proliferation of the cell. The high proliferation capacity of liver cells can also be attributed to its specific cell membrane potential as liver cell is recognized as one of the most depolarized of all differentiated cells. We hypothesized that this phenomenon can be emphasized by growing liver cells in conducting scaffolds that can increase the electrical communication among the cells. In this article, using tissue engineering techniques, we grew hepatocyte cells in scaffolds with various compositions. It was found that the scaffolds containing conducting polymer of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) provide the best condition for attachment and proliferation of the cells. More specifically, the blend of hyaluronan, PEDOT, and collagen (I) as dopants in gelatin-chitosan-based scaffold presented the best cell/scaffold interactions for regeneration of liver cells.
He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai
Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.
Carriel, Víctor; Alaminos, Miguel; Garzón, Ingrid; Campos, Antonio; Cornelissen, Maria
The structure and function of peripheral nerves can be affected by a range of conditions with severe consequences in these patients. Currently, there are several surgical techniques available to treat peripheral nerve defects. Direct repair is the preferred treatment for short nerve gaps, and nerve autografting is the gold standard in critical nerve defects. The autografting is not always available, and the use of allograft, decellularized allograft and nerve conduits are often used with variable success. During the recent years, several outcomes were achieved in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Promising experimental results have been demonstrated with this novel generation of nerve conduits, mainly composed by biodegradables materials in combination with intraluminal fillers, growth factors and different cell sources.
Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan
Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.
Oerlemans, Anke J M; van Hoek, Maria E C; van Leeuwen, Evert; Dekkers, Wim Jm M
Scientific progress and the development of new technologies often incite enthusiasm, both in scientists and the public at large, and this is especially apparent in discussions of emerging medical technologies, such as tissue engineering (TE). Future-oriented narratives typically discuss potential applications with much hype and expectations. In this article, we analyze the discourse on TE, its history and the promises present in the discourse surrounding it. Subsequently, we regard discussions about implantable bioartificial kidneys, and consider the concepts of hype and expectations in TE in general. Finally, we discuss what ethically responsible choices should be made in discussing TE to adequately deal with the scientific reality and public expectations surrounding this technology.
He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui
Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold.
Xu, Jie; Ge, Haiyan; Zhou, Xiaolin; Yan, Jinglong; Chi, Qiang; Zhang, Zhipeng
Tissue engineers are often confused on finding the most successful strategy for specific patient. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to predict the outcomes of different vascular tissue engineering strategies, thus providing advisory information for experimental designers. Over 30 variables were used as features of the tissue engineering strategies. Different architectures of artificial neural networks with back propagation algorithm were tested to obtain the best model configuration for the prediction of the tissue engineering strategies. In the computational experiments, the artificial neural networks with one and two hidden layers could, respectively, detect unsuccessful strategies with the highest predictive accuracy of 91.45 and 94.24%. In conclusion, artificial intelligence has great potential in tissue engineering decision support. It can provide accurate advisory information for tissue engineers, thus reducing failures and improving therapeutic effects.
Oliveira, J T; Reis, R L
Tissue engineering was proposed approximately 15 years ago as an alternative and innovative way to address tissue regeneration problems. During the development of this field, researchers have proposed a variety of ways of looking into the regeneration and engineering of tissues, using different types of materials coupled with a wide range of cells and bioactive agents. This trilogy is commonly considered the basis of a tissue-engineering strategy, meaning by this the use of a support material, cells and bioactive agents. Different researchers have been adding to these basic approaches other parameters able to improve the functionality of the tissue-engineered construct, such as specific mechanical environments and conditioned gaseous atmospheres, among others. Nowadays, tissue-engineering principles have been applied, with different degrees of success, to almost every tissue lacking efficient regeneration ability and the knowledge and intellectual property produced since then has experienced an immense growth. Materials for regenerating tissues, namely cartilage, have also been continuously increasing and most of the theoretical requirements for a tissue engineering support have been addressed by a single material or a mixture of materials. Due to their intrinsic features, polysaccharides are interesting for cartilage tissue-engineering approaches and as a result their exploitation for this purpose has been increasing. The present paper intends to provide an overview of some of the most relevant polysaccharides used in cartilage tissue-engineering research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lu, Lichun; Arbit, Harvey M.; Herrick, James L.; Segovis, Suzanne Glass; Maran, Avudaiappan; Yaszemski, Michael J.
In this article, a “bedside to bench and back” approach for developing tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs) for clinical applications is reviewed. The driving force behind this approach is unmet clinical needs. Preclinical research, both in vitro and in vivo using small and large animal models, will help find solutions to key research questions. In clinical research, ethical issues regarding the use of cells and tissues, their sources, donor consent, as well as clinical trials are important considerations. Regulatory issues, at both institutional and government levels, must be addressed prior to the translation of TEMPs to clinical practice. TEMPs are regulated as drugs, biologics, devices, or combination products by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the mode of regulation, applications for TEMP introduction must be filed with the FDA to demonstrate safety and effectiveness in premarket clinical studies, followed by 510(k) premarket clearance or premarket approval (for medical devices), biologics license application approval (for biologics), or New Drug Application approval (for drugs). A case study on nerve cuffs is presented to illustrate the regulatory process. Finally, perspectives on commercialization such as finding a company partner and funding issues, as well as physician culture change, are presented. PMID:25711151
Pastorino, Laura; Dellacasa, Elena; Scaglione, Silvia; Giulianelli, Massimo; Sbrana, Francesca; Vassalli, Massimo; Ruggiero, Carmelina
Collagens are among the most widely present and important proteins composing the human total body, providing strength and structural stability to various tissues, from skin to bone. In this paper, we report an innovative approach to bioactivate planar surfaces with oriented collagen molecules to promote cells proliferation and alignment. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique was used to form a stable collagen film at the air-water interface and the Langmuir-Schaefer deposition was adopted to transfer it to the support surface. The deposition process was monitored by estimating the mass of the protein layers after each deposition step. Collagen films were then structurally characterized by atomic force, scanning electron and fluorescent microscopies. Finally, collagen films were functionally tested in vitro. To this aim, 3T3 cells were seeded onto the silicon supports either modified or not (control) by collagen film deposition. Cells adhesion and proliferation on collagen films were found to be greater than those on control both after 1 (p<0.05) and 7 days culture. Moreover, the functionalization of the substrate surface triggered a parallel orientation of cells when cultured on it. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that the Langmuir-Schaefer technique can be successfully used for the deposition of oriented collagen films for tissue engineering applications.
Annabi, Nasim; Nichol, Jason W.; Zhong, Xia; Ji, Chengdong; Koshy, Sandeep; Khademhosseini, Ali
Tissue engineering holds great promise for regeneration and repair of diseased tissues, making the development of tissue engineering scaffolds a topic of great interest in biomedical research. Because of their biocompatibility and similarities to native extracellular matrix, hydrogels have emerged as leading candidates for engineered tissue scaffolds. However, precise control of hydrogel properties, such as porosity, remains a challenge. Traditional techniques for creating bulk porosity in polymers have demonstrated success in hydrogels for tissue engineering; however, often the conditions are incompatible with direct cell encapsulation. Emerging technologies have demonstrated the ability to control porosity and the microarchitectural features in hydrogels, creating engineered tissues with structure and function similar to native tissues. In this review, we explore the various technologies for controlling the porosity and microarchitecture within hydrogels, and demonstrate successful applications of combining these techniques. PMID:20121414
Spiller, Kara L.; Freytes, Donald O.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Tissue engineering is increasingly based on recapitulating human physiology, through integration of biological principles into engineering designs. In spite of all progress in engineering functional human tissues, we are just beginning to develop effective methods for establishing blood perfusion and controlling the inflammatory factors following implantation into the host. Functional vasculature largely determines tissue survival and function in vivo. The inflammatory response is a major regulator of vascularization and overall functionality of engineered tissues, through the activity of different types of macrophages and the cytokines they secrete. We discuss cell-scaffold-bioreactor systems for harnessing the inflammatory response for enhanced tissue vascularization and healing. To this end, inert scaffolds that have been considered for many decades a “gold standard” in regenerative medicine are beginning to be replaced by a new generation of “smart” tissue engineering systems designed to actively mediate tissue survival and function. PMID:25331098
Tandon, Nina; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wan, Leo; Park, Hyoungshin; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
In vitro application of pulsatile electrical stimulation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured on polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve the functional assembly of cells into contractile engineered cardiac tissues. However, to date, the conditions of electrical stimulation have not been optimized. We have systematically varied the electrode material, amplitude and frequency of stimulation to determine the conditions that are optimal for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes, exhibiting the highest charge-injection capacity and producing cardiac tissues with the best structural and contractile properties, were thus used in tissue engineering studies. Engineered cardiac tissues stimulated at 3 V/cm amplitude and 3 Hz frequency had the highest tissue density, the highest concentrations of cardiac troponin-I and connexin-43 and the best-developed contractile behaviour. These findings contribute to defining bioreactor design specifications and electrical stimulation regime for cardiac tissue engineering.
