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Sample records for cornea type iii

  1. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type III collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.; Covington, H.I.; Macarak, E.J.

    1988-05-01

    Whole neonate rabbit corneas and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were incubated in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine. Radiolabeled collagen extracted from the corneas and scar tissue were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography to determine the types and relative quantity of collagen polypeptides present and synthesized by these tissues. In addition to other collagen types, type III was found in both neonate cornea and scar tissue from adult cornea, albeit in relatively small quantities. Type III collagen in normal cornea was associated with the residue after pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction of the tissue, and the same type of collagen was extracted from scar tissue after similar treatment. Type III collagen-specific monoclonal antibody bound to developing normal corneas and healing adult tissue sections, as determined by immunofluorescence. Antibody binding was localized to the endothelium and growing Descemet's membrane in fetal and neonate corneas, and restricted to the most posterior region of the corneal scar tissue. Although monoclonal antibody to keratan sulfate, used as a marker for stromal fibroblasts, bound to most of the scar tissue, the antibody failed to bind to the posterior scar tissue positive for type III collagen. We conclude that endothelial cells from fetal and neonate rabbit cornea and endothelium-derived fibroblasts from healing wounds of adult cornea synthesize and deposit type III collagen. Moreover, this collagen appears to be incorporated into the growing Descemet's membrane of normal corneas and narrow posterior portion of the scar tissue.

  2. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Cintron, C.; Hong, B.S.

    1988-05-01

    Normal adult rabbit corneas were digested with 5% pepsin and their collagens extracted with acetic acid. Collagen extracts were fractionated by differential salt precipitation. The 2.5 M NaCl fraction was then redissolved with tris buffer and precipitated with sodium acetate. The precipitate contained a high-molecular-weight disulfide-bonded aggregate which, upon reduction with mercaptoethanol, was converted into three distinct polypeptides having molecular weights between 45 and 66 Kd. These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen. Corneas from neonate rabbits and adult corneas containing 2-week-old scars were organ cultured in the presence of (/sup 14/C) glycine to incorporate radiolabel into collagen. Tissues were digested with 0.02% pepsin and their collagens extracted with formic acid. The total radioactivity of the extracts and tissue residues was determined before the collagens were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Radioactive collagen polypeptides bands were then stained with Coomassie blue, processed for fluorography, and analyzed by densitometry. The results show that: (1) type VI collagen is synthesized by neonate corneas and healing adult corneas; (2) it is not readily solubilized from either corneal tissue by 0.02% pepsin digestion and formic acid extraction; and (3) the proportion of type VI collagen deposited in scar tissue is markedly lower than that found in neonate corneas.

  3. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  4. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  5. Sorption of sodium hydroxide by type I collagen and bovine corneas.

    PubMed

    Whikehart, D R; Edwards, W C; Pfister, R R

    1991-01-01

    There are no quantitative studies on the uptake of alkali into corneal tissues. To study this phenomenon, both type I collagen and bovine corneas were incubated in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) under varying conditions for periods up to 27.5 h. The sorption (absorption or adsorption) of the alkali to protein and tissue was measured as the quantity of NaOH no longer available for titration to neutrality with hydrochloric acid. Sorption was found to be dependent on the concentration of NaOH (0.01-1 N) but independent of the incubation temperature (4-35 degrees C). In whole cornea, sorption of 1 N NaOH began immediately and increased with time up to 6 h. After 6 h, sorption decreased, together with the observed degradation and solubilization of the tissue. Stripping of the corneal endothelium alone or of the endothelium and epithelium increased sorption in a similar manner when compared to whole corneas for periods up to 4 h. These observations are compatible with ionic and nonionic bonding of hydroxide ions to collagen (including that of the cornea) and the subsequent release of hydroxide ions during hydrolysis of the protein itself. Indirect evidence also suggests the inclusion of quantities of unbound hydroxide ions in hydrated gels of glycosaminoglycans. It is proposed that in a chemical burn of the cornea, alkali is both stored in the tissue (by sorption) and reacted with it (by hydrolysis), without any net consumption of alkali taking place.

  6. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  7. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  8. Evaluation of the stability of Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Julian P S; Ritterband, David C; Buxton, Douglas F; De la Cruz, Jose

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the anatomic stability of an implanted Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro)-donor cornea interface and assess the presence or absence of a potential space (gap) between the KPro front plate and donor cornea using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The presence of a gap would raise concerns of a possible pathway for the exchange of extraocular fluid with the anterior chamber. Fifteen eyes implanted with a Boston type I KPro were studied by the noncontact technique of AS-OCT (AC Cornea OCT prototype; OTI, Canada). All the KPro devices had been implanted at least 4 weeks before the study (mean: 7 months, range: 1-22 months). Eight eyes had aphakic Kpros, and the other 7 had pseudophakic implants. Anesthetized eyes were imaged before and during pressure application using sterile cotton-tip applicators. Pressure was applied for 10 seconds on the nasal or temporal side of the eye. Images were analyzed for any possible changes in the KPro-donor cornea interface during the application of pressure. Of 15 eyes, 10 had the threaded front plate model with a T-shaped silhouette and corrugated sides, whereas 5 had the threadless type with a T-shaped silhouette and smooth sides on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. Of the 15 eyes, 2 revealed a gap between the front plate and the surface of the donor cornea. The rest revealed no gaps. With pressure, none of the eyes, including the 2 with gaps, demonstrated any change in the KPro-donor cornea interface during dynamic imaging (eg, gaping or evidence of fluid escape along the KPro-donor cornea borders). In all eyes, the position of the titanium locking ring was visible and verified to be in an adequate position. The implanted KPro-donor cornea interface seems to be stable dynamically using AS-OCT. A gap that has been documented with this imaging tool showed neither gaping nor escape of anterior chamber fluid during dynamic cross-sectional imaging. Further studies will be needed to assess

  9. Cornea Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... who had several conditions, such as certain central nervous system conditions, infections, and prior eye surgery or eye conditions, or from people who died from an unknown cause. During your cornea transplant On the day of your cornea transplant, you' ...

  10. The spatial organization of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen in the avian cornea

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The organization of type IV collagen in the unconventional basement membrane of the corneal endothelium (Descemet's membrane) was investigated in developing chicken embryos using anti-collagen mAbs. Both immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were performed. In mature embryos (greater than 15 d of development), the type IV collagen of Descemet's membrane was present as an array of discrete aggregates of amorphous material at the interface between Descemet's membrane and the posterior corneal stroma. Immunoreactivity for type IV collagen was also observed in the posterior corneal stroma as irregular plaques of material with a morphology similar to that of the Descemet's membrane-associated aggregates. This arrangement of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen developed from a subendothelial mat of type IV collagen-containing material. This mat, in which type IV collagen-specific immunoreactivity was always discontinuous, first appeared at the time a confluent endothelium was established, well before the onset of Descemet's membrane formation. Immunoelectron microscopy of mature corneas revealed that the characteristic nodal matrix of Descemet's membrane itself was unreactive for type IV collagen, but was penetrated at intervals by projections of type IV collagen-containing material. These projections frequently appeared to contact cell processes from the underlying corneal endothelium. This spatial arrangement of type IV collagen suggests that it serves to suture the corneal endothelium/Descemet's membrane to the dense interfacial matrix of the posterior stroma. PMID:2182654

  11. A functional type I interferon pathway drives resistance to cornea herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by recruitment of leukocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Jones, Heather; Zheng, Min; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Type I interferons are critical antiviral cytokines produced following herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection that act to inhibit viral spread. In the present study, we identify HSV-infected and adjacent uninfected corneal epithelial cells as the source of interferon-α. We also report mice deficient in the A1 chain of the type I IFN receptor (CD118−/−) are extremely sensitive to ocular infection with low doses (100 PFU) of HSV-1 as seen by significantly elevated viral titers in the cornea compared to wild type (WT) controls. The enhanced susceptibility correlated with a loss of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recruitment and aberrant chemokine production in the cornea despite mounting an adaptive immune response in the draining mandibular lymph node of CD118−/− mice. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of IFN production in both the innate immune response as well as eliciting chemokine production required to facilitate adaptive immune cell trafficking. PMID:21709805

  12. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  13. Reconstruction of a human cornea by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering using the three native cell types.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Stéphanie; d'Arc Uwamaliya, Jeanne; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre; Audet, Caroline; Giasson, Claude J; Guérin, Sylvain L; Auger, François A; Germain, Lucie

    2010-10-29

    The purpose of this study was to produce and characterize human tissue-engineered corneas reconstructed using all three corneal cell types (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) by the self-assembly approach. Fibroblasts cultured in medium containing serum and ascorbic acid secreted their own extracellular matrix and formed sheets that were superposed to reconstruct a stromal tissue. Endothelial and epithelial cells were seeded on each side of the reconstructed stroma. After culturing at the air-liquid interface, the engineered corneas were fixed for histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunofluorescence labeling of epithelial keratins, basement membrane components, Na+/K+-ATPase α1, and collagen type I was also performed. Epithelial and endothelial cells adhered to the reconstructed stroma. After 10 days at the air-liquid interface, the corneal epithelial cells stratified (4 to 5 cell layers) and differentiated into well defined basal and wing cells that also expressed Na+/K+-ATPase α1 protein, keratin 3/12, and basic keratins. Basal epithelial cells from the reconstructed epithelium formed many hemidesmosomes and secreted a well defined basement membrane rich in laminin V and collagen VII. Endothelial cells formed a monolayer of tightly-packed cells and also expressed the function related protein Na+/K+-ATPase α1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing a complete tissue-engineered human cornea, similar to native corneas, using untransformed fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells, without the need for exogenous biomaterial.

  14. Ocular herpes simplex virus type 1: is the cornea a reservoir for viral latency or a fast pit stop?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Clement, Christian; Arceneaux, Richard L; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Huq, Tashfin S; Hill, James M

    2011-03-01

    To present a review supporting and refuting evidence from mouse, rabbit, nonhuman primate, and human studies of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) concerning corneal latency. More than 50 research articles on HSV-1 published in peer-reviewed journals were examined. Infectious HSV-1 has been found in mouse denervated tissues and in tissues with negative cultures from the corresponding ganglion. However, the different mouse strains have shown varied responses to different strains of HSV, making it difficult to relate such findings to humans. Rabbit studies provide excellent evidence for HSV-1 corneal latency including data on HSV-1 migration from the cornea into the corneoscleral rim and on the distribution of HSV-1 DNA in the cornea. However, the available methods for the detection of infectious HSV-1 may not be sensitive enough to detect low-level infection. Infectious HSV-1 has been successfully isolated from the tears of nonhuman primates in the absence of detectable corneal lesions. The recurrence of corneal ulcers in nonhuman primates before the appearance of infectious HSV-1 in tears suggests that the origin of the HSV-1 is the cornea, rather than the trigeminal ganglion. Human studies presented evidence of both ganglion and corneal latency. Understanding HSV-1 disease progression and the possibility of corneal latency could lead to more effective treatments for herpetic keratitis. However, it is unlikely that operational latency in the cornea will be definitively proven unless a new method with higher sensitivity for the detection of infectious virus is developed.

  15. [The cornea: stasis and dynamics].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Teruo

    2008-03-01

    of dynamic network systems-including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions as well as cytokines and neural factors-that contribute to the maintenance of corneal transparency and shape. III. Disruption of network systems: persistent corneal epithelial defects and corneal ulcer. Selection of the appropriate treatment for pathologic lesions of the cornea and the accompanying decrease in visual acuity requires localization of the lesion with regard to the epithelium, stroma, or endothelium of the cornea. In certain instances, however, it is not possible to determine the cause of the problem within the cornea. In such cases, the cause of the pathologic lesion and the target for treatment may lie in the surrounding tissues or environment. For example, corneal epithelial wound healing may be delayed, leading to the development of persistent epithelial defects, as a result of disruption of intercellular junctions between epithelial cells, an abnormality of the corneal basement membrane, altered concentrations of various cytokines in tear fluid, a lowered corneal sensation, or allergic reactions in the lid conjunctiva. Loss of corneal epithelial barrier function can further allow inflammatory cytokines present in tear fluid, together with infiltrated cells, to activate keratocytes and elicit excessive degradation of collagen in the stroma, thereby giving rise to corneal ulcer. IV. Development of new drugs for corneal diseases. We have attempted to apply the results of basic scientific research to the development of new drugs for corneal diseases that remain difficult to treat. The process of authorization for new drugs from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare takes more than two decades, however. The path from the bench to clinical practice is thus a long one. 1. Development of eyedrops for treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defects. We demonstrated the clinical efficacy of fibronectin eyedrops for the treatment of persistent epithelial defects

  16. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  17. Cyanoacrylate glue for type iii lad perforation.

    PubMed

    Trehan, V K; Nigam, Arima

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation especially type III is a rare and catastrophic complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. It mandates emergency open heart surgery if hemostasis is not achieved promptly. We report a case of type III left anterior descending artery (LAD) perforation which was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue.

  18. The cornea in classic type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: macro- and microstructural changes.

    PubMed

    Villani, Edoardo; Garoli, Elena; Bassotti, Alessandra; Magnani, Fabrizio; Tresoldi, Laura; Nucci, Paolo; Ratiglia, Roberto

    2013-12-11

    To analyze in vivo corneal morphology and ultrastructural features in patients with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Fifty patients with classic EDS and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. A clinical evaluation was made with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and a complete ophthalmic examination, including assessment of the best-corrected visual acuity and refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tear break-up time, intraocular pressure, Schirmer test without topical anesthesia, and corneal diameter. Scheimpflug camera topography and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) were used to investigate corneal morphology and corneal ultrastructural features respectively. Classic EDS patients, compared to controls, had thinner and steeper corneas (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively; independent samples t-test). IVCM showed thinner stromas, lower keratocyte densities (P < 0.001), increased applanation-related stromal folds (P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test), and increased endothelial hyperreflective dots (P < 0.05) in these patients. The study group also had increased symptoms (OSDI score: P < 0.01, independent samples t-test) and signs (tear break-up time and Schirmer test: P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) of tear film dysfunction. Patients with classic EDS had macro- and microstructural changes of the cornea, which is a target tissue of the disease. These findings should be considered to optimize clinical management of these patients and to evaluate the opportunity of adding ocular findings to the classic EDS diagnostic criteria.

  19. Characteristics of Reconstituted Tight Junctions After Corneal Epithelial Wounds and Ultrastructure Alterations of Corneas in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenchen; Liao, Rongfeng; Wang, Feng; Tang, Songtao

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of reconstituted tight junctions after corneal epithelial wounds and ultrastructure alterations of corneas in a high-fat diet combined with streptozocin (STZ)-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). One-hundred Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into diabetic and normal control groups (n = 50 each). A high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal STZ injection was used to induce type 2 DM. Wound healing was determined using an in vivo corneal epithelial debridement model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study differences in corneal epithelium between diabetic and normal rats. The rate of corneal wound healing was observed by fluorescein and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Diabetic and healthy rats were sacrificed before debridement and 16, 48, 72, and 120 hours afterwards for Western blot and immunofluorescence. Corneal epithelial cell connection abnormalities, dropsy, and microvillus reduction were evident by SEM. Corneal epithelial wound closure rates were decreased in diabetic rats compared with normal rats. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis demonstrated that occludin expression in the corneal epithelium of the diabetic group was weaker compared to the normal group at the 16 and 48 hour time-points after debridement. Abnormal occludin expression may contribute to delayed epithelial wound healing in diabetic corneas.

  20. Type III polyketide synthases in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are simple homodimers of ketosynthases which catalyze the condensation of one to several molecules of extender substrate onto a starter substrate through iterative decarboxylative Claisen condensation reactions. Type III PKSs have been found in bacteria and fungi, as well as plants. Microbial type III PKSs, which are involved in the biosynthesis of some lipidic compounds and various secondary metabolites, have several interesting characteristics that are not shared by plant type III PKSs. Further, many compounds produced by microbial type III PKSs have significant biological functions and/or important pharmaceutical activities. Thus, studies on this class of enzymes will expand our knowledge of the biosynthetic machineries that generate natural products and generate new findings about microbial physiology. The recent development of next-generation DNA sequencing has allowed for an increase in the number of microbial genomes sequenced and the discovery of many microbial type III PKS genes. Here, we describe basic methods to study microbial type III PKSs whose genes are easy to clone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact analysis of Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbis, P.P.

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III into a nonyielding target at 46 m.p.h. and 30 m.p.h., and into a yielding target at 46 m.p.h. is presented. The analysis considers the structural response of the tiedown system which secures the Minuteman III re-entry system to the floor of the payload transporter. A finite element model of the re-entry system, its tiedown system, which includes tie-rods and shear pins, and the pallet plate which is attached to the transporter floating plate, was constructed. Because accelerations of the payload transporter are not known, acceleration data from one-quarter scale testing of the Safe Secure Trailer was used to investigate the response of the tiedown system. These accelerations were applied to the pallet plate. The ABAQUS computer code was used to predict the forces in the members of the tiedown system.

  2. The Use of Human Cornea Organotypic Cultures to Study Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Drevets, Peter; Chucair-Elliott, Ana; Shrestha, Priyadarsini; Jinkins, Jeremy; Karamichos, Dimitrios; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the utility of human organotypic cornea cultures as a model to study HSV-1-induced inflammation and neovascularization. Methods Human organotypic cornea cultures were established after retrieving the cornea with intact limbus from donated whole globes. One cornea culture was infected with HSV-1 (104 plaque forming units) while the other cornea from the same donor was mock-infected. Supernatants were collected at times post culture with and without infection to determine viral titer (by plaque assay) and pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration by suspension array analysis. In some experiments, the cultured corneas were collected and evaluated for HSV-1 antigen by immunohistochemical means. Another set of experiments measured susceptibility of human 3-dimensional cornea fibroblast constructs in the presence and absence of TGF-β1 to HSV-1 infection in terms of viral replication and the inflammatory response to infection as a comparison to the organotypic cornea cultures. Results Organotypic cornea cultures and 3-dimensional fibroblast constructs were susceptible to HSV-1 with varying degrees. Fibroblast constructs were more susceptible to infection in terms of infectious virus recovered in a shorter period of time. There were changes in the levels of select pro-angiogenic or pro-inflammatory cytokines that were dictated as much by the cultures producing them as whether they were infected with HSV-1 or treated with TGF-β1. Conclusion The organotypic cornea and 3-dimensional fibroblast cultures are likely useful in the identification and short-term study of novel anti-viral compounds and virus replication but are limited in the study of the local immune response to infection. PMID:26047535

  3. Solidity of Type III Bernoulli Crossed Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrakchi, Amine

    2017-03-01

    We generalize a theorem of Chifan and Ioana by proving that for any, possibly type III, amenable von Neumann algebra A 0, any faithful normal state φ_0 and any discrete group {Γ}, the associated Bernoulli crossed product von Neumann algebra {M=(A_0,φ_0)^{overline{⊗} Γ} rtimes Γ} is solid relatively to L(Γ). In particular, if L(Γ) is solid then M is solid and if {Γ} is non-amenable and {A_0 ≠ C then M is a full prime factor. This gives many new examples of solid or prime type III factors. Following Chifan and Ioana, we also obtain the first examples of solid non-amenable type III equivalence relations.

  4. The structural and optical properties of type III human collagen biosynthetic corneal substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sally; Lewis, Phillip; Islam, M. Mirazul; Doutch, James; Sorensen, Thomas; White, Tomas; Griffith, May; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of clinically biocompatible, cell-free hydrogels comprised of synthetically cross-linked and moulded recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) with and without the incorporation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray scattering, spectroscopy and refractometry. These findings were examined alongside similarly obtained data from 21 human donor corneas. TEM demonstrated the presence of loosely bundled aggregates of fine collagen filaments within both RHCIII and RHCIII-MPC implants, which X-ray scattering showed to lack D-banding and be preferentially aligned in a uniaxial orientation throughout. This arrangement differs from the predominantly biaxial alignment of collagen fibrils that exists in the human cornea. By virtue of their high water content (90%), very fine collagen filaments (2–9 nm) and lack of cells, the collagen hydrogels were found to transmit almost all incident light in the visible spectrum. They also transmitted a large proportion of UV light compared to the cornea which acts as an effective UV filter. Patients implanted with these hydrogels should be cautious about UV exposure prior to regrowth of the epithelium and in-growth of corneal cells into the implants. PMID:26159106

  5. Type III functional response in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Sarnelle, Orlando; Wilson, Alan E

    2008-06-01

    The functional response of Daphnia, a common pelagic herbivore in lakes, was assessed with a combination of secondary and meta-analyses of published data and new data from an experiment conducted using very low food levels. Secondary analyses of literature data (28 studies, n = 239-393) revealed a significant positive influence of food concentration on Daphnia clearance rate at low food levels, i.e., evidence of an overall Type III functional response. This result was not an artifact of including data from Daphnia that were exhausted from prolonged food deprivation (more than three hours at very low food). Meta-analysis of Daphnia clearance rate vs. food concentration across a range of low food concentrations (eight studies) showed a significantly positive slope across studies, which also supports the presence of a Type III response. Congruent with these analyses of published data, the feeding experiment showed clear evidence of a Type III functional response for D. pulicaria feeding on Ankistrodesmus falcatus. Food levels at which Daphnia clearance rate declined with decreasing food were near the minimum resource requirement for Daphnia population maintenance at steady state (R*). We suggest that Type III responses are more common than previously believed, perhaps because of the relative paucity of observations at low food levels, and that reduced prey mortality at low phytoplankton densities could be a stabilizing mechanism for Daphnia-phytoplankton systems under resource scarcity.

  6. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. A catalog of interplanetary type III storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, S. E.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog describing the characteristics of all the interplanetary type III storms observed at kilometric wavelengths by the radio astronomy experiment on the ISEE-3 spacecraft between September 1978 and October 1982 is presented. Three-dimensional trajectories have been determined for about one-third of these storms using radio techniques. Solar coordinate and solar wind parameters derived from the trajectories are also tabulated. A statistical summary of the data is included.

  8. Type III-B rotaxane dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Watson K-W; Lee, Siu-Fung; Wong, Chi-Hin; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Kwan, Chak-Shing; Chak, Chun-Pong; Mendes, Paula M; Cheng, Christopher H K; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai

    2013-11-28

    Type III-B first generation [3]rotaxane and second generation [4]rotaxane dendrimers have been synthesized via (1) a modified copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC), (2) Glaser-Hay's acetylenic oxidative homo-coupling, and (3) amide formation. The dendron does not reveal obvious cytotoxicities in L929 fibroblast cells. The rotaxane dendrimers can capture ammonia and are switchable both in solution and on surfaces.

  9. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Context. Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Aims: Using events where the coronal radio emission above 100 MHz is exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited some long-standing questions regarding the relation between type III bursts and X-ray flares: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts? What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities? What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz? Methods: We analysed ten years of data from 2002 to 2011 starting with a selection of coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used X-ray flare information from RHESSI >6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28% of the initial sample of type III events. We then examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and whether there was an associated interplanetary radio signature in both radio and X-rays. Results: For our 321 events with radio and X-ray signatures, the X-ray emission at 6 keV usually lasted much longer than the groups of type III bursts at frequencies >100 MHz. The selected events were mostly associated with GOES B and C class flares. A weak correlation was found between the type III radio flux at frequencies below 327 MHz and the X-ray intensity at 25-50 keV, with an absence of events at high X-ray intensity and low type III radio flux. The weakness of the correlation is related to the coherent emission mechanism of radio type IIIs which can produce high radio fluxes by low density electron beams. Interplanetary type III bursts (<4 MHz) were observed for 54% of the events. The percentage of association increased when events were observed with 25-50 ke

  10. The type III effectors of Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    White, Frank F; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Koebnik, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    A review of type III effectors (T3 effectors) from strains of Xanthomonas reveals a growing list of candidate and known effectors based on functional assays and sequence and structural similarity searches of genomic data. We propose that the effectors and suspected effectors should be distributed into 39 so-called Xop groups reflecting sequence similarity. Some groups have structural motifs for putative enzymatic functions, and recent studies have provided considerable insight into the interaction with host factors in their function as mediators of virulence and elicitors of resistance for a few specific T3 effectors. Many groups are related to T3 effectors of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria, and several groups appear to have been exploited primarily by Xanthomonas species based on available data. At the same time, a relatively large number of candidate effectors remain to be examined in more detail with regard to their function within host cells.

  11. DECIMETRIC TYPE III BURSTS: GENERATION AND PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.; Yan, Y. H.

    2011-09-01

    Simulations are presented for decimetric type III radio bursts at 2f{sub p} , where f{sub p} is the local electron plasma frequency. The simulations show that 2f{sub p} radiation can be observed at Earth in two scenarios for the radiation's generation and propagation. In Scenario A, radiation is produced and propagates in warm plasmas in the lower corona that are caused by previous magnetic reconnection outflows and/or chromospheric evaporation. In Scenario B radiation is generated in normal plasmas, then due to its natural directivity pattern and refraction, radiation partly propagates into nearby regions, which are hot because of previous reconnection/evaporation. The profiles of plasma density n{sub e} (r) and electron temperature T{sub e} (r) in the lower corona (r - R{sub sun} {approx}< 100 Mm) are found to be crucial to whether radiation can be produced and escape at observable levels against the effects of free-free absorption, where r is the heliocentric distance. Significantly, the observed wide ranges of radiation properties (e.g., drift rates) require n{sub e} (r) with a large range of scale heights h{sub s} , consistent nonetheless for Scenario B with short observed EUV loops. This is relevant to problems with large h{sub s} inferred from tall EUV loops. The simulations suggest: (1) n{sub e} (r) with small h{sub s} , such as n{sub e} (r){proportional_to}(r - R{sub sun}){sup -2.38} for flaring regions, are unexpectedly common deep in the corona. This result is consistent with recent work on n{sub e} (r) for r {approx} (1.05-2)R{sub sun} extracted from observed metric type IIIs. (2) The dominance of reverse-slope bursts over normal bursts sometimes observed may originate from asymmetric reconnection/acceleration, which favors downgoing beams.

  12. Glomerular Collagen V Codeposition and Hepatic Perisinusoidal Collagen III Accumulation in Canine Collagen Type III Glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    Rørtveit, R; Reiten, M R; Lingaas, F; Sveri, S B; Brech, A; Espenes, A; Jansen, J H

    2015-11-01

    Collagen type III glomerulopathy, also known as collagenofibrotic glomerulopathy, is a rare renal disease of unknown pathogenesis. The disease occurs in humans and animals and is characterized by massive glomerular accumulations of collagen type III. In the present study, we describe a Drever dog litter affected by an early onset variant of this glomerular disease, where 4 of 9 puppies developed renal failure within 50 days of age. Necropsy specimens of kidney from the 4 affected cases were studied by light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry, and characteristic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of collagen type III glomerulopathy were found. In addition, 2 cases showed atypical epithelium in the collecting ducts of the medulla, so-called adenomatoid change. Immunohistochemistry of renal specimens from collagen type III glomerulopathy-affected dogs (n = 10) originating from two different dog strains, the Drever dogs and a mixed-breed strain, demonstrated that the deposited glomerular collagen is composed of a mixture of collagen III and collagen V. The distribution of the collagen V corresponded to the localization of collagen III; however, differences in staining intensity showed that collagen type III is the dominating component. Immunohistochemistry for collagen III (n = 9) and a transmission electron microscopic study (n = 1) showed hepatic perisinusoidal collagen type III deposition in affected cases from both dog strains. This is the first report documenting glomerular accumulations of collagen type V and perisinusoidal liver collagen III deposition in canine collagen type III glomerulopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Artificial corneas versus donor corneas for repeat corneal transplants

    PubMed Central

    Akpek, Esen K; Alkharashi, Majed; Hwang, Frank S; Ng, Sueko M; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals who have failed one or more full thickness penetrating keratoplasties (PKs) may be offered repeat corneal surgery using an artificial or donor cornea. An artificial or prosthetic cornea is known as a keratoprosthesis. Both donor and artificial corneal transplantations involve removal of the diseased and opaque recipient cornea (or the previously failed cornea) and replacement with another donor or prosthetic cornea. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of artificial versus donor corneas in individuals who have had one or more failed donor corneal transplantations. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2013, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 27 November 2013. Selection criteria Two review authors independently assessed reports from the electronic searches to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs). We resolved discrepancies by discussion or consultation with a third review author. Data collection and analysis For discussion purposes, we assessed findings from observational cohort studies and non-comparative case series. No data synthesis was performed. Main results We did not identify any RCTs or CCTs comparing artificial corneas with donor corneas for repeat corneal transplantations. Authors

  14. Novel type III effectors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David; Satanower, Shirley; Simovitch, Michal; Belnik, Yana; Zehavi, Meital; Yerushalmi, Gal; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Pupko, Tal; Banin, Ehud

    2015-03-17

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic and acute infections in immunocompromised patients. Most P. aeruginosa strains encode an active type III secretion system (T3SS), utilized by the bacteria to deliver effector proteins from the bacterial cell directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Four T3SS effectors have been discovered and extensively studied in P. aeruginosa: ExoT, ExoS, ExoU, and ExoY. This is especially intriguing in light of P. aeruginosa's ability to infect a wide range of hosts. We therefore hypothesized that additional T3SS effectors that have not yet been discovered are encoded in the genome of P. aeruginosa. Here, we applied a machine learning classification algorithm to identify novel P. aeruginosa effectors. In this approach, various types of data are integrated to differentiate effectors from the rest of the open reading frames of the bacterial genome. Due to the lack of a sufficient learning set of positive effectors, our machine learning algorithm integrated genomic information from another Pseudomonas species and utilized dozens of features accounting for various aspects of the effector coding genes and their products. Twelve top-ranking predictions were experimentally tested for T3SS-specific translocation, leading to the discovery of two novel T3SS effectors. We demonstrate that these effectors are not part of the injection structural complex and report initial efforts toward their characterization. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete toxic proteins, termed effectors, directly into the cytoplasm of the host cell. The activation of this secretion system is correlated with disease severity and patient death. Compared with many other T3SS-utilizing pathogenic bacteria, P. aeruginosa has a fairly limited arsenal of effectors that have been identified. This is in sharp contrast with the wide range of hosts that this bacterium can infect. The discovery of

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 1 induction of chemokine production is unrelated to viral load in the cornea but not in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carr, Daniel J J; Campbell, Iain L

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 elicits a strong host inflammatory response after corneal infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the production of chemokines induced by viral infection at sites known to harbor virus after ocular inoculation in order to determine the relationship between viral load and chemokine expression. Using highly resistant IFN-alpha1 transgenic mice whose transgene is under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter in comparison with the more sensitive wild-type counterparts, we compared the expression of chemokines versus the amount of infectious virus recovered from the anterior segment of the eye and nervous system. Consistent with our predicted outcome, the level of infectious virus recovered in the iris, trigeminal ganglia, and brainstem of resistant versus sensitive mice correlated with chemokine production; that is, the less virus recovered the less chemokine (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10) produced. In contrast to the nervous system and iris, there was no correlation between chemokine expression and level of infectious virus recovered in the cornea. We interpret these results as suggesting chemokine expression within the cornea in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection is driven by factors other than antigenic stimulation.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Induction of Chemokine Production is Unrelated to Virus Load in the Cornea but not in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Daniel J.J.; Campbell, Iain L.

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 elicits a strong host inflammatory response following corneal infection. The purpose of the current study was to compare the production of chemokines induced by virus infection at sites known to harbor virus following ocular inoculation in order to determine the relationship between virus load and chemokine expression. Using highly resistant IFN-α1 transgenic mice whose transgene is under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter in comparison to the more sensitive wild type counterparts, we compared the expression of chemokines versus the amount of infectious virus recovered from the anterior segment of the eye and nervous system. Consistent with our predicted outcome, the level of infectious virus recovered in the iris, trigeminal ganglia, and brain stem of resistant versus sensitive mice correlated with chemokine production; that is, the less virus recovered the less chemokine (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10) produced. In contrast to the nervous system and iris, there was no correlation between chemokine expression and level of infectious virus recovered in the cornea. We interpret these results to suggest chemokine expression within the cornea in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection is driven by factors other than antigenic stimulation. PMID:17201669

  17. Effects produced by different types of laser in cornea of Guinea pigs: Identification of a laser capable of producing superficial lesions without leaving scars.

    PubMed

    Suárez, A C; Suárez, M F; Crim, N; Monti, R; Urrets-Zavalía, J A; Serra, H M

    2015-10-01

    Climatic droplets keratopathy (CDK) is closely associated with superficial corneal erosions and lack of protective mechanisms against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) during a prolonged period of time. One of the difficulties in studying the pathogenic mechanisms involved in this human disease is the lack of an experimental animal model. In this paper, a study is conducted on the effects of 4 types of lasers at various powers and time conditions on the normal guinea pig corneas in order to select only one laser condition that reversibly injures the epithelium and superficial stroma, without leaving scarring. Damage was induced in the cornea of Guinea pigs using different powers and exposure times of 4 types of laser: argon, CO2, diode and Nd-Yag, and any injuries were evaluated by biomicroscopy (BM) and optical microscopy. Corneas from other normal animals were exposed to argon laser (350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter), and the induced alterations were studied at different times using BM, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only argon laser at 350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter produced epithelium and superficial stroma lesions. Some leukomas were observed by BM, and they disappeared by day 15. Corneal thickness measured by OCT decreased in the eyes treated with argon laser during the first week. Using TEM, different ultra structural alterations in corneal epithelium and stroma were observed during the early days, which disappeared by day 15. It was possible to develop reproducible corneal epithelium and anterior stroma injuries using Argon laser at 350 mW, 0.3s, 50 μm of diameter. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that injured corneas with these laser conditions did not leave irreversible microscopic or ultra structural alterations. This protocol of corneal erosion combined with exposure to UVR and partial deficiency of ascorbate in the diets of the animals for an extended period of time has been used in

  18. Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface evaluated by high-definition spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana G Alzaga; Radcliffe, Nathan M; Sippel, Kimberly C; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Sood, Priyanka; Starr, Christopher E; Ciralsky, Jessica B; D'Amico, Donald J; Kiss, Szilárd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resolution offered by two different, recently commercially available high-resolution, spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) instruments allows for detailed anatomic characterization of the critical device-donor cornea interface in eyes implanted with the Boston type I permanent keratoprosthesis. Eighteen eyes of 17 patients implanted with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis were included in this retrospective case series. All eyes were quantitatively evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT while a subset (five eyes) was also qualitatively imaged using the Spectralis Anterior Segment Module. Images from these instruments were analyzed for evidence of epithelial migration onto the anterior surface of the keratoprosthesis front plate, and presence of a vertical gap between the posterior surface of the front plate and the underlying carrier donor corneal tissue. Quantitative data was obtained utilizing the caliper function on the Cirrus HD-OCT. The mean duration between AS-OCT imaging and keratoprosthesis placement was 29 months. As assessed by the Cirrus HD-OCT, 83% of eyes exhibited epithelial migration over the edge of the front plate. Fifty-six percent of the keratoprosthesis devices displayed good apposition of the device with the carrier corneal donor tissue. When a vertical gap was present (44% of eyes), the mean gap was 40 (range 8-104) microns. The Spectralis Anterior Segment Module also displayed sufficient resolution to allow for similar characterization of the device-donor cornea interface. Spectral-domain AS-OCT permits high resolution imaging of the keratoprosthesis device-donor cornea interface. Both the Cirrus HD-OCT and the Spectralis Anterior Segment module allowed for visualization of epithelial coverage of the device-donor cornea interface, as well as identification of physical gaps. These imaging modalities, by yielding information in regard to integration of the

  19. Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction in Mushroom Growers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byoung-Whui; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Moon, Hee-Bom; Chang, Suk-II; Kang, Seock-Young; Kim, Sang-Jae; Kim, Sin-Ok

    1991-01-01

    Some respiratory symptoms in mushroom growers such as mushroom worker’s lung develop by inhalation of certain agents arising from the environment of mushroom cultivation. Recently we observed mushroom workers who had respiratory symptoms which might be type III hypersensitivity reaction to the antigen of Pleurotus floridae. We gave questionaires to all the mushroom growers at one of the biggest cultivation areas of mushrooms, Pleurotus floridae in Pocheon, Kyunggi Province. Those with respiratory symptoms were subjects for the study. CBC, chest X-ray, pulmonary function test, skin test with Pleurotus floridae extract, and precipitin antibody test to Pleurotus floridae were performed in the study subjects. Out of a total 308 mushroom workers, 23 workers (14 males, 9 females) had respiratory symptoms. Their mean age was 45 years, and their mean duration of engagement was 3.4 years. Their main symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (82.6%), dyspnea (43.5%), and fever with chills (13.0%). Two cases showed increased interstitial lung markings on chest X-ray films. Sixteen cases (73.9%) showed precipitin antibodies against P. floridae extract by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Antibodies against Micropolyspora faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris were not detected in any subject. PMID:1742253

  20. Type III Radio Bursts and Microflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, S.; Krucker, S.; Arzner, K.; Lin, R. P.

    2003-05-01

    We present recent observations of microflares observed simultaneously in EUV (TRACE), radio (Nancay, Phoenix-2), and X-rays (RHESSI). During a period of 15 min on 19 July 2002 14:23-14:35 UT, RHESSI observed microflares approximately every 2 minutes. Each microflare was accompagnied by a radio Type III burst. The largest flare (14:29:25 UT) was also accompagnied by a cluster of decimetric radio spikes in the frequency range 1 to 2 GHz. In addition, FeXII (195 Å) images provided by TRACE show two jets-like emissions originating from a complex double arche structure. The centroid of the jets were found to travel at apparent speeds of ˜ 100 km s-1, consistent with observations by Shimojo et al. (1996). X-ray images show non-thermal emission (9-30 keV) from the footpoints of the TRACE arches. Strong correlation in flux amplitude is found between emissions in the radio ( ˜1340 MHz) and non-thermal X-ray (9-30 keV integrated). The event is interpreted as an anemone-jet in the model by Shibata et al. (1994). This research is supported by NASA contract NAS 5-98033.

  1. Brittle cornea syndrome and its delineation from the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI): report on 23 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussain, Hailah; Zeisberger, Steffen M; Huber, Peter R; Giunta, Cecilia; Steinmann, Beat

    2004-01-01

    The brittle cornea syndrome (BCS) is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by corneal rupture following only minor trauma, keratoconus or keratoglobus, blue sclerae, hyperelasticity of the skin without excessive fragility, and hypermobility of the joints. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait but the underlying genetic defect remains undetermined. We present 23 patients (11 male) from 13 nuclear families followed at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, aged 3-28 years at last follow-up. A total of 28 events of corneal rupture were noted in 17 patients (eight male), among whom nine had had bilateral ruptures, and eight had had unilateral ruptures (four of the right cornea), while two had experienced re-rupture 2 and 4 years, respectively, after surgery; six patients (aged 3-21 years) had had no ruptures. We describe the natural history of our cases and discuss them together with those others reported in the literature. Because of similarities between the BCS and the kyphoscoliotic type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VI), both disorders tend to have been confounded. Here, we show that all of our BCS patients tested in this regard had biochemical findings reflective of normal activity of lysyl hydroxylase, characteristically deficient in EDS VI, such as normal urinary total pyridinoline ratios and/or normal electrophoretic migration of collagen chains produced by dermal fibroblasts. The BCS is, therefore, an entity distinct from the kyphoscoliotic type of EDS, which has a much poorer prognosis.

  2. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (<14 MHz) type III radio bursts have been reported to be indicative of solar energetic particle events. We measured the durations of type III bursts associated with large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The Type III durations are distributed symmetrically at 1 MHz yielding a mean value of approximately 33 min (median = 32 min) for the large SEP events. When the SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE,) are considered, the distribution is essentially unchanged (mean = 32 min, median = 30 min). To test the importance of type III bursts in indicating SEP events, we considered a set of six type III bursts from the same active region (AR 10588) whose durations fit the "long duration" criterion. We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type II radio bursts associated with the type III bursts. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type II burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type II burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  3. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  4. Immune cell infiltration and persistence in the mouse trigeminal ganglion after infection of the cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Shimeld, C; Whiteland, J L; Nicholls, S M; Grinfeld, E; Easty, D L; Gao, H; Hill, T J

    1995-08-01

    Following inoculation of the mouse cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the spread of virus was investigated and the types of immune cell infiltrating the trigeminal ganglion (TG) were identified in low temperature paraffin wax sections. Virus antigen was first found on day 3 and was absent after day 14. Early presentation of antigen to T cells may occur since increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, including de novo expression on satellite and Schwann cells, was detected in foci of such antigen on day 3. A second large peak of such expression was detected on day 10 together with increasing numbers of B and T cells. Large numbers of these lymphocytes and extensive expression of MHC class II were seen in the TG well into the phase of virus latency; the significance of this is discussed.

  5. Comparison of Type I, Type III, and Type VI Collagen Binding Assays in Diagnosis of VWD

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Veronica H.; Gill, Joan Cox; Christopherson, Pamela A.; Wren, Jeffrey S.; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Haberichter, Sandra L.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Montgomery, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in coagulation by tethering platelets to injured subendothelium through binding sites for collagen and platelet GPIb. Collagen binding assays (VWF:CB), however, are not part of the routine workup for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Objectives This study presents data on collagen binding for healthy controls and VWD subjects to compare three different collagens. Patients/Methods VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity, and VWF:CB with types I, III, and VI collagen were examined for samples obtained from the Zimmerman Program. Results Mean VWF:CB in healthy controls was similar and highly correlated for types I, III, and VI collagen. The mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III, and VI collagen were 1.31, 1.19, and 1.21 respectively. In type 1 VWD subjects, VWF:CB was similar to VWF:Ag with mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III, and VI collagen of 1.32, 1.08, and 1.1 respectively. For type 2A and 2B subjects, VWF:CB was uniformly low, with mean ratios of 0.62 and 0.7 for type I collagen, 0.38 and 0.4 for type III collagen, and 0.5 and 0.47 for type VI collagen. Conclusions Normal ranges for type I, III, and VI collagen are correlated, but higher values were obtained with type I collagen as compared to types III and VI. The low VWF:CB in type 2A and 2B subjects suggests that VWF:CB may also supplement analysis of multimer distribution. However, these results reflect only one set of assay conditions per collagen type and therefore may not be generalizable to all collagen assays. PMID:22507643

  6. 46 CFR 171.075 - Subdivision requirements-Type III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subdivision requirements-Type III. 171.075 Section 171...—Type III. (a) Each vessel must be shown by design calculations to comply with the requirements of... Organization (IMO). (b) International Maritime Organization Resolution A.265 (VIII) is incorporated...

  7. The Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 from Trigeminal Neurons to the Murine Cornea: an Immunoelectron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Peter T.; Chin, Marian S.; LaVail, Jennifer H.

    2000-01-01

    An animal model has been developed to clarify the mechanism for spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuron to epithelial cells in herpetic epithelial keratitis. HSV was introduced into the murine trigeminal ganglion via stereotaxic guided injection. After 2 to 5 days, the animals were euthanized. Ganglia and corneas were prepared for light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry with antisera to HSV. At 2 days, labeled axons were identified in the stromal layer. At 3 days, we could detect immunoreactive profiles of trigeminal ganglion cell axons that contained many vesicular structures. By 3 and 4 days, the infection had spread to all layers of epithelium, and the center of a region of infected epithelium appeared thinned. At 5 day, fewer basal cells appeared infected, although infection persisted in superficial cells where it had expanded laterally. Mature HSV was found in the extracellular space surrounding wing and squamous cells. Viral antigen was expressed in small pits along the apical surfaces of wing and squamous cells but not at the basal surface of these cells or on basal cells. This polarized expression of viral antigen resulted in the spread of HSV to superficial cells and limited lateral spread to neighboring basal cells. The pathogenesis of HSV infection in these mice may serve as a model of the human recurrent epithelial disease in the progression of focal sites of infection and transfer from basal to superficial cells. PMID:10775616

  8. The spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 from trigeminal neurons to the murine cornea: an immunoelectron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ohara, P T; Chin, M S; LaVail, J H

    2000-05-01

    An animal model has been developed to clarify the mechanism for spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuron to epithelial cells in herpetic epithelial keratitis. HSV was introduced into the murine trigeminal ganglion via stereotaxic guided injection. After 2 to 5 days, the animals were euthanized. Ganglia and corneas were prepared for light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry with antisera to HSV. At 2 days, labeled axons were identified in the stromal layer. At 3 days, we could detect immunoreactive profiles of trigeminal ganglion cell axons that contained many vesicular structures. By 3 and 4 days, the infection had spread to all layers of epithelium, and the center of a region of infected epithelium appeared thinned. At 5 day, fewer basal cells appeared infected, although infection persisted in superficial cells where it had expanded laterally. Mature HSV was found in the extracellular space surrounding wing and squamous cells. Viral antigen was expressed in small pits along the apical surfaces of wing and squamous cells but not at the basal surface of these cells or on basal cells. This polarized expression of viral antigen resulted in the spread of HSV to superficial cells and limited lateral spread to neighboring basal cells. The pathogenesis of HSV infection in these mice may serve as a model of the human recurrent epithelial disease in the progression of focal sites of infection and transfer from basal to superficial cells.

  9. Structure-function analyses of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Noel, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) form a superfamily of biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of a plethora of polyketide-derived natural products important for ecological adaptations and the fitness of land plants. Moreover, tremendous interest in bioengineering of type III PKSs to produce high-value compounds is increasing. Compared to type I and type II PKSs, which form either large modular protein complexes or dissociable molecular assemblies, type III PKSs exist as smaller homodimeric proteins, technically more amenable for detailed quantitative biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. In this chapter, we summarize a collection of approaches, including bioinformatics, genetics, protein crystallography, in vitro biochemistry, and mutagenesis, together affording a comprehensive interrogation of the structure-function-evolutionary relationships in the plant type III PKS family.

  10. Fine structures of type III radio bursts observed by LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdalenic, Jasmina; Marque, Christophe; Fallows, Richard; Mann, Gottfried; Vocks, Christian

    2017-04-01

    On August 25, 2014, NOAA AR 2146 produced the M2.0 class flare (peaked at 15:11 UT). The flare was associated with a coronal dimming, a EUV wave, a halo CME and a radio event observed by LOFAR (the LOw-Frequency Array). The radio event consisted of a type II, type III and type IV radio emissions. In this study, we focus on LOFAR observations of the type III bursts, generally considered to be radio signatures of fast electron beams propagating along open or quasi open field lines. The group of type III bursts was, as usually, observed during the impulsive phase of the flare. At first hand, type III bursts show no peculiarity, but the high frequency/time resolution LOFAR observations reveal that only few of these type III bursts have a smooth emission profile. The majority of bursts is strongly fragmented. Some show a structuring similar to type IIIb bursts, but on a smaller frequency scale, and others show a non-organized patchy structure which gives indication on the possibly related turbulence processes. Although fine structures of type III bursts were already reported, the wealth of fine structures, and the fragmentation of the radio emission observed in this August 25 event is unprecedented. We show that these LOFAR observations bring completely new insight and pose a new challenge for the physics of the acceleration of electron beams and associated emission processes.

  11. Cornea and ocular surface treatment.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Fuentes-Julian, Sherezade; de Benito-Llopis, Laura; Amparo, Francisco; Bataille, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In addition to being a protective shield, the cornea represents two thirds of the eye's refractive power. Corneal pathology can affect one or all of the corneal layers, producing corneal opacity. Although full corneal thickness keratoplasty has been the standard procedure, the ideal strategy would be to replace only the damaged layer. Current difficulties in corneal transplantation, mainly immune rejection and shortage of organ supply, place more emphasis on the development of artificial corneas. Bioengineered corneas range from prosthetic devices that solely address the replacement of the corneal function, to tissue-engineered hydrogels that allow regeneration of the tissue. Recently, major advances in the biology of corneal stem cells have been achieved. However, the therapeutic use of these stem cell types has the disadvantage of needing an intact stem cell compartment, which is usually damaged. In addition, long ex vivo culture is needed to generate enough cell numbers for transplantation. In the near future, combination of advanced biomaterials with cells from abundant outer sources will allow advances in the field. For the former, magnetically aligned collagen is one of the most promising ones. For the latter, different cell types will be optimal: 1) for epithelial replacement: oral mucosal epithelium, ear epidermis, or bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells, 2) for stromal regeneration: adipose-derived stem cells and 3) for endothelial replacement, the possibility of in vitro directed differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells towards endothelial cells provides an exciting new approach.

  12. Implantation of hydroxyapatite-titanium corneal implants in rat cornea.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin Dong; Xiao, Ma; Fei, Huang Yi

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (HA/Ti) corneal implants at the molecular levels with histopathology. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 equal groups. In the study group, HA/Ti prosthetics were implanted into the right corneal stroma. The control group received a sham incision. Corneas were collected and studied with histopathological examination (HE), immunohistochemical, and other stains, including scanned electron microscopy and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, to evaluate inflammatory reactions, tissue repair, and expression of various biological factors during healing. In the control group, corneal neovascularization occurred 7 days after surgery, and the corneas recovered 28 days after surgery. In the study group, corneal vascularization increased substantially on day 7 and stabilized on day 28. For both groups, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected expressions of 6 primers at all time points. The amplified sequences were consistent with the designed sequences. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor, and type III collagen were delayed in the study group compared with the control group. Histological analyses showed a tight attachment of the corneal tissue to the HA/Ti implant on day 28. The HA/Ti corneal implants can remain stable in corneal tissue for a long time, induce corneal neovascularization, and stimulate inflammatory cells and keratocytes to synthesize or activate matrix metalloproteinases. Artificial cornea made from this material show enhanced stability and biocompatibility in vivo.

  13. Extrapyramidal Symptoms and Medication Use in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchan, Michel C.; Sillence, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: We report the case of a 16-year-old male with Mucopolysaccharidosis III type A (Sanfilippo syndrome) who was commenced on risperidone for behaviour management. He rapidly developed extrapyramidal symptoms that have not resolved. Method: The medication histories of 20 patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis III seen at a Lysosomal Storage…

  14. Extrapyramidal Symptoms and Medication Use in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchan, Michel C.; Sillence, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: We report the case of a 16-year-old male with Mucopolysaccharidosis III type A (Sanfilippo syndrome) who was commenced on risperidone for behaviour management. He rapidly developed extrapyramidal symptoms that have not resolved. Method: The medication histories of 20 patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis III seen at a Lysosomal Storage…

  15. Glycogen storage disease type III diagnosis and management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Priya S; Austin, Stephanie L; Arn, Pamela; Bali, Deeksha S; Boney, Anne; Case, Laura E; Chung, Wendy K; Desai, Dev M; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Haller, Ronald; Smit, G Peter A; Smith, Alastair D; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Weinstein, David A; Watson, Michael S

    2010-07-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III is a rare disease of variable clinical severity affecting primarily the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. It is caused by deficient activity of glycogen debranching enzyme, which is a key enzyme in glycogen degradation. Glycogen storage disease type III manifests a wide clinical spectrum. Individuals with glycogen storage disease type III present with hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Those with type IIIa have symptoms related to liver disease and progressive muscle (cardiac and skeletal) involvement that varies in age of onset, rate of disease progression, and severity. Those with type IIIb primarily have symptoms related to liver disease. This guideline for the management of glycogen storage disease type III was developed as an educational resource for health care providers to facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients. An international group of experts in various aspects of glycogen storage disease type III met to review the evidence base from the scientific literature and provided their expert opinions. Consensus was developed in each area of diagnosis, treatment, and management. This management guideline specifically addresses evaluation and diagnosis across multiple organ systems (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal/nutrition, hepatic, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular) involved in glycogen storage disease type III. Conditions to consider in a differential diagnosis stemming from presenting features and diagnostic algorithms are discussed. Aspects of diagnostic evaluation and nutritional and medical management, including care coordination, genetic counseling, hepatic transplantation, and prenatal diagnosis, are addressed. A guideline that will facilitate the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of individuals with glycogen storage disease type III was developed. This guideline will help health care providers recognize patients with all forms of

  16. Numerical Simulation of the Propagation of Type III Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkevych, B. P.; Melnik, V. N.

