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Sample records for coronavirus 3a protein

  1. The SARS Coronavirus 3a protein binds calcium in its cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Rinki; Padhan, Kartika; Rehman, Safikur; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-10-13

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a positive stranded RNA virus with ∼30kb genome. Among all open reading frames (orfs) of this virus, the orf3a is the largest, and encodes a protein of 274 amino acids, named as 3a protein. Sequence analysis suggests that the orf3a aligned to one calcium pump present in Plasmodium falciparum and the enzyme glutamine synthetase found in Leptospira interrogans. This sequence similarity was found to be limited only to amino acid residues 209-264 which form the cytoplasmic domain of the orf3a. Furthermore, this region was predicted to be involved in the calcium binding. Owing to this hypothesis, we were driven to establish its calcium binding property in vitro. Here, we expressed and purified the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein, called Cyto3a, as a recombinant His-tagged protein in the E. coli. The calcium binding nature was established by performing various staining methods such as ruthenium red and stains-all. (45)Ca overlay method was also done to further support the data. Since the 3a protein forms ion channels, we were interested to see any conformational changes occurring in the Cyot3a upon calcium binding, using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. These studies clearly indicate a significant change in the conformation of the Cyto3a protein after binding with calcium. Our results strongly suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein of SARS-CoV binds calcium in vitro, causing a change in protein conformation.

  2. [Coronaviruses].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2011-12-01

    Coronaviruses contain positive-stranded RNA with ca. 30 kb as a genome, which is wrapped by the envelope, and constitute Nidovirales together with Arteriviridae. The feature of viruses in Nidovirales is the unique structure of the mRNA set, called 3' co-terminal nested set. Coronaviruses have several to more than 10 different species of subgenomic mRNA and generally only the OFR located in the 5' end of each mRNA is translated. The 5' 20 kb of the coronavirus genome or mRNA-1 consists of two ORFs, 1a and 1b, between that there is a unique RNA structure called pseudoknot. From mRNA-1, 1a as well as 1a+1b are translated; the latter 1a+1b results from the translation due to ribosomal frame-shifting facilitated by the pseudoknot structure. From those two proteins, totally 16 proteins are produced as a result of auto-cleavage by the proteases included in la protein. Those proteins exhibit different functions, such as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicase, proteases and proteins that regulate cellular functions, mRNAs smaller than mRNA-2 translate in general the structural proteins, nucleocapsid (N) protein, spike (S) protein, integrated membrane (M) protein and envelope (E) proteins. Those proteins assemble to the vesicles located from ER to Golgi (ER Golgi intermediate compartment) and virions bud into the vesicles. Those virions are released from infected cells via exocytosis.

  3. Purified coronavirus spike protein nanoparticles induce coronavirus neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Christopher M; Liu, Ye V; Mu, Haiyan; Taylor, Justin K; Massare, Michael; Flyer, David C; Glenn, Gregory M; Smith, Gale E; Frieman, Matthew B

    2014-05-30

    Development of vaccination strategies for emerging pathogens are particularly challenging because of the sudden nature of their emergence and the long process needed for traditional vaccine development. Therefore, there is a need for development of a rapid method of vaccine development that can respond to emerging pathogens in a short time frame. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in late 2012 demonstrate the importance of coronaviruses as emerging pathogens. The spike glycoproteins of coronaviruses reside on the surface of the virion and are responsible for virus entry. The spike glycoprotein is the major immunodominant antigen of coronaviruses and has proven to be an excellent target for vaccine designs that seek to block coronavirus entry and promote antibody targeting of infected cells. Vaccination strategies for coronaviruses have involved live attenuated virus, recombinant viruses, non-replicative virus-like particles expressing coronavirus proteins or DNA plasmids expressing coronavirus genes. None of these strategies has progressed to an approved human coronavirus vaccine in the ten years since SARS-CoV emerged. Here we describe a novel method for generating MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV full-length spike nanoparticles, which in combination with adjuvants are able to produce high titer antibodies in mice.

  4. Comparison of lentiviruses pseudotyped with S proteins from coronaviruses and cell tropisms of porcine coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Feng; Ye, Gang; Dong, Wanyu; Zheng, Anjun; He, Qigai; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-02-01

    The surface glycoproteins of coronaviruses play an important role in receptor binding and cell entry. Different coronaviruses interact with their specific receptors to enter host cells. Lentiviruses pseudotyped with their spike proteins (S) were compared to analyze the entry efficiency of various coronaviruses. Our results indicated that S proteins from different coronaviruses displayed varied abilities to mediate pseudotyped virus infection. Furthermore, the cell tropisms of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been characterized by live and pseudotyped viruses. Both live and pseudoviruses could infected Vero- CCL-81 (monkey kidney), Huh-7 (human liver), and PK-15 (pig kidney) cells efficiently. CCL94 (cat kidney) cells could be infected efficiently by TGEV but not PEDV. Overall, our study provides new insights into the mechanisms of viral entry and forms a basis for antiviral drug screening.

  5. Neither the RNA nor the proteins of open reading frames 3a and 3b of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus are essential for replication.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Teri; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Gene 3 of infectious bronchitis virus is tricistronic; open reading frames (ORFs) 3a and 3b encode two small nonstructural (ns) proteins, 3a and 3b, of unknown function, and a third, structural protein E, is encoded by ORF 3c. To determine if either the 3a or the 3b protein is required for replication, we first modified their translation initiation codons to prevent translation of the 3a and 3b proteins from recombinant infectious bronchitis viruses (rIBVs). Replication in primary chick kidney (CK) cells and in chicken embryos was not affected. In chicken tracheal organ cultures (TOCs), the recombinant rIBVs reached titers similar to those of the wild-type virus, but in the case of viruses lacking the 3a protein, the titer declined reproducibly earlier. Translation of the IBV E protein is believed to be initiated by internal entry of ribosomes at a structure formed by the sequences corresponding to ORFs 3a and 3b. To assess the necessity of this mechanism, we deleted most of the sequence representing 3a and 3b to produce a gene in which ORF 3c (E) was adjacent to the gene 3 transcription-associated sequence. Western blot analysis revealed that the recombinant IBV produced fivefold less E protein. Nevertheless, titers produced in CK cells, embryos, and TOCs were similar to those of the wild-type virus, although they declined earlier in TOCs, probably due to the absence of the 3a protein. Thus, neither the tricistronic arrangement of gene 3, the internal initiation of translation of E protein, nor the 3a and 3b proteins are essential for replication per se, suggesting that these proteins are accessory proteins that may have roles in vivo.

  6. Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes.

    PubMed

    Hulswit, R J G; de Haan, C A M; Bosch, B-J

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes. The primary determinant of CoV tropism is the viral spike (S) entry protein. Trimers of the S glycoproteins on the virion surface accommodate binding to a cell surface receptor and fusion of the viral and cellular membrane. Recently, high-resolution structures of two CoV S proteins have been elucidated by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Using this new structural insight, we review the changes in the S protein that relate to changes in virus tropism. Different concepts underlie these tropism changes at the cellular, tissue, and host species level, including the promiscuity or adaptability of S proteins to orthologous receptors, alterations in the proteolytic cleavage activation as well as changes in the S protein metastability. A thorough understanding of the key role of the S protein in CoV entry is critical to further our understanding of virus cross-species transmission and pathogenesis and for development of intervention strategies.

  7. Trafficking motifs in the SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Reed, Mark L.; Hiscox, Julian A. . E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

    2007-07-13

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is involved in virus replication and modulation of cell processes. In this latter respect control may in part be achieved through the sub-cellular localisation of the protein. N protein predominately localises in the cytoplasm (the site of virus replication and assembly) but also in the nucleus/nucleolus. Using a combination of live-cell and confocal microscopy coupled to mutagenesis we identified a cryptic nucleolar localisation signal in the central part of the N protein. In addition, based on structural comparison to the avian coronavirus N protein, a nuclear export signal was identified in the C-terminal region of the protein.

  8. The nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV.

  9. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus.

  10. Pre-fusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N; Cottrell, Christopher A; Wang, Nianshuang; Pallesen, Jesper; Yassine, Hadi M; Turner, Hannah L; Corbett, Kizzmekia S; Graham, Barney S; McLellan, Jason S; Ward, Andrew B

    2016-03-03

    HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease, and is related to the zoonotic SARS and MERS betacoronaviruses, which have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 Å resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the pre-fusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest above the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known in other coronaviruses to bind protein receptors. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. These studies should also serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens.

  11. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)).

  12. The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein--forms and functions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-ke; Hou, Ming-Hon; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Huang, Tai-huang

    2014-03-01

    The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV N protein) packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) and plays a fundamental role during viral self-assembly. It is a protein with multifarious activities. In this article we will review our current understanding of the N protein structure and its interaction with nucleic acid. Highlights of the progresses include uncovering the modular organization, determining the structures of the structural domains, realizing the roles of protein disorder in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and visualizing the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structure inside the virions. It was also demonstrated that N-protein binds to nucleic acid at multiple sites with a coupled-allostery manner. We propose a SARS-CoV RNP model that conforms to existing data and bears resemblance to the existing RNP structures of RNA viruses. The model highlights the critical role of modular organization and intrinsic disorder of the N protein in the formation and functions of the dynamic RNP capsid in RNA viruses. This paper forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses."

  13. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra; Daskalova, Sasha M.; Lopez, Lisa A.; Dolezal, Kelly A.; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  14. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhui; Sui, Jianhua; Huang, I-Chueh; Kuhn, Jens H; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Marasco, Wayne A; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael

    2007-10-25

    The cellular receptor for human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), a group I coronavirus, is angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the receptor for the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a group II coronavirus. Here we describe the ability of HCoV-NL63 to utilize a number of ACE2 variants previously characterized as SARS-CoV receptors. Several ACE2 variants that reduced SARS-CoV S-protein association similarly reduced that of HCoV-NL63, whereas alteration of a number of solvent-exposed ACE2 residues did not interfere with binding by either S protein. One notable exception is ACE2 residue 354, at the boundary of the SARS-CoV binding site, whose alteration markedly inhibited utilization by the HCoV-NL63 but not SARS-CoV S proteins. In addition, the SARS-CoV S-protein receptor-binding domain inhibited entry mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein. These studies indicate that HCoV-NL63, like SARS-CoV, associates region of human ACE2 that includes a key loop formed by beta-strands 4 and 5.

  15. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein.

    PubMed

    Belouzard, Sandrine; Millet, Jean K; Licitra, Beth N; Whittaker, Gary R

    2012-06-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes-A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses.

  16. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    PubMed

    Hora, A S; Tonietti, P O; Taniwaki, S A; Asano, K M; Maiorka, P; Richtzenhain, L J; Brandão, P E

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a-c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  17. Understanding Viral Transmission Behavior via Protein Intrinsic Disorder Prediction: Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2012-01-01

    Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV) was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002–4. However, many aspects of CoV behavior, including modes of its transmission, are yet to be fully understood. We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used for the efficient analysis of the behavior and transmission modes of CoV. The proposed model allows categorization of the various CoVs by the peculiarities of disorder distribution in their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). This categorization enables quick identification of viruses with similar behaviors in transmission, regardless of genetic proximity. Based on this analysis, an empirical model for predicting the viral transmission behavior is developed. This model is able to explain some behavioral aspects of important coronaviruses that previously were not fully understood. The new predictor can be a useful tool for better epidemiological, clinical, and structural understanding of behavior of both newly emerging viruses and viruses that have been known for a long time. A potentially new vaccine strategy could involve searches for viral strains that are characterized by the evolutionary misfit between the peculiarities of the disorder distribution in their shells and their behavior. PMID:23097708

  18. Ready, Set, Fuse! The Coronavirus Spike Protein and Acquisition of Fusion Competence

    PubMed Central

    Heald-Sargent, Taylor; Gallagher, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Coronavirus-cell entry programs involve virus-cell membrane fusions mediated by viral spike (S) proteins. Coronavirus S proteins acquire membrane fusion competence by receptor interactions, proteolysis, and acidification in endosomes. This review describes our current understanding of the S proteins, their interactions with and their responses to these entry triggers. We focus on receptors and proteases in prompting entry and highlight the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) known to activate several virus fusion proteins. These and other proteases are essential cofactors permitting coronavirus infection, conceivably being in proximity to cell-surface receptors and thus poised to split entering spike proteins into the fragments that refold to mediate membrane fusion. The review concludes by noting how understanding of coronavirus entry informs antiviral therapies. PMID:22590686

  19. The nucleocapsid protein gene of bovine coronavirus is bicistronic.

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, S D; Hofmann, M A; Maki, J L; Brian, D A

    1992-01-01

    For animal RNA viruses that replicate through an RNA intermediate, reported examples of bicistronic mRNAs with overlapping open reading frames in which one cistron is contained entirely within another have been made only for those with negative-strand or double-stranded genomes. In this report, we demonstrate for the positive-strand bovine coronavirus that an overlapping open reading frame potentially encoding a 23-kDa protein (names the I [for internal open reading frame] protein) and lying entirely within the gene for the 49-kDa nucleocapsid phosphoprotein is expressed during virus replication from a single species of unedited mRNA. The I protein was specifically immunoprecipitated from virus-infected cells with an I-specific antipeptide serum and was shown to be membrane associated. Many features of I protein synthesis conform to the leaky ribosomal scanning model for regulation of translation. This, to our knowledge, is the first example of a bicistronic mRNA for a cytoplasmically replicating, positive-strand animal RNA virus in which one cistron entirely overlaps another. Images PMID:1501275

  20. Specific interaction between coronavirus leader RNA and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Stohlman, S.A.; Baric, R.S.; Nelson, G.N.; Soe, L.H.; Welter, L.M.; Deans, R.J.

    1988-11-01

    Northwestern blot analysis in the presence of competitor RNA was used to examine the interaction between the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid protein (N) and virus-specific RNAs. The authors accompanying article demonstrates that anti-N monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated all seven MHV-specific RNAs as well as the small leader-containing RNAs from infected cells. In this article the authors report that a Northwestern blotting protocol using radiolabeled viral RNAs in the presence of host cell competitor RNA can be used to demonstrate a high-affinity interaction between the MHV N protein and the virus-specific RNAs. Further, RNA probes prepared by in vitro transcription were used to define the sequences that participate in such high-affinity binding. A specific interaction occurs between the N protein and sequences contained with the leader RNA which is conserved at the 5' end of all MHV RNAs. They have further defined the binding sites to the area of nucleotides 56 to 65 at the 3' end of the leader RNA and suggest that this interaction may play an important role in the discontinuous nonprocessive RNA transcriptional process unique to coronaviruses.

  1. Interaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and NL63 coronavirus spike proteins with angiotensin converting enzyme-2.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Alison C; Bishop, Alexandra; Yao, Yongxiu; Kemp, Fred; Ren, Junyuan; Chen, Hongying; Xu, Xiaodong; Berkhout, Ben; van der Hoek, Lia; Jones, Ian M

    2008-11-01

    Although in different groups, the coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and NL63 use the same receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2, for entry into the host cell. Despite this common receptor, the consequence of entry is very different; severe respiratory distress in the case of SARS-CoV but frequently only a mild respiratory infection for NL63. Using a wholly recombinant system, we have investigated the ability of each virus receptor-binding protein, spike or S protein, to bind to ACE-2 in solution and on the cell surface. In both assays, we find that the NL63 S protein has a weaker interaction with ACE-2 than the SARS-CoV S protein, particularly in solution binding, but the residues required for contact are similar. We also confirm that the ACE-2-binding site of NL63 S lies between residues 190 and 739. A lower-affinity interaction with ACE-2 might partly explain the different pathological consequences of infection by SARS-CoV and NL63.

  2. Interaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus and NL63 coronavirus spike proteins with angiotensin converting enzyme-2

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Alison C.; Bishop, Alexandra; Yao, Yongxiu; Kemp, Fred; Ren, Junyuan; Chen, Hongying; Xu, Xiaodong; Berkhout, Ben; van der Hoek, Lia; Jones, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Although in different groups, the coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and NL63 use the same receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2, for entry into the host cell. Despite this common receptor, the consequence of entry is very different; severe respiratory distress in the case of SARS-CoV but frequently only a mild respiratory infection for NL63. Using a wholly recombinant system, we have investigated the ability of each virus receptor-binding protein, spike or S protein, to bind to ACE-2 in solution and on the cell surface. In both assays, we find that the NL63 S protein has a weaker interaction with ACE-2 than the SARS-CoV S protein, particularly in solution binding, but the residues required for contact are similar. We also confirm that the ACE-2-binding site of NL63 S lies between residues 190 and 739. A lower-affinity interaction with ACE-2 might partly explain the different pathological consequences of infection by SARS-CoV and NL63. PMID:18931070

  3. Analyses of Coronavirus Assembly Interactions with Interspecies Membrane and Nucleocapsid Protein Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Lili; Hurst-Hess, Kelley R.; Koetzner, Cheri A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The coronavirus membrane (M) protein is the central actor in virion morphogenesis. M organizes the components of the viral membrane, and interactions of M with itself and with the nucleocapsid (N) protein drive virus assembly and budding. In order to further define M-M and M-N interactions, we constructed mutants of the model coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which all or part of the M protein was replaced by its phylogenetically divergent counterpart from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We were able to obtain viable chimeras containing the entire SARS-CoV M protein as well as mutants with intramolecular substitutions that partitioned M protein at the boundaries between the ectodomain, transmembrane domains, or endodomain. Our results show that the carboxy-terminal domain of N protein, N3, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with M protein. However, despite some previous genetic and biochemical evidence that mapped interactions with N to the carboxy terminus of M, it was not possible to define a short linear region of M protein sufficient for assembly with N. Thus, interactions with N protein likely involve multiple linearly discontiguous regions of the M endodomain. The SARS-CoV M chimera exhibited a conditional growth defect that was partially suppressed by mutations in the envelope (E) protein. Moreover, virions of the M chimera were markedly deficient in spike (S) protein incorporation. These findings suggest that the interactions of M protein with both E and S protein are more complex than previously thought. IMPORTANCE The assembly of coronavirus virions entails concerted interactions among the viral structural proteins and the RNA genome. One strategy to study this process is through construction of interspecies chimeras that preserve or disrupt particular inter- or intramolecular associations. In this work, we replaced the membrane (M) protein of the model coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus with its

  4. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline coronavirus accessory protein 7b.

    PubMed

    Lemmermeyer, Tanja; Lamp, Benjamin; Schneider, Rainer; Ziebuhr, John; Tekes, Gergely; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2016-02-29

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) encode five accessory proteins termed 3a, 3b, 3c, 7a and 7b of unknown function. These proteins are dispensable for viral replication in vitro but are supposed to play a role in virulence. In the current study, we produced and characterized 7b-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A recombinant form of the 7b protein was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and used as immunogen. Two hybridoma lines, 5B6 and 14D8, were isolated that expressed mAbs that recognized 7b proteins of both FCoV serotypes. Using an extensive set of N- and C-terminally truncated 7b proteins expressed in E. coli and a synthetic peptide, the binding sites of mAbs 5B6 and 14D8 were mapped to an 18-residue region that comprises the only potential N-glycosylation site of the FCoV 7b protein. The two mAbs were suitable to detect a 24-kDa protein, which represents the nonglycosylated form of 7b in FCoV-infected cells. We speculate that glycosylation of 7b is part of the viral evasion strategy to prevent an immune response against this antigenic site.

  5. Differential downregulation of ACE2 by the spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Glowacka, Ilona; Bertram, Stephanie; Herzog, Petra; Pfefferle, Susanne; Steffen, Imke; Muench, Marcus O; Simmons, Graham; Hofmann, Heike; Kuri, Thomas; Weber, Friedemann; Eichler, Jutta; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The human coronaviruses (CoVs) severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and NL63 employ angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry. It was shown that recombinant SARS-CoV spike protein (SARS-S) downregulates ACE2 expression and thereby promotes lung injury. Whether NL63-S exerts a similar activity is yet unknown. We found that recombinant SARS-S bound to ACE2 and induced ACE2 shedding with higher efficiency than NL63-S. Shedding most likely accounted for the previously observed ACE2 downregulation but was dispensable for viral replication. Finally, SARS-CoV but not NL63 replicated efficiently in ACE2-positive Vero cells and reduced ACE2 expression, indicating robust receptor interference in the context of SARS-CoV but not NL63 infection.