Gorain, Bapi; Tekade, Muktika; Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K; Kalia, Kiran; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar
To avoid tissue rejection during organ transplantation, research has focused on the use of tissue engineering to regenerate required tissues or organs for patients. The biomedical applications of hyperbranched, multivalent, structurally uniform, biocompatible dendrimers in tissue engineering include the mimicking of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) in the 3D microenvironment. Dendrimers are unimolecular architects that can incorporate a variety of biological and/or chemical substances in a 3D architecture to actively support the scaffold microenvironment during cell growth. Here, we review the use of dendritic delivery systems in tissue engineering. We discuss the available literature, highlighting the 3D architecture and preparation of these nanoscaffolds, and also review challenges to, and advances in, the use dendrimers in tissue engineering. Advances in the manufacturing of dendritic nanoparticles and scaffold architectures have resulted in the successful incorporation of dendritic scaffolds in tissue engineering.
0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rashid Bashir, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...From - To) 24 Sep 2009 - 23 Sep 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5a. CONTRACT...6. Award Organization: University of Illinois 7. Project Title: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 8. Current staff, role and
Ligaments and tendons are dense connective tissues that are important in transmitting forces and facilitate joint articulation in the musculoskeletal system. Their injury frequency is high especially for those that are functional important, like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee as well as the glenohumeral ligaments and the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder. Because the healing responses are different in these ligaments and tendons after injury, the consequences and treatments are tissue- and site-specific. In this review, we will elaborate on the injuries of the knee ligaments as well as using functional tissue engineering (FTE) approaches to improve their healing. Specifically, the ACL of knee has limited capability to heal, and results of non-surgical management of its midsubstance rupture have been poor. Consequently, surgical reconstruction of the ACL is regularly performed to gain knee stability. However, the long-term results are not satisfactory besides the numerous complications accompanied with the surgeries. With the rapid development of FTE, there is a renewed interest in revisiting ACL healing. Approaches such as using growth factors, stem cells and scaffolds have been widely investigated. In this article, the biology of normal and healing ligaments is first reviewed, followed by a discussion on the issues related to the treatment of ACL injuries. Afterwards, current promising FTE methods are presented for the treatment of ligament injuries, including the use of growth factors, gene delivery, and cell therapy with a particular emphasis on the use of ECM bioscaffolds. The challenging areas are listed in the future direction that suggests where collection of energy could be placed in order to restore the injured ligaments and tendons structurally and functionally. PMID:20492676
Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.
The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been  developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix
Ambre, Avinash Harishchandra
Tissue engineering offers a significant potential alternative to conventional methods for rectifying tissue defects by evoking natural regeneration process via interactions between cells and 3D porous scaffolds. Imparting adequate mechanical properties to biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is an important challenge and extends from molecular to macroscale. This work focuses on the use of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) to design polymer composite scaffolds having enhanced mechanical properties along with multiple interdependent properties. Materials design beginning at the molecular level was used in which Na-MMT clay was modified with three different unnatural amino acids and further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on improved bicompatibility with human osteoblasts (bone cells) and intermediate increase in d-spacing of MMT clay (shown by XRD), 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was further used to prepare biopolymer (chitosan-polygalacturonic acid complex) scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation in biopolymer scaffolds containing 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was similar to biopolymer scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (HAP). A novel process based on biomineralization in bone was designed to prepare 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay capable of imparting multiple properties to the scaffolds. Bone-like apatite was mineralized in modified clay and a novel nanoclay-HAP hybrid (in situ HAPclay) was obtained. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a molecular level organic-inorganic association between the intercalated 5-aminovaleric acid and mineralized HAP. Osteoblasts formed clusters on biopolymer composite films prepared with different weight percent compositions of in situ HAPclay. Human MSCs formed mineralized nodules on composite films and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) in composite scaffolds without the use of osteogenic supplements. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, was
Bukharova, T B; Arutyunyan, I V; Shustrov, S A; Alekseeva, I S; Fedyunina, I A; Logovskaya, L V; Volkov, A V; Rzhaninova, A A; Grigor'yan, A S; Kulakov, A A; Gol'dshtein, D V
We developed a new method of creation of tissue engineering constructs for regeneration of the bone tissue based on the principle of free distribution of cells in a fibrin clot within a scaffold. The tissue engineering construct includes multipotent stromal adipose tissue cells committed in osteogenic lineage, platelet-rich plasma, and resorbed material on the basis of xenogeneic bone collagen. The culture of bone progenitor cells was characterized by the main markers of osteoblastic differon. The material meets all requirements for materials intended for tissue engineering. An innovative high-technological tissue engineering product for clinical application is prepared.
Hayward, Cindy J; Fradette, Julie; Morissette Martin, Pascal; Guignard, Rina; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A
The epithelial cells and Wharton׳s jelly cells (WJC) from the human umbilical cord have yet to be extensively studied in respect to their capacity to generate tissue-engineered substitutes for clinical applications. Our reconstruction strategy, based on the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering, allows the production of various types of living human tissues such as skin and cornea from a wide range of cell types originating from post-natal tissue sources. Here we placed epithelial cells and WJC from the umbilical cord in the context of a reconstructed skin substitute in combination with skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. We compared the ability of the epithelial cells from both sources to generate a stratified, differentiated skin-like epithelium upon exposure to air when cultured on the two stromal cell types. Conversely, the ability of the WJC to behave as dermal fibroblasts, producing extracellular matrix and supporting the formation of a differentiated epithelium for both types of epithelial cells, was also investigated. Of the four types of constructs produced, the combination of WJC and keratinocytes was the most similar to skin engineered from dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. When cultured on dermal fibroblasts, the cord epithelial cells were able to differentiate in vitro into a stratified multilayered epithelium expressing molecules characteristic of keratinocyte differentiation after exposure to air, and maintaining the expression of keratins K18 and K19, typical of the umbilical cord epithelium. WJC were able to support the growth and differentiation of keratinocytes, especially at the early stages of air-liquid culture. In contrast, cord epithelial cells cultured on WJC did not form a differentiated epidermis when exposed to air. These results support the premise that the tissue from which cells originate can largely affect the properties and homoeostasis of reconstructed substitutes featuring both epithelial and stromal compartments
Leor, Jonathan; Landa, Natali; Cohen, Smadar
Tissue engineering aims to create, repair and/or replace tissues and organs by using cells, scaffolds, biologically active molecules and physiologic signals. It is an interdisciplinary field that integrates aspects of engineering, chemistry, biology and medicine. One of the most challenging goals in the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering is the creation of a heart muscle patch. This review describes the principles, achievements and challenges of achieving this ambitious goal of creating contractile heart muscle. In addition, the new strategy of in situ and injectable tissue engineering for myocardial repair and regeneration is presented.