    Recently solar Type III bursts with fine time structure have been observed by radio telescope UTR-2 at frequencies 10 - 30 MHz. For the first time Type III-like bursts with high frequency drift rates were observed at these frequencies too. All this became possible due to both high sensitivity and high time resolution of UTR-2. The properties of decameter Type III bursts can be understood if we take into account the spatial dependence of the electromagnetic wave group velocity as well as the fine spatial structure of the cloud of fast electrons responsible for Type III bursts. These effects are considered numerically in this paper. The fine time structure of Type III bursts is shown to be observed in the days when the associated active region is situated near the central meridian. In other days such structures disappeared. The Type III-like bursts with frequency drift rates of 10 - 20 MHz/s should also be observed, when the associated active region is near the central meridian. These peculiarities are confirmed by observations.

  17. Why does the healthy cornea resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection?

    PubMed

    Evans, David J; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2013-06-01

    To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa. We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid, and the corneal epithelium that determines health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P aeruginosa infection. Use of "null-infection" in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P aeruginosa survives at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type III secretion system, proteases, and P aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. After more than 2 decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological and biochemical analysis of intact and opaque cornea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Masamitsu; Igarashi, Osamu; Nagayasu, Aya; Minaguchi, Jun; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige

    2010-08-01

    The arrangement of collagen fibrils and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in substantia propria are important for maintaining transparency of the cornea. Interferences in collagen fibrils and GAG production could be adversative to corneal integrity. In this study, six dogs consisting of four Beagles with normal cornea (normal), one Beagles with opaque cornea (sample No. 1) and one Shih Tzu with neovascularization opaque cornea (sample No.2) were used. All samples were observed morphologically by light and electron microscopes to obtain diameter and distribution of collagen fibrils in substantia propria and were performed biochemically to investigate into GAGs and collagen types. The average diameter of collagen fibrils in the intact cornea of normal, sample No.1 and No.2 was 33.2, 35.0 and 25.0 nm, respectively. The percentage of matrix per unit area was 67% in normal, 87% in sample No.1 and 28.3% in sample No.2. The type III collagen ratio was 25.3% in normal, 21.3% in sample No.1 and 35.8% in sample No.2. The relative amount of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and keratin sulfate was 1.5, 9.7, 51.1 and 37.7% in normal, 3.3, 26.0, 45.7 and 23.7% in sample No.1 and 1.2, 18.0, 16.6 and 54.1% in sample No.2. Hyaluronic acid was found only in sample No.1 with a relative amount of 1.3%. Since there was some relationship between collagen formation and GAGs composition, it might be speculated that disturbance in arrangement of collagen fibrils and GAG metabolism especially in substantia propria would bring up opacity of the cornea.

  19. The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes

    PubMed Central

    Henneman, Peter; van der Sman-de Beer, Femke; Moghaddam, Payman Hanifi; Huijts, Petra; Stalenhoef, Anton FH; Kastelein, John JP; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Havekes, Louis M; Frants, Rune R; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smelt, Augustinus HM

    2009-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic lipase) and LPL (lipoprotein lipase) genes. In addition, 188 normolipidemic Dutch control panels (NDCP) and 141 hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients were genotyped as well. No associations were found for four HL gene polymorphisms and two LPL gene polymorphisms and type III HLP. The frequency of the rare allele of APOC3 3238 G>C and APOA5 −1131 T>C (in linkage disequilibrium) was significantly higher in type III HLP patients when compared with normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, 15.6 vs 6.9% and 15.1 vs 5.8%, respectively, (P<0.05). Furthermore, the frequencies of the APOA5 c.56 G>C polymorphism and LPL c.27 G>A mutation were higher in type III HLP patients, though not significant. Some 58% of the type III HLP patients carried either the APOA5 −1131 T>C, c.56 G>C and/or LPL c.27 G>A mutation as compared to 27% of the normolipidemic APOE2/2 subjects (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval=1.8–7.5, P<0.0001). The HTG patients showed similar allele frequencies of the APOA5, APOC3 and LPL polymorphisms, whereas the NDCP showed similar allele frequencies as the normolipidemic APOE2/2. Patients with the APOC3 3238 G>C/APOA5 −1131 T>C polymorphism showed a more severe hyperlipidemia than patients without this polymorphism. Polymorphisms in lipolysis genes associate with the expression and severity of type III HLP in APOE2/2. PMID:19034316

  20. Effects of inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) by amiloride in the cornea and tear fluid of eyes irradiated with UVB.

    PubMed

    Cejková, J; Cejka, C; Zvárová, J

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that amiloride, a specific u-PA inhibitor, effectively decreases u-PA activity in cornea as well as in tear fluid and favourably affects corneal healing. Therefore, comparative histochemical and biochemical studies of u-PA and the effects of amiloride were performed on rabbit corneas and tear fluid using the sensitive fluorogenic substrate Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin. Rabbit eyes were repeatedly irradiated with UVB for 9 days and during the irradiation topically treated with amiloride (1 mg/ml saline) or placebo (saline) (dropwise, 5 times daily). Results show that in placebo-treated eyes, UVB evoked the appearance of u-PA activity in cornea and tear fluid in early stages of irradiation, and u-PA levels increased during irradiation. Corneal epithelium was gradually lost and remnants of the epithelium as well as keratocytes in the upper part of corneal stroma showed high u-PA activity. Finally, corneas lost their epithelium completely. In corneal stroma, numerous u-PA-containing inflammatory cells were present. Corneas were vascularized. When amiloride was dropped on the eye surface on the first day of irradiation and subsequently daily until the end of the experiment, u-PA activity in both cornea and tear fluid was strongly inhibited. Corneas were covered with a continuous epithelium until the end of the experiment. The number of inflammatory cells was significantly decreased. Corneal vascularization was reduced by 50%. In conclusion, early application of amiloride inhibited u-PA activity in UVB-irradiated corneas as well as in tear fluid and diminished the development of corneal pathology.

  1. Ectopic expression of DNA encoding IFN-alpha 1 in the cornea protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 1-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Noisakran, S; Campbell, I L; Carr, D J

    1999-04-01

    A novel approach to combat acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has recently been developed by administration with a plasmid DNA construct encoding cytokine genes. Cytokines, especially type I IFNs (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) play an important role in controlling acute HSV-1 infection. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential efficacy of ectopically expressed IFN-alpha 1 against ocular HSV-1 infection following in situ transfection of mouse cornea with a naked IFN-alpha 1-containing plasmid DNA. Topical administration of the IFN-alpha 1 plasmid DNA exerted protection against ocular HSV-1 challenge in a time- and dose-dependent manner and antagonized HSV-1 reactivation. In addition, IFN-alpha 1-transfected eyes expressed a fivefold increase in MHC class I mRNA over vector-treated controls. The protective efficacy of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene antagonized viral replication, as evidenced by the reduction of the viral gene transcripts (infected cell polypeptide 27, thymidine kinase, and viral protein 16) and viral load in eyes and trigeminal ganglia during acute infection. The administration of neutralizing Ab to IFN-alpha beta antagonized the protective effect of the IFN-alpha 1 transgene in mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of using naked plasmid DNA transfection in the eye to achieve ectopic gene expression of therapeutically active agents.

  2. Type III CRISPR complexes from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Szychowska, Marta; Siwek, Wojciech; Pawolski, Damian; Kazrani, Asgar Abbas; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Bochtler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen-specific acquired immunity in bacteria is mediated by the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas systems. Thermus thermophilus strain HB8 contains CRISPR systems of several major subtypes (type I, IIIA and IIIB), and has become a widely studied model for CRISPR biology. We have selected two highly expressed CRISPR spacers, crRNA 2.1 and crRNA 2.2, and have enriched endogenous T. thermophilus proteins that co-purify with these crRNAs. Mass spectroscopy indicates that the chromatography protocol enriches predominantly Csm complex subunits, but also Cmr subunits. After several chromatographic steps, size exclusion chromatography indicated a molecular mass of the crRNA associated complex of 265±69 kDa. In agreement with earlier work, crRNAs of different lengths (containing the selected spacers) were observed. Most of these were completely lost when several T. thermophilus csm genes were ablated.

  3. Gamma-Irradiated Sterile Cornea for Use in Corneal Transplants in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Junko; Heflin, Thomas; Zambrano, Andrea; Pan, Qing; Meng, Huan; Wang, Jiangxia; Stark, Walter J.; Daoud, Yassine J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Gamma irradiated corneas in which the donor keratocytes and endothelial cells are eliminated are effective as corneal lamellar and glaucoma patch grafts. In addition, gamma irradiation causes collagen cross inking, which stiffens collagen fibrils. This study evaluated gamma irradiated corneas for use in corneal transplantations in a rabbit model comparing graft clarity, corneal neovascularization, and edema. Methods: Penetrating keratoplasty was performed on rabbits using four types of corneal grafts: Fresh cornea with endothelium, gamma irradiated cornea, cryopreserved cornea, and fresh cornea without endothelium. Slit lamp examination was performed at postoperative week (POW) one, two, and four. Corneal clarity, edema, and vascularization were graded. Confocal microscopy and histopathological evaluation were performed. A P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: For all postoperative examinations, the corneal clarity and edema were statistically significantly better in eyes that received fresh cornea with endothelium compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). At POW 1, gamma irradiated cornea scored better than the cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium groups in clarity (0.9 vs. 1.5 and 2.6, respectively), and edema (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 2.0, respectively). The gamma irradiated corneas, cryopreserved corneas and the fresh corneas without endothelium, developed haze and edema after POW 2. Gamma irradiated cornea remained statistically significantly clearer than cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium during the observation period (P < 0.05). Histopathology indicated an absence of keratocytes in gamma irradiated cornea. Conclusion: Gamma irradiated corneas remained clearer and thinner than the cryopreserved cornea and fresh cornea without endothelium. However, this outcome is transient. Gamma irradiated corneas are useful for lamellar and patch grafts, but cannot be used for penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:26180475

  4. Gamma-Irradiated Sterile Cornea for Use in Corneal Transplants in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junko; Heflin, Thomas; Zambrano, Andrea; Pan, Qing; Meng, Huan; Wang, Jiangxia; Stark, Walter J; Daoud, Yassine J

    2015-01-01

    Gamma irradiated corneas in which the donor keratocytes and endothelial cells are eliminated are effective as corneal lamellar and glaucoma patch grafts. In addition, gamma irradiation causes collagen cross inking, which stiffens collagen fibrils. This study evaluated gamma irradiated corneas for use in corneal transplantations in a rabbit model comparing graft clarity, corneal neovascularization, and edema. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed on rabbits using four types of corneal grafts: Fresh cornea with endothelium, gamma irradiated cornea, cryopreserved cornea, and fresh cornea without endothelium. Slit lamp examination was performed at postoperative week (POW) one, two, and four. Corneal clarity, edema, and vascularization were graded. Confocal microscopy and histopathological evaluation were performed. A P < 0.05 was statistically significant. For all postoperative examinations, the corneal clarity and edema were statistically significantly better in eyes that received fresh cornea with endothelium compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). At POW 1, gamma irradiated cornea scored better than the cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium groups in clarity (0.9 vs. 1.5 and 2.6, respectively), and edema (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 2.0, respectively). The gamma irradiated corneas, cryopreserved corneas and the fresh corneas without endothelium, developed haze and edema after POW 2. Gamma irradiated cornea remained statistically significantly clearer than cryopreserved and fresh cornea without endothelium during the observation period (P < 0.05). Histopathology indicated an absence of keratocytes in gamma irradiated cornea. Gamma irradiated corneas remained clearer and thinner than the cryopreserved cornea and fresh cornea without endothelium. However, this outcome is transient. Gamma irradiated corneas are useful for lamellar and patch grafts, but cannot be used for penetrating keratoplasty.

  5. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  6. Type III source locations as inferred from stereoscopic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Lammer, Helmut; Al-Haddad, Eimad; Hammoud, Muhamed; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Lichtenegger, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    We study the Type III solar bursts simultaneously recorded by radio experiments onboard Cassini, Ulysses and Wind. Those radio bursts cover a large frequency range from about 14 MHz to a few kHz. The corresponding source locations are mainly in the solar corona and the interplanetary medium. The empirical electron density models provide different distances depending on the emission mode, fundamental or harmonic. A real trouble arises due to the distance discrepancies, as inferred from the models. Also the Archimedean spiral trajectories of the electrons, at the origin of the Type III bursts, are another difficulty to correctly estimate the source locations. We show in our analysis that the stereoscopic observations are essential to reduce the source location inaccuracy. We finally discuss the relationship between the Type III beams, the emission modes and the source locations.

  7. [Reconstructive surgery of Blauth type III hypoplasia of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Foucher, G; Gazarian, A; Pajardi, G

    1999-01-01

    Thumb hypoplasia type III according to Blauth remains a rare congenital malformation. Recently Manske has promoted reconstruction versus pollicization in the sub-type IIIA where a first carpometacarpal joint is present. However we felt that pollicization is the solution for sub-type IIB where the basal joint is absent. We have reviewed 14 cases of thumb hypoplasia type III, four of them being type IIIB. After performing a first step with a free vascularized second metatarso-phalangeal joint transfer, the secondary steps were identical in both sub-groups. After a mean follow up of five years, no great difference was found in the two sub-groups and basal stability was even better in type IIIB. However the results were functionally and cosmetically inferior to the ones observed after pollicization. When the relatives refuse pollicization or the patient consults late for functional improvement, reconstruction remains worthwhile.

  8. STUDIES ON THE CORNEA

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Gordon I.; Pappas, George D.

    1962-01-01

    Physiological studies have demonstrated that ions, as well as large molecules such as hemoglobin or fluorescein, can diffuse across and within the cornea. Most of the substrates for corneal metabolism are obtained from aqueous humor filling the anterior chamber. In order to receive its nutrients and in order to maintain its normal conditions of hydration, the avascular cornea must transport relatively large amounts of solute and solvent across the cellular layers which cover this structure. It has been suggested in the past that there may be a morphological basis for the transport of large amounts of solvents and solutes by cells by the mechanism of pinocytosis. The use of electron-opaque markers to study fluid movements at the electron microscope magnification level was described by Wissig (29). The present study describes the fine structure of the normal rabbit cornea and the pathways of transport of colloidal particles by the cornea in vivo. Rabbit corneas were exposed in vivo to suspensions of saccharated iron oxide, thorium dioxide, or ferritin by injection of the material into the anterior chamber. In other experiments thorium dioxide or saccharated iron oxide was injected into the corneal stroma, producing a small bleb. Particles presented at the aqueous humor surface of the rabbit corneal endothelium are first attached to the cell surface and then pinocytosed. It appears that the particles are carried around the terminal bar by an intracellular pathway involving the pinocytosis of the particles and their subsequent transport in vesicles to the lateral cell margin basal to the terminal bar. Particles introduced at the basal surface of the endothelium (via blebs in the corneal stroma) are apparently carried through the endothelial cells in membrane-bounded vesicles without appearing in the intercellular space. There appears to be free diffusion of these particles through Descemet's membrane and the corneal stroma. The stromal cells take up large quantities of

  9. The general solution of Bianchi type III vacuum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Terzis, Petros A.

    2007-02-01

    The second-order ordinary differential equation which describes the unknown part of the solution space of some vacuum Bianchi cosmologies is completely integrated for type III, thus obtaining the general solution to Einstein's field equations for this case, with the aid of the sixth Painlevé transcendent PVI. For particular representations of PVI we obtain the known Kinnersley two-parameter spacetime and a solution of Euclidean signature. The imposition of the spacetime generalization of a 'hidden' symmetry of the generic type III spatial slice enables us to retrieve the two-parameter subfamily without considering the Painlevé transcendent.

  10. Orthopaedic management in four cases of mucolipidosis type III.

    PubMed Central

    Hetherington, C; Harris, N J; Smith, T W

    1999-01-01

    Four patients with mucolipidosis type III, three of them brothers, were seen initially in the first two decades of life. Their main symptoms were carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger fingers and generalized joint stiffness. Radiographs showed spinal deformities and hip dysplasia, but these were not causing pain. Carpal tunnel syndrome was treated surgically but joint stiffness and hip and knee contractures were managed by physiotherapy. Up to the age of 24 none of these patients has had pelvic osteotomy for hip dysplasia; this operation, not yet reported in mucolipidosis type III, may eventually be necessary. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10472261

  11. Dendritic cell dysfunction and diabetic sensory neuropathy in the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Nan; Yan, Chenxi; Lee, Patrick; Sun, Haijing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) often leads to neurotrophic ulcerations in the cornea and skin; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this complication are poorly understood. Here, we used post-wound corneal sensory degeneration and regeneration as a model and tested the hypothesis that diabetes adversely affects DC populations and infiltration, resulting in disrupted DC-nerve communication and DPN. In streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice, there was a substantial reduction in sensory nerve density and the number of intraepithelial DCs in unwounded (UW) corneas. In wounded corneas, diabetes markedly delayed sensory nerve regeneration and reduced the number of infiltrating DCs, which were a major source of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the cornea. While CNTF neutralization retarded reinnervation in normal corneas, exogenous CNTF accelerated nerve regeneration in the wounded corneas of diabetic mice and healthy animals, in which DCs had been locally depleted. Moreover, blockade of the CNTF-specific receptor CNTFRα induced sensory nerve degeneration and retarded regeneration in normal corneas. Soluble CNTFRα also partially restored the branching of diabetes-suppressed sensory nerve endings and regeneration in the diabetic corneas. Collectively, our data show that DCs mediate sensory nerve innervation and regeneration through CNTF and that diabetes reduces DC populations in UW and wounded corneas, resulting in decreased CNTF and impaired sensory nerve innervation and regeneration. PMID:27064280

  12. Cornea organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Foster, James W.; Wahlin, Karl; Adams, Sheila M.; Birk, David E.; Zack, Donald J.; Chakravarti, Shukti

    2017-01-01

    The cornea is the transparent outermost surface of the eye, consisting of a stratified epithelium, a collagenous stroma and an innermost single-cell layered endothelium and providing 2/3 of the refractive power of the eye. Multiple diseases of the cornea arise from genetic defects where the ultimate phenotype can be influenced by cross talk between the cell types and the extracellular matrix. Cell culture modeling of diseases can benefit from cornea organoids that include multiple corneal cell types and extracellular matrices. Here we present human iPS cell-derived organoids through sequential rounds of differentiation programs. These organoids share features of the developing cornea, harboring three distinct cell types with expression of key epithelial, stromal and endothelial cell markers. Cornea organoid cultures provide a powerful 3D model system for investigating corneal developmental processes and their disruptions in diseased conditions. PMID:28128337

  13. 46 CFR 153.232 - Type III system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type III system. 153.232 Section 153.232 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment...

  14. Case series of type III hyperlipoproteinemia in children

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Michelle; Hill, John; Cook, Donald; Frohlich, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (type III HLP) rarely manifests in childhood. Long-term follow-up (37 years) of the first patient revealed hypothyroidism at diagnosis requiring thyroxine replacement, palmar xanthomas requiring surgical removal, splenomegaly requiring splenectomy, 18 episodes of pancreatitis and premature coronary artery disease. Investigation revealed an apolipoprotein E phenotype of E2/E2 and partial lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Investigation of the second patient revealed a combination of apoE2/E2 phenotype and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. The third patient had a complete deficiency of lipoprotein lipase activity, an abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone on diagnosis (with subsequent normalisation without treatment), and apoE2/E2 phenotype. Type III HLP is a serious disorder with lifelong consequences of premature vascular disease and recurrent pancreatitis. Early presentation of disease in our patients was associated with additional precipitating factors. Drug treatment of paediatric type III HLP is indicated if dietary modifications alone are insufficient in managing the dyslipidaemia. PMID:22691586

  15. Interplanetary density models as inferred from solar Type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppeneiger, Lucas; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    We report on the density models derived from spectral features of solar Type III bursts. They are generated by beams of electrons travelling outward from the Sun along open magnetic field lines. Electrons generate Langmuir waves at the plasma frequency along their ray paths through the corona and the interplanetary medium. A large frequency band is covered by the Type III bursts from several MHz down to few kHz. In this analysis, we consider the previous empirical density models proposed to describe the electron density in the interplanetary medium. We show that those models are mainly based on the analysis of Type III bursts generated in the interplanetary medium and observed by satellites (e.g. RAE, HELIOS, VOYAGER, ULYSSES,WIND). Those models are confronted to stereoscopic observations of Type III bursts recorded by WIND, ULYSSES and CASSINI spacecraft. We discuss the spatial evolution of the electron beam along the interplanetary medium where the trajectory is an Archimedean spiral. We show that the electron beams and the source locations are depending on the choose of the empirical density models.

  16. [Central motor conduction evaluation in glycogenosis type III].

    PubMed

    Alaejos Fuentes, J A; López-Alburquerque, T; De Portugal Alvarez, J

    1997-05-01

    We report a 20-year-old man affected by glycogenosis type III with distal muscle weakness, more severe in distal leg muscles. The electromyogram showed myopathic features. Nerve conduction studies and central motor conduction after magnetic stimulation of the brain were normal. Our results suggest that there is no involvement of central motor pathways in this disease.

  17. Computational prediction shines light on type III secretion origins

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard; Bromberg, Yana

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion system is a key bacterial symbiosis and pathogenicity mechanism responsible for a variety of infectious diseases, ranging from food-borne illnesses to the bubonic plague. In many Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system transports effector proteins into host cells, converting resources to bacterial advantage. Here we introduce a computational method that identifies type III effectors by combining homology-based inference with de novo predictions, reaching up to 3-fold higher performance than existing tools. Our work reveals that signals for recognition and transport of effectors are distributed over the entire protein sequence instead of being confined to the N-terminus, as was previously thought. Our scan of hundreds of prokaryotic genomes identified previously unknown effectors, suggesting that type III secretion may have evolved prior to the archaea/bacteria split. Crucially, our method performs well for short sequence fragments, facilitating evaluation of microbial communities and rapid identification of bacterial pathogenicity – no genome assembly required. pEffect and its data sets are available at http://services.bromberglab.org/peffect. PMID:27713481

  18. Microwave Type III Pair Bursts in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Baolin; Mészárosová, Hana; Karlický, Marian; Huang, Guangli; Tan, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    A solar microwave type III pair burst is composed of normal and reverse-sloped (RS) burst branches with oppositely fast frequency drifts. It is the most sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in flares. This work reports 11 microwave type III pair events in 9 flares observed by radio spectrometers in China and the Czech Republic at a frequency of 0.80-7.60 GHz during 1994-2014. These type III pairs occurred in flare impulsive and postflare phases with separate frequencies in the range of 1.08-3.42 GHz and a frequency gap of 10-1700 MHz. The frequency drift increases with the separate frequency (fx), the lifetime of each burst is anti-correlated to fx, while the frequency gap is independent of fx. In most events, the normal branches are drifting obviously faster than the RS branches. The type III pairs occurring in flare impulsive phase have lower separate frequencies, longer lifetimes, wider frequency gaps, and slower frequency drifts than that occurring in postflare phase. Also, the latter always has strong circular polarization. Further analysis indicates that near the flare energy release sites the plasma density is about {10}10{--}{10}11 cm-3 and the temperature is higher than 107 K. These results provide new constraints to the acceleration mechanism in solar flares.

  19. Evolutionary and functional analysis of mulberry type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Liang, Jiubo; Chen, Hu; Ding, Guangyu; Ma, Bi; He, Ningjia

    2016-08-04

    Type III polyketide synthases are important for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and various plant polyphenols. Mulberry plants have abundant polyphenols, but very little is known about the mulberry type III polyketide synthase genes. An analysis of these genes may provide new targets for genetic improvement to increase relevant secondary metabolites and enhance the plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Eighteen genes encoding type III polyketide synthases were identified, including six chalcone synthases (CHS), ten stilbene synthases (STS), and two polyketide synthases (PKS). Functional characterization of four genes representing most of the MnCHS and MnSTS genes by coexpression with 4-Coumaroyl-CoA ligase in Escherichia coli indicated that their products were able to catalyze p-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA to generate naringenin and resveratrol, respectively. Microsynteny analysis within mulberry indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the MnCHS family, while tandem duplications were mainly responsible for the generation of the MnSTS genes. Combining the evolution and expression analysis results of the mulberry type III PKS genes indicated that MnCHS and MnSTS genes evolved mainly under purifying selection to maintain their original functions, but transcriptional subfunctionalization occurred during long-term species evolution. Moreover, mulberry leaves can rapidly accumulated oxyresveratrol after UV-C irradiation, suggesting that resveratrol was converted to oxyresveratrol. Characterizing the functions and evolution of mulberry type III PKS genes is crucial for advancing our understanding of these genes and providing the basis for further studies on the biosynthesis of relevant secondary metabolites in mulberry plants.

  20. Sequence-Based Prediction of Type III Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Roland; Brandmaier, Stefan; Kleine, Frederick; Tischler, Patrick; Heinz, Eva; Behrens, Sebastian; Niinikoski, Antti; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Horn, Matthias; Rattei, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial pathogenesis, recognition and targeting of type III secreted proteins has up until now been poorly understood. Several hypotheses are discussed, including an mRNA-based signal, a chaperon-mediated process, or an N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we systematically analyzed the amino acid composition and secondary structure of N-termini of 100 experimentally verified effector proteins. Based on this, we developed a machine-learning approach for the prediction of TTSS effector proteins, taking into account N-terminal sequence features such as frequencies of amino acids, short peptides, or residues with certain physico-chemical properties. The resulting computational model revealed a strong type III secretion signal in the N-terminus that can be used to detect effectors with sensitivity of ∼71% and selectivity of ∼85%. This signal seems to be taxonomically universal and conserved among animal pathogens and plant symbionts, since we could successfully detect effector proteins if the respective group was excluded from training. The application of our prediction approach to 739 complete bacterial and archaeal genome sequences resulted in the identification of between 0% and 12% putative TTSS effector proteins. Comparison of effector proteins with orthologs that are not secreted by the TTSS showed no clear pattern of signal acquisition by fusion, suggesting convergent evolutionary processes shaping the type III secretion signal. The newly developed program EffectiveT3 (http://www.chlamydiaedb.org) is the first universal in silico prediction program for the identification of novel TTSS effectors. Our findings will

  1. Type I/type III collagen ratio associated with diverticulitis of the colon in young patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shaun R; Cleveland, Elane M; Deeken, Corey R; Huitron, Sonni S; Aluka, Kanayochukwu J; Davis, Kurt G

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diverticulitis in young patients is rising, whereas the type I:III collagen ratio of the colon decreases with age. Perhaps a lower type I:III collagen ratio in younger patients may predispose these patients to the development of the disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the collagen content and type I:III collagen ratio in patients with diverticulitis versus a control group. Patients who underwent a colon resection were identified. Three groups of patients were created for analysis: those with diverticulitis aged <50 y, >50 y, and a control group. Tissue samples were stained with Sirius red/fast green and photographed. Photos analysis was performed to quantify the amount of type I collagen and type III collagen. The type I:III collagen ratio was calculated for each patient and compared. The quantity of type I collagen and type III collagen was higher in patients with diverticulitis aged >50 y (P = 0.04 and P < 0.0001, respectively); however, the collagen ratio was greatest in those patients with diverticulitis aged <50 y (P = 0.01). Further analysis demonstrated a significant higher type I:III ratio in all patients aged less than 50 y compared with all patients aged over 50 y (P = 0.04). Our study demonstrated that diverticulitis in the younger patient was not associated with a lower type I:III collagen ratio. It appears that the decrease in collagen ratio of the colon with age is associated with an increase in type III collagen deposition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Expression, Inducers and Cellular Sources of the Chemokine MIG (CXCL 9), During Primary Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Infection of the Cornea.

    PubMed

    Molesworth-Kenyon, Sara J; Milam, Ashley; Rockette, Amanda; Troupe, Allison; Oakes, John E; Lausch, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the production of monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG) during a primary Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea. We hypothesize that multiple CXCR3 ligands are involved in T cell recruitment during HSV-1 corneal infection and that neutrophils have the potential to contribute to their production. Levels of MIG were evaluated in an in vivo murine model of HSV-1 corneal infection by quantitative ELISA. Cultured murine corneal fibroblast (MCF) cells and purified neutrophils were stimulated in vitro with IFN-γ and IL-1α to determine inducers of MIG. Cellular sources of MIG production in vivo were investigated via cellular depletion studies. Additionally, MIG production resulting from interaction between resident human corneal cells and neutrophils was evaluated in an ex vivo model of human corneal infection. MIG was significantly elevated on days 2-6 and on day 8 following corneal infection. MCF and neutrophils secreted MIG in response to IFN-γ, but not IL-1α stimulation. Co-stimulation with IFN-γ and IL-1α induced a four-fold increase in MIG production by MCF. However, the same combination led to a three-fold decrease in MIG production by neutrophils. In vivo, a 52% reduction in MIG levels was observed in the neutrophil depleted host. In the human ex vivo model, MIG levels were significantly elevated in response to communication between HSV-1 infected corneal tissue and neutrophils. Here, we report the evidence for the production of MIG, a second CXCR3 ligand, during the primary immune response to HSV-1 corneal infection. Our results support the hypothesis that both neutrophils and resident corneal cells contribute to MIG production in vivo. However, neutrophils produce MIG in response to communication with HSV-1-infected resident corneal cells more efficiently than by direct interaction with virus. In addition, we found that MIG production by neutrophils and resident corneal cells was differentially regulated by IL-1α.

  3. THE SPECIFIC POLYSACCHARIDES OF TYPES I, II, AND III PNEUMOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberger, Michael; Kendall, Forrest E.; Scherp, Henry W.

    1936-01-01

    1. The thermolability of the specific polysaccharides of Types I, II, and III pneumococcus has been shown by three independent methods: (a) diminution of the viscosity of solutions on heating; (b) decrease in the amount of antibody precipitated from homologous rabbit antisera; and (c) increased tendency (S III) to pass through a collodion membrane. 2. These effects may be explained most simply as a partial depolymerization under the influence of heat. In air, particularly in the presence of broth, oxidation also appears to be involved. 3. Improved and simpler methods of preparation based on these findings, are given for S I, S II, and S III. The resulting products precipitate more anti-S from homologous rabbit antisera than do the earlier preparations. 4. The methyl glycoside of methyl galacturonate has been isolated from the hydrolytic products of S I, and evidence of the ultimate structural unit obtained. PMID:19870553

  4. The role of type III factors in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvason, Jakob

    2005-02-01

    One of von Neumann's motivations for developing the theory of operator algebras and his and Murray's 1936 classification of factors was the question of possible decompositions of quantum systems into independent parts. For quantum systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom the simplest possibility, i.e. factors of type I in the terminology of Murray and von Neumann, are perfectly adequate. In relativistic quantum field theory (RQFT), on the other hand, factors of type III occur naturally. The same holds true in quantum statistical mechanics of infinite systems. In this brief review some physical consequences of the type III property of the von Neumann algebras corresponding to localized observables in RQFT and their difference from the type I case will be discussed. The cumulative effort of many people over more than 30 years has established a remarkable uniqueness result: The local algebras in RQFT are generically isomorphic to the unique, hyperfinite type III, factor in Connes' classification of 1973. Specific theories are characterized by the net structure of the collection of these isomorphic algebras for different space-time regions, i.e. the way they are embedded into each other

  5. Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Mouse Cornea.

    PubMed

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the entire nerve architecture and content of the two main sensory neuropeptides in mouse cornea to determine if it is a good model with similarities to human corneal innervation. Mice aged 1 to 24 weeks were used. The corneas were stained with neuronal-class βIII-tubulin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP) antibodies; whole-mount images were acquired to build an entire view of corneal innervation. To test the origin of CGRP and SP, trigeminal ganglia (TG) were processed for immunofluorescence. Relative corneal nerve fiber densities or neuron numbers were assessed by computer-assisted analysis. Between 1 and 3 weeks after birth, mouse cornea was mainly composed of a stromal nerve network. At 4 weeks, a whorl-like structure (or vortex) appeared that gradually became more defined. By 8 weeks, anatomy of corneal nerves had reached maturity. Epithelial bundles converged into the central area to form the vortex. The number and pattern of whorl-like structures were different. Subbasal nerve density and nerve terminals were greater in the center than the periphery. Nerve fibers and terminals that were CGRP-positive were more abundant than SP-positive nerves and terminals. In trigeminal ganglia, the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those positive for SP. This is the first study to show a complete map of the entire corneal nerves and CGRP and SP sensory neuropeptide distribution in the mouse cornea. This finding shows mouse corneal innervation has many similarities to human cornea and makes the mouse an appropriate model to study pathologies involving corneal nerves.

  6. Neuroanatomy and Neurochemistry of Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the entire nerve architecture and content of the two main sensory neuropeptides in mouse cornea to determine if it is a good model with similarities to human corneal innervation. Methods Mice aged 1 to 24 weeks were used. The corneas were stained with neuronal-class βIII-tubulin, calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), and substance P (SP) antibodies; whole-mount images were acquired to build an entire view of corneal innervation. To test the origin of CGRP and SP, trigeminal ganglia (TG) were processed for immunofluorescence. Relative corneal nerve fiber densities or neuron numbers were assessed by computer-assisted analysis. Results Between 1 and 3 weeks after birth, mouse cornea was mainly composed of a stromal nerve network. At 4 weeks, a whorl-like structure (or vortex) appeared that gradually became more defined. By 8 weeks, anatomy of corneal nerves had reached maturity. Epithelial bundles converged into the central area to form the vortex. The number and pattern of whorl-like structures were different. Subbasal nerve density and nerve terminals were greater in the center than the periphery. Nerve fibers and terminals that were CGRP-positive were more abundant than SP-positive nerves and terminals. In trigeminal ganglia, the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those positive for SP. Conclusions This is the first study to show a complete map of the entire corneal nerves and CGRP and SP sensory neuropeptide distribution in the mouse cornea. This finding shows mouse corneal innervation has many similarities to human cornea and makes the mouse an appropriate model to study pathologies involving corneal nerves. PMID:26906155

  7. Cognitive development in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate. MPS III is characterized by progressive mental deterioration resulting in severe dementia. A number of potentially disease-modifying therapies are studied. As preservation of cognitive function is the ultimate goal of treatment, assessment of cognitive development will be essential in order to evaluate treatment efficacy. However, no large scale studies on cognitive levels in MPS III patients, using formal psychometric tests, have been reported. Methods We aimed to assess cognitive development in all 73 living patients with MPS III in the Netherlands. Results Cognitive development could be assessed in 69 patients. In 39 of them developmental level was estimated > 3 months and formal psychometric testing was attempted. A remarkable variation in the intellectual disability was detected. Conclusions Despite special challenges encountered, testing failed in only three patients. The observed broad variation in intellectual disability, should be taken into account when designing therapeutic trials. PMID:21689409

  8. A tiny event producing an interplanetary type III burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Nindos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Kontogeorgos, A.; Tsitsipis, P.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: We investigate the conditions under which small-scale energy release events in the low corona gave rise to strong interplanetary (IP) type III bursts. Methods: We analyzed observations of three tiny events, detected by the Nançay Radio Heliograph (NRH), two of which produced IP type III bursts. We took advantage of the NRH positioning information and of the high cadence of AIA/SDO data to identify the associated extreme-UV (EUV) emissions. We measured positions and time profiles of the metric and EUV sources. Results: We found that the EUV events that produced IP type III bursts were located near a coronal hole boundary, while the one that did not was located in a closed magnetic field region. In all three cases tiny flaring loops were involved, without any associated mass eruption. In the best observed case, the radio emission at the highest frequency (435 MHz) was displaced by ~55'' with respect to the small flaring loop. The metric type III emission shows a complex structure in space and in time, indicative of multiple electron beams, despite the low intensity of the events. From the combined analysis of dynamic spectra and NRH images, we derived the electron beam velocity as well as the height, ambient plasma temperature, and density at the level of formation of the 160 MHz emission. From the analysis of the differential emission measure derived from the AIA images, we found that the first evidence of energy release was at the footpoints, and this was followed by the development of flaring loops and subsequent cooling. Conclusions: Even small energy release events can accelerate enough electrons to give rise to powerful IP type III bursts. The proximity of the electron acceleration site to open magnetic field lines facilitates the escape of the electrons into the interplanetary space. The offset between the site of energy release and the metric type III location warrants further investigation. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Type II and Type III Radio Emissions and Their Association with Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that CME-driven shocks are a major source of solar energetic particles (SEPs). The solar phenomena associated with high energy SEP increases nearly always include type II radio emissions indicative of the presence of shocks. However, there is also a clear link between particles accelerated in the low corona and type III radio bursts. For the most energetic events the type III emissions extend into or occur after, the flare impulsive phase. Such emission has been named type III-l mainly because the emission is "late". In our work, we have found an excellent correlation between the pattern of radio emissions and the associated particle events. However, various other studies have investigated type III-l emissions and found the association with SEP events to be less compelling. We explore the results of these studies in order to determine why this is the case.

  10. Dendritic immune cell densities in the central cornea associated with soft contact lens types and lens care solution types: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sindt, Christine W; Grout, Trudy K; Critser, D Brice; Kern, Jami R; Meadows, David L

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess whether differences in central corneal dendritic immune cell densities associated with combinations of soft contact lenses and lens care solutions could be detected by in vivo confocal microscopy. Methods Participants were adults naïve to contact lens wear (n = 10) or who wore soft contact lenses habitually on a daily-wear schedule (n = 38) or on a study-assigned schedule for 30 days with daily disposable silicone hydrogel lenses (n = 15). Central corneas were scanned using an in vivo confocal microscope. Cell densities were compared among groups by demographic parameters, lens materials, and lens care solutions (polyhexamethylene biguanide [PHMB], polyquaternium-1 and myristamidopropyl dimethylamine [PQ/MAPD], peroxide, or blister pack solution [for daily disposable lenses]). Results Among lens wearers, no associations were observed between immune cell densities and age, gender, or years of lens-wearing experience. Mean cell density was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in nonwearers (29 ± 23 cells/mm2, n = 10) than in lens wearers (64 ± 71 cells/mm2, n = 53). Mean cell density was lower (P = 0.21) with traditional polymer lenses (47 ± 44 cells/mm2, n = 12) than with silicone hydrogel lenses (69 ± 77 cells/mm2, n = 41). Lowest to highest mean density of immune cells among lens wearers was as follows: PQ/MAPD solution (49 ± 28 cells/mm2), blister pack solution (63 ± 81 cells/mm2), PHMB solution (66 ± 44 cells/mm2), and peroxide solution (85 ± 112 cells/mm2). Conclusion In this pilot study, in vivo confocal microscopy was useful for detecting an elevated immune response associated with soft contact lenses, and for identifying lens-related and solution-related immune responses that merit further research. PMID:22536045

  11. TYPE III EXCITABILITY, SLOPE SENSITIVITY AND COINCIDENCE DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangying; Huguet, Gemma; Rinzel, John

    2013-01-01

    Some neurons in the nervous system do not show repetitive firing for steady currents. For time-varying inputs, they fire once if the input rise is fast enough. This property of phasic firing is known as Type III excitability. Type III excitability has been observed in neurons in the auditory brainstem (MSO), which show strong phase-locking and accurate coincidence detection. In this paper, we consider a Hodgkin-Huxley type model (RM03) that is widely-used for phasic MSO neurons and we compare it with a modification of it, showing tonic behavior. We provide insight into the temporal processing of these neuron models by means of developing and analyzing two reduced models that reproduce qualitatively the properties of the exemplar ones. The geometric and mathematical analysis of the reduced models allows us to detect and quantify relevant features for the temporal computation such as nearness to threshold and a temporal integration window. Our results underscore the importance of Type III excitability for precise coincidence detection. PMID:23667306

  12. Spatial trends in Pearson Type III statistical parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichty, R.W.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Spatial trends in the statistical parameters (mean, standard deviation, and skewness coefficient) of a Pearson Type III distribution of the logarithms of annual flood peaks for small rural basins (less than 90 km2) are delineated using a climate factor CT, (T=2-, 25-, and 100-yr recurrence intervals), which quantifies the effects of long-term climatic data (rainfall and pan evaporation) on observed T-yr floods. Maps showing trends in average parameter values demonstrate the geographically varying influence of climate on the magnitude of Pearson Type III statistical parameters. The spatial trends in variability of the parameter values characterize the sensitivity of statistical parameters to the interaction of basin-runoff characteristics (hydrology) and climate. -from Authors

  13. Substrate recognition by the Yersinia type III protein secretion machinery.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthi, Kumaran S; Schneewind, Olaf

    2003-11-01

    Type III secretion is the designation given to those protein secretion pathways, primarily in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, whose secretion machinery components share an amino acid sequence homology to components of the flagellar basal body. In Yersinia spp., these secretion machineries inject virulence proteins called Yops into the cytosol of target macrophages in an effort to evade phagocytic killing. To date, a clear mechanism by which Yops are recognized by the type III secretion machinery has not been elucidated. Unlike most, if not all, previously characterized protein sorting pathways, the information that identifies Yops as substrates for secretion seems not to be wholly encoded within the Yop peptide sequence. In fact, it appears that at least some of this information is contained within yop mRNAs. This review summarizes recent observations that have been made in this unusual field and proposes models by which proteins may be initiated into this pathway.

  14. Structural Insights into Fibronectin Type III Domain Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Cui, Cai Bin; Siddiqui, Adnan; Howard-Williams, Escher L.; Sondek, John; Zuobi-Hasona, Kheir; Aukhil, Ikramuddin

    2007-01-01

    The alternatively spliced type-III extradomain B (EIIIB) of Fibronectin (FN) is only expressed during embryogenesis, wound healing and tumorigenesis. The biological function of this domain remains unclear. We describe here the first crystal structure of the interface between alternatively-spliced domain EIIIB and its adjacent FN type-III domain 8 (FN B-8). The opened CC′ loop of EIIIB and the rotation and tilt of EIIIB domain allows good access to the FG loop of FN-8 which is normally hindered by the CC′ loop of FN-7. In addition, the AGEGIP sequence of the CC′ loop of EIIIB replaces the NGQQGN sequence of the CC′ loop of FN-7. Finally, the CC” loop of EIIIB forms an acidic groove with FN-8. These structural findings warrant future studies directed at identifying potential binding partners for FN B-8 interface, linking EIIIB to skeletal and cartilagenous development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis, respectively. PMID:17261313

  15. Type III effector-mediated processes in Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Joris; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella is one of the most successful bacterial pathogens that infect humans in both developed and developing countries. In order to cause infection, Salmonella uses type III secretion systems to inject bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In the age of antibiotic resistance, researchers have been looking for new strategies to reduce Salmonella infection. To understand infection and to analyze type III secretion as a potential therapeutic target, research has focused on identification of effectors, characterization of effector functions and how they contribute to disease. Many effector-mediated processes have been identified that contribute to infection but thus far no specific treatment has been found. In this perspective we discuss our current understanding of effector-mediated processes and discuss new techniques and approaches that may help us to find a solution to this worldwide problem.

  16. Identification of novel type III effectors using latent Dirichlet allocation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins) is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs). We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  17. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end.

  18. On the theory of the type III burst exciter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    In situ satellite observations of type III burst exciters at 1 AU show that the beam does not evolve into a plateau in velocity space, contrary to the prediction of quasilinear theory. The observations can be explained by a theory that includes mode coupling effects due to excitation of the parametric oscillating two-stream instability and its saturation by anomalous resistivity. The time evolution of the beam velocity distribution is included in the analysis.

  19. EMISSION PATTERNS OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS: STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; Bergamo, M.; MacDowall, R. J. E-mail: mbergamo@umd.edu

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft R{sub j} = I{sub j} /{Sigma}I{sub j} (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of {approx}2 Degree-Sign and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from {approx} - 100 Degree-Sign to {approx}100 Degree-Sign . The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  20. Emission Patterns of Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft Rj = Ij /[Sigma]Ij (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of approximately 2 deg and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from [approx] -100 deg to approximately 100 deg. The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  1. Fuel of the Bacterial Flagellar Type III Protein Export Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    The flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes ATP and proton motive force (PMF) across the cytoplasmic membrane as the energy sources and transports flagellar component proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal growing end of the growing structure to construct the bacterial flagellum beyond the cellular membranes. The flagellar type III export apparatus coordinates flagellar protein export with assembly by ordered export of substrates to parallel with their order of the assembly. The export apparatus is composed of a PMF-driven transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. Since the ATPase complex is dispensable for flagellar protein export, PMF is the primary fuel for protein unfolding and translocation. Interestingly, the export gate complex can also use sodium motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane in addition to PMF when the ATPase complex does not work properly. Here, we describe experimental protocols, which have allowed us to identify the export substrate class and the primary fuel of the flagellar type III protein export apparatus in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  2. A Qualitative Study of Recovery from Type III-B and III-C Tibial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Shauver, Melissa S.; Aravind, Maya S.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The literature has shown that long-term outcomes for both below-knee amputation and reconstruction following type III-B and III-C tibial fracture are poor. Yet, patients often report satisfaction with their treatment and/or outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between patient outcomes and satisfaction after open tibial fractures via qualitative methodology. Twenty patients who were treated for open tibial fractures at one institution were selected using purposeful sampling and interviewed in-person in a semi-structured manner. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Despite reporting marked physical and psychosocial deficits, participants relayed high satisfaction. We hypothesize that the use adaptive coping techniques successfully reduces stress, which leads to an increase in coping self-efficacy that results in the further use of adaptive coping strategies, culminating in personal growth. This stress reduction and personal growth leads to satisfaction despite poor functional and emotional outcomes. PMID:20948418

  3. Glycogen storage disease type III in the Irish population.

    PubMed

    Crushell, Ellen; Treacy, Eileen P; Dawe, J; Durkie, M; Beauchamp, Nicholas J

    2010-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) results from mutations of the AGL gene encoding the glycogen debrancher enzyme. The disease has clinical and biochemical heterogeneity reflecting the severity of the AGL mutations. We sought to characterise the molecular defects in our cohort of Irish patients with GSD III. Fifteen patients from eight unrelated Irish families were identified: six males and nine females. The age ranged from 2-39 years old, and all presented in the first 3 years of life. Four patients (of three families) had mild disease with hepatomegaly, mild hypoglycaemia and normal creatine kinase (CK) levels. Five families had more severe disease, with liver and skeletal muscle involvement and elevated CK. Eleven different mutations were identified amongst the eight families. Of the 11, six were novel: p.T512fs, p.S736fs, p.A1400fs, p.K1407fs, p.Y519X and p.D627Y. The family homozygous for p.A1400fs had the most severe phenotype (early-onset hypoglycaemia, massive hepatomegaly, myopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy before age 2 years), which was not halted by aggressive carbohydrate and protein supplementation. Conversely, the only missense mutation identified in the cohort, p.D627Y, was associated with a mild phenotype. The phenotypic diversity in our GSD III cohort is mirrored by the allelic heterogeneity. We describe two novel null mutations in exon 32 in two families with severe GSD III resistant to current treatment modalities. Knowledge of the specific mutations segregating in this cohort may allow for the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  4. Comparison of type I, type III and type VI collagen binding assays in diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Flood, V H; Gill, J C; Christopherson, P A; Wren, J S; Friedman, K D; Haberichter, S L; Hoffmann, R G; Montgomery, R R

    2012-07-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in coagulation by tethering platelets to injured subendothelium through binding sites for collagen and platelet GPIb. Collagen binding assays (VWF:CB), however, are not part of the routine work-up for von Willebrand disease (VWD). This study presents data on collagen binding for healthy controls and VWD subjects to compare three different collagens. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity and VWF:CB with types I, III and VI collagen were examined for samples obtained from the Zimmerman Program. Mean VWF:CB in healthy controls was similar and highly correlated for types I, III and VI collagen. The mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen were 1.31, 1.19 and 1.21, respectively. In type 1 VWD subjects, VWF:CB was similar to VWF:Ag with mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen of 1.32, 1.08 and 1.1, respectively. For type 2A and 2B subjects, VWF:CB was uniformly low, with mean ratios of 0.62 and 0.7 for type I collagen, 0.38 and 0.4 for type III collagen, and 0.5 and 0.47 for type VI collagen. Normal ranges for type I, III and VI collagen are correlated, but higher values were obtained with type I collagen as compared with types III and VI. The low VWF:CB in type 2A and 2B subjects suggests that VWF:CB may also supplement analysis of multimer distribution. However, these results reflect only one set of assay conditions per collagen type and therefore may not be generalizable to all collagen assays. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection, type III cryoglobulinemia, and necrotizing vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Isaac; Fangman, William

    2007-01-27

    A 53-year-old man with chronic hepatitis-C virus infection presented with livedo reticularis, purpura, and leg ulcers. A skin biopsy specimen showed a necrotizing vasculitis. The skin biopsy specimen and serology confirmed the diagnosis of type-III cryoglobulinemia. Bone marrow and peripheral blood showed proliferation of atypical CD5-positive B cells that included a monoclonal population. There is growing evidence that chronic hepatitis-C infection can result in immune dysregulation and expansion of autoimmune B cells that produce cryoglobulins.

  6. Numerical simulations of type-III solar radio bursts.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Robinson, P A; Cairns, I H

    2006-04-14

    The first numerical simulations are presented for type-III solar radio bursts in the inhomogeneous solar corona and interplanetary space, that include microscale quasilinear and nonlinear processes, intermediate-scale driven ambient density fluctuations, and large scale evolution of electron beams, Langmuir and ion sound waves, and fundamental and harmonic electromagnetic emission. Bidirectional coronal emission is asymmetric between the upward and downward directions, and harmonic emission dominates fundamental emission. In interplanetary space, fundamental and/or harmonic emission can be important. Langmuir and ion sound waves are bursty and the statistics of Langmuir wave energy agree well with the predictions of stochastic growth theory.

  7. Type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndromes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ben-Skowronek, Iwona; Michalczyk, Aneta; Piekarski, Robert; Wysocka-Łukasik, Beata; Banecka, Bożena

    2013-01-01

    Type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome (PAS III) is composed of autoimmune thyroid diseases associated with endocrinopathy other than adrenal insufficiency. This syndrome is associated with organ-specific and organ-nonspecific or systemic autoimmune diseases. The frequency of PAS syndromes in diabetic children is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of PAS III in children with diabetes mellitus type 1. The study consisted of 461 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1(T1DM), who were 1-19 years of age. TSH, free thyroxin, TPO autoantibodies, and thyroglobulin autoantibodies were determined annually. Autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in children with positive tests for TPO Ab and Tg Ab and thyroid parenchymal hypogenicity in the ultrasound investigation. Elevated TSI antibodies were used to diagnose Graves' disease. Additionally, Anti-Endomysial Antibodies IgA class were determined every year as screening for celiac disease. During clinical control, other autoimmune diseases were diagnosed. Adrenal function was examined by the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. PAS III was diagnosed in 14.5% children: PAS IIIA (T1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis) was recognized in 11.1 % and PAS III C (T1DM and other autoimmune disorders: celiac disease, and JIA, psoriasis and vitiligo) in 3.5% children. PAS IIIA was more prevalent in girls than in boys - 78.4% versus 21.6% (p<0.05). PAS III was observed between 1-5 years of life in 66.6% children; the frequency decreased in consecutive years and successively increased in the adolescence period to 22.7%. PAS III occurs in 14.5% of children with DM type1 and the incidence is positively correlated with patients' age and female gender. Children with PAS III should be carefully monitored as a group at risk for the development of other autoimmune diseases.