  6. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Coronaviruses Acts as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Wang, Haiying; Ji, Yanxi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Shan; Huang, Xingyu; Wang, Zidao; Qin, Lei; Tien, Po; Zhou, Xi; Guo, Deyin; Chen, Yu

    2015-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of eukaryotic posttranscriptional gene silencing that functions in antiviral immunity in plants, nematodes, and insects. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi also plays a role in antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells. To combat RNAi-mediated antiviral responses, many viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR) to facilitate their replication. VSRs have been widely studied for plant and insect viruses, but only a few have been defined for mammalian viruses currently. We identified a novel VSR from coronaviruses, a group of medically important mammalian viruses including Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and showed that the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of coronaviruses suppresses RNAi triggered by either short hairpin RNAs or small interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is closely related to SARS-CoV in the family Coronaviridae and was used as a coronavirus replication model. The replication of MHV increased when the N proteins were expressed in trans, while knockdown of Dicer1 or Ago2 transcripts facilitated the MHV replication in mammalian cells. These results support the hypothesis that RNAi is a part of the antiviral immunity responses in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE RNAi has been well known to play important antiviral roles from plants to invertebrates. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi is also involved in antiviral response in mammalian cells. An important indication for RNAi-mediated antiviral activity in mammals is the fact that a number of mammalian viruses encode potent suppressors of RNA silencing. Our results demonstrate that coronavirus N protein could function as a VSR through its double-stranded RNA binding activity. Mutational analysis of N protein allowed us to find out the critical residues for the VSR activity. Using the MHV-A59 as the coronavirus replication model, we showed that ectopic expression

  7. IFITM Proteins Inhibit Entry Driven by the MERS-Coronavirus Spike Protein: Evidence for Cholesterol-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Winkler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins 1, 2 and 3 inhibit the host cell entry of several enveloped viruses, potentially by promoting the accumulation of cholesterol in endosomal compartments. IFITM3 is essential for control of influenza virus infection in mice and humans. In contrast, the role of IFITM proteins in coronavirus infection is less well defined. Employing a retroviral vector system for analysis of coronavirus entry, we investigated the susceptibility of human-adapted and emerging coronaviruses to inhibition by IFITM proteins. We found that entry of the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is sensitive to inhibition by IFITM proteins. In 293T cells, IFITM-mediated inhibition of cellular entry of the emerging MERS- and SARS-CoV was less efficient than blockade of entry of the globally circulating human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. Similar differences were not observed in A549 cells, suggesting that cellular context and/or IFITM expression levels can impact inhibition efficiency. The differential IFITM-sensitivity of coronaviruses observed in 293T cells afforded the opportunity to investigate whether efficiency of entry inhibition by IFITMs and endosomal cholesterol accumulation correlate. No such correlation was observed. Furthermore, entry mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin was robustly inhibited by IFITM3 but was insensitive to accumulation of endosomal cholesterol, indicating that modulation of cholesterol synthesis/transport did not account for the antiviral activity of IFITM3. Collectively, these results show that the emerging MERS-CoV is a target of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins and demonstrate that mechanisms other than accumulation of endosomal cholesterol can contribute to viral entry inhibition by IFITMs. PMID:25256397

  8. Bioinformatics and functional analyses of coronavirus nonstructural proteins involved in the formation of replicative organelles.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Benjamin W

    2016-11-01

    Replication of eukaryotic positive-stranded RNA viruses is usually linked to the presence of membrane-associated replicative organelles. The purpose of this review is to discuss the function of proteins responsible for formation of the coronavirus replicative organelle. This will be done by identifying domains that are conserved across the order Nidovirales, and by summarizing what is known about function and structure at the level of protein domains.

  9. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  10. Protein-Protein Interactions of Viroporins in Coronaviruses and Paramyxoviruses: New Targets for Antivirals?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jaume; Surya, Wahyu; Li, Yan; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are members of a rapidly growing family of channel-forming small polypeptides found in viruses. The present review will be focused on recent structural and protein-protein interaction information involving two viroporins found in enveloped viruses that target the respiratory tract; (i) the envelope protein in coronaviruses and (ii) the small hydrophobic protein in paramyxoviruses. Deletion of these two viroporins leads to viral attenuation in vivo, whereas data from cell culture shows involvement in the regulation of stress and inflammation. The channel activity and structure of some representative members of these viroporins have been recently characterized in some detail. In addition, searches for protein-protein interactions using yeast-two hybrid techniques have shed light on possible functional roles for their exposed cytoplasmic domains. A deeper analysis of these interactions should not only provide a more complete overview of the multiple functions of these viroporins, but also suggest novel strategies that target protein-protein interactions as much needed antivirals. These should complement current efforts to block viroporin channel activity. PMID:26053927

  11. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships.

  12. Canine enteric coronaviruses: emerging viral pathogens with distinct recombinant spike proteins.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Beth N; Duhamel, Gerald E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2014-08-22

    Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. While CCoV has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal CCoV infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. Consequently, CCoV is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. In addition to the two known serotypes of CCoV, novel recombinant variants of CCoV have been found containing spike protein N-terminal domains (NTDs) that are closely related to those of feline and porcine strains. The increase in disease severity in dogs and the emergence of novel CCoVs can be attributed to the high level of recombination within the spike gene that can occur during infection by more than one CCoV type in the same host.

  13. The nonstructural protein 8 (nsp8) of the SARS coronavirus interacts with its ORF6 accessory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Purnima; Gunalan, Vithiagaran; Liu Boping; Chow, Vincent T.K.; Druce, Julian; Birch, Chris; Catton, Mike; Fielding, Burtram C.; Tan, Yee-Joo; Lal, Sunil K.

    2007-09-30

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused a severe outbreak in several regions of the world in 2003. The SARS-CoV genome is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF (1a and 1b) encodes a large polyprotein that is cleaved into nonstructural proteins (nsp). The other ORFs encode for four structural proteins (spike, membrane, nucleocapsid and envelope) as well as eight SARS-CoV-specific accessory proteins (3a, 3b, 6, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b and 9b). In this report we have cloned the predicted nsp8 gene and the ORF6 gene of the SARS-CoV and studied their abilities to interact with each other. We expressed the two proteins as fusion proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system to demonstrate protein-protein interactions and tested the same using a yeast genetic cross. Further the strength of the interaction was measured by challenging growth of the positive interaction clones on increasing gradients of 2-amino trizole. The interaction was then verified by expressing both proteins separately in-vitro in a coupled-transcription translation system and by coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells. Finally, colocalization experiments were performed in SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 mammalian cells to confirm the nsp8-ORF6 interaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction between a SARS-CoV accessory protein and nsp8 and our findings suggest that ORF6 protein may play a role in virus replication.

  14. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    PubMed Central

    Hora, A. S.; Tonietti, P. O.; Taniwaki, S. A.; Asano, K. M.; Maiorka, P.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Brandão, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account. PMID:27243037

  15. Dissection of Amino-Terminal Functional Domains of Murine Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Hurst-Hess, Kelley R.; Kuo, Lili

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses, the largest RNA viruses, have a complex program of RNA synthesis that entails genome replication and transcription of subgenomic mRNAs. RNA synthesis by the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is carried out by a replicase-transcriptase composed of 16 nonstructural protein (nsp) subunits. Among these, nsp3 is the largest and the first to be inserted into the endoplasmic reticulum. nsp3 comprises multiple structural domains, including two papain-like proteases (PLPs) and a highly conserved ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (ADRP) macrodomain. We have previously shown that the ubiquitin-like domain at the amino terminus of nsp3 is essential and participates in a critical interaction with the viral nucleocapsid protein early in infection. In the current study, we exploited atypical expression schemes to uncouple PLP1 from the processing of nsp1 and nsp2 in order to investigate the requirements of nsp3 domains for viral RNA synthesis. In the first strategy, a mutant was created in which replicase polyprotein translation initiated with nsp3, thereby establishing that complete elimination of nsp1 and nsp2 does not abolish MHV viability. In the second strategy, a picornavirus autoprocessing element was used to separate a truncated nsp1 from nsp3. This provided a platform for further dissection of amino-terminal domains of nsp3. From this, we found that catalytic mutation of PLP1 or complete deletion of PLP1 and the adjacent ADRP domain was tolerated by the virus. These results showed that neither the PLP1 domain nor the ADRP domain of nsp3 provides integral activities essential for coronavirus genomic or subgenomic RNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE The largest component of the coronavirus replicase-transcriptase complex, nsp3, contains multiple modules, many of which do not have clearly defined functions in genome replication or transcription. These domains may play direct roles in RNA synthesis, or they may have evolved for other purposes, such as

  16. Acquisition of new protein domains by coronaviruses: analysis of overlapping genes coding for proteins N and 9b in SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Acquisition of new proteins by viruses usually occurs through horizontal gene transfer or through gene duplication, but another, less common mechanism is the usage of completely or partially overlapping reading frames. A case of acquisition of a completely new protein through introduction of a start codon in an alternative reading frame is the protein encoded by open reading frame (orf) 9b of SARS coronavirus. This gene completely overlaps with the nucleocapsid (N) gene (orf9a). Our findings indicate that the orf9b gene features a discordant codon-usage pattern. We analyzed the evolution of orf9b in concert with orf9a using sequence data of betacoronavirus-lineage b and found that orf9b, which encodes the overprinting protein, evolved largely independent of the overprinted orf9a. We also examined the protein products of these genomic sequences for their structural flexibility and found that it is not necessary for a newly acquired, overlapping protein product to be intrinsically disordered, in contrast to earlier suggestions. Our findings contribute to characterizing sequence properties of newly acquired genes making use of overlapping reading frames.

  17. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  18. Structure and intracellular targeting of the SARS-coronavirus Orf7a accessory protein.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher A; Pekosz, Andrew; Lee, Chung A; Diamond, Michael S; Fremont, Daved H

    2005-01-01

    The open reading frame (ORF) 7a of the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes a unique type I transmembrane protein of unknown function. We have determined the 1.8 A resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal ectodomain of orf7a, revealing a compact seven-stranded beta sandwich unexpectedly similar in fold and topology to members of the Ig superfamily. We also demonstrate that, in SARS-CoV- infected cells, the orf7a protein is expressed and retained intracellularly. Confocal microscopy studies using orf7a and orf7a/CD4 chimeras implicate the short cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain in trafficking of the protein within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi network. Taken together, our findings provide a structural and cellular framework in which to explore the role of orf7a in SARS-CoV pathogenesis.

  19. Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (p28) is an RNA binding protein that binds terminal genomic cis-replication elements.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Kortney M; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Brian, David A

    2009-06-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), a 28-kDa protein in the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and closely related mouse hepatitis coronavirus, is the first protein cleaved from the open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) polyprotein product of genome translation. Recently, a 30-nucleotide (nt) cis-replication stem-loop VI (SLVI) has been mapped at nt 101 to 130 within a 288-nt 5'-terminal segment of the 738-nt nsp1 cistron in a BCoV defective interfering (DI) RNA. Since a similar nsp1 coding region appears in all characterized groups 1 and 2 coronavirus DI RNAs and must be translated in cis for BCoV DI RNA replication, we hypothesized that nsp1 might regulate ORF 1 expression by binding this intra-nsp1 cistronic element. Here, we (i) establish by mutation analysis that the 72-nt intracistronic SLV immediately upstream of SLVI is also a DI RNA cis-replication signal, (ii) show by gel shift and UV-cross-linking analyses that cellular proteins of approximately 60 and 100 kDa, but not viral proteins, bind SLV and SLVI, (SLV-VI) and (iii) demonstrate by gel shift analysis that nsp1 purified from Escherichia coli does not bind SLV-VI but does bind three 5' untranslated region (UTR)- and one 3' UTR-located cis-replication SLs. Notably, nsp1 specifically binds SLIII and its flanking sequences in the 5' UTR with approximately 2.5 muM affinity. Additionally, under conditions enabling expression of nsp1 from DI RNA-encoded subgenomic mRNA, DI RNA levels were greatly reduced, but there was only a slight transient reduction in viral RNA levels. These results together indicate that nsp1 is an RNA-binding protein that may function to regulate viral genome translation or replication but not by binding SLV-VI within its own coding region.

  20. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Coronaviruses are common viruses that most people get some time in their life. They are common throughout the world, and they can infect people and animals. Several different coronaviruses can infect people ...

  1. Reactivity of anti-PEDV structural protein antibodies to porcine enteric coronaviruses: diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Lirola, Luis Gabriel; Zhang, Jianqiang; Carrillo-Avila, Jose Antonio; Chen, Qi; Magtoto, Ronaldo; Poonsuk, Korakrit; Baum, David H; Piñeyro, Pablo; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    2017-02-15

    The development of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) antibody-based assays is important for detecting infected animals, confirming previous virus exposure, and monitoring sow herd immunity. However, the potential cross-reactivity among porcine coronaviruses is a major concern for the development of pathogen-specific assays. In this study, we used serum samples (n = 792) from pigs of precisely known infection status and a multiplex fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay and/or enzyme-linked immunoassay platform to characterize the antibody response against PEDV whole-virus (WV) particles and recombinant polypeptides derived from the four PEDV structural proteins, i.e., spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), membrane (M), and envelope (E). Antibody assay cut-off values were selected to provide 100% diagnostic specificity for each target. The earliest IgG antibody response was observed at days 7--10 post-infection, mainly directed against S1 polypeptides. With the exception of non-reactive protein E, we observed a similar antibody ontogeny and pattern of seroconversion for S1, N, M, and WV antigens. Recombinant S1 provided the best diagnostic sensitivity, regardless of PEDV strain, with no cross-reactivity detected against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), or porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) pig antisera. The WV particles showed some cross-reactivity against TGEV Miller and TGEV Purdue antisera, while N protein presented some cross-reactivity against TGEV Miller. The M protein was highly cross-reactive against TGEV and PRCV antisera. Differences in the antibody response against specific PEDV structural proteins have important implications in the development and performance of antibody assays for the diagnosis of PEDV enteric disease.

  2. In Situ Tagged nsp15 Reveals Interactions with Coronavirus Replication/Transcription Complex-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Athmer, Jeremiah; Fehr, Anthony R.; Grunewald, Matthew; Smith, Everett Clinton; Denison, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronavirus (CoV) replication and transcription are carried out in close proximity to restructured endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in replication/transcription complexes (RTC). Many of the CoV nonstructural proteins (nsps) are required for RTC function; however, not all of their functions are known. nsp15 contains an endoribonuclease domain that is conserved in the CoV family. While the enzymatic activity and crystal structure of nsp15 are well defined, its role in replication remains elusive. nsp15 localizes to sites of RNA replication, but whether it acts independently or requires additional interactions for its function remains unknown. To begin to address these questions, we created an in situ tagged form of nsp15 using the prototypic CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). In MHV, nsp15 contains the genomic RNA packaging signal (P/S), a 95-bp RNA stem-loop structure that is not required for viral replication or nsp15 function. Utilizing this knowledge, we constructed an internal hemagglutinin (HA) tag that replaced the P/S. We found that nsp15-HA was localized to discrete perinuclear puncta and strongly colocalized with nsp8 and nsp12, both well-defined members of the RTC, but not the membrane (M) protein, involved in virus assembly. Finally, we found that nsp15 interacted with RTC-associated proteins nsp8 and nsp12 during infection, and this interaction was RNA independent. From this, we conclude that nsp15 localizes and interacts with CoV proteins in the RTC, suggesting it plays a direct or indirect role in virus replication. Furthermore, the use of in situ epitope tags could be used to determine novel nsp-nsp interactions in coronaviruses. PMID:28143984

  3. Coronavirus receptor switch explained from the stereochemistry of protein-carbohydrate interactions and a single mutation.

    PubMed

    Bakkers, Mark J G; Zeng, Qinghong; Feitsma, Louris J; Hulswit, Ruben J G; Li, Zeshi; Westerbeke, Aniek; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Boons, Geert-Jan; Langereis, Martijn A; Huizinga, Eric G; de Groot, Raoul J

    2016-05-31

    Hemagglutinin-esterases (HEs) are bimodular envelope proteins of orthomyxoviruses, toroviruses, and coronaviruses with a carbohydrate-binding "lectin" domain appended to a receptor-destroying sialate-O-acetylesterase ("esterase"). In concert, these domains facilitate dynamic virion attachment to cell-surface sialoglycans. Most HEs (type I) target 9-O-acetylated sialic acids (9-O-Ac-Sias), but one group of coronaviruses switched to using 4-O-Ac-Sias instead (type II). This specificity shift required quasisynchronous adaptations in the Sia-binding sites of both lectin and esterase domains. Previously, a partially disordered crystal structure of a type II HE revealed how the shift in lectin ligand specificity was achieved. How the switch in esterase substrate specificity was realized remained unresolved, however. Here, we present a complete structure of a type II HE with a receptor analog in the catalytic site and identify the mutations underlying the 9-O- to 4-O-Ac-Sia substrate switch. We show that (i) common principles pertaining to the stereochemistry of protein-carbohydrate interactions were at the core of the transition in lectin ligand and esterase substrate specificity; (ii) in consequence, the switch in O-Ac-Sia specificity could be readily accomplished via convergent intramolecular coevolution with only modest architectural changes in lectin and esterase domains; and (iii) a single, inconspicuous Ala-to-Ser substitution in the catalytic site was key to the emergence of the type II HEs. Our findings provide fundamental insights into how proteins "see" sugars and how this affects protein and virus evolution.

  4. Antibody-dependent SARS coronavirus infection is mediated by antibodies against spike proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Shen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Liu, Wu-Tse; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Huang, Jason C

    2014-08-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the FcγRII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis.

  5. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a viroporin involved in virulence. E protein ion channel (IC) activity is specifically correlated with enhanced pulmonary damage, edema accumulation and death. IL-1β driven proinflammation is associated with those pathological signatures, however its link to IC activity remains unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV E protein forms protein-lipid channels in ERGIC/Golgi membranes that are permeable to calcium ions, a highly relevant feature never reported before. Calcium ions together with pH modulated E protein pore charge and selectivity. Interestingly, E protein IC activity boosted the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β overproduction. Calcium transport through the E protein IC was the main trigger of this process. These findings strikingly link SARS-CoV E protein IC induced ionic disturbances at the cell level to immunopathological consequences and disease worsening in the infected organism.

  6. The ORF4b-encoded accessory proteins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and two related bat coronaviruses localize to the nucleus and inhibit innate immune signalling.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Krystal L; Coleman, Christopher M; van der Meer, Yvonne; Snijder, Eric J; Frieman, Matthew B

    2014-04-01

    The recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a betacoronavirus, is associated with severe pneumonia and renal failure. The environmental origin of MERS-CoV is as yet unknown; however, its genome sequence is closely related to those of two bat coronaviruses, named BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5, which were derived from Chinese bat samples. A hallmark of highly pathogenic respiratory viruses is their ability to evade the innate immune response of the host. CoV accessory proteins, for example those from severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), have been shown to block innate antiviral signalling pathways. MERS-CoV, similar to SARS-CoV, has been shown to inhibit type I IFN induction in a variety of cell types in vitro. We therefore hypothesized that MERS-CoV and the phylogenetically related BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5 may encode proteins with similar capabilities. In this study, we have demonstrated that the ORF4b-encoded accessory protein (p4b) of MERS-CoV, BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5 may indeed facilitate innate immune evasion by inhibiting the type I IFN and NF-κB signalling pathways. We also analysed the subcellular localization of p4b from MERS-CoV, BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5 and demonstrated that all are localized to the nucleus.

  7. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-11-25

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-{delta}E) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E{sup +} cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-{delta}E infected BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-{delta}E virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-{delta}E subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E{sup -} cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation.

  8. Cleavage of spike protein of SARS coronavirus by protease factor Xa is associated with viral infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Lanying; Kao, Richard Y.; Zhou, Yusen; He, Yuxian; Zhao, Guangyu; Wong, Charlotte; Jiang, Shibo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Jin, Dong-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian . E-mail: bzheng@hkucc.hku.hk

    2007-07-20

    The spike (S) protein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been known to recognize and bind to host receptors, whose conformational changes then facilitate fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membrane, leading to viral entry into target cells. However, other functions of SARS-CoV S protein such as proteolytic cleavage and its implications to viral infection are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the infection of SARS-CoV and a pseudovirus bearing the S protein of SARS-CoV was inhibited by a protease inhibitor Ben-HCl. Also, the protease Factor Xa, a target of Ben-HCl abundantly expressed in infected cells, was able to cleave the recombinant and pseudoviral S protein into S1 and S2 subunits, and the cleavage was inhibited by Ben-HCl. Furthermore, this cleavage correlated with the infectivity of the pseudovirus. Taken together, our study suggests a plausible mechanism by which SARS-CoV cleaves its S protein to facilitate viral infection.