Zeineddine, Hussein A; Frush, Todd J; Saleh, Zeina M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J
Research in tissue engineering has undoubtedly achieved significant milestones in recent years. Although it is being applied in several disciplines, tissue engineering's application is particularly advanced in orthopedic surgery and in degenerative joint diseases. The literature is full of remarkable findings and trials using tissue engineering in articular cartilage disease. With the vast and expanding knowledge, and with the variety of techniques available at hand, the authors aimed to review the current concepts and advances in the use of cell sources in articular cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhattacharjee, Maumita; Coburn, Jeannine; Centola, Matteo; Murab, Sumit; Barbero, Andrea; Kaplan, David L; Martin, Ivan; Ghosh, Sourabh
Cartilage tissue engineering has primarily focused on the generation of grafts to repair cartilage defects due to traumatic injury and disease. However engineered cartilage tissues have also a strong scientific value as advanced 3D culture models. Here we first describe key aspects of embryonic chondrogenesis and possible cell sources/culture systems for in vitro cartilage generation. We then review how a tissue engineering approach has been and could be further exploited to investigate different aspects of cartilage development and degeneration. The generated knowledge is expected to inform new cartilage regeneration strategies, beyond a classical tissue engineering paradigm.
Sengupta, Debanti; Waldman, Stephen D; Li, Song
In vitro tissue engineering enables the fabrication of functional tissues for tissue replacement. In addition, it allows us to build useful physiological and pathological models for mechanistic studies. However, the translation of in vitro tissue engineering into clinical therapies presents a number of technical and regulatory challenges. It is possible to circumvent the complexity of developing functional tissues in vitro by taking an in situ tissue engineering approach that uses the body as a native bioreactor to regenerate tissues. This approach harnesses the innate regenerative potential of the body and directs the appropriate cells to the site of injury. This review surveys the biomaterial-, cell-, and chemical factor-based strategies to engineer tissue in vitro and in situ.
Zhang, Boyang; Xiao, Yun; Hsieh, Anne; Thavandiran, Nimalan; Radisic, Milica
While in nature the formation of complex tissues is gradually shaped by the long journey of development, in tissue engineering constructing complex tissues relies heavily on our ability to directly manipulate and control the micro-cellular environment in vitro. Not surprisingly, advancements in both microfabrication and nanofabrication have powered the field of tissue engineering in many aspects. Focusing on cardiac tissue engineering, this paper highlights the applications of fabrication techniques in various aspects of tissue engineering research: (1) cell responses to micro- and nanopatterned topographical cues, (2) cell responses to patterned biochemical cues, (3) controlled 3D scaffolds, (4) patterned tissue vascularization and (5) electromechanical regulation of tissue assembly and function.
Sun, Wei; Darling, Andrew; Starly, Binil; Nam, Jae
Advances in computer-aided technology and its application with biology, engineering and information science to tissue engineering have evolved a new field of computer-aided tissue engineering (CATE). This emerging field encompasses computer-aided design (CAD), image processing, manufacturing and solid free-form fabrication (SFF) for modelling, designing, simulation and manufacturing of biological tissue and organ substitutes. The present Review describes some salient advances in this field, particularly in computer-aided tissue modeling, computer-aided tissue informatics and computer-aided tissue scaffold design and fabrication. Methodologies of development of CATE modelling from high-resolution non-invasive imaging and image-based three-dimensional reconstruction, and various reconstructive techniques for CAD-based tissue modelling generation will be described. The latest development in SFF to tissue engineering and a framework of bio-blueprint modelling for three-dimensional cell and organ printing will also be introduced.
Molnar, Tamas F; Pongracz, Judit E
Public interest in the recent progress of tissue engineering, a special line of biotechnology, makes the current review on thoracic surgery highly relevant. In this article, techniques, materials and cellular processes are discussed alongside their potential applications in tissue repair. Different applications of tissue engineering in tracheo-bronchial replacement, lung tissue cultures and chest-wall reconstruction are also summarised in the article. Potential tissue engineering-based solutions for destructive, chronic lung-injury-related conditions and replacement of tubular structures in the central airways are also examined. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schrage, N; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B; Hermel, M; Böhringer, D; Reinshagen, H
In Germany, human tissue for corneal and amniotic transplantation is supplied by 27 cornea banks. The Section for Tissue Transplantation and Biotechnology of the German Ophthalmological Society records the cornea banks' activities by means of an annual questionnaire. In 2009, a total of 4,818 corneal grafts were processed by 21 responding cornea banks, and 57% were deemed suitable for transplantation. This ratio is slightly higher than the European average. In addition, German cornea banks released 1,257 amniotic grafts in 2009. German cornea banks are currently facing new regulatory issues due to updated legislation regarding tissue transplantation. Recent updates in European law have limited the cutoff time for postmortem blood sampling to 24 h, and this regulation may lead to a significant reduction in potential donors.
Avolio, Elisa; Alvino, Valeria V; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Campagnolo, Paola
The recent development of tissue engineering provides exciting new perspectives for the replacement of failing organs and the repair of damaged tissues. Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes and other tissue specific populations residing around blood vessels, have been isolated from many organs and are known to participate to the in situ repair process and angiogenesis. Their potential has been harnessed for cell therapy of numerous pathologies; however, in this Review we will discuss the potential of perivascular cells in the development of tissue engineering solutions for healthcare. We will examine their application in the engineering of vascular grafts, cardiac patches and bone substitutes as well as other tissue engineering applications and we will focus on their extensive use in the vascularization of engineered constructs. Additionally, we will discuss the emerging potential of human pericytes for the development of efficient, vascularized and non-immunogenic engineered constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Helen H.; Subramony, Siddarth D.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Zhang, Xinzhi
A major focus in the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical structure-function relationship of the native soft tissue-to-bone interface. The integration of distinct tissue types (e.g. bone and soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, or tendons), requires a multi-phased or stratified scaffold with distinct yet continuous tissue regions accompanied by a gradient of mechanical properties that mimics that of the multi-tissue transition between bone and soft tissues. This review discusses tissue engineering strategies for regenerating common tissue-to-tissue interfaces (ligament-to-bone, tendon-to-bone or cartilage-to-bone), and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field will also be presented. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will enable integrative soft tissue repair, and will be instrumental for the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality. PMID:20422291
Knowlton, Stephanie; Cho, Yongku; Li, Xue-Jun; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas
Three-dimensional neural tissue engineering has made great strides in developing neural disease models and replacement tissues for patients. However, the need for biomimetic tissue models and effective patient therapies remains unmet. The recent push to expand 2D neural tissue engineering into the third dimension shows great potential to advance the field. Another area which has much to offer to neural tissue engineering is stem cell research. Stem cells are well known for their self-renewal and differentiation potential and have been shown to give rise to tissues with structural and functional properties mimicking natural organs. Application of these capabilities to 3D neural tissue engineering may be highly useful for basic research on neural tissue structure and function, engineering disease models, designing tissues for drug development, and generating replacement tissues with a patient's genetic makeup. Here, we discuss the vast potential, as well as the current challenges, unique to integration of 3D fabrication strategies and stem cells into neural tissue engineering. We also present some of the most significant recent achievements, including nerve guidance conduits to facilitate better healing of nerve injuries, functional 3D biomimetic neural tissue models, physiologically relevant disease models for research purposes, and rapid and effective screening of potential drugs.
El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M.; Yacoub, Magdi H.