  8. Phototoxicity and the cornea.

    PubMed Central

    Schein, O. D.

    1992-01-01

    The cornea is sensitive to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and can suffer both acute and chronic toxicity. Ultraviolet keratitis is associated with relatively short exposures to light sources such as welding arcs or tanning lamps. The corneal effects are seen within a few hours following exposure and typically will resolve within 72 hours. Chronic exposure to environmental UV light may lead to a variety of ocular surface abnormalities that rarely resolve in the absence of therapy. Ultraviolet light, while potentially destructive, also can be used therapeutically. Recently, the photoablative properties of the excimer laser have been used in corneal refractive surgery. This laser uses UV light to break chemical bonds and remove tissue. Corneal phototoxicity is a reflection of the sensitivity of the ocular surface to photochemical injury. Fortunately, effective protection in the form of UV-blocking lenses is widely available. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1629921

  9. Phototoxicity and the cornea.

    PubMed

    Schein, O D

    1992-07-01

    The cornea is sensitive to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and can suffer both acute and chronic toxicity. Ultraviolet keratitis is associated with relatively short exposures to light sources such as welding arcs or tanning lamps. The corneal effects are seen within a few hours following exposure and typically will resolve within 72 hours. Chronic exposure to environmental UV light may lead to a variety of ocular surface abnormalities that rarely resolve in the absence of therapy. Ultraviolet light, while potentially destructive, also can be used therapeutically. Recently, the photoablative properties of the excimer laser have been used in corneal refractive surgery. This laser uses UV light to break chemical bonds and remove tissue. Corneal phototoxicity is a reflection of the sensitivity of the ocular surface to photochemical injury. Fortunately, effective protection in the form of UV-blocking lenses is widely available.

  10. Characteristics of type I and type III ELM precursors in ASDEX upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, T.; Günter, S.; Maraschek, M.; Suttrop, W.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1998-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the edge electron pressure gradient during the development of a type I ELM shows that proximity of ∇pedge to the ideal ballooning limit is not sufficient to trigger a type I ELM. Thus, the MHD structure of ELMs is investigated further. The present discussion focuses on the phenomenology of type I and type III ELM precursors. The ELM precursor types are well distinguished by their frequency behaviour and mode structure. The type I ELM precursor oscillation originates from a thin layer close to the plasma edge. For type III ELMs, on the contrary, ∇pedge has a much stronger influence as indicated by their occurrence during L mode.

  11. Structure of type I and type III heterotypic collagen fibrils: an X-ray diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, G J; Alberts, I L; Laing, J H; Wess, T J

    2002-01-01

    The molecular packing arrangement within collagen fibrils has a significant effect on the tensile properties of tissues. To date, most studies have focused on homotypic fibrils composed of type I collagen. This study investigates the packing of type I/III collagen molecules in heterotypic fibrils of colonic submucosa using a combination of X-ray diffraction data, molecular model building, and simulated X-ray diffraction fibre diagrams. A model comprising a 70-nm-diameter D- (approximately 65 nm) axial periodic structure containing type I and type III collagen chains was constructed from amino acid scattering factors organised in a liquid-like lateral packing arrangement simulated using a classical Lennard-Jones potential. The models that gave the most accurate correspondence with diffraction data revealed that the structure of the fibril involves liquid-like lateral packing combined with a constant helical inclination angle for molecules throughout the fibril. Combinations of type I:type III scattering factors in a ratio of 4:1 gave a reasonable correspondence with the meridional diffraction series. The attenuation of the meridional intensities may be explained by a blurring of the electron density profile of the D period caused by nonspecific or random interactions between collagen types I and III in the heterotypic fibril. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  12. Fundamental and harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts are investigated by modeling the propagation of the electron beam and the generation and subsequent propagation of waves to the observer. Predictions from this model are compared in detail with particle, Langmuir wave, and radio data from the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft and with other observations to clarify the roles of fundamental and harmonic emission in type III radio bursts. Langmuir waves are seen only after the arrival of the beam, in accord with the standard theory. These waves persist after a positive beam slope is last resolved, implying that sporadic positive slopes persist for some time, unresolved but in accord with the predictions of stochastic growth theory. Local electromagnetic emission sets in only after Langmuir waves are seen, in accord with the standard theory, which relies on nonlinear processes involving Langmuir waves. In the events investigated here, fundamental radiation appears to dominate early in the event, followed and/or accompanied by harmonic radiation after the peak, with a long-lived tail of multiply scattered fundamental or harmonic emission extending long afterwards. These results are largely independent of, but generally consistent with, the conclusions of earlier works.

  13. Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-02-11

    The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.

  14. Radio frequency interference affecting type III solar burst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anim, N. M.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Monstein, C.; Rohizat, N. S.

    2013-05-01

    The solar burst extinguish from the Sun's corona atmosphere and it dynamical structure of the magnetic field in radio wavelength are studied. Observation of solar radio burst with Compact Astronomical Low cost Low frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) from ETH, Zurich in frequency range of 45 until 870 MHz. Observation done at Pusat Angkasa Negara, Banting, Selangor and successfully detected the solar burst type III on 9th March 2012 from 4:22:00 UT until 4:28:00 UT. The solar burst emission is associated with M6.3 solar flare which occurred at sunspot AR1429 at 03:58UT were observed by NOAA. Frequency ranges chosen as the best ranges for solar monitoring in Malaysia is 150 MHz until 400 MHz. The highest signal amplitude within this frequency ranges is 1.7619 dB at 153.188 MHz (Government Use) have potential to influence the detection of solar radio burst type III within 20 until 400 MHz.

  15. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    PubMed Central

    Aturaliya, Rajith N.; Kerr, Markus C.; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP’s plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport. PMID:24710541

  16. 77 FR 76426 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... organizations that are not functionally integrated. The withdrawal affects Type III supporting organizations... ``Type III Supporting Organizations''). Those regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Pension... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG 155929-06] RIN 1545-BL44 Payout Requirements for Type III...

  17. Cryopreservation studies with porcine corneas.

    PubMed

    Wusteman, M C; Armitage, J W; Wang, L H; Busza, A L; Pegg, D E

    1999-09-01

    A new technique for the cryopreservation of rabbit corneas in 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, which has been shown to preserve significant structural and functional integrity of the endothelium, was tested in porcine corneas. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide into porcine corneas were measured using proton ( 1 H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effect on structural integrity of exposure to 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide without freezing was first assessed using vital staining (acridine orange and propidium iodide), and optimum temperature conditions for addition and removal of the cryoprotectant were derived. The effects on structural integrity of cryopreservation in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, and of reducing the degree of cell swelling during cryoprotectant removal following cryopreservation, were then evaluated. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide from a 10% w/w solution fitted a single exponential, resulting in a maximum tissue concentration of 14.6% when the addition occurred on ice, and 18.5% when the addition took place at room temperature. The toxic effects of dimethylsulfoxide in porcine corneas were highly temperature dependent and only evident after removal of the cryoprotectant. Unlike rabbit corneas, cryopreservation of porcine corneas in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide induced substantial endothelial injury which was not improved by reducing the degree of cell swelling that occurred during removal of the cryoprotectant. Porcine corneas were substantially more susceptible to the toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, and to cryopreservation injury, than rabbit corneas. These results underline the importance of species variation in animal studies aimed at the cryopreservation of human tissue for transplantation.

  18. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF

    PubMed Central

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh

    2015-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters. PMID:26644429

  19. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems.

    PubMed

    Notti, Ryan Q; Stebbins, C Erec

    2016-02-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) afford Gram-negative bacteria an intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts--the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote. This incredible biophysical feat is accomplished by nanosyringe "injectisomes," which form a conduit across the three plasma membranes, peptidoglycan layer, and extracellular space that form a barrier to the direct delivery of proteins from bacterium to host. The focus of this chapter is T3SS function at the structural level; we will summarize the core findings that have shaped our understanding of the structure and function of these systems and highlight recent developments in the field. In turn, we describe the T3SS secretory apparatus, consider its engagement with secretion substrates, and discuss the posttranslational regulation of secretory function. Lastly, we close with a discussion of the future prospects for the interrogation of structure-function relationships in the T3SS.

  1. Type III secretion systems shape up as they ship out.

    PubMed

    Marlovits, Thomas C; Stebbins, C Erec

    2010-02-01

    Virulence associated protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are intricately structured organic nanosyringes that achieve the translocation of bacterial proteins from the prokaryotic cytoplasm across three membranes into the host cytosol. The substrates for these systems number in the hundreds, with remarkably diverse biological activities, modulating host cell biology for the benefit of the pathogen. Although there has been tremendous progress on the structure and function of the T3SS substrates, there has been comparatively little progress on the much more highly conserved secretion apparatus itself. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of structural microbiology that have begun to address this shortcoming, finally bringing to bear the power of structural biology to this central virulence system of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Type III Secretion: Building and Operating a Remarkable Nanomachine.

    PubMed

    Portaliou, Athina G; Tsolis, Konstantinos C; Loos, Maria S; Zorzini, Valentina; Economou, Anastassios

    2016-02-01

    The Type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein export pathway that is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and delivers effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells. At its core lie the injectisome (a sophisticated transmembrane secretion apparatus) and a complex network of specialized chaperones that target secretory proteins to the antechamber of the injectisome. The assembly of the system, and the subsequent secretion of proteins through it, undergo fine-tuned, hierarchical regulation. Here, we present the current understanding of the injectisome assembly process, secretion hierarchy, and the role of chaperones. We discuss these events in light of available structural and biochemical dissection and propose future directions essential to revealing mechanistic insight into this fascinating nanomachine.

  3. Symbiotic implications of type III protein secretion machinery in Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Viprey, V; Del Greco, A; Golinowski, W; Broughton, W J; Perret, X

    1998-06-01

    The symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 carries a cluster of genes that encodes components of a bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS). In both animal and plant pathogens, the TTSS is an essential component of pathogenicity. Here, we show that secretion of at least two proteins (y4xL and NolX) is controlled by the TTSS of NGR234 and occurs after the induction with flavonoids. Polar mutations in two TTSS genes, rhcN and the nod-box controlled regulator of transcription y4xl, block the secretion of both proteins and strongly affect the ability of NGR234 to nodulate a variety of tropical legumes including Pachyrhizus tuberosus and Tephrosia vogelii.

  4. Type III secretion systems: the bacterial flagellum and the injectisome

    PubMed Central

    Diepold, Andreas; Armitage, Judith P.

    2015-01-01

    The flagellum and the injectisome are two of the most complex and fascinating bacterial nanomachines. At their core, they share a type III secretion system (T3SS), a transmembrane export complex that forms the extracellular appendages, the flagellar filament and the injectisome needle. Recent advances, combining structural biology, cryo-electron tomography, molecular genetics, in vivo imaging, bioinformatics and biophysics, have greatly increased our understanding of the T3SS, especially the structure of its transmembrane and cytosolic components, the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and functional regulation and the remarkable adaptivity of the system. This review aims to integrate these new findings into our current knowledge of the evolution, function, regulation and dynamics of the T3SS, and to highlight commonalities and differences between the two systems, as well as their potential applications. PMID:26370933

  5. High-Frequency Cutoff in Type III Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.; Koval, A. A.

    In this article we report about a group of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff, observed on 19 August of 2012 near 8:23 UT, simultaneously by three different radio telescopes: the Ukrainian decameter radio telescope (8-33 MHz), the French Nancay Decametric Array (10-70 MHz) and the Italian San Vito Solar Observatory of RSTN (25-180 MHz). Morphologically the bursts are very similar to the type III bursts. The solar activity is connected with the emergency of a new group of solar spots on the far side of the Sun with respect to observers on Earth. The solar bursts accompany many moderate flares over eastern limb. The refraction of the behind-limb radio bursts towards the Earth is favorable, if CMEs generate low-density cavities in solar corona.

  6. Clark Lake microbursts - On a lower limit to type III burst brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.; Szabo, A.

    1987-01-01

    Further observations of solar microbursts by the Clark Lake radioheliograph are reported. The microbursts have properties consistent with weak type III bursts, with the implication that type III's can have brightness temperatures as low as 1 million K. The importance of this result is explored. A single model to explain the stronger type III bursts and the weaker microbursts is sought. It is shown that none of the models for stabilizing the strongest type III electron streams can explain the observed microbursts: these models have threshold levels of Langmuir waves which imply emission (due to spontaneous scattering off ions) with brightness temperatures in excess of those observed. It appears that either some vital physics is still missing from models for type III bursts, or that microbursts should have properties significantly different from those of type III bursts. In the latter case further observations should allow important tests of type III models.

  7. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the primary liner.'' The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the secondary liner.'' The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank (Wallace and Yau, 1986). The task of this analysis is to simulate the hydrogen deflagration'' scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  8. Response of a Type III waste tank to hydrogen deflagration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Chung; Jerrell, J.W.; Pelfrey, J.R.; Yau, W.W.F.

    1992-05-01

    The type III waste tank is built with ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel shells in the shape of a torus with a central concrete core. The tank is buried underground and covered with a four foot thick reinforced concrete slab. The tank is enriched by 2.5 foot thick reinforced concrete wall. Between the tank surface and the wall there is a 2.5 foot annular space. The tank itself is called the ``primary liner.`` The interior surface of the concrete wall is line with steel plates, called the ``secondary liner.`` The base of the tank rests on a concrete mat. Underneath the mat the secondary liner extends from the wall to the central column surfaces. The bottom liner is attached to the reinforced concrete foundation. Based on the conditions that the tank is filled with liquid wastes to 50% of the design capacity, and that the accumulation of hydrogen becomes 20% inside its free board, the resulting deflagration would cause an overpressure of 100 psig in the tank [Wallace and Yau, 1986]. The task of this analysis is to simulate the ``hydrogen deflagration`` scenario in the Type III Waste Tank complex. During the deflagration, the stresses in the steel tank would be expected to exceed the elastic limit of the steel and the tank would then undergo large deformation. The concrete roof slab could be fractured by the expansion of the tank. The central concrete column would start to exhibit large deformation first. All the structural members in the system are expected to interact drastically during the deflagration.

  9. Radiative type III seesaw model and its collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Pahlen, Federico; Palacio, Guillermo; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the present bounds of a scotogenic model, the radiative type III seesaw, in which an additional scalar doublet and at least two fermion triplets of S U (2 )L are added to the Standard Model. In the radiative type III seesaw, the new physics (NP) sector is odd under an exact global Z2 symmetry. This symmetry guaranties that the lightest NP neutral particle is stable, providing a natural dark matter candidate, and leads to naturally suppressed neutrino masses generated by a one-loop realization of an effective Weinberg operator. We focus on the region with the highest sensitivity in present and future LHC searches, with light scalar dark matter and at least one NP fermion triplet at the sub-TeV scale. This region allows for significant production cross sections of NP fermion pairs at the LHC. We reinterpret a set of searches for supersymmetric particles at the LHC obtained using the package CheckMATE, to set limits on our model as a function of the masses of the NP particles and their Yukawa interactions. The most sensitive search channel is found to be dileptons plus missing transverse energy. In order to target the case of tau enhanced decays and the case of compressed spectra, we reinterpret the recent slepton and chargino search bounds by ATLAS. For a lightest NP fermion triplet with a maximal branching ratio to either electrons or muons, we exclude NP fermion masses of up to 650 GeV, while this bound is reduced to approximately 400 GeV in the tau-philic case. Allowing for a general flavor structure, we set limits on the Yukawa couplings, which are directly related to the neutrino flavor structure.

  10. Near-Relativistic Solar Electrons and Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been found that the inferred injection times of greater than 25 keV electrons are up to 30 minutes later than the start times of the associated type III radio bursts at the Sun. Thus it has been suggested that the electrons that produce type III bursts do not belong to the same population as those observed above 25 keV. This paper examines the characteristics and circumstances of 79 solar electron beam events measured on the ACE spacecraft. Particular attention is paid to the very low frequency emissions of the associated radio bursts and the ambient conditions at the arrival times of the electrons at the spacecraft. It is found that the inferred greater than 25 keV electron injection delays are correlated with the times required for the associated radio bursts to drift to the lowest frequencies. This suggests that the electrons responsible for the radio emission and those observed above 25 keV are part of a single population, and that the electrons both above and below 25 keV are delayed in the interplanetary medium. Further evidence for a single population is the general correspondence between electron and local radio intensities and temporal profiles. It is found that the delays increase with the ambient solar wind density consistent with the propagation times of the electrons being determined by the characteristics of the interplanetary medium. However it is known that particle arrival times at 1 AU are a linear function of inverse particle speed. Conventionally such a relationship is taken to indicate scatter-free propagation when inferred path lengths lie close to 1.2 AU, as they do for the electron events studied here. These conflicting interpretations require further investigation.

  11. Kinetic Differences and Synergistic Antiviral Effects Between Type I and Type III Interferon Signaling Indicate Pathway Independence

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of acute respiratory viral infections is controlled by type I and III interferon (IFN) signaling. While the mechanisms of type I IFN signaling have been studied in detail, features that distinguish type III IFN signaling remain poorly understood. Type III IFNs play an essential role in limiting infections of intestinal and respiratory epithelial surfaces; however, type III IFNs have been shown to activate similar genes to type I IFNs, raising the question of how these IFNs differ and their signals interact. We measured the kinetics of type I and III IFN activation, functional stability, and downstream antiviral responses on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Similar kinetics were found for transcriptional upregulation and secretion of type I and III IFNs in response to infection by an RNA virus, peaking at 12 h postinfection, and both protein types had similar stabilities with functional half-lives extending beyond 2 days. Both IFNs activated potent cellular antiviral responses; however, responses to type III IFNs were delayed by 2–6 h relative to type I IFN responses. Combined treatments with type I and III IFNs produced enhanced antiviral effects, and quantitative analysis of these data with a Bliss interaction model provides evidence for independence of type I and III IFN downstream signaling pathways. This novel synergistic interaction has therapeutic implications for treatment of respiratory virus infections. PMID:25938799

  12. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Robert T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2010-05-01

    Type III-L bursts are a sub-class of type III solar radio bursts that tend to occur after the impulsive phase of flares; are longer in duration than individual type IIIs and tend to be low-frequency. There has been a proposal that type III-Ls are connected to solar energetic proton (SEP) events. Most work on this connection has started from samples of SEP events, but if type III-Ls are to be useful for prediction of SEP events, then we need to understand the properties of samples of type III-L bursts. This talk reports preliminary results from such a study. An operating definition based on previous work is used to identify type III-L events amongst M- and X-class flares from 2001; and then associations with other properties of these events are investigated, including association with SEP events. If there is an association with SEP events, one important factor that these bursts allow us to address is the question of whether acceleration takes place at an associated CME, or closer to the flare site well below the CME. Work has been developed on a type III fitting tool. A Template is chosen from a representative individual type III burst and fit to individual type III bursts and components of Complex type III bursts in order to help analyze and distinguish these bursts. This type III fitting tool can also be used to fit and distinguish Impulsive type III and type III-L bursts and help analyze various characteristics of the components of these bursts such as drift-rate and change in the duration of their intensity-time profiles with frequency. Funding for this research came from the Naval Research Laboratory where basic research in radio astronomy is funded by the Office of Naval Research, and from NASA LWS Grant FRS 526249.

  14. [Quantitative polarization microscopy demonstration of collagen type I and type III in histologic paraffin sections].

    PubMed

    Ogbuihi, S; Müller, Z; Zink, P

    1988-01-01

    The industrial dye Solophenyl Red 3 BL (Ciba-Geigy) dissolved in a saturated aquaeous solution of picric acid has proved suitable for differentiating between collagen types I and III in histological sections. When examined under polarization microscopy, type I fibers are radiant orange while type III fibers are green. Using 5 micron paraffin sections, an optimal staining procedure was determined: sections were first stained with Resorcin Fuchsin for elastic fibers and with Celestin Blue/Mayer's Hematoxylin for nuclear structures. The staining was then completed with 0.1 g Solophenyl Red/100 ml saturated aqueous solution of picric acid for 60 min at a pH value of 1.25. It was shown that the dye stained collagen selectively. With the aid of a photomultiplier, the spectral distribution of a series of lung sections adequately stained according to the optimized procedure was carried out using a monochromator and an interference filter, respectively. Both methods yielded identical peaks at 590 nm for the orange colored light of collagen type I and 490 nm for the green light of collagen type III. Application of appropriate filters permitted the intensity of the orange and green light at 590 nm and 490 nm to be measured. Long postmortem intervals did not affect the measured values. Quantitative inferences on the ratio of collagen I to collagen III could then be deduced from the ratio of the intensity of orange to green light. This index I/III is often applied in the diagnosis of discrete fibrotic changes in various organs.

  15. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    PubMed

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency.

  16. The effect of K2SO4 solution on type III gypsum surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillary, N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The working model of type III gypsum is commonly used as working model for removable dentures. K2SO4 is well known as an effective accelerator to accelerate the gypsum setting time. This study aimed to identify the effect of K2SO4 1.5% solution on type III gypsum surface roughness. Surface roughness tests were performed using a Surface Roughness Tester at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days after manipulation the gypsum. The results showed that type III gypsum surface roughness varied until the 7-day test. Moreover, the surface roughness of type III gypsum and K2SO4 1.5% solution is lower than type III gypsum surface roughness and equal to type IV gypsum surface roughness. It is concluded that the addition of K2SO4 1.5% solution decreased type III gypsum surface roughness.

  17. Mouse model of glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2014-04-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa) is caused by a deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE), which is encoded by the Agl gene. GDE deficiency leads to the pathogenic accumulation of phosphorylase limit dextrin (PLD), an abnormal glycogen, in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. To further investigate the pathological mechanisms behind this disease and develop novel therapies to treat this disease, we generated a GDE-deficient mouse model by removing exons after exon 5 in the Agl gene. GDE reduction was confirmed by western blot and enzymatic activity assay. Histology revealed massive glycogen accumulation in the liver, muscle, and heart of the homozygous affected mice. Interestingly, we did not find any differences in the general appearance, growth rate, and life span between the wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous affected mice with ad libitum feeding, except reduced motor activity after 50 weeks of age, and muscle weakness in both the forelimb and hind legs of homozygous affected mice by using the grip strength test at 62 weeks of age. However, repeated fasting resulted in decreased survival of the knockout mice. Hepatomegaly and progressive liver fibrosis were also found in the homozygous affected mice. Blood chemistry revealed that alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were significantly higher in the homozygous affected mice than in both wild-type and heterozygous mice and the activity of these enzymes further increased with fasting. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity was normal in young and adult homozygous affected mice. However, the activity was significantly elevated after fasting. Hypoglycemia appeared only at a young age (3 weeks) and hyperlipidemia was not observed in our model. In conclusion, with the exception of normal lipidemia, these mice recapitulate human GSD IIIa; moreover, we found that repeated fasting was detrimental to these mice. This mouse model will

  18. STUDIES ON NATURAL IMMUNITY TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III

    PubMed Central

    Enders, John F.; Shaffer, Morris F.; Wu, Chao-Jen

    1936-01-01

    Among the experimental findings reported in this paper to which we wish to give particular emphasis are the following: 1. The results which follow the intravenous injection into rabbits of two strains of Pneumococcus Type III of different degrees of virulence vary with the state of the capsule. Thus when this structure is completely developed both remain in the blood. A culture of either strain begins to become susceptible to the blood-clearing mechanism contemporaneously with the onset of capsular degeneration and the initiation of other concomitant changes at the surface of the organism (cf Paper II), which occur much earlier with the less virulent strain. 2. When, in either case, removal from the blood stream occurs, this is effected by the phagocytic cells of the body. There is no suggestion that a new or unknown mechanism is involved. The greatest share of the burden is borne by the fixed phagocytic cells of the liver and spleen, and to a less extent by those of the lung and bone marrow. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that the polymorphonuclear leucocytes may also participate. 3. Phagocytosis by the leucocytes of the normal animal either in intro or in vivo has been observed only at such a time as the capsule has become impaired. Ingestion of the organisms by the fixed tissue cells appears also to be effective only under the same condition and is accordingly observed with much younger cultures of the less virulent strain. 4. Following their removal from the blood and their accumulation within the fixed phagocytes of the organs, destruction of most of the cocci proceeds within 2 to 4 hours. Both strains are destroyed provided they are in the state favorable to phagocytic attack. 5. Evidence has been presented which indicates that just as in vitro, so in a local area of inflammation within the body, aging with attendant capsular loss and increasing susceptibility to phagocytosis may take place. 6. With organisms from either strain a variable period of

  19. Adsorptive separation of rhodium(III) using Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.S.; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu; Ishibashi, Hideaki

    1998-03-01

    The oxine type of chemically modified chitosan was prepared by the template crosslinking method using Fe(III) as a template ion. Batchwise adsorption of rhodium(III) on this chemically modified chitosan was examined from chloride media in the absence and presence of a large amount of tin(II). It was observed that the Fe(III)-templated oxine type of chemically modified chitosan shows better performance for rhodium adsorption than that of the original chitosan. When Sn(II) is absent from the solution, Rh(III) is hardly adsorbed on the modified chitosan and the order of selectivity of the adsorption of Rh(III), Pt(IV), and Cu(II) was found to be Pt(IV) > Cu(II) {approx} Rh(III). On the other hand, adsorption of rhodium is significantly increased in the presence of Sn(II) and the selectivity order of the adsorption was drastically changed to Rh(III) > Pt(IV) {much_gt} Cu(II), which ensures selective separation of Rh(III) from their mixture. Adsorption of Rh(III) increases with an increase in the concentration of Sn(II) in the aqueous solution, and maximum adsorption is achieved at a molar ratio, [Sn]/[Rh], of >6. The adsorption of Rh(III) decreases at a high concentration of hydrochloric acid. The maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated to be 0.92 mol/kg-dry adsorbent. Stripping tests of rhodium from the loaded chemically modified chitosan were carried out using different kinds of stripping agents containing some oxidizing agent. The maximum stripping of rhodium under these experimental conditions was found to be 72.5% by a single contact with 0.5 M HCl + 8 M HNO{sub 3}.

  20. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sorgeloos, Frédéric; Kreit, Marguerite; Hermant, Pascale; Lardinois, Cécile; Michiels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i) preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii) the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii) the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv) the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway. PMID:23503326

  1. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION OF MICE WITH THE POLYSACCHARIDES OF PNEUMOCOCCI TYPES I, II AND III

    PubMed Central

    Zozaya, José; Clark, Janet

    1933-01-01

    1. Pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III adsorbed on collodion particles, and Types I and III adsorbed on carbon (norit) are antigenic in mice. 2. Unadsorbed pneumococcus polysaccharide of Type I is antigenic in mice in proper dilution. One preparation of Type II polysaccharide was not antigenic, while another one immunized against Types I and II. Type III polysaccharide was only slightly antigenic against Type III but immunized against Type I. 3. The antigenicity of pneumococcus polysaccharide in optimal dosage is tentatively explained by an adsorption phenomenon taking place in the body in instances in which the polysaccharides had not been adsorbed before injection. 4. The aggressin-like action of large doses of pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III is further established. PMID:19870119

  2. Translocation of surface-localized effectors in type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Edgren, Tomas; Wang-Edgren, Helen; Rosqvist, Roland; Fahlgren, Anna; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Fallman, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species suppress the host immune response by using a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate virulence proteins into the cytosol of the target cells. T3SS-dependent protein translocation is believed to occur in one step from the bacterial cytosol to the target-cell cytoplasm through a conduit created by the T3SS upon target cell contact. Here, we report that T3SS substrates on the surface of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are translocated into target cells. Upon host cell contact, purified YopH coated on Y. pseudotuberculosis was specifically and rapidly translocated across the target-cell membrane, which led to a physiological response in the infected cell. In addition, translocation of externally added YopH required a functional T3SS and a specific translocation domain in the effector protein. Efficient, T3SS-dependent translocation of purified YopH added in vitro was also observed when using coated Salmonella typhimurium strains, which implies that T3SS-mediated translocation of extracellular effector proteins is conserved among T3SS-dependent pathogens. Our results demonstrate that polarized T3SS-dependent translocation of proteins can be achieved through an intermediate extracellular step that can be reconstituted in vitro. These results indicate that translocation can occur by a different mechanism from the assumed single-step conduit model. PMID:21220342

  3. The Type III Secretion Translocation Pore Senses Host Cell Contact

    PubMed Central

    Armentrout, Erin I.; Rietsch, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are nano-syringes used by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens to promote infection by directly injecting effector proteins into targeted host cells. Translocation of effectors is triggered by host-cell contact and requires assembly of a pore in the host-cell plasma membrane, which consists of two translocator proteins. Our understanding of the translocation pore, how it is assembled in the host cell membrane and its precise role in effector translocation, is extremely limited. Here we use a genetic technique to identify protein-protein contacts between pore-forming translocator proteins, as well as the T3SS needle-tip, that are critical for translocon function. The data help establish the orientation of the translocator proteins in the host cell membrane. Analysis of translocon function in mutants that break these contacts demonstrates that an interaction between the pore-forming translocator PopD and the needle-tip is required for sensing host cell contact. Moreover, tethering PopD at a dimer interface also specifically prevents host-cell sensing, arguing that the translocation pore is actively involved in detecting host cell contact. The work presented here therefore establishes a signal transduction pathway for sensing host cell contact that is initiated by a conformational change in the translocation pore, and is subsequently transmitted to the base of the apparatus via a specific contact between the pore and the T3SS needle-tip. PMID:27022930

  4. Characterization of resistant starch type III from banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Undine; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2002-08-28

    Banana starch (Musa acuminata var. Nandigobe) was evaluated for its use in generating resistant starch (RS) type III. Structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of these products were analyzed. The investigated process includes debranching of the native starch and retrogradation under different storage temperatures and starch concentrations. After enzymatic debranching, a high amount of low-molecular-weight polymers with a degree of polymerization between 10 and 35 glucose units beside a higher molecular weight fraction were found. The resulting products comprised RS contents of about 50%. After heat-moisture treatment, the RS yield increased up to 84%. Peak temperatures of about 145 degrees C found in DSC measurements pointed to a high thermal stability of the RS products. In vitro fermentations of the RS products, carried out with intestinal microflora of healthy humans, resulted in a molar ratio of acetate:propionate:butyrate of about 49:17:34. The established method allowed the production of a high-quality RS with prebiotic properties for health preventing applications.

  5. Functional Activation of the Flagellar Type III Secretion Export Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew M.; Calvo, Rebecca A.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Flagella are assembled sequentially from the inside-out with morphogenetic checkpoints that enforce the temporal order of subunit addition. Here we show that flagellar basal bodies fail to proceed to hook assembly at high frequency in the absence of the monotopic protein SwrB of Bacillus subtilis. Genetic suppressor analysis indicates that SwrB activates the flagellar type III secretion export apparatus by the membrane protein FliP. Furthermore, mutants defective in the flagellar C-ring phenocopy the absence of SwrB for reduced hook frequency and C-ring defects may be bypassed either by SwrB overexpression or by a gain-of-function allele in the polymerization domain of FliG. We conclude that SwrB enhances the probability that the flagellar basal body adopts a conformation proficient for secretion to ensure that rod and hook subunits are not secreted in the absence of a suitable platform on which to polymerize. PMID:26244495

  6. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  7. Identification of type II and III DDR2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Richters, André; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Simard, Jeffrey R; Grütter, Christian; Engel, Julian; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-05-22

    Discoidin domain-containing receptors (DDRs) exhibit a unique mechanism of action among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) because their catalytic activity is induced by extracellular collagen binding. Moreover, they are essential components in the assimilation of extracellular signals. Recently, DDRs were reported to be significantly linked to tumor progression in breast cancer by facilitating the processes of invasion, migration, and metastasis. Here, we report the successful development of a fluorescence-based, direct binding assay for the detection of type II and III DFG-out binders for DDR2. Using sequence alignments and homology modeling, we designed a DDR2 construct appropriate for fluorescent labeling. Successful assay development was validated by sensitive detection of a reference DFG-out binder. Subsequent downscaling led to convenient application to high-throughput screening formats. Screening of a representative compound library identified high-affinity DDR2 ligands validated by orthogonal activity-based assays, and a subset of identified compounds was further investigated with respect to DDR1 inhibition.

  8. Type III Secretion in the Melioidosis Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Vander Broek, Charles W.; Stevens, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of both humans and animals. Melioidosis is an emerging disease which is predicted to be vastly under-reported. Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are critical virulence factors in Gram negative pathogens of plants and animals. The genome of B. pseudomallei encodes three T3SSs. T3SS-1 and -2, of which little is known, are homologous to Hrp2 secretion systems of the plant pathogens Ralstonia and Xanthomonas. T3SS-3 is better characterized and is homologous to the Inv/Mxi-Spa secretion systems of Salmonella spp. and Shigella flexneri, respectively. Upon entry into the host cell, B. pseudomallei requires T3SS-3 for efficient escape from the endosome. T3SS-3 is also required for full virulence in both hamster and murine models of infection. The regulatory cascade which controls T3SS-3 expression and the secretome of T3SS-3 have been described, as well as the effect of mutations of some of the structural proteins. Yet only a few effector proteins have been functionally characterized to date and very little work has been carried out to understand the hierarchy of assembly, secretion and temporal regulation of T3SS-3. This review aims to frame current knowledge of B. pseudomallei T3SSs in the context of other well characterized model T3SSs, particularly those of Salmonella and Shigella. PMID:28664152

  9. Lubrication studies of some type III deep eutectic solvents (DESs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Essa. I.; Abbott, Andrew. P.; Ryder, Karl S.

    2017-09-01

    It has previously been shown that eutectic mixtures of quaternary ammonium salts and hydrogen bond donors form liquids with properties similar to ionic liquids [1; 2]. These so-called deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been shown to have physical properties which would make them useful as base lubricants. The base lubricant needs to show specific properties, including high viscosity index (VI), low friction coefficient (μ), low pour point and corrosivity. To determine the applicability of DESs as base lubricants, physical properties, corrosion and lubrication properties for four type III DESs have been studied and the results have been compared with mineral base oil. The data show that the lubrication properties of DESs are superior to mineral base oil for short distances. All DESs assessed here have higher VI (191, 147, 121 for Ethaline, Glyceline and Reline respectively compared with 100 for mineral base oil), lower pour points than mineral base oil and most of the liquids studied have shown very low corrosion rates (< 3 µm year-1 for mild steel).

  10. Type-III secretion filaments as scaffolds for inorganic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Anum; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials exhibit unique magnetic, electrical and catalytic properties. These characteristics are determined by the chemical composition, size and shape of the nanostructured components, which are challenging to modulate on such small size scales and to interface with living cells. To address this problem, we are using a self-assembling filament protein, PrgI, as a scaffold for bottom-up inorganic nanostructure synthesis. PrgI is a small protein (80 amino acids) that oligomerizes to form the type-III secretion system needle of Salmonella enterica. We demonstrate that purified PrgI monomers also spontaneously self-assemble into long filaments and that high-affinity peptide tags specific for attachment to functionalized particles can be integrated into the N-terminal region of PrgI. The resulting filaments selectively bind to gold, whether the filaments are assembled in vitro, sheared from cells or remain attached to live S. enterica cell membranes. Chemical reduction of the gold-modified PrgI variants results in structures that are several micrometres in length and which incorporate a contiguous gold surface. Mutant strains with genomically incorporated metal-binding tags retain the secretion phenotype. We anticipate that self-assembled, cell-tethered protein/metal filamentous structures have applications in sensing and energy transduction in vivo. PMID:26763334

  11. The Structure and Function of Type III Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Notti, Ryan Q.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE SUMMARY Type III secretion systems (T3SS) afford gram-negative bacteria a most intimate means of altering the biology of their eukaryotic hosts — the direct delivery of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to that of the eukaryote. This incredible biophysical feat is accomplished by nanosyringe “injectisomes,” which form a conduit across the three plasma membranes, peptidoglycan layer and extracellular space that form a barrier to the direct delivery of proteins from bacterium to host. The focus of this chapter is T3SS function at the structural level; we will summarize the core findings that have shaped our understanding of the structure and function of these systems and highlight recent developments in the field. In turn, we describe the T3SS secretory apparatus, consider its engagement with secretion substrates, and discuss the post-translational regulation of secretory function. Lastly, we close with a discussion of the future prospects for the interrogation of structure-function relationships in the T3SS. PMID:26999392

  12. Comparisons of interplanetary type III storm footpoints with solar features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, Susan E.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Fainberg, Joseph; Stone, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    The trajectories of 38 type III storms in the interplanetary medium have been deduced from ISEE-3 radio observations and extrapolated back to the sun to determine the Carrington coordinates of their footpoints. The analysis assumes radial motion of the solar wind, and the trajectories are projected radially back toward the surface for the last few solar radii. To identify the storm sources, the footpoints were compared to a variety of solar features: to the large-scale neutral line at the base of the current sheet, to active regions, to the small-scale neutral lines and H-alpha filaments which trace out active regions, and to coronal holes. Most of the footpoints were found to lie near active regions, in agreement with metric storm locations. There is a weak correlation with H-alpha filaments, no apparent association with the current sheet, and an anticorrelation with coronal holes. There is a small excess of storms in the leading half of magnetic sectors.

  13. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, CMEs, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been well known since the earliest observations that solar energetic particle events are well associated with solar flares it is often considered that the association is not physically significant. Instead, in large events, the particles are considered to be only accelerated at a shock driven by the coronal mass ejection (CME) that is also always present. If particles are accelerated in the associated flare, it is claimed that such particles do not find access to open field lines and therefore do not escape from the low corona. However recent work has established that long lasting type III radio bursts extending to low frequencies are associated with all prompt solar particle events. Such bursts establish the presence of open field lines. Furthermore, tracing the radio bursts to the lowest frequencies, generated near the observer, shows that the radio producing electrons gain access to a region of large angular extent. It is likely that the electrons undergo cross field transport and it seems reasonable that ions do also. Such observations indicate that particle propagation in the inner heliosphere is not yet fully understood. They also imply that the contribution of flare particles in major particle events needs to be properly addressed.

  14. Remote flare brightenings and type III reverse slope bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.; Moore, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Observations are presented on two large (H-alpha class 2) flares that each produced an extensive chain of discrete H-alpha brightenings spanning 370,000-470,000 km in length in remote quiet regions more than 100,000 km from the main flare site. A large group of Type III RS bursts was also observed accompanying each flare. The onset of about half the remote H-alpha emission patches were nearly simultaneous with the RS bursts. One flare was observed in hard X-rays, and it is noted that the RS bursts occurred during hard X-ray spikes. For the other flare, soft X-ray filtergrams indicate coronal loops connecting from the main flare site to the remote H-alpha brightenings. Observations indicate that the RS burst electrons were generated in the flares, and it is proposed that the remote H-alpha brightenings were initiated by direct heating of the chromosphere by RS burst electrons traveling in closed magnetic loops connecting the flare site to the remote patches. It is also suggested that after onset, the brightenings were heated by thermal conduction by slower thermal electrons.

  15. Polarization and position measurements of Type III bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.; Dulk, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The positional and polarization characteristics of Type III bursts in the range 24-220 MHz as measured by the Culgoora radioheliograph, spectrograph and spectropolarimeter are reported. The study includes 997 bursts which are of two classes: fundamental-harmonic (F-H) pairs and 'structureless' bursts with no visible F-H structure, and concentrates on the polarization of the bursts and the variation of polarization from centre to limb. The observed centre-to-limb decrease in polarization approximately follows a cosine law. This decrease is not as predicted by simple theory but is consistent with other observations which imply that open field lines from an active region diverge strongly. The observed o-mode polarization of harmonic radiation implies that the wave vectors of Langmuir waves are always parallel, within about 20 deg, to the magnetic field, while the constancy of H polarization with frequency implies that the ratio of gyromagnetic to plasma frequency, the Alfven speed and the plasma beta are constant with height on the open field lines above an active region. Finally, it is inferred that some factor, in addition to the magnetic field strength, controls the polarization of F radiation.

  16. Assembly, structure, function and regulation of type III secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wanyin; Marshall, Natalie C; Rowland, Jennifer L; McCoy, James M; Worrall, Liam J; Santos, Andrew S; Strynadka, Natalie C J; Finlay, B Brett

    2017-04-10

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs. Furthermore, genetic and molecular analyses have elucidated the functions of many effectors and key regulators of T3SS assembly and secretion hierarchy, which is the sequential order by which the protein substrates are secreted. As essential virulence factors, T3SSs are attractive targets for vaccines and therapeutics. This Review summarizes our current knowledge of the structure and function of this important protein secretion machinery. A greater understanding of T3SSs should aid mechanism-based drug design and facilitate their manipulation for biotechnological applications.

  17. Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boisvert, Maude; Shoukry, Naglaa H.

    2016-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-λ family of type III cytokines includes the closely related interleukin (IL)-28A (IFN-λ2), IL-28B (IFN-λ3), and IL-29 (IFN-λ1). They signal through the Janus kinases (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and promote an antiviral state by the induction of expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Contrary to type I IFNs, the effect of IFN-λ cytokines is largely limited to epithelial cells due to the restricted pattern of expression of their specific receptor. Several genome-wide association studies have established a strong correlation between polymorphism in the region of IL-28B gene (encoding for IFN-λ3) and both spontaneous and therapeutic IFN-mediated clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the mechanism(s) underlying this enhanced viral clearance are not fully understood. IFN-λ3 directly inhibits HCV replication, and in vitro studies suggest that polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 and its recently identified overlapping IFN-λ4 govern the pattern of ISGs induced upon HCV infection of hepatocytes. IFN-λ can also be produced by dendritic cells, and apart from its antiviral action on hepatocytes, it can regulate the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages, thus acting at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about the role of IFN-λ cytokines in mediating and regulating the immune response during acute and chronic HCV infections. PMID:28066437

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): emerging treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    de Ruijter, J; Valstar, M J; Wijburg, F A

    2011-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharosis III (MPS III) is a lysosomal storage disorder and belongs to the group of mucopolysaccharidoses. MPS III is caused by a deficiency of one of the four enzymes catalyzing the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate. MPS III is clinically characterized by progressive dementia with distinct behavioral disturbances and relatively mild somatic disease. This review will summarize and discuss the available and potential future therapeutic options for patients with MPS III. This includes enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), substrate reduction therapy (SRT), chaperone-mediated therapy, and gene therapy. Although clinical efficacy has not yet been fully demonstrated for any of these therapies, it is likely that future developments will lead to disease-modifying treatment for this devastating disease.

  19. Stem Cells in the Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Hertsenberg, Andrew J.; Funderburgh, James L.

    2017-01-01

    The cornea is the tough, transparent tissue through which light first enters the eye and functions as a barrier to debris and infection as well as two-thirds of the refractive power of the eye. Corneal damage that is not promptly treated will often lead to scarring and vision impairment. Due to the limited options currently available to treat corneal scars, the identification and isolation of stem cells in the cornea has received much attention, as they may have potential for autologous, cell-based approaches to the treatment of damaged corneal tissue. PMID:26310147

  20. STUDIES ON NATURAL IMMUNITY TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Morris F.; Enders, John F.; Wu, Chao-Jen

    1936-01-01

    The results which have been presented show that under the conditions of artificial cultivation at 37°C. definite differences exist between two smooth strains of Pneumococcus Type III both of which are highly virulent for mice by the intraperitoneal route, but which may be sharply distinguished in their virulence for rabbits. These differences consist in the size of the fully developed intact capsule and the interval of time required for its loss. The somewhat smaller capsule of the avirulent strain, well formed and easily demonstrable during the early period of growth, diminishes quickly, while the large capsule of the strain virulent for rabbits is retained for a considerably longer period. Closely correlated with the time at which this reduction of capsule occurs is the appearance of changes in the surface properties of the bacteria which are revealed by a shifting of the range of acid agglutination, susceptibility to clumping in anti-R serum and ingestion by normal adult human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and serum. Since it has been shown that these alterations as growth continues, result in a loss of characteristics which distinguish the strictly type specific, fully capsulated pneumococcus and ultimately lead to a state temporarily approximating that of the completely avirulent R form, and since under the experimental conditions they are inaugurated sooner, advance more rapidly and are more complete in the rabbit avirulent organism, we believe that they may partly account for difference in rabbit virulence of the two strains. In the following paper an attempt has therefore been made to correlate this behavior in vitro with the events attendant upon inoculation into the animal body. The studies of Clark and Ruehl (16), Henrici (17), Bayne-Jones and Adolph (18) and others have demonstrated a marked increase in the size of the bacterial cell associated with the early phases of growth. These authors have dealt chiefly with noncapsulated rod forms and even Clark

  1. RIEGER-TYPE PERIODICITY IN THE OCCURRENCE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2012-08-01

    This Letter presents the first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156{sub -9}{sup +19} days in the occurrence rate of solar coronal type III radio bursts. The periodicity was detected during the time interval from 2000 June 22 to 2003 December 31. This interval partially contains the maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network.

  2. Cross-link analysis of the C-telopeptide domain from type III collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, W

    1996-01-01

    Several peptides were isolated from tryptic digests of insoluble calf aorta matrix by chromatography. Reductive pyridylethylation of a tryptic 15 kDa pool released fragments deriving from the C-terminus of type III collagen. A 50-residue peptide Tc(III) was shown by sequence analysis to be the C-terminal peptide from the alpha 1(III)-chain, containing a helical and non-helical region of equal sizes. The peptide was further digested with collagenase to give Colc(III), comprising the complete C-terminal non-helical region of alpha 1(III) including a hydroxylysine in position 16c. The peptide Tc(III) x TN(III) was isolated, demonstrating covalent cross-linking between the C-terminal non-helical region of one type III molecule and the N-terminal helical cross-linking region of another. Its digestion with cyanogen bromide yielded the small fragments alpha 1(III)CB3B* and alpha 1(III)CB3C, confirming TN(III) as an N-terminal helical crosslink site. Sequence analysis of both Tc(III) x TN(III) and its collagenase-derived cross-linked peptide Colc(III) x TN(III) established the 4D-staggered alignment of adjacent collagen III molecules. The cross-link structure of both peptides was mainly dihydroxylysinonorleucine with a small amount of hydroxylysinonorleucine, indicating that the lysine residues involved in formation of the cross-links are both hydroxylated. No pyridinoline or histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine cross-links were found within the non-reduced C-telopeptide region of type III collagen. PMID:8809038

  3. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  4. Regulation of the Yersinia type III secretion system: traffic control

    PubMed Central

    Dewoody, Rebecca S.; Merritt, Peter M.; Marketon, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia species, as well as many other Gram-negative pathogens, use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cytosol. This T3SS resembles a molecular syringe, with a needle-like shaft connected to a basal body structure, which spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes. The basal body of the injectisome shares a high degree of homology with the bacterial flagellum. Extending from the T3SS basal body is the needle, which is a polymer of a single protein, YscF. The distal end of the needle serves as a platform for the assembly of a tip complex composed of LcrV. Though never directly observed, prevailing models assume that LcrV assists in the insertion of the pore-forming proteins YopB and YopD into the host cell membrane. This completes a bridge between the bacterium and host cell to provide a continuous channel through which effectors are delivered. Significant effort has gone into understanding how the T3SS is assembled, how its substrates are recognized and how substrate delivery is controlled. Arguably the latter topic is the least understood; however, recent advances have provided new insight, and therefore, this review will focus primarily on summarizing the current state of knowledge regarding the control of substrate delivery by the T3SS. Specifically, we will discuss the roles of YopK, as well as YopN and YopE, which have long been linked to regulation of translocation. We also propose models whereby the YopK regulator communicates with the basal body of the T3SS to control translocation. PMID:23390616

  5. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy.

    PubMed

    Mayorandan, Sebene; Meyer, Uta; Hartmann, Hans; Das, Anibh Martin

    2014-11-28

    Frequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this regimen can prevent hypoglycaemia in children it does not improve skeletal and heart muscle function, which are compromised in patients with glycogenosis IIIa. Administration of carbohydrates may elicit reactive hyperinsulinism, resulting in suppression of lipolysis, ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and activation of glycogen synthesis. Thus, heart and skeletal muscle are depleted of energy substrates. Modified Atkins diet leads to increased blood levels of ketone bodies and fatty acids. We hypothesize that this health care intervention improves the energetic balance of muscles. We treated 2 boys with glycogenosis IIIa aged 9 and 11 years with a modified Atkins diet (10 g carbohydrate per day, protein and fatty acids ad libitum) over a period of 32 and 26 months, respectively. In both patients, creatine kinase levels in blood dropped in response to Atkins diet. When diet was withdrawn in one of the patients he complained of chest pain, reduced physical strength and creatine kinase levels rapidly increased. This was reversed when Atkins diet was reintroduced. One patient suffered from severe cardiomyopathy which significantly improved under diet. Patients with glycogenosis IIIa benefit from an improved energetic state of heart and skeletal muscle by introduction of Atkins diet both on a biochemical and clinical level. Apart from transient hypoglycaemia no serious adverse effects were observed.

  6. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  7. Thermomechanical behavior of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Spörl, E; Genth, U; Schmalfuss, K; Seiler, T

    1996-11-01

    Shrinkage of corneal collagen is used during thermokeratoplasty, a method to remodel the corneal curvature. The goal of our investigations was to determine the optimal temperature range for maximal shrinkage of the collagen fibers with minimal damage. By means of a commercially available stress-strain-measuring device including a paraffin oil bath at temperatures varying from 35 degrees to 120 degrees C, strips of pig cornea measuring 5 mm in width and 9 mm in length were investigated in the stress range of sigma = (0.5-12.5) x10(4) N/m2 by stress-strain, stress-relaxation, and creep measurements. The biomechanical properties of the cornea remained unchanged in the temperature range of 30-50 degrees C. Starting at 60 degrees C, shrinkage occurred that increased up to a temperature of 90 degrees C. The maximal rate of shrinkage of 57 +/- 12% was determined at temperatures of 75 degrees and 80 degrees C. At above 100 degrees C the shrinkage effect decreased because of the destruction of intermolecular bonds between the collagen fibers. The stress-strain curves generated for shrunken corneas were flatter than those generated for native corneas, which means that Young's modulus is significantly reduced. For the achievement of optimal shrinkage during thermokeratoplasty, temperatures of 70-85 degrees C should be reached in the tissue to be coagulated. Higher temperatures are capable of causing a shrinkage effect but also induce the destruction of tissue.