  9. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Huib H.; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways. It is unknown whether cellular infection by MERS-CoV activates the stress response pathway or whether the virus has evolved strategies to suppress this infection-limiting pathway. Here, we show that cellular infection with MERS-CoV does not lead to the formation of SGs. By transiently expressing the MERS-CoV accessory proteins individually, we identified a role of protein 4a (p4a) in preventing activation of the stress response pathway. Expression of MERS-CoV p4a impeded dsRNA-mediated PKR activation, thereby rescuing translation inhibition and preventing SG formation. In contrast, p4a failed to suppress stress response pathway activation that is independent of PKR and dsRNA. MERS-CoV p4a is a dsRNA binding protein. Mutation of the dsRNA binding motif in p4a disrupted its PKR antagonistic activity. By inserting p4a in a picornavirus lacking its natural PKR antagonist, we showed that p4a exerts PKR antagonistic activity also under infection conditions. However, a recombinant MERS-CoV deficient in p4a expression still suppressed SG formation, indicating the expression of at least one other stress response antagonist. This virus also suppressed the dsRNA-independent stress response pathway. Thus, MERS-CoV interferes with antiviral stress responses using at least two different mechanisms, with p4a

  10. A facile inhibitor screening of SARS coronavirus N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun

    2012-01-01

    Hundreds of million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the rate of global death from SARS has remarkably increased. Hence, the development of efficient drug treatments for the biological effects of SARS is highly needed. We have previously shown that quantum dots (QDs)-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide is sensitive to the specific recognition of the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. In this study, we found that a designed biochip could analyze inhibitors of the SARS-CoV N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. Among the polyphenolic compounds examined, (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate demonstrated a remarkable inhibition activity on SARS-CoV N protein. (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate attenuated the binding affinity in a concentrated manner as evidenced by QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide on a designed biochip. At a concentration of 0.05 μg mL(-1), (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate showed more than 40% inhibition activity on a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide biochip system.

  11. Structural Genomics of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the Protein nsP7

    PubMed Central

    Peti, Wolfgang; Johnson, Margaret A.; Herrmann, Torsten; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Nelson, Mike; Joseph, Jeremiah; Page, Rebecca; Stevens, Raymond C.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nsP7, a component of the SARS-CoV replicase polyprotein. The coronavirus replicase carries out regulatory tasks involved in the maintenance, transcription, and replication of the coronavirus genome. nsP7 was found to assume a compact architecture in solution, which is comprised primarily of helical secondary structures. Three helices (α2 to α4) form a flat up-down-up antiparallel α-helix sheet. The N-terminal segment of residues 1 to 22, containing two turns of α-helix and one turn of 310-helix, is packed across the surface of α2 and α3 in the helix sheet, with the α-helical region oriented at a 60° angle relative to α2 and α3. The surface charge distribution is pronouncedly asymmetrical, with the flat surface of the helical sheet showing a large negatively charged region adjacent to a large hydrophobic patch and the opposite side containing a positively charged groove that extends along the helix α1. Each of these three areas is thus implicated as a potential site for protein-protein interactions. PMID:16188992

  12. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Limits Interferon Production by Inducing a Host Shutoff That Requires Accessory Protein 5b

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), establish host shutoff via their nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1). The Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus genomes, however, do not encode nsp1, and it has been suggested that these viruses do not induce host shutoff. Here, we show that the Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) does induce host shutoff, and we find that its accessory protein 5b is indispensable for this function. Importantly, we found that 5b-null viruses, unlike wild-type viruses, induce production of high concentrations of type I interferon protein in vitro, indicating that host shutoff by IBV plays an important role in antagonizing the host's innate immune response. Altogether, we demonstrate that 5b is a functional equivalent of nsp1, thereby answering the longstanding question of whether lack of nsp1 in gammacoronaviruses is compensated for by another viral protein. As such, our study is a significant step forward in the understanding of coronavirus biology and closes a gap in the understanding of some IBV virulence strategies. IMPORTANCE Many viruses inhibit protein synthesis by their host cell to enhance virus replication and to antagonize antiviral defense mechanisms. This process is referred to as host shutoff. We studied gene expression and protein synthesis in chicken cells infected with the important poultry pathogen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). We show that IBV inhibits synthesis of host proteins, including that of type I interferon, a key component of the antiviral response. The IBV-induced host shutoff, however, does not require degradation of host RNA. Furthermore, we

  13. RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions in coronavirus replication and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sola, Isabel; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Almazan, Fernando; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Coronavirus (CoV) RNA synthesis includes the replication of the viral genome, and the transcription of sgRNAs by a discontinuous mechanism. Both processes are regulated by RNA sequences such as the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), and the transcription regulating sequences (TRSs) of the leader (TRS-L) and those preceding each gene (TRS-Bs). These distant RNA regulatory sequences interact with each other directly and probably through protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions involving viral and cellular proteins.1 By analogy to other plus-stranded RNA viruses, such as polioviruses, in which translation and replication switch involves a cellular factor (PCBP) and a viral protein (3CD),2 it is conceivable that in CoVs the switch between replication and transcription is also associated with the binding of proteins that are specifically recruited by the replication or transcription complexes. Complexes between RNA motifs such as TRS-L and the TRS-Bs located along the CoV genome are probably formed previously to the transcription start, and most likely promote template-switch of the nascent minus RNA to the TRS-L region.3 Many cellular proteins interacting with regulatory CoV RNA sequences4 are members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of RNA-binding proteins, involved in mRNA processing and transport, which shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the context of CoV RNA synthesis, these cellular ribonucleoproteins might also participate in RNA-protein complexes to bring into physical proximity TRS-L and distant TRS-B, as proposed for CoV discontinuous transcription.5–7 In this review, we summarize RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions that represent modest examples of complex quaternary RNA-protein structures required for the fine-tuning of virus replication. Design of chemically defined replication and transcription systems will help to clarify the nature and activity of these structures. PMID:21378501

  14. Development of a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein based immunoassay for detection of antibodies against human coronavirus OC43.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Elisabeth G; Miao, Congrong; Haupt, Thomas E; Anderson, Larry J; Haynes, Lia M

    2011-10-01

    Human coronaviruses are one of the main causes of upper respiratory tract infections in humans. While more often responsible for mild illness, they have been associated with illnesses that require hospitalization. In this study, an assay for one of the human coronaviruses, OC43, was developed using a truncated recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein antigen in an enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and evaluated using serum collected from HCoV-OC43-infected patients, healthy adults, and patients with other respiratory virus infections. Results showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 90.9% (10/11) and 82.9% (39/47), respectively. To evaluate the clinical utility of the ELISA, serum samples collected from patients during an outbreak of HCoV-OC43 infection and previously identified as positive by HCoV-OC43 whole N ELISA were screened resulting in 100% diagnosis agreement between the testing methods. These results suggest that this assay offers a reliable method to detect HCoV-OC43 infection and may be a useful tool in coronavirus seroepidemiological studies.

  15. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  16. Full genome sequence of guinea fowl coronavirus associated with fulminating disease.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F; Liais, Etienne; Croville, Guillaume; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    Guinea fowl coronavirus (GfCoV), a recently characterized avian coronavirus, was identified from outbreaks of fulminating disease (peracute enteritis) in guinea fowl in France. The full-length genomic sequence was determined to better understand its genetic relationship with avian coronaviruses. The full-length coding genome sequence was 26,985 nucleotides long with 11 open reading frames and no hemagglutinin-esterase gene: a genome organization identical to that of turkey coronavirus [5' untranslated region (UTR)-replicase (ORFs 1a, 1ab)-spike (S) protein-ORF3 (ORFs 3a, 3b)-small envelop (E or 3c) protein-membrane (M) protein-ORF5 (ORFs 4b, 4c, 5a, 5b)-nucleocapsid (N) protein (ORFs N and 6b)-3' UTR]. This is the first complete genome sequence of a GfCoV and confirms that the new virus belongs to group gammacoronaviruses.

  17. About Coronavirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold. Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes ... to moderate upper-respiratory tract illnesses, like the common cold, that last for a short amount of time. ...

  18. Manipulation of the infectious bronchitis coronavirus genome for vaccine development and analysis of the accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave; Casais, Rosa; Armesto, Maria; Hodgson, Teri; Izadkhasti, Sousan; Davies, Marc; Lin, Fengsheng; Tarpey, Ian; Britton, Paul

    2007-07-26

    Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) is the cause of the single most economically costly infectious disease of domestic fowl in the UK--and probably so in many countries that have a developed poultry industry. A major reason for its continued dominance is its existence as many serotypes, determined by the surface spike protein (S), cross-protection being poor. Although controlled to some degree by live and inactivated vaccines, a new generation of IB vaccines is called for. Reverse genetic or 'infectious clone' systems, which allow the manipulation of the IBV genome, are key to this development. New vaccines would ideally be: genetically stable (i.e. maintain a stable attenuated phenotype); administered in ovo; and be flexible with respect to the source of the spike protein gene. Rational attenuation of IBV requires the identification of genes that are simultaneously not essential for replication and whose absence would reduce pathogenicity. Being able to modify a 'core' vaccine strain to make it applicable to a prevailing serotype requires a procedure for doing so, and the demonstration that 'spike-swapping' is sufficient to induce good immunity. We have demonstrated that four small IBV proteins, encoded by genes 3 and 5, are not essential for replication; failure to produce these proteins had little detrimental affect on the titre of virus produced. Our current molecularly cloned IBV, strain Beaudette, is non-pathogenic, so we do not know what effect the absence of these proteins would have on pathogenicity. That said, plaque size and composition of various gene 3/5 recombinant IBVs in cell culture, and reduced output and ciliostasis in tracheal organ cultures, shows that they are less aggressive than the wild-type Beaudette. Consequently these genes remain targets for rational attenuation. We have recently obtained evidence that one or more of the 15 proteins encoded by gene 1 are also determinants of pathogenicity. Hence gene 1 is also a target for rational

  19. An overall picture of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome-encoded major proteins: structures, functions and drug development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Luo, Haibin; Chen, Lili; Chen, Jing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhu, Weiliang; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-01-01

    A severe atypical pneumonia designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by The World Health Organization broke out in China and menaced to more than other 30 countries between the end of the year 2002 and June of the year 2003. A novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been recently identified as the etiological agent responsible for the infectious SARS disease. Based on extensively scientific cooperation and almost two-year's studies, remarkable achievements have been made in the understanding of the phylogenetic property and the genome organization of SARS-CoV, as well as the detailed characters of the major proteins involved in SARS-CoV life cycle. In this review, we would like to summarize the substantial scientific progress that has been made towards the structural and functional aspects of SARS-CoV associated key proteins. The progress focused on the corresponding key proteins' structure-based drug and vaccine developments has been also highlighted. The concerted and cooperative response for the treatment of the SARS disease has been proved to be a triumph of global public health and provides a new paradigm for the detection and control of future emerging infectious disease threats.

  20. Proteolytic activation of the SARS-coronavirus spike protein: cutting enzymes at the cutting edge of antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Graham; Zmora, Pawel; Gierer, Stefanie; Heurich, Adeline; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic revealed that zoonotic transmission of animal coronaviruses (CoV) to humans poses a significant threat to public health and warrants surveillance and the development of countermeasures. The activity of host cell proteases, which cleave and activate the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, is essential for viral infectivity and constitutes a target for intervention. However, the identities of the proteases involved have been unclear. Pioneer studies identified cathepsins and type II transmembrane serine proteases as cellular activators of SARS-CoV and demonstrated that several emerging viruses might exploit these enzymes to promote their spread. Here, we will review the proteolytic systems hijacked by SARS-CoV for S protein activation, we will discuss their contribution to viral spread in the host and we will outline antiviral strategies targeting these enzymes. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.''

  1. Replication-dependent downregulation of cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein expression by human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F; Deijs, Martin; Milewska, Aleksandra; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Buelow, Elena; van der Bijl, Anna; van der Hoek, Lia

    2012-09-01

    Like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 employs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor for cellular entry. SARS-CoV infection causes robust downregulation of cellular ACE2 expression levels and it has been suggested that the SARS-CoV effect on ACE2 is involved in the severity of disease. We investigated whether cellular ACE2 downregulation occurs at optimal replication conditions of HCoV-NL63 infection. The expression of the homologue of ACE2, the ACE protein not used as a receptor by HCoV-NL63, was measured as a control. A specific decrease for ACE2 protein level was observed when HCoV-NL63 was cultured at 34 °C. Culturing the virus at the suboptimal temperature of 37 °C resulted in low replication of the virus and the effect on ACE2 expression was lost. We conclude that the decline of ACE2 expression is dependent on the efficiency of HCoV-NL63 replication, and that HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV both affect cellular ACE2 expression during infection.

  2. Human coronavirus 229E nonstructural protein 13: characterization of duplex-unwinding, nucleoside triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Konstantin A; Ziebuhr, John

    2004-07-01

    The human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) replicase gene-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) contains an N-terminal zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal superfamily 1 helicase domain. A histidine-tagged form of nsp13, which was expressed in insect cells and purified, is reported to unwind efficiently both partial-duplex RNA and DNA of up to several hundred base pairs. Characterization of the nsp13-associated nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities revealed that all natural ribonucleotides and nucleotides are substrates of nsp13, with ATP, dATP, and GTP being hydrolyzed most efficiently. Using the NTPase active site, HCoV-229E nsp13 also mediates RNA 5'-triphosphatase activity, which may be involved in the capping of viral RNAs.

  3. The S protein of bovine coronavirus is a hemagglutinin recognizing 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, B; Gross, H J; Brossmer, R; Herrler, G

    1991-01-01

    The S protein of bovine coronavirus (BCV) has been isolated from the viral membrane and purified by gradient centrifugation. Purified S protein was identified as a viral hemagglutinin. Inactivation of the cellular receptors by sialate 9-O-acetylesterase and generation of receptors by sialylation of erythrocytes with N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) indicate that S protein recognizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant as has been shown previously for intact virions. The second glycoprotein of BCV, HE, which has been thought previously to be responsible for the hemagglutinating activity of BCV, is a less efficient hemagglutinin; it agglutinates mouse and rat erythrocytes, but in contrast to S protein, it is unable to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, which contain a lower level of Neu5,9Ac2 on their surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachment of virus to cell surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachement of virus to cell surface receptors. The potential of S protein as a probe for the detection of Neu5,9Ac2-containing glycoconjugates is demonstrated. Images PMID:1920630

  4. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident glucosidases impairs severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63 spike protein-mediated entry by altering the glycan processing of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesen; Guo, Fang; Comunale, Mary Ann; Mehta, Anand; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Cuconati, Andrea; Lin, Hanxin; Block, Timothy M; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident glucosidases I and II sequentially trim the three terminal glucose moieties on the N-linked glycans attached to nascent glycoproteins. These reactions are the first steps of N-linked glycan processing and are essential for proper folding and function of many glycoproteins. Because most of the viral envelope glycoproteins contain N-linked glycans, inhibition of ER glucosidases with derivatives of 1-deoxynojirimycin, i.e., iminosugars, efficiently disrupts the morphogenesis of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. However, like viral envelope proteins, the cellular receptors of many viruses are also glycoproteins. It is therefore possible that inhibition of ER glucosidases not only compromises virion production but also disrupts expression and function of viral receptors and thus inhibits virus entry into host cells. Indeed, we demonstrate here that iminosugar treatment altered the N-linked glycan structure of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which did not affect its expression on the cell surface or its binding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike glycoprotein. However, alteration of N-linked glycans of ACE2 impaired its ability to support the transduction of SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) spike glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentiviral particles by disruption of the viral envelope protein-triggered membrane fusion. Hence, in addition to reducing the production of infectious virions, inhibition of ER glucosidases also impairs the entry of selected viruses via a post-receptor-binding mechanism.

  5. Coronavirus non-structural protein 16: Evasion, attenuation, and possible treatments

    PubMed Central

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Debbink, Kari; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), nearly a decade after the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) CoV, highlights the importance of understanding and developing therapeutic treatment for current and emergent CoVs. This manuscript explores the role of NSP16, a 2′O-methyl-transferase (2′O-MTase), in CoV infection and the host immune response. The review highlights conserved motifs, required interaction partners, as well as the attenuation of NSP16 mutants, and restoration of these mutants in specific immune knockouts. Importantly, the work also identifies a number of approaches to exploit this understanding for therapeutic treatment and the data clearly illustrate the importance of NSP16 2′O-MTase activity for CoV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25278144

  6. Characterization of the spike protein of human coronavirus NL63 in receptor binding and pseudotype virus entry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Xin; Feng, Yan; Tu, Xinming; Zhao, Xuesen; Hsieh, Chih-Heng; Griffin, Lauren; Junop, Murray; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2011-09-01

    The spike (S) protein of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) mediates both cell attachment by binding to its receptor hACE2 and membrane fusion during virus entry. We have previously identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and residues important for RBD-hACE2 association. Here, we further characterized the S protein by investigating the roles of the cytoplasmic tail and 19 residues located in the RBD in protein accumulation, receptor binding, and pseudotype virus entry. For these purposes, we first identified an entry-efficient S gene template from a pool of gene variants and used it as a backbone to generate a series of cytoplasmic tail deletion and single residue substitution mutants. Our results showed that: (i) deletion of 18aa from the C-terminus enhanced the S protein accumulation and virus entry, which might be due to the deletion of intracellular retention signals; (ii) further deletion to residue 29 also enhanced the amount of S protein on the cell surface and in virion, but reduced virus entry by 25%, suggesting that residues 19-29 contributes to membrane fusion; (iii) a 29aa-deletion mutant had a defect in anchoring on the plasma membrane, which led to a dramatic decrease of S protein in virion and virus entry; (iv) a total of 15 residues (Y498, V499, V531, G534, G537, D538, S540, G575, S576, E582, W585, Y590, T591, V593 and G594) within RBD were important for receptor binding and virus entry. They probably form three receptor binding motifs, and the third motif is conserved between NL63 and SARS-CoV.

  7. Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Kapil, Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Bovine coronaviruses, like other animal coronaviruses, have a predilection for intestinal and respiratory tracts. The viruses responsible for enteric and respiratory symptoms are closely related antigenically and genetically. Only 4 bovine coronavirus isolates have been completely sequenced and thus, the information about the genetics of the virus is still limited. This article reviews the clinical syndromes associated with bovine coronavirus, including pneumonia in calves and adult cattle, calf diarrhea, and winter dysentery; diagnostic methods; prevention using vaccination; and treatment, with adjunctive immunotherapy.

  8. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Y.-P.; Lin, J.-Y.; Jan, J.-T.; Leng, C.-H.; Chu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chen, S.-L. . E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-05-26

    The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla{sub b}ind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be First identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-{gamma} stimulation of blood CD8{sup +} T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.

  9. Structural Insights into Immune Recognition of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus S Protein Receptor Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, J.; Sharon, C; Satkunarajah, M; Thierry, C; Cameron, C; Kelvin, D; Seetharaman, J; Cochrane, A; Plummer, F; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for host cell attachment and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Within S the receptor binding domain (RBD) mediates the interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV host cell receptor. Both S and the RBD are highly immunogenic and both have been found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Reported here is the X-ray crystal structure of the RBD in complex with the Fab of a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody, F26G19, elicited by immunization with chemically inactivated SARS-CoV. The RBD-F26G19 Fab complex represents the first example of the structural characterization of an antibody elicited by an immune response to SARS-CoV or any fragment of it. The structure reveals that the RBD surface recognized by F26G19 overlaps significantly with the surface recognized by ACE2 and, as such, suggests that F26G19 likely neutralizes SARS-CoV by blocking the virus-host cell interaction.

  10. Short peptides derived from the interaction domain of SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp10 can suppress the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of nsp10/nsp16 complex.

    PubMed

    Ke, Min; Chen, Yu; Wu, Andong; Sun, Ying; Su, Ceyang; Wu, Hao; Jin, Xu; Tao, Jiali; Wang, Yi; Ma, Xiao; Pan, Ji-An; Guo, Deyin

    2012-08-01

    Coronaviruses are the etiological agents of respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and livestock, exemplified by the life-threatening severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). However, effective means for combating coronaviruses are still lacking. The interaction between nonstructural protein (nsp) 10 and nsp16 has been demonstrated and the crystal structure of SARS-CoV nsp16/10 complex has been revealed. As nsp10 acts as an essential trigger to activate the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of nsp16, short peptides derived from nsp10 may have inhibitory effect on viral 2'-O-methyltransferase activity. In this study, we revealed that the domain of aa 65-107 of nsp10 was sufficient for its interaction with nsp16 and the region of aa 42-120 in nsp10, which is larger than the interaction domain, was needed for stimulating the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activity. We further showed that two short peptides derived from the interaction domain of nsp10 could inhibit the 2'-O-methyltransferase activity of SARS-CoV nsp16/10 complex, thus providing a novel strategy and proof-of-principle study for developing peptide inhibitors against SARS-CoV.