Designing of biologically active scaffolds with optimal characteristics is one of the key factors for successful tissue engineering. Recently, hydrogels have received a considerable interest as leading candidates for engineered tissue scaffolds due to their unique compositional and structural similarities to the natural extracellular matrix, in addition to their desirable framework for cellular proliferation and survival. More recently, the ability to control the shape, porosity, surface morphology, and size of hydrogel scaffolds has created new opportunities to overcome various challenges in tissue engineering such as vascularization, tissue architecture and simultaneous seeding of multiple cells. This review provides an overview of the different types of hydrogels, the approaches that can be used to fabricate hydrogel matrices with specific features and the recent applications of hydrogels in tissue engineering. Special attention was given to the various design considerations for an efficient hydrogel scaffold in tissue engineering. Also, the challenges associated with the use of hydrogel scaffolds were described. PMID:24689032
Liu, Mei; Zeng, Xin; Ma, Chao; Yi, Huan; Ali, Zeeshan; Mou, Xianbo; Li, Song; Deng, Yan; He, Nongyue
Tissue engineering has become a promising strategy for repairing damaged cartilage and bone tissue. Among the scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications, injectable hydrogels have demonstrated great potential for use as three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds in cartilage and bone tissue engineering, owing to their high water content, similarity to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), porous framework for cell transplantation and proliferation, minimal invasive properties, and ability to match irregular defects. In this review, we describe the selection of appropriate biomaterials and fabrication methods to prepare novel injectable hydrogels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering. In addition, the biology of cartilage and the bony ECM is also summarized. Finally, future perspectives for injectable hydrogels in cartilage and bone tissue engineering are discussed. PMID:28584674
Liu, Ying; Wang, Daqing; Mo, Jinlong; Li, Binzhong
Cell sheet technology (CST) demonstrates the innovation and advantage by overcoming some immanent shortcomings of traditional tissue engineering. To review the research progress of CST in oral tissue engineering. The related home and abroad literature about CST and its application in stomatology was extensively reviewed and analyzed. Compared to the traditional tissue engineering technology, CST has the features of high seeding density, abundant matrix, good biological compatibility, and perfect operability, which can improve the survival rate of cell transplantation and promote functional reconstruction. It is reported that CST has been successfully used in the following fields, repair and reconstruction of periodontium, soft tissues of oral mucosa, and bones in maxillofacial region. With the development of CST and combined with the traditional tissue engineering technologies, it will promote the tissue engineering further progress in stomatology.
Oseni, Adelola; Crowley, Claire; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Butler, Peter E; Seifalian, Alexander M
Cartilage tissue engineering is a rapidly progressing area of regenerative medicine with advances in cell biology and scaffold engineering constantly being investigated. Many groups are now capable of making neocartilage constructs with some level of morphological, biochemical, and histological likeness to native human cartilage tissues. The application of this useful technology in articular cartilage repair is well described in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated its application in head and neck reconstruction. Although there are many studies on auricular cartilage tissue engineering, there are few studies regarding cartilage tissue engineering for complex nasal reconstruction. This study therefore highlighted the challenges involved with nasal reconstruction, with special focus on nasal cartilage tissue, and examined how advancements made in cartilage tissue engineering research could be applied to improve the clinical outcomes of total nasal reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; Yacoub, Magdi H
Designing of biologically active scaffolds with optimal characteristics is one of the key factors for successful tissue engineering. Recently, hydrogels have received a considerable interest as leading candidates for engineered tissue scaffolds due to their unique compositional and structural similarities to the natural extracellular matrix, in addition to their desirable framework for cellular proliferation and survival. More recently, the ability to control the shape, porosity, surface morphology, and size of hydrogel scaffolds has created new opportunities to overcome various challenges in tissue engineering such as vascularization, tissue architecture and simultaneous seeding of multiple cells. This review provides an overview of the different types of hydrogels, the approaches that can be used to fabricate hydrogel matrices with specific features and the recent applications of hydrogels in tissue engineering. Special attention was given to the various design considerations for an efficient hydrogel scaffold in tissue engineering. Also, the challenges associated with the use of hydrogel scaffolds were described.
Fang, Yibing; Liao, Bin
To review the current status and problems in the developing scaffolds for the myocardial tissue engineering application. The literature concerning the myocardial tissue engineering scaffold in recent years was reviewed extensively and summarized. As one of three elements for tissue engineering, a proper scaffold is very important for the proliferation and differentiation of the seeding cells. The naturally derived and synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) materials aim to closely resemble the in vivo microenvironment by acting as an active component of the developing tissue construct in myocardial tissue engineering. With the advent and continuous refinement of cell removal techniques, a new class of native ECM has emerged with some striking advantages. Through using the principle of composite scaffold, computers and other high-technology nano-polymer technology, surface modification of traditional biological materials in myocardial tissue engineering are expected to provide ideal myocardial scaffolds.
Izadifar, Mohammad; Kelly, Michael E.; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao
Nano-particulate delivery systems have increasingly been playing important roles in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Properties of nanoparticles (e.g. size, polydispersity, loading capacity, zeta potential, morphology) are essential to system functions. Notably, these characteristics are regulated by fabrication variables, but in a complicated manner. This raises a great need to optimize fabrication process variables to ensure the desired nanoparticle characteristics. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental study on this matter, along with a novel method, the so-called Geno-Neural approach, to analyze, predict and optimize fabrication variables for desired nanoparticle characteristics. Specifically, ovalbumin was used as a protein model of growth factors used in cardiovascular tissue regeneration, and six fabrication variables were examined with regard to their influence on the characteristics of nanoparticles made from high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The six-factor five-level central composite rotatable design was applied to the conduction of experiments, and based on the experimental results, a geno-neural model was developed to determine the optimum fabrication conditions. For desired particle sizes of 150, 200, 250 and 300 nm, respectively, the optimum conditions to achieve the low polydispersity index, higher negative zeta potential and higher loading capacity were identified based on the developed geno-neural model and then evaluated experimentally. The experimental results revealed that the polymer and the external aqueous phase concentrations and their interactions with other fabrication variables were the most significant variables to affect the size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, loading capacity and initial burst release of the nanoparticles, while the electron microscopy images of the nanoparticles showed their spherical geometries with no sign of large pores or cracks on their surfaces. The release study revealed
Wall, Samuel Thomas
Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they
Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir A; Yost, Michael J; Visconti, Richard; Twal, Waleed; Trusk, Thomas; Wen, Xuejun; Ozolanta, Iveta; Kadishs, Arnolds; Prestwich, Glenn D; Terracio, Louis; Markwald, Roger R
Tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical science and technology with future promise to manufacture living tissues and organs for replacement, repair, and regeneration of diseased organs. Owing to the specific role of hemodynamics in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the cardiovascular system, bioreactors are a fundamental of cardiovascular tissue engineering. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology for cardiovascular tissue engineering is a direct sequence of previous historic successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques. Bioreactors provide a fluidic environment for tissue engineered tissue and organs, and guarantee their viability, maturation, biomonitoring, testing, storage, and transportation. There are different types of bioreactors and they vary greatly in their size, complexity, and functional capabilities. Although progress in design and functional properties of perfusion bioreactors for tissue engineered blood vessels, heart valves, and myocardial patches is obvious, there are some challenges and insufficiently addressed issues, and room for bioreactor design improvement and performance optimization. These challenges include creating a triple perfusion bioreactor for vascularized tubular tissue engineered cardiac construct; designing and manufacturing fluidics-based perfused minibioreactors; incorporation of systematic mathematical modeling and computer simulation based on computational fluid dynamics into the bioreactor designing process; and development of automatic systems of hydrodynamic regime control. Designing and engineering of built-in noninvasive biomonitoring systems is another important challenge. The optimal and most efficient perfusion and conditioning regime, which accelerates tissue maturation of tissue-engineered constructs also remains to be determined. This is a first article in a series of reviews on critical elements of cardiovascular tissue engineering technology describing the current
It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both
Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui
Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which
Leong, K. W.
Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example. PMID:19005702
Chan, B P; Leong, K W
Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example.