  8. The importance of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system in epithelium traversal depends upon conditions of host susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Aaron B; Tam, K P Connie; Metruccio, Matteo M E; Evans, David J; Fleiszig, Suzanne M J

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is invasive or cytotoxic to host cells, depending on the type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors encoded. While the T3SS is known to be involved in disease in vivo, how it participates remains to be clarified. Here, mouse models of superficial epithelial injury (tissue paper blotting with EGTA treatment) and immunocompromise (MyD88 deficiency) were used to study the contribution of the T3SS transcriptional activator ExsA to epithelial traversal. Corneas of excised eyeballs were inoculated with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing PAO1 or isogenic exsA mutants for 6 h ex vivo before bacterial traversal and epithelial thickness were quantified by using imaging. In the blotting-EGTA model, exsA mutants were defective in capacity for traversal. Accordingly, an ∼16-fold variability in exsA expression among PAO1 isolates from three sources correlated with epithelial loss. In contrast, MyD88-/- epithelia remained susceptible to P. aeruginosa traversal despite exsA mutation. Epithelial lysates from MyD88-/- mice had reduced antimicrobial activity compared to those from wild-type mice with and without prior antigen challenge, particularly 30- to 100-kDa fractions, for which mass spectrometry revealed multiple differences, including (i) lower baseline levels of histones, tubulin, and lumican and (ii) reduced glutathione S-transferase, annexin, and dermatopontin, after antigen challenge. Thus, the importance of ExsA in epithelial traversal by invasive P. aeruginosa depends on the compromise enabling susceptibility, suggesting that strategies for preventing infection will need to extend beyond targeting the T3SS. The data also highlight the importance of mimicking conditions allowing susceptibility in animal models and the need to monitor variability among bacterial isolates from different sources, even for the same strain.

  9. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  10. 46 CFR 170.135 - Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel with Type III... Operating Personnel § 170.135 Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision. (a) In addition to the information required in 46 CFR 170.110, the stability booklet of a passenger vessel with...

  11. 78 FR 9802 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in connection with one or more... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG31; 1545-BL38 Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS),...

  12. 46 CFR 171.082 - Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III... Damage stability standards for vessels with Type III subdivision. (a) Each vessel must be shown by design... the International Maritime Organization (IMO). (b) International Maritime Organization Resolution...

  13. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ Type III Effector Family in Aribidopsis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE) proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found i...

  14. The Effects of Non-Normality on Type III Error for Comparing Independent Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of non-normality on Type III error rates for ANOVA F its three commonly recommended parametric counterparts namely Welch, Brown-Forsythe, and Alexander-Govern test. Therefore these tests were compared in terms of Type III error rates across the variety of population distributions,…

  15. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:28201715

  16. Diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia by chromatography of plasma lipoproteins on columns containing agarose.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Packard, C J; Dryburgh, F J; Third, J L

    1975-12-01

    Agarose column chromatography has been used to separate plasma lipoproteins into very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Applied to the diagnosis of primary type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the procedure is capable of demonstrating three characteristic and specific changes from normality in the elution pattern of lipoproteins from patients with this condition. In the type III profile there is (a) incomplete separation of VLDL from putative LDL material, (b) early elution of the type III LDL with respect to a normal LDL marker, and (c) relative deficiency of type III LDL with elution characteristics of normal LDL. We advocate the use of this method in the diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

  17. Harnessing Type I and Type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Min; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Nan; Chen, Lanming; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR array and a donor DNA containing a non-target sequence. Transformation of a pGE plasmid would yield two alternative fates to transformed cells: wild-type cells are to be targeted for chromosomal DNA degradation, leading to cell death, whereas those carrying the mutant gene would survive the cell killing and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of an uncharacterized PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas system can be predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26467477

  18. Distinct Roles of Type I and Type III Interferons in Intestinal Immunity to Homologous and Heterologous Rotavirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-Da; Feng, Ningguo; Sen, Adrish; Balan, Murugabaskar; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; McElrath, Constance; Smirnov, Sergey V; Peng, Jianya; Yasukawa, Linda L; Durbin, Russell K; Durbin, Joan E; Greenberg, Harry B; Kotenko, Sergei V

    2016-04-01

    Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons (IFNs) exert shared antiviral activities through distinct receptors. However, their relative importance for antiviral protection of different organ systems against specific viruses remains to be fully explored. We used mouse strains deficient in type-specific IFN signaling, STAT1 and Rag2 to dissect distinct and overlapping contributions of type I and type III IFNs to protection against homologous murine (EW-RV strain) and heterologous (non-murine) simian (RRV strain) rotavirus infections in suckling mice. Experiments demonstrated that murine EW-RV is insensitive to the action of both types of IFNs, and that timely viral clearance depends upon adaptive immune responses. In contrast, both type I and type III IFNs can control replication of the heterologous simian RRV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and they cooperate to limit extra-intestinal simian RRV replication. Surprisingly, intestinal epithelial cells were sensitive to both IFN types in neonatal mice, although their responsiveness to type I, but not type III IFNs, diminished in adult mice, revealing an unexpected age-dependent change in specific contribution of type I versus type III IFNs to antiviral defenses in the GI tract. Transcriptional analysis revealed that intestinal antiviral responses to RV are triggered through either type of IFN receptor, and are greatly diminished when receptors for both IFN types are lacking. These results also demonstrate a murine host-specific resistance to IFN-mediated antiviral effects by murine EW-RV, but the retention of host efficacy through the cooperative action by type I and type III IFNs in restricting heterologous simian RRV growth and systemic replication in suckling mice. Collectively, our findings revealed a well-orchestrated spatial and temporal tuning of innate antiviral responses in the intestinal tract where two types of IFNs through distinct patterns of their expression and distinct but overlapping sets

  19. A Raman scattering and FT-IR spectroscopic study on the effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on bovine cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Naoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Raman scattering and FT-IR spectra of the corneas, transported to the Syowa station in Antarctica and exposed to the solar radiation of the mid-summer for four weeks, were studied to reveal that type IV collagen involved in corneas were fragmented. The amide I and III Raman bands were observed at 1660 and 1245 cm -1, respectively, and the amide I and II infrared bands were observed at 1655 and 1545 cm -1, respectively, for original corneas before exposure. The background of Raman signals prominently increased and the ratio of amide II infrared band versus amide I decreased by the solar radiation in Antarctica. The control experiment using an artificial UV lamp was also performed in laboratory. The decline rate of the amide II/amide I was utilized for estimating the degree of fragmentation of collagen, to reveal that the addition of vitamin C suppressed the reaction while the addition of sugars promoted it. The effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on the corneas was estimated as the same as the artificial UV lamp of four weeks (Raman) or one week (FT-IR) exposure.

  20. Bee sting of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Singh, G

    1984-04-01

    Irreversible heterochromia-iridis, internal ophthalmoplegia, and punctate subcapsular lenticular opacities developed in a 9-year-old girl after she received a bee sting in her right cornea. These complications persisted even after an 11-month follow-up period. To the author's knowledge, this presentation is the first of its nature. The pathogenesis of these changes is discussed and the literature is reviewed.

  1. The unique regulation and functions of type III interferons in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Odendall, Charlotte; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2015-06-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) were long considered to be the sole IFN species produced by virus-infected cells until the discovery of type III IFNs (IFNλs), decades later. Like type I IFNs, type III IFNs are induced by and protect against viral infections, leading to the initial conclusion that the two IFN species are identical in regulation and biological functions. However, the two systems differ in the tissue expression of their receptor, resulting in different roles in vivo. The unique nature of IFNλs has been further demonstrated by recent studies revealing differences in the regulation of type I and III IFN expression, and how these proteins elicit specific cellular responses. This review focuses on the distinctive features of type III IFNs in antiviral innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Type III Protein Secretion Systems in Bacterial Pathogens of Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hueck, Christoph J.

    1998-01-01

    Various gram-negative animal and plant pathogens use a novel, sec-independent protein secretion system as a basic virulence mechanism. It is becoming increasingly clear that these so-called type III secretion systems inject (translocate) proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, where the translocated proteins facilitate bacterial pathogenesis by specifically interfering with host cell signal transduction and other cellular processes. Accordingly, some type III secretion systems are activated by bacterial contact with host cell surfaces. Individual type III secretion systems direct the secretion and translocation of a variety of unrelated proteins, which account for species-specific pathogenesis phenotypes. In contrast to the secreted virulence factors, most of the 15 to 20 membrane-associated proteins which constitute the type III secretion apparatus are conserved among different pathogens. Most of the inner membrane components of the type III secretion apparatus show additional homologies to flagellar biosynthetic proteins, while a conserved outer membrane factor is similar to secretins from type II and other secretion pathways. Structurally conserved chaperones which specifically bind to individual secreted proteins play an important role in type III protein secretion, apparently by preventing premature interactions of the secreted factors with other proteins. The genes encoding type III secretion systems are clustered, and various pieces of evidence suggest that these systems have been acquired by horizontal genetic transfer during evolution. Expression of type III secretion systems is coordinately regulated in response to host environmental stimuli by networks of transcription factors. This review comprises a comparison of the structure, function, regulation, and impact on host cells of the type III secretion systems in the animal pathogens Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

  3. Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Hueck, C J

    1998-06-01

    Various gram-negative animal and plant pathogens use a novel, sec-independent protein secretion system as a basic virulence mechanism. It is becoming increasingly clear that these so-called type III secretion systems inject (translocate) proteins into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, where the translocated proteins facilitate bacterial pathogenesis by specifically interfering with host cell signal transduction and other cellular processes. Accordingly, some type III secretion systems are activated by bacterial contact with host cell surfaces. Individual type III secretion systems direct the secretion and translocation of a variety of unrelated proteins, which account for species-specific pathogenesis phenotypes. In contrast to the secreted virulence factors, most of the 15 to 20 membrane-associated proteins which constitute the type III secretion apparatus are conserved among different pathogens. Most of the inner membrane components of the type III secretion apparatus show additional homologies to flagellar biosynthetic proteins, while a conserved outer membrane factor is similar to secretins from type II and other secretion pathways. Structurally conserved chaperones which specifically bind to individual secreted proteins play an important role in type III protein secretion, apparently by preventing premature interactions of the secreted factors with other proteins. The genes encoding type III secretion systems are clustered, and various pieces of evidence suggest that these systems have been acquired by horizontal genetic transfer during evolution. Expression of type III secretion systems is coordinately regulated in response to host environmental stimuli by networks of transcription factors. This review comprises a comparison of the structure, function, regulation, and impact on host cells of the type III secretion systems in the animal pathogens Yersinia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

  4. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (<14 MHz) extended type III bursts from active region 10588. The durations were measured at 1 and 14 MHz using high resolution data from Wind/WAVES and were within the range (>15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  5. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Imaging Of The Cornea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, Rrichar C.; Rooney, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed technique generates pictures of curved surfaces. Object ultrasonically scanned in raster pattern generated by scanning transmitter/receiver. Receiver turned on at frequent intervals to measure depth variations of scanned object. Used for medical diagnoses by giving images of small curved objects as cornea. Adaptable to other types of reflection measurementsystems such as sonar and radar.

  6. Type III intermediate filament peripherin inhibits neuritogenesis in type II spiral ganglion neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Meagan; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Ryan, Allen F.; Housley, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Peripherin, a type III intermediate filament protein, forms part of the cytoskeleton in a subset of neurons, most of which have peripheral fibre projections. Studies suggest a role for peripherin in axon outgrowth and regeneration, but evidence for this in sensory and brain tissues is limited. The exclusive expression of peripherin in a sub-population of primary auditory neurons, the type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) prompted our investigation of the effect of peripherin gene deletion (pphKO) on these neurons. We used confocal immunofluorescence to examine the establishment of the innervation of the cochlear outer hair cells by the type II SGN neurites in vivo and in vitro, in wildtype (WT) and pphKO mice, in the first postnatal week. The distribution of the type II SGN nerve fibres was normal in pphKO cochleae. However, using P1 spiral ganglion explants under culture conditions where the majority of neurites were derived from type II SGN, pphKO resulted in increased numbers of neurites/explant compared WT controls. Type II SGN neurites from pphKO explants extended ~ double the distance of WT neurites, and had reduced complexity based on greater distance between turning points. Addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the culture media increased neurite number in WT and KO explants ~30-fold, but did not affect neurite length or distance between turning. These results indicate that peripherin may interact with other cytoskeletal elements to regulate outgrowth of the peripheral neurites of type II SGN, distinguishing these neurons from the type I SGN innervating the inner hair cells. PMID:20132868

  7. Do Type III-associated Escaping Electron Beams Cool The Corona?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Wang, L.; Christe, S. D.; Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A.; Lin, R. P.

    2012-05-01

    A recent study of decimetric Type III radio burst emission from data from the Nancay Radio Heliograph (NRH) will be presented. It examined sizes, locations, and fluxes of close to 10'000 decimetric Type III bursts. The flux study suggests that electron beams related to Type III emission could be responsible for carrying energy away from the corona in a proportion similar to that of EUV nanoflare heating. This tentative conclusion was reached from comparing Type III dN/dS distributions to the dN/dS of EUV/SXR nano-/micro-flares. The biggest uncertainty is the radiative efficiency, i.e. the ratio of radiated energy in decimetric Type III bursts and the energy of the electrons in the beams associated with them. We will constrain this value through other, new observations: we have already computed the amount of Type III radiated energy from NRH observations, and we will now compare them with the amount of energy in the corresponding beam electron detected in-situ by the Wind spacecraft. Given our sample of close to 10'000 decimetric Type IIIs, we expect a decent amount of in-situ beam energy estimates from magnetically connected events. Moreover, we will compare with X-ray-derived energies from corresponding RHESSI (micro)flares, when such an association exists.

  8. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Type III-L bursts are a sub-class of type III solar radio bursts that tend to occur after the impulsive phase of flares; are longer in duration than individual type IIIs and tend to be low-frequency. There has been a proposal that type III-Ls are connected to solar energetic proton (SEP) events. Most work on this connection has started from samples of SEP events, but if type III-Ls are to be useful for prediction of SEP events, then we need to understand the properties of samples of type III-L bursts. This talk reports preliminary results from such a study. An operating definition based on previous work is used to identify type III-L events amongst M- and X-class flares from 2001; and then associations with other properties of these events are investigated, including association with SEP events. If there is an association with SEP events, one important factor that these bursts allow us to address is the question of whether acceleration takes place at an associated CME, or closer to the flare site well below the CME.

  9. "Do Type III-associated escaping electron beams cool the corona?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Wang, L.; Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A.

    2012-12-01

    A recent study of decimetric Type III radio burst emission from data from the Nancay Radio Heliograph will be presented. It examined sizes, locations, and fluxes of close to 10'000 decimetric Type III bursts. The flux study suggests that electron beams related to Type III emission could be responsible for carrying energy away from the corona in a proportion similar to EUV nanoflares. This tentative conclusion was reached from comparing Type III dN/dS distributions to the dN/dS of EUV/SXR nano-/micro-flares. The biggest uncertainty is the radiative efficiency, i.e. the ratio of radiated energy in decimetric Type III bursts and the energy of the electrons in the beams associated with them. We will constrain this value through other, new observations: we have already computed the amount of Type III radiated energy from NRH observations, and we will now compare them with the amount of energy in the corresponding beam electron detected in-situ by the Wind spacecraft. Given our sample of close to 10'000 decimetric Type IIIs, we expect a decent amount of in-situ beam energy estimates from magnetically connected events. Moreover, we will compare with X-ray-derived energies from corresponding RHESSI (micro)flares, when such an association exists.

  10. Mechanical Modeling of a Keratoconic Cornea.

    PubMed

    Perone, Jean Marc; Conart, Jean Baptiste; Bertaux, Pierre-Jean; Sujet-Perone, Nicolas; Ouamara, Nadia; Sot, Maxime; Henry, Jean Jacques

    2017-10-01

    We created a laboratory model of a cornea that was subjected to various pressures and thermal and mechanical factors to better understand the genesis of keratoconus deformation. A steel base allowed for fixation of circular multilaminated patches of araldite (10 cm in diameter, 5 mm thick) in which the corneal anatomy was modeled. The model was plunged into a steam room (374°F/3 bars of pressure for 1 h) to ensure thermal homogeneity and was subjected to pressure using compressed air. Three models were assessed: a fault-free model with no lesion (model 1), and 2 models with a defect. The first of the defective models (model 2) had an external crack-type lesion (1 cm long; 1 mm deep). The second defective model (model 3) had one quarter thinned down using abrasive sandpaper (thickness reduced by 30%-40%). For model 1, which represented a healthy cornea, homogeneous modification was noted when examined under polarized light. In model 2, no excessive deformation was noticed, but there were stress lines at the edge of the lesion. Model 3 had a deformity, similar to keratoconic deformation. Our findings suggest that the disease progresses under environmental stresses, but only when there is an initial defect, and especially when there is a thinning down defect. This thinning down defect may be induced by continual eye rubbing.

  11. Spectroscopic identification of type 2 quasars at z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sihan; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-10-01

    The physics and demographics of type 2 quasars remain poorly understood, and new samples of such objects selected in a variety of ways can give insight into their physical properties, evolution, and relationship to their host galaxies. We present a sample of 2758 type 2 quasars at z ≲ 1 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III)/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectroscopic data base, selected on the basis of their emission-line properties. We probe the luminous end of the population by requiring the rest-frame equivalent width of [O III] to be >100 Å. We distinguish our objects from star-forming galaxies and type 1 quasars using line widths, standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams at z < 0.52 and detection of [Ne V]λ3426 Å at z > 0.52. The majority of our objects have [O III] luminosities in the range 1.2 × 1042-3.8 × 1043 erg s-1 and redshifts between 0.4 and 0.65. Our sample includes over 400 type 2 quasars with incorrectly measured redshifts in the BOSS data base; such objects often show kinematic substructure or outflows in the [O III] line. The majority of the sample has counterparts in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, with median infrared luminosity νLν[12 μm] = 4.2 × 1044 erg s- 1. Only 34 per cent of the newly identified type 2 quasars would be selected by infrared colour cuts designed to identify obscured active nuclei, highlighting the difficulty of identifying complete samples of type 2 quasars. We make public the multi-Gaussian decompositions of all [O III] profiles for the new sample and for 568 type 2 quasars from SDSS I/II, together with non-parametric measures of the [O III] line profile shapes. We also identify over 600 candidate double-peaked [O III] profiles.

  12. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  13. [An experience of dried cornea transplantation].

    PubMed

    Gundorova, R A; Chentsova, E V; Makarov, P V; Kugusheva, A É; Rakova, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes an urgent lamellar keratoplasty remains the only treatment option for corneal defect closure. When fresh donor tissue is absent as it is regular in recent years dried cornea transplantation becomes reasonable. In recent years in ocular trauma department 320 transplantations of dried on silicagel cornea were performed. Analysis of results allows to conclude that use of dried cornea is a promising surgical procedure to preserve the globe and in some cases to prepare the eye with severe trauma for subsequent optic surgery.

  14. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  15. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  16. Decameter type III bursts with positive and negative frequency drift rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2013-09-01

    We report about observations of decameter type III bursts whose frequency drift rates vary their signs from negative to positive. Moreover drift rates of some bursts vary the sign some times. Positive drift rates for some bursts are changed from 0.44 MHz/s to 12 MHz/s. At the same time the negative drift rates of these bursts are standard values for decameter type III bursts. A possible interpretation of such phenomenon on the base of plasma mechanism of type III burst generation is discussed. The sense of this interpretation is that group velocity of type III electromagnetic waves generated by fast electrons at some conditions can be smaller than velocity of these electrons.

  17. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ali; Topal, Murat; Tuncer, Kutsi; Şenocak, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature. PMID:22666265

  18. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Topal, Murat; Tuncer, Kutsi; Senocak, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  19. A New Look at Type-III Bursts and Their Use as Coronal Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun Beltran, Samuel D.; Cutchin, S.; White, S.

    2015-09-01

    We present meter-wave solar radio spectra of the highest spectro-temporal resolution achieved to date. The observations, obtained with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), show unprecedented detail of solar emissions across a wide bandwidth during a Type-III/IIIb storm. Our flux calibration demonstrates that the LWA1 can detect Type-III bursts much weaker than 1 SFU, much lower than previous observations, and that the distribution of fluxes in these bursts varies with frequency. The high sensitivity and low noise in the data provide strong constraints to models of this type of plasma emission, providing evidence against the idea that Type-IIIb striae are generated from electrons trapped in Langmuir-wave sidebands. The continuous generation of electron beams in the corona revealed by the high density Type-III storm is evidence for ubiquitous magnetic reconnection in the lower corona. Such an abundance of reconnection events not only contributes to the total coronal energy budget, but also provides an engine by which to form the populations of seed particles responsible for proton-rich solar energetic-particle events. An active region (AR) with such levels of reconnection and the accompanying Type-III/IIIb storms is proposed here to be associated with an increase of SEP production if a CME erupts. The data's constraints on existing theories of Type-IIIb production are used to make an association of the observed Type-IIIb storm to specific electron-beam paths with increased inhomogeneities in density, temperature, and/or turbulence. This scenario ties in the observed timing of Type-III and -IIIb storms, constrained theories of Type-III and -IIIb emission, and the ability of the emitting AR to produce a strong SEP event. The result requires but a single observable to cement these ideas, the statistical correlation of Type-III/IIIb activity with SEP-productive AR.

  20. Infectious Complications of Open Type III Tibial Fractures among Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-15

    Infection of Combat-Related Fractures • CID 2007:45 (15 August) • 409 M A J O R A R T I C L E Infectious Complications of Open Type III Tibial...associated with high-energy explosive injuries, often resulting in open tibial fractures complicated by nonunion and infection . We characterize the... infections seen in conjunction with combat-associated type III tibial fractures. Methods. We performed a retrospective medical records review to identify US

  1. Critical scaling and type-III intermittent chaos in isolated rabbit resistance arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, T. M.; Parthimos, D.; Crombie, J.; Edwards, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    We have shown that spontaneous oscillations in flow in rabbit ear resistance arteries may sometimes exhibit behavior typical of type-III Pomeau-Manneville intermittency. The average number of oscillations per laminar length was related to a bifurcation parameter ɛ according to power-law scaling of the form ~ɛ-β. The critical exponent β was estimated as ~0.80, which is within the range reported for type-III intermittent chaos in nonbiological systems.

  2. Joint position sense and vibratory perception sense in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III (hypermobility type).

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Lies; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Cools, Ann; Calders, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Neurophysiological deficits could make patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type III (hypermobility type) more vulnerable to musculoskeletal problems, particularly to joint instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether joint position sense (JPS) and vibratory perception sense (VPS) in EDS type III patients in the knee and shoulder joints are impaired. Thirty-two female EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria and 32 individually gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. Range of motion was determined using a goniometer, passive and active JPS were assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer system, and the VPS was measured by a biothesiometer. Daily physical activity was evaluated by the Baecke questionnaire. The EDS type III group showed significantly larger ranges of movement (P < 0.05) and lower levels of sport physical activity (SPA) compared to the control group (P = 0.023). Considering SPA as covariate, the EDS type III group demonstrated a significant impairment in knee joint reposition compared to the control group (P = 0.018). No significant differences were found for shoulder JPS. The VPS was not significantly different in the EDS type III group compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was found between JPS and VPS, neither at the knee nor at the shoulder joint. This is the first study examining proprioception deficits in EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria. Further research on the neurophysiological dysfunctions and mechanisms in this pathologic entity is needed.

  3. Synthetic cornea: biocompatibility and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Kaminski, Stefan; Fernandez, Viviana; Alfonso, E.; Lamar, Peggy; Lacombe, Emmanuel; Duchesne, Bernard; Dubovy, Sander; Manns, Fabrice; Rol, Pascal O.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose. Experimentally find a method to provide a safe surgical technique and an inexpensive and long lasting mesoplant for the restoration of vision in patients with bilateral corneal blindness due to ocular surface and stromal diseases. Methods. Identify the least invasive and the safest surgical technique for synthetic cornea implantation. Identify the most compatible biomaterials and the optimal shape a synthetic cornea must have to last a long time when implanted in vivo. Results. Penetrating procedures were deemed too invasive, time consuming, difficult and prone to long term complications. Therefore a non-penetrating delamination technique with central trephination was developed to preserve the integrity of Descemet's membrane and the anterior segment. Even though this approach limits the number of indications, it is acceptable since the majority of patients only have opacities in the stroma. The prosthesis was designed to fit in the removed tissue plane with its skirt fitted under the delaminated stroma. To improve retention, the trephination wall was made conical with the smallest opening on the anterior surface and a hat-shaped mesoplant was made to fit. The skirt was perforated in its perimeter to allow passage of nutrients and tissues ingrowths. To simplify the fabrication procedure, the haptic and optic were made of the same polymer. The intrastromal biocompatibility of several hydrogels was found superior to current clinically used PMMA and PTFE materials. Monobloc mesoplants made of 4 different materials were implanted in rabbits and followed weekly until extrusion occurred. Some remained optically clear allowing for fundus photography. Conclusions. Hydrogel synthetic corneas can be made to survive for periods longer than 1 year. ArF excimer laser photoablation studies are needed to determine the refractive correction potential of these mesoplants. A pilot FDA clinical trial is needed to assess the mesoplant efficacy and very long-term stability.

  4. Structural Basis for Substrate Binding and the Catalytic Mechanism of Type III Pantothenate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kun; Strauss, Erick; Huerta, Carlos; Zhang, Hong

    2008-07-15

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) catalyzes the first step of the universal five-step coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway. The recently characterized type III PanK (PanK-III, encoded by the coaX gene) is distinct in sequence, structure and enzymatic properties from both the long-known bacterial type I PanK (PanK-I, exemplified by the Escherichia coli CoaA protein) and the predominantly eukaryotic type II PanK (PanK-II). PanK-III enzymes have an unusually high K{sub m} for ATP, are resistant to feedback inhibition by CoA, and are unable to utilize the N-alkylpantothenamide family of pantothenate analogues as alternative substrates, thus making type III PanK ineffective in generating CoA analogues as antimetabolites in vivo. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the PanK-III from Thermotoga maritima and identified it as a member of the 'acetate and sugar kinase/heat shock protein 70/actin' (ASKHA) superfamily. Here we report the crystal structures of the same PanK-III in complex with one of its substrates (pantothenate), its product (phosphopantothenate) as well as a ternary complex structure of PanK-III with pantothenate and ADP. These results are combined with isothermal titration calorimetry experiments to present a detailed structural and thermodynamic characterization of the interactions between PanK-III and its substrates ATP and pantothenate. Comparison of substrate binding and catalytic sites of PanK-III with that of eukaryotic PanK-II revealed drastic differences in the binding modes for both ATP and pantothenate substrates, and suggests that these differences may be exploited in the development of new inhibitors specifically targeting PanK-III.

  5. Immobilization induces carbonic anhydrase III in type II fibers of rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Laurila, A L; Jeffery, S; Savolainen, J; Takala, T E; Carter, N D; Väänänen, H K

    1991-05-01

    The amount and fiber distribution of carbonic anhydrase III (CA III), a major soluble protein in Type I muscle fibers, were studied during cast immobilization of rat hindlimb with the ankle in plantar or dorsiflexion. The concentration of CA III increased two- (p less than 0.05) and three- (p less than 0.01) fold in the shortened and lengthened tibialis anterior muscle during a 3-weeks immobilization period, respectively. After 6 weeks of immobilization the increase was even greater (p less than 0.001). Concomitantly, the number of CA III positive fibers in the lengthened muscle increased so that almost all fibers were positive. In the soleus muscle no significant change in the CA III concentration was seen. On the basis of actomyosin ATPase staining, the transition of Type IIb fibers towards Type IIa occurred in the tibialis anterior muscle, whereas in the soleus muscle a transformation of Type I fibers towards Type IIa fibers occurred. Therefore, the increase in the muscle CA III concentration seems to be associated with a cell transformation of the muscle towards a more oxidative type.

  6. SOLAR MICRO-TYPE III BURST STORMS AND LONG DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE OUTER CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 R{sub S}. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 R{sub S} suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  7. Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  8. Impassable YscP substrates and their impact on the Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Riordan, Kelly E; Sorg, Joseph A; Berube, Bryan J; Schneewind, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    Yersinia type III machines secrete protein substrates across the bacterial envelope and, following assembly of their secretion needles, transport effector Yops into host cells. According to their destination during type III secretion, early, middle, and late secretion substrates can be distinguished; however, the signals and mechanisms whereby these proteins are recognized and transported by the secretion machine are not understood. Here, we examine several hybrids between secretion substrates and the impassable reporter protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). YscP-GST and YopR-GST blocked type III secretion; however, YscF-, YopD-, YopN-, and LcrV-GST did not. Unlike YopR-GST, which can block type III machines only during their assembly, expression of YscP-GST led to an immediate and complete block of all secretion. The secretion signal of YscP was mapped to its first 10 codons or amino acids; however, YscP(Delta 2-15)-GST, lacking this secretion signal, imposed a partial blockade. YscP-GST copurified with the type III ATPase complex (YscN, YscL, and YscQ) and with YscO, suggesting that the association of specific machine components with the impassable substrate may cause the block in type III secretion.

  9. EM algorithm in estimating the 2- and 3-parameter Burr Type III distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nor Hidayah Binti; Khalid, Zarina Binti Mohd

    2014-07-01

    The Burr Type III distribution has been applied in the study of income, wage and wealth. It is suitable to fit lifetime data since it has flexible shape and controllable scale parameters. The popularity of Burr Type III distribution increases because it has included the characteristics of other distributions such as logistic and exponential. Burr Type III distribution has two categories: First a two-parameter distribution which has two shape parameters and second a three-parameter distribution which has a scale and two shape parameters. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm method is selected in this paper to estimate the two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions. Complete and censored data are simulated based on the derivation of pdf and cdf in parametric form of Burr Type III distributions. Then, the EM estimates are compared with estimates from maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach through mean square error. The best approach results in estimates with a higher approximation to the true parameters are determined. The result shows that the EM algorithm estimates perform better than the MLE estimates for two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions in the presence of complete and censored data.

  10. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  11. Avoiding type III, IV, and V errors through collaborative research.

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Hide; Mann, Aaron; Feit, Marvin

    2013-01-01

    Major types of empirical errors reviewed by a number of leading research textbooks include discussions of Type I and Type II errors. However, applied human service researchers can commit other types of errors that should be avoided. The potential benefits of the applied, collaborative research (in contrast to traditional participatory research) include an assurance that the study begins with the "right" questions that are important for community residents. Such research practice also helps generate useful research findings for decisions regarding redistribution of resources and resolving community issues. The aim of collaborative research is not merely to advance scientific understanding, but also to produce empirical findings that are usable for addressing priority needs and problems of distressed communities. A review of a case example (Garfield Community Assessment Study) illustrates the principles and practices of collaborative research.

  12. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems

    PubMed Central

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea. One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an ‘arms race’ in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:28826484

  13. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems.

    PubMed

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C; Fire, Andrew Z; Sánchez-Amat, Antonio

    2017-08-17

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea. One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an 'arms race' in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  14. Increased activity of coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) causes hereditary angioedema type III.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Sven; Martin, Ludovic; Hennies, Hans Christian; Müller, Felicitas; Van Driessche, Karen; Karpushova, Anna; Stevens, Wim; Colombo, Roberto; Renné, Thomas; Drouet, Christian; Bork, Konrad; Nöthen, Markus M

    2006-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized clinically by recurrent acute skin swelling, abdominal pain, and potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema. Three forms of HAE have been described. The classic forms, HAE types I and II, occur as a consequence of mutations in the C1-inhibitor gene. In contrast to HAE types I and II, HAE type III has been observed exclusively in women, where it appears to be correlated with conditions of high estrogen levels--for example, pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. A recent report proposed two missense mutations (c.1032C-->A and c.1032C-->G) in F12, the gene encoding human coagulation factor XII (FXII, or Hageman factor) as a possible cause of HAE type III. Here, we report the occurrence of the c.1032C-->A (p.Thr328Lys) mutation in an HAE type III-affected family of French origin. Investigation of the F12 gene in a large German family did not reveal a coding mutation. Haplotype analysis with use of microsatellite markers is compatible with locus heterogeneity in HAE type III. To shed more light on the pathogenic relevance of the HAE type III-associated p.Thr328Lys mutation, we compared FXII activity and plasma levels in patients carrying the mutation with that of healthy control individuals. Our data strongly suggest that p.Thr328Lys is a gain-of-function mutation that markedly increases FXII amidolytic activity but that does not alter FXII plasma levels. We conclude that enhanced FXII enzymatic plasma activity in female mutation carriers leads to enhanced kinin production, which results in angioedema. Transcription of F12 is positively regulated by estrogens, which may explain why only women are affected with HAE type III. The results of our study represent an important step toward an understanding of the molecular processes involved in HAE type III and provide diagnostic and possibly new therapeutic opportunities.

  15. Contribution of Type III Interferons to Antiviral Immunity; Location, Location, Location.

    PubMed

    Kotenko, Sergei V; Durbin, Joan E

    2017-03-13

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) and the more recently identified type III IFNs (IFN-λ) function as the first line of defense against virus infection, and regulate the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Type III IFNs were originally identified as a novel ligand-receptor system acting in parallel with type I IFNs, but subsequent studies have provided increasing evidence for distinct roles for each IFN family. In addition to their compartmentalized antiviral actions, these two systems appear to have multiple levels of cross-regulation, and act coordinately to achieve effective anti-microbial protection with minimal collateral damage to the host.

  16. Specific cleavage of human type III and IV collagens by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, L W; Morihara, K; McRae, W B; Miller, E J

    1986-01-01

    Purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaved human type III and IV collagens with the formation of specific cleavage products. Furthermore, type I collagen appeared to be slowly cleaved by both P. aeruginosa elastase and alkaline protease. These cleavage fragments from type III and IV collagens were separated from the intact collagen chains by SDS polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis run under reducing conditions, and they were detected by their characteristic Coomassie blue staining pattern. The results of these studies suggest that the pathogenesis of tissue invasion and hemorrhagic tissue necrosis observed in P. aeruginosa infections may be related to the degradation of these collagen types by bacterial extracellular proteases. Images PMID:3079727

  17. Gene therapy in the cornea.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Sharma, Ajay; Netto, Marcelo V; Sinha, Sunilima; Wilson, Steven E

    2005-09-01

    Technological advances in the field of gene therapy has prompted more than three hundred phase I and phase II gene-based clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, AIDS, macular degeneration, cardiovascular, and other monogenic diseases. Besides treating diseases, gene transfer technology has been utilized for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B and C viruses, AIDS, and influenza. The potential therapeutic applications of gene transfer technology are enormous. The cornea is an excellent candidate for gene therapy because of its accessibility and immune-privileged nature. In the last two decades, various viral vectors, such as adeno, adeno-associated, retro, lenti, and herpes simplex, as well as non-viral methods, were examined for introducing DNA into corneal cells in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. Most of these studies used fluorescent or non-fluorescent marker genes to track the level and duration of transgene expression in corneal cells. However, limited studies were directed to evaluate prospects of gene-based interventions for corneal diseases or disorders such as allograft rejection, laser-induced post-operative haze, herpes simplex keratitis, and wound healing in animal models. We will review the successes and obstacles impeding gene therapy approaches used for delivering genes into the cornea.

  18. Solar noise storms - The polarization of storm Type III and related bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral and polarization characteristics of 19 noise storms that occurred during 1976-1982 are reported. All components of the storms - Type I bursts and continuum, storm Type III bursts, and fine structures such as reverse drift pairs - are found to have the same sense of circular polarization. While the degree of polarization p of Type I bursts and continuum is generally greater than or approximately equal to 0.5, that of storm Type III bursts is almost always less than 0.5. Two set of storm Type III bursts stand out: one with less than or approximately equal to 0.2 and another with greater than or approximately equal to 0.3. Because these sets respectively have degrees of polarization so similar to those of fundamental (F) the harmonic (H) components of non-storm F - H pairs, it is deduced that storm Type III bursts are due sometimes to fundamental plasma radiation and sometimes to harmonic. However, F - H pairs are extremely rare among storm Type III bursts.

  19. Topical application of the cornea post-infection with plasmid DNA encoding interferon-alpha1 but not recombinant interferon-alphaA reduces herpes simplex virus type 1-induced mortality in mice.

    PubMed

    Noisakran, S; Carr, D J

    2001-12-03

    A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of recombinant interferon (rIFN)-alphaA to plasmid DNA encoding IFN-alpha1 against ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The topical application of rIFN-alphaA (100-300 units/eye) onto the cornea of mice subsequently infected 24 h later with HSV-1 antagonized viral-induced mortality. The enhancement in cumulative survival in the rIFN-alphaA-treated mice correlated with a reduction of viral titers recovered in the eye and trigeminal ganglion (TG) at 3 and 6 days post-infection. The protective effect was site-specific such that when rIFN-alphaA was administered orally or intranasally, no efficacy against HSV-1 was observed. However, the protective effect was time-dependent. Specifically, when the rIFN-alphaA (100-1000 units/eye) was administered at 24 h post-infection, no protective effect was observed against HSV-1 compared to the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, plasmid DNA (100 microg/eye) containing the IFN-alpha1 transgene showed significant protection when topically applied 24 h post-infection. Although the transgene was found to traffic distal from the site of application (eye), including the trigeminal ganglion and the spleen where CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells express the transgene, the migration of the transgene did not correlate with efficacy. Collectively, the results suggest that naked DNA encoding type I IFN applied post-infection provides a greater degree of protection against ocular HSV-1 infection in comparison with recombinant protein effectively antagonizing viral replication and spread.

  20. Immunochemical characterization of the "native" type III polysaccharide of group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The type III polysaccharide of -roup B Streptococcus has been isolated and purified by a method that employs washing of intact cells at neutral pH. That the polysaccharide prepared by this procedure is the "native" type III antigen is suggested by its molecular size in excess of 10(6) daltons, its degradation by acid and heat treatment to a fragment with immunologic characteristics of the classical HCl antigen, and its type-specific serologic activity. The type III polysaccharide in native form contains sialic acid, galactose, glucose, glucosamine, heptose, and mannose. It is acidic in nature, is resistant to neuramindiase degradation, contains no O-acetyl groups, and does not share antigenic determinants with capsular type K1 antigen of Escherichia coli or Group B polysaccharide antigen of Neiserria meningitidis. PMID:55450

  1. Distinct Roles of Type I and Type III Interferons in Intestinal Immunity to Homologous and Heterologous Rotavirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; McElrath, Constance; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Peng, Jianya; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons (IFNs) exert shared antiviral activities through distinct receptors. However, their relative importance for antiviral protection of different organ systems against specific viruses remains to be fully explored. We used mouse strains deficient in type-specific IFN signaling, STAT1 and Rag2 to dissect distinct and overlapping contributions of type I and type III IFNs to protection against homologous murine (EW-RV strain) and heterologous (non-murine) simian (RRV strain) rotavirus infections in suckling mice. Experiments demonstrated that murine EW-RV is insensitive to the action of both types of IFNs, and that timely viral clearance depends upon adaptive immune responses. In contrast, both type I and type III IFNs can control replication of the heterologous simian RRV in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and they cooperate to limit extra-intestinal simian RRV replication. Surprisingly, intestinal epithelial cells were sensitive to both IFN types in neonatal mice, although their responsiveness to type I, but not type III IFNs, diminished in adult mice, revealing an unexpected age-dependent change in specific contribution of type I versus type III IFNs to antiviral defenses in the GI tract. Transcriptional analysis revealed that intestinal antiviral responses to RV are triggered through either type of IFN receptor, and are greatly diminished when receptors for both IFN types are lacking. These results also demonstrate a murine host-specific resistance to IFN-mediated antiviral effects by murine EW-RV, but the retention of host efficacy through the cooperative action by type I and type III IFNs in restricting heterologous simian RRV growth and systemic replication in suckling mice. Collectively, our findings revealed a well-orchestrated spatial and temporal tuning of innate antiviral responses in the intestinal tract where two types of IFNs through distinct patterns of their expression and distinct but overlapping sets

  2. Construction of a complete rabbit cornea substitute using a fibrin-agarose scaffold.

    PubMed

    Alaminos, Miguel; Del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, María; Muñoz-Avila, José Ignacio; Serrano, Daniel; Medialdea, Santiago; Carreras, Ignacio; Campos, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    To construct a full-thickness biological substitute of the rabbit cornea by tissue engineering. Ten rabbit corneas were surgically excised, and the three main cell types of the cornea (epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells) were cultured. Genetic profiling of the cultured cells was performed by RT-PCR for the genes COL8 and KRT12. To develop an organotypic rabbit cornea equivalent, we used a sequential culture technique on porous culture inserts. First, endothelial cells were seeded on the base of the inserts. Then, a stroma substitute made of cultured keratocytes entrapped in a gel of human fibrin and 0.1% agarose was developed. Finally, cultured corneal epithelial cells were grown on the surface of the scaffold. Stratification of the epithelial cell layer was promoted by using an air-liquid culture technique. Corneal substitutes were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. All three types of corneal cells were efficiently cultured in the laboratory, expanded, and used to construct a full-thickness cornea substitute. Gene expression analyses confirmed that cultured endothelial cells expressed the COL8 gene, whereas epithelial cells expressed KRT12. Microscopic evaluation of the cornea substitutes demonstrated that epithelial cells tended to form a normal stratified layer and that stromal keratocytes proliferated rapidly in the stromal substitute. The endothelial monolayer exhibited a pattern similar to a normal corneal endothelium. These findings suggest that development of a full-thickness rabbit cornea model is possible in the laboratory and may open new avenues for research.

  3. Genomics and transcriptomics of Xanthomonas campestris species challenge the concept of core type III effectome.

    PubMed

    Roux, Brice; Bolot, Stéphanie; Guy, Endrick; Denancé, Nicolas; Lautier, Martine; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Portier, Perrine; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Arlat, Matthieu; Carrère, Sébastien; Koebnik, Ralf; Noël, Laurent D

    2015-11-18

    The bacterial species Xanthomonas campestris infects a wide range of Brassicaceae. Specific pathovars of this species cause black rot (pv. campestris), bacterial blight of stock (pv. incanae) or bacterial leaf spot (pv. raphani). In this study, we extended the genomic coverage of the species by sequencing and annotating the genomes of strains from pathovar incanae (CFBP 1606R and CFBP 2527R), pathovar raphani (CFBP 5828R) and a pathovar formerly named barbareae (CFBP 5825R). While comparative analyses identified a large core ORFeome at the species level, the core type III effectome was limited to only three putative type III effectors (XopP, XopF1 and XopAL1). In Xanthomonas, these effector proteins are injected inside the plant cells by the type III secretion system and contribute collectively to virulence. A deep and strand-specific RNA sequencing strategy was adopted in order to experimentally refine genome annotation for strain CFBP 5828R. This approach also allowed the experimental definition of novel ORFs and non-coding RNA transcripts. Using a constitutively active allele of hrpG, a master regulator of the type III secretion system, a HrpG-dependent regulon of 141 genes co-regulated with the type III secretion system was identified. Importantly, all these genes but seven are positively regulated by HrpG and 56 of those encode components of the Hrp type III secretion system and putative effector proteins. This dataset is an important resource to mine for novel type III effector proteins as well as for bacterial genes which could contribute to pathogenicity of X. campestris.

  4. Skin as marker for collagen type I/III ratio in abdominal wall fascia.

    PubMed

    Peeters, E; De Hertogh, G; Junge, K; Klinge, U; Miserez, M

    2014-08-01

    An altered collagen metabolism could play an important role in hernia development. This study compared collagen type I/III ratio and organisation between hernia and control patients, and analysed the correlation in collagen type I/III ratio between skin and abdominal wall fascia. Collagen organisation was analysed in Haematoxylin-Eosin sections of anterior rectus sheath fascia, and collagen type I/III ratio, by crosspolarisation microscopy, in Sirius-Red sections of skin and anterior rectus sheath fascia, of 19 control, 10 primary inguinal, 10 recurrent inguinal, 13 primary incisional and 8 recurrent incisional hernia patients. Compared to control patients [7.2 (IQR = 6.8-7.7) and 7.2 (IQR = 5.8-7.9)], collagen type I/III ratio was significantly lower in skin and anterior rectus sheath fascia of primary inguinal [5.2 (IQR = 3.8-6.3) and 4.2 (IQR = 3.8-4.7)], recurrent inguinal [3.2 (IQR = 3.1-3.6) and 3.3 (IQR = 3-3.7)], primary incisional [3.5 (IQR = 3-3.9) and 3.4 (IQR = 3.3-3.6)] and recurrent incisional hernia [3.2 (IQR = 3.1-3.9) and 3.2 (IQR = 2.9-3.2)] patients; also incisional and recurrent inguinal hernia had lower ratio than primary inguinal hernia patients. Furthermore, collagen type I/III ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.81; P < 0.001) between skin and anterior rectus sheath fascia. Finally, collagen organisation was comparable between hernia and control patients. Furthermore, in both skin and abdominal wall fascia of hernia patients, collagen type I/III ratio was lower compared to control patients, with more pronounced abnormalities in incisional and recurrent inguinal hernia patients. Importantly, collagen type I/III ratio in skin was representative for that in abdominal wall fascia.

  5. TYPE III RADIO BURSTS IN CORONAL PLASMAS WITH KAPPA PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2013-02-01

    We present the first simulations of type III bursts produced in the corona with suprathermal non-Maxwellian background particles, as inferred from solar wind data and proposed by theories for the corona and solar wind. The coronal background particles are assumed to follow kappa ({kappa}) distributions. The predicted f{sub p} emission of type III bursts is sensitive via the {kappa} index to the presence of suprathermal background particles, where f{sub p} is the local plasma frequency. The simulations show that (1) the speeds v{sub b} of type III beams are much larger (e.g., v{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 0.58c for {kappa} = 5) and so type III bursts drift much faster for low {kappa} ({<=}5) background plasmas than for Maxwellian backgrounds (producing v{sub b} < 0.3c), and (2) f{sub p} emission generated in a {kappa}-distributed background corona has a larger total bandwidth than in a Maxwellian background, for similar onset frequencies. Type III beams are thus more persistent, i.e., extending over larger distances, in {kappa}-distributed corona. Consequently, observations of fast-drifting coronal type III bursts and associated fast electron beams suggest that the ambient electrons in the corona are {kappa}-distributed, at least when such bursts are observed. These results support, from the new viewpoint of nonthermal radio emission, the occasional presence of suprathermal background electrons in the corona and the associated mechanisms (e.g., 'velocity filtration') for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. The new results also help resolve longstanding issues regarding the speeds and persistence of type III beams, and the production of remotely observable levels of f{sub p} emission despite severe losses during propagation.

  6. Incidence, etiology, and management of type III endoleak after endovascular aortic repair.

    PubMed

    Maleux, Geert; Poorteman, Lien; Laenen, Annouschka; Saint-Lèbes, Bertrand; Houthoofd, Sabrina; Fourneau, Inge; Rousseau, Hervé

    2017-04-20

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively assess the incidence, etiology, and management of type III endoleaks in a large cohort of patients treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in two European university centers. From 1995 until 2014, 965 EVAR procedures were performed with use of first- and second-generation (n = 79) or third-generation (n = 886) endografts. Radiologic follow-up was performed with computed tomography and abdominal plain film examinations in accordance with the European Collaborators on Stent/graft Techniques for aortic Aneurysm Repair (EUROSTAR) scheme. The potential relationship between the type of endograft and the incidence of type III endoleak and the time interval between initial EVAR and diagnosis of type III endoleak were calculated. Twenty patients (2.1%) were identified with 25 type III endoleaks (n = 10/79 [12.7%] for first- and second-generation endografts and n = 10/886 [1.2%] for third-generation endografts; P < .001). Disconnection was found in 14 of 25 endoleaks (56%) and a fabric defect in 11 of 25 (44%) endoleaks, both without any difference between first- and second- vs third-generation endografts (P = .216). The time interval between initial EVAR and type III endoleak was 3.87 and 5.92 years, respectively, for first- or second-generation and third-generation endografts (P = .148). Twenty-five type III endoleaks were treated using endovascular techniques (n = 22 [88%]) or by open surgical conversion (n = 3 [12%]). Type III endoleak rarely (2.1%) occurs after EVAR, with a higher incidence in first- and second-generation endografts. In the majority of cases, the underlying mechanism is disconnection of the stent graft components. Type III endoleaks may occur early or late after initial EVAR and can, in most cases, be managed endovascularly, although type III endoleak may recur. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro growth characteristics of simian T-lymphotropic virus type III.

    PubMed Central

    Kannagi, M; Yetz, J M; Letvin, N L

    1985-01-01

    The type C retrovirus simian T-lymphotropic virus type III (STLV-III) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the New England Regional Primate Research Center. The present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. STLV-III replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent T-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon PBL, and inefficiently in baboon PBL. No replication, as assessed by measuring reverse transcriptase activity in these culture supernatants, could be detected in similarly maintained cultures of chimpanzee, squirrel monkey, and cotton-top tamarin PBL. Like the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), STLV-III replicates in T4+ but not T8+ lymphocytes and its infection of macaque and human lymphocytes can be blocked with monoclonal anti-T4 antibodies. STLV-III differs from the human AIDS virus, however, in its apparent inability to grow in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes tested, the differing range of nonhuman primate T-cell populations that support its growth, and its less striking toxicity for T lymphocytes. These studies provide further characterization of an agent that will be extremely important in facilitating the development of vaccines and antiviral therapy for AIDS. PMID:2996002

  8. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    PubMed

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar type III radio bursts modulated by homochromous Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-12-10

    Solar type III radio bursts and their production mechanisms have been intensively studied in both theory and observation and are believed to be the most important signatures of electron acceleration in active regions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed that the electron-cyclotron maser emission (ECME) driven by an energetic electron beam could be responsible for producing type III bursts and pointed out that turbulent Alfvén waves can greatly influence the basic process of ECME via the oscillation of these electrons in the wave fields. This paper investigates effects of homochromous Alfvén waves (HAWs) on ECME driven by electron beams. Our results show that the growth rate of the O-mode wave will be significantly modulated by HAWs. We also discuss possible application to the formation of fine structures in type III bursts, such as so-called solar type IIIb radio bursts.

  10. Methods for enhancing P-type doping in III-V semiconductor films

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Feng; Stringfellow, Gerald; Zhu, Junyi

    2017-08-01

    Methods of doping a semiconductor film are provided. The methods comprise epitaxially growing the III-V semiconductor film in the presence of a dopant, a surfactant capable of acting as an electron reservoir, and hydrogen, under conditions that promote the formation of a III-V semiconductor film doped with the p-type dopant. In some embodiments of the methods, the epitaxial growth of the doped III-V semiconductor film is initiated at a first hydrogen partial pressure which is increased to a second hydrogen partial pressure during the epitaxial growth process.

  11. Alglucosidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy as a therapeutic approach for glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Fredrickson, Keri; Austin, Stephanie; Tolun, Adviye A; Thurberg, Beth L; Kraus, William E; Bali, Deeksha; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Kishnani, Priya S

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using recombinant human acid-α glucosidase (rhGAA, Alglucosidase alfa), an FDA approved therapy for Pompe disease, as a treatment approach for glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III). An in vitro disease model was established by isolating primary myoblasts from skeletal muscle biopsies of patients with GSD IIIa. We demonstrated that rhGAA significantly reduced glycogen levels in the two GSD IIIa patients' muscle cells (by 17% and 48%, respectively) suggesting that rhGAA could be a novel therapy for GSD III. This conclusion needs to be confirmed in other in vivo models.