  11. [Sequence analysis for genes encoding nucleoprotein and envelope protein of a new human coronavirus NL63 identified from a pediatric patient in Beijing by bioinformatics].

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiang-feng; Zhu, Ru-nan; Qian, Yuan; Zhao, Lin-qing; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the N and E protein encoding genes of a new human coronavirus (HCoV-NL63) which was identified from one of the clinical specimens (BJ8081) collected from a 12 years-old patient with acute respiratory infection in Beijing. The complete N and E gene sequences of HCoV-NL63 were amplified from clinical sample by RT-PCR, then were cloned into the pCF-T and pUCm-T vectors respectively and sequenced. The complete sequences of N and E genes were submitted to GenBank by Sequin and compared with N and E genes of prototype HCoV-NL63 and the other coronaviruses published in GenBank. The secondary structure and the characteristics of sample BJ8081 N and E proteins were predicted by bioinformatics. It was indicated that the N and E genes amplified from sample BJ8081 were 1134 bp and 234 bp in length and the predicted proteins including 377 amino acids and 77 amino acids, respectively. The data suggested that the region of amino acids 78-85 within N protein probably was the conserved region for all coronaviruses identified so far including HCoV-NL63. The region of amino acids 15-37 for E protein was probably the transmembrane domain. In conclusion, the recombinant plasmids pCF-T-8081 N and pUCm-T-8081 E were successfully constructed and sequenced, and the data predicted by bioinformatics are helpful for the further analysis of HCoV-NL63.

  12. Structure of the fusion core and inhibition of fusion by a heptad repeat peptide derived from the S protein of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Lu, Guangwen; Qi, Jianxun; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Deng, Yao; Geng, Heyuan; Li, Hongbin; Wang, Qihui; Xiao, Haixia; Tan, Wenjie; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2013-12-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) recently emerged as a severe worldwide public health concern. The virus is highly pathogenic, manifesting in infected patients with an approximately 50% fatality rate. It is known that the surface spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses mediate receptor recognition and membrane fusion, thereby playing an indispensable role in initiating infection. In this process, heptad repeats 1 and 2 (HR1 and HR2) of the S protein assemble into a complex called the fusion core, which represents a key membrane fusion architecture. To date, however, the MERS-CoV fusion core remains uncharacterized. In this study, we performed a series of biochemical and biophysical analyses characterizing the HR1/HR2 complexes of this novel virus. The HR sequences were variably truncated and then connected with a flexible amino acid linker. In each case, the recombinant protein automatically assembled into a trimer in solution, displaying a typical α-helical structure. One of these trimers was successfully crystallized, and its structure was solved at a resolution of 1.9 Å. A canonical 6-helix bundle, like those reported for other coronaviruses, was revealed, with three HR1 helices forming the central coiled-coil core and three HR2 chains surrounding the core in the HR1 side grooves. This demonstrates that MERS-CoV utilizes a mechanism similar to those of other class I enveloped viruses for membrane fusion. With this notion, we further identified an HR2-based peptide that could potently inhibit MERS-CoV fusion and entry by using a pseudotyped-virus system. These results lay the groundwork for future inhibitory peptidic drug design.

  13. The relationship of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus with avian and other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Mark W

    2006-09-01

    In February 2003, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in humans in Guangdong Province, China, and caused an epidemic that had severe impact on public health, travel, and economic trade. Coronaviruses are worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and extremely difficult to control because they have extensive genetic diversity, a short generation time, and a high mutation rate. They can cause respiratory, enteric, and in some cases hepatic and neurological diseases in a wide variety of animals and humans. An enormous, previously unrecognized reservoir of coronaviruses exists among animals. Because coronaviruses have been shown, both experimentally and in nature, to undergo genetic mutations and recombination at a rate similar to that of influenza viruses, it is not surprising that zoonosis and host switching that leads to epidemic diseases have occurred among coronaviruses. Analysis of coronavirus genomic sequence data indicates that SARS-CoV emerged from an animal reservoir. Scientists examining coronavirus isolates from a variety of animals in and around Guangdong Province reported that SARS-CoV has similarities with many different coronaviruses including avian coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-like viruses from a variety of mammals found in live-animal markets. Although a SARS-like coronavirus isolated from a bat is thought to be the progenitor of SARS-CoV, a lack of genomic sequences for the animal coronaviruses has prevented elucidation of the true origin of SARS-CoV. Sequence analysis of SARS-CoV shows that the 5' polymerase gene has a mammalian ancestry; whereas the 3' end structural genes (excluding the spike glycoprotein) have an avian origin. Spike glycoprotein, the host cell attachment viral surface protein, was shown to be a mosaic of feline coronavirus and avian coronavirus sequences resulting from a recombination event. Based on phylogenetic analysis designed to elucidate evolutionary links among viruses, SARS-CoV is believed

  14. Receptor recognition mechanisms of coronaviruses: a decade of structural studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang

    2015-02-01

    Receptor recognition by viruses is the first and essential step of viral infections of host cells. It is an important determinant of viral host range and cross-species infection and a primary target for antiviral intervention. Coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, infect many hosts, and are health threats to humans and animals. The receptor-binding S1 subunit of coronavirus spike proteins contains two distinctive domains, the N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the C-terminal domain (S1-CTD), both of which can function as receptor-binding domains (RBDs). S1-NTDs and S1-CTDs from three major coronavirus genera recognize at least four protein receptors and three sugar receptors and demonstrate a complex receptor recognition pattern. For example, highly similar coronavirus S1-CTDs within the same genus can recognize different receptors, whereas very different coronavirus S1-CTDs from different genera can recognize the same receptor. Moreover, coronavirus S1-NTDs can recognize either protein or sugar receptors. Structural studies in the past decade have elucidated many of the puzzles associated with coronavirus-receptor interactions. This article reviews the latest knowledge on the receptor recognition mechanisms of coronaviruses and discusses how coronaviruses have evolved their complex receptor recognition pattern. It also summarizes important principles that govern receptor recognition by viruses in general.

  15. Crystal structure-based exploration of the important role of Arg106 in the RNA-binding domain of human coronavirus OC43 nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Jung; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P.; Chang, Yu-Ming; Lin, Shing-Yen; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley; Shen, Yo-Yu; Huang, Tai-Huang; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a causative agent of the common cold. The nucleocapsid (N) protein, which is a major structural protein of CoVs, binds to the viral RNA genome to form the virion core and results in the formation of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. We have solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of HCoV-OC43 N protein (N-NTD) (residues 58 to 195) to a resolution of 2.0Å. The HCoV-OC43 N-NTD is a single domain protein composed of a five-stranded β-sheet core and a long extended loop, similar to that observed in the structures of N-NTDs from other coronaviruses. The positively charged loop of the HCoV-OC43 N-NTD contains a structurally well-conserved positively charged residue, R106. To assess the role of R106 in RNA binding, we undertook a series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments and docking simulations to characterize the interaction between R106 and RNA. The results show that R106 plays an important role in the interaction between the N protein and RNA. In addition, we showed that, in cells transfected with plasmids that encoded the mutant (R106A) N protein and infected with virus, the level of the matrix protein gene was decreased by 7-fold compared to cells that were transfected with the wild-type N protein. This finding suggests that R106, by enhancing binding of the N protein to viral RNA plays a critical role in the viral replication. The results also indicate that the strength of N protein/RNA interactions is critical for HCoV-OC43 replication. PMID:23501675

  16. Potent inhibition of feline coronaviruses with peptidyl compounds targeting coronavirus 3C-like protease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2013-02-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against a feline coronavirus in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC(50) in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in a cell culture system.

  17. Continuous and Discontinuous RNA Synthesis in Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sola, Isabel; Almazán, Fernando; Zúñiga, Sonia; Enjuanes, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Replication of the coronavirus genome requires continuous RNA synthesis, whereas transcription is a discontinuous process unique among RNA viruses. Transcription includes a template switch during the synthesis of subgenomic negative-strand RNAs to add a copy of the leader sequence. Coronavirus transcription is regulated by multiple factors, including the extent of base-pairing between transcription-regulating sequences of positive and negative polarity, viral and cell protein-RNA binding, and high-order RNA-RNA interactions. Coronavirus RNA synthesis is performed by a replication-transcription complex that includes viral and cell proteins that recognize cis-acting RNA elements mainly located in the highly structured 5' and 3' untranslated regions. In addition to many viral nonstructural proteins, the presence of cell nuclear proteins and the viral nucleocapsid protein increases virus amplification efficacy. Coronavirus RNA synthesis is connected with the formation of double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes. Coronaviruses encode proofreading machinery, unique in the RNA virus world, to ensure the maintenance of their large genome size.

  18. Some serum acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins concentrations in calves with rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5 and Eimeria species

    PubMed Central

    Balikci, E; Al, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and IgG, IgA in calves with diarrhea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia coli F5 and Eimeria species. The experiment was carried out on 40 diarrhoeic and 10 non-diarrhoeic calves (group C). A total of 13 calves were infected with rotavirus or coronavirus (group V), 12 calves with E. coli F5 (group B) and 15 calves with Eimeria species (group P). SAA and Hp levels of calves in groups V, B and P were statistically higher than group C (P<0.05). SAA and Hp levels of the group B and group P were significantly higher than the group V (P<0.05). SAA and Hp levels in group B were not significantly higher than the group P. The levels of IgG and IgA were found to be lower in groups B and V compared to other groups. There was a negative correlation between immunoglobulins and the levels of serum Hp and SAA in groups B and V (r=-0.315 and r=-0.369, respectively, P<0.05). Serum SAA, Hp, IgA and IgG levels could be useful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5 and Eimeria species. PMID:27175138

  19. The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein affects coronavirus RNA accumulation levels and relocalizes viral RNAs to novel cytoplasmic domains different from replication-transcription sites.

    PubMed

    Sola, Isabel; Galán, Carmen; Mateos-Gómez, Pedro A; Palacio, Lorena; Zúñiga, Sonia; Cruz, Jazmina L; Almazán, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-05-01

    The coronavirus (CoV) discontinuous transcription mechanism is driven by long-distance RNA-RNA interactions between transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs) located at the 5' terminal leader (TRS-L) and also preceding each mRNA-coding sequence (TRS-B). The contribution of host cell proteins to CoV transcription needs additional information. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) was reproducibly identified in association with positive-sense RNAs of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) TRS-L and TRS-B by affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. A temporal regulation of PTB cytoplasmic levels was observed during infection, with a significant increase from 7 to 16 h postinfection being inversely associated with a decrease in viral replication and transcription. Silencing the expression of PTB with small interfering RNA in two cell lines (Huh7 and HEK 293T) led to a significant increase of up to 4-fold in mRNA levels and virus titer, indicating a negative effect of PTB on CoV RNA accumulation. During CoV infection, PTB relocalized from the nucleus to novel cytoplasmic structures different from replication-transcription sites in which stress granule markers T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalized. PTB was detected in these modified stress granules in TGEV-infected swine testis cells but not in stress granules induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs were detected in association with PTB and TIAR. These cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes might be involved in posttranscriptional regulation of virus gene expression.

  20. Drug targets for rational design against emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Weber, Erin; Yang, Haitao

    2013-04-01

    The recent, fatal outbreak of the novel coronavirus strain in the Middle East highlights the real threat posed by this unique virus family. Neither pharmaceutical cures nor preventive vaccines are clinically available to fight against coronavirus associated syndromes, not to mention a lack of symptom soothing drugs. Development of treatment options is complicated by the unpredictable, recurring instances of cross-species viral transmission. The vastly distributing virus reservoir and the rapid rate of host-species exchange of coronavirus demands wide spectrum potency in an ideal therapeutic. Through summarizing the available information and progress in coronavirus research, this review provides a systematic assessment of the potential wide-spectrum features on the most popular drug targets including viral proteases, spike protein, RNA polymerases and editing enzymes as well as host-virus interaction pathways associated with coronaviruses.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of coronavirus RNA capping and methylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2016-02-01

    The 5'-cap structures of eukaryotic mRNAs are important for RNA stability, pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, and protein translation. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms for generating their own cap structures with methylation at the N7 position of the capped guanine and the ribose 2'-Oposition of the first nucleotide, which help viral RNAs escape recognition by the host innate immune system. The RNA genomes of coronavirus were identified to have 5'-caps in the early 1980s. However, for decades the RNA capping mechanisms of coronaviruses remained unknown. Since 2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has drawn increased attention and stimulated numerous studies on the molecular virology of coronaviruses. Here, we review the current understanding of the mechanisms adopted by coronaviruses to produce the 5'-cap structure and methylation modification of viral genomic RNAs.

  2. The ns12.9 Accessory Protein of Human Coronavirus OC43 Is a Viroporin Involved in Virion Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Kai; Ping, Xianqiang; Yu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An accessory gene between the S and E gene loci is contained in all coronaviruses (CoVs), and its function has been studied in some coronaviruses. This gene locus in human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) encodes the ns12.9 accessory protein; however, its function during viral infection remains unknown. Here, we engineered a recombinant mutant virus lacking the ns12.9 protein (HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9) to characterize the contributions of ns12.9 in HCoV-OC43 replication. The ns12.9 accessory protein is a transmembrane protein and forms ion channels in both Xenopus oocytes and yeast through homo-oligomerization, suggesting that ns12.9 is a newly recognized viroporin. HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 presented at least 10-fold reduction of viral titer in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, exogenous ns12.9 and heterologous viroporins with ion channel activity could compensate for the production of HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9, indicating that the ion channel activity of ns12.9 plays a significant role in the production of infectious virions. Systematic dissection of single-cycle replication revealed that ns12.9 protein had no measurable effect on virus entry, subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis, and protein expression. Further characterization revealed that HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 was less efficient in virion morphogenesis than recombinant wild-type virus (HCoV-OC43-WT). Moreover, reduced viral replication, inflammatory response, and virulence in HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9-infected mice were observed compared to the levels for HCoV-OC43-WT-infected mice. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the ns12.9 accessory protein functions as a viroporin and is involved in virion morphogenesis and the pathogenesis of HCoV-OC43 infection. IMPORTANCE HCoV-OC43 was isolated in the 1960s and is a major agent of the common cold. The functions of HCoV-OC43 structural proteins have been well studied, but few studies have focused on its accessory proteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ns12.9 protein

  3. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  4. Coronavirus infection of spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    East, Marion L; Moestl, Karin; Benetka, Viviane; Pitra, Christian; Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert

    2004-08-19

    Sera from 38 free-ranging spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, were screened for exposure to coronavirus of antigenic group 1. An immunofluorescence assay indicated high levels of exposure to coronavirus among Serengeti hyenas: 95% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:10 and 74% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:40. Cubs had generally lower mean titer levels than adults. Exposure among Serengeti hyenas to coronavirus was also confirmed by a serum neutralisation assay and an ELISA. Application of RT-PCR to 27 fecal samples revealed viral RNA in three samples (11%). All three positive fecal samples were from the 15 juvenile animals (<24 months of age) sampled, and none from the 12 adults sampled. No viral RNA was detected in tissue samples (lymph node, intestine, lung) from 11 individuals. Sequencing of two amplified products from the S protein gene of a positive sample revealed the presence of coronavirus specific RNA with a sequence homology to canine coronavirus of 76 and 78% and to feline coronavirus type II of 80 and 84%, respectively. Estimation of the phylogenetic relationship among coronavirus isolates indicated considerable divergence of the hyena variant from those in European, American and Japanese domestic cats and dogs. From long-term observations of several hundred known individuals, the only clinical sign in hyenas consistent with those described for coronavirus infections in dogs and cats was diarrhea. There was no evidence that coronavirus infection in hyenas caused clinical signs similar to feline infectious peritonitis in domestic cats or was a direct cause of mortality in hyenas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of coronavirus infection in Hyaenidae.

  5. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Inhibits STAT1 Signaling and Requires Accessory Proteins for Resistance to Type I Interferon Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Dickhout, Annemiek; Kutter, Jasmin; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Koumans, Joseph; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fros, Jelke J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we reported that IBV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response. In the present work, we describe the resistance of IBV to IFN and the potential role of accessory proteins herein. We show that IBV is fairly resistant to the antiviral state induced by IFN and identify that viral accessory protein 3a is involved in resistance to IFN, as its absence renders IBV less resistant to IFN treatment. In addition to this, we found that independently of its accessory proteins, IBV inhibits IFN-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT1. In summary, we show that IBV uses multiple strategies to counteract the IFN response. IMPORTANCE In the present study, we show that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is resistant to IFN treatment and identify a role for accessory protein 3a in the resistance against the type I IFN response. We also demonstrate that, in a time-dependent manner, IBV effectively interferes with IFN signaling and that its accessory proteins are dispensable for this activity. This study demonstrates that the gammacoronavirus IBV, similar to its mammalian counterparts, has evolved multiple strategies to efficiently counteract the IFN response of its avian host, and it identifies accessory protein 3a as multifaceted antagonist of the avian IFN system. PMID:26401035

  6. Antigenic characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells: The effect of phosphorylation on immunoreactivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gu-Choul; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Kim, In-Soo; Cho, Hae-Wol; Kang, Chun

    2007-07-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is involved in the pathological reaction to SARS and is a key antigen for the development of a sensitive diagnostic assay. However, the antigenic properties of this N protein are largely unknown. To facilitate the studies on the function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV N protein, 6x histidine-tagged recombinant SARS-CoV N (rSARS-N) with a molecular mass of 46 and 48kDa was successfully produced using the recombinant baculovirus system in insect cells. The rSARS-N expressed in insect cells (BrSARS-N) showed remarkably higher specificity and immunoreactivity than rSARS-N expressed in E. coli (ErSARS-N). Most of all, BrSARS-N proteins were expressed as a highly phosphorylated form with a molecular mass of 48kDa, but ErSARS-N was a nonphosphorylated protein. In further analysis to determine the correlation between the phosphorylation and the antigenicity of SARS-N protein, dephosphorylated SARS-N protein treated with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) remarkably enhanced the cross-reactivity against SARS negative serum and considerably reduced immunoreactivity with SARS-N mAb. These results suggest that the phosphorylation plays an important role in the immunoreactivity and specificity of SARS-N protein. Therefore, the BrSARS-N protein may be useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific assays to determine SARS infection and for further research of SARS-N pathology.

  7. Coronavirus cis-Acting RNA Elements.

    PubMed

    Madhugiri, R; Fricke, M; Marz, M; Ziebuhr, J

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes of approximately 30 kilobases. Genome replication and transcription is mediated by a multisubunit protein complex comprised of more than a dozen virus-encoded proteins. The protein complex is thought to bind specific cis-acting RNA elements primarily located in the 5'- and 3'-terminal genome regions and upstream of the open reading frames located in the 3'-proximal one-third of the genome. Here, we review our current understanding of coronavirus cis-acting RNA elements, focusing on elements required for genome replication and packaging. Recent bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic studies suggest a previously unknown level of conservation of cis-acting RNA structures among different coronavirus genera and, in some cases, even beyond genus boundaries. Also, there is increasing evidence to suggest that individual cis-acting elements may be part of higher-order RNA structures involving long-range and dynamic RNA-RNA interactions between RNA structural elements separated by thousands of nucleotides in the viral genome. We discuss the structural and functional features of these cis-acting RNA elements and their specific functions in coronavirus RNA synthesis.

  8. Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Huang, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-10-01

    The SARS epidemic has boosted interest in research on coronavirus biodiversity and genomics. Before 2003, there were only 10 coronaviruses with complete genomes available. After the SARS epidemic, up to December 2008, there was an addition of 16 coronaviruses with complete genomes sequenced. These include two human coronaviruses (human coronavirus NL63 and human coronavirus HKU1), 10 other mammalian coronaviruses [bat SARS coronavirus, bat coronavirus (bat-CoV) HKU2, bat-CoV HKU4, bat-CoV HKU5, bat-CoV HKU8, bat-CoV HKU9, bat-CoV 512/2005, bat-CoV 1A, equine coronavirus, and beluga whale coronavirus] and four avian coronaviruses (turkey coronavirus, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13). Two novel subgroups in group 2 coronavirus (groups 2c and 2d) and two novel subgroups in group 3 coronavirus (groups 3b and 3c) have been proposed. The diversity of coronaviruses is a result of the infidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, high frequency of homologous RNA recombination, and the large genomes of coronaviruses. Among all hosts, the diversity of coronaviruses is most evidenced in bats and birds, which may be a result of their species diversity, ability to fly, environmental pressures, and habits of roosting and flocking. The present evidence supports that bat coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, whereas bird coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 3 coronaviruses. With the increasing number of coronaviruses, more and more closely related coronaviruses from distantly related animals have been observed, which were results of recent interspecies jumping and may be the cause of disastrous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases.