Pezeshki-Modaress, Mohamad; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Zandi, Mojgan
Electrospinning is a very useful technique for producing polymeric nanofibers by applying electrostatic forces. In this study, fabrication of novel gelatin/GAG nanofibrous mats and also the optimization of electrospinning process using response surface methodology were reported. At optimization section, gelatin/GAG blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding rate, their individual and interaction effects on the mean fiber diameter (MFD) and standard deviation of fiber diameter (SDF) were investigated. The obtained model for MFD has a quadratic relationship with gelatin/GAG blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding rate. The interactions of blend ratio and applied voltage and also applied voltage and flow rate were found significant but the interactions of blend ratio and flow rate were ignored. The optimum condition for gelatin/GAG electrospinning was also introduced using the model obtained in this study. The potential use of optimized electrospun mat in skin tissue engineering was evaluated using culturing of human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). The SEM micrographs of HDF cells on the nanofibrous structure show that fibroblast cells can highly attach, grow and populate on the fabricated scaffold surface. The electrospun gelatin/GAG nanofibrous mats have a potential for using as scaffold for skin, cartilage and cornea tissue engineering.
transplanted nervous tissue constructs on...recovery of motor function. Specific Aim 2: Evaluation of the survival and integration of transplanted living nervous tissue constructs and host... Nervous Tissue PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Douglas H. Smith, M.D. CONTRACTING
Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei
Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.
Ventura, Manuela; Boerman, Otto C; de Korte, Chris; Rijpkema, Mark; Heerschap, Arend; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank
Since X-rays were discovered, in 1895, and since the first radiological image of a hand, bone tissue has been the subject of detailed medical imaging. However, advances in bone engineering, including the increased complexity of implant scaffolds, currently also underline the limits of X-ray imaging. Therefore, advanced follow-up imaging methods are pivotal to develop. The field of noninvasive, high-sensitivity, and high-resolution anatomical and functional imaging techniques (optical, ultrasound, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, etc.) offers a wide variety of tools that potentially could be considered as alternatives, or at least supportive, to the most commonly used X-ray computed tomography. Moreover, dedicated preclinical scanners have become available, with sensitivity and resolution even higher than clinical scanners, thus favoring a quick translation from preclinical to clinical applications. Furthermore, the armamentarium of bone-specific probes and contrast agents for each of this imaging modalities is constantly growing. This review focuses on such preclinical imaging tools, each with its respective strengths and weaknesses, used alone or in combination. Especially, multimodal imaging will dramatically contribute to improve the knowledge on bone healing regenerative processes.
Emmert, Maximilian Y; Fioretta, Emanuela S; Hoerstrup, Simon P
Valvular heart disease and congenital heart defects represent a major cause of death around the globe. Although current therapy strategies have rapidly evolved over the decades and are nowadays safe, effective, and applicable to many affected patients, the currently used artificial prostheses are still suboptimal. They do not promote regeneration, physiological remodeling, or growth (particularly important aspects for children) as their native counterparts. This results in the continuous degeneration and subsequent failure of these prostheses which is often associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as well as the need for multiple re-interventions. To overcome this problem, the concept of tissue engineering (TE) has been repeatedly suggested as a potential technology to enable native-like cardiovascular replacements with regenerative and growth capacities, suitable for young adults and children. However, despite promising data from pre-clinical and first clinical pilot trials, the translation and clinical relevance of such TE technologies is still very limited. The reasons that currently limit broad clinical adoption are multifaceted and comprise of scientific, clinical, logistical, technical, and regulatory challenges which need to be overcome. The aim of this review is to provide an overview about the translational problems and challenges in current TE approaches. It further suggests directions and potential solutions on how these issues may be efficiently addressed in the future to accelerate clinical translation. In addition, a particular focus is put on the current regulatory guidelines and the associated challenges for these promising TE technologies.
Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.
Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.
Castro, Nathan J; Hacking, S Adam; Zhang, Lijie Grace
This review provides a brief synopsis of the anatomy and physiology of the osteochondral interface, scaffold-based and non-scaffold based approaches for engineering both tissues independently as well as recent developments in the manufacture of gradient constructs. Novel manufacturing techniques and nanotechnology will be discussed with potential application in osteochondral interfacial tissue engineering.
Lu, Helen H; Subramony, Siddarth D; Boushell, Margaret K; Zhang, Xinzhi
A major focus in the field of orthopedic tissue engineering is the development of tissue engineered bone and soft tissue grafts with biomimetic functionality to allow for their translation to the clinical setting. One of the most significant challenges of this endeavor is promoting the biological fixation of these grafts with each other as well as the implant site. Such fixation requires strategic biomimicry to be incorporated into the scaffold design in order to re-establish the critical structure-function relationship of the native soft tissue-to-bone interface. The integration of distinct tissue types (e.g. bone and soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, or tendons), necessitates a multi-phased or stratified scaffold with distinct yet continuous tissue regions accompanied by a gradient of mechanical properties. This review discusses tissue engineering strategies for regenerating common tissue-to-tissue interfaces (ligament-to-bone, tendon-to-bone, or cartilage-to-bone), and the strategic biomimicry implemented in stratified scaffold design for multi-tissue regeneration. Potential challenges and future directions in this emerging field will also be presented. It is anticipated that interface tissue engineering will enable integrative soft tissue repair, and will be instrumental for the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems with biomimetic complexity and functionality.
Costa-Pinto, Ana Rita; Reis, Rui L; Neves, Nuno M
As life expectancy increases, malfunction or loss of tissue caused by injury or disease leads to reduced quality of life in many patients at significant socioeconomic cost. Even though major progress has been made in the field of bone tissue engineering, present therapies, such as bone grafts, still have limitations. Current research on biodegradable polymers is emerging, combining these structures with osteogenic cells, as an alternative to autologous bone grafts. Different types of biodegradable materials have been proposed for the preparation of three-dimensional porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Among them, natural polymers are one of the most attractive options, mainly due to their similarities with extracellular matrix, chemical versatility, good biological performance, and inherent cellular interactions. In this review, special attention is given to chitosan as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications. An extensive literature survey was performed on the preparation of chitosan scaffolds and their in vitro biological performance as well as their potential to facilitate in vivo bone regeneration. The present review also aims to offer the reader a general overview of all components needed to engineer new bone tissue. It gives a brief background on bone biology, followed by an explanation of all components in bone tissue engineering, as well as describing different tissue engineering strategies. Moreover, also discussed are the typical models used to evaluate in vitro functionality of a tissue-engineered construct and in vivo models to assess the potential to regenerate bone tissue are discussed.
Guilak, Farshid; Baaijens, Frank P T
"Functional tissue engineering" is a subset of the field of tissue engineering that was proposed by the United States National Committee on Biomechanics over a decade ago in order to place more emphasis on the roles of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue repair and regeneration. Over the past decade, there have been tremendous advances in this area, pointing out the critical role that biomechanical factors can play in the engineered repair of virtually all tissue and organ systems. In this special issue of the Journal of Biomechanics, we present a series of articles that address a broad array of the fundamental topics of functional tissue engineering, including: (1) measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment and history in native and repair tissues; (2) further understanding of the biomechanical properties of native tissues across all geometric scales, in the context of repair or regeneration; (3) prioritization of specific biomechanical properties as design criteria; (4) development of biomaterials, scaffolds, and engineered tissues with prescribed biomechanical properties; (5) development of success criteria based on appropriate outcome measures; (6) investigation of the effects of mechanical factors on tissue repair in vivo; (7) investigation of the mechanisms by which physical factors may enhance tissue regeneration in vitro; and (8) development and validation of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. These articles represent the tremendous expansion of this field in recent years, and emphasize the critical roles that biomechanics and mechanobiology play in controlling tissue repair and regeneration.
Wang, Hua-Jie; Di, Ling; Ren, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Jin-Ye
This article provides an up-to-date review on the applications of natural polymers, i.e., proteins, as materials for tissue engineering. Proteins are one of the important candidates for tissue engineering materials based on their superior biocompatibility, biodegradation, bioresorbability, and so on. However, their inferior mechanical properties limit their broad application. Currently-available proteins for application in tissue engineering or drug delivery systems, such as fibrin, collagen, zein, silk fibroin, keratin, casein and albumin, and the biodegradation of tissue-engineered substitutes based on proteins are presented. Techniques of scaffold fabrication are also mentioned. Problems and future possibilities for development of protein-based tissue-engineered substitutes are also introduced in this review.