  12. On the three harmonics of solar type III bursts at the decameter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhenko, Anatolii; Pylaev, Oleg; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexandr; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Rucker, Helmut; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii; Dorovskyy, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Harmonic structure of type III bursts are explained in terms of plasma emission mechanism. The second harmonic emission is well known. But there are theoretical papers about the third harmonic of type III bursts. And there were observations of the third harmonic of such types of bursts as U, J, V, II. We observed triple type III bursts where frequency ratio is close to 1:2:3. They are structures where type III emission is repeated at the double and triple frequencies. Incidentally, components of triple type III bursts are not only standard type III but also type IIIb bursts. We registered 30 triple bursts during 2011 and 2012 years. Observations were made by radio telescope URAN-2, Poltava, Ukraine. It enables polarization measurements at the frequencies 8 - 32 MHz. URAN-2 allows registration of radio emission with time and frequency resolution 10 ms and 4 kHz correspondingly. We analyze properties of the components of triple bursts and their dependencies on frequency, type of burst and on the position of the component within the triplet. The main properties of the components of triple bursts such as duration and drift rate are similar to those of standard type III and IIIb bursts. We find usual for type III bursts dependencies such as follow: duration decreases with frequency, the type IIIb bursts have always smaller duration at the same frequencies, all bursts drift from high to low frequencies. But we also find the linear dependence of drift rate on frequency. All components of a trio have the same sign of polarization. Polarization of the first component is always the highest in triple bursts. It corresponds to the generally accepted viewpoint about the first harmonic emission. The second and the third components of trio have low polarization. It is typical for the second and the third harmonics according to the plasma radiation mechanism. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and theoretical aspects of observed dependencies. The most of detected regularities

  13. Timing is everything: the regulation of type III secretion.

    PubMed

    Deane, Janet E; Abrusci, Patrizia; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M

    2010-04-01

    Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS is an injection device that can transfer bacterial virulence proteins directly into host cells. The apparatus is made up of a basal body that spans both bacterial membranes and an extracellular needle that possesses a channel that is thought to act as a conduit for protein secretion. Contact with a host-cell membrane triggers the insertion of a pore into the target membrane, and effectors are translocated through this pore into the host cell. To assemble a functional T3SS, specific substrates must be targeted to the apparatus in the correct order. Recently, there have been many developments in our structural and functional understanding of the proteins involved in the regulation of secretion. Here we review the current understanding of protein components of the system thought to be involved in switching between different stages of secretion.

  14. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  15. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-20

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f{sub p} to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f{sub p} and 2 f{sub p} radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f{sub p} than 2 f{sub p} emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  16. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  17. Electron plasma oscillations associated with type III radio emissions and solar electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Frank, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an extensive search for electron plasma oscillations associated with type III radio noise bursts are presented which were obtained by analyzing 87 type III bursts detected in plasma-wave and charged-particle measurements carried out by IMP 6, 7, and 8. Only one case is found for which plasma oscillations were associated with electrons of solar origin; at least eight events are identified in which no plasma oscillations were detected even though electrons from solar flares were clearly evident. The type III emissions are compared with similar radiation coming from upstream of earth's bow shock at the harmonic of the local electron plasma frequency, and quantitative calculations of the rate of conversion from plasma oscillatory energy to electromagnetic radiation are performed. The results show that electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with solar electron events and type III radio bursts at 1.0 AU and that neither the type III emissions nor the radiation from upstream of the bow shock can be adequately explained by a current model for the coupling of electron plasma oscillations to electromagnetic radiation. Several possible explanations are considered for this discrepancy between theory and observations.

  18. Type III chaperones & Co in bacterial plant pathogens: a set of specialized bodyguards mediating effector delivery.

    PubMed

    Lohou, David; Lonjon, Fabien; Genin, Stéphane; Vailleau, Fabienne

    2013-11-22

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria possess a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject bacterial proteins, called type III effectors (T3Es), into host cells through a specialized syringe structure. T3Es are virulence factors that can suppress plant immunity but they can also conversely be recognized by the plant and trigger specific resistance mechanisms. The T3SS and injected T3Es play a central role in determining the outcome of a host-pathogen interaction. Still little is known in plant pathogens on the assembly of the T3SS and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the temporal control of its biosynthesis and T3E translocation. However, recent insights point out the role of several proteins as prime candidates in the role of regulators of the type III secretion (T3S) process. In this review we report on the most recent advances on the regulation of the T3S by focusing on protein players involved in secretion/translocation regulations, including type III chaperones (T3Cs), type III secretion substrate specificity switch (T3S4) proteins and other T3S orchestrators.

  19. Flare fragmentation and type III productivity in the 1980 June 27 flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Schwartz, R. A.; Benz, A. O.; Lin, R. P.; Pelling, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the solar flare on June 27, 1980 were presented, 16:14-16:33 UT, which was observed by a balloon-borne 300 sq cm phoswich hard X-ray detector and by the IKARUS radio spectrometer. This flare shows intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission and an extreme productivity of (at least 754) type III bursts at 200-400 MHz. A linear correlation was found between the type III burst rate and the HXR fluence. The occurrence of about 10 type III bursts/second, and also the even higher rate of millisecond spikes, suggests a high degree of fragmentation in the acceleration region. This high quantization of injected beams, assuming the thick-target model, shows up in a linear relationship between hard X-ray fluence and the type III rate, but not as fine structures in the HXR time profile. The generation of a superhot isothermal HXR component in the decay phase of the flare coincides with the fade-out of type III production.

  20. Characterization of the Type III restriction endonuclease PstII from Providencia stuartii.

    PubMed

    Sears, Alice; Peakman, Luke J; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2005-01-01

    A new Type III restriction endonuclease designated PstII has been purified from Providencia stuartii. PstII recognizes the hexanucleotide sequence 5'-CTGATG(N)(25-26/27-28)-3'. Endonuclease activity requires a substrate with two copies of the recognition site in head-to-head repeat and is dependent on a low level of ATP hydrolysis ( approximately 40 ATP/site/min). Cleavage occurs at just one of the two sites and results in a staggered cut 25-26 nt downstream of the top strand sequence to generate a two base 5'-protruding end. Methylation of the site occurs on one strand only at the first adenine of 5'-CATCAG-3'. Therefore, PstII has characteristic Type III restriction enzyme activity as exemplified by EcoPI or EcoP15I. Moreover, sequence asymmetry of the PstII recognition site in the T7 genome acts as an historical imprint of Type III restriction activity in vivo. In contrast to other Type I and III enzymes, PstII has a more relaxed nucleotide specificity and can cut DNA with GTP and CTP (but not UTP). We also demonstrate that PstII and EcoP15I cannot interact and cleave a DNA substrate suggesting that Type III enzymes must make specific protein-protein contacts to activate endonuclease activity.

  1. Linking insulin with Alzheimer's disease: emergence as type III diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sara; Mahmood, Zahra; Zahid, Saadia

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has characteristic neuropathological abnormalities including regionalized neurodegeneration, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, activation of pro-apoptotic genes, and oxidative stress. As the brain functions continue to disintegrate, there is a decline in person's cognitive abilities, memory, mood, spontaneity, and socializing behavior. A framework that sequentially interlinks all these phenomenons under one event is lacking. Accumulating evidence has indicated the role of insulin deficiency and insulin resistance as mediators of AD neurodegeneration. Herein, we reviewed the evidence stemming from the development of diabetes agent-induced AD animal model. Striking evidence has attributed loss of insulin receptor-bearing neurons to precede or accompany initial stage of AD. This state seems to progress with AD such that, in the terminal stages, it worsens and becomes global. Oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, APP-Aβ deposition, and impaired glucose and energy metabolism have all been linked to perturbation in insulin/IGF signaling. We conclude that AD could be referred to as "type 3 diabetes". Moreover, owing to common pathophysiology with diabetes common therapeutic regime could be effective for AD patients.

  2. Development and characterization of a full-thickness acellular porcine cornea matrix for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Du, Liqun; Wu, Xinyi

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to produce a natural, acellular matrix from porcine cornea for use as a scaffold in developing a tissue-engineered cornea replacement. Full-thickness, intact porcine corneas were decellularized by immersion in 0.5% (wt/vol) sodium dodecyl sulfate. The resulting acellular matrices were then characterized and examined specifically for completeness of the decellularization process. Histological analyses of decellularized corneal stromas showed that complete cell and α-Gal removal was achieved, while the major structural proteins including collagen type I and IV, laminin, and fibronectin were retained. DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA within the matrix, and the DNA contents, which reflect the presence of cellular materials, were significantly diminished in the decellularized cornea. The collagen content of the decellularized cornea was well maintained compared with native tissues. Uniaxial tensile testing indicated that decellularization did not significantly compromise the ultimate tensile strength of the tissue (P > 0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assays using rabbit corneal fibroblast cultures excluded the presence of soluble toxins in the biomaterial. In vivo implantation to rabbit interlamellar stromal pockets showed good biocompability. In summary, a full-thickness natural acellular matrix retaining the major structural components and strength of the cornea has been successfully developed. The matrix is biocompatible with cornea-derived cells and has potential for use in corneal transplantation and tissue-engineering applications.

  3. Type I and III Interferon in the Gut: Tight Balance between Host Protection and Immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pott, Johanna; Stockinger, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa forms an active interface to the outside word, facilitating nutrient and water uptake and at the same time acts as a barrier toward the highly colonized intestinal lumen. A tight balance of the mucosal immune system is essential to tolerate harmless antigens derived from food or commensals and to effectively defend against potentially dangerous pathogens. Interferons (IFN) provide a first line of host defense when cells detect an invading organism. Whereas type I IFN were discovered almost 60 years ago, type III IFN were only identified in the early 2000s. It was initially thought that type I IFN and type III IFN performed largely redundant functions. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that type III IFN exert distinct and non-redundant functions compared to type I IFN, especially in mucosal tissues. Here, we review recent progress made in unraveling the role of type I/III IFN in intestinal mucosal tissue in the steady state, in response to mucosal pathogens and during inflammation. PMID:28352268

  4. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments. PMID:23331413

  5. An immunohistochemical and serum ELISA study of type I and III procollagen aminopropeptides in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, B. H.; Madri, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    By means of ELISA methodology, the aminopropeptides of Type I and Type III procollagen were measured in the serum of a group of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. The corresponding liver biopsies were graded blindly for degrees of fibrosis and inflammation. When available, paraffin-embedded liver specimens underwent immunoperoxidase staining for mature Type I and III collagen as well as the aminopropeptides of Type I and III procollagen. Regardless of the degree of fibrosis or inflammation, serum levels of the aminopropeptide of Type I remained within normal limits. In contrast, serum levels of the aminopropeptide of Type III procollagen were elevated uniformly. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the aminopropeptide of Type III procollagen persists extracellularly. This finding may explain the previously reported relationship between levels of inflammation and serum levels of the Type III aminopropeptide. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3303951

  6. Isolation and characterization of type III group B streptococcal mutants defective in biosynthesis of the type-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Four classes of mutants of type III group B streptococcus were isolated by serial subculture of the wild-type strain in the presence of type III-specific rabbit antiserum. Class I mutants no longer synthesized sialic acid but still elaborated the core antigen. Class II mutants maintained the ability to synthesize sialic acid but could not attach it to the core antigen. Class III mutants did not produce the core antigen but still synthesized intracellular sialic acid. Class IV mutants synthesized the complete antigen; however, only approximately 4% of the antigen synthesized was found associated with the cell wall peptidoglycan (in the wild-type strain greater than 85% of the antigen synthesized is covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan), whereas greater than 90% of the antigen was secreted into the growth medium. Production of other components (CAMP factor, group B antigen, beta-hemolysin, neuraminidase) by these mutants appeared similar to those of the wild-type strain. Mouse lethality studies of these strains indicated that all four classes have greater than 3 log10-higher 50% lethal dose values than that of the wild-type strain. To understand the basis for this variation, the invasive ability of the wild-type strain and the sialic acid-deficient mutant strain M-10 (class I) was examined. Mice received 10(5) CFU of each organism; they were then sacrificed at various times postinoculation, and viable group B streptococci from different organs were enumerated. Mice were able to clear M-10 more efficiently, with greater than 80% of M-10 cells being phagocytized by macrophages within 1 h, whereas the wild-type strain was able to evade phagocytic killing and disseminate to other tissues. These data, therefore, strongly indicate that the sialic acid moiety greatly enhances the virulence of the type III antigen. In addition, the level of cell-associated type-specific antigen appears to contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID

  7. Critical Fluctuations in Beam-Plasma Systems and Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    It is shown that the Langmuir waves are excited similar to critical fluctuations during phase transitions when the negative absorption due to electron beam traveling radially outward in the solar atmosphere is balanced by the positive absorption due to collisions in the corona and due to scattering on electron density inhomogeneities in the interplanetary medium. The effective temperature of the Langmuir fluctuations range from 1011 to 1013 K, explaining the majority of the type III bursts. The Rayleigh scattering and direct coupling due to density gradient as well as due to density inhomogeneities are discussed in the context of fundamental radiation and the combination scattering for second harmonic. The number density of electrons in type III beams is estimated and compared with observations. It is also shown that the stabilization of type III beams is achieved automatically since the instability does not develop in the case of critical fluctuations.

  8. Translational regulation of Yersinia enterocolitica mRNA encoding a type III secretion substrate.

    PubMed

    Kopaskie, Karyl S; Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-12-06

    Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion machines transport YopQ and other Yop effectors into host immune cells. YopD and its chaperone LcrH are essential components of the Yersinia type III pathway, enabling effector translocation into host cells. YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 also regulate yop expression post-transcriptionally in response to environmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms for this regulation and Yop secretion are unknown. We show here that YopD associates with 30 S ribosomal particles in a manner requiring LcrH. When added to ribosomes, YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 block the translation of yopQ mRNA. We propose a model whereby LcrH-dependent association of YopD with 30 S ribosomal particles enables YscM1 to block yopQ translation unless type III machines are induced to secrete the effector.

  9. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A. Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  10. Studying the evolution of a type III radio from the Sun up to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Gottfried; Breitling, Frank; Vocks, Christian; Fallows, Richard; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    On March 16, 2016, a type III burst was observed with the ground-based radio telescopes LOFAR and URAN-2 as well as with the radiospectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND.It started at 80 MHz at 06:37 UT and reached 50 kHz after 23 minutes. A type III burst are considered as the radio signature of an electron beam travelling from the corona into the interplanetary space. The energetic electrons carrying the beam excites Langmuir waves, which convert into radio waves by wave-particle interaction. The relationship between the drift rate and the frequency as derived from the dynamic radio spectra reveals that the velocity of the electrons generating the radio waves of the type III burst is increasing with increasing distance from the center of the Sun.

  11. Increased Activity of Coagulation Factor XII (Hageman Factor) Causes Hereditary Angioedema Type III

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Sven ; Martin, Ludovic ; Hennies, Hans Christian ; Müller, Felicitas ; Van Driessche, Karen ; Karpushova, Anna ; Stevens, Wim ; Colombo, Roberto ; Renné, Thomas ; Drouet, Christian ; Bork, Konrad ; Nöthen, Markus M. 

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized clinically by recurrent acute skin swelling, abdominal pain, and potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema. Three forms of HAE have been described. The classic forms, HAE types I and II, occur as a consequence of mutations in the C1-inhibitor gene. In contrast to HAE types I and II, HAE type III has been observed exclusively in women, where it appears to be correlated with conditions of high estrogen levels—for example, pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. A recent report proposed two missense mutations (c.1032C→A and c.1032C→G) in F12, the gene encoding human coagulation factor XII (FXII, or Hageman factor) as a possible cause of HAE type III. Here, we report the occurrence of the c.1032C→A (p.Thr328Lys) mutation in an HAE type III–affected family of French origin. Investigation of the F12 gene in a large German family did not reveal a coding mutation. Haplotype analysis with use of microsatellite markers is compatible with locus heterogeneity in HAE type III. To shed more light on the pathogenic relevance of the HAE type III–associated p.Thr328Lys mutation, we compared FXII activity and plasma levels in patients carrying the mutation with that of healthy control individuals. Our data strongly suggest that p.Thr328Lys is a gain-of-function mutation that markedly increases FXII amidolytic activity but that does not alter FXII plasma levels. We conclude that enhanced FXII enzymatic plasma activity in female mutation carriers leads to enhanced kinin production, which results in angioedema. Transcription of F12 is positively regulated by estrogens, which may explain why only women are affected with HAE type III. The results of our study represent an important step toward an understanding of the molecular processes involved in HAE type III and provide diagnostic and possibly new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17186468

  12. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  13. Structure and interactions of fish type III antifreeze protein in solution.

    PubMed

    Salvay, Andrés G; Gabel, Frank; Pucci, Bernard; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I; Ebel, Christine

    2010-07-21

    It has been suggested that above a critical protein concentration, fish Type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) self-assembles to form micelle-like structures that may play a key role in antifreeze activity. To understand the complex activity of AFP III, a comprehensive description of its association state and structural organization in solution is necessary. We used analytical ultracentrifugation, analytical size-exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the interactions and homogeneity of AFP III in solution. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to determine the low-resolution structure in solution. Our results clearly show that at concentrations up to 20 mg mL(-1) and at temperatures of 20 degrees C, 6 degrees C, and 4 degrees C, AFP III is monomeric in solution and adopts a structure compatible with that determined by crystallography. Surface tension measurements show a propensity of AFP III to localize at the air/water interface, but this surface activity is not correlated with any aggregation in the bulk. These results support the hypothesis that each AFP III molecule acts independently of the others, and that specific intermolecular interactions between monomers are not required for binding to ice. The lack of attractive interactions between monomers may be functionally important, allowing for more efficient binding and covering of the ice surface.

  14. Structure and Interactions of Fish Type III Antifreeze Protein in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Salvay, Andrés G.; Gabel, Frank; Pucci, Bernard; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I.; Ebel, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It has been suggested that above a critical protein concentration, fish Type III antifreeze protein (AFP III) self-assembles to form micelle-like structures that may play a key role in antifreeze activity. To understand the complex activity of AFP III, a comprehensive description of its association state and structural organization in solution is necessary. We used analytical ultracentrifugation, analytical size-exclusion chromatography, and dynamic light scattering to characterize the interactions and homogeneity of AFP III in solution. Small-angle neutron scattering was used to determine the low-resolution structure in solution. Our results clearly show that at concentrations up to 20 mg mL−1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 6°C, and 4°C, AFP III is monomeric in solution and adopts a structure compatible with that determined by crystallography. Surface tension measurements show a propensity of AFP III to localize at the air/water interface, but this surface activity is not correlated with any aggregation in the bulk. These results support the hypothesis that each AFP III molecule acts independently of the others, and that specific intermolecular interactions between monomers are not required for binding to ice. The lack of attractive interactions between monomers may be functionally important, allowing for more efficient binding and covering of the ice surface. PMID:20643081

  15. Cardiac function in types II and III spinal muscular atrophy: should we change standards of care?

    PubMed

    Bianco, Flaviana; Pane, Marika; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Delogu, Angelica Bibiana; Soraru, Gianni; Pera, Maria Carmela; Mongini, Tiziana; Politano, Luisa; Baranello, Giovanni; Vita, Gianluca; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    In the last years, there has been increasing evidence of cardiac involvement in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in animal models and in several patients with types I and III SMA, these findings raising the question whether heart rate should be routinely investigated in all SMA patients. The aim of our study was to detect possible signs of autonomic dysfunction and, more generally, of cardiac involvement in types II and III SMA. We retrospectively reviewed 24-hour electrocardiography (ECG) in 157 types II and III SMA patients (age range, 2-74 years). Of them, 82 also had echocardiography. None of the patients had signs of bradycardia, atrial fibrillation, or the other previously reported rhythm disturbances regardless of the age at examination or the type of SMA. Echocardiography was also normal. There were no signs of congenital cardiac defects with the exception of one patient with a history of ventricular septal defects. Our results suggest that cardiac abnormalities are not common in type II and type III SMA. These findings provide no evidence to support a more accurate cardiac surveillance or changes in the existing standards of care. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction Type III: New studies suggest new approaches are needed.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, C Mel

    2015-05-21

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) has been classified into three types based upon the presence or absence of objective findings including liver test abnormalities and bile duct dilatation. Type III is the most controversial and is classified as biliary type pain in the absence of any these objective findings. Many prior studies have shown that the clinical response to endoscopic therapy is higher based upon the presence of these objective criteria. However, there has been variable correlation of the manometry findings to outcome after endoscopic therapy. Nevertheless, manometry and sphincterotomy has been recommended for Type III patients given the overall response rate of 33%, although the reported response rates are highly variable. However, all of the prior data was non-blinded and non-randomized with variable follow-up. The evaluating predictors in SOD study - a prospective randomized blinded sham controlled one year outcome study showed no correlation between manometric findings and outcome after sphincterotomy. Furthermore, patients receiving sham therapy had a statistically significantly better outcome than those undergoing biliary or dual sphincterotomy. This study calls into question the whole concept of SOD Type III and, based upon prior physiologic studies, one can suggest that SOD Type III likely represents a right upper quadrant functional abdominal pain syndrome and should be treated as such.

  17. Hepatocellular Adenomas and Carcinoma in Asymptomatic, Non-Cirrhotic Type III Glycogen Storage Disease.

    PubMed

    Oterdoom, Leendert H; Verweij, K Evelyne; Biermann, Katharina; Langeveld, Mirjam; van Buuren, Henk R

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by accumulation of abnormal glycogen in muscle or liver or both. Specific hepatic complications include liver adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatocellular carcinomas described in GSD type I are often due to the degeneration of liver adenomas. Hepatocellular carcinoma in GSD type III, however, is rare and is thought to be associated with underlying cirrhosis.We present the case of a 63-year old male who was admitted for assessment of suitability for liver transplantation because of development of recurrent HCC in the presence of multiple liver adenomas. A diagnosis of GSD type III was made in this patient without underlying cirrhosis or metabolic disturbances resembling GSD. This case report is the first documentation of HCC development in an asymptomatic, non-cirrhotic patient with GSD type III. This raises the possibility that in GSD type III, the adenoma - carcinoma sequence can occur as it is also seen in GSD type I. Physicians taking care of GSD patients should be aware of this and some form of surveillance for cirrhosis and HCC should be considered. Also male patients with adenomas should have a thorough workup to reveal any underlying disease such as GSD.

  18. Intron-containing type I and type III IFN coexist in amphibians: refuting the concept that a retroposition event gave rise to type I IFNs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Chris J; Zou, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Type I and III IFNs are structurally related cytokines with similar antiviral functions. They have different genomic organizations and bind to distinct receptor complexes. It has been vigorously debated whether the recently identified intron containing IFN genes in fish and amphibians belong to the type I or III IFN family or diverged from a common ancestral gene, that subsequently gave rise to both types. In this report, we have identified intron containing type III IFN genes that are tandemly linked in the Xenopus tropicalis genome and hence demonstrate for the first time that intron containing type I and III genes diverged relatively early in vertebrate evolution, and at least by the appearance of early tetrapods, a transition period when vertebrates migrated from an aquatic environment to land. Our data also suggest that the intronless type I IFN genes seen in reptiles, birds, and mammals have originated from a type I IFN transcript via a retroposition event that led to the disappearance of intron-containing type I IFN genes in modern vertebrates. In vivo and in vitro studies in this paper show that the Xenopus type III IFNs and their cognate receptor are ubiquitously expressed in tissues and primary splenocytes and can be upregulated by stimulation with synthetic double-stranded RNA, suggesting they are involved in antiviral defense in amphibians.

  19. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Methods Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. Results A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Conclusions Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock. PMID:26207312

  20. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea.

    PubMed

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock.

  1. A comparison of three methods of decellularization of pig corneas to reduce immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Whayoung; Miyagawa, Yuko; Long, Cassandra; Cooper, David K. C.; Hara, Hidetaka

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether decellularization using different techniques can reduce immunogenicity of the cornea, and to explore the decellularized cornea as a scaffold for cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs). Transplantation of decellularized porcine corneas increases graft transparency and survival for longer periods compared with fresh grafts. METHODS Six-month-old wild-type pig corneas were cut into 100-200 µm thickness, and then decellularized by three different methods: 1) 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); 2) hypoxic nitrogen (N2); and 3) hypertonic NaCl. Thickness and transparency were assessed visually. Fresh and decellularized corneas were stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H&E), and for the presence of galactose-α1,3-galactose (Gal) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc, a nonGal antigen). Also, a human IgM/IgG binding assay was performed. Cultured porcine CECs were seeded on the surface of the decellularized cornea and examined after H&E staining. RESULTS All three methods of decellularization reduced the number of keratocytes in the stromal tissue by >80% while the collagen structure remained preserved. No remaining nuclei stained positive for Gal or NeuGc, and expression of these oligosaccharides on collagen was also greatly decreased compared to expression on fresh corneas. Human IgM/IgG binding to decellularized corneal tissue was considerably reduced compared to fresh corneal tissue. The cultured CECs formed a confluent monolayer on the surface of decellularized tissue. CONCLUSION Though incomplete, the significant reduction in the cellular component of the decellularized cornea should be associated with a significantly reduced in vivo immune response compared to fresh corneas. PMID:25161926

  2. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  3. Type III Radio Bursts and the Structure of the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Type III solar radio bursts provide important information on the origin, acceleration, and propagation of particles associated with solar flares and coronal shocks. Since these radio emissions are generated by the plasma emission mechanism, observations of these solar radio transients also provide remote sensing of the plasma conditions in the corona and of the magnetic and plasma structure of the inner heliosphere. In this talk I will review the progress of type III research from their discovery in the late 40s to the most recent advances from low-frequency spacecraft observations, primarily from ISEE-3, Wind and Ulysses.

  4. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zanichelli, A.; Caballero, T.; Bouillet, L.; Aberer, W.; Maurer, M.; Fain, O.; Fabien, V.; Andresen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1‐INH‐AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1‐INH‐AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6‐month intervals during patient follow‐up visits. In the icatibant‐treated population, 16 patients with C1‐INH‐AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1‐INH‐AAE versus C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33–64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70–15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1‐INH‐AAE versus C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1‐INH‐AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II versus C1‐INH‐AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1‐INH‐AAE versus C1‐INH‐HAE types I/II, respectively. PMID:27936514

  5. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S.

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  6. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  7. [Advances in studies of the type III secretion system in Ralstonia solanacearum--A review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Muyuan; Luo, Feng

    2015-06-04

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The syringe-like type III secretion system (T3SS) plays a crucial role in its pathogenicity. R. solanacearum uses the T3SS to inject effector proteins (Type III effectors) into the cytoplasm of host cells, causing diseases in susceptible plants or triggering the hypersensitive response in resistant plants. In this article we review recent advances in studies of R. solanacearum T3SS and highlight their unique features.

  8. Vlasov simulations of Langmuir Electrostatic Decay and consequences for Type III observations

    SciTech Connect

    Henri, P.; Califano, F.; Briand, C.; Mangeney, A.

    2010-03-25

    The electrostatic decay enables energy transfer from a finite amplitude Langmuir to a backscattered daughter Langmuir wave and ion acoustic density fluctuations. This mechanism is thought to be a first step for the generation of type III solar radio emissions at twice the plasma frequency. The electrostatic decay is here investigated through Vlasov-Poisson simulations by considering Langmuir localized wave packets in the case T{sub e} = T{sub p}. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with recently reported observations from the STEREO mission of the electrostatic decay of beam-driven Langmuir waves during a type III burst.

  9. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, K; Charlie, M; Kuttappa, M A; Rao, Prasana Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler's Type III).

  10. Anatomy and physiology of the cornea.

    PubMed

    DelMonte, Derek W; Kim, Terry

    2011-03-01

    The importance of the cornea to the ocular structure and visual system is often overlooked because of the cornea's unassuming transparent nature. The cornea lacks the neurobiological sophistication of the retina and the dynamic movement of the lens; yet, without its clarity, the eye would not be able to perform its necessary functions. The complexity of structure and function necessary to maintain such elegant simplicity is the wonder that draws us to one of the most important components of our visual system. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaling up the predator functional response in heterogeneous environment: when Holling type III can emerge?

    PubMed

    Cordoleani, Flora; Nerini, David; Morozov, Andrey; Gauduchon, Mathias; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-11-07

    Accurate parametrization of functional terms in model equations is of great importance for reproducing the dynamics of real food webs. Constructing models over large spatial and temporal scales using mathematical expressions obtained based on microcosm experiments can be erroneous. Here, using a generic spatial predator-prey model, we show that scaling up the microscale functional response of a predator can result in qualitative alterations of functional response on macroscales. In particular, a global functional response of sigmoid type (Holling type III) can emerge as a result of non-linear averaging of non-sigmoid local responses (Holling type I or II). We demonstrate that alteration between the local and the global response in the model is a result of the interplay between density-dependent dispersal of the predator across the habitat and heterogeneity of the environment. Using the method of aggregation of variables, we analytically derive the mathematical formulation of the global functional response as a function of the total amount of prey in the system, and reveal the key parameters which control the emergence of a Holling type III global response. We argue that this mechanism by which a global Holling type III emerges from a local Holling type II response has not been reported in the literature yet: in particular, Holling type III can emerge in the case of a fixed gradient of resource distribution across the habitat, which would be impossible in priorly suggested mechanisms. As a case study, we consider the interaction between phytoplankton and zooplankton grazers in the water column; and we show that the emergence of a Holling type III global response can allow for the efficient top-down regulation of primary producers and stabilization of planktonic ecosystems under eutrophic conditions.

  12. Neuronal migration disorders in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I/III.

    PubMed

    Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Kapur, Raj P; Glass, Ian A; Murray, Mitzi L; Parnell, Shawn E; Hevner, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism (MOPD) is a rare microlissencephaly syndrome, with at least two distinct phenotypic and genetic types. MOPD type II is caused by pericentrin mutations, while types I and III appear to represent a distinct entity (MOPD I/III) with variably penetrant phenotypes and unknown genetic basis. The neuropathology of MOPD I/III is little understood, especially in comparison to other forms of lissencephaly. Here, we report postmortem brain findings in an 11-month-old female infant with MOPD I/III. The cerebral cortex was diffusely pachygyric, with a right parietal porencephalic lesion. Histologically, the cortex was abnormally thick and disorganized. Distinct malformations were observed in different cerebral lobes, as characterized using layer-specific neuronal markers. Frontal cortex was severely disorganized and coated with extensive leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia. Temporal cortex had a relatively normal 6-layered pattern, despite cortical thickening. Occipital cortex was variably affected. The corpus callosum was extremely hypoplastic. Brainstem and cerebellar malformations were also present, as well as old necrotic foci. Findings in this case suggest that the cortical malformation in MOPD I/III is distinct from other forms of pachygyria-lissencephaly.

  13. The effects of K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of dental gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeilina, T.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Dental gypsum type III is used as a material for manufacturing working models of dentures. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the addition of a K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of gypsum type III. A compressive strength test was performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the compressive strength of gypsum type III with a 1.5% K2SO4 solution added was higher than for gypsum type III alone but lower than the compressive strength of gypsum type IV.

  14. Group B Streptococcal Type II and III Conjugate Vaccines: Physicochemical Properties That Influence Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Michon, Francis; Uitz, Catherine; Sarkar, Arun; D'Ambra, Anello J.; Laude-Sharp, Maryline; Moore, Samuel; Fusco, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Recent efforts toward developing vaccines against group B streptococci (GBS) have focused on increasing the immunogenicity of GBS polysaccharides by conjugation to carrier proteins. However, partial depolymerization of GBS polysaccharides for the production of vaccines is a difficult task because of their acid-labile, antigenically critical sialic acids. Here we report a method for the partial depolymerization of type II and III polysaccharides by mild deaminative cleavage to antigenic fragments with reducing-terminal 2,5-anhydro-d-mannose residues. Through the free aldehydes of their newly formed end groups, the fragments were conjugated to tetanus toxoid by reductive amination. The resulting conjugates stimulated the production in animals of high-titer type II- and III-specific antibodies which induced opsonophagocytic killing of type II and III strains of group B streptococci. For the type II conjugates, immunogenicity increased as oligosaccharide size decreased, whereas for type III conjugates, the size of the oligosaccharides did not significantly influence immunogenicity. When oligosaccharides of defined size were conjugated through sialic acid residues, the resulting cross-linkages were shown to affect immunogenicity. When oligosaccharides were conjugated through terminal aldehyde groups generated by deamination, modification of the exocyclic chain of sialic acid did not influence immunogenicity. PMID:16893995

  15. Structure, Evolution, and Functions of Bacterial Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems

    PubMed Central

    Goeders, Nathalie; Chai, Ray; Chen, Bihe; Day, Andrew; Salmond, George P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules that encode a toxin (that targets an essential cellular process) and an antitoxin that neutralises or suppresses the deleterious effect of the toxin. Based on the molecular nature of the toxin and antitoxin components, TA systems are categorised into different types. Type III TA systems, the focus of this review, are composed of a toxic endoribonuclease neutralised by a non-coding RNA antitoxin in a pseudoknotted configuration. Bioinformatic analysis shows that the Type III systems can be classified into subtypes. These TA systems were originally discovered through a phage resistance phenotype arising due to a process akin to an altruistic suicide; the phenomenon of abortive infection. Some Type III TA systems are bifunctional and can stabilise plasmids during vegetative growth and sporulation. Features particular to Type III systems are explored here, emphasising some of the characteristics of the RNA antitoxin and how these may affect the co-evolutionary relationship between toxins and cognate antitoxins in their quaternary structures. Finally, an updated analysis of the distribution and diversity of these systems are presented and discussed. PMID:27690100

  16. Novel findings in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III and implications for advanced molecular testing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Bodo B; Baasner, Anne; Buescher, Anja; Habbig, Sandra; Reintjes, Nadine; Kemper, Markus J; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Mache, Christoph; Pohl, Martin; Stahl, Mirjam; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars; Fehrenbach, Henry; Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Wolf, Matthias T; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Yigit, Gökhan; Salido, Eduardo C; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Identification of mutations in the HOGA1 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type III has revitalized research in the field of PH and related stone disease. In contrast to the well-characterized entities of PH type I and type II, the pathophysiology and prevalence of type III is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed a large cohort of subjects previously tested negative for type I/II by complete HOGA1 sequencing. Seven distinct mutations, among them four novel, were found in 15 patients. In patients of non-consanguineous European descent the previously reported c.700+5G>T splice-site mutation was predominant and represents a potential founder mutation, while in consanguineous families private homozygous mutations were identified throughout the gene. Furthermore, we identified a family where a homozygous mutation in HOGA1 (p.P190L) segregated in two siblings with an additional AGXT mutation (p.D201E). The two girls exhibiting triallelic inheritance presented a more severe phenotype than their only mildly affected p.P190L homozygous father. In silico analysis of five mutations reveals that HOGA1 deficiency is causing type III, yet reduced HOGA1 expression or aberrant subcellular protein targeting is unlikely to be the responsible pathomechanism. Our results strongly suggest HOGA1 as a major cause of PH, indicate a greater genetic heterogeneity of hyperoxaluria, and point to a favorable outcome of type III in the context of PH despite incomplete or absent biochemical remission. Multiallelic inheritance could have implications for genetic testing strategies and might represent an unrecognized mechanism for phenotype variability in PH. PMID:22781098

  17. Novel findings in patients with primary hyperoxaluria type III and implications for advanced molecular testing strategies.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bodo B; Baasner, Anne; Buescher, Anja; Habbig, Sandra; Reintjes, Nadine; Kemper, Markus J; Sikora, Przemyslaw; Mache, Christoph; Pohl, Martin; Stahl, Mirjam; Toenshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars; Fehrenbach, Henry; Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Wolf, Matthias T; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Yigit, Gökhan; Salido, Eduardo C; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-02-01

    Identification of mutations in the HOGA1 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type III has revitalized research in the field of PH and related stone disease. In contrast to the well-characterized entities of PH type I and type II, the pathophysiology and prevalence of type III is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed a large cohort of subjects previously tested negative for type I/II by complete HOGA1 sequencing. Seven distinct mutations, among them four novel, were found in 15 patients. In patients of non-consanguineous European descent the previously reported c.700+5G>T splice-site mutation was predominant and represents a potential founder mutation, while in consanguineous families private homozygous mutations were identified throughout the gene. Furthermore, we identified a family where a homozygous mutation in HOGA1 (p.P190L) segregated in two siblings with an additional AGXT mutation (p.D201E). The two girls exhibiting triallelic inheritance presented a more severe phenotype than their only mildly affected p.P190L homozygous father. In silico analysis of five mutations reveals that HOGA1 deficiency is causing type III, yet reduced HOGA1 expression or aberrant subcellular protein targeting is unlikely to be the responsible pathomechanism. Our results strongly suggest HOGA1 as a major cause of PH, indicate a greater genetic heterogeneity of hyperoxaluria, and point to a favorable outcome of type III in the context of PH despite incomplete or absent biochemical remission. Multiallelic inheritance could have implications for genetic testing strategies and might represent an unrecognized mechanism for phenotype variability in PH.

  18. Type-specific capsular antigen is associated with virulence in late-onset group B Streptococcal type III disease.

    PubMed Central

    Klegerman, M E; Boyer, K M; Papierniak, C K; Levine, L; Gotoff, S P

    1984-01-01

    Strain differences have been postulated to explain the observation that group B Streptococcus type III (GBS III) late-onset disease occurs in only a fraction of colonized infants. To determine the distribution of type-specific polysaccharide antigen (Ag) in GBS III, Ag was measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis in both supernatant fluids and EDTA extracts and by radial immunodiffusion in multiple HCl extracts of the pellet from cultures of 10 strains of GBS III. Capsular Ag was defined as the sum of Ag in EDTA extracts + Ag in multiple HCl extracts. Both Ag in EDTA extracts and Ag in supernatant fluids correlated with capsular Ag (r = 0.94). GBS III strains were obtained from the blood of 19 infants with late-onset sepsis, from the cerebrospinal fluid or blood of 22 infants with late-onset meningitis, and from mucosal surfaces of both 18 infants and 12 mothers of infants with low levels of type-specific antibody and asymptomatic colonization. Mean values of Ag in supernatant fluids in strains from infants with late-onset sepsis (1.50 +/- 0.08 micrograms/ml) and late-onset meningitis (1.67 +/- 0.09 micrograms/ml) were significantly greater than those in asymptomatic colonization strains (1.14 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml; P less than 0.001). The number of organisms required for a 50% lethal dose in the chick embryo, determined in 29 strains, was inversely related to Ag in supernatant fluids (r = -0.60). The demonstration that the quantity of capsular Ag produced by GBS III strains is related to their virulence in chick embryos and to their invasiveness in susceptible infants supports the hypothesis that Ag is a virulence factor in humans. Images PMID:6423540

  19. Vertically oval corneas in a child with holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther S; Wasserman, Barry N; Saslow, Judy G; Schnur, Rhonda E; Levin, Alex V

    2012-07-17

    Vertically oval-shaped corneas are an uncommon ophthalmic finding. The normal human cornea has an oval shape, but is wider in the horizontal dimension. The etiology of vertically oval corneas is unclear. This report presents a case of bilateral vertical oval corneas in a male infant with semilobar holoprosencephaly.

  20. Tracking Type III Radio Burst Sources in the Solar Corona by Heliographic Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.

    We present the preliminary results of heliographic measurements of solar type III radio bursts in the low-frequency range (16.5-33 MHz) using the UTR-2 radio heliograph. The radio astronomy tools permit us to obtain two-dimensional spatial structures of burst sources in dependence of frequency and time. Each heliogram consists of 40 pixels (beams) as a result of the serial sweep in UV-plane wherein signals of each beam are recorded in a dynamic spectrum with both high temporal (˜ 2.482 ms) and top spectral (˜ 4 kHz) resolutions. The rate of output heliograph is one image per 3 seconds. Over a session in April, 2013 many type III radio and IIIb-III bursts were observed. On the heliograms the source motion direction in the upper corona is clearly detectable. The heliogram features are discussed.

  1. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; P<0.0001 for all). In age, sex, and race-adjusted analysis, ApoC-III levels were positively associated with coronary artery calcification (Tobit regression ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.50 per SD increase in ApoC-III; P<0.001). As expected for an intermediate mediator, these findings were attenuated when adjusted for both triglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma

  2. Angular Study of the III Type Solar Bursts by Ukrainian Decameter Heliograph of UTR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, Artem; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Konovalenko, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    Solar radio bursts are attractive manifestations of solar activity. They contain useful information about physical processes in solar corona. The type III radio bursts are the most frequent events among many different types of solar bursts studied since middle of the last century. The type III bursts are generated by beams of fast electrons (beams velocity ~ 0.3c) ejected into the corona and propagated through coronal plasma to interplanetary medium. It is assumed that such an electron beam passing coronal plasma generates plasma waves that converse to electromagnetic waves registered as type III radio bursts. They are observed in a wide frequency range from 1 GHz to tens kHz. In particular, the decameter emission (10-30 MHz) of III type bursts arises at heights about 2-3 solar radii from the center of the Sun. In the last decades the various ground-based, satellite and spacecraft observations have provided detailed information about features of the bursts. Due to non-thermal emission mechanism their intensity can be very high that allows ones to record the bursts even by amateur radio astronomers with help of elementary antennas (for example, half-wave dipole) and simple radio equipment. At dynamic spectra the type III radio bursts are characterized by very fast frequency drifts. Usually, the analysis of such two-dimensional spectrograms reveals also duration and intensity of the events in time and frequency; if the antenna facilities permit, as well as degree of polarization. It should be noticed that the observations of angular three-dimensional structure of the burst source are also of great interest. Our knowledge about angular structure of type III radio bursts in decameter wavelengths was very restricted because of the absence of appropriate radio astronomy instruments. Recently, the difficulty has been overcome by means of the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in heliographic modes. It was successfully used for heliographic observations of solar

  3. Facts about the Cornea and Corneal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... collagen proteins are essential in producing the cornea’s light-conducting transparency. Descemet's Membrane Behind the stroma is ... key role in vision by helping focus the light that comes into the eye. The cornea is ...

  4. Domain III regulates N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channel closing kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Yarotskyy, Viktor; Gao, Guofeng; Peterson, Blaise Z.

    2012-01-01

    CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV1.2 (L-type) calcium channels gate differently in response to membrane depolarization, which is critical to the unique physiological functions mediated by these channels. We wondered if the source for these differences could be identified. As a first step, we examined the effect of domain exchange between N-type and L-type channels on activation-deactivation kinetics, which were significantly different between these channels. Kinetic analysis of chimeric channels revealed N-channel-like deactivation for all chimeric channels containing N-channel domain III, while activation appeared to be a more distributed function across domains. This led us to hypothesize that domain III was an important regulator of N-channel closing. This idea was further examined with R-roscovitine, which is a trisubstituted purine that slows N-channel deactivation by exclusively binding to activated N-channels. L-channels lack this response to roscovitine, which allowed us to use N-L chimeras to test the role of domain III in roscovitine modulation of N-channel deactivation. In support of our hypothesis, all chimeric channels containing the N-channel domain III responded to roscovitine with slowed deactivation, while those chimeric channels with L-channel domain III did not. Thus a combination of kinetic and pharmacological evidence supports the hypothesis that domain III is an important regulator of N-channel closing. Our results support specialization of gating functions among calcium channel domains. PMID:22205645

  5. Stress-controlled viscoelastic tensile response of bovine cornea.

    PubMed

    Boyce, B L; Jones, R E; Nguyen, T D; Grazier, J M

    2007-01-01

    The viscoelastic response of bovine corneas was characterized using in vitro load-controlled uniaxial tension experiments. Specifically, two types of tests were employed: cycled ramp tests over a range of loading rates and creep tests over a range of hold stresses. Multiple replicates of each were used to quantify natural variability as well as mean trends. A preconditioning protocol was used to obtain a unique reference state before testing and to overcome the effects of non-physiological loading. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model incorporating a representation of the microstructure of the cornea was compared to the experimental results. For low stresses and moderate durations this model compares favorably, but overall the material displays non-linearities that cannot be represented within the quasi-linear framework.

  6. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

    PubMed Central

    Limon-Miranda, Sarai; Salazar-Enriquez, Diana G.; Muñiz, Jesus; Ramirez-Archila, Mario V.; Sanchez-Pastor, Enrique A.; Andrade, Felipa; Soñanez-Organis, Jose G.; Moran-Palacio, Edgar F.; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum. PMID:25147829

  7. Pregnancy differentially regulates the collagens types I and III in left ventricle from rat heart.

    PubMed

    Limon-Miranda, Sarai; Salazar-Enriquez, Diana G; Muñiz, Jesus; Ramirez-Archila, Mario V; Sanchez-Pastor, Enrique A; Andrade, Felipa; Soñanez-Organis, Jose G; Moran-Palacio, Edgar F; Virgen-Ortiz, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum.

  8. Programmable RNA shredding by the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Kazlauskiene, Migle; Manakova, Elena; Venclovas, Česlovas; Nwokeoji, Alison O; Dickman, Mark J; Horvath, Philippe; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2014-11-20

    Immunity against viruses and plasmids provided by CRISPR-Cas systems relies on a ribonucleoprotein effector complex that triggers the degradation of invasive nucleic acids (NA). Effector complexes of type I (Cascade) and II (Cas9-dual RNA) target foreign DNA. Intriguingly, the genetic evidence suggests that the type III-A Csm complex targets DNA, whereas biochemical data show that the type III-B Cmr complex cleaves RNA. Here we aimed to investigate NA specificity and mechanism of CRISPR interference for the Streptococcus thermophilus Csm (III-A) complex (StCsm). When expressed in Escherichia coli, two complexes of different stoichiometry copurified with 40 and 72 nt crRNA species, respectively. Both complexes targeted RNA and generated multiple cuts at 6 nt intervals. The Csm3 protein, present in multiple copies in both Csm complexes, acts as endoribonuclease. In the heterologous E. coli host, StCsm restricts MS2 RNA phage in a Csm3 nuclease-dependent manner. Thus, our results demonstrate that the type III-A StCsm complex guided by crRNA targets RNA and not DNA.

  9. Hypervirulent Clone of Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Sequence Type 283, Hong Kong, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Irene; Fung, Kitty; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Luo, Ming Jing; Lai, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We describe a hypervirulent clone of group B Streptococcus serotype III, subtype 4, sequence type 283, that caused invasive disease with a predilection for meningitis in Hong Kong during 1993–2012. The organism is associated with high mortality and increased summer prevalence and is linked to diseased fish from freshwater fish farms. PMID:27648702

  10. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  11. Contribution of Bordetella bronchiseptica Type III secretion system to respiratory disease in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The type III secretion system (TTSS) of gram negative bacteria allows injection of effector proteins directly into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the B. bronchiseptica TTSS plays a role in the persistent bacterial colonization of the trachea of m...

  12. Hypervirulent Clone of Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Sequence Type 283, Hong Kong, 1993-2012.

    PubMed

    Ip, Margaret; Ang, Irene; Fung, Kitty; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Luo, Ming Jing; Lai, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    We describe a hypervirulent clone of group B Streptococcus serotype III, subtype 4, sequence type 283, that caused invasive disease with a predilection for meningitis in Hong Kong during 1993-2012. The organism is associated with high mortality and increased summer prevalence and is linked to diseased fish from freshwater fish farms.

  13. Solid-state NMR on a type III antifreeze protein in the presence of ice.

    PubMed

    Siemer, Ansgar B; McDermott, Ann E

    2008-12-24

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in fish, insects, plants, and a variety of other organisms where they serve to prevent the growth of ice at subzero temperatures. Type III AFPs cloned from polar fishes have been studied extensively with X-ray crystallography, liquid-state NMR, and site directed mutagenesis and are, therefore, among the best characterized AFPs. A flat surface on the protein has previously been proposed to be the ice-binding site of type III AFP. The detailed nature of the ice binding remains controversial since it is not clear whether only polar or also hydrophobic residues are involved in ice binding and there is no structural information available of a type III AFP bound to ice. Here we present a high-resolution solid-state NMR study of a type III AFP (HPLC-12 isoform) in the presence of ice. The chemical-shift differences we detected between the frozen and the nonfrozen state agree well with the proposed ice-binding site. Furthermore, we found that the (1)H T(1) of HPLC-12 in frozen solution is very long compared to typical (1)H of proteins in the solid state as for example of ubiquitin in frozen solution.

  14. Inside the Chamber of Secrets of the Type III Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Eric

    2017-03-09

    The bacterial type III secretion system is a specialized machine that injects effectors into eukaryotic cells to manipulate the host cell physiology. In this issue of Cell, Hu et al. use cryo-electron tomography to reveal an unprecedented level of details regarding the architecture of this machine and the conformational changes that occur during its assembly.

  15. Decameter Type III Bursts with Changing Frequency Drift-Rate Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Denis, L.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of type III bursts that change the sign of their drift rate from negative to positive and vice versa. Moreover, these bursts may change the sign of their drift rates more than once. These particular type III bursts were observed simultaneously by the radio telescopes UTR-2 ( Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope, Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 ( Ukrainian Radio telescope of the Academy of Sciences, Poltava, Ukraine), and by the NDA ( Nançay Decametric Array, Nancay, France) in the frequency range 8 - 41 MHz. The negative drift rates of these bursts are similar to those of previously reported decameter type III bursts and vary from -0.7 MHz s-1 to -1.7 MHz s-1, but their positive drift rates vary in a wider range from 0.44 MHz s-1 to 6 MHz s-1. Unlike inverted U-bursts, the tracks of these type III bursts have C- or inverted C-shapes.

  16. Mutualistic Co-evolution of Type III Effector Genes in Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Creason, Allison L.; Thireault, Caitlin A.; Sachs, Joel L.; Chang, Jeff H.

    2013-01-01

    Two diametric paradigms have been proposed to model the molecular co-evolution of microbial mutualists and their eukaryotic hosts. In one, mutualist and host exhibit an antagonistic arms race and each partner evolves rapidly to maximize their own fitness from the interaction at potential expense of the other. In the opposing model, conflicts between mutualist and host are largely resolved and the interaction is characterized by evolutionary stasis. We tested these opposing frameworks in two lineages of mutualistic rhizobia, Sinorhizobium fredii and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. To examine genes demonstrably important for host-interactions we coupled the mining of genome sequences to a comprehensive functional screen for type III effector genes, which are necessary for many Gram-negative pathogens to infect their hosts. We demonstrate that the rhizobial type III effector genes exhibit a surprisingly high degree of conservation in content and sequence that is in contrast to those of a well characterized plant pathogenic species. This type III effector gene conservation is particularly striking in the context of the relatively high genome-wide diversity of rhizobia. The evolution of rhizobial type III effectors is inconsistent with the molecular arms race paradigm. Instead, our results reveal that these loci are relatively static in rhizobial lineages and suggest that fitness conflicts between rhizobia mutualists and their host plants have been largely resolved. PMID:23468637

  17. The role of the magnetic field intensity and geometry in the type III burst generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobec, P.; Messerotti, M.; Ruzdjak, V.; Vrsnak, B.; Karlicky, M.

    1990-12-01

    The association of type III bursts related to H-alpha flares in different magnetic environments were studied in the period 1970-1981. Special attention is paid to flares which partly cover a major spot umbra (Z-flares). In particular, the location of the spots in the active regions and the magnetic field intensities of spots covered by a ribbon are considered. The association rate with type III bursts decreases to 17 percent when the flare is located inside the bipolar pattern of a large active region, compared with an association rate of 54 percent when the flare is situated outside it. The association rate increases with the magnetic field intensity of the spot covered by H-alpha emission; this is most clearly revealed for the flares occurring outside the bipolar pattern of active regions. Ninety-three percent of the flare-associated type III burst were accompanied by 10 cm radio bursts. For the most general case, in which a flare is developing anywhere in an active region, the association with type III bursts generation increases with the increasing magnetic field intensity of the main spot of the group.