  9. Highly conserved regions within the spike proteins of human coronaviruses 229E and NL63 determine recognition of their respective cellular receptors.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Heike; Simmons, Graham; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Chaipan, Chawaree; Gramberg, Thomas; Heck, Elke; Geier, Martina; Wegele, Anja; Marzi, Andrea; Bates, Paul; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) also mediates cellular entry of the newly discovered human coronavirus (hCoV) NL63. Here, we show that expression of DC-SIGN augments NL63 spike (S)-protein-driven infection of susceptible cells, while only expression of ACE2 but not DC-SIGN is sufficient for entry into nonpermissive cells, indicating that ACE2 fulfills the criteria of a bona fide hCoV-NL63 receptor. As for SARS-CoV, murine ACE2 is used less efficiently by NL63-S for entry than human ACE2. In contrast, several amino acid exchanges in human ACE2 which diminish SARS-S-driven entry do not interfere with NL63-S-mediated infection, suggesting that SARS-S and NL63-S might engage human ACE2 differentially. Moreover, we observed that NL63-S-driven entry was less dependent on a low-pH environment and activity of endosomal proteases compared to infection mediated by SARS-S, further suggesting differences in hCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV cellular entry. NL63-S does not exhibit significant homology to SARS-S but is highly related to the S-protein of hCoV-229E, which enters target cells by engaging CD13. Employing mutagenic analyses, we found that the N-terminal unique domain in NL63-S, which is absent in 229E-S, does not confer binding to ACE2. In contrast, the highly homologous C-terminal parts of the NL63-S1 and 229E-S1 subunits in conjunction with distinct amino acids in the central regions of these proteins confer recognition of ACE2 and CD13, respectively. Therefore, despite the high homology of these sequences, they likely form sufficiently distinct surfaces, thus determining receptor specificity.

  10. [Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].

    PubMed

    Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus.

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus M protein suppresses type I interferon expression through the inhibition of TBK1-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Pak-Yin; Wong, Lok-Yin Roy; Fung, Cheuk-Lai; Siu, Kam-Leung; Yeung, Man-Lung; Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection has claimed hundreds of lives and has become a global threat since its emergence in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The ability of MERS-CoV to evade the host innate antiviral response may contribute to its severe pathogenesis. Many MERS-CoV-encoded proteins were identified to have interferon (IFN)-antagonizing properties, which correlates well with the reduced IFN levels observed in infected patients and ex vivo models. In this study, we fully characterized the IFN-antagonizing property of the MERS-CoV M protein. Expression of MERS-CoV M protein suppressed type I IFN expression in response to Sendai virus infection or poly(I:C) induction. This suppressive effect was found to be specific for the activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but not nuclear factor-κB. MERS-CoV M protein interacted with TRAF3 and disrupted TRAF3–TBK1 association leading to reduced IRF3 activation. M proteins from MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have three highly similar conserved N-terminal transmembrane domains and a C-terminal region. Using chimeric and truncation mutants, the N-terminal transmembrane domains of the MERS-CoV M protein were found to be sufficient for its inhibitory effect on IFN expression, whereas the C-terminal domain was unable to induce this suppression. Collectively, our findings suggest a common and conserved mechanism through which highly pathogenic MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV harness their M proteins to suppress type I IFN expression at the level of TBK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation of IRF3 resulting in evasion of the host innate antiviral response. PMID:27094905

  12. Wild animal surveillance for coronavirus HKU1 and potential variants of other coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Yuen, K Y; Lau, S K P; Woo, P C Y

    2012-02-01

    1. Although CoV-HKU1 was not identified in any of the studied animals, a coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV (bat-SARS-CoV) was identified in 23 (19%) of 118 wild Chinese horseshoe bats by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). 2. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that bat-SARS-CoV formed a distinct cluster with SARS-CoV as group 2b coronaviruses, distantly related to known group 2 coronaviruses. 3. Most differences between the bat-SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV genomes were observed in the spike gene. The presence of a29-bp insertion in ORF 8 of bat-SARS-CoV genome, not in most human SARS-CoV genomes, suggests that it has a common ancestor with civet SARS-CoV. 4. Antibody against recombinant bat-SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein was detected in 84% of Chinese horseshoe bats using an enzyme immunoassay.Neutralising antibody to human SARS-CoV was also detected in those with lower viral loads.5. This study also revealed a previously unknown diversity of coronaviruses in bats, which are important natural reservoir for coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-like viruses.

  13. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic mapping of the avian coronavirus spike protein-encoding gene in wild and synanthropic birds.

    PubMed

    Durães-Carvalho, Ricardo; Caserta, Leonardo C; Barnabé, Ana C S; Martini, Matheus C; Simas, Paulo V M; Santos, Márcia M B; Salemi, Marco; Arns, Clarice W

    2015-04-02

    The evolution and population dynamics of avian coronaviruses (AvCoVs) remain underexplored. In the present study, in-depth phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic studies were conducted to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of AvCoVs detected in wild and synanthropic birds. A total of 500 samples, including tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from 312 wild birds belonging to 42 species, were analysed using molecular assays. A total of 65 samples (13%) from 22 bird species were positive for AvCoV. Molecular evolution analyses revealed that the sequences from samples collected in Brazil did not cluster with any of the AvCoV S1 gene sequences deposited in the GenBank database. Bayesian framework analysis estimated an AvCoV strain from Sweden (1999) as the most recent common ancestor of the AvCoVs detected in this study. Furthermore, the analysis inferred an increase in the AvCoV dynamic demographic population in different wild and synanthropic bird species, suggesting that birds may be potential new hosts responsible for spreading this virus.

  14. A single amino acid substitution (R441A) in the receptor-binding domain of SARS coronavirus spike protein disrupts the antigenic structure and binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    He Yuxian . E-mail: yhe@nybloodcenter.org; Li Jingjing; Jiang Shibo

    2006-05-26

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has two major functions: interacting with the receptor to mediate virus entry and inducing protective immunity. Coincidently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 318-510) of SAR-CoV S protein is a major antigenic site to induce neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used RBD-Fc, a fusion protein containing the RBD and human IgG1 Fc, as a model in the studies and found that a single amino acid substitution in the RBD (R441A) could abolish the immunogenicity of RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice and rabbits. With a panel of anti-RBD mAbs as probes, we observed that R441A substitution was able to disrupt the majority of neutralizing epitopes in the RBD, suggesting that this residue is critical for the antigenic structure responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We also demonstrated that the RBD-Fc bearing R441A mutation could not bind to soluble and cell-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV and failed to block S protein-mediated pseudovirus entry, indicating that this point mutation also disrupted the receptor-binding motif (RBM) in the RBD. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence to show that a single amino acid residue at key position in the RBD can determine the major function of SARS-CoV S protein and imply for designing SARS vaccines and therapeutics.

  15. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  16. Solution structure of the c-terminal dimerization domain of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein solved by the SAIL-NMR method.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Chang, Chung-ke; Ikeya, Teppei; Güntert, Peter; Chang, Yuan-hsiang; Hsu, Yen-lan; Huang, Tai-huang; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2008-07-18

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) contains a potential RNA-binding region in its N-terminal portion and also serves as a dimerization domain by forming a homodimer with a molecular mass of 28 kDa. So far, the structure determination of the SARS-CoV NP CTD in solution has been impeded by the poor quality of NMR spectra, especially for aromatic resonances. We have recently developed the stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) method to overcome the size problem of NMR structure determination by utilizing a protein exclusively composed of stereo- and regio-specifically isotope-labeled amino acids. Here, we employed the SAIL method to determine the high-quality solution structure of the SARS-CoV NP CTD by NMR. The SAIL protein yielded less crowded and better resolved spectra than uniform (13)C and (15)N labeling, and enabled the homodimeric solution structure of this protein to be determined. The NMR structure is almost identical with the previously solved crystal structure, except for a disordered putative RNA-binding domain at the N-terminus. Studies of the chemical shift perturbations caused by the binding of single-stranded DNA and mutational analyses have identified the disordered region at the N-termini as the prime site for nucleic acid binding. In addition, residues in the beta-sheet region also showed significant perturbations. Mapping of the locations of these residues onto the helical model observed in the crystal revealed that these two regions are parts of the interior lining of the positively charged helical groove, supporting the hypothesis that the helical oligomer may form in solution.

  17. Influence of hydrophobic and electrostatic residues on SARS-coronavirus S2 protein stability: insights into mechanisms of general viral fusion and inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Halil; Al-Khooly, Dina; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2014-05-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV entry is facilitated by the spike protein (S), which consists of an N-terminal domain (S1) responsible for cellular attachment and a C-terminal domain (S2) that mediates viral and host cell membrane fusion. The SARS-CoV S2 is a potential drug target, as peptidomimetics against S2 act as potent fusion inhibitors. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and thermal stability experiments on electrostatic, hydrophobic, and polar residues to dissect their roles in stabilizing the S2 postfusion conformation was performed. It was shown that unlike the pH-independent retroviral fusion proteins, SARS-CoV S2 is stable over a wide pH range, supporting its ability to fuse at both the plasma membrane and endosome. A comprehensive SARS-CoV S2 analysis showed that specific hydrophobic positions at the C-terminal end of the HR2, rather than electrostatics are critical for fusion protein stabilization. Disruption of the conserved C-terminal hydrophobic residues destabilized the fusion core and reduced the melting temperature by 30°C. The importance of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues led us to identify a 42-residue substructure on the central core that is structurally conserved in all existing CoV S2 fusion proteins (root mean squared deviation=0.4 Å). This is the first study to identify such a conserved substructure and likely represents a common foundation to facilitate viral fusion. We have discussed the role of key residues in the design of fusion inhibitors and the potential of the substructure as a general target for the development of novel therapeutics against CoV infections.

  18. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Poehlmann, Stefan

    2011-05-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation.

  19. Antagonism of the interferon-induced OAS-RNase L pathway by murine coronavirus ns2 protein is required for virus replication and liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Jha, Babal K; Wu, Ashley; Elliott, Ruth; Ziebuhr, John; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Silverman, Robert H; Weiss, Susan R

    2012-06-14

    Many viruses induce hepatitis in humans, highlighting the need to understand the underlying mechanisms of virus-induced liver pathology. The murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), causes acute hepatitis in its natural host and provides a useful model for understanding virus interaction with liver cells. The MHV accessory protein, ns2, antagonizes the type I interferon response and promotes hepatitis. We show that ns2 has 2',5'-phosphodiesterase activity, which blocks the interferon inducible 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway to facilitate hepatitis development. Ns2 cleaves 2',5'-oligoadenylate, the product of OAS, to prevent activation of the cellular endoribonuclease RNase L and consequently block viral RNA degradation. An ns2 mutant virus was unable to replicate in the liver or induce hepatitis in wild-type mice, but was highly pathogenic in RNase L deficient mice. Thus, RNase L is a critical cellular factor for protection against viral infection of the liver and the resulting hepatitis.

  20. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  1. Amino acid changes in the spike protein of feline coronavirus correlate with systemic spread of virus from the intestine and not with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily; Tasker, Séverine; Day, Michael J; Harley, Ross; Kipar, Anja; Siddell, Stuart G; Helps, Christopher R

    2014-04-25

    Recent evidence suggests that a mutation in the spike protein gene of feline coronavirus (FCoV), which results in an amino acid change from methionine to leucine at position 1058, may be associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Tissue and faecal samples collected post mortem from cats diagnosed with or without FIP were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect FCoV RNA. In cats with FIP, 95% of tissue, and 81% of faecal samples were PCR-positive, as opposed to 22% of tissue, and 60% of faecal samples in cats without FIP. Relative FCoV copy numbers were significantly higher in the cats with FIP, both in tissues (P < 0.001) and faeces (P = 0.02). PCR-positive samples underwent pyrosequencing encompassing position 1058 of the FCoV spike protein. This identified a methionine codon at position 1058, consistent with the shedding of an enteric form of FCoV, in 77% of the faecal samples from cats with FIP, and in 100% of the samples from cats without FIP. In contrast, 91% of the tissue samples from cats with FIP and 89% from cats without FIP had a leucine codon at position 1058, consistent with a systemic form of FCoV. These results suggest that the methionine to leucine substitution at position 1058 in the FCoV spike protein is indicative of systemic spread of FCoV from the intestine, rather than a virus with the potential to cause FIP.

  2. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infectivity by peptides analogous to the viral spike protein

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Bruno; Mossel, Eric C.; Gallaher, William R.; Wimley, William C.; Peters, C.J.; Wilson, Russell B.; Garry, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the cause of an atypical pneumonia that affected Asia, North America and Europe in 2002–2003. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is responsible for mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion. Recent studies have proposed that the carboxyl terminal portion (S2 subunit) of the S protein is a class I viral fusion protein. The Wimley and White interfacial hydrophobicity scale was used to identify regions within the CoV S2 subunit that may preferentially associate with lipid membranes with the premise that peptides analogous to these regions may function as inhibitors of viral infectivity. Five regions of high interfacial hydrophobicity spanning the length of the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) were identified. Peptides analogous to regions of the N-terminus or the pre-transmembrane domain of the S2 subunit inhibited SARS-CoV plaque formation by 40–70% at concentrations of 15–30 μM. Interestingly, peptides analogous to the SARS-CoV or MHV loop region inhibited viral plaque formation by >80% at similar concentrations. The observed effects were dose-dependent (IC50 values of 2–4 μM) and not a result of peptide-mediated cell cytotoxicity. The antiviral activity of the CoV peptides tested provides an attractive basis for the development of new fusion peptide inhibitors corresponding to regions outside the fusion protein heptad repeat regions. PMID:16616792

  3. A study on antigenicity and receptor-binding ability of fragment 450-650 of the spike protein of SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Jincun; Wang Wei; Yuan Zhihong; Jia Rujing; Zhao Zhendong; Xu Xiaojun; Lv Ping; Zhang Yan; Jiang Chengyu; Gao Xiaoming . E-mail: xmgao@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-03-15

    The spike (S) protein of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for viral binding with ACE2 molecules. Its receptor-binding motif (S-RBM) is located between residues 424 and 494, which folds into 2 anti-parallel {beta}-sheets, {beta}5 and {beta}6. We have previously demonstrated that fragment 450-650 of the S protein (S450-650) is predominantly recognized by convalescent sera of SARS patients. The N-terminal 60 residues (450-510) of the S450-650 fragment covers the entire {beta}6 strand of S-RBM. In the present study, we demonstrate that patient sera predominantly recognized 2 linear epitopes outside the {beta}6 fragment, while the mouse antisera, induced by immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant S450-650, mainly recognized the {beta}6 strand-containing region. Unlike patient sera, however, the mouse antisera were unable to inhibit the infectivity of S protein-expressing (SARS-CoV-S) pseudovirus. Fusion protein between green fluorescence protein (GFP) and S450-650 (S450-650-GFP) was able to stain Vero E6 cells and deletion of the {beta}6 fragment rendered the fusion product (S511-650-GFP) unable to do so. Similarly, recombinant S450-650, but not S511-650, was able to block the infection of Vero E6 cells by the SARS-CoV-S pseudovirus. Co-precipitation experiments confirmed that S450-650 was able to specifically bind with ACE2 molecules in lysate of Vero E6 cells. However, the ability of S450-510, either alone or in fusion with GFP, to bind with ACE2 was significantly poorer compared with S450-650. Our data suggest a possibility that, although the {beta}6 strand alone is able to bind with ACE2 with relatively high affinity, residues outside the S-RBM could also assist the receptor binding of SARS-CoV-S protein.

  4. Human coronavirus NL63, France.

    PubMed

    Vabret, Astrid; Mourez, Thomas; Dina, Julia; van der Hoek, Lia; Gouarin, Stéphanie; Petitjean, Joëlle; Brouard, Jacques; Freymuth, François

    2005-08-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in The Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been investigated. We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory specimens for HCoV-NL63. Of the 300 samples, 28 (9.3%) were positive for HCoV-NL63. The highest prevalence was found in February (18%). The main symptoms were fever (61%), rhinitis (39%), bronchiolitis (39%), digestive problems (33%), otitis (28%), pharyngitis (22%), and conjunctivitis (17%). A fragment of the spike protein gene was sequenced to determine the variety of circulating HCoV-NL63. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains with different genetic markers cocirculate in France.

  5. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  6. Identification of residues in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of human coronavirus NL63 that are critical for the RBD-ACE2 receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Xin; Feng, Yan; Wong, Gillian; Wang, Liping; Li, Bei; Zhao, Xuesen; Li, Yan; Smaill, Fiona; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2008-04-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (NL63), a member of the group I coronaviruses, may cause acute respiratory diseases in young children and immunocompromised adults. Like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), NL63 also employs the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor for cellular entry. To identify residues in the spike protein of NL63 that are important for hACE2 binding, this study first generated a series of S1-truncated variants, examined their associations with the hACE2 receptor and subsequently mapped a minimal receptor-binding domain (RBD) that consisted of 141 residues (aa 476-616) towards the C terminus of the S1 domain. The data also demonstrated that the NL63 RBD bound to hACE2 more efficiently than its full-length counterpart and had a binding efficiency comparable to the S1 or RBD of SARS-CoV. A further series of RBD variants was generated using site-directed mutagenesis and random mutant library screening assays, and identified 15 residues (C497, Y498, V499, C500, K501, R518, R530, V531, G534, G537, D538, S540, E582, W585 and T591) that appeared to be critical for the RBD-hACE2 association. These critical residues clustered in three separate regions (designated RI, RII and RIII) inside the RBD, which may represent three receptor-binding sites. These results may help to delineate the molecular interactions between the S protein of NL63 and the hACE2 receptor, and may also enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of NL63 and SARS-CoV.

  7. Characterization of Two Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Linker Region and Carboxyl Terminal Domain of Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunnuan; Shi, Hongyan; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Feng, Li

    2016-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleocapsid (N) protein plays important roles in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The present study provides the first description of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (5E8 and 3D7) directed against the TGEV N protein linker region (LKR) and carboxyl terminal domain (CTD). The mAbs 5E8 and 3D7 reacted with native N protein in western blotting and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Two linear epitopes, 189SVEQAVLAALKKLG202 and 246VTRFYGARSSSA257, located in the LKR and CTD of TGEV N protein, respectively, were identified after truncating the protein and applying a peptide scanning technique. Using mAb 5E8, we observed that the N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm during TGEV replication and that the protein could be immunoprecipitated from TGEV-infected PK-15 cells. The mAb 5E8 can be applied for different approaches to diagnosis of TGEV infection. In addition, the antibodies represent useful tools for investigating the antigenic properties of the N protein. PMID:27689694

  8. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    PubMed

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains.

  9. The heptide repeat 2 and upstream region of TGEV induces potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against group I coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huiling; Wu, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Tianhou

    2012-10-01

    The coronavirus heptide repeat (HR) region in the spike protein induces neutralizing antibodies that block the postfusion core formation and inhibit virus entry into target cells. The HR2 regions for coronaviruses of the same serogroup share high homology. We found that polyclonal antibodies derived from transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus HR2 and upstream region were cross-reactive with the S proteins of the same serogroup in western blotting. The polyclonal antibodies also potently cross-neutralized viruses from the same serogroup. This study provides new insight for designing vaccine and therapeutic reagents against coronavirus infections.

  10. SARS coronavirus, but not human coronavirus NL63, utilizes cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, I-Chueh; Bosch, Berend Jan; Li, Fang; Li, Wenhui; Lee, Kyoung Hoa; Ghiran, Sorina; Vasilieva, Natalya; Dermody, Terence S; Harrison, Stephen C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Farzan, Michael; Rottier, Peter J M; Choe, Hyeryun

    2006-02-10

    Viruses require specific cellular receptors to infect their target cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a cellular receptor for two divergent coronaviruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). In addition to hostcell receptors, lysosomal cysteine proteases are required for productive infection by some viruses. Here we show that SARS-CoV, but not HCoV-NL63, utilizes the enzymatic activity of the cysteine protease cathepsin L to infect ACE2-expressing cells. Inhibitors of cathepsin L blocked infection by SARS-CoV and by a retrovirus pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein but not infection by HCoV-NL63 or a retrovirus pseudotyped with the HCoV-NL63 S protein. Expression of exogenous cathepsin L substantially enhanced infection mediated by the SARS-CoV S protein and by filovirus GP proteins but not by the HCoV-NL63 S protein or the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. Finally, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification had substantially less effect on infection mediated by the HCoV-NL63 S protein than on that mediated by the SARS-CoV S protein. Our data indicate that two coronaviruses that utilize a common receptor nonetheless enter cells through distinct mechanisms.