Huang, Weiyi; Liao, Hua
To review the current researches of scaffold materials for skeletal muscle tissue engineering, to predict the development trend of scaffold materials in skeletal muscle tissue engineering in future. The related literature on skeletal muscle tissue engineering, involving categories and properties of scaffold materials, preparative technique and biocompatibility, was summarized and analyzed. Various scaffold materials were used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering, including inorganic biomaterials, biodegradable polymers, natural biomaterial, and biomedical composites. According to different needs of the research, various scaffolds were prepared due to different biomaterials, preparative techniques, and surface modifications. The development trend and perspective of skeletal muscle tissue engineering are the use of composite materials, and the preparation of composite scaffolds and surface modification according to the specific functions of scaffolds.
Zhang, Hengyi; Fu, Wei; Xu, Zhiwei
Trachea-tissue engineering is a thriving new field in regenerative medicine that is reaching maturity and yielding numerous promising results. In view of the crucial role that the epithelium plays in the trachea, re-epithelialization of tracheal substitutes has gradually emerged as the focus of studies in tissue-engineered trachea. Recent progress in our understanding of stem cell biology, growth factor interactions and transplantation immunobiology offer the prospect of optimization of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium. In addition, advances in cell culture technology and successful applications of clinical transplantation are opening up new avenues for the construction of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium. Therefore, this review summarizes current advances, unresolved obstacles and future directions in the reconstruction of a tissue-engineered tracheal epithelium.
Duncan, Daniel R; Breuer, Christopher K
The development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in cardiovascular surgery holds great promise for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with complex congenital cardiac anomalies. Currently used synthetic grafts have a number of shortcomings in this setting but a tissue engineering approach has emerged in the past decade as a way to address these limitations. The first clinical trial of this technology showed that it is safe and effective but the primary mode of graft failure is stenosis. A variety of murine and large animal models have been developed to study and improve tissue engineering approaches with the hope of translating this technology into routine clinical use, but challenges remain. The purpose of this report is to address the clinical problem and review recent advances in vascular tissue engineering for pediatric applications. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of neovessel formation and stenosis will enable rational design of improved tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
Trommelmans, Leen; Selling, Joseph; Dierickx, Kris
Ex-vivo tissue engineering is a quickly developing medical technology aiming to regenerate tissue through the introduction of an ex-vivo created tissue construct instead of restoring the damaged tissue to some level of functionality. Tissue engineering is considered by some as a new medical paradigm. We analyse this claim and identify tissue engineering's fundamental characteristics, focusing on the aim of the intervention and on the complexity and continuity of the process. We inquire how these features have an impact not only on the scientific research itself but also on the ethical evaluation of this research. We suggest that viewing tissue engineering as a new medical paradigm allows us to develop a wider perspective for successful investigation instead of focusing on isolated steps of the tissue engineering process in an anecdotal way, which may lead to an inadequate ethical evaluation. We argue that the concept of tissue engineering as a paradigm may benefit the way we address the ethical challenges presented by tissue engineering.
Brunello, G; Sivolella, S; Meneghello, R; Ferroni, L; Gardin, C; Piattelli, A; Zavan, B; Bressan, E
Bone tissue engineered 3-D constructs customized to patient-specific needs are emerging as attractive biomimetic scaffolds to enhance bone cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The article outlines the features of the most common additive manufacturing technologies (3D printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and selective laser sintering) used to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds. It concentrates, in particular, on the current state of knowledge concerning powder-based 3D printing, including a description of the properties of powders and binder solutions, the critical phases of scaffold manufacturing, and its applications in bone tissue engineering. Clinical aspects and future applications are also discussed.
Spiller, Kara L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed. PMID:25787736
Barrera-Ramírez, Elisa; Rico-Escobar, Edna; Garrido-Cardona, Rubén E
Tissue engineering offers, through new technologies, an ex vivo generation of organs and functional tissues as grafts for transplants, for the improvement and substitution of biological functions, with an absence of immunological response. The treatment of extended tracheal lesions is a substitution of the affected segment; nevertheless, the allogeneic transplant has failed and the use of synthetic materials has not had good results. New tissue engineering technology is being developed to offer a tracheal graft for a posterior implantation. The purpose of this article is to review all the methods and components used by the engineering of tissue for tracheal grafts.
Spiller, Kara L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Strategies that utilize controlled release of drugs and proteins for tissue engineering have enormous potential to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The multiple advantages of controlled release strategies merit overcoming the significant challenges to translation, including high costs and long, difficult regulatory pathways. This review highlights the potential of controlled release of proteins for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We specifically discuss treatment modalities that have reached preclinical and clinical trials, with emphasis on controlled release systems for bone tissue engineering, the most advanced application with several products already in clinic. Possible strategies to address translational and regulatory concerns are also discussed.
McKenna, Chelsey C.
Purpose. Dense innervation of the cornea is important for maintaining its homeostasis and transparency. Although corneal nerves have been well studied in adults, little is known about mammalian corneal innervation during development. This study provides a detailed profile of nerves at various stages of mouse cornea development. Methods. Mouse heads and corneas were collected at various stages of development including embryonic days (E)12.5 to E16.5, postnatal days (P)0, P10, three weeks after birth, and the adult. Corneas were immunostained with an anti-neuron–specific β-tubulin antibody (TUJ1). Fluorescently labeled nerves in whole-mount tissues and sections were imaged and analyzed for their axonal projections during eye development. Results. The first nerve bundles appear at the periphery of the anterior portion of the eye by E12.5. Initial projection into the stroma occurs at E13.5 without formation of a pericorneal nerve ring. Between E13.5 and E16.5, nerve bundles project directly into the periphery of the presumptive cornea stroma. They branch repeatedly as they extend toward the cornea center and epithelium. Concomitantly, nerve bundles originating from four quadrants of the eye bifurcate into smaller branches that innervate the entire stroma. The first epithelial innervation occurs at E16.5. Epithelial nerves arrange into patterns that project toward the center subsequently forming a swirl at three weeks after birth, which becomes more pronounced in adults. Conclusions. Nerve bundles that arise from four quadrants of the eye innervate the mouse cornea. The nerve bundles directly innervate the stroma without forming a pericorneal nerve ring. Radial arrangement of epithelial nerves gradually becomes centrally oriented, subsequently forming a swirl pattern. PMID:20811061
Hunter, Shawn A.; Chokalingam, Kumar; Cordray, Michael J.; Shearn, Jason; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia; Nirmalanandhan, Sanjit; Jain, Abhishek
Bioreactors precondition tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) to improve integrity and hopefully repair. In this paper, we use functional tissue engineering to suggest criteria for preconditioning TECs. Bioreactors should (1) control environment during mechanical stimulation; (2) stimulate multiple constructs with identical or individual waveforms; (3) deliver precise displacements, including those that mimic in vivo activities of daily living (ADLs); and (4) adjust displacement patterns based on reaction loads and biological activity. We apply these criteria to three bioreactors. We have placed a pneumatic stimulator in a conventional incubator and stretched four constructs in each of five silicone dishes. We have also programmed displacement-limited stimuli that replicate frequencies and peak in vivo patellar tendon (PT) strains. Cellular activity can be monitored from spent media. However, our design prevents direct TEC force measurement. We have improved TEC stiffness as well as PT repair stiffness and shown correlations between the two. We have also designed an incubator to fit within each of two electromagnetic stimulators. Each incubator provides cell viability like a commercial incubator. Multiple constructs are stimulated with precise displacements that can mimic ADL strain patterns and record individual forces. Future bioreactors could be further improved by controlling and measuring TEC displacements and forces to create more functional tissues for surgeons and their patients. PMID:19132887
Langhans, Mark T.; Yu, Shuting; Tuan, Rocky S.