  18. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Kontar, E. P.; Soucek, J.; Santolik, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Kruparova, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Methods: We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. Results: We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from ~0.02c up to ~0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons (~0.1c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Derived properties of electron beams can be used as input parameters for computer simulations of interactions between the beam and the plasma in the IP medium. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. A Program of Yersinia enterocolitica Type III Secretion Reactions Is Activated by Specific Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vincent T.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2001-01-01

    Successful establishment of Yersinia infections requires the type III machinery, a protein transporter that injects virulence factors (Yops) into macrophages. It is reported here that the Yersinia type III pathway responds to environmental signals by transporting proteins to distinct locations. Yersinia enterocolitica cells sense an increase in extracellular amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) that results in the activation of the type III pathway. Another signal, provided by serum proteins such as albumin, triggers the secretion of YopD into the extracellular medium. The third signal, a decrease in calcium concentration, appears to be provided by host cells and causes Y. enterocolitica to transport YopE and presumably other virulence factors across the eukaryotic plasma membrane. Mutations in several genes encoding regulatory molecules (lcrG, lcrH, tyeA, yopD, yopN, yscM1, and yscM2) bypass the signal requirement of the type III pathway. Together these results suggest that yersiniae may have evolved distinct secretion reactions in response to environmental signals. PMID:11489848

  20. Diagnosis of type III endoleak and endovascular treatment with aortouniiliac stent-graft.

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Zarzecka, Anna; Majewski, Wacław

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of type III endoleak from a tear in the fabric of a Zenith bifurcated stent-graft approximately 6 months after implantation. The reason of the fabric tear was unknown. The complication was successfully treated by aortouniiliac stent-graft implantation followed by creation of a femorofemoral bypass.

  1. Group B Streptococcus Serotype III Sequence Type 283 Bacteremia Associated with Consumption of Raw Fish, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yijun; Foo, Kelly; Koh, Han Fang; Tow, Charlene; Zhang, Yiwen; Ang, Li Wei; Cui, Lin; Badaruddin, Hishamuddin; Ooi, Peng Lim; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Cutter, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 40 case-patients and 58 controls as part of a nationwide investigation of a group B Streptococcus outbreak in Singapore in 2015. Eating a Chinese-style raw fish dish (yusheng) was a major risk factor for bacteremia, particularly caused by serotype III sequence type 283. PMID:27767904

  2. A diverse family of Type III polyketide synthases in Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Rubin-Pitel, Sheryl B; Luo, Yunzi; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-08-01

    Eucalyptus species synthesize a wealth of polyketide natural products, but no relevant biosynthetic enzyme has been identified. Degenerate primers designed from conserved regions of fourteen chalcone synthase superfamily enzymes were used to isolate gene fragments from at least five different Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) in E. camaldulensis and E. robusta.

  3. A Bacterial Pathogen uses Distinct Type III Secretion Systems to Alternate between Host Kingdom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of eukaryotes often secrete proteins directly into host cells via a needle-like protein channel called a ‘type III secretion system’ (T3SS). Bacteria that are adapted to either animal or plant hosts use phylogenetically distinct T3SSs for secreting proteins. Here, ...

  4. Erratum: Spectroscopic identification of type 2 quasars at z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sihan; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2017-06-01

    The paper 'Spectroscopic Identification of Type 2 Quasars at z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS' was published in MNRAS, 462, 1603-1615 (2016). The data files in the supporting section are not successfully linked. The actual data files can be found at http://zakamska.johnshopkins.edu/data.htm.

  5. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  6. Search for the Third Harmonic of Type III Bursts Radio Emission at Decameter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Pylaev, O. S.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    The results of observations of trio bursts consisting of type III bursts are presented in this paper. The instantaneous frequency ratio of trio components is near 1:2:3. We analyze flow, duration, frequency drift rate and polarization of trio components as well as dependencies of these characteristics on frequency.

  7. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  8. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  9. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  10. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  11. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  12. 33 CFR 159.12a - Certification of certain Type III devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of certain Type III devices. 159.12a Section 159.12a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Certification Procedures § 159.12a...

  13. MMP-12 catalytic domain recognizes and cleaves at multiple sites in human skin collagen type I and type III.

    PubMed

    Taddese, Samuel; Jung, Michael C; Ihling, Christian; Heinz, Andrea; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Schmelzer, Christian E H

    2010-04-01

    Collagens of either soft connective or mineralized tissues are subject to continuous remodeling and turnover. Undesired cleavage can be the result of an imbalance between proteases and their inhibitors. Owing to their superhelical structure, collagens are resistant to many proteases and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are required to initiate further degradation by other enzymes. Several MMPs are known to degrade collagens, but the action of MMP-12 has not yet been studied in detail. In this work, the potential of MMP-12 in recognizing sites in human skin collagen types I and III has been investigated. The catalytic domain of MMP-12 binds to the triple helix and cleaves the typical sites -Gly(775)-Leu(776)- in alpha-2 type I collagen and -Gly(775)-Ile(776)- in alpha-1 type I and type III collagens and at multiple other sites in both collagen types. Moreover, it was observed that the region around these typical sites contains comparatively less prolines, of which some have been proven to be only partially hydroxylated. This is of relevance since partial hydroxylation in the vicinity of a potential scissile bond may have a local effect on the conformational thermodynamics with probable consequences on the collagenolysis process. Taken together, the results of the present work confirm that the catalytic domain of MMP-12 alone binds and degrades collagens I and III. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in rat and human corneas: the potential of second harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Latour, Gaël; Kowalczuk, Laura; Savoldelli, Michèle; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Plamann, Karsten; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy recently appeared as an efficient optical imaging technique to probe unstained collagen-rich tissues like cornea. Moreover, corneal remodeling occurs in many diseases and precise characterization requires overcoming the limitations of conventional techniques. In this work, we focus on diabetes, which affects hundreds of million people worldwide and most often leads to diabetic retinopathy, with no early diagnostic tool. This study then aims to establish the potential of SHG microscopy for in situ detection and characterization of hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in the Descemet's membrane, in the posterior cornea. We studied corneas from age-matched control and Goto-Kakizaki rats, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, and corneas from human donors with type 2 diabetes and without any diabetes. SHG imaging was compared to confocal microscopy, to histology characterization using conventional staining and transmitted light microscopy and to transmission electron microscopy. SHG imaging revealed collagen deposits in the Descemet's membrane of unstained corneas in a unique way compared to these gold standard techniques in ophthalmology. It provided background-free images of the three-dimensional interwoven distribution of the collagen deposits, with improved contrast compared to confocal microscopy. It also provided structural capability in intact corneas because of its high specificity to fibrillar collagen, with substantially larger field of view than transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vivo SHG imaging was demonstrated in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Our study shows unambiguously the high potential of SHG microscopy for three-dimensional characterization of structural abnormalities in unstained corneas. Furthermore, our demonstration of in vivo SHG imaging opens the way to long-term dynamical studies. This method should be easily generalized to other structural remodeling of the cornea and SHG microscopy should prove

  15. Hyperglycemia-Induced Abnormalities in Rat and Human Corneas: The Potential of Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Gaël; Kowalczuk, Laura; Savoldelli, Michèle; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Plamann, Karsten; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    Background Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy recently appeared as an efficient optical imaging technique to probe unstained collagen-rich tissues like cornea. Moreover, corneal remodeling occurs in many diseases and precise characterization requires overcoming the limitations of conventional techniques. In this work, we focus on diabetes, which affects hundreds of million people worldwide and most often leads to diabetic retinopathy, with no early diagnostic tool. This study then aims to establish the potential of SHG microscopy for in situ detection and characterization of hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in the Descemet’s membrane, in the posterior cornea. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied corneas from age-matched control and Goto-Kakizaki rats, a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, and corneas from human donors with type 2 diabetes and without any diabetes. SHG imaging was compared to confocal microscopy, to histology characterization using conventional staining and transmitted light microscopy and to transmission electron microscopy. SHG imaging revealed collagen deposits in the Descemet’s membrane of unstained corneas in a unique way compared to these gold standard techniques in ophthalmology. It provided background-free images of the three-dimensional interwoven distribution of the collagen deposits, with improved contrast compared to confocal microscopy. It also provided structural capability in intact corneas because of its high specificity to fibrillar collagen, with substantially larger field of view than transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vivo SHG imaging was demonstrated in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows unambiguously the high potential of SHG microscopy for three-dimensional characterization of structural abnormalities in unstained corneas. Furthermore, our demonstration of in vivo SHG imaging opens the way to long-term dynamical studies. This method should be easily generalized to

  16. Synthesis and immunological properties of conjugates composed of group B streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Lagergard, T; Shiloach, J; Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R

    1990-01-01

    A synthetic scheme for covalently binding group B streptococcus type III to tetanus toxoid (TT), using adipic acid dihydrazide as a spacer, is described. Type III alone or as a conjugate with TT was injected subcutaneously into laboratory mice, and the type-specific and TT antibody responses elicited by these immunogens were assayed. Type III-TT elicited significantly higher levels of type-specific antibodies after each immunization than did the type III alone. These levels were related to the dosage of the conjugate, enhanced by Freund adjuvant, and exhibited booster responses. Type III alone elicited only immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in Swiss albino mice and mostly IgM and low levels of IgG antibodies of the IgG3 subclass in BALB/c mice. Type III-TT conjugates, in contrast, elicited mostly IgG antibodies in both strains of mice. IgA type III antibodies were not detected. The first two immunizations with the conjugates elicited type III antibodies in the IgG1 and in the IgG3 subclasses. Low levels of IgG2a type III antibodies were detected after a third injection of type III-TT. Conjugate-induced antibodies facilitated opsonization of group B streptococcus type III organisms and did not react with the structurally related pneumococcus type 14. TT alone or as a component of type III-TT induced mostly antibodies of the IgG class: IgG1 levels were the highest of the four subclasses. No IgA TT antibodies were detected. The conjugation procedure, therefore, enhanced the immunogenicity of and conferred T-cell dependent properties to the type III while preserving the immunogenicity of the TT component. The T-cell dependent properties of the conjugates were responsible for stimulating IgG type III antibodies which could be boosted. Evaluation of type III-TT conjugates in antibody-negative women of child-bearing age is planned. PMID:2407652

  17. Structural characterization of CFA/III and Longus type IVb pili from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Roos, Justin; Yuen, Alex S W; Pierce, Owen M; Craig, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    The type IV pili are helical filaments found on many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, with multiple diverse roles in pathogenesis, including microcolony formation, adhesion, and twitching motility. Many pathogenic enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates express one of two type IV pili belonging to the type IVb subclass: CFA/III or Longus. Here we show a direct correlation between CFA/III expression and ETEC aggregation, suggesting that these pili, like the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), mediate microcolony formation. We report a 1.26-Å resolution crystal structure of CofA, the major pilin subunit from CFA/III. CofA is very similar in structure to V. cholerae TcpA but possesses a 10-amino-acid insertion that replaces part of the α2-helix with an irregular loop containing a 3(10)-helix. Homology modeling suggests a very similar structure for the Longus LngA pilin. A model for the CFA/III pilus filament was generated using the TCP electron microscopy reconstruction as a template. The unique 3(10)-helix insert fits perfectly within the gap between CofA globular domains. This insert, together with differences in surface-exposed residues, produces a filament that is smoother and more negatively charged than TCP. To explore the specificity of the type IV pilus assembly apparatus, CofA was expressed heterologously in V. cholerae by replacing the tcpA gene with that of cofA within the tcp operon. Although CofA was synthesized and processed by V. cholerae, no CFA/III filaments were detected, suggesting that the components of the type IVb pilus assembly system are highly specific to their pilin substrates.

  18. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How to bend galaxy disc profiles - II. Stars surfing the bar in Type-III discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpich, J.; Stinson, G. S.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Dutton, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The radial profiles of stars in disc galaxies are observed to be either purely exponential (Type-I), truncated (Type-II) or antitruncated (Type-III) exponentials. Controlled formation simulations of isolated galaxies can reproduce all of these profile types by varying a single parameter, the initial halo spin. In this paper, we examine these simulations in more detail in an effort to identify the physical mechanism that leads to the formation of Type-III profiles. The stars in the antitruncated outskirts of such discs are now on eccentric orbits, but were born on near-circular orbits at much smaller radii. We show that, and explain how, they were driven to the outskirts via non-linear interactions with a strong and long-lived central bar, which greatly boosted their semimajor axis but also their eccentricity. While bars have been known to cause radial heating and outward migration to stellar orbits, we link this effect to the formation of Type-III profiles. This predicts that the antitruncated parts of galaxies have unusual kinematics for disc-like stellar configurations: high radial velocity dispersions and slow net rotation. Whether such discs exist in nature, can be tested by future observations.

  20. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mutations in type III collagen differently stall the triple helical folding.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-06-28

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue.

  1. Folding of beta-sandwich proteins: three-state transition of a fibronectin type III module.

    PubMed Central

    Cota, E.; Clarke, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the folding of the 94 residue tenth fibronectin type III (fnIII) domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) is presented. Use of guanidine isothiocyanate as a denaturant allows us to obtain equilibrium and kinetic data across a broad range of denaturant concentrations that are unavailable in guanidine hydrochloride. Equilibrium unfolding experiments show that FNfn10 is significantly more stable than has been reported previously. Comparison of equilibrium and kinetic parameters reveals the presence of an intermediate that accumulates at low denaturant concentrations. This is the first demonstration of three-state folding kinetics for a fnIII domain. We have previously shown that a homologous domain from human tenascin (TNfn3) folds by a two-state mechanism, but this does not necessarily indicate that the two proteins fold by different folding pathways. PMID:10739253

  2. Dietary management in glycogen storage disease type III: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Derks, Terry G J; Smit, G Peter A

    2015-05-01

    In childhood, GSD type III causes relatively severe fasting intolerance, classically associated with ketotic hypoglycaemia. During follow up, history of (documented) hypoglycaemia, clinical parameters (growth, liver size, motor development, neuromuscular parameters), laboratory parameters (glucose, lactate, ALAT, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine kinase and ketones) and cardiac parameters all need to be integrated in order to titrate dietary management, for which age-dependent requirements need to be taken into account. Evidence from case studies and small cohort studies in both children and adults with GSD III demonstrate that prevention of hypoglycaemia and maintenance of euglycemia is not sufficient to prevent complications. Moreover, over-treatment with carbohydrates may even be harmful. The ageing cohort of GSD III patients, including the non-traditional clinical presentations in adulthood, raises ‬‬‬new questions.

  3. Complete amino acid sequence of the N-terminal extension of calf skin type III procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, A; Glanville, R W; Hörlein, D; Bruckner, P; Timpl, R; Fietzek, P P; Kühn, K

    1984-01-01

    The N-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen, isolated from foetal-calf skin, contains 130 amino acid residues. To determine its amino acid sequence, the peptide was reduced and carboxymethylated or aminoethylated and fragmented with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and bacterial collagenase. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was used to deblock the N-terminal collagenase fragment to enable amino acid sequencing. The type III collagen extension peptide is homologous to that of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen with respect to a three-domain structure. The N-terminal 79 amino acids, which contain ten of the 12 cysteine residues, form a compact globular domain. The next 39 amino acids are in a collagenase triplet sequence (Gly- Xaa - Yaa )n with a high hydroxyproline content. Finally, another short non-collagenous domain of 12 amino acids ends at the cleavage site for procollagen aminopeptidase, which cleaves a proline-glutamine bond. In contrast with type I procollagen, the type III procollagen extension peptides contain interchain disulphide bridges located at the C-terminus of the triple-helical domain. PMID:6331392

  4. Brittle cornea, blue sclera, and red hair syndrome (the brittle cornea syndrome).

    PubMed Central

    Ticho, U; Ivry, M; Merin, S

    1980-01-01

    A syndrome of red hair, blue sclera, and brittle cornea with recurrent spontaneous perforations is presented in 2 siblings of a Tunisian Jewish family. The genetic transmission of this disorder is autosomal recessive. This is the second description of this syndrome, which should be called the 'brittle cornea syndrome'. This syndrome has so far been reported only in Tunisian Jewish families. Images PMID:7387950

  5. Why Does the Healthy Cornea Resist Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide our perspective on why the cornea is resistant to infection based on our research results with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Perspective We focus on our current understanding of the interplay between bacteria, tear fluid and the corneal epithelium that determine health as the usual outcome, and propose a theoretical model for how contact lens wear might change those interactions to enable susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection. Methods Use of “null-infection” in vivo models, cultured human corneal epithelial cells, contact lens-wearing animal models, and bacterial genetics help to elucidate mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa survive at the ocular surface, adheres, and traverses multilayered corneal epithelia. These models also help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of corneal epithelial innate defense. Results and Discussion Tear fluid and the corneal epithelium combine to make a formidable defense against P. aeruginosa infection of the cornea. Part of that defense involves the expression of antimicrobials such as β-defensins, the cathelicidin LL-37, cytokeratin-derived antimicrobial peptides, and RNase7. Immunomodulators such as SP-D and ST2 also contribute. Innate defenses of the cornea depend in part on MyD88, a key adaptor protein of TLR and IL-1R signaling, but the basal lamina represents the final barrier to bacterial penetration. Overcoming these defenses involves P. aeruginosa adaptation, expression of the type three secretion system, proteases, and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on contact lenses. Conclusion After more than two decades of research focused on understanding how contact lens wear predisposes to P. aeruginosa infection, our working hypothesis places blame for microbial keratitis on bacterial adaptation to ocular surface defenses, combined with changes to the biochemistry of the corneal surface caused by trapping bacteria and tear fluid against the cornea under the lens. PMID:23601656

  6. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Tunisian patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Mili, Amira; Ben Charfeddine, Ilhem; Mamaï, Ons; Abdelhak, Sonia; Adala, Labiba; Amara, Abdelbasset; Pagliarani, Serena; Lucchiarri, Sabrina; Lucchiari, Sabrina; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Tebib, Neji; Harbi, Abdelaziz; Bouguila, Jihene; H'Mida, Dorra; Saad, Ali; Limem, Khalifa; Comi, G P; Gribaa, Moez

    2012-03-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the glycogen debranching enzyme amylo-1,6-glucosidase gene, which is located on chromosome 1p21.2. GSD III is characterized by the storage of structurally abnormal glycogen, termed limit dextrin, in both skeletal and cardiac muscle and/or liver, with great variability in resultant organ dysfunction. The spectrum of AGL gene mutations in GSD III patients depends on ethnic group. The most prevalent mutations have been reported in the North African Jewish population and in an isolate such as the Faroe Islands. Here, we present the molecular and biochemical analyses of 22 Tunisian GSD III patients. Molecular analysis revealed three novel mutations: nonsense (Tyr1148X) and two deletions (3033_3036del AATT and 3216_3217del GA) and five known mutations: three nonsense (R864X, W1327X and W255X), a missense (R524H) and an acceptor splice-site mutation (IVS32-12A>G). Each mutation is associated to a specific haplotype. This is the first report of screening for mutations of AGL gene in the Tunisian population.

  7. Biochemical and molecular investigation of two Korean patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sue-Hyun; Park, Hyung-Doo; Ki, Chang-Seok; Choe, Yon-Ho; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD-III) is an inborn error of glycogen metabolism caused by a deficiency of the glycogen debranching enzyme, amylo-1,6-glucosidase,4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AGL). Here, we describe two unrelated Korean patients with GSD-III and review their clinical and laboratory findings. The patients were 18- and 11-month-old girls. They presented with hepatosplenomegaly, developmental delay and hypotonia. The routine laboratory findings showed an elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and triglyceride levels. The blood lactate and uric acid levels were within normal limits. PCR and direct sequencing were performed to determine genetic findings. Glycogen quantitation was markedly increased and AGL activity was undetectable in both patients. Sequence analysis of the AGL gene showed that both patients were compound heterozygotes for c.853C>T (p.R285X) and c.1735+1G>T in one patient, and c.2894_2896delGGAinsTG and c.4090G>C (p.D1364H) in the other patient. The c.2894_2896delGGAinsTG and c.4090G>C (p.D1364H) mutation was a novel finding. GSD-III should be ruled out when a patient presents with hepatic abnormalities, hypoglycemia, myopathy and hyperlipidemia. This is the first report of confirmation of GSD-III in Korean patients by biochemical and genetic findings.

  8. Innervation of the Mouse Cornea during Development

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Chelsey C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Dense innervation of the cornea is important for maintaining its homeostasis and transparency. Although corneal nerves have been well studied in adults, little is known about mammalian corneal innervation during development. This study provides a detailed profile of nerves at various stages of mouse cornea development. Methods. Mouse heads and corneas were collected at various stages of development including embryonic days (E)12.5 to E16.5, postnatal days (P)0, P10, three weeks after birth, and the adult. Corneas were immunostained with an anti-neuron–specific β-tubulin antibody (TUJ1). Fluorescently labeled nerves in whole-mount tissues and sections were imaged and analyzed for their axonal projections during eye development. Results. The first nerve bundles appear at the periphery of the anterior portion of the eye by E12.5. Initial projection into the stroma occurs at E13.5 without formation of a pericorneal nerve ring. Between E13.5 and E16.5, nerve bundles project directly into the periphery of the presumptive cornea stroma. They branch repeatedly as they extend toward the cornea center and epithelium. Concomitantly, nerve bundles originating from four quadrants of the eye bifurcate into smaller branches that innervate the entire stroma. The first epithelial innervation occurs at E16.5. Epithelial nerves arrange into patterns that project toward the center subsequently forming a swirl at three weeks after birth, which becomes more pronounced in adults. Conclusions. Nerve bundles that arise from four quadrants of the eye innervate the mouse cornea. The nerve bundles directly innervate the stroma without forming a pericorneal nerve ring. Radial arrangement of epithelial nerves gradually becomes centrally oriented, subsequently forming a swirl pattern. PMID:20811061

  9. How to proteins move along DNA? Lessons from type-I and type-III restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Szczelkun, M D

    2000-01-01

    Protein-mediated communications on DNA are universally important. The translocation of DNA driven by a high-energy phosphoryl potential allows long stretches of DNA to be traversed without dissociation. Type-I and type-III enzymes both use a common DNA-tracking mechanism to move along DNA, dependent on the hydrolysis of ATP. Type-I enzymes cleave DNA at distant DNA sites (and in some cases close to the site), due to a stall in enzyme motion. This can be due to collision with another translocating type-I enzyme or, on circular DNA, due to an increased topological load. ATP hydrolysis is considerable, and continues after DNA cleavage. Type-III enzymes only cleave DNA proximal to their sites due to collision between two endonucleases tracking with defined polarity. ATP hydrolysis is less than with the type-I enzymes. Homology to DNA helicases has been found within the HsdR and Res subunits. Mutagenesis of the DEAD-box motifs affects both ATP hydrolysis and DNA cleavage. This demonstrates a tight link between ATPase and endonuclease activities. A strand-separation mechanism akin to the DNA helicases is a possibility. The DNA-based motor proteins are mechanistically ill-defined. Further study using some of the techniques pioneered with classical motor proteins will be needed to reveal more detail.

  10. Zinc oxide tetrapods inhibit herpes simplex virus infection of cultured corneas

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Neil; Jaishankar, Dinesh; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Hadigal, Satvik; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Infection of the human cornea by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) can cause significant vision loss. The purpose of this study was to develop an ex vivo model to visualize viral growth and spread in the cornea. The model was also used to analyze cytokine production and study the antiviral effects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Methods A β-galactosidase-expressing recombinant virus, HSV-1(KOS)tk12, was used to demonstrate the ability of the virus to enter and develop blue plaques on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and corneal tissues. Freshly obtained porcine corneas were cultured and then scratched before infection with HSV-1(KOS)tk12. The blue plaques on the corneas were imaged using a stereomicroscope. Western blot analysis for HSV-1 proteins was performed to verify HSV-1 infection of the cornea. Using the ex vivo model, zinc oxide tetrapods were tested for their anti-HSV-1 potential, and a cytokine profile was developed to assess the effects of the treatment. Results Cultured corneas and the use of β-galactosidase-expressing HSV-1(KOS)tk12 virus can provide an attractive ex vivo model to visualize and study HSV-1 entry and spread of the infection in tissues. We found that unlike cultured HCE cells, which demonstrated nearly 100% infectivity, HSV-1 infection of the cultured cornea was more restrictive and took longer to develop. We also found that the zinc oxide tetrapod–shaped nano- and microstructures inhibited HSV infection of the cultured cells, as well as the cultured corneas. The cytokine profile of the infected samples was consistent with previous studies of HSV-1 corneal infection. Conclusions The ability to visualize HSV-1 growth and spread in corneal tissues can provide new details about HSV-1 infection of the cornea and the efficacy of new cornea-specific antiviral drug candidates. The ex vivo model also demonstrates antiviral effects of zinc oxide tetrapods and adequately portrays the drug delivery issues that cornea-specific treatments

  11. Glycogen storage disease type III presenting with secondary diabetes and managed with insulin: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Heba

    2009-06-17

    Reports of secondary diabetes in glycogen storage disease type III have been very limited, where the pathogenesis and management have not been clear. Here we report on a rare case of secondary diabetes in glycogen storage disease type III that has been successfully managed with insulin. This is a 19-year-old female of Egyptian ethnicity, born of a consanguineous marriage and known to have glycogen storage disease type III since the age of 2(1/2) years. She presented to us with a history of polyuria, polydipsia, and loss of weight of a few days duration. Physical exam showed stunted growth, hepatomegaly, myopathy and mild dehydration. Emergency labs revealed a fasting blood glucose of 276 mg/dl, but with no ketonuria and arterial blood gases were essentially normal. Her liver transaminases were mildly elevated at the time. Review of her records revealed that the diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type III was made at the age of 2(1/2) when the mother reported repeated attacks of afebrile (hypoglycemic) convulsions, increasing abdominal girth and failure to thrive. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of debrancher enzyme deficiency on enzymatic assay. Over the years she developed liver dysfunction along with other complications and subsequently her hypoglycemic attacks disappeared a few years prior to her current presentation. After careful consideration of different treatment options, and considering she had been free of hypoglycemic attacks for a few years and had liver dysfunction, we chose to cautiously initiate the patient on insulin therapy. She was still poorly controlled and we gradually increased her total daily dose to 0.8 u/kg. She continued to be free of hypoglycemic attacks and her average daily blood glucose is about 160 mg/dl. We report a rare case of secondary diabetes mellitus in a patient with glycogen storage disease type III managed with insulin. We recommend insulin therapy over oral hypoglycemics to avoid further hepatotoxicity

  12. Salter-Harris type III fractures of the distal humerus in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G M; Radke, H; Langley-Hobbs, S J

    2011-01-01

    Salter-Harris type III fractures of the distal humerus in a four-month-old male Labrador Retriever and a male crossbreed dog (estimated to be 3.5-months-old) are reported. Both fractures were treated with open reduction and interfragmentary compression by lag screw fixation. Both fractures healed and full limb use was regained at four weeks postoperatively. The occurrence of this unusual fracture type may be related to the physeal closure pattern of the distal humeral physis, and a different mechanism of injury compared to the more common Salter-Harris type IV fracture seen in this region.

  13. The Class of Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Robert Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The source protons of Solar Energetic particle Proton events (defined as "SEP" events for this research) not associated with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) shock front are thought to come from either the flare site or the reconnection region beneath the CME. The Type III-L, a new class of solar radio burst has been defined by Cane et al. (2002) and MacDowall et al. (2003) as a sub-set of the Type III burst, beginning after the onset of the soft X-ray (SXR) flare, is long lasting and extends down to at least 1 MHz. The emission source region of Type III-Ls is believed to be at the reconnection region beneath the CME or on the flanks of the CME. Past association studies between SEP events and Type III-Ls began with a biased SEP-selected sample set to see if there can be found support for the emission source region of Type III-Ls and SEPs to come from the same accelerator site at the reconnection region beneath the CME. Unlike previous studies using an SEP-selected sample, I find that when using a radio-selected sample for well-connected SEP events with a solar source in the western hemisphere, the majority of the Type III-L events are associated with SEP events, but not all, and that Type III-L events associated with M- and X- class SXR flares, do not appear to be better predictors of SEP events than do Type II bursts which are associated with the CME shock. Also, I find that the occurrence of Type II events in the radio spectra of SEPs is just as common as the occurrence of Type III-Ls. This indicates that Type III-Ls should not be used as a predictor for SEP events, that the emission source region of Type III-Ls might not be at the reconnection region beneath the CME and reduces the strength of the support found by previous SEP-Type III-L association studies, that the source protons for SEP events necessarily come from the reconnection region beneath the CME. I found that Type III-L events have no strong longitude preference, but SEP events do have a 60

  14. Esophagus or stomach? The seventh TNM classification for Siewert type II/III junctional adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shinichi; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Aoyama, Toru; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Yamada, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Cho, Haruhiko; Oshima, Takashi; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Tsuburaya, Akira

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether TNM-EC or TNM-GC is better for classifying patients with AEG types II/III. The patients who had AEG types II/III and received D1 or more radical lymphadenectomy were selected. The patients were staged both by seventh edition of TNM-EC and TNM-GC. The distribution of the patients, the hazard ratio (HR) of each stage, and the separation of the survival were compared. A total of 163 patients were enrolled in this study. TNM-EC and TNM-GC classified 25 (20 and 5) and 32 (20 and 12) patients to stage I (IA and IB), 15 (4 and 11), and 33 (11 and 22) to stage II (IIA and IIB), 88 (24, 3, and 61) and 63 (14, 26, and 23) to stage III (IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC), and 35 and 35 to stage IV, respectively. The distribution of the patients was substantially deviated to stage IIIC in TNM-EC but was almost even in TNM-GC. A stepwise increase of HR was observed in TNM-GC, but not in TNM-EC. The survival curves between stages II and III were significantly separated in TNM-GC (P = 0.019), but not in TNM-EC (P = 0.204). The 5-year survival rates of stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC were 69.0, 100, and 38.9% in TNM-EC and were 52.0, 43.4, and 33.9% in TNM-GC, respectively. TNM-GC is better for classifying patients with AEG types II/III than TNM-EC is. These results could impact the next TNM revision for AEG.

  15. Visualization of the type III secretion sorting platform of Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bo; Morado, Dustin R.; Margolin, William; Rohde, John R.; Arizmendi, Olivia; Picking, Wendy L.; Picking, William D.; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial type III secretion machines are widely used to inject virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. These secretion machines are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagella and consist of a large cytoplasmic complex, a transmembrane basal body, and an extracellular needle. The cytoplasmic complex forms a sorting platform essential for effector selection and needle assembly, but it remains largely uncharacterized. Here we use high-throughput cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize intact machines in a virulent Shigella flexneri strain genetically modified to produce minicells capable of interaction with host cells. A high-resolution in situ structure of the intact machine determined by subtomogram averaging reveals the cytoplasmic sorting platform, which consists of a central hub and six spokes, with a pod-like structure at the terminus of each spoke. Molecular modeling of wild-type and mutant machines allowed us to propose a model of the sorting platform in which the hub consists mainly of a hexamer of the Spa47 ATPase, whereas the MxiN protein comprises the spokes and the Spa33 protein forms the pods. Multiple contacts among those components are essential to align the Spa47 ATPase with the central channel of the MxiA protein export gate to form a unique nanomachine. The molecular architecture of the Shigella type III secretion machine and its sorting platform provide the structural foundation for further dissecting the mechanisms underlying type III secretion and pathogenesis and also highlight the major structural distinctions from bacterial flagella. PMID:25583506

  16. Phenotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Ser351Cys mutation: Pfeiffer syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Stolle, C A; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Markowitz, R I; Bartlett, S P; Katowitz, J A; Muenke, M; Zackai, E H

    1998-07-24

    We present a patient with pansynostosis, hydrocephalus, seizures, extreme proptosis with luxation of the eyes out of the lids, apnea and airway obstruction, intestinal non-rotation, and severe developmental delay. His skeletal abnormalities include bilateral elbow ankylosis, radial head dislocation, and unilateral broad and deviated first toe. The phenotype of this patient is consistent with that previously reported in Pfeiffer syndrome type III, but is unusual for the lack of broad thumbs. Our patient most closely resembles the case described by Kerr et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 66:138-143] as Pfeiffer syndrome type III with normal thumbs. Mutations in the genes for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 have previously been seen in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome type I. The mutation identified in our patient, Ser351Cys in FGFR2, represents the first reported cause of Pfeiffer syndrome type III. An identical mutation was described once previously by Pulleyn et al., in a patient whose brief clinical description included cloverleaf skull, significant developmental delay, and normal hands and feet [Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4: 283-291, 1996]. In our patient, previously performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis failed to detect a band shift; the mutation was identified only after independent sequence analysis.

  17. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Rolf L. W.; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B.

    2017-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III. Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals. PMID:28386469

  18. Propionibacterium Acnes Phylogenetic Type III is Associated with Progressive Macular Hypomelanosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rolf L W; Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders; Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B

    2017-03-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a skin disorder that is characterized by hypopigmented macules and usually seen in young adults. The skin microbiota, in particular the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, is suggested to play a role. Here, we compared the P. acnes population of 24 PMH lesions from eight patients with corresponding nonlesional skin of the patients and matching control samples from eight healthy individuals using an unbiased, culture-independent next-generation sequencing approach. We also compared the P. acnes population before and after treatment with a combination of lymecycline and benzoylperoxide. We found an association of one subtype of P. acnes, type III, with PMH. This type was predominant in all PMH lesions (73.9% of reads in average) but only detected as a minor proportion in matching control samples of healthy individuals (14.2% of reads in average). Strikingly, successful PMH treatment is able to alter the composition of the P. acnes population by substantially diminishing the proportion of P. acnes type III. Our study suggests that P. acnes type III may play a role in the formation of PMH. Furthermore, it sheds light on substantial differences in the P. acnes phylotype distribution between the upper and lower back and abdomen in healthy individuals.

  19. Tibial spine fractures: an analysis of outcome in surgically treated type III injuries.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, K J; Dowdall, J; Grannell, M; McCabe, J P

    1999-05-01

    We analysed the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation of type III tibial spine fractures, assessing treatment and determining a treatment protocol. A total of 10 patients presented over 3 years to our institution with a mean age of 15 years (range 10-21), a male-to-female ratio of 8:2. left to right 6:4 and anterior to posterior spine fracture 9:1. Only one patient had associated meniscal injury noted at arthroscopy (no treatment required). The mode of injury was road traffic accidents four, sports injuries three and falls three. The mean follow-up was 9 months. There were seven excellent results and three good results. Those patients with good results exhibited either minimal quadriceps weakness, extensor lag (< 10 degrees) or antero-posterior laxity. This reflects the experience of other authors in dealing with these injuries in younger patients. There is widespread agreement that types I and II should be treated by plaster cast alone and that is also the policy at our institution. We recommend a routine treatment protocol in type III injuries of (1) examination under anaesthesia, (2) arthroscopy (evaluating the fracture, cruciate integrity and other associated injuries), (3) open reduction and screw fixation and (4) vigorous physiotherapy/rehabilitation of all type III fractures, as we feel this provides the best possible outcome in these injuries.

  20. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cindy S.; Rangel, Stephanie M.; Almblad, Henrik; Kierbel, Arlinet; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Hauser, Alan R.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection. PMID:25375398

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III translocon is required for biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik; Kierbel, Arlinet; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Hauser, Alan R; Engel, Joanne N

    2014-11-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection.

  2. LcrV Mutants That Abolish Yersinia Type III Injectisome Function

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Miller, Nathan C.; Mitchell, Anthony; Plano, Gregory V.

    2013-01-01

    LcrV, the type III needle cap protein of pathogenic Yersinia, has been proposed to function as a tether between YscF, the needle protein, and YopB-YopD to constitute the injectisome, a conduit for the translocation of effector proteins into host cells. Further, insertion of LcrV-capped needles from a calcium-rich environment into host cells may trigger the low-calcium signal for effector translocation. Here, we used a genetic approach to test the hypothesis that the needle cap responds to the low-calcium signal by promoting injectisome assembly. Growth restriction of Yersinia pestis in the absence of calcium (low-calcium response [LCR+] phenotype) was exploited to isolate dominant negative lcrV alleles with missense mutations in its amber stop codon (lcrV*327). The addition of at least four amino acids or the eight-residue Strep tag to the C terminus was sufficient to generate an LCR− phenotype, with variant LcrV capping type III needles that cannot assemble the YopD injectisome component. The C-terminal Strep tag appears buried within the cap structure, blocking effector transport even in Y. pestis yscF variants that are otherwise calcium blind, a constitutive type III secretion phenotype. Thus, LcrV*327 mutants arrest the needle cap in a state in which it cannot respond to the low-calcium signal with either injectisome assembly or the activation of type III secretion. Insertion of the Strep tag at other positions of LcrV produced variants with wild-type LCR+, LCR−, or dominant negative LCR− phenotypes, thereby allowing us to identify discrete sites within LcrV as essential for its attributes as a secretion substrate, needle cap, and injectisome assembly factor. PMID:23222719

  3. In Situ Detection of Strong Langmuir Turbulence Processes in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golla, Thejappa; Macdowall, Robert J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high time resolution observations obtained by the WAVES experiment of the STEREO spacecraft in solar type III radio bursts show that Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets. These wave packets are characterized by short durations of only a few ms and peak intensities, which well exceed the supersonic modulational instability (MI) thresholds. These timescales and peak intensities satisfy the criterion of the solitons collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets consist of primary spectral peaks corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, two or more sidebands corresponding to down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, and low frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz corresponding to daughter ion sound waves. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the modulational instability (MI). Moreover, the tricoherences, computed using trispectral analysis techniques show that these spectral components are coupled to each other with a high degree of coherency as expected of the MI type of four wave interactions. The high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures and low frequency spectral enhancements and, high levels of tricoherences amongst the spectral components of these wave packets provide unambiguous evidence for the supersonic MI and related strong turbulence processes in type III radio bursts. The implication of these observations include: (1) the MI and related strong turbulence processes often occur in type III source regions, (2) the strong turbulence processes probably play very important roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe, and (3) the Langmuir collapse probably follows the route of MI in type III radio bursts.

  4. Evidence for halo-like radio sources from kilometric type III burst observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    The radio azimuths for many kilometric type III bursts that originate near or behind the limb of the sun are observed to drift far to the east or far to the west of the spacecraft-sun line. It is shown that the behavior of the observed burst parameters for these events corresponds to the response of a spinning dipole antenna to halolike sources of radiation around the sun. These results provide evidence for a previous suggestion that behind-the-limb type III events should appear as halolike sources of radiation to an observer on the opposite side of the sun, due to scattering of the radiation from the primary source back around the sun.

  5. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongdeng; Lara-Tejero, María; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-06-06

    Type III protein secretion machines have evolved to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although electron microscopy has provided a detailed view of these machines in isolation or fixed samples, little is known about their organization in live bacteria. Here we report the visualization and characterization of the Salmonella type III secretion machine in live bacteria by 2D and 3D single-molecule switching superresolution microscopy. This approach provided access to transient components of this machine, which previously could not be analyzed. We determined the subcellular distribution of individual machines, the stoichiometry of the different components of this machine in situ, and the spatial distribution of the substrates of this machine before secretion. Furthermore, by visualizing this machine in Salmonella mutants we obtained major insights into the machine's assembly. This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines.

  6. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Soo-Young; Choi, Jin-Gyu; Son, Byung-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia.

  7. Type-III Bifurcation to Chaos in Self-Oscillating States of Squid Giant Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Kazuro; Hanyu, Yoshiro; Matsumoto, Gen

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes detailed bifurcation characteristics of firing (time sequence of action potentials) observed in squid giant axons as a function of temperature.The firing is spontaneously induced when the axon is immersed in Ca-reduced ASW (Artificial seawater) without any electrical stimulation.The firing observed above a critical temperature (high-temperature phase firing) is periodic, while the one below the critical temperature (low-temperature) is aperiodic.Our present analysis on the firing shows that aperiodic firing is chaotic, and bifurcation from periodic oscillation to chaos occurs through the type-III intermittency.The type-III bifurcation to chaos should take place through some temperature-dependent properties of the axonal membrane in itself.One of the most probable candidates underlying chaos and bifurcation mechanisms in this experiment could be temperature-dependednt spatial interaction along the longitudinal direction of the squid giant axon.

  8. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR–Cas effector complex

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michael A.; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine–aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems. PMID:26848046

  9. A two-step sulfation in antibiotic biosynthesis requires a type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Eitel, Kornelia; Kaysser, Leonard; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie; Gust, Bertolt

    2013-10-01

    Caprazamycins (CPZs) belong to a group of liponucleoside antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial MraY translocase, an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have recently identified analogs that are decorated with a sulfate group at the 2″-hydroxy of the aminoribosyl moiety, and we now report an unprecedented two-step sulfation mechanism during the biosynthesis of CPZs. A type III polyketide synthase (PKS) known as Cpz6 is used in the biosynthesis of a group of new triketide pyrones that are subsequently sulfated by an unusual 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfotransferase (Cpz8) to yield phenolic sulfate esters, which serve as sulfate donors for a PAPS-independent arylsulfate sulfotransferase (Cpz4) to generate sulfated CPZs. This finding is to our knowledge the first demonstration of genuine sulfate donors for an arylsulfate sulfotransferase and the first report of a type III PKS to generate a chemical reagent in bacterial sulfate metabolism.

  10. Co-transcriptional DNA and RNA cleavage during type III CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    Samai, Poulami; Goldberg, Gregory W.; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Immune systems must recognize and destroy different pathogens that threat the host. CRISPR-Cas immune systems protect prokaryotes from viral and plasmid infection utilizing small CRISPR RNAs that are complementary to the invader's genome and specify the targets of RNA-guided Cas nucleases. Type III CRISPR-Cas immunity requires target transcription and whereas genetic studies demonstrated DNA targeting, in vitro data have shown crRNA-guided RNA cleavage. The molecular mechanism behind this disparate activities is not known. Here we show that transcription across the targets of the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III-A CRISPR-Cas system results in the cleavage of the target DNA and its transcripts, mediated by independent active sites within the Cas10-Csm ribonucleoprotein effector complex. Immunity against plasmids and DNA viruses requires DNA but not RNA cleavage activity. Our studies reveal a highly versatile mechanism of CRISPR immunity that can defend microorganisms against diverse DNA and RNA invaders. PMID:25959775

  11. Design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of ShK toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baell, Jonathan B.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2002-04-01

    ShK toxin is a structurally defined, 35-residue polypeptide which blocks the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel in T-lymphocytes and has been identified as a possible immunosuppressant. Our interest lies in the rational design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of protein and polypeptide structure and function. ShK toxin is a challenging target for mimetic design as its binding epitope consists of relatively weakly binding residues, some of which are discontinuous. We discuss here our investigations into the design and synthesis of 1st generation, small molecule mimetics of ShK toxin and highlight any principles relevant to the generic design of type-III mimetics of continuous and discontinuous binding epitopes. We complement our approach with attempted pharmacophore-based database mining.

  12. Antibacterial Flavonoids from Medicinal Plants Covalently Inactivate Type III Protein Secretion Substrates.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Lun K; Lara-Tejero, María; RoseFigura, Jordan; Zhang, Zhenrun J; Wang, Yen-Chih; Yount, Jacob S; Lefebre, Matthew; Dossa, Paul D; Kato, Junya; Guan, Fulan; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Galán, Jorge E; Hang, Howard C

    2016-02-24

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been historically used to treat bacterial infections. However, the molecules responsible for these anti-infective properties and their potential mechanisms of action have remained elusive. Using a high-throughput assay for type III protein secretion in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, we discovered that several TCMs can attenuate this key virulence pathway without affecting bacterial growth. Among the active TCMs, we discovered that baicalein, a specific flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis, targets S. Typhimurium pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors and translocases to inhibit bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Structurally related flavonoids present in other TCMs, such as quercetin, also inactivated the SPI-1 T3SS and attenuated S. Typhimurium invasion. Our results demonstrate that specific plant metabolites from TCMs can directly interfere with key bacterial virulence pathways and reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism of action for anti-infective medicinal plants.

  13. Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P

    2016-04-01

    Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination.

  14. Discovery of a novel superfamily of type III polyketide synthases in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Seshime, Yasuyo; Juvvadi, Praveen Rao; Fujii, Isao; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-05-27

    Identification of genes encoding type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. Among other Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus), A. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (csyA, csyB, csyC, and csyD). Expression of csyA, csyB, and csyD genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Comparative genome analyses revealed single putative type III PKS in Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, two each in Magnaporthe grisea and Podospora anserina, and three in Phenarocheate chrysosporium, with a phylogenic distinction from bacteria and plants. Conservation of catalytic residues in the CHSs across species implicated enzymatically active nature of these newly discovered homologs.

  15. The first plant type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes formation of aromatic heptaketide.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ikuro; Utsumi, Yoriko; Oguro, Satoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2004-03-26

    A cDNA encoding a novel plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS) was cloned from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum). A recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli accepted acetyl-CoA as a starter, carried out six successive condensations with malonyl-CoA and subsequent cyclization to yield an aromatic heptaketide, aloesone. The enzyme shares 60% amino acid sequence identity with chalcone synthases (CHSs), and maintains almost identical CoA binding site and catalytic residues conserved in the CHS superfamily enzymes. Further, homology modeling predicted that the 43-kDa protein has the same overall fold as CHS. This provides new insights into the catalytic functions of type III PKSs, and suggests further involvement in the biosynthesis of plant polyketides.

  16. Stacking fault domains as sources of a-type threading dislocations in III-nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Bazioti, C.; Albrecht, M.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mechanism for the nucleation of a-type threading dislocation half-loops from basal stacking faults in wurtzite III-nitride heterostructures is presented. Transmission electron microscopy observations, in conjunction with topological and strain analysis, show that there are two possible configurations of closed domains comprising basal stacking faults of I1 type. It is shown that the lattice dislocation may emanate when the sphalerite structural units of the stacking faults in the closed domain are oriented in a parallel manner. The closed domain configurations do not introduce any shift on the basal planes, resulting in zero defect content along the growth direction. The stacking fault domains are hexagonal, with sides along the ⟨ 10 1 ¯ 0 ⟩ directions, and the threading dislocation half loops nucleate at the line nodes. The mechanism was found to be operational in multiple III-nitride systems.

  17. Type III radio bursts in the interplanetary medium - The role of propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Lecacheux, A.; Aubier, M. G.; Dulk, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interplanetary type III radio burst observations are analyzed in order to ascertain the role played by propagation effects between the true source and the observer. Large source altitudes are noted, together with an increasing angular size of sources with increasing angular distance from the sun's center. These and other observations furnish strong evidence for the theory that propagation effects, group delays, ducting and/or scattering significantly affect the observed heights, sizes, and brightness temperatures of interplanetary type III bursts. This would be true irrespective of whether the bursts are due to plasma radiation at the fundamental or at the harmonic, and the effects would extend to the arrival times of the radiation to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the path from the source to the observer.

  18. Molecular and biochemical evidence for the presence of type III adenylyl cyclase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Katsel, Pavel L; Tagliente, Thomas M; Schwarz, Todd E; Craddock-Royal, Barbara D; Patel, Nayana D; Maayani, Saul

    2003-02-01

    The isoform(s) of adenylyl cyclase (AC) present in human platelets has not been identified, and evidence supporting a role for AC in platelet aggregation is equivocal. We recently characterized deaggregation as an active component of the platelet aggregation response that may be an important determinant of the extent and duration of aggregation. G(i)-coupled receptors are linked to the inhibition of AC and are targets of antiplatelet drugs. They also affect platelet aggregation by modulating deaggregation, suggesting a role for AC in modulating this response. The purpose of this study was to identify the AC isoform(s) present in human platelets and to identify its physiological modulators. RT-PCR screening of platelet, buffy coat layer cell and bone marrow megakaryocyte cDNA, and Western blot analysis with AC type III (AC-III) antibodies identified AC-III in platelets and in megakaryocytes. Human platelet AC-III was cloned and expressed in HEK293 cells and its characteristics compared to native platelet AC. Both platelet AC and cloned AC-III required Mg(2+) for activity, were insensitive to Ca(2+) and were G(s)- and G(i)-coupled. Zn(2+) and SQ22536 inhibited platelet AC activity. The affinity of SQ22536 was increased with Mg(2+)-related stimulation of AC, while that of Zn(2+) was unchanged, which is consistent with a non-competitive interaction between the two metal ions on AC. The Zn(2+) chelator TPEN reversed the inhibitory effects of Zn(2+). This study identified AC-III as the predominant AC isoform in human platelets, the activity of which may affect the extent and duration of the net aggregation response by modulating deaggregation.

  19. Observation of local radio emission associated with type III radio bursts and Langmuir waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The first clear detection of fundamental and harmonic radiation from the type III radio source region is presented. This radiation is characterized by its lack of frequency drift, its short rise and decay times, its relative weakness compared to the remotely observed radiation and its temporal coincidence with observed Langmuir waves. The observations were made with the radio and plasma frequency (URAP) receivers on the Ulysses spacecraft between about 1 and 2 AU from the Sun.

  20. Ineffective Esophageal Motility Progressing into Distal Esophageal Spasm and Then Type III Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Samo, Salih; Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-08-01

    The clinical significance of minor esophageal motility disorders is unclear, though they typically carry a benign course. Distal esophageal spasm progressing to achalasia has been reported, although it appears to be rare. We report a case of a patient with dysphagia and chest pain who was found to have ineffective esophageal motility on high-resolution manometry, which developed into distal esophageal spasm and then progressed to type III achalasia.

  1. Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Tibia Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Krueger, MD,* Matthew A. Napierala, MD,* Daniel J. Stinner, MD,* and Joseph R. Hsu, MD,† on behalf of the Skeletal Trauma and Research Consortium (STReC...center. Intervention: Amputation or limb salvage. Main Outcome Measurements: MESS, amputation or limb salvage. Results: Complete data were available...for 155 patients treated for type III open tibia fractures. One hundred ten patients had salvaged limbs , and 45 patients had lower extremity amputations

  2. Ineffective Esophageal Motility Progressing into Distal Esophageal Spasm and Then Type III Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Dustin A.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Pandolfino, John E.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical significance of minor esophageal motility disorders is unclear, though they typically carry a benign course. Distal esophageal spasm progressing to achalasia has been reported, although it appears to be rare. We report a case of a patient with dysphagia and chest pain who was found to have ineffective esophageal motility on high-resolution manometry, which developed into distal esophageal spasm and then progressed to type III achalasia. PMID:28119934

  3. Ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types I/III.

    PubMed

    Nadjari, M; Fasouliotis, S J; Ariel, I; Raas-Rothschild, A; Bar-Ziv, J; Elchalal, U

    2000-08-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a rare disease characterized by unique clinical appearance and specific radiographic findings, and distinctive brain abnormalities. We describe the prenatal diagnosis of two siblings with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types I/III at 23 and 26 weeks of gestation, respectively. Early detection by sequential antenatal sonographic evaluation is important for counselling families known to be at risk of this rare disease. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-10-04

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant.