  11. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response. Probably the major reason for the high profile of IBV is the existence of a very large number of serotypes. Both live and inactivated IB vaccines are used extensively, the latter requiring priming by the former. Their effectiveness is diminished by poor cross-protection. The nature of the protective immune response to IBV is poorly understood. What is known is that the surface spike protein, indeed the amino-terminal S1 half, is sufficient to induce good protective immunity. There is increasing evidence that only a few amino acid differences amongst S proteins are sufficient to have a detrimental impact on cross-protection. Experimental vector IB vaccines and genetically manipulated IBVs--with heterologous spike protein genes--have produced promising results, including in the context of in ovo vaccination.

  12. From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic.

  13. Proteins Associated with SF3a60 in T. brucei

    PubMed Central

    Nyambega, Benson; Helbig, Claudia; Masiga, Daniel K.; Clayton, Christine; Levin, Mariano J.

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei relies on Spliced leader trans splicing to generate functional messenger RNAs. Trans splicing joins the specialized SL exon from the SL RNA to pre-mRNAs and is mediated by the trans-spliceosome, which is made up of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and non-snRNP factors. Although the trans spliceosome is essential for trypanosomatid gene expression, not all spliceosomal protein factors are known and of these, only a few are completely characterized. In this study, we have characterized the trypanosome Splicing Factor, SF3a60, the only currently annotated SF3a component. As expected, epitope-tagged SF3a60 localizes in the trypanosome nucleus. SF3a60 is essential for cell viability but its depletion seem to have no detectable effect on trans-splicing. In addition, we used SF3a60 as bait in a Yeast-2-hybrid system screen and identified its interacting protein factors. The interactions with SF3a120, SF3a66 and SAP130 were confirmed by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry. PMID:24651488

  14. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang

    2013-10-01

    Receptor recognition is a major determinant of the host range, cross-species infections, and pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV spike protein specifically recognizes its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This article reviews the latest knowledge about how RBDs from different SARS-CoV strains interact with ACE2 from several animal species. Detailed research on these RBD/ACE2 interactions has established important principles on host receptor adaptations, cross-species infections, and future evolution of SARS-CoV. These principles may apply to other emerging animal viruses, including the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses".

  15. Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Li, Kenneth S M; Tsang, Alan K L; Lam, Carol S F; Ahmed, Shakeel; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    While the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is closely related to Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (Pi-BatCoV HKU5) in bats from Hong Kong, and other potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in bats from Africa, Europe, and America, its animal origin remains obscure. To better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage C betacoronaviruses among bats. Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5 were detected in 29% and 25% of alimentary samples from lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and Japanese pipistrelle (Pipistrellus abramus), respectively. Sequencing of their RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes revealed that MERS-CoV is more closely related to Pi-BatCoV HKU5 in RdRp (92.1% to 92.3% amino acid [aa] identity) but is more closely related to Ty-BatCoV HKU4 in S (66.8% to 67.4% aa identity) and N (71.9% to 72.3% aa identity). Although both viruses were under purifying selection, the S of Pi-BatCoV HKU5 displayed marked sequence polymorphisms and more positively selected sites than that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4, suggesting that Pi-BatCoV HKU5 may generate variants to occupy new ecological niches along with its host in diverse habitats. Molecular clock analysis showed that they diverged from a common ancestor with MERS-CoV at least several centuries ago. Although MERS-CoV may have diverged from potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in European bats more recently, these bat viruses were unlikely to be the direct ancestor of MERS-CoV. Intensive surveillance for lineage C betaCoVs in Pipistrellus and related bats with diverse habitats and other animals in the Middle East may fill the evolutionary gap.

  16. Genetic Characterization of Betacoronavirus Lineage C Viruses in Bats Reveals Marked Sequence Divergence in the Spike Protein of Pipistrellus Bat Coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese Pipistrelle: Implications for the Origin of the Novel Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Ahmed, Shakeel; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung

    2013-01-01

    While the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is closely related to Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (Pi-BatCoV HKU5) in bats from Hong Kong, and other potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in bats from Africa, Europe, and America, its animal origin remains obscure. To better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage C betacoronaviruses among bats. Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5 were detected in 29% and 25% of alimentary samples from lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and Japanese pipistrelle (Pipistrellus abramus), respectively. Sequencing of their RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes revealed that MERS-CoV is more closely related to Pi-BatCoV HKU5 in RdRp (92.1% to 92.3% amino acid [aa] identity) but is more closely related to Ty-BatCoV HKU4 in S (66.8% to 67.4% aa identity) and N (71.9% to 72.3% aa identity). Although both viruses were under purifying selection, the S of Pi-BatCoV HKU5 displayed marked sequence polymorphisms and more positively selected sites than that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4, suggesting that Pi-BatCoV HKU5 may generate variants to occupy new ecological niches along with its host in diverse habitats. Molecular clock analysis showed that they diverged from a common ancestor with MERS-CoV at least several centuries ago. Although MERS-CoV may have diverged from potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in European bats more recently, these bat viruses were unlikely to be the direct ancestor of MERS-CoV. Intensive surveillance for lineage C betaCoVs in Pipistrellus and related bats with diverse habitats and other animals in the Middle East may fill the evolutionary gap. PMID:23720729

  17. Deficient incorporation of spike protein into virions contributes to the lack of infectivity following establishment of a persistent, non-productive infection in oligodendroglial cell culture by murine coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yin; Herbst, Werner; Cao Jianzhong; Zhang Xuming

    2011-01-05

    Infection of mouse oligodendrocytes with a recombinant mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) expressing a green fluorescence protein facilitated specific selection of virus-infected cells and subsequent establishment of persistence. Interestingly, while viral genomic RNAs persisted in infected cells over 14 subsequent passages with concomitant synthesis of viral subgenomic mRNAs and structural proteins, no infectious virus was isolated beyond passage 2. Further biochemical and electron microscopic analyses revealed that virions, while assembled, contained little spike in the envelope, indicating that lack of infectivity during persistence was likely due to deficiency in spike incorporation. This type of non-lytic, non-productive persistence in oligodendrocytes is unique among animal viruses and resembles MHV persistence previously observed in the mouse central nervous system. Thus, establishment of such a culture system that can recapitulate the in vivo phenomenon will provide a powerful approach for elucidating the mechanisms of coronavirus persistence in glial cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  18. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats using universal coronavirus reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Poon, Leo L M; Peiris, J S Malik

    2008-01-01

    The zoonotic transmission of SARS coronavirus from animals to humans revealed the potential impact of coronaviruses on mankind. This incident also triggered several surveillance programs to hunt for novel coronaviruses in human and wildlife populations. Using classical RT-PCR assays that target a highly conserved sequence among coronaviruses, we identified the first coronaviruses in bats. These assays and the cloning and sequencing of the PCR products are described in this chapter. Using the same approach in our subsequent studies, we further detected several novel coronaviruses in bats. These findings highlighted the fact that bats are important reservoirs for coronaviruses.

  19. More and More Coronaviruses: Human Coronavirus HKU1.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yip, Cyril C Y; Huang, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-06-01

    After human coronaviruses OC43, 229E and NL63, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is the fourth human coronavirus discovered. HCoV-HKU1 is a group 2a coronavirus that is still not cultivable. The G + C contents of HCoV-HKU1 genomes are 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with complete genome sequences available. Among all coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 shows the most extreme codon usage bias, attributed most importantly to severe cytosine deamination. All HCoV-HKU1 genomes contain unique tandem copies of a 30-base acidic tandem repeat of unknown function at the N-terminus of nsp3 inside the acidic domain upstream of papain-like protease 1. Three genotypes, A, B and C, of HCoV-HKU1 and homologous recombination among their genomes, are observed. The incidence of HCoV-HKU1 infections is the highest in winter. Similar to other human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 infections have been reported globally, with a median (range) incidence of 0.9 (0 - 4.4) %. HCoV-HKU1 is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract infections that are mostly self-limiting. The most common method for diagnosing HCoV-HKU1 infection is RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR using RNA extracted from respiratory tract samples such as nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA). Both the pol and nucleocapsid genes have been used as the targets for amplification. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated for direct antigen detection in NPA. For antibody detection, Escherichia coli BL21 and baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid of HCoV-HKU1 have been used for IgG and IgM detection in sera of patients and normal individuals, using Western blot and enzyme-linked immunoassay.

  20. From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Peiris, Malik

    2013-10-01

    This article introduces a series of invited papers in Antiviral Research marking the 10th anniversary of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by a novel coronavirus that emerged in southern China in late 2002. Until that time, coronaviruses had not been recognized as agents causing severe disease in humans, hence, the emergence of the SARS-CoV came as a complete surprise. Research during the past ten years has revealed the existence of a diverse pool of coronaviruses circulating among various bat species and other animals, suggesting that further introductions of highly pathogenic coronaviruses into the human population are not merely probable, but inevitable. The recent emergence of another coronavirus causing severe disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), in humans, has made it clear that coronaviruses pose a major threat to human health, and that more research is urgently needed to elucidate their replication mechanisms, identify potential drug targets, and develop effective countermeasures. In this series, experts in many different aspects of coronavirus replication and disease will provide authoritative, up-to-date reviews of the following topics: - clinical management and infection control of SARS; - reservoir hosts of coronaviruses; - receptor recognition and cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV; - SARS-CoV evasion of innate immune responses; - structures and functions of individual coronaviral proteins; - anti-coronavirus drug discovery and development; and - the public health legacy of the SARS outbreak. Each article will be identified in the last line of its abstract as belonging to the series "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses."

  1. Identification of Nafamostat as a Potent Inhibitor of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus S Protein-Mediated Membrane Fusion Using the Split-Protein-Based Cell-Cell Fusion Assay.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Li, Xiao; Takeda, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Inoue, Jun-Ichiro; Matsuda, Zene

    2016-11-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease associated with a relatively high mortality rate of approximately 40%. MERS is caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, and no specific drugs or vaccines are currently available to prevent MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV is an enveloped virus, and its envelope protein (S protein) mediates membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or endosomal membrane. Multiple proteolysis by host proteases, such as furin, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and cathepsins, causes the S protein to become fusion competent. TMPRSS2, which is localized to the plasma membrane, is a serine protease responsible for the proteolysis of S in the post-receptor-binding stage. Here, we developed a cell-based fusion assay for S in a TMPRSS2-dependent manner using cell lines expressing Renilla luciferase (RL)-based split reporter proteins. S was stably expressed in the effector cells, and the corresponding receptor for S, CD26, was stably coexpressed with TMPRSS2 in the target cells. Membrane fusion between these effector and target cells was quantitatively measured by determining the RL activity. The assay was optimized for a 384-well format, and nafamostat, a serine protease inhibitor, was identified as a potent inhibitor of S-mediated membrane fusion in a screening of about 1,000 drugs approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Nafamostat also blocked MERS-CoV infection in vitro Our assay has the potential to facilitate the discovery of new inhibitors of membrane fusion of MERS-CoV as well as other viruses that rely on the activity of TMPRSS2.

  2. Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Tekes, G; Thiel, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed "discriminatory" mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies.

  3. The Golgi Protein ACBD3, an Interactor for Poliovirus Protein 3A, Modulates Poliovirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Téoulé, François; Brisac, Cynthia; Pelletier, Isabelle; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Jégouic, Sophie; Mirabelli, Carmen; Bessaud, Maël; Combelas, Nicolas; Autret, Arnaud; Tangy, Frédéric; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2013-01-01

    We have shown that the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses responsible for poliomyelitis outbreaks in Madagascar have recombinant genomes composed of sequences encoding capsid proteins derived from poliovaccine Sabin, mostly type 2 (PVS2), and sequences encoding nonstructural proteins derived from other human enteroviruses. Interestingly, almost all of these recombinant genomes encode a nonstructural 3A protein related to that of field coxsackievirus A17 (CV-A17) strains. Here, we investigated the repercussions of this exchange, by assessing the role of the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 and their putative cellular partners in viral replication. We found that the Golgi protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3), recently identified as an interactor for the 3A proteins of several picornaviruses, interacts with the 3A proteins of PVS2 and CV-A17 at viral RNA replication sites, in human neuroblastoma cells infected with either PVS2 or a PVS2 recombinant encoding a 3A protein from CV-A17 [PVS2-3A(CV-A17)]. The small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of ACBD3 significantly increased the growth of both viruses, suggesting that ACBD3 slowed viral replication. This was confirmed with replicons. Furthermore, PVS2-3A(CV-A17) was more resistant to the replication-inhibiting effect of ACBD3 than the PVS2 strain, and the amino acid in position 12 of 3A was involved in modulating the sensitivity of viral replication to ACBD3. Overall, our results indicate that exchanges of nonstructural proteins can modify the relationships between enterovirus recombinants and cellular interactors and may thus be one of the factors favoring their emergence. PMID:23926333

  4. Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-06

    Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus I-Chueh Huang1*, Charles C. Bailey1, Jessica...identified viral restriction factors that inhibit infection mediated by the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Here we show that IFITM...Becker MM, et al. (2011) Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus. PLoS Pathog 7(1

  5. First complete genome sequence of European turkey coronavirus suggests complex recombination history related with US turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Brown, P A; Touzain, F; Briand, F X; Gouilh, A M; Courtillon, C; Allée, C; Lemaitre, E; De Boisséson, C; Blanchard, Y; Eterradossi, N

    2016-01-01

    A full-length genome sequence of 27,739  nt was determined for the only known European turkey coronavirus (TCoV) isolate. In general, the order, number and size of ORFs were consistent with other gammacoronaviruses. Three points of recombination were predicted, one towards the end of 1a, a second in 1b just upstream of S and a third in 3b. Phylogenetic analysis of the four regions defined by these three points supported the previous notion that European and American viruses do indeed have different evolutionary pathways. Very close relationships were revealed between the European TCoV and the European guinea fowl coronavirus in all regions except one, and both were shown to be closely related to the European infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Italy 2005. None of these regions of sequence grouped European and American TCoVs. The region of sequence containing the S gene was unique in grouping all turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses together, separating them from IBVs. Interestingly the French guinea fowl virus was more closely related to the North American viruses. These data demonstrate that European turkey and guinea fowl coronaviruses share a common genetic backbone (most likely an ancestor of IBV Italy 2005) and suggest that this recombined in two separate events with different, yet related, unknown avian coronaviruses, acquiring their S-3a genes. The data also showed that the North American viruses do not share a common backbone with European turkey and guinea fowl viruses; however, they do share similar S-3a genes with guinea fowl virus.

  6. Epigenetic Landscape during Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Alexandra; Baric, Ralph S.

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus–host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs, function as important regulators that remodel host chromatin, altering host expression patterns and networks in a highly flexible manner. For most of the past two and a half decades, research has focused on the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses antagonize the signaling and sensing components that regulate induction of the host innate immune and antiviral defense programs upon infection. More recently, a growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that viruses, even lytic RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm, have developed intricate, highly evolved, and well-coordinated processes that are designed to regulate the host epigenome, and control host innate immune antiviral defense processes, thereby promoting robust virus replication and pathogenesis. In this article, we discuss the strategies that are used to evaluate the mechanisms by which viruses regulate the host epigenome, especially focusing on highly pathogenic respiratory RNA virus infections as a model. By combining measures of epigenome reorganization with RNA and proteomic datasets, we articulate a spatial-temporal data integration approach to identify regulatory genomic clusters and regions that

  7. Epigenetic Landscape during Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Alexandra; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-02-15

    Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs, function as important regulators that remodel host chromatin, altering host expression patterns and networks in a highly flexible manner. For most of the past two and a half decades, research has focused on the molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses antagonize the signaling and sensing components that regulate induction of the host innate immune and antiviral defense programs upon infection. More recently, a growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that viruses, even lytic RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm, have developed intricate, highly evolved, and well-coordinated processes that are designed to regulate the host epigenome, and control host innate immune antiviral defense processes, thereby promoting robust virus replication and pathogenesis. In this article, we discuss the strategies that are used to evaluate the mechanisms by which viruses regulate the host epigenome, especially focusing on highly pathogenic respiratory RNA virus infections as a model. By combining measures of epigenome reorganization with RNA and proteomic datasets, we articulate a spatial-temporal data integration approach to identify regulatory genomic clusters and regions that

  8. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. PMID:26184451

  9. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

  10. Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination History.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ying; Shi, Mang; Chommanard, Christina; Queen, Krista; Zhang, Jing; Markotter, Wanda; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Holmes, Edward C; Tong, Suxiang

    2017-03-01

    Bats harbor a large diversity of coronaviruses (CoVs), several of which are related to zoonotic pathogens that cause severe disease in humans. Our screening of bat samples collected in Kenya from 2007 to 2010 not only detected RNA from several novel CoVs but, more significantly, identified sequences that were closely related to human CoVs NL63 and 229E, suggesting that these two human viruses originate from bats. We also demonstrated that human CoV NL63 is a recombinant between NL63-like viruses circulating in Triaenops bats and 229E-like viruses circulating in Hipposideros bats, with the breakpoint located near 5' and 3' ends of the spike (S) protein gene. In addition, two further interspecies recombination events involving the S gene were identified, suggesting that this region may represent a recombination "hot spot" in CoV genomes. Finally, using a combination of phylogenetic and distance-based approaches, we showed that the genetic diversity of bat CoVs is primarily structured by host species and subsequently by geographic distances.IMPORTANCE Understanding the driving forces of cross-species virus transmission is central to understanding the nature of disease emergence. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats are the ultimate reservoir hosts for a number of coronaviruses (CoVs), including ancestors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and human CoV 229E (HCoV-229E). However, the evolutionary pathways of bat CoVs remain elusive. We provide evidence for natural recombination between distantly related African bat coronaviruses associated with Triaenops afer and Hipposideros sp. bats that resulted in a NL63-like virus, an ancestor of the human pathogen HCoV-NL63. These results suggest that interspecies recombination may play an important role in CoV evolution and the emergence of novel CoVs with zoonotic potential.

  11. A human coronavirus OC43 variant harboring persistence-associated mutations in the S glycoprotein differentially induces the unfolded protein response in human neurons as compared to wild-type virus

    SciTech Connect

    Favreau, Dominique J.; Desforges, Marc; St-Jean, Julien R.; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2009-12-20

    We have reported that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is neurotropic and neuroinvasive in humans and mice, and that neurons are the primary target of infection in mice, leading to neurodegenerative disabilities. We now report that an HCoV-OC43 mutant harboring two persistence-associated S glycoprotein point mutations (H183R and Y241H), induced a stronger unfolded protein response (UPR) and translation attenuation in infected human neurons. There was a major contribution of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, followed by caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, with no significant role of the ATF6 and eIF2-alpha/ATF4 pathways. Our results show the importance of discrete molecular viral S determinants in virus-neuronal cell interactions that lead to increased production of viral proteins and infectious particles, enhanced UPR activation, and increased cytotoxicity and cell death. As this mutant virus is more neurovirulent in mice, our results also suggest that two mutations in the S glycoprotein could eventually modulate viral neuropathogenesis.

  12. Coronavirus phylogeny based on triplets of nucleic acids bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Liu, Yanshu; Li, Renfa; Zhu, Wen

    2006-04-01

    We considered the fully overlapping triplets of nucleotide bases and proposed a 2D graphical representation of protein sequences consisting of 20 amino acids and a stop code. Based on this 2D graphical representation, we outlined a new approach to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of coronaviruses by constructing a covariance matrix. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the two-dimensional curves.