This review surveys the use of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells in skeletal tissue engineering. Specific emphasis is focused on evaluating the function and activities of these cells in the context of development in vivo, and how technologies and methods of stem cell-based tissue engineering for stem cells must draw inspiration from developmental biology. Information on the embryonic origin and in vivo differentiation of skeletal tissues is first reviewed, to shed light on the persistence and activities of adult stem cells that remain in skeletal tissues after embryogenesis. Next, the development and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is discussed, and some of their advantages and disadvantages in the context of tissue engineering is presented. The final section highlights current use of multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells, reviewing their origin, differentiation capacity, and potential applications to tissue engineering. PMID:26423296
Mosadegh, Bobak; Xiong, Guanglei; Dunham, Simon; Min, James K
3D printing is a technology that allows the fabrication of structures with arbitrary geometries and heterogeneous material properties. The application of this technology to biological structures that match the complexity of native tissue is of great interest to researchers. This mini-review highlights the current progress of 3D printing for fabricating artificial tissues of the cardiovascular system, specifically the myocardium, heart valves, and coronary arteries. In addition, how 3D printed sensors and actuators can play a role in tissue engineering is discussed. To date, all the work with building 3D cardiac tissues have been proof-of-principle demonstrations, and in most cases, yielded products less effective than other traditional tissue engineering strategies. However, this technology is in its infancy and therefore there is much promise that through collaboration between biologists, engineers and material scientists, 3D bioprinting can make a significant impact on the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering.
Rationale Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. Objective The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung. Methods A search using PubMed was done for published, peer-reviewed papers using the keywords “lung” AND “bioreactor” or “bioengineering” or “tissue engineering” or “ex vivo perfusion”. Main Results Many new bioreactors ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems have been developed by both academic and commercial entities. Microfluidic, lung-mimic and lung slice cultures have the advantages of cost-efficiency and high throughput analyses ideal for pharmaceutical and toxicity studies. Perfused/ventilated rodent whole lung systems can be adapted for mid-throughput studies of lung stem/progenitor cell development, cell behavior, understanding and treating lung injury and for preliminary work that can be translated to human lung bioengineering. Human-sized ex vivo whole lung bioreactors incorporating perfusion and ventilation are amenable to automation and have been used for whole lung decellularization and recellularization. Clinical scale ex vivo lung perfusion systems have been developed for lung preservation and reconditioning and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions Significant advances in bioreactors for lung engineering have been made at both the microfluidic and the macro scale. The most advanced are closed systems that incorporate pressure-controlled perfusion and ventilation and are amenable to automation. Ex vivo lung perfusion systems have advanced to clinical trials for lung preservation and reconditioning. The biggest
Nguyen, Lonnissa H.; Annabi, Nasim; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Bae, Hojae; Binan, Loïc; Park, Sangwon; Kang, Yunqing
Significant advances have been made in bone tissue engineering (TE) in the past decade. However, classical bone TE strategies have been hampered mainly due to the lack of vascularization within the engineered bone constructs, resulting in poor implant survival and integration. In an effort toward clinical success of engineered constructs, new TE concepts have arisen to develop bone substitutes that potentially mimic native bone tissue structure and function. Large tissue replacements have failed in the past due to the slow penetration of the host vasculature, leading to necrosis at the central region of the engineered tissues. For this reason, multiple microscale strategies have been developed to induce and incorporate vascular networks within engineered bone constructs before implantation in order to achieve successful integration with the host tissue. Previous attempts to engineer vascularized bone tissue only focused on the effect of a single component among the three main components of TE (scaffold, cells, or signaling cues) and have only achieved limited success. However, with efforts to improve the engineered bone tissue substitutes, bone TE approaches have become more complex by combining multiple strategies simultaneously. The driving force behind combining various TE strategies is to produce bone replacements that more closely recapitulate human physiology. Here, we review and discuss the limitations of current bone TE approaches and possible strategies to improve vascularization in bone tissue substitutes. PMID:22765012
Nerurkar, Nandan L.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.
Due to the inability of current clinical practices to restore function to degenerated intervertebral discs, the arena of disc tissue engineering has received substantial attention in recent years. Despite tremendous growth and progress in this field, translation to clinical implementation has been hindered by a lack of well-defined functional benchmarks. Because successful replacement of the disc is contingent upon replication of some or all of its complex mechanical behaviour, it is critically important that disc mechanics be well characterized in order to establish discrete functional goals for tissue engineering. In this review, the key functional signatures of the intervertebral disc are discussed and used to propose a series of native tissue benchmarks to guide the development of engineered replacement tissues. These benchmarks include measures of mechanical function under tensile, compressive and shear deformations for the disc and its substructures. In some cases, important functional measures are identified that have yet to be measured in the native tissue. Ultimately, native tissue benchmark values are compared to measurements that have been made on engineered disc tissues, identifying measures where functional equivalence was achieved, and others where there remain opportunities for advancement. Several excellent reviews exist regarding disc composition and structure, as well as recent tissue engineering strategies; therefore this review will remain focused on the functional aspects of disc tissue engineering. PMID:20080239
Tandon, Nina; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wan, Leo; Park, Hyoungshin; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
In vitro application of pulsatile electrical stimulation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured on polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve the functional assembly of cells into contractile cardiac tissue constrcuts. However, to date, the conditions of electrical stimulation have not been optimized. We have systematically varied the electrode material, amplitude and frequency of stimulation, to determine the conditions that are optimal for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes, exhibiting the highest charge-injection capacity and producing cardiac tissues with the best structural and contractile properties, and were thus used in tissue engineering studies. Cardiac tissues stimulated at 3V/cm amplitude and 3Hz frequency had the highest tissue density, the highest concentrations of cardiac troponin-I and connexin-43, and the best developed contractile behavior. These findings contribute to defining bioreactor design specifications and electrical stimulation regime for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21604379
The use of electric fields for measuring cell and tissue properties has a long history. However, the exploration of the use of electric fields in tissue engineering is only very recent. A review is given of the various methods by which electric fields may be used in tissue engineering, concentrating on the assembly of artificial tissues from its component cells using electrokinetics. A comparison is made of electrokinetic techniques with other physical cell manipulation techniques which can be used in the construction of artificial tissues. PMID:19279709
Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kamm, Roger; Laurencin, Cato T.; McIntire, Larry V.; Mow, Van C.; Nerem, Robert M.; Sah, Robert L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Spilker, Robert L.; Tranquillo, Robert T.
Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue replacements in vitro have recently begun to harness advances in understanding of how cells and tissues sense and adapt to their mechanical environment. It is clear that biomechanical considerations will be fundamental to the successful development of clinical therapies based on principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for a broad range of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, craniofacial, skin, urinary, and neural tissues. Biomechanical stimuli may in fact hold the key to producing regenerated tissues with high strength and endurance. However, many challenges remain, particularly for tissues that function within complex and demanding mechanical environments in vivo. This paper reviews the present role and potential impact of experimental and computational biomechanics in engineering functional tissues using several illustrative examples of past successes and future grand challenges. PMID:19583462
Butler, David L; Goldstein, Steven A; Guldberg, Robert E; Guo, X Edward; Kamm, Roger; Laurencin, Cato T; McIntire, Larry V; Mow, Van C; Nerem, Robert M; Sah, Robert L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Spilker, Robert L; Tranquillo, Robert T
Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue replacements in vitro have recently begun to harness advances in understanding of how cells and tissues sense and adapt to their mechanical environment. It is clear that biomechanical considerations will be fundamental to the successful development of clinical therapies based on principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for a broad range of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, craniofacial, skin, urinary, and neural tissues. Biomechanical stimuli may in fact hold the key to producing regenerated tissues with high strength and endurance. However, many challenges remain, particularly for tissues that function within complex and demanding mechanical environments in vivo. This paper reviews the present role and potential impact of experimental and computational biomechanics in engineering functional tissues using several illustrative examples of past successes and future grand challenges.
Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike
Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Akbari, Mohsen; Tamayol, Ali; Bagherifard, Sara; Serex, Ludovic; Mostafalu, Pooria; Faramarzi, Negar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Khademhosseini, Ali
Textile technologies have recently attracted great attention as potential biofabrication tools for engineering tissue constructs. Using current textile technologies, fibrous structures can be designed and engineered to attain the required properties that are demanded by different tissue engineering applications. Several key parameters such as physiochemical characteristics of fibers, microarchitecture, and mechanical properties of the fabrics play important roles in the effective use of textile technologies in tissue engineering. This review summarizes the current advances in the manufacturing of biofunctional fibers. Different textile methods such as knitting, weaving, and braiding are discussed and their current applications in tissue engineering are highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mertens, Jacob P; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Lee, Jonah D; Larkin, Lisa M
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a disabling condition in which current clinical procedures are suboptimal. The field of tissue engineering has many promising strategies for the creation of functional skeletal muscle in vitro. However, there are still two key limitations that prevent it from becoming a solution for treating VML. First, engineered muscle tissue must be biocompatible to facilitate muscle tissue regrowth without generating an immune response. Second, engineered muscle constructs must be scaled up to facilitate replacement of clinically relevant volumes of tissue (centimeters in diameter). There are currently no tissue engineering strategies to produce tissue constructs that are both biocompatible and large enough to facilitate clinical repair. However, recent advances in tissue engineering using synthetic scaffolds, native scaffolds, or scaffold-free approaches may lead to a solution for repair of VML injuries. PMID:24351009
Montaser, Laila M.; Fawzy, Sherin M.
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been constantly developing of late due to the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Although stem cells hold great potential for the treatment of many injuries and degenerative diseases, several obstacles must be overcome before their therapeutic application can be realized. These include the development of advanced techniques to understand and control functions of micro environmental signals and novel methods to track and guide transplanted stem cells. A major complication encountered with stem cell therapies has been the failure of injected cells to engraft to target tissues. The application of nanotechnology to stem cell biology would be able to address those challenges. Combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have achieved significant advances. These combinations allow nanotechnology to engineer scaffolds with various features to control stem cell fate decisions. Fabrication of Nano fiber cell scaffolds onto which stem cells can adhere and spread, forming a niche-like microenvironment which can guide stem cells to proceed to heal damaged tissues. In this paper, current and emergent approach based on stem cells in the field of liver tissue engineering is presented for specific application. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration for stem cell therapy because of the potential to control stem cell behavior with the physical and chemical characteristics of the engineered scaffold environment.
Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi
Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735
Chen, Yali; Zhou, Nuo; Huang, Xuanping
To review the progress of cell sheet technology (CST) and its application in bone tissue engineering. The literature concerning CST and its application was extensively reviewed and analyzed. CST using temperature-responsive culture dishes is applied to avoid the shortcomings of traditional tissue engineering. All cultured cells are harvested as intact sheets along with their deposited extracellular matrix. Avoiding the use of proteolytic enzymes, cell sheet composed of the cells and extracellular matrix derived from the cells, and remained the relative protein and biological activity factors. Consequently, cell sheet can provide a suitable microenvironment for the bone regeneration in vivo. With CST, cell sheet engineering is allowed for tissue regeneration by the creation of three-dimensional structures via the layering of individual cell sheets, be created by wrapping scaffold with cell sheets, or be created by folding the cell sheets, showing great potential in tissue engineered bone. Constructing tissue engineered bone using CST and traditional method of bone tissue engineering will promote the development of the bone tissue engineering.
Baker, Hannah B.; McQuilling, John P.
Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of “modest translational distance” and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436
Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P
Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R
Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.
Kwon, Heenam; Paschos, Nikolaos K.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos
Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking. Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage. Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasing necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:26811234
Kwon, Heenam; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos
Effective early disease modifying options for osteoarthritis remain lacking. Tissue engineering approach to generate cartilage in vitro has emerged as a promising option for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Signaling molecules and matrix modifying agents, derived from knowledge of cartilage development and homeostasis, have been used as biochemical stimuli toward cartilage tissue engineering and have led to improvements in the functionality of engineered cartilage. Clinical translation of neocartilage faces challenges, such as phenotypic instability of the engineered cartilage, poor integration, inflammation, and catabolic factors in the arthritic environment; these can all contribute to failure of implanted neocartilage. A comprehensive understanding of signaling molecules involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis and their actions on engineered cartilage will be crucial. Thus, while it is important to continue deriving inspiration from cartilage development and homeostasis, it has become increasingly necessary to incorporate knowledge from osteoarthritis pathogenesis into cartilage tissue engineering.
Stoltz, J-F; Huselstein, C; Schiavi, J; Li, Y Y; Bensoussan, D; Decot, V; De Isla, N
Injuries to articular cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of musculoskeletal medicine due to the poor intrinsic ability of this tissue for repair. Despite progress in orthopaedic surgery, cell-based surgical therapies such as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) have been in clinical use for cartilage repair for over a decade but this approach has shown mixed results. Moreover, the lack of efficient modalities of treatment for large chondral defects has prompted research on cartilage tissue engineering combining cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. This paper focuses on the main parameters in tissue engineering and in particular, on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative to cells derived from patient tissues in autologous transplantation and tissue engineering. We discussed the prospects of using autologous chondrocytes or MSCs in regenerative medicine and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these cells in articular cartilage engineering.
Cabrera Fernández, Delia; Niazy, A M; Kurtz, R M; Djotyan, G P; Juhasz, T
A 2-D finite element model of the cornea is developed to simulate corneal reshaping and the resulting deformation induced by refractive surgery. In the numerical simulations, linear and nonlinear elastic models are applied when stiffness inhomogeneities varying with depth are considered. Multiple simulations are created that employ different geometric configurations for the removal of the corneal tissue. Side-by-side comparisons of the different constitutive laws are also performed. To facilitate the comparison, the material property constants are identified from the same experimental data, which are obtained from mechanical tests on corneal strips and membrane inflation experiments. We then validate the resulting models by comparing computed refractive power changes with clinical results. Tissue deformations created by simulated corneal tissue removal using finite elements are consistent with clinically observed postsurgical results. The model developed provides a much more predictable refractive outcome when the stiffness inhomogeneities of the cornea and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the simulations. Finite element analysis is a useful tool for modeling surgical effects on the cornea and developing a better understanding of the biomechanics of the cornea. The creation of patient-specific simulations would allow surgical outcomes to be predicted based on individualized finite element models.
Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Chen, Chao-Wei; Ji, Robin; Zhao, Lingling; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B.; Fisher, John P.; Chen, Yu; Intes, Xavier
Optimization of regenerative medicine strategies includes the design of biomaterials, development of cell-seeding methods, and control of cell-biomaterial interactions within the engineered tissues. Among these steps, one paramount challenge is to non-destructively image the engineered tissues in their entirety to assess structure, function, and molecular expression. It is especially important to be able to enable cell phenotyping and monitor the distribution and migration of cells throughout the bulk scaffold. Advanced fluorescence microscopic techniques are commonly employed to perform such tasks; however, they are limited to superficial examination of tissue constructs. Therefore, the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine would greatly benefit from the development of molecular imaging techniques which are capable of non-destructive imaging of three-dimensional cellular distribution and maturation within a tissue-engineered scaffold beyond the limited depth of current microscopic techniques. In this review, we focus on an emerging depth-resolved optical mesoscopic imaging technique, termed Laminar Optical Tomography (LOT) or Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (MFMT), which enables longitudinal imaging of cellular distribution in thick tissue engineering constructs at depths of a few millimeters and with relatively high resolution. The physical principle, image formation, and instrumentation of LOT/MFMT systems are introduced. Representative applications in tissue engineering include imaging the distribution of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) embedded in hydrogels, imaging of bio-printed tissues, and in vivo applications. PMID:26645079
Daly, Andrew C; Freeman, Fiona E; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Tomas; Critchley, Susan E; Nulty, Jessica; Kelly, Daniel J
Significant progress has been made in the field of cartilage and bone tissue engineering over the last two decades. As a result, there is real promise that strategies to regenerate rather than replace damaged or diseased bones and joints will one day reach the clinic however, a number of major challenges must still be addressed before this becomes a reality. These include vascularization in the context of large bone defect repair, engineering