  5. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III

    PubMed Central

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a–b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  6. Infection Reduces Return-to-duty Rates for Soldiers with Type III Open Tibia Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Type III open tibia fracture and tabulated the prevalence of infectious complications.We searched the Physical Evaluation Board database to determine...disability among combat casualties, with an average disability rating of 42% based on the Physical Evaluation Board.8 In addition, it has been...redness, warmth , swelling, or purulence that required operative inter- vention. Osteomyelitis was defined as deep infection with positive bone cultures

  7. Lethal familial fetal akinesia sequence (FAS) with distinct neuropathological pattern: type III lissencephaly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Encha Razavi, F; Larroche, J C; Roume, J; Gonzales, M; Kondo, H C; Mulliez, N

    1996-03-01

    We report on a distinct pattern of primary central nervous system (CNS) degeneration affecting neuronal survival in the brain and spinal cord in 5 fetuses with fetal akinesia sequence (FAS). This neuropathological pattern is characteristic of a lethal entity that we propose calling type III lissencephaly syndrome. Parental consanguinity and the recurrence in sibs support a genetic cause. The mechanism of neuronal death is not yet understood; abnormal apoptosis and/or deficiency in neurotropic factors may be considered possible causes.

  8. The Xanthomonas Hrp type III system secretes proteins from plant and mammalian bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Ombeline; Wengelnik, Kai; Hahn, Karoline; Bonas, Ulla

    1999-01-01

    Studies of essential pathogenicity determinants in Gram-negative bacteria have revealed the conservation of type III protein secretion systems that allow delivery of virulence factors into host cells from plant and animal pathogens. Ten of 21 Hrp proteins of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria have been suggested to be part of a type III machinery. Here, we report the hrp-dependent secretion of two avirulence proteins, AvrBs3 and AvrRxv, by X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strains that constitutively express hrp genes. Secretion occurred without leakage of a cytoplasmic marker in minimal medium containing BSA, at pH 5.4. Secretion was strictly hrp-dependent because a mutant carrying a deletion in hrcV, a conserved hrp gene, did not secrete AvrBs3 and AvrRxv. Moreover, the Hrp system of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was able to secrete proteins from two other plant pathogens: PopA, a protein secreted via the Hrp system in Ralstonia solanacearum, and AvrB, an avirulence protein from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea. Interestingly, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria also secreted YopE, a type III-secreted cytotoxin of the mammalian pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in a hrp-dependent manner. YerA, a YopE-specific chaperone, was required for YopE stability but not for secretion in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Our results demonstrate the functional conservation of the type III system of X. campestris for secretion of proteins from both plant and mammalian pathogens and imply recognition of their respective secretion signals. PMID:10430949

  9. Measurement of the 3-dimensional positions of type III bursts in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poquerusse, M.; Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.; Dulk, G. A.; Macqueen, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    The three-dimensional positions of type III sources in the corona are calculated on the basis of ground and spacecraft data. Simultaneous observations of the corona in visible light from Skylab make it possible to relate the apparent radio-source positions to slowly evolving coronal structures. It is found that open magnetic field lines connecting the low coronal levels to the interplanetary medium only exist in a relatively narrow region, and diverge rapidly upwards.

  10. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage.

  11. [Triple-Endobutton technique for the treatment of Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Liao-jun; Lu, Di; Chen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complications of Triple-Endobutton plates in treating Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation. From January 2011 to January 2013,45 patients with Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation were treated with Triple-Endobutton plates. There were 35 males and 10 females with an average age of 30.5 (ranged from 19 to 60) years old. At the final follow-up, VAS, DASH, Constant-Murley criterion were used to evaluate shoulder function. All patients were followed up from 15 to 36 months. No neurovascular injury, wound infection and stress fractures were found,but 3 patients had a re-dislocation. At the final follow-up,the mean VAS score was decreased from (5.7±1.6) preoperatively to postoperative (0.2±0.1); DASH score was significantly decreased from (19.6±4.3) preoperatively to (0.3±0.1) postoperatively; Constant-Murley score was improved from (34.4±4.3) before operation to (94.8± 3.5) after operation. Clinical outcomes of treating Tossy type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation with Triple-Endobutton plates is satisfactory. However, re-dislocation is still the most common complication. Careful perioperative management is an important factor in preventing re-dislocation.

  12. Multiple nucleic acid cleavage modes in divergent type III CRISPR systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Graham, Shirley; Tello, Agnes; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from invading nucleic acids. Type III systems (Cmr, Csm) have been shown to cleave RNA targets in vitro and some are capable of transcription-dependent DNA targeting. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has two divergent subtypes of the type III system (Sso-IIID and a Cmr7-containing variant of Sso-IIIB). Here, we report that both the Sso-IIID and Sso-IIIB complexes cleave cognate RNA targets with a ruler mechanism and 6 or 12 nt spacing that relates to the organization of the Cas7 backbone. This backbone-mediated cleavage activity thus appears universal for the type III systems. The Sso-IIIB complex is also known to possess a distinct ‘UA’ cleavage mode. The predominant activity observed in vitro depends on the relative molar concentration of protein and target RNA. The Sso-IIID complex can cleave plasmid DNA targets in vitro, generating linear DNA products with an activity that is dependent on both the cyclase and HD nuclease domains of the Cas10 subunit, suggesting a role for both nuclease active sites in the degradation of double-stranded DNA targets. PMID:26801642

  13. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result) and 2.2% in the control group (p < 0.05). An inverse significant nonparametric correlation was found between the NPQ value and the lordosis degree in the AC dislocation group (p = 0.001) wheras results were not correlated (p = 0.27) in the control group. Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis. PMID:20015356

  14. Novel Low Fluence Combination Laser Treatment of Solar Lentigines in Type III Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Brian Wei Cheng Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a novel low fluence combination laser technique [Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Erb:YAG) and neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)] to effectively treat solar lentigines in type III Asian skin in a single session. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A Singapore-based clinic. Participants: Five patients (all females) were enrolled into the study. The ages ranged 35-60 years; all patients had Fitzpatrick skin type III. Measurements: Photographs were taken at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. These were reviewed by two independent physicians who were blinded to the study. Changes in pigment severity were assessed by a 5-point scale (1: Aggravation of pigment, 2: No change, 3: 25-50% improvement, 4: 51-75% improvement, and 5: 76-100% improvement). Results: All patients received a single treatment session. At 1-month follow-up, a reduction in pigment was observed in all patients. Both physicians’ reports were independently agreeable. All patients scored 5, having >90% improvement in pigment severity. No hypopigmentation, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), or recurrence was seen. Conclusion: Low fluence combination laser is effective and safe for clearance of solar lentigines in type III Asian skin. PMID:26865789

  15. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W; Hrebícek, Martin; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2015-02-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6-8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12-13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease.

  16. Evidence for Langmuir Envelope Solitons in Solar Type III Burst Source Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; Goldstein, M. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Papadopoulos, K.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the generation of Langmuir envelope solitons in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts. The solitons appear to be formed by electron beams which excite either the modulational instability or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Millisecond data from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) show that Langmuir waves associated with type III bursts occur as broad intense peaks with time scales ranging from 15 to 90 milliseconds (6 - 27 km). These broad field structures have the properties expected of Langmuir envelope solitons, viz.: the normalized peak energy densities, W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e) approximately 10(exp -5), are well above the modulational instability threshold; the spatial scales, L, which range from 1 - 5 Langmuir wavelengths, show a high degree of inverse correlation with (W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e))(sup 1/2); and the observed widths of these broad peaks agree well with the predicted widths of envelope solitons. We show that the orientation of the Langmuir field structures is random with respect to the ambient magnetic field, indicating that they are probably isotropic structures that have evolved from initially pancake-like solitons. These observations suggest that strong turbulence processes, such as the modulational instability or the OTSI, stabilize the electron beams that produce type III bursts.

  17. Bacterial type III secretion systems are ancient and evolved by multiple horizontal-transfer events.

    PubMed

    Gophna, Uri; Ron, Eliora Z; Graur, Dan

    2003-07-17

    Type III secretion systems (TTSS) are unique bacterial mechanisms that mediate elaborate interactions with their hosts. The fact that several of the TTSS proteins are closely related to flagellar export proteins has led to the suggestion that TTSS had evolved from flagella. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of four conserved type III secretion proteins and their phylogenetic relationships with flagellar paralogs. Our analysis indicates that the TTSS and the flagellar export mechanism share a common ancestor, but have evolved independently from one another. The suggestion that TTSS genes have evolved from genes encoding flagellar proteins is effectively refuted. A comparison of the species tree, as deduced from 16S rDNA sequences, to the protein phylogenetic trees has led to the identification of several major lateral transfer events involving clusters of TTSS genes. It is hypothesized that horizontal gene transfer has occurred much earlier and more frequently than previously inferred for TTSS genes and is, consequently, a major force shaping the evolution of species that harbor type III secretion systems.

  18. Type III Secretion of ExoU Is Critical during Early Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Heather A.; Logan, Latania K.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system has been associated with poor outcomes in both animal models and human patients. Despite a large number of studies exploring the regulation of type III secretion in vitro, little is known about the timing of secretion during mammalian infection. Here we demonstrate that the exoU gene, which encodes the highly cytotoxic type III effector ExoU, is induced early during acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that the amount of ExoU protein in the lung also increased over time. The importance of early expression was examined using a strain of P. aeruginosa with inducible production of ExoU. Delays in expression as short as 3 h led to reduced bacterial burdens in the lungs of mice and improved survival. Our results demonstrate that early expression of exoU is critical to bacterial survival during pneumonia and suggest that therapeutic interventions that delay ExoU secretion for even short periods of time may be efficacious. PMID:23481600

  19. Direction-finding measurements of type III radio bursts out of the ecliptic plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, M. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional direction-finding measurements for three type III solar radio bursts is presented which is based on spin-modulation measurements from two satellites (IMP 8 and Hawkeye I) whose spin axes were nearly perpendicular to each other. The two-dimensional direction-finding technique is combined with a model of the solar-wind plasma density in order to provide determinations of type III source locations out of the ecliptic plane as well as information on the three-dimensional structure of the solar magnetic field at radial distances of 0.2 to 1.0 AU from the sun. The direction-finding technique is described in detail, characteristics of the bursts observed by the two satellites are summarized, and the solar-wind model is outlined. The results show that the source locations follow an Archimedean spiral when projected onto the ecliptic plane but usually follow a constant heliocentric latitude perpendicular to that plane. It is also found that measured source sizes are a factor of two larger than the angular sizes of previously reported solar-flare electron emissions, that the spin-modulation factor tends to be largest near the beginning of a type III event, and that the arrival direction of the radiation varies systematically during an event.

  20. Neuroinflammation, mitochondrial defects and neurodegeneration in mucopolysaccharidosis III type C mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla; Hůlková, Helena; Dridi, Larbi; Dormoy-Raclet, Virginie; Grigoryeva, Lubov; Choi, Yoo; Langford-Smith, Alexander; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; DiCristo, Graziella; Hamel, Edith; Ausseil, Jerôme; Cheillan, David; Moreau, Alain; Svobodová, Eva; Hájková, Zuzana; Tesařová, Markéta; Hansíková, Hana; Bigger, Brian W.; Hrebícek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Severe progressive neurological paediatric disease mucopolysaccharidosis III type C is caused by mutations in the HGSNAT gene leading to deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase involved in the lysosomal catabolism of heparan sulphate. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease we generated a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis III type C by germline inactivation of the Hgsnat gene. At 6–8 months mice showed hyperactivity, and reduced anxiety. Cognitive memory decline was detected at 10 months and at 12–13 months mice showed signs of unbalanced hesitant walk and urinary retention. Lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate was observed in hepatocytes, splenic sinus endothelium, cerebral microglia, liver Kupffer cells, fibroblasts and pericytes. Starting from 5 months, brain neurons showed enlarged, structurally abnormal mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism, and storage of densely packed autofluorescent material, gangliosides, lysozyme, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-β. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time that deficiency of acetyl-CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase causes lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulphate in microglial cells followed by their activation and cytokine release. They also show mitochondrial dysfunction in the neurons and neuronal loss explaining why mucopolysaccharidosis III type C manifests primarily as a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25567323

  1. Functional relatedness in the Inv/Mxi-Spa type III secretion system family.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jessica A; Dave, Biren M; Raphenya, Amogelang R; McArthur, Andrew G; Knodler, Leigh A

    2017-03-01

    Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are structurally conserved nanomachines that span the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and via a protruding needle complex contact host cell membranes and deliver type III effector proteins. T3SS are phylogenetically divided into several families based on structural basal body components. Here we have studied the evolutionary and functional conservation of four T3SS proteins from the Inv/Mxi-Spa family: a cytosolic chaperone, two hydrophobic translocators that form a plasma membrane-integral pore, and the hydrophilic 'tip complex' translocator that connects the T3SS needle to the translocon pore. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis, possesses two T3SSs, one belonging to the Inv/Mxi-Spa family. We used invasion-deficient S. Typhimurium mutants as surrogates for expression of translocator orthologs identified from an extensive phylogenetic analysis, and type III effector translocation and host cell invasion as a readout for complementation efficiency, and identified several Inv/Mxi-Spa orthologs that can functionally substitute for the S. Typhimurium chaperone and translocator proteins. Functional complementation correlates with amino acid sequence identity between orthologs, but varies considerably between the four proteins. This is the first in-depth survey of the functional interchangeability of Inv/Mxi-Spa T3SS proteins acting directly at the host-pathogen interface. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities.

  3. Pediatric genetic disease of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Fecarotta, Christopher M; Huang, Wendy W

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the literature regarding selected genetic diseases of the cornea, including megalocornea, keratoglobus, keratoconus, cystinosis, the mucopolysaccharidoses, sclerocornea, Peters' anomaly, familial dysautonomia, and various corneal dystrophies. The transparency of the cornea is a consequence of uniformity in both size and spacing of the collagen lamellae. The cornea's clarity depends on a delicate biochemical and structural balance; consequently, genetic disorders that disrupt either its metabolic or anatomic function can cause opacity and vision loss. Many childhood corneal diseases have a genetic etiology and are associated with known syndromes. Each disorder has unique associated set of possible complications. Prognosis often depends on the extent of opacity and disorganization of the anterior segment. Corneal transplantation has been performed for these disorders with variable success.

  4. Pediatric genetic disease of the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Fecarotta, Christopher M.; Huang, Wendy W.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to evaluate the literature regarding selected genetic diseases of the cornea, including megalocornea, keratoglobus, keratoconus, cystinosis, the mucopolysaccharidoses, sclerocornea, Peters' anomaly, familial dysautonomia, and various corneal dystrophies. The transparency of the cornea is a consequence of uniformity in both size and spacing of the collagen lamellae. The cornea's clarity depends on a delicate biochemical and structural balance; consequently, genetic disorders that disrupt either its metabolic or anatomic function can cause opacity and vision loss. Many childhood corneal diseases have a genetic etiology and are associated with known syndromes. Each disorder has unique associated set of possible complications. Prognosis often depends on the extent of opacity and disorganization of the anterior segment. Corneal transplantation has been performed for these disorders with variable success. PMID:27625877

  5. Dynamical structure of solar radio burst type III as evidence of energy of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Zety Sharizat Binti

    2013-11-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts associated with the ejection of plasma oscillations localized disturbance is due to excitation atoms in the plasma frequency incoherent radiations play a dominant role at the meter and decimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the results of the dynamical structure of solar flare type III that occurred on 9th March 2012 at National Space Centre, Sg Lang, Selangor, Malaysia by using the CALLISTO system. These bursts are associated with solar flare type M6 which suddenly ejected in the active region AR 1429 starting at 03:32 UT and ending at 05:00 UT with the peak at 04:12 UT. The observation showed an initial strong burst occurred due to strong signal at the beginning of the phase. We also found that both solar burst and flares tend to be a numerous on the same day and probability of chance coincidence is high. It is clearly seen that an impulsive lace burst was detected at 4:24 UT and it is more plausible that the energies are confined to the top of the loop when we compared with X-ray results. Associated with this event was type II with velocities 1285 km/s and type IV radio sweeps along with a full halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) first seen in SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery at 09/0426 Z. We concluded that the significance of study solar burst type III lies in the fact that the emission at decimetric wavelength comes from the role of magnetic field in active region that may provide the key to the energy release mechanism in a flare.

  6. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean patient age was 42.6±11 years. Astigmatic corneas had an average astigmatic power of 0.78±0.58 D and mean spherical aberration was 0.25±0.13 μm for the entire population and approximately the same (0.27 μm) for individual groups, ranging from 0.23 to 0.29 μm (P>.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Outer Membrane c-Type Cytochromes Required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) Oxide Reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, T.; Coppi, M. V.; Childers, S. E.; Lovley, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of outer membrane proteins in electron transfer to insoluble Fe(III) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens was investigated because this organism is closely related to the Fe(III) oxide-reducing organisms that are predominant in many Fe(III)-reducing environments. Two of the most abundant proteins that were easily sheared from the outer surfaces of intact cells were c-type cytochromes. One, designated OmcS, has a molecular mass of ca. 50 kDa and is predicted to be an outer membrane hexaheme c-type cytochrome. Transcripts for omcS could be detected during growth on Fe(III) oxide, but not on soluble Fe(III) citrate. The omcS mRNA consisted primarily of a monocistronic transcript, and to a lesser extent, a longer transcript that also contained the downstream gene omcT, which is predicted to encode a second hexaheme outer membrane cytochrome with 62.6% amino acid sequence identity to OmcS. The other abundant c-type cytochrome sheared from the outer surface of G. sulfurreducens, designated OmcE, has a molecular mass of ca. 30 kDa and is predicted to be an outer membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome. When either omcS or omcE was deleted, G. sulfurreducens could no longer reduce Fe(III) oxide but could still reduce soluble electron acceptors, including Fe(III) citrate. The mutants could reduce Fe(III) in Fe(III) oxide medium only if the Fe(III) chelator, nitrilotriacetic acid, or the electron shuttle, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, was added. Expressing omcS or omcE in trans restored the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. OmcT was not detected among the sheared proteins, and genetic studies indicated that G. sulfurreducens could not reduce Fe(III) oxide when omcT was expressed but OmcS was absent. In contrast, Fe(III) oxide was reduced when omcS was expressed in the absence of OmcT. These results suggest that OmcS and OmcE are involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides in G. sulfurreducens. They also emphasize the importance of evaluating mechanisms

  8. A mutation analysis of the AGL gene in Korean patients with glycogen storage disease type III.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Sung; Moon, Jin Soo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Ju Young; Park, Sung Sup

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by the excessive accumulation of abnormal glycogen in the liver and muscles and is caused by a deficiency in glycogen debranching enzyme (amylo-1,6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AGL)) activity. To investigate the molecular characteristics of GSD III patients in Korea, we have sequenced the AGL gene in eight children with GSD III. All patients were compound heterozygotes. We identified 10 different mutations (five novel and five previously reported). The novel mutations include one nonsense (c.1461G>A, p.W487X), three splicing (c.293+4_293+6delAGT in IVS4, c.460+1G>T in IVS5, c.2682-8A>G in IVS21) and one missense mutation (c.2591G>C, p.R864P). Together, p.R285X, c.1735+1G>T and p.L1139P accounted for 56% of all alleles, while the remaining mutations are heterogeneous. These three mutations can be common in Korea, and further larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Appurtenance Influence on Type III Hanford Single-Shell Tank Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, Scott E.; Larsen, Brian M.; Julyk, Larry J.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2012-02-26

    The interim stabilized Hanford Single Shell Tanks (SSTs) are currently undergoing a state of the art analysis to assess the structural integrity of the waste storage tanks, for cleanup and closure operations, considering their adverse thermal histories and an updated seismic hazard for the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The SSTs contain a variety of ancillary pits, piping, piping supports, risers, equipment, and penetrations known as appurtenances. These appurtenances may alter the structural response and ultimately could affect the structural integrity of the SSTs. An important challenge to the structural analysis of the SSTs is determining the impact of these appurtenances on structural integrity. To achieve this, the various appurtenances were reviewed and bounding appurtenance configurations for SST Types II and III tank designs were analyzed using finite element software. The bounding configurations for the Type II tanks considered four heavy offset pits with a central pit with and without a 36-inch diameter central post-construction penetration and four 42-inch diameter offset penetrations. The bounding configuration for the Type III tanks is a tank with two heavy offset pits and one heavy central pit. For each bounding configuration two finite element models are developed: a seismic analysis model and a thermal and operating loads analysis (TOLA) model. The TOLA models include a Type II or III thermal history, concrete cracking and thermal degradation, reinforcement yielding, and soil plasticity. Additionally, operating loads such as internal waste pressure and concentrated and distributed soil surface loads are applied to the TOLA model. The seismic model treats the tank concrete as linear elastic based on the present day degraded concrete properties. Also, in the seismic model the soil is treated as linear elastic while special techniques are used in the soil above the tank dome and along the tank wall to avoid soil arching and achieve the proper

  10. Results of Operative and Nonoperative Treatment of Rockwood Types III and V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Joukainen, Antti; Kröger, Heikki; Niemitukia, Lea; Mäkelä, E. Antero; Väätäinen, Urho

    2014-01-01

    Background: The optimal treatment of acute, complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) is still unresolved. Purpose: To determine the difference between operative and nonoperative treatment in acute Rockwood types III and V ACJ dislocation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: In the operative treatment group, the ACJ was reduced and fixed with 2 transarticular Kirschner wires and ACJ ligament suturing. The Kirschner wires were extracted after 6 weeks. Nonoperatively treated patients received a reduction splint for 4 weeks. At the 18- to 20-year follow-up, the Constant, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA), Larsen, and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores were obtained, and clinical and radiographic examinations of both shoulders were performed. Results: Twenty-five of 35 potential patients were examined at the 18- to 20-year follow-up. There were 11 patients with Rockwood type III and 14 with type V dislocations. Delayed surgical treatment for ACJ was used in 2 patients during follow-up: 1 in the operatively treated group and 1 in the nonoperatively treated group. Clinically, ACJs were statistically significantly less prominent or unstable in the operative group than in the nonoperative group (normal/prominent/unstable: 9/4/3 and 0/6/3, respectively; P = .02) and in the operative type III (P = .03) but not type V dislocation groups. In operatively and nonoperatively treated patients, the mean Constant scores were 83 and 85, UCLA scores 25 and 27, Larsen scores 11 and 11, and SST scores 11 and 12 at follow-up, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in type III and type V dislocations. In the radiographic analysis, the ACJ was wider in the nonoperative than the operative group (8.3 vs 3.4 mm; P = .004), and in the type V dislocations (nonoperative vs operative: 8.5 vs 2.4 mm; P = .007). There was no statistically significant difference between study groups in

  11. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Matheis, N; Alt, T; Weinstock, C; Bux, J; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the genetics of the adult APS types. SITE: The study was conducted at a university referral center. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were determined in a large cohort of patients with APS, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls by the consistent application of high-resolution typing at a four-digit level. Comparison of the allele and haplotype frequencies significantly discriminated patients with APS vs AITD and controls. The HLA class II alleles DRB1*03:01 *04:01, DQA1*03:01, *05:01, DQB1*02:01, and *03:02 were observed more frequently (P<.001) in APS than in AITD and controls, whereas the alleles DRB1*15:01, DQB1*03:01, and *06:02 were underrepresented in APS vs AITD (Pc<.001) and controls (Pc<.01), respectively. The DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DR3-DQ2) and DRB1*04:01-DQA1*03:01:DQB1*03:02 (DRB1*04:01-DQ8) haplotypes were overrepresented in APS (Pc<.001). Combination of both haplotypes to a genotype was highly prevalent in APS vs AITD and controls (Pc<.001). Dividing the APS collective into those with Addison's disease (APS type II) and those without Addison's disease but including type 1 diabetes and AITD (APS type III) demonstrated DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:01-DQ8 as a susceptibility genotype in APS III (Pc<.001), whereas the DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:04-DQ8 genotype correlated with APS II (Pc<.001). The haplotypes DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:05-DQB1*03:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 are protective in APS III but not in type II (Pc<.01). HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult APS types II and III. Susceptible haplotypes favor the development of polyglandular autoimmunity in patients with AITD.

  12. Dynamic Rheooptical Behavior of Isolated Bovine Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Donald; Bettelheim, Frederick A.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic Young's modulus E′ and loss modulus E″ were obtained for isolated bovine cornea using a direct-reading dynamic viscoelastometer. Within the temperature range (0-60°C) and frequency range (3.5-110 Hz) studied, both moduli were temperature and frequency independent. The dynamic birefringence of the cornea was measured in a special apparatus designed for this purpose in conjunction with the dynamic viscoelastometer. The stress-optical and strain-optical coefficients as well as the corresponding phase angles were evaluated as a function of temperature and frequency. The strain- and stress-optical coefficients were both temperature and frequency dependent. PMID:4655663

  13. Highly strained Esaki tunnel diodes on InP substrate with type-III band alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, S.; Sprengel, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2016-12-01

    The first of a kind InP-based Esaki tunnel diodes with type-III (broken gap) band alignment are presented. This type is expected to have the highest tunneling current densities at equal doping concentration and structure geometry, compared to homo-, type-I or type-II junctions. The broken gap alignment is achieved by highly strained n-Ga0.2In0.8As/p-GaAs0.2Sb0.8 junction layers. Samples were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy, the junction doping was varied between 2 × 1018 cm-3 and 2 × 1019 cm-3. Peak current densities up to 34.0 kA cm-2, for a doping of 2 × 1019 cm-3, are reached. The peak tunneling current shows a low dependence on the doping level for the type-III aligned junction layers. For example, highly strained diodes with a doping concentration of 2 × 1018 cm-3 can reach peak tunnel current densities of 3.6 A cm-2, whereas, with the lattice-matched junction, one order of magnitude higher doping is required.

  14. Neuronal merlin influences ERBB2 receptor expression on Schwann cells through neuregulin 1 type III signalling

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Alexander; Kyselyova, Anna; Baader, Stephan L.; Jung, Marie Juliane; Zoch, Ansgar; Mautner, Victor-Felix

    2014-01-01

    Axonal surface proteins encompass a group of heterogeneous molecules, which exert a variety of different functions in the highly interdependent relationship between axons and Schwann cells. We recently revealed that the tumour suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumour syndrome neurofibromatosis type 2, impacts significantly on axon structure maintenance in the peripheral nervous system. We now report on a role of neuronal merlin in the regulation of the axonal surface protein neuregulin 1 important for modulating Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. Specifically, neuregulin 1 type III expression is reduced in sciatic nerve tissue of neuron-specific knockout animals as well as in biopsies from seven patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. In vitro experiments performed on both the P19 neuronal cell line and primary dorsal root ganglion cells demonstrate the influence of merlin on neuregulin 1 type III expression. Moreover, expression of ERBB2, a Schwann cell receptor for neuregulin 1 ligands is increased in nerve tissue of both neuron-specific merlin knockout animals and patients with neurofibromatosis type 2, demonstrating for the first time that axonal merlin indirectly regulates Schwann cell behaviour. Collectively, we have identified that neuronally expressed merlin can influence Schwann cell activity in a cell-extrinsic manner. PMID:24309211

  15. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, C; Wittkowski, A; Hare, D J

    2017-08-30

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ASD were present in MPS III, whilst repetitive and restricted behaviours and interests were less widely reported. The presence of ASD-like symptoms can result in late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of MPS III and prevent opportunities for genetic counselling and the provision of treatments.

  16. Molecular and clinical delineation of 12 patients with glycogen storage disease type III in Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Minoru; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Podskarbi, Teodor; Murase, Toshio; Shin, Yoon S; Coker, Mahmut

    2015-01-15

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; MIM #232400) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, progressive myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. GSD III is caused by deficiency in the glycogen debranching enzyme (gene symbol: AGL). Molecular analyses of AGL have indicated heterogeneity depending on ethnic groups. In Turkey we reported 13 different AGL mutations from GSD III patients in the Eastern region; however, the full spectrum of AGL mutations in Turkish population remains unclear. Here we investigated 12 GSD III patients mostly from Western Turkey. The full coding exons, their relevant exon-intron boundaries, and the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the patients' AGL were sequenced. AGL haplotypes were determined. Splicing mutations were characterized by RNA transcript analysis. Twelve different mutations were identified: 7 novel AGL mutations [69-base pair deletion (c.1056_1082+42del69), 21-base par deletion (c.3940_3949+11del21), two small duplications (c.364_365dupCT and c.1497_1500dupAGAG), and 3 splicing mutations (c.1736-11A>G, c.3259+1G>A and c.3588+2T>G)], along with 5 known mutations (c.1019delA, c.958+1G>A, c.4161+5G>A, p.R864X and p.R1218X). Transcripts of splicing mutations (c.1736-11A>G, c.3588+2T>G and c.4161+5G>A) were shown to cause aberrant splicing. AGL haplotype analyses suggested that c.1019delA and c.958+1G>A are founder mutations in Turkish patients, while p.R864X is a recurrent mutation. Our study broadens the spectrum of AGL mutations and demonstrates that mutations in Western Turkey are different from those in the Eastern region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological effects of chicken type III interferon on expression of interferon-stimulated genes in chickens: comparison with type I and type II interferons.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yasumitsu; Matsuda, Akiko; Usui, Tatsufumi; Sugai, Toru; Asano, Atsushi; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2012-11-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are key mediators that activate host defense mechanisms against viruses. The recently identified mammalian Type III IFN has biological effects similar to type I IFN. However, the biological effects of type III IFN have not yet been characterized in birds. We compared the effects of chicken type III IFN (IFN-λ) with type I (IFN-β) and type II (IFN-γ) IFNs on IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant chicken IFN-λ inhibited influenza virus replication and induced the mRNA expression of the ISGs, Mx and OAS, in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effective dose of IFN-λ was higher than that of IFN-β and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the effect of IFN-λ on induction of Mx and OAS was lesser than that of IFN-β, but comparable to that of IFN-γ. These results indicate that chicken IFN-λ has the potential to induce ISGs and inhibit viral replication in chicken cells.

  18. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  19. Type III IFNs in Pteropid Bats: Differential Expression Patterns Provide Evidence for Distinct Roles in Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Cowled, Chris; Todd, Shawn; Crameri, Gary; Virtue, Elena R.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Klein, Reuben; Shi, Zhengli; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Bats are known to harbor a number of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viruses, many of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but result in no clinical symptoms in bats. The ability of bats to coexist with viruses may be the result of rapid control of viral replication early in the immune response. IFNs provide the first line of defense against viral infection in vertebrates. Type III IFNs (IFN-λs) are a recently identified IFN family that share similar antiviral activities with type I IFNs. To our knowledge, we demonstrate the first functional analysis of type III IFNs from any species of bat, with the investigation of two IFN-λ genes from the pteropid bat, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that bat type III IFN has similar antiviral activity to type I and III IFNs from other mammals. In addition, the two bat type III IFNs are differentially induced relative to each other and to type I IFNs after treatment or transfection with synthetic dsRNA. Infection with the bat paramyxovirus, Tioman virus, resulted in no upregulation of type I IFN production in bat splenocytes but was capable of inducing a type III IFN response in three of the four bats tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the simultaneous suppression of type I IFN and induction of type III IFN after virus infection. These results may have important implications for the role of type III IFNs in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses. PMID:21278349

  20. Salter-Harris type III fractures of the distal femur: plain radiographs can be deceptive.

    PubMed

    Lippert, William C; Owens, Richard F; Wall, Eric J

    2010-09-01

    Salter-Harris (SH) III fractures of the distal femur, although rare, can have devastating effects. The purposes of this study were to: (1) compare the intra-articular fracture displacement measured on plain x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan and (2) report the outcomes of patients with a SH III fracture of the distal femur. All SH III distal femur fractures treated at a large Children's Hospital with a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center between 1995 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 14 patients (average age: 13 y, 11 mo; range: 7 y, 8 mo to 17 y, 11 mo) with an average follow-up time of 21.50 months (range: 2 to 47 mo) were included in this study. Fracture displacement on plain x-ray was compared with the fracture displacement measured on MRI or CT scan. The average time between the initial plain x-ray and MRI or CT scan was 37.48 days (range: 3 h to 6 mo). Plain x-rays significantly underestimated the displacement of SH III fractures versus MRI or CT scan. Six patients who had both plain x-ray and MRI or CT scan had a measured displacement of 0.42 mm and 2.70 mm, respectively (paired Student t test, P=0.005). Ten of the 14 patients (71%) had no physical limitations and full knee motion at their most recent follow-up visit. The treatment of 4 patients (29%) was changed based on the findings of the additional MRI or CT scan. This study and earlier studies have shown a high rate of poor results with SH III fractures of the distal femur. This type of fracture pattern is extremely unstable and the true displacement is often underestimated by x-rays. Thus, it is strongly recommended that an MRI or CT scan be obtained on every SH III fracture of the distal femur. Moreover, any SH III fracture visible on plain radiographs should be treated with open reduction, internal fixation. Level IV.

  1. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of the conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Brisson, J R; Uhrinova, S; Woods, R J; van der Zwan, M; Jarrell, H C; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; Jennings, H J

    1997-03-18

    The conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide (GBSP III) exhibits unique properties which can be ascribed to the presence of sialic acid in its structure and the requirement for an extended binding site. By means of NMR and molecular dynamics studies on GBSP III and its fragments, the extended epitope of GBSP III was further defined. The influence of sialic acid on the conformational properties of GBSP III was examined by performing conformational analysis on desialylated GBSP III, which is identical to the polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14, and also on oxidized and reduced GBSP III. Conformational changes were gauged by 1H and 13C chemical shift analysis, NOE, 1D selective TOCSY-NOESY experiments, J(HH) and J(CH) variations, and NOE of OH resonances. Changes in mobility were examined by 13C T1 and T2 measurements. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water using the AMBER force field and the GLYCAM parameter set were used to assess static and dynamic conformational models, simulate the observable NMR parameters and calculate helical parameters. GBSP III was found to be capable of forming extended helices. Hence, the length dependence of the conformational epitope could be explained by its location on extended helices within the random coil structure of GBSP III. The interaction of sialic acid with the backbone of the PS was also found to be important in defining the conformational epitope of GBSP III.

  2. Decreased type III collagen expression in human uterine cervix of prolapse uteri

    PubMed Central

    IWAHASHI, MASAAKI; MURAGAKI, YASUTERU

    2011-01-01

    The precise mechanism of prolapse uteri is not fully understood. There is evidence to suggest that abnormalities of collagen, the main component of extracellular matrix, or its repair mechanism, may predispose women to prolapse. To investigate the characteristic structure of human uterine cervix of patients with prolapse uteri, various types of collagen expression in the uterine cervix tissues of the prolapse uteri were compared to those of normal uterine cervix. After informed consent, 36 specimens of uterine cervical tissues were obtained at the time of surgery from 16 postmenopausal women with prolapse uteri (stage III–IV by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination) and 20 postmenopausal women without prolapse uteri (control group). Collagens were extracted from the uterine cervix tissues by salt precipitation methods. The relative levels of various collagens were evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The uterine cervix was longer in the patients with prolapse uteri than those of postmenopausal controls without prolapse uteri. The ratios of type III to type I collagen in the uterine cervical tissues were significantly decreased in the prolapse uteri, as compared to those of the postmenopausal uterine cervix without prolapse. These results suggest that decreased type III collagen expression may play an important role in determing the physiology and structure of the uterine cervix tissues of prolapse uteri. PMID:22977496

  3. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae . E-mail: imbglmg@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2006-10-06

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus.

  4. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  5. Broad Targeting Specificity during Bacterial Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity Constrains Viral Escape.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, Nora C; Gayvert, Kaitlyn; Varble, Andrew; Elemento, Olivier; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-09-13

    CRISPR loci are a cluster of repeats separated by short "spacer" sequences derived from prokaryotic viruses and plasmids that determine the targets of the host's CRISPR-Cas immune response against its invaders. For type I and II CRISPR-Cas systems, single-nucleotide mutations in the seed or protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of the target sequence cause immune failure and allow viral escape. This is overcome by the acquisition of multiple spacers that target the same invader. Here we show that targeting by the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III-A CRISPR-Cas system does not require PAM or seed sequences, and thus prevents viral escape via single-nucleotide substitutions. Instead, viral escapers can only arise through complete target deletion. Our work shows that, as opposed to type I and II systems, the relaxed specificity of type III CRISPR-Cas targeting provides robust immune responses that can lead to viral extinction with a single spacer targeting an essential phage sequence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New trends in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta type III - own experience.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska-Pietkiewicz, Elzbieta; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the genes that encode the chains of type I collagen. Clinical manifestations include increased bone fragility and blue sclerae. OI type III is the most severe form with fractures occurring already in utero. Fracture immobilisation and orthopaedic surgery are the mainstay of treatment for patients with OI, and are combined with rehabilitation and bisphosphonate therapy. The study involved 8 children with osteogenesis imperfecta type III, aged 1 month to 6 years. All of them were treated with cyclic intravenous infusions of pamidronate. Laboratory studies conducted before and after each 3-day cycle of pamidronate therapy included complete blood count, serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, osteocalcin, and calcium/creatinine index in morning urine and collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx). Infant total body densitometric scans were obtained in 5/8 patients. Patients were treated for periods of 3-58 months. Fracture rates decreased with treatment in all patients compared to the prenatal period. Pamidronate also slowed down bone turnover, and particularly the resorption rate. The most common side effects during treatment included hypocalcaemia (7/8 patients) and fever (up to 39 degrees C) after the first cycle of treatment. Symptomatic bisphosphonate therapy in children with osteogenesis imperfecta ameliorated the clinical course (decreased bone pain and reduced incidence of fractures). Pamidronate therapy had a positive impact on functional parameters such as independence in everyday activities and better mobility. The treatment was safe.

  7. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  8. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Álvaro; Chocrón, Sara; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; García Nieto, Víctor; Barajas de Frutos, David; Loza, Reyner; Pintos, Guillem; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type III Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS. Methods Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses. Results Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG) in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC) in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype. Conclusion A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort. PMID:28288174

  9. Directivity Patterns of Complex Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, T.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Complex solar type III-like radio bursts are a group of type III bursts that occur in association with slowly drifting type II radio bursts excited by coronal mass ejection (CME) driven shock waves. We presentsimultaneous observations of these radio bursts from the STEREO A, B and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies, located at different vantage points in the ecliptic plane. Using these stereoscopic observations, wedetermine the directivity of these complex radio bursts. We estimate the angles between the directions of the magnetic field at the sources and the lines connecting the source to the spacecraft (viewing angles) by assuming that the sources are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere. We estimate the normalized peak intensities of these bursts (directivity factors) at each spacecraft using their time profiles at each spacecraft. These observations indicate that the complex type III bursts can be divided into two groups: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field, and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone. We show that the bursts , which are emitted along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source are very intense, and their intensities steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. We have developed a ray tracing code and computed the distributions of the trajectories of rays emitted at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency. The comparison of the observed emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relativelyweaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  10. Finite element analysis of three commonly used external fixation devices for treating Type III pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, Muhammad Hanif; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-10-01

    Pilon fractures are commonly caused by high energy trauma and can result in long-term immobilization of patients. The use of an external fixator i.e. the (1) Delta, (2) Mitkovic or (3) Unilateral frame for treating type III pilon fractures is generally recommended by many experts owing to the stability provided by these constructs. This allows this type of fracture to heal quickly whilst permitting early mobilization. However, the stability of one fixator over the other has not been previously demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine the biomechanical stability of these external fixators in type III pilon fractures using finite element modelling. Three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones were reconstructed from previously obtained CT datasets. Bones were assigned with isotropic material properties, while the cartilage was assigned as hyperelastic springs with Mooney-Rivlin properties. Axial loads of 350 N and 70 N were applied at the tibia to simulate the stance and the swing phase of a gait cycle. To prevent rigid body motion, the calcaneus and metatarsals were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. The results indicate that the model with the Delta frame produced the lowest relative micromovement (0.03 mm) compared to the Mitkovic (0.05 mm) and Unilateral (0.42 mm) fixators during the stance phase. The highest stress concentrations were found at the pin of the Unilateral external fixator (509.2 MPa) compared to the Mitkovic (286.0 MPa) and the Delta (266.7 MPa) frames. In conclusion, the Delta external fixator was found to be the most stable external fixator for treating type III pilon fractures. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and functional characterization of three type III polyketide synthases from Aquilaria sinensis calli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Dong, Xianjuan; Feng, Yingying; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Bowen; Wang, Jinling; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-03-30

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) play an important role in biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites and plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Aquilaria sinensis is the main plant species for production of agarwood, little is known about the PKS family. In this study, AsCHS1 and two new type III PKSs, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2, were isolated and characterized in Aquilaria sinensis calli. The comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 belong to non-CHS group different from AsCHS1. The recombinant AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 produced the lactone-type products, suggesting different enzyme activities with AsCHS1. Three PKS genes had a tissues-specific pattern in A. sinensis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of three PKS genes in calli under different abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. AsCHS1 transcript was significantly induced by salt stress, AsPKS1 abundance was most remarkably enhanced by CdCl2 treatment, while AsPKS2 expression was most significantly induced by mannitol treatment. Furthermore, AsCHS1, AsPKS1 and AsPKS2 transcript were enhanced upon gibberellins (GA3), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) treatments, while three PKS genes displayed low transcript levels at the early stage under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. In addition, three GFP:PKSs fusion proteins were localized in the cytoplasm and cell wall in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. These results indicated the multifunctional role of three type III PKSs in polyketide biosynthesis, plant resistance in abiotic stresses and signal transduction.

  12. Structural Basis for Cyclization Specificity of Two Azotobacter Type III Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Satou, Ryutaro; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Ozawa, Hiroki; Funa, Nobutaka; Katsuyama, Yohei; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2013-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) show diverse cyclization specificity. We previously characterized two Azotobacter type III PKSs (ArsB and ArsC) with different cyclization specificity. ArsB and ArsC, which share a high sequence identity (71%), produce alkylresorcinols and alkylpyrones through aldol condensation and lactonization of the same polyketomethylene intermediate, respectively. Here we identified a key amino acid residue for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme by site-directed mutagenesis. Trp-281 of ArsB corresponded to Gly-284 of ArsC in the amino acid sequence alignment. The ArsB W281G mutant synthesized alkylpyrone but not alkylresorcinol. In contrast, the ArsC G284W mutant synthesized alkylresorcinol with a small amount of alkylpyrone. These results indicate that this amino acid residue (Trp-281 of ArsB or Gly-284 of ArsC) should occupy a critical position for the cyclization specificity of each enzyme. We then determined crystal structures of the wild-type and G284W ArsC proteins at resolutions of 1.76 and 1.99 Å, respectively. Comparison of these two ArsC structures indicates that the G284W substitution brings a steric wall to the active site cavity, resulting in a significant reduction of the cavity volume. We postulate that the polyketomethylene intermediate can be folded to a suitable form for aldol condensation only in such a relatively narrow cavity of ArsC G284W (and presumably ArsB). This is the first report on the alteration of cyclization specificity from lactonization to aldol condensation for a type III PKS. The ArsC G284W structure is significant as it is the first reported structure of a microbial resorcinol synthase. PMID:24100027

  13. Poor phenotype-genotype association in a large series of patients with Type III Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    García Castaño, Alejandro; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Madariaga, Leire; Aguirre, Mireia; Madrid, Álvaro; Chocrón, Sara; Nadal, Inmaculada; Navarro, Mercedes; Lucas, Elena; Fijo, Julia; Espino, Mar; Espitaletta, Zilac; García Nieto, Víctor; Barajas de Frutos, David; Loza, Reyner; Pintos, Guillem; Castaño, Luis; Ariceta, Gema

    2017-01-01

    Type III Bartter syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubule disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CLCNKB gene, which encodes the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb. In this study, we carried out a complete clinical and genetic characterization in a cohort of 30 patients, one of the largest series described. By comparing with other published populations, and considering that 80% of our patients presented the p.Ala204Thr Spanish founder mutation presumably associated with a common phenotype, we aimed to test the hypothesis that allelic differences could explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with type III BS. Clinical data were retrieved from the referral centers. The exon regions and flanking intronic sequences of the CLCNKB gene were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Presence of gross deletions or duplications in the region was checked for by MLPA and QMPSF analyses. Polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration were the main common symptoms. Metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia of renal origin were detected in all patients at diagnosis. Calciuria levels were variable: hypercalciuria was detected in 31% of patients, while 23% had hypocalciuria. Nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed in 20% of the cohort. Two novel CLCNKB mutations were identified: a small homozygous deletion (c.753delG) in one patient and a small deletion (c.1026delC) in another. The latter was present in compound heterozygosis with the already previously described p.Glu442Gly mutation. No phenotypic association was obtained regarding the genotype. A poor correlation was found between a specific type of mutation in the CLCNKB gene and type III BS phenotype. Importantly, two CLCNKB mutations not previously described were found in our cohort.

  14. Finite element analysis applied to cornea reshaping.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fernández, Delia; Niazy, A M; Kurtz, R M; Djotyan, G P; Juhasz, T

    2005-01-01

    A 2-D finite element model of the cornea is developed to simulate corneal reshaping and the resulting deformation induced by refractive surgery. In the numerical simulations, linear and nonlinear elastic models are applied when stiffness inhomogeneities varying with depth are considered. Multiple simulations are created that employ different geometric configurations for the removal of the corneal tissue. Side-by-side comparisons of the different constitutive laws are also performed. To facilitate the comparison, the material property constants are identified from the same experimental data, which are obtained from mechanical tests on corneal strips and membrane inflation experiments. We then validate the resulting models by comparing computed refractive power changes with clinical results. Tissue deformations created by simulated corneal tissue removal using finite elements are consistent with clinically observed postsurgical results. The model developed provides a much more predictable refractive outcome when the stiffness inhomogeneities of the cornea and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the simulations. Finite element analysis is a useful tool for modeling surgical effects on the cornea and developing a better understanding of the biomechanics of the cornea. The creation of patient-specific simulations would allow surgical outcomes to be predicted based on individualized finite element models.

  15. Conductive keratoplasty: histological study of human corneas.

    PubMed

    Naoumidi, Tatiana L; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Naoumidi, Irini I; Astyrakakis, Nikolaos I

    2005-12-01

    To determine the morphologic changes in human corneas over time following radiofrequency-based conductive keratoplasty (CK) treatment. Prospective, observational case series. In a single-center study six human corneas of six patients with localized peripheral keratoconus underwent CK treatment followed by penetrating keratoplasty. Three spots were applied in the periphery of each cornea (6 mm optical zone). Corneal buttons were examined with light and electron microscopy at different postoperative intervals up to 6 months post-CK. In samples assessed on day one post-CK, small areas of detachment between the basal layer of epithelial cells and Bowman's layer were observed. At 1 week after the CK procedure, the epithelium appeared almost normal. Endothelium and Descemet's membrane had no alterations. In all samples, thermally induced misconfiguration of collagen fibers, described as "crumpled" changes of collagen layers, was observed reaching 75% to 80% of the stromal depth. The area of alterations had a cylindrical shape with a diameter of 120 mum. The conductive keratoplasty procedure produced collagen "crumpling and splitting" changes in human corneas, which were observed during the follow-up of 6 months. Areas adjacent to treatment site were minimally damaged.

  16. Designing a perfect cornea: computational aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Jacob; Wolansky, Gershon

    2002-12-01

    We analyze an algorithm for the design of a perfect cornea that exactly focuses a preselected object or a preselected wave front on the retina. The algorithm can be used, for example, in refractive surgery. We consider the sensitivity of the algorithm to various errors, including errors in the measurements of the aberrations, the original corneal topography and the ablation process.

  17. Gene transfer of integration defective anti-HSV-1 meganuclease to human corneas ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Elbadawy, H M; Gailledrat, M; Desseaux, C; Salvalaio, G; Di Iorio, E; Ferrari, B; Bertolin, M; Barbaro, V; Parekh, M; Gayon, R; Munegato, D; Franchin, E; Calistri, A; Palù, G; Parolin, C; Ponzin, D; Ferrari, S

    2014-03-01

    Corneal graft rejection is a major problem in chronic herpetic keratitis (HK) patients with latent infection. A new class of antiviral agents targeting latent and active forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is importantly required. Meganucleases are sequence-specific homing endonucleases capable of inducing DNA double-strand breaks. A proof-of-concept experiment has shown that tailor-made meganucleases are efficient against HSV-1 in vitro. To take this work a step forward, we hypothesized that the pre-treatment of human corneas in eye banks using meganuclease-encoding vectors will allow HK patients to receive a medicated cornea to resist the recurrence of the infection and the common graft rejection problem. However, this strategy requires efficient gene delivery to human corneal endothelium. Using recombinant adeno-associated virus, serotype 2/1 (rAAV2/1), efficient gene delivery of a reporter gene was demonstrated in human corneas ex vivo. The optimum viral dose was 3.7 × 10(11) VG with an exposure time of 1 day, followed by 6 days incubation in de-swelling medium. In addition, 12 days incubation can result in transgene expression in excess of 70%. Using similar transduction conditions, meganuclease transgene expression was detected in 39.4% of the endothelial cells after 2 weeks in culture. Reduction of the total viral load in the media and the endothelial cells of corneas infected with HSV-1 was shown. Collectively, this work provides information about the optimum conditions to deliver genetic material to the cornea, and demonstrates for the first time the expression of meganuclease in human corneas ex vivo and its antiviral activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the treatment of human corneas in eye banks before transplantation is a new approach to address the unmet clinical needs in corneal diseases.

  18. Alterations in biosynthetic accumulation of collagen types I and III during growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse salivary glands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the biosynthetic patterns of interstitial collagens in mouse embryonic submandibular and sublingual glands cultured in vitro. Rudiments explanted on day 13 of gestation and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h all synthesized collagen types I, III, and V. However, while the total incorporation of label into collagenous proteins did not change over the three-day culture period, the rate of accumulation of newly synthesized types I and III did change. At 24 h, the ratio of newly synthesized collagen types I:III was approximately 2, whereas at 72 h, the ratio was approximately 5. These data suggest that collagen types I and III may be important in initiation of branching in this organ, but that type I may become dominant in the later stages of development and in maintenance of the adult organ.

  19. Alterations in biosynthetic accumulation of collagen types I and III during growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse salivary glands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the biosynthetic patterns of interstitial collagens in mouse embryonic submandibular and sublingual glands cultured in vitro. Rudiments explanted on day 13 of gestation and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h all synthesized collagen types I, III, and V. However, while the total incorporation of label into collagenous proteins did not change over the three-day culture period, the rate of accumulation of newly synthesized types I and III did change. At 24 h, the ratio of newly synthesized collagen types I:III was approximately 2, whereas at 72 h, the ratio was approximately 5. These data suggest that collagen types I and III may be important in initiation of branching in this organ, but that type I may become dominant in the later stages of development and in maintenance of the adult organ.