  13. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  14. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2009-11-24

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel beta-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of beta-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a "virus-binding hotspot" on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  15. Emergence of pathogenic coronaviruses in cats by homologous recombination between feline and canine coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yutaka; Matsui, Nobutaka; Noguchi, Keita; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Soma, Takehisa; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) emerged via double recombination between type I FCoV and type II canine coronavirus (CCoV). In this study, two type I FCoVs, three type II FCoVs and ten type II CCoVs were genetically compared. The results showed that three Japanese type II FCoVs, M91-267, KUK-H/L and Tokyo/cat/130627, also emerged by homologous recombination between type I FCoV and type II CCoV and their parent viruses were genetically different from one another. In addition, the 3'-terminal recombination sites of M91-267, KUK-H/L and Tokyo/cat/130627 were different from one another within the genes encoding membrane and spike proteins, and the 5'-terminal recombination sites were also located at different regions of ORF1. These results indicate that at least three Japanese type II FCoVs emerged independently. Sera from a cat experimentally infected with type I FCoV was unable to neutralize type II CCoV infection, indicating that cats persistently infected with type I FCoV may be superinfected with type II CCoV. Our previous study reported that few Japanese cats have antibody against type II FCoV. All of these observations suggest that type II FCoV emerged inside the cat body and is unable to readily spread among cats, indicating that these recombination events for emergence of pathogenic coronaviruses occur frequently.

  16. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, K.; Lokugamage, K.G.; Makino, S.

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5′ capped and 3′ polyadenylated. The 5′-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15–16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3′-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5′ leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells. PMID:27712623

  17. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Lokugamage, K G; Makino, S

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells.

  18. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  19. Abelson Kinase Inhibitors Are Potent Inhibitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Christopher M.; Sisk, Jeanne M.; Mingo, Rebecca M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; White, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cause significant morbidity and morality. There is currently no approved therapeutic for highly pathogenic coronaviruses, even as MERS-CoV is spreading throughout the Middle East. We previously screened a library of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of coronavirus replication in which we identified Abelson (Abl) kinase inhibitors, including the anticancer drug imatinib, as inhibitors of both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in vitro. Here we show that the anti-CoV activity of imatinib occurs at the early stages of infection, after internalization and endosomal trafficking, by inhibiting fusion of the virions at the endosomal membrane. We specifically identified the imatinib target, Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2), as required for efficient SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV replication in vitro. These data demonstrate that specific approved drugs can be characterized in vitro for their anticoronavirus activity and used to identify host proteins required for coronavirus replication. This type of study is an important step in the repurposing of approved drugs for treatment of emerging coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are zoonotic infections, with bats as the primary source. The 2003 SARS-CoV outbreak began in Guangdong Province in China and spread to humans via civet cats and raccoon dogs in the wet markets before spreading to 37 countries. The virus caused 8,096 confirmed cases of SARS and 774 deaths (a case fatality rate of ∼10%). The MERS-CoV outbreak began in Saudi Arabia and has spread to 27 countries. MERS-CoV is believed to have emerged from bats and passed into humans via camels. The ongoing outbreak of MERS-CoV has resulted in 1,791 cases of MERS and 640 deaths (a case fatality rate of 36%). The emergence of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV provides evidence that coronaviruses are currently spreading from zoonotic

  20. Systemic and mucosal immunity in mice elicited by a single immunization with human adenovirus type 5 or 41 vector-based vaccines carrying the spike protein of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Deng, Yao; Chen, Hong; Lan, Jiaming; Wang, Wen; Zou, Xiaohui; Hung, Tao; Lu, Zhuozhuang; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    An ideal vaccine against mucosal pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) should confer sustained, protective immunity at both systemic and mucosal levels. Here, we evaluated the in vivo systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses induced by a single intramuscular or intragastric administration of recombinant adenoviral type 5 (Ad5) or type 41 (Ad41) -based vaccines expressing the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein. Intragastric administration of either Ad5-S or Ad41-S induced antigen-specific IgG and neutralizing antibody in serum; however, antigen-specific T-cell responses were not detected. In contrast, after a single intramuscular dose of Ad5-S or Ad41-S, functional antigen-specific T-cell responses were elicited in the spleen and pulmonary lymphocytes of the mice, which persisted for several months. Both rAd-based vaccines administered intramuscularly induced systemic humoral immune responses (neutralizing IgG antibodies). Our results show that a single dose of Ad5-S- or Ad41-S-based vaccines represents an appealing strategy for the control of MERS-CoV infection and transmission. PMID:25762305

  1. Novel immunodominant peptide presentation strategy: a featured HLA-A*2402-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope stabilized by intrachain hydrogen bonds from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wu, Peng; Gao, Feng; Qi, Jianxun; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Xie, Jing; Vavricka, Christopher J; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Gao, George F

    2010-11-01

    Antigenic peptides recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC; or human leukocyte antigen [HLA] in humans) molecules, and the peptide selection and presentation strategy of the host has been studied to guide our understanding of cellular immunity and vaccine development. Here, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein-derived CTL epitope, N1 (QFKDNVILL), restricted by HLA-A*2402 was identified by a series of in vitro studies, including a computer-assisted algorithm for prediction, stabilization of the peptide by co-refolding with HLA-A*2402 heavy chain and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)m), and T2-A24 cell binding. Consequently, the antigenicity of the peptide was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), proliferation assays, and HLA-peptide complex tetramer staining using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors who had recovered from SARS donors. Furthermore, the crystal structure of HLA-A*2402 complexed with peptide N1 was determined, and the featured peptide was characterized with two unexpected intrachain hydrogen bonds which augment the central residues to bulge out of the binding groove. This may contribute to the T-cell receptor (TCR) interaction, showing a host immunodominant peptide presentation strategy. Meanwhile, a rapid and efficient strategy is presented for the determination of naturally presented CTL epitopes in the context of given HLA alleles of interest from long immunogenic overlapping peptides.

  2. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  3. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  4. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  5. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  6. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  7. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26.

  8. Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Brandon; Rottier, Peter J.M.; DiMaio, Frank; Rey, Félix A.; Veesler, David

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the last decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion functions1. S also contains the principal antigenic determinants and is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we present the structure of a murine coronavirus S trimer ectodomain determined at 4.0 Å resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. It reveals the metastable pre-fusion architecture of S and highlights key interactions stabilizing it. The structure shares a common core with paramyxovirus F proteins2,3, implicating mechanistic similarities and an evolutionary connection between these viral fusion proteins. The accessibility of the highly conserved fusion peptide at the periphery of the trimer indicates potential vaccinology strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against coronaviruses. Finally, comparison with crystal structures of human coronavirus S domains allows rationalization of the molecular basis for species specificity based on the use of spatially contiguous but distinct domains. PMID:26855426

  9. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  10. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25855243

  11. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV), and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV). The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks. PMID:26053682

  12. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV), and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV). The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks.

  13. Coronavirus Gene 7 Counteracts Host Defenses and Modulates Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jazmina L. G.; Sola, Isabel; Becares, Martina; Alberca, Berta; Plana, Joan; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) genome contains three accessory genes: 3a, 3b and 7. Gene 7 is only present in members of coronavirus genus a1, and encodes a hydrophobic protein of 78 aa. To study gene 7 function, a recombinant TGEV virus lacking gene 7 was engineered (rTGEV-Δ7). Both the mutant and the parental (rTGEV-wt) viruses showed the same growth and viral RNA accumulation kinetics in tissue cultures. Nevertheless, cells infected with rTGEV-Δ7 virus showed an increased cytopathic effect caused by an enhanced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. Macromolecular synthesis analysis showed that rTGEV-Δ7 virus infection led to host translational shut-off and increased cellular RNA degradation compared with rTGEV-wt infection. An increase of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) phosphorylation and an enhanced nuclease, most likely RNase L, activity were observed in rTGEV-Δ7 virus infected cells. These results suggested that the removal of gene 7 promoted an intensified dsRNA-activated host antiviral response. In protein 7 a conserved sequence motif that potentially mediates binding to protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c), a key regulator of the cell antiviral defenses, was identified. We postulated that TGEV protein 7 may counteract host antiviral response by its association with PP1c. In fact, pull-down assays demonstrated the interaction between TGEV protein 7, but not a protein 7 mutant lacking PP1c binding motif, with PP1. Moreover, the interaction between protein 7 and PP1 was required, during the infection, for eIF2α dephosphorylation and inhibition of cell RNA degradation. Inoculation of newborn piglets with rTGEV-Δ7 and rTGEV-wt viruses showed that rTGEV-Δ7 virus presented accelerated growth kinetics and pathology compared with the parental virus. Overall, the results indicated that gene 7 counteracted host cell defenses, and modified TGEV persistence increasing TGEV survival. Therefore, the acquisition of

  14. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Catherine S.; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  15. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP.

  16. Interactions of Rodent Coronaviruses with Cellular Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-08

    isolated, the MHV-JHM and MHV-A59 strains have been used extensively in research on the biology of coronaviruses and the pathogenesis of virus- induced...research has grown in the past four years. New biochemical techniques and the better understanding of the biology of the cell made possible the...O. (1987). Coronavirus: A jumping RNA transcription. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantative Biology 42, 359-365. Lapps, W., Hogue, B. G., and

  17. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  18. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Milewska, Aleksandra; Kaminski, Kamil; Ciejka, Justyna; Kosowicz, Katarzyna; Zeglen, Slawomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1) circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC) as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses. PMID:27249425

  19. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  20. [Prokaryotic expression and characterization of two recombinant receptor-binding domain(RBD) proteins of human coronavirus NL63(HcoV-NL63)].

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Yi, Yao; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhao, Guo-Xia; Wang, Hui-Juan; Bi, Sheng-Li; Gao, Ji-Min; Liu, Bing; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-03-01

    The receptor-binding domain(RBD) protein of HCoV-NL63 is a major target in the development of diagnostic assay and vaccine, it has a pivotal role in receptor attachment, viral entry and membrane fusion. In this study, we prepared 2 purified recombinant HCoV-NL63 RBD proteins using in E. coli system and identified the proteins by Western blotting. We first optimized codon and synthesized the RL (232-684aa)coding gene, then amplified the RL or RS(476-616aa) coding gene via PCR using different primers . The RL or RS coding gene was cloned into the pM48 expression vector fused with TrxA tag. The RBD (RL and RS) of HCoV-NL63 were expressed majorly as inclusion body when expressed in E. coli BL21pLys S under different conditions. The expressed products were purified by affinity chromatography then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Our results showed that the recombinant RBD proteins were maximally expressed at 37 degrees C with 0. 8mM IPTG induction for 4h. RL or RS protein with 95 % purity was obtained and reacted positively with anti-sera from mice immunized with the recombinant vaccinia virus (Tiantan strain) in which HCoV-NL63 RL or RS protein was expressed. In conclusion, the purified recombinant RBD proteins(RL and RS)derived from E. coli were first prepared in China and they might provide a basis for further exploring biological role and vaccine development of HCoV-NL63.

  1. Surveillance of avian coronaviruses in wild bird populations of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-10-01

    We examined the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of avian coronaviruses by studying oropharyngeal swabs from 32 wild bird species. The 14 avian coronaviruses detected belonged to the gamma-coronaviruses and shared high nucleotide sequence identity with some previously identified strains in wild waterfowl, but not with infectious bronchitis viruses.

  2. Bat-to-human: spike features determining 'host jump' of coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guangwen; Wang, Qihui; Gao, George F

    2015-08-01

    Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic pathogens that crossed the species barriers to infect humans. The mechanism of viral interspecies transmission is an important scientific question to be addressed. These coronaviruses contain a surface-located spike (S) protein that initiates infection by mediating receptor-recognition and membrane fusion and is therefore a key factor in host specificity. In addition, the S protein needs to be cleaved by host proteases before executing fusion, making these proteases a second determinant of coronavirus interspecies infection. Here, we summarize the progress made in the past decade in understanding the cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV by focusing on the features of the S protein, its receptor-binding characteristics, and the cleavage process involved in priming.

  3. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P43. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions. PMID:19622868

  4. Avoiding Regions Symptomatic of Conformational and Functional Flexibility to Identify Antiviral Targets in Current and Future Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Jordon; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 15 years, two related coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome [SARS]-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome [MERS]-CoV) expanded their host range to include humans, with increased virulence in their new host. Coronaviruses were recently found to have little intrinsic disorder compared with many other virus families. Because intrinsically disordered regions have been proposed to be important for rewiring interactions between virus and host, we investigated the conservation of intrinsic disorder and secondary structure in coronaviruses in an evolutionary context. We found that regions of intrinsic disorder are rarely conserved among different coronavirus protein families, with the primary exception of the nucleocapsid. Also, secondary structure predictions are only conserved across 50–80% of sites for most protein families, with the implication that 20–50% of sites do not have conserved secondary structure prediction. Furthermore, nonconserved structure sites are significantly less constrained in sequence divergence than either sites conserved in the secondary structure or sites conserved in loop. Avoiding regions symptomatic of conformational flexibility such as disordered sites and sites with nonconserved secondary structure to identify potential broad-specificity antiviral targets, only one sequence motif (five residues or longer) remains from the >10,000 starting sites across all coronaviruses in this study. The identified sequence motif is found within the nonstructural protein (NSP) 12 and constitutes an antiviral target potentially effective against the present day and future coronaviruses. On shorter evolutionary timescales, the SARS and MERS clades have more sequence motifs fulfilling the criteria applied. Interestingly, many motifs map to NSP12 making this a prime target for coronavirus antivirals. PMID:27797946

  5. The Nuclear Factor-kB Pathway Regulates Cytochrome P450 3A4 Protein Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Bollinger, Nikki; Verma, Seema; Karin, Norm J.; Lu, Yi

    2008-06-01

    We have previously observed that CYP3A4 protein levels are suppressed by inhibition of the proteasome in primary cultured hepatocytes. Because this result is opposite of what would be expected if CYP3A4 is degraded by the proteasome, it seems likely that there is another protein that is susceptible to proteasomal degradation that regulates CYP3A4 expression. In this study, we evaluate whether the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway is involved in that process. Our model system uses an adenovirus system to express CYP3A4 protein in HepG2 cells, which are derived from human cancer cells. Similar to results in primary hepatocytes, we found that inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 suppresses CYP3A4. Consistent with reports that proteasome inhibition suppresses the NF-kB pathway, we also observe a suppression of inhibitory kB kinase protein levels after treatment with MG132. Treatment of the HepG2 cells with NK-kB Activation Inhibitor also suppresses CYP3A4 proteins levels. In contrast, inhibition of either the proteasome or NF-kB pathways increases CYP3A4 mRNA levels. When the HepG2 cells are treated with cycloheximide, a general inhibitor of translation, the loss of CYP3A4 protein is accelerated by co-treatment with an NF-kB Activation Inhibitor. These results indicate that NF-kB activity regulates CYP3A4 protein stability and suggest that the NF-kB pathway is responsible for the decrease in CYP3A4 protein levels that results from the inhibition of proteasomal activity.

  6. Comprehensive detection and identification of seven animal coronaviruses and human respiratory coronavirus 229E with a microarray hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Li, Jian; Deng, Zhirui; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Quan; Hu, Yong-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on microarray hybridization, a diagnostic test for coronavirus infection was developed using eight coronavirus strains: canine coronavirus (CCoV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV), turkey enteritis coronavirus (TCoV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and human respiratory coronavirus (HRCoV). Up to 104 cDNA clones of eight viruses were obtained by reverse transcription PCR with different pairs of primers designed for each virus and a pair of universal primers designed for the RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus. Total RNAs extracted from virus were reverse transcribed, followed by multi-PCR amplification and labeled with Cy3-dCTP. All labeled cDNAs and prepared gene chips were subjected to specific hybridization. The results showed that extensive cross-reaction existed between CCoV, FCoV, FIPV, TGEV and PRCoV, while there was no cross-reaction between BCoV, TCoV and HRCoV. The ultimate specific gene chip was developed with DNA fragments reamplified from the chosen recombinant plasmids without cross-reaction between different coronaviruses. The hybridization results showed that this gene chip could specifically identify and distinguish the eight coronaviruses and the sensitivity of the chip may be 1,000x more sensitive than PCR, indicating that it can be used for the diagnosis of eight coronavirus infections at the same time.

  7. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  8. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replicative protein nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding subunit unique in the RNA virus world

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ferron, François; Campanacci, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia; Rancurel, Corinne; Dutartre, Hélène; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The recently identified etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) belongs to Coronaviridae (CoV), a family of viruses replicating by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.7-Å resolution of nsp9, a hitherto uncharacterized subunit of the SARS-CoV replicative polyproteins. We show that SARS-CoV nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding protein displaying a previously unreported, oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide fold-like fold. The presence of this type of protein has not been detected in the replicative complexes of RNA viruses, and its presence may reflect the unique and complex CoV viral replication/transcription machinery. PMID:15007178

  9. Discovery of a Novel Coronavirus, China Rattus Coronavirus HKU24, from Norway Rats Supports the Murine Origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and Has Implications for the Ancestor of Betacoronavirus Lineage A

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCoV HKU24 as a separate species. ChRCoV HKU24 possessed genome features that resemble those of both Betacoronavirus 1 and murine coronavirus, being closer to Betacoronavirus 1 in most predicted proteins but closer to murine coronavirus by G+C content, the presence of a single nonstructural protein (NS4), and an absent transcription regulatory sequence for the envelope (E) protein. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) demonstrated higher sequence identity to the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) NTD than to the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) NTD, with 3 of 4 critical sugar-binding residues in BCoV and 2 of 14 contact residues at the MHV NTD/murine CEACAM1a interface being conserved. Molecular clock analysis dated the time of the most recent common ancestor of ChRCoV HKU24, Betacoronavirus 1, and rabbit coronavirus HKU14 to about the year 1400. Cross-reactivities between other lineage A and B βCoVs and ChRCoV HKU24 nucleocapsid but not spike polypeptide were demonstrated. Using the spike polypeptide-based Western blot assay, we showed that only Norway rats and two oriental house rats from Guangzhou, China, were infected by ChRCoV HKU24. Other rats, including Norway rats from Hong Kong, possessed antibodies only against N protein and not against the spike polypeptide, suggesting infection by βCoVs different from ChRCoV HKU24. ChRCoV HKU24 may represent the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1, and rodents are likely an important reservoir for ancestors of lineage A βCoVs. IMPORTANCE While

  10. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Anthony R; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. Coronaviruses cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory disease in chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. Here we provide a brief introduction to coronaviruses discussing their replication and pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

  11. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. Coronaviruses cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory disease chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. Here we provide a brief introduction to coronaviruses discussing their replication and pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). PMID:25720466

  12. Systematic assembly of a full-length infectious clone of human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Eric F; Yount, Boyd; Sims, Amy C; Burkett, Susan; Pickles, Raymond J; Baric, Ralph S

    2008-12-01

    Historically, coronaviruses were predominantly associated with mild upper respiratory disease in humans. More recently, three novel coronaviruses associated with severe human respiratory disease were found, including (i) the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, associated with a significant atypical pneumonia and 10% mortality; (ii) HKU-1, associated with chronic pulmonary disease; and (iii) NL63, associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in children and adults worldwide. These discoveries establish coronaviruses as important human pathogens and underscore the need for continued research toward the development of platforms that will enable genetic manipulation of the viral genome, allowing for rapid and rational development and testing of candidate vaccines, vaccine vectors, and therapeutics. In this report, we describe a reverse genetics system for NL63, whereby five contiguous cDNAs that span the entire genome were used to generate a full-length cDNA. Recombinant NL63 viruses which contained the expected marker mutations replicated as efficiently as the wild-type NL63 virus. In addition, we engineered the heterologous green fluorescent protein gene in place of open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of the NL63 clone, simultaneously creating a unique marker for NL63 infection and demonstrating that the ORF3 protein product is nonessential for the replication of NL63 in cell culture. The availability of the NL63 and NL63gfp clones and recombinant viruses provides powerful tools that will help advance our understanding of this important human pathogen.

  13. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed <90% amino acid identities to most members of Betacoronavirus 1 in ADP-ribose 1″-phosphatase (ADRP) and nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU), indicating that RbCoV HKU14 should represent a separate species. RbCoV HKU14 also possessed genomic features distinct from those of other Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, including a unique NS2a region with a variable number of small open reading frames (ORFs). Recombination analysis revealed possible recombination events during the evolution of RbCoV HKU14 and members of Betacoronavirus 1, which may have occurred during cross-species transmission. Molecular clock analysis using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes dated the most recent common ancestor of RbCoV HKU14 to around 2002, suggesting that this virus has emerged relatively recently. Antibody against RbCoV was detected in 20 (67%) of 30 rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  15. Feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  16. Detection of bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus in neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery of cattle in Quebec: evaluation of three diagnostic methods.