  20. Early responding dendritic cells direct the local natural killer response to control HSV-1 infection within the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Gregory M.; Buela, Kristine-Ann; Maker, Dawn M.; Harvey, Steven A.; Hendricks, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we exploit the unique avascularity of the cornea to examine a role for local or very early infiltrating DCs in regulating the migration of blood-derived innate immune cells towards herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) lesions. A single systemic diphtheria toxin (DT) treatment 2 days before HSV-1 corneal infection transiently depleted CD11c+DCs from both the cornea and lymphoid organs of CD11c-DTR bone marrow chimeric mice for up to 24 hours after infection. Transient DC depletion significantly delayedHSV-1 clearance from the corneathrough 6 days post infection(dpi). No further compromise of viral clearance was observed when DCs were continuously depleted throughout the first week of infection. DC depletion did not influenceextravasation of NK cells, inflammatory monocytes, orneutrophils into the peripheral cornea,but did significantly reduce migration of NK cells and inflammatory monocytes, but not neutrophils towards the HSV-1 lesion in the central cornea. Depletion of NK cells resulted in similar loss of viral control to transient DC ablation. Our findings demonstrate resident corneal DC and/or those that infiltrate the cornea during the first 24 hours after HSV-1 infection contribute to the migration of NK cells and inflammatory monocytes into the central cornea, and are consistent with a role for NK cells and possibly inflammatory monocytes, but not PMN in the clearing HSV-1 from the infected cornea. PMID:22210909

  1. The effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, B. N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Gypsum type III is commonly used for working models and as a tool for restorations or dentures manufacturing in the laboratory. K2SO4 solution is recommended to be added to gypsum type III because it can accelerate the setting time. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III. The surface hardness was tested using a Vickers Hardness Tester with a load of 500 gf. The results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated using a 1.5% K2SO4 solution was higher than the surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated without K2SO4 but lower than the surface hardness of gypsum type IV. Therefore, the use of a 1.5% K2SO4 solution can increase the hardness of gypsum type III but not enough to make it equivalent to the surface hardness of gypsum type IV.

  2. Type III photosensitization: attempt for quantification and a way toward new sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriska, Tamas; Jakus, Judit; Keszler, Agnes; Vanyur, Rozalia; Nemeth, Andras; Gal, Dezso

    1999-02-01

    Earlier results studying the effect of excited triplet photosensitizer on the zymosan-stimulated and luminol- dependent chemiluminescence of macrophages have been quantitatively re-evaluated and rate constant data indicate that the effect is due to triplet-doublet interactions between sensitizer and free radicals generated. Such interactions, named Type III mechanism, compete with Type I and Type II mechanisms depending on the experimental environment. This suggestion resulted in the synthesis of new sensitizers being the first members of the Antioxidant Carrier Sensitizer (ACS) group of molecules. According to preliminary experiments the PDT treatment of tumor bearing mice seems promising with two of such compounds which demonstrate an inhibitory effect in chemical systems already in their ground state.

  3. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  4. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  5. Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Cytotoxins is Dependent on Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Wu, B.; Baek, M.S.; Camargo, A.; Nguyen, A.; Slusher, N.A.; Srinivasan, R.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Lynch, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can, like other bacterial species, exist in antimicrobial resistant sessile biofilms and as free-swimming, planktonic cells. Specific virulence factors are typically associated with each lifestyle and several two-component response regulators have been shown to reciprocally regulate transition between biofilm-associated chronic, and free-swimming acute infections. Quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules belonging to the las and rhl systems are known to regulate virulence gene expression by P. aeruginosa. However the impact of a recently described family of novel quorum sensing signals produced by the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) biosynthetic pathway, on the transition between these modes of infection is less clear. Using clonal isolates from a patient developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, we demonstrated that clinical observations were mirrored by an in vitro temporal shift in isolate phenotype from a non-secreting, to a Type III cytotoxin secreting (TTSS) phenotype and further, that this phenotypic change was PQS-dependent. While intracellular type III cytotoxin levels were unaffected by PQS concentration, cytotoxin secretion was dependent on this signal molecule. Elevated PQS concentrations were associated with inhibition of cytotoxin secretion coincident with expression of virulence factors such as elastase and pyoverdin. In contrast, low concentrations or the inability to biosynthesize PQS resulted in a reversal of this phenotype. These data suggest that expression of specific P. aeruginosa virulence factors appears to be reciprocally regulated and that an additional level of PQS-dependent posttranslational control, specifically governing type III cytotoxin secretion, exists in this species. PMID:20570614

  6. Extracytoplasmic-stress-responsive pathways modulate type III secretion in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Katrin E; Liu, Junfa; Edqvist, Petra J; Francis, Matthew S

    2007-08-01

    Three signal transduction pathways, the two-component systems CpxRA and BaeSR and the alternative sigma factor sigma(E), respond to extracytoplasmic stress that facilitates bacterial adaptation to changing environments. At least the CpxRA and sigma(E) pathways control the production of protein-folding and degradation factors that counter the effects of protein misfolding in the periplasm. This function also influences the biogenesis of multicomponent extracellular appendages that span the bacterial envelope, such as various forms of pili. Herein, we investigated whether any of these regulatory pathways in the enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis affect the functionality of the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system. This is a multicomponent molecular syringe spanning the bacterial envelope used to inject effector proteins directly into eukaryotic cells. Disruption of individual components revealed that the Cpx and sigma(E) pathways are important for Y. pseudotuberculosis type III secretion of Yops (Yersinia outer proteins). In particular, a loss of CpxA, a sensor kinase, reduced levels of structural Ysc (Yersinia secretion) components in bacterial membranes, suggesting that these mutant bacteria are less able to assemble a functional secretion apparatus. Moreover, these bacteria were no longer capable of localizing Yops into the eukaryotic cell interior. In addition, a cpxA lcrQ double mutant engineered to overproduce and secrete Yops was still impaired in intoxicating cells. Thus, the Cpx pathway might mediate multiple influences on bacterium-target cell contact that modulate Yersinia type III secretion-dependent host cell cytotoxicity.

  7. The posterior intrafocal pin improves sagittal alignment in Gartland type III paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh

    2016-04-01

    Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation are widely recommended for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures. However, the optimal K-wire configuration is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of crossed pinning with or without a posterior intrafocal pin in Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 93 children who underwent crossed pinning for Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures between January 2009 and December 2013. One surgeon preferentially added one posterior intrafocal pin onto the crossed pins in 35 children, and the other surgeons used standard crossed pinning technique in 58 children. Results were assessed by range of elbow motion and radiographic measures including the Baumann angle, the lateral humerocapitellar angle and the position of the anterior humeral line (AHL). The demographic data were comparable between the 2 groups. Children treated with the additional posterior intrafocal pin had greater range of elbow motion (138.7° vs. 133.6°, p=0.01) and had a greater lateral humerocapitellar angle (44.9° vs. 37.8°, p=0.01) measured 3 months postoperatively. The percentage of AHL position in the posterior third was significantly higher in children with the posterior intrafocal pin immediately after fixation (odds ratio [OR]: 6.26) and 3 months later (OR: 2.84). The percentage of AHL position in the anterior third was also significantly lower in children with the posterior intrafocal pin 3 months postoperatively (OR: 0.29). No pin site infection or nerve injury was associated with the additional posterior pin. Adding one posterior intrafocal pin to crossed pinning can facilitate fracture reduction and enhance fixation stability. Better sagittal alignment and elbow motion support this safe and effective technique in treating type III humeral supracondylar fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdalenić, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ≤5 R⊙ of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R⊙ from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Cell growth rate regulates expression of group B Streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, L C; Ross, R A; Johnson, K D

    1996-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of group B streptococci (GBS) is an important virulence factor that also serves to protect cells from nonspecific host defense mechanisms. Expression of CPS by GBS, as with other encapsulated bacterial pathogens, is not constitutive but varies during growth in vitro and in primary cultures isolated from different sites of infection. Despite this understanding, little is known about regulation of this surface-expressed carbohydrate antigen in GBS. Here we report that expression of type III CPS by GBS strain M781 grown in continuous culture with a modified chemically defined medium is regulated by growth rate. Cells in steady state at mass doubling times (tds) of 0.8, 1.4, and 1.6 h expressed an average of sixfold more cell-associated CPS than did cells held at tds of 2.3 and 11 h. Strain M781 grown at a td of 1.4 h repeatedly produced more type III CPS than those held at a td of 11.0 h, even when limited for glucose, pyridoxamine, or thiamine. In our studies, > or = 93% of the total CPS expressed by strain M781 was cell associated. Strain M781 grown at a td of 11.0 h (i.e., lowered CPS expression) was susceptible to in vitro complement-mediated opsonophagocytosis and killing by human peripheral blood leukocytes, whereas cells grown at a td of 1.4 h (i.e., higher CPS expression) were not killed unless type III CPS-specific antibody was present. Factors that allow GBS to asymptomatically colonize women yet cause invasive infection to both mother and infant are poorly understood. Our results shed new light on parameters that regulate the pathogenic potential of GBS and may also serve as a way to discern more fully the genetics and biochemistry of GBS capsule synthesis. PMID:8606082

  10. A new type of stereoisomer in Cobalt (III) dioxines with Thiocarbamid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanovskij, M. E.; Samus', I. D.; Proskina, N.; Zavodnik, V.; Khalak, M.

    1992-12-01

    The crystal structure of the cobalt (III) dioxine water modification with thioseicarbazide ligands,[Co(DH)_2(Thio]NO_3H_2O was determined by the anisotropic method of least squares. The Co(III) atom coordination has the form a slightly distorted octahedron formed by the four nitrogen atoms of dioximinesmolcules with non symmetric chemical bounds of O-H-O type (2.52...2.49)A. The Co(III) atom coordination is completed by two sulphur atoms of the thiosemicarbazide ligand,(Co-S)_av=2.279 and 2.309A. the structure of this modification is different fromthat of the prismatic modification, [Co(DH)^2(Thio)_2]NO_3.Both contain polyhedra in which that of the prismatic modification,[Co(DH)_2(Thio)_2]NO_3. Both contain polyhedra in which the ligand molecules are in trans-position,but in the case of I the molecule planes are oriented practically perpendicular (81.7^)to each other,while in the case of II they are antiparallel forming stereoisomers.

  11. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure.

  12. Identification and functional analysis of type III effector proteins in Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shin; Okabe, Saori; Higashi, Miku; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Akashi, Ryo; Göttfert, Michael; Saeki, Kazuhiko

    2010-02-01

    Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, a microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, possesses a cluster of genes (tts) that encode a type III secretion system (T3SS). In the presence of heterologous nodD from Rhizobium leguminosarum and a flavonoid naringenin, we observed elevated expression of the tts genes and secretion of several proteins into the culture medium. Inoculation experiments with wild-type and T3SS mutant strains revealed that the presence of the T3SS affected nodulation at a species level within the Lotus genus either positively (L. corniculatus subsp. frondosus and L. filicaulis) or negatively (L. halophilus and two other species). By inoculating L. halophilus with mutants of various type III effector candidate genes, we identified open reading frame mlr6361 as a major determinant of the nodulation restriction observed for L. halophilus. The predicted gene product of mlr6361 is a protein of 3,056 amino acids containing 15 repetitions of a sequence motif of 40 to 45 residues and a shikimate kinase-like domain at its carboxyl terminus. Homologues with similar repeat sequences are present in the hypersensitive-response and pathogenicity regions of several plant pathogens, including strains of Pseudomonas syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas species. These results suggest that L. halophilus recognizes Mlr6361 as potentially pathogen derived and subsequently halts the infection process.

  13. [Triple-Endobutton plates for the treatment of rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ji-Heng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of Triple-Endobutton plates for the treatment of Rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation. From March 2008 to June 2010,28 patients with Rockwood type II to V acromioclavicular joint dislocations were treated with Triple-Endobutton plates. There were 18 males and 10 females,ranging in age from 20 to 60 years old (averaged 38 years old). Twenty patients had dislocations in the left and 8 patients had dislocations in the right. All the patients had close injury. The Constant criterion was used to evaluate shoulder joint function. All the patients were followed up,and the duration ranged from 18 to 24 months,with an average of 20 months. All the patients got good shoulder joint function,and no re-dislocation and pain occurred. The X-ray showed all acromioclavicular joints got good reduction. According to Constant criterion,preoperative score was 25.4 +/- 2.0, postoperative scores were 65.9 +/- 3.0, 87.2 +/- 3.2 and 95.7+/- 1.6 at 1 month,3 months and 6 months separately. Treatment of Rockwood type III to V acromioclavicular joint dislocation with Triple-Endobutton plates has satisfactory clinical outcome, simple operation, few complications, without secondary operation and early functional exercise postoperatively.

  14. Electro-optical properties characterization of fish type III antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Salvay, Andrés G; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I

    2007-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa-or 14-kDa tandem-globular proteins. In the present work, we study the behavior of several physical properties, such as the low-frequency dielectric permittivity spectrum, circular dichroism, and electrical conductivity of Fish Type III AFP solutions measured at different concentrations. The combination of the information obtained from these measurements could be explained through the formation of AFP molecular aggregates or, alternatively, by the existence of some other type of interparticle interactions. Thermal stability and electro-optical behavior, when proteins are dissolved in deuterated water, were also investigated.

  15. Electro-Optical Properties Characterization of Fish Type III Antifreeze Protein

    PubMed Central

    Salvay, Andrés G.; Santos, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa—or 14-kDa tandem—globular proteins. In the present work, we study the behavior of several physical properties, such as the low-frequency dielectric permittivity spectrum, circular dichroism, and electrical conductivity of Fish Type III AFP solutions measured at different concentrations. The combination of the information obtained from these measurements could be explained through the formation of AFP molecular aggregates or, alternatively, by the existence of some other type of interparticle interactions. Thermal stability and electro-optical behavior, when proteins are dissolved in deuterated water, were also investigated. PMID:19669526

  16. [Does prenatal diagnosis modify neonatal management and early outcome of children with esophageal atresia type III?].

    PubMed

    Garabedian, C; Sfeir, R; Langlois, C; Bonnard, A; Khen-Dunlop, N; Gelas, T; Michaud, L; Auber, F; Piolat, C; Lemelle, J-L; Fouquet, V; Habonima, É; Becmeur, F; Polimerol, M-L; Breton, A; Petit, T; Podevin, G; Lavrand, F; Allal, H; Lopez, M; Elbaz, F; Merrot, T; Michel, J-L; Buisson, P; Sapin, E; Delagausie, P; Pelatan, C; Gaudin, J; Weil, D; de Vries, P; Jaby, O; Lardy, H; Aubert, D; Borderon, C; Fourcade, L; Geiss, S; Breaud, J; Pouzac, M; Echaieb, A; Laplace, C; Gottrand, F; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2015-11-01

    Evaluate neonatal management and outcome of neonates with either a prenatal or a post-natal diagnosis of EA type III. Population-based study using data from the French National Register for EA from 2008 to 2010. We compared children with prenatal versus post-natal diagnosis in regards to prenatal, maternal and neonatal characteristics. We define a composite variable of morbidity (anastomotic esophageal leaks, recurrent fistula, stenosis) and mortality at 1 year. Four hundred and eight live births with EA type III were recorded with a prenatal diagnosis rate of 18.1%. Transfer after birth was lower in prenatal subset (32.4% versus 81.5%, P<0.001). Delay between birth and first intervention was not significantly different. Defect size (2cm vs 1.4cm, P<0.001), gastrostomy (21.6% versus 8.7%, P<0.001) and length in neonatal unit care were higher in prenatal subset (47.9 days versus 33.6 days, P<0.001). The composite variables were higher in prenatal diagnosis subset (38.7% vs 26.1%, P=0.044). Despite the excellent survival rate of EA, cases with antenatal detection have a higher morbidity related to the EA type (longer gap). Even if it does not modify neonatal management and 1-year outcome, prenatal diagnosis allows antenatal parental counseling and avoids post-natal transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prevalence of type III secretion system genes in cholera vibrios from different serogroups].

    PubMed

    Eroshenko, G A; Kutyrev, V V; Fadeeva, A V; Shavina, N Iu; Stepanov, A V

    2008-01-01

    Prevalence of vcs genes coding the type III secretion system (T3SS) in cholera vibrios of different serogroups isolated in Russia and neighboring countries was studied for the first time. Virulent strains of O1 and O139 serogroups as well as toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains of other serogroups contained no T3SS genes. Unlike mentioned strains, 29.2% of atoxigenic non O1/non O139 cholera vibrios isolated from patients in Russia and neighboring countries contained the T3SS genes cluster, which might contribute to the pathogenic properties of these strains.

  18. Congenital Type III von Willebrand’s disease unmasked by hypothyroidism in a Shetland sheepdog

    PubMed Central

    Scuderi, Margaret; Bessey, Lauren; Snead, Elisabeth; Burgess, Hilary; Carr, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Shetland sheepdog had sudden onset of right-sided epistaxis. Diagnostic tests revealed Type III von Willebrand’s disease and primary hypothyroidism leading to an acute hypothyroid crisis and acquired factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Levothyroxine therapy normalized the serum thyroxine and FVIII concentrations. The delayed onset of disease and the reversible FVIII deficiency that was corrected with levothyroxine therapy, support a role for hypothyroidism in the pathogenesis of this dog’s sudden bleeding tendency as has been seen with hypothyroidism in humans. PMID:26347307

  19. Developmental Defects in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model for Type III Galactosemia

    PubMed Central

    Brokate-Llanos, Ana M.; Monje, José M.; Murdoch, Piedad del Socorro; Muñoz, Manuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Type III galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by reduced activity of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, which participates in galactose metabolism and the generation of various UDP-sugar species. We characterized gale-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that a complete loss-of-function mutation is lethal, as has been hypothesized for humans, whereas a nonlethal partial loss-of-function allele causes a variety of developmental abnormalities, likely resulting from the impairment of the glycosylation process. We also observed that gale-1 mutants are hypersensitive to galactose as well as to infections. Interestingly, we found interactions between gale-1 and the unfolded protein response. PMID:25298520

  20. Type III Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report and review of associated craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Sattur, Atul P; Kirty, R N; Thakur, Arpita Rai

    2011-07-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex syndrome of osseous and visceral anomalies that include the classical clinical triad of short neck, limitation of head and neck movements and low posterior hairline. It may also be associated with anomalies of the genitourinary, musculoskeletal, neurologic and cardiac systems. We report a case of type III KFS with associated rib anomalies such as cervical rib, fusion and bifid ribs, scoliosis and fused crossed renal ectopia. The aim of this paper was to summarize all craniofacial anomalies that occur in association with KFS, so that clinicians would be aware of them during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  1. Unitarity constraints for Yukawa couplings in the two-Higgs-doublet model type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Andrés; Diaz, Rodolfo A.; Morales, Jhon

    2014-06-01

    Unitarity constraints for Yukawa couplings are considered in the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model type III, by using a general expansion in partial waves for fermionic scattering processes. Constraints over general Flavor Changing Neutral Currents are found from that systematic, wherein such bounds compete with those coming from Lagrangian perturbativity requirement but are weaker than those imposed from phenomenological processes and precision tests. Nevertheless, for bounds based on unitarity, the number of assumptions is the lowest among phenomenological and theoretical limits. Indeed, these new theoretical constraints are independent of scalar masses or mixing angles for this extended Higgs sector, making them less model dependent.

  2. Anisotropic Bianchi type-III model in Palatini f (R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Debika Kangsha; Banik, Sebika Kangsha; Bhuyan, Kalyan

    2017-03-01

    We derive exact solutions for anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological model in the Palatini formalism of f (R) gravity using Dynamical System Approach. For the f (R) of the form f(R) =R-β /Rn and f(R) =R+α Rm , we have found the fixed points describing the radiation-dominated, matter dominated and de Sitter evolution periods. Fixed points have also been found which have non-vanishing shear playing a very significant role in describing the anisotropy present in the early universe. In addition, we have also found that the spatial curvature affect isotropisation of this cosmological model.

  3. The Effect of the Pucker Sign on Outcomes of Type III Extension Supracondylar Fractures in Children.

    PubMed

    Smuin, Dallas M; Hennrikus, William L

    2017-06-01

    The pucker sign, also called skin tenting, indicates significant displacement of the supracondylar fracture and can be a cause for alarm. The purpose of this study is to compare a cohort of patients with type III supracondylar fractures presenting with a pucker sign to a group without a pucker sign by evaluating neurovascular injury at presentation, need for open reduction, persistent neurovascular injury, range of motion, and carrying angle at final follow-up. A retrospective review was performed for Gartland type III extension type supracondylar fractures. Those with a pucker sign were identified and evaluated. Type III supracondylar fractures with a pucker sign were compared with a similar cohort without a pucker sign. In total, 12 patients with a pucker sign at an average age of 5.2 years were evaluated. A total of 11 patients (92%) had diminished or absent pulses, and 2 (17%) had weakness in the median nerve distribution. Nine (75%) patients in this group were transferred to the university hospital. Average time to surgery was 8.9 hours with an average operating time of 25.1 minutes. Open reduction was not needed in any case. At an average follow-up of 4.7 months no patients had persistent neurovascular compromise. Two patients lacked <5 degrees of extension and 1 lacked 10 degrees of extension. One patient lacked 10 degrees of flexion. No patients had a change in carrying angle difference compared with the contralateral side. No statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups. Pucker sign, in the context of a supracondylar fracture of the humerus, is a soft tissue defect with potential entrapment of median nerve and brachial artery. At a maximum time of 16 hours from injury to surgery we report excellent outcomes and no long-term complications. Using the techniques of gradual traction, and milking the soft tissue, the pucker sign can be eliminated. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning were performed in all the cases. Level III

  4. Corrosion behavior of as-received and previously cast type III gold alloy.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Ayad, Ghada M

    2010-04-01

    The rationale for using gold alloys is based largely upon their alleged ability to resist corrosion, but little information is available to determine the corrosion behavior of recast alloys. This study characterized the elemental composition of as-received and recast type III gold alloy and examined the in vitro corrosion behavior in two media using a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Seventy-eight disk-shaped specimens were prepared from a type III gold alloy under three casting protocols according to the proportion of as-received and recast gold alloy (n = 26). (1) Group as received (100% as-received metal), (2) group 50% to 50% (50% wt. new metal, 50% wt. once recast metal), and (3) group recast (100% once recast metal). The surface structures of 20 specimens from each group were examined under scanning electron microscopy, and their elemental compositions were determined using X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Further, the potentiodynamic cyclic polarization between -1000 and +1000 mV (SCE) were performed for six specimens from each casting protocol in 0.09% NaCl solution (n = 3) and Fusayama artificial saliva (n = 3) at 37 degrees C. Zero-current potential and corrosion current density were determined. The data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple-range test t (alpha= 0.05). Elemental composition was significantly different among the casting groups (p < 0.001). The mean weight percentage values were 72.4 to 75.7% Au, 4.5 to 7.0% Pd, 10.7 to 11.1% Ag, 7.8 to 8.4% Cu, and 1.0 to 1.4% Zn. The mean values for Zero-current potential and corrosion current density for all casting protocols were not significant (p > 0.05); however, the difference between the electrolytes was significant (p < 0.001). Fusayama artificial saliva seemed to offer the most corrosive environment. Type III gold alloy in any casting protocol retained passivity under electrochemical conditions similar to the oral environment. Moreover, high

  5. Immunosuppression in murine malaria. I. Response to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, J S; Micklem, H S; Ure, J M

    1977-01-01

    Acute Plasmodium yoelii yoelii and chronic Plasmodium berghei malaria infections of CBA mice were accompanied by a reduced capacity to give an antibody response to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SIII). The depression of response initiated by acute malaria persisted for several weeks after recovery from clinical infection. During chronic infection, and at the peak of acute parasitaemia, virtually no response to SIII was detected. A substance which crossreacted serologically with SIII was found in blood cells of infected mice. The results suggest that antigen-specific, as well as non-specific, factors may contribute to the depression of the response to this antigen. PMID:67996

  6. Developmental defects in a Caenorhabditis elegans model for type III galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Brokate-Llanos, Ana M; Monje, José M; Murdoch, Piedad Del Socorro; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2014-12-01

    Type III galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by reduced activity of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, which participates in galactose metabolism and the generation of various UDP-sugar species. We characterized gale-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that a complete loss-of-function mutation is lethal, as has been hypothesized for humans, whereas a nonlethal partial loss-of-function allele causes a variety of developmental abnormalities, likely resulting from the impairment of the glycosylation process. We also observed that gale-1 mutants are hypersensitive to galactose as well as to infections. Interestingly, we found interactions between gale-1 and the unfolded protein response.

  7. Late type III endoleak from fabric tears of a zenith stent graft: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Banno, Hiroshi; Morimae, Hirofumi; Ihara, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Komori, Kimihiro

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of late type III B endoleak from a fabric tear in the main body of a Zenith bifurcated stent-graft approximately 19 months after implantation. A follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan showed gradual growth in the size of the aneurysm, but no apparent endoleak was recognized. However, the CT scan had demonstrated a mosaic pattern in the aneurysm sac, which could indicate an endoleak from a fabric tear. The defect was repaired by implantation of body extensions, but the patient died 5 h after the procedure.

  8. [Pavlik harness for the treatment of congenital hip dysplasia types D III and IV].

    PubMed

    Zajonz, D; Strobel, S; Wojan, M; von der Höh, N; Brandmaier, P; Josten, C; Schumann, E; Heyde, C-E

    2016-01-01

    Up to 4% of all neonates in Central Europe are born with congenital hip dysplasia (CHD), the most common congenital disease of the musculoskeletal system. However, in this retrospective analysis the outcomes of infants with CHD (type D, III or IV according to Graf) have been considered, with Pavlik therapy starting within the first 12 weeks of life. Connections between the start of therapy or the first finding according to Graf`s classification and the ultrasound result achieved, as well as the X-rays taken after 1 and 2 years, were evaluated. No repositioning under Pavlik treatment or side effects and their relevance have been evaluated, especially with regard to avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. All infants treated using Pavlik treatment for CHD between 2010 and 2012 in our clinic were determined. A total of 62 patients with 79 pathological hips were included. The infants were classified into three groups to evaluate the influence of the start of therapy on the result: group I with the first investigation and start of treatment within the first 10 days of life, group II between the 11th day and the end of week 3, group III within preventive general examinations (U3) after the 4th week. Clinical examinations and the usual ultrasound scans were performed at an average of 1, 3, and 6 months. Furthermore, after 1 and 2 years clinical and radiological investigations were carried out, as well as further examinations depending on the findings. A failure of repositioning of the Pavlik treatment occurred in group I in 1 case (2.2%), in group II in 1 case (7.1%), and in group III in 2 cases (10%). This occurs in hips type D and type III in 1 case each (3.3%) and type IV in 2 cases (10.5%). Maturation disorders of the hips were found in 1 case (2.2%) in group I, 1 case (7.1%) in group II, and 3 cases (15%) in group III. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was proven in 2 cases (4.4%) in group I, 0% in group II, and in 1 case (5%) in group III. All patients

  9. Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bisceglia, L.; Totaro, A.; Melchionda, S.

    1997-03-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (Z{sub max}) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction ({theta}{sub max}) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant Z{sub max} = 3.11 at {theta}{sub max} of .00, with marker D19S225). 33 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1.

    PubMed Central

    Bisceglia, L; Calonge, M J; Totaro, A; Feliubadaló, L; Melchionda, S; García, J; Testar, X; Gallucci, M; Ponzone, A; Zelante, L; Zorzano, A; Estivill, X; Gasparini, P; Nunes, V; Palacín, M

    1997-01-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (zeta max) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction (theta max) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant zeta max = 3.11 at theta max of .00, with marker D19S225). PMID:9042921

  11. Molecular tectonics: heterometallic (Ir,Cu) grid-type coordination networks based on cyclometallated Ir(III) chiral metallatectons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaojie; Guenet, Aurélie; Kyritsakas, Nathalie; Planeix, Jean-Marc; Hosseini, Mir Wais

    2015-10-11

    A chiral-at-metal Ir(III) organometallic metallatecton was synthesised as a racemic mixture and as enantiopure complexes and combined with Cu(II) to afford a heterobimetallic (Ir,Cu) grid-type 2D coordination network.

  12. Raman Microscopy: A Noninvasive Method to Visualize the Localizations of Biomolecules in the Cornea.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Yuichi; Akiyama, Toshihiro; Segawa, Hiroki; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kano, Hideaki

    2017-09-07

    In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation. The localizations of the adhesion complex-containing basement membrane and Bowman layer were clearly visible in the third-order sum frequency generation images. The fine structure of type I collagen was observed in the corneal stroma in the second-harmonic generation images. The localizations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) was obtained in the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Imaging technologies have progressed significantly and been applied in medical fields. Optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy are widely used but do not provide information on the molecular structure of the cornea. By contrast, multiphoton microscopy provides information on the molecular structure of living tissues. Using this technique, we successfully visualized the localizations of various biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the cornea. We speculate that multiphoton microscopy will provide essential information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the cornea, as well as molecular localizations in tissues without pretreatment.

  13. Outcomes of shunt tube coverage with glycerol preserved cornea versus pericardium.

    PubMed

    Wigton, Eric; C Swanner, Jason; Joiner, Wade; Feldman, Alex; McGwin, Gerald; Huisingh, Carrie; Curcio, Christine A; Girkin, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Pericardium is a biomaterial widely used for covering the outflow tubes of glaucoma drainage devices. Recently, glycerol preserved cornea has been introduced as an alternative that offers durability and improved cosmesis because of its clarity. We retrospectively reviewed 262 patients in the University of Alabama Birmingham Glaucoma Service who underwent shunt procedures using either cornea tissue or pericardium to cover the tube. The primary outcome measure was the number of erosions of the covering material. Nine out of 101 (8.9%) patients in the pericardium covered group experienced an erosion compared with 3 out of 161 (1.9%) in the cornea covered group. A significant difference was reached with P=0.0125. Median follow-up was 440 days for the cornea group and 331 days for the pericardium group. The type of glaucoma (primary open-angle glaucoma vs. secondary glaucoma) was not associated with the risk of erosion (odds ratio, 0.501; 95% confidence interval, 0.204-1.234). The median time to exposure was 252 days in the pericardium group and 440 days in the cornea group (P=0.0017).

  14. Type III and type IV hypersensitivity reactions due to mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Kunkeler, L; Nieboer, C; Bruynzeel, D P

    2000-02-01

    A 71-year-old man developed an exfoliative dermatitis of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, and a generalized itch, during treatment with intravesical instillations of mitomycin C for an undifferentiated carcinoma of the bladder. Patch tests with mitomycin C 0.03%, 0.1% and 0.3% aq. were positive. Because of the serious consequences of this finding, the patient was retested with mitomycin C in pet. (same concentrations), a more stable preparation. This showed clear positive reactions. During this last series of patch tests, he developed palpable purpura on the legs. We postulated that this reaction was an immune-complex-mediated reaction, caused by the 2nd series of patch tests with mitomycin C. To prove this, we performed histopathological and immunofluorescence investigations, and these showed the reaction to be consistent with Henoch-Schonlein-type purpura. We therefore conclude that this patient developed systemic reactions to mitomycin C, characterized by an eczematous dermatitis as well as purpuric reactions. The intravesical installations with mitomycin C have been stopped. The patient's skin problems (the purpura as well as the eczema) have completely resolved and have not recurred.

  15. Hyperleptinemia in children with autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy type I-III

    PubMed Central

    Kölbel, Heike; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Wudy, Stefan A.; Bouikidis, Anastasios; Della Marina, Adela; Schara, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Background Autosomal-recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are disorders characterized by a ubiquitous deficiency of the survival of motor neuron protein that leads to a multisystemic disorder, which mostly affects alpha motor neurons. Disease progression is clinically associated with failure to thrive or weight loss, mainly caused by chewing and swallowing difficulties. Although pancreatic involvement has been described in animal models, systematic endocrinological evaluation of the energy metabolism in humans is lacking. Methods In 43 patients with SMA type I-III (8 type I; 22 type II; 13 type III), aged 0.6–21.8 years, auxological parameters, pubertal stage, motor function (Motor Function Measurement 32 –MFM32) as well as levels of leptin, insulin glucose, hemoglobin A1c, Homeostasis Model Assessment index and an urinary steroid profile were determined. Results Hyperleptinemia was found in 15/35 (43%) of our patients; 9/15 (60%) of the hyperleptinemic patients were underweight, whereas 1/15 (7%) was obese. Hyperleptinemia was associated with SMA type (p = 0.018). There was a significant association with decreased motor function (MFM32 total score in hyperleptinemia 28.5%, in normoleptinemia 54.7% p = 0.008, OR 0.969; 95%-CI: 0.946–0.992). In addition, a higher occurrence of hirsutism, premature pubarche and a higher variability of the urinary steroid pattern were found. Conclusion Hyperleptinemia is highly prevalent in underweight children with SMA and is associated with disease severity and decreased motor function. Neuronal degradation of hypothalamic cells or an increase in fat content by muscle remodeling could be the cause of hyperleptinemia. PMID:28278160

  16. Nuclear targeted delivery of macromolecules to retina and cornea.

    PubMed

    Binder, Christina; Read, Sarah Parker; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2011-03-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can deliver molecules into cells by binding and penetrating the plasma membrane. However, the majority of CPPs get trapped in endosomes, resulting in degradation of the cargo molecule and inefficient delivery to the nucleus. The present study investigates the potential use of a nucleolin binding peptide (NBP) for the delivery of macromolecules including fluorophores, recombinant protein and DNA to the nuclei of ocular tissues in vivo. Fluorescent dyes covalently linked to NBP or NBP-green fluorescent protein fusion protein were injected intravitreally or subretinally or topically applied to the cornea. Frozen sections were prepared for quantification of transduction. Delivery of plasmid DNA was studied using luciferase and LacZ DNA compacted with pegylated NBP. Levels of luciferase were quantified, and LacZ expression was localized in ocular tissues. We found that NBP-directed fluorophores exhibited retinal and corneal transduction. Subretinal injection transduced cell types throughout the retina, including photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium and neuronal cells. Intravitreal injection transduced neuronal cells in the retina, as well as cells in the cornea. Topically applied NBP lead to transduction of the superficial epithelial layer of the cornea. NBP localized to the nucleus upon exogenous application in vivo. Pegylated NBP nanoparticles significantly improved delivery and expression of transgenes over DNA alone without any measureable toxicity. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that NBP can deliver small and large molecules into retinal and corneal cells and plasmid DNA into retinal cells and hence may be useful for the delivery of therapeutics to the eye. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Increased severity of type III supracondylar humerus fractures in the preteen population.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Nicholas D; Schiller, Jonathan R; Garg, Sumeet; Weller, Amanda; Larson, A Noelle; Kwon, Michael; Browne, Richard; Copley, Lawson; Ho, Christine

    2012-09-01

    Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common operative fractures in children; however, no studies describe the older child with this injury. The purpose of this study was to compare Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures in children older than 8 years of age with those in younger children than age 8. We hypothesized that there would be more complications in older children, reflecting a higher-energy injury mechanism. A retrospective chart review of supracondylar humerus fractures managed at a single level I pediatric trauma institution from 2004 to 2007 was performed. Patients with type III fractures were divided into groups based on age at presentation greater or less than 8. Baseline demographics, fracture characteristics, mechanism of injury, operative technique, and complications were analyzed. A consecutive series of 1297 pediatric patients with surgically treated supracondylar humerus fractures was retrospectively reviewed including 873 (67.3%) type III fractures. Of those, 160 (18.3%) patients were older than age 8 at time of injury. Older children were more likely to have fractures from high-energy mechanisms (45.1% vs. 28.7%, P<0.001) and more open fracture (3.8% vs. 1.3%, P=0.0097). There was no difference in preoperative or iatrogenic neuropraxias between groups. There was a shorter delay between presentation and surgery in older children (mean, 217 vs. 451 min, P<0.0001). Three or more pins were used more often in older patients (61.8% in older children vs. 43.6% in younger children, P<0.0001). Major complications including reoperation, loss of fixation, or compartment syndrome were rare in both groups (1.1% in younger group vs. 0.6% in older group, P=1.000). There was a trend toward more pin site infections in older children (3.75% vs. 1.56%, P=0.071). Physical therapy was required nearly 4 times more frequently in older children for management of residual stiffness (20.0% vs. 5.7%, P<0.0001). Children older than 8 years of age have a

  18. Generation of bioengineered corneas with decellularized xenografts and human keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Andrades, Miguel; de la Cruz Cardona, Juan; Ionescu, Ana Maria; Campos, Antonio; Del Mar Perez, Maria; Alaminos, Miguel

    2011-01-05

    Decellularization of animal corneas is a promising method for the development of artificial human corneas by tissue engineering. In this study, two different decellularization protocols were evaluated to determine which one is able to best preserve the histologic structure, composition, and optical behavior of decellularized porcine corneas. Then, these corneas were recellularized with human keratocytes to obtain a partial human corneal substitute. Two different decellularization protocols were applied, using NaCl and SDS, to determine which one is able to best preserve the histologic structure, composition, and optical behavior of the decellularized corneas. Then, those decellularized corneas that showed the most appropriate results were recellularized with human keratocytes and evaluated at the histologic, biochemical, and optical levels for use in regenerative medicine. The results showed that 1.5 M NaCl treatment of porcine corneas is able to generate an acellular corneal stroma with adequate histologic and optical properties and that human keratocytes are able to penetrate and spread within this scaffold with proper levels of cell differentiation. In contrast, 0.1% SDS treatment of porcine corneas resulted in high levels of fibril disorganization and poor optical behavior of these corneas. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the decellularization of animal corneas with 1.5 M NaCl represents a useful method for the development of human bioengineered corneas with therapeutic potential.

  19. Diverse evolutionary mechanisms shape the type III effector virulence factor repertoire in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Rohmer, Laurence; Guttman, David S; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2004-01-01

    Many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria directly translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells via type III delivery systems. Type III effector proteins are determinants of virulence on susceptible plant hosts; they are also the proteins that trigger specific disease resistance in resistant plant hosts. Evolution of type III effectors is dominated by competing forces: the likely requirement for conservation of virulence function, the avoidance of host defenses, and possible adaptation to new hosts. To understand the evolutionary history of type III effectors in Pseudomonas syringae, we searched for homologs to 44 known or candidate P. syringae type III effectors and two effector chaperones. We examined 24 gene families for distribution among bacterial species, amino acid sequence diversity, and features indicative of horizontal transfer. We assessed the role of diversifying and purifying selection in the evolution of these gene families. While some P. syringae type III effectors were acquired recently, others have evolved predominantly by descent. The majority of codons in most of these genes were subjected to purifying selection, suggesting selective pressure to maintain presumed virulence function. However, members of 7 families had domains subject to diversifying selection. PMID:15280247

  20. Ubiquitin-Yop hybrids as probes for post-translational transport by the Yersinia type III secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Quenee, Lauriane E; Schneewind, Olaf

    2007-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica uses type III secretion to transport Yop proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. Previous work generated hypotheses for both co- and post-translational transport mechanisms in the Yersinia type III pathway. Here, we used ubiquitin (Ub) and UBP1, the Ub-specific protease, to examine whether Yops can be secreted when synthesized prior to recognition by the type III machinery. Fusion of Ub to the N-terminus of Yops blocked substrate recognition and secretion of hybrids generated with YopE, YopQ or YopR. UBP1 removed Ub from the N-terminus of these hybrids and allowed YopE, YopQ or YopR cleavage products to enter the secretion pathway. Following the release of Ub, Yersinia type III machines also transported the YopE cleavage product into the cytosol of tissue culture cells. Minimal secretion signals were also examined with the Ub/UBP1 system and some, but not all, of these signals promoted type III secretion even after polypeptides had been freed from Ub. These results suggest that recognition and secretion of Yop substrates by the type III machinery can occur by a post-translational mechanism.

  1. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen.

  2. Structure of Salmonella FlhE, conserved member of a flagellar Type III secretion operon

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jaemin; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.; ...

    2014-12-26

    In this paper, the bacterial flagellum is assembled by a multicomponent transport apparatus categorized as a type III secretion system. The secretion of proteins that assemble into the flagellum is driven by the proton motive force. The periplasmic protein FlhE is a member of the flhBAE operon in the majority of bacteria where FlhE is found. FlhA and FlhB are established components of the flagellar type III secretion system. The absence of FlhE results in a proton leak through the flagellar system, inappropriate secretion patterns, and cell death, indicating that FlhE regulates an important aspect of proper flagellar biosynthesis. Wemore » isolated FlhE from the periplasm of Salmonella and solved its structure to 1.5 Å resolution. The structure reveals a β-sandwich fold, with no close structural homologs. Finally, possible roles of FlhE, including that of a chaperone, are discussed.« less

  3. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Soo-young; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2015-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia. PMID:27169091

  4. Degradation of phage transcripts by CRISPR-associated RNases enables type III CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenyan; Samai, Poulami; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against viral infection using CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases that perform co-transcriptional cleavage of the viral target DNA and its transcripts. Whereas DNA cleavage is essential for immunity, the function of RNA targeting is unknown. Here we show that transcription-dependent targeting results in a sharp increase of viral genomes in the host cell when the target is located in a late-expressed phage gene. In this targeting condition, mutations in the active sites of the type III-A RNases Csm3 and Csm6 lead to the accumulation of the target phage mRNA and abrogate immunity. Csm6 is also required to provide defense in the presence of mutated phage targets, when DNA cleavage efficiency is reduced. Our results show that the degradation of phage transcripts by CRISPR-associated RNases ensures robust immunity in situations that lead to a slow clearance of the target DNA. PMID:26853474

  5. Co-transcriptional DNA and RNA Cleavage during Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity.

    PubMed

    Samai, Poulami; Pyenson, Nora; Jiang, Wenyan; Goldberg, Gregory W; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-05-21

    Immune systems must recognize and destroy different pathogens that threaten the host. CRISPR-Cas immune systems protect prokaryotes from viral and plasmid infection utilizing small CRISPR RNAs that are complementary to the invader's genome and specify the targets of RNA-guided Cas nucleases. Type III CRISPR-Cas immunity requires target transcription, and whereas genetic studies demonstrated DNA targeting, in vitro data have shown crRNA-guided RNA cleavage. The molecular mechanism behind these disparate activities is not known. Here, we show that transcription across the targets of the Staphylococcus epidermidis type III-A CRISPR-Cas system results in the cleavage of the target DNA and its transcripts, mediated by independent active sites within the Cas10-Csm ribonucleoprotein effector complex. Immunity against plasmids and DNA viruses requires DNA, but not RNA, cleavage activity. Our studies reveal a highly versatile mechanism of CRISPR immunity that can defend microorganisms against diverse DNA and RNA invaders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guo-Feng; Jiang, Bo-Le; Yang, Mei; Liu, San; Liu, Jiao; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Bai, Xian-Fang; Tang, Dong-Jie; Lu, Guang-Tao; He, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Di-Qiu; Tang, Ji-Liang

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS) and type III (T3) effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2) which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2) is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME). Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc. PMID:24516463

  7. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  8. Study of Flare Energy Release Using Events with Numerous Type III-like Bursts in Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkina, N. S.; Altyntsev, A. T.; Zhdanov, D. A.; Lesovoi, S. V.; Kochanov, A. A.; Yan, Y. H.; Tan, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    The analysis of narrowband drifting of type III-like structures in radio bursts dynamic spectra allows one to obtain unique information about the primary energy release mechanisms in solar flares. The SSRT (Siberian Solar Radio Telescope) spatially resolved images and its high spectral and temporal resolution allow for direct determination not only of the source positions but also of the exciter velocities along the flare loop. Practically, such measurements are possible during some special time intervals when SSRT is observing the flare region in two high-order fringes near 5.7 GHz; thus, two 1D brightness distributions are recorded simultaneously at two frequency bands. The analysis of type III-like bursts recorded during the flare 14 April 2002 is presented. Using multiwavelength radio observations recorded by the SSRT, the Huairou Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer (SBRS), the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters (NoRP), and the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), we study an event with series of several tens of drifting microwave pulses with drift rates in the range from -7 to 13 GHz s-1. The sources of the fast-drifting bursts were located near the top of a flare loop in a volume of a few Mm in size. The slow drift of the exciters along the flare loop suggests a high pitch anisotropy of the emitting electrons.

  9. DNA looping and translocation provide an optimal cleavage mechanism for the type III restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Neal; Roes, Stefanie; Dryden, David T F; Rao, Desirazu N; Edwardson, J Michael; Henderson, Robert M

    2007-08-22

    EcoP15I is a type III restriction enzyme that requires two recognition sites in a defined orientation separated by up to 3.5 kbp to efficiently cleave DNA. The mechanism through which site-bound EcoP15I enzymes communicate between the two sites is unclear. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to study EcoP15I-DNA pre-cleavage complexes. From the number and size distribution of loops formed, we conclude that the loops observed do not result from translocation, but are instead formed by a contact between site-bound EcoP15I and a nonspecific region of DNA. This conclusion is confirmed by a theoretical polymer model. It is further shown that translocation must play some role, because when translocation is blocked by a Lac repressor protein, DNA cleavage is similarly blocked. On the basis of these results, we present a model for restriction by type III restriction enzymes and highlight the similarities between this and other classes of restriction enzymes.

  10. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD*

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280–320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6–7 subunits. PMID:26324713

  11. A quantitative infection assay for human type I, II, and III interferon antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upon virus infection, cells secrete a diverse group of antiviral molecules that signal proximal cells to enter into an antiviral state, slowing or preventing viral spread. These paracrine signaling molecules can work synergistically, so measurement of any one antiviral molecule does not reflect the total antiviral activity of the system. Results We have developed an antiviral assay based on replication inhibition of an engineered fluorescent vesicular stomatitis virus reporter strain on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our assay provides a quantitative functional readout of human type I, II, and III interferon activities, and it provides better sensitivity, intra-, and inter-assay reproducibility than the traditional crystal violet based assay. Further, it eliminates cell fixation, rinsing, and staining steps, and is inexpensive to implement. Conclusions A dsRed2-strain of vesicular stomatitis virus that is sensitive to type I, II, and III interferons was used to develop a convenient and sensitive assay for interferon antiviral activity. We demonstrate use of the assay to quantify the kinetics of paracrine antiviral signaling from human prostate cancer (PC3) cells in response to viral infection. The assay is applicable to high-throughput screening for anti-viral compounds as well as basic studies of cellular antiviral signaling. PMID:23829314

  12. In Situ Molecular Architecture of the Salmonella Type III Secretion Machine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Lara-Tejero, Maria; Kong, Qingke; Galán, Jorge E; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-09

    Type III protein secretion systems have specifically evolved to deliver bacterially encoded proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core elements of this multi-protein machine are the envelope-associated needle complex, the inner membrane export apparatus, and a large cytoplasmic sorting platform. Here, we report a high-resolution in situ structure of the Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion machine obtained by high-throughput cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging. Through molecular modeling and comparative analysis of machines assembled with protein-tagged components or from different deletion mutants, we determined the molecular architecture of the secretion machine in situ and localized its structural components. We also show that docking of the sorting platform results in significant conformational changes in the needle complex to provide the symmetry adaptation required for the assembly of the entire secretion machine. These studies provide major insight into the structure and assembly of a broadly distributed protein secretion machine.

  13. Computational prediction of type III and IV secreted effectors in Gram-negative bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Corrigan, Abigail L.; Peterson, Elena S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Niemann, George; Cambronne, Eric; Sharp, Danna; Adkins, Joshua N.; Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the methods employed by four recent papers that described novel methods for computational prediction of secreted effectors from type III and IV secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria. The results of the studies in terms of performance at accurately predicting secreted effectors and similarities found between secretion signals that may reflect biologically relevant features for recognition. We discuss the web-based tools for secreted effector prediction described in these studies and announce the availability of our tool, the SIEVEserver (http://www.biopilot.org). Finally, we assess the accuracy of the three type III effector prediction methods on a small set of proteins not known prior to the development of these tools that we have recently discovered and validated using both experimental and computational approaches. Our comparison shows that all methods use similar approaches and, in general arrive at similar conclusions. We discuss the possibility of an order-dependent motif in the secretion signal, which was a point of disagreement in the studies. Our results show that there may be classes of effectors in which the signal has a loosely defined motif, and others in which secretion is dependent only on compositional biases. Computational prediction of secreted effectors from protein sequences represents an important step toward better understanding the interaction between pathogens and hosts.

  14. Nonsurgical management of a dilacerated maxillary lateral incisor with type III dens invaginatus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gound, Tom G; Maixner, David

    2004-06-01

    Type III dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly characterized by an enamel-lined channel that originates on the coronal surface and passes apically through part or all of the root and exits into the periodontal ligament. In this case report, a 13-yr-old male had a Type III dens that exited at the midroot level of tooth #7. At that same level, the root dilacerated severely to the mesial, and a periradicular radiolucency was present on the distal. A 12-mm periodontal defect was present on tooth #6 and a sinus tract was present. All maxillary anterior teeth responded normally to pulp vitality testing, and no other abnormal probing depths were present. The channel opening in the crown was located, and the channel was negotiated, enlarged, and filled with calcium hydroxide. Thirteen weeks later, the probing was normal and the canal was obturated with gutta-percha and restored. Two- and 6-yr recalls showed complete healing of the bony defects and continued normal responses to vitality testing.

  15. Oleanolic Acid Induces the Type III Secretion System of Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dousheng; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xuejiao; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, can naturally infect a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a major virulence determinant in this bacterium. Studies have shown that plant-derived compounds are able to inhibit or induce the T3SS in some plant pathogenic bacteria, though no specific T3SS inhibitor or inducer has yet been identified in R. solanacearum. In this study, a total of 50 different compounds were screened and almost half of them (22 of 50) significantly inhibited or induced the T3SS expression of R. solanacearum. Based on the strong induction activity on T3SS, the T3SS inducer oleanolic acid (OA) was chosen for further study. We found that OA induced the expression of T3SS through the HrpG-HrpB pathway. Some type III effector genes were induced in T3SS inducing medium supplemented with OA. In addition, OA targeted only the T3SS and did not affect other virulence determinants. Finally, we observed that induction of T3SS by OA accelerated disease progress on tobacco. Overall our results suggest that plant-derived compounds are an abundant source of R. solanacearum T3SS regulators, which could prove useful as tools to interrogate the regulation of this key virulence pathway. PMID:26732647

  16. YopK regulates the Yersinia pestis type III secretion system from within host cells

    PubMed Central

    Dewoody, Rebecca; Merritt, Peter M.; Houppert, Andrew S.; Marketon, Melanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The pathogenic Yersinia species share a conserved type III secretion system, which delivers cytotoxic effectors known as Yops into target mammalian cells. In all three species, YopK (also called YopQ) plays an important role in regulating this process. In cell culture infections, yopK mutants inject higher levels of Yops, leading to increase cytotoxicity; however, in vivo the same mutants are highly attenuated. In this work, we investigate the mechanism behind this paradox. Using a β-lactamase reporter assay to directly measure the effect of YopK on translocation, we demonstrated that YopK controls the rate of Yop injection. Furthermore, we find that YopK cannot regulate effector Yop translocation from within the bacterial cytosol. YopE is also injected into host cells and was previously shown to contribute to regulation of the injectisome. In this work we show that YopK and YopE work at different steps to regulate Yop injection, with YopK functioning independently of YopE. Finally, by expressing YopK within tissue culture cells, we confirm that YopK regulates translocation from inside the host cell, and we show that cells pre-loaded with YopK are resistant to Yop injection. These results suggest a novel role for YopK in controlling the Yersinia type III secretion system. PMID:21205017

  17. Influence of obesity on surgical outcomes in type III paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsieh; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E

    2015-11-01

    Obesity was associated with poor treatment outcome in paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is controversial about the association is related to more severe fractures in obese children or obesity directly affects treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of obesity on surgical outcomes after control of fracture severity. This is a retrospective comparative study of 107 children treated for type III supracondylar humeral fractures between January 2009 and December 2013. Children were classified according to sex-specific body mass index (BMI)-for-age growth chart into 4 groups: underwe