    PubMed Central

    Athanassious, R; Marsolais, G; Assaf, R; Dea, S; Descôteaux, J P; Dulude, S; Montpetit, C

    1994-01-01

    The use of direct electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy for the identification of bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus were examined. Two hundred and forty-nine samples from diarrheic calves and winter dysenteric cattle from seven geographic areas in Quebec were examined for the presence of viruses by direct electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations. In addition, all the samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a random selection of 47 samples were also analyzed by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy. Thirty-nine percent of samples examined by direct electron microscopy contained viral particles; bovine coronavirus and type A rotavirus were the most common viruses involved. Overall agreement between any two of the methods used compared favorably with results obtained by others using similar methods. The presence of coronavirus and rotavirus in fecal samples obtained from neonatal calves and the presence of coronavirus in samples from winter dysenteric adult cattle suggested their etiological roles in the respective diseases. Furthermore, results from protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy of coronavirus-like particles implied that a different coronavirus or some other viruses might be involved in these diseases. Finally, the efficiency of direct electron microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy as diagnostic tools is discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:8055431

  17. The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects.

    PubMed

    Yu, C G; Mullins, M A; Warren, G W; Koziel, M G; Estruch, J J

    1997-02-01

    The Vip3A protein is a member of a newly discovered class of vegetative insecticidal proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. Histopathological observations indicate that Vip3A ingestion by susceptible insects such as the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) causes gut paralysis at concentrations as low as 4 ng/cm2 of diet and complete lysis of gut epithelium cells resulting in larval death at concentrations above 40 ng/cm2. The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a nonsusceptible insect, does not develop any pathology upon ingesting Vip3A. While proteolytic processing of the Vip3A protein by midgut fluids obtained from susceptible and nonsusceptible insects is comparable, in vivo immunolocalization studies show that Vip3a binding is restricted to gut cells of susceptible insects. Therefore, the insect host range for Vip3A seems to be determined by its ability to bind gut cells. These results indicate that midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects are the primary target for the Vip3A insecticidal protein and that their subsequent lysis is the primary mechanism of lethality. Disruption of gut cells appears to be the strategy adopted by the most effective insecticidal proteins.

  18. Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A interacts with primary microcephaly protein ASPM, localizes to centrosomes and regulates chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Singhmar, Pooja; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly) protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome.

  19. Angelman Syndrome Protein UBE3A Interacts with Primary Microcephaly Protein ASPM, Localizes to Centrosomes and Regulates Chromosome Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Singhmar, Pooja; Kumar, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Many proteins associated with the phenotype microcephaly have been localized to the centrosome or linked to it functionally. All the seven autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) proteins localize at the centrosome. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II protein PCNT and Seckel syndrome (also characterized by severe microcephaly) protein ATR are also centrosomal proteins. All of the above findings show the importance of centrosomal proteins as the key players in neurogenesis and brain development. However, the exact mechanism as to how the loss-of-function of these proteins leads to microcephaly remains to be elucidated. To gain insight into the function of the most commonly mutated MCPH gene ASPM, we used the yeast two-hybrid technique to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library with an ASPM bait. The analysis identified Angelman syndrome gene product UBE3A as an ASPM interactor. Like ASPM, UBE3A also localizes to the centrosome. The identification of UBE3A as an ASPM interactor is not surprising as more than 80% of Angelman syndrome patients have microcephaly. However, unlike in MCPH, microcephaly is postnatal in Angelman syndrome patients. Our results show that UBE3A is a cell cycle regulated protein and its level peaks in mitosis. The shRNA knockdown of UBE3A in HEK293 cells led to many mitotic abnormalities including chromosome missegregation, abnormal cytokinesis and apoptosis. Thus our study links Angelman syndrome protein UBE3A to ASPM, centrosome and mitosis for the first time. We suggest that a defective chromosome segregation mechanism is responsible for the development of microcephaly in Angelman syndrome. PMID:21633703

  20. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Papain-Like Novel Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Protein-Ligand X-ray Structure and Biological Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Takayama, Jun; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswar; Ratia, Kiira; Chaudhuri, Rima; Mulhearn, Debbie C.; Lee, Hyun; Nichols, Daniel B.; Baliji, Surendranath; Baker, Susan C.; Johnson, Michael E.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2012-02-21

    The design, synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of a series of new generation SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors are described. A new lead compound 3 (6577871) was identified via high-throughput screening of a diverse chemical library. Subsequently, we carried out lead optimization and structure-activity studies to provide a series of improved inhibitors that show potent PLpro inhibition and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 cells. Interestingly, the (S)-Me inhibitor 15h (enzyme IC{sub 50} = 0.56 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) and the corresponding (R)-Me 15g (IC{sub 50} = 0.32 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) are the most potent compounds in this series, with nearly equivalent enzymatic inhibition and antiviral activity. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 15g-bound SARS-CoV PLpro and a corresponding model of 15h docked to PLpro provide intriguing molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  1. Insights into RNA synthesis, capping, and proofreading mechanisms of SARS-coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sevajol, Marion; Subissi, Lorenzo; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    The successive emergence of highly pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology. This research has provided significant new insight into functions and activities of the replication/transcription multi-protein complex. The latter directs both continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis to replicate and transcribe the large coronavirus genome made of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of ∼30 kb. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of SARS-CoV enzymes involved in RNA biochemistry, such as the in vitro characterization of a highly active and processive RNA polymerase complex which can associate with methyltransferase and 3'-5' exoribonuclease activities involved in RNA capping, and RNA proofreading, respectively. The recent discoveries reveal fascinating RNA-synthesizing machinery, highlighting the unique position of coronaviruses in the RNA virus world.

  2. DESC1 and MSPL activate influenza A viruses and emerging coronaviruses for host cell entry.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Pawel; Blazejewska, Paulina; Moldenhauer, Anna-Sophie; Welsch, Kathrin; Nehlmeier, Inga; Wu, Qingyu; Schneider, Heike; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Bertram, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    The type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates the influenza virus and coronavirus surface proteins. Expression of TMPRSS2 is essential for the spread and pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza viruses in mice. In contrast, H3N2 viruses are less dependent on TMPRSS2 for viral amplification, suggesting that these viruses might employ other TTSPs for their activation. Here, we analyzed TTSPs, reported to be expressed in the respiratory system, for the ability to activate influenza viruses and coronaviruses. We found that MSPL and, to a lesser degree, DESC1 are expressed in human lung tissue and cleave and activate the spike proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion. In addition, we show that these proteases support the spread of all influenza virus subtypes previously pandemic in humans. In sum, we identified two host cell proteases that could promote the amplification of influenza viruses and emerging coronaviruses in humans and might constitute targets for antiviral intervention. Importance: Activation of influenza viruses by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity and the enzymes responsible are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The present study demonstrates that two cellular serine proteases, DESC1 and MSPL, activate influenza viruses and emerging coronaviruses in cell culture and, because of their expression in human lung tissue, might promote viral spread in the infected host. Antiviral strategies aiming to prevent viral activation might thus need to encompass inhibitors targeting MSPL and DESC1.

  3. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chávez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C M; Rostal, M K; Epstein, J H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A A; Ávila-Flores, R; Medellín, R A; Goldstein, T; Suzán, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2013-05-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health.

  4. Kobuviral Non-structural 3A Proteins Act as Molecular Harnesses to Hijack the Host ACBD3 Protein.

    PubMed

    Klima, Martin; Chalupska, Dominika; Różycki, Bartosz; Humpolickova, Jana; Rezabkova, Lenka; Silhan, Jan; Baumlova, Adriana; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen

    2017-02-07

    Picornaviruses are small positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that include many important human pathogens. Within the host cell, they replicate at specific replication sites called replication organelles. To create this membrane platform, they hijack several host factors including the acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein-3 (ACBD3). Here, we present a structural characterization of the molecular complexes formed by the non-structural 3A proteins from two species of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family and the 3A-binding domain of the host ACBD3 protein. Specifically, we present a series of crystal structures as well as a molecular dynamics simulation of the 3A:ACBD3 complex at the membrane, which reveals that the viral 3A proteins act as molecular harnesses to enslave the ACBD3 protein leading to its stabilization at target membranes. Our data provide a structural rationale for understanding how these viral-host protein complexes assemble at the atomic level and identify new potential targets for antiviral therapies.

  5. DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Rowles, Daniell L; Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Greco, Todd M; Lin, Aaron E; Li, Minghao; Yeh, Justin; Cristea, Ileana M

    2015-06-01

    Viral infections can alter the cellular epigenetic landscape, through modulation of either DNA methylation profiles or chromatin remodeling enzymes and histone modifications. These changes can act to promote viral replication or host defense. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prominent human pathogen, which relies on interactions with host factors for efficient replication and spread. Nevertheless, the knowledge regarding its modulation of epigenetic factors remains limited. Here, we used fluorescently-labeled viruses in conjunction with immunoaffinity purification and MS to study virus-virus and virus-host protein interactions during HSV-1 infection in primary human fibroblasts. We identified interactions among viral capsid and tegument proteins, detecting phosphorylation of the capsid protein VP26 at sites within its UL37-binding domain, and an acetylation within the major capsid protein VP5. Interestingly, we found a nuclear association between viral capsid proteins and the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), which we confirmed by reciprocal isolations and microscopy. We show that drug-induced inhibition of DNA methyltransferase activity, as well as siRNA- and shRNA-mediated DNMT3A knockdowns trigger reductions in virus titers. Altogether, our results highlight a functional association of viral proteins with the mammalian DNA methyltransferase machinery, pointing to DNMT3A as a host factor required for effective HSV-1 infection.

  6. Feline infectious peritonitis: role of the feline coronavirus 3c gene in intestinal tropism and pathogenicity based upon isolates from resident and adopted shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Scarlett, Jennifer; Leutenegger, Christian M; Golovko, Lyudmila; Kennedy, Heather; Kamal, Farina Mustaffa

    2012-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) was presumed to arise from mutations in the 3c of a ubiquitous and largely nonpathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). However, a recent study found that one-third of FIPV isolates have an intact 3c and suggested that it is not solely involved in FIP but is essential for intestinal replication. In order to confirm these assumptions, 27 fecal and 32 FIP coronavirus isolates were obtained from resident or adopted cats from a large metropolitan shelter during 2008-2009 and their 3a-c, E, and M genes sequenced. Forty percent of coronavirus isolates from FIP tissues had an intact 3c gene, while 60% had mutations that truncated the gene product. The 3c genes of fecal isolates from healthy cats were always intact. Coronavirus from FIP diseased tissues consistently induced FIP when given either oronasally or intraperitoneally (i.p.), regardless of the functional status of their 3c genes, thus confirming them to be FIPVs. In contrast, fecal isolates from healthy cats were infectious following oronasal infection and shed at high levels in feces without causing disease, as expected for FECVs. Only one in three cats shed FECV in the feces following i.p. infection, indicating that FECVs can replicate systemically, but with difficulty. FIPVs having a mutated 3c were not shed in the feces following either oronasal or i.p. inoculation, while FIPVs with intact 3c genes were shed in the feces following oronasal but not i.p. inoculation. Therefore, an intact 3c appears to be essential for intestinal replication. Although FIPVs with an intact 3c were shed in the feces following oronasal inoculation, fecal virus from these cats was not infectious for other cats. Attempts to identify potential FIP mutations in the 3a, 3b, E, and M were negative. However, the 3c gene of FIPVs, even though appearing intact, contained many more non-synonymous amino acid changes in the 3' one-third of the 3c protein than FECVs. An attempt to trace FIPV

  7. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505 Bacillus... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  8. Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Carol S F; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Huang, Yi; Lee, Paul; Luk, Geraldine S M; Dyrting, Kitman C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-01-01

    In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study of coronaviruses (CoVs) in Hong Kong involving 1,541 dead wild birds, three novel CoVs were identified in three different bird families (bulbul CoV HKU11 [BuCoV HKU11], thrush CoV HKU12 [ThCoV HKU12], and munia CoV HKU13 [MuCoV HKU13]). Four complete genomes of the three novel CoVs were sequenced. Their genomes (26,396 to 26,552 bases) represent the smallest known CoV genomes. In phylogenetic trees constructed using chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL(pro)), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol), helicase, spike, and nucleocapsid proteins, BuCoV HKU11, ThCoV HKU12, and MuCoV HKU13 formed a cluster distantly related to infectious bronchitis virus and turkey CoV (group 3a CoVs). For helicase, spike, and nucleocapsid, they were also clustered with a CoV recently discovered in Asian leopard cats, for which the complete genome sequence was not available. The 3CL(pro), Pol, helicase, and nucleocapsid of the three CoVs possessed higher amino acid identities to those of group 3a CoVs than to those of group 1 and group 2 CoVs. Unique genomic features distinguishing them from other group 3 CoVs include a distinct transcription regulatory sequence and coding potential for small open reading frames. Based on these results, we propose a novel CoV subgroup, group 3c, to describe this distinct subgroup of CoVs under the group 3 CoVs. Avian CoVs are genetically more diverse than previously thought and may be closely related to some newly identified mammalian CoVs. Further studies would be important to delineate whether the Asian leopard cat CoV was a result of interspecies jumping from birds, a situation analogous to that of bat and civet severe acute respiratory syndrome CoVs.

  9. [Effects of helper protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis on Vip3A expression].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-xia; Yuan, Mei-jin; Chen, Jian-wu; Sun, Fan; Pang, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) produced in Bacillus thuringiensis accumulate as crystalline inclusions that represent up to 30% of total dry weight the cell produces. The mechanisms of in vivo crystallization of these insecticidal proteins remain interests, yet unclear. A 20-kDa protein (P20), the product of the third open reading frame of cry11A operon in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis has been defined to be an important molecular chaperone (helper protein) for forming Cyt1A crystal and enhancing Cry11A expression. The novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are secreted outside the cell of B. thuringiensis during mid-logarithmic growth. VIP3A shows activity against many lepidopteran insect larvae in a different mechanism from that of ICPs. To investigate the influence of helper protein P20 on Vip3A production and its insecticidal activity, P20 was coexpressed with Vip3A protein in B. thuringiensis and the yields and insecticidal toxicity of Vip3A were also analyzed. The recombinant plasmid pHVP20 was constructed by inserting a 5.4kb foreign fragment containing both vip3A gene and p20 gene into the shuttle vector pHT3101. The plasmid pHPT3 only containing vip3A gene was used as control. pHVP20 and pHPT3 were transformed into the B. thuringiensis acrystalliferous strain CryB not containing vip3A gene by electroporation. The obtained B. thuringiensis transformants were CryB(pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3) respectively. Western blot showed that Vip3A protein reached its maximum yield after 48h of CryB (pHVP20) growth and remained high expression level during the sporulation. The maximum yield of Vip3A protein in CryB (pHVP20) was about 1.5 fold as compared with that in CryB(pHPT3) by the mean of ImageMaster VDS software. It is considered that P20 might combine with the native Vip3A protein during the sporulation, stabilize Vip3A and protect Vip3A from unspecific full proteolysis. Bioassay showed that the cell pellets of CryB (pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3

  10. Reduced Duodenal Cytochrome P450 3A Protein Expression and Catalytic Activity in Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    McConn, Donavon J.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Mathisen, Terri L.; Blough, David K.; Xu, Yang; Hashizume, Takanori; Taylor, Shari L.; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Shuhart, Margaret C.

    2009-01-01

    The small intestine and liver express high levels of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), an enzyme subfamily contributing significantly to drug metabolism. In patients with cirrhosis, reduced metabolism of drugs is typically attributed to decreased liver function, but it is unclear whether intestinal drug metabolism is also compromised. In this study, we compared CYP3A protein expression and in vitro midazolam hydroxylation in duodenal mucosal biopsies from subjects with normal liver function (controls; n=20) and subjects with varying severity of cirrhosis (n=23). Compared to samples from controls, duodenal CYP3A expression and total midazolam hydroxylation was reduced by 47% and 34%, respectively in samples from subjects with cirrhosis. Greater decreases in CYP3A expression were seen in subjects with increasing severity of cirrhosis. Thus, patients with advanced cirrhosis may have increased drug exposure following oral dosing as a result of both impaired liver function and decreased intestinal CYP3A expression and activity. PMID:19212316

  11. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua D.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global “snap-shot” of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  12. The SARS-coronavirus papain-like protease: structure, function and inhibition by designed antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; St John, Sarah E; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the deadly human coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) emerged from the Guangdong Province of China. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV pandemic infected over 8500 individuals, claimed over 800 lives and cost billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide, there still are no clinically approved antiviral drugs, vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies to treat SARS-CoV infections. The recent emergence of the deadly human coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) is a sobering reminder that new and deadly coronaviruses can emerge at any time with the potential to become pandemics. Therefore, the continued development of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures to potentially deadly coronaviruses is warranted. The coronaviral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), are attractive antiviral drug targets because they are essential for coronaviral replication. Although the primary function of PLpro and 3CLpro are to process the viral polyprotein in a coordinated manner, PLpro has the additional function of stripping ubiquitin and ISG15 from host-cell proteins to aid coronaviruses in their evasion of the host innate immune responses. Therefore, targeting PLpro with antiviral drugs may have an advantage in not only inhibiting viral replication but also inhibiting the dysregulation of signaling cascades in infected cells that may lead to cell death in surrounding, uninfected cells. This review provides an up-to-date discussion on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease including a brief overview of the SARS-CoV genome and replication followed by a more in-depth discussion on the structure and catalytic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLpro, the multiple cellular functions of SARS-CoV PLpro, the inhibition of SARS-CoV PLpro by small molecule inhibitors, and the prospect of inhibiting papain-like protease from other coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of

  13. Coronavirus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yingying; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    Most coronaviruses cause respiratory or intestinal infections in their animal or human host. Hence, their interaction with polarized epithelial cells plays a critical role in the onset and outcome of infection. In this paper, we review the knowledge regarding the entry and release of coronaviruses, with particular emphasis on the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. As these viruses approach the epithelial surfaces from the apical side, it is not surprising that coronavirus cell receptors are exposed primarily on the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells. With respect to release, all possibilities appear to occur. Thus, most coronaviruses exit through the apical surface, several through the basolateral one, although the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus appears to use both sides. These observations help us understand the local or systematic spread of the infection within its host as well as the spread of the virus within the host population.

  14. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  15. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  16. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  17. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  18. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  19. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A. PMID:27622813

  20. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-09-13

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A.

  1. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Heike; Pyrc, Krzysztof; van der Hoek, Lia; Geier, Martina; Berkhout, Ben; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2005-05-31

    Coronavirus (CoV) infection of humans is usually not associated with severe disease. However, discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV revealed that highly pathogenic human CoVs (HCoVs) can evolve. The identification and characterization of new HCoVs is, therefore, an important task. Recently, a HCoV termed NL63 was discovered in patients with respiratory tract illness. Here, cell tropism and receptor usage of HCoV-NL63 were analyzed. The NL63 spike (S) protein mediated infection of different target cells compared with the closely related 229E-S protein but facilitated entry into cells known to be permissive to SARS-CoV-S-driven infection. An analysis of receptor engagement revealed that NL63-S binds angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, the receptor for SARS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 uses ACE2 as a receptor for infection of target cells. Potent neutralizing activity directed against NL63- but not 229E-S protein was detected in virtually all sera from patients 8 years of age or older, suggesting that HCoV-NL63 infection of humans is common and usually acquired during childhood. Here, we show that SARS-CoV shares its receptor ACE2 with HCoV-NL63. Because the two viruses differ dramatically in their ability to induce disease, analysis of HCoV-NL63 might unravel pathogenicity factors in SARS-CoV. The frequent HCoV-NL63 infection of humans suggests that highly pathogenic variants have ample opportunity to evolve, underlining the need for vaccines against HCoVs.

  2. Group 2 coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, Gijs A.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Worm, Sjoerd H.E. van den; Spaan, Willy J.M. . E-mail: w.j.m.spaan@lumc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Many viruses encode antagonists to prevent interferon (IFN) induction. Infection of fibroblasts with the murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) and SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) did not result in nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor involved in IFN induction, and induction of IFN mRNA transcription. Furthermore, MHV and SARS-CoV infection could not prevent IFN induction by poly (I:C) or Sendai virus, suggesting that these CoVs do not inactivate IRF3-mediated transcription regulation, but apparently prevent detection of replicative RNA by cellular sensory molecules. Our data indicate that shielding of viral RNA to host cell sensors might be the main general mechanism for coronaviruses to prevent IFN induction.

  3. The RNA polymerase activity of SARS-coronavirus nsp12 is primer dependent

    PubMed Central

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J. W.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; van den Worm, Sjoerd H. E.; Snijder, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is the central catalytic subunit of the RNA-synthesizing machinery of all positive-strand RNA viruses. Usually, RdRp domains are readily identifiable by comparative sequence analysis, but biochemical confirmation and characterization can be hampered by intrinsic protein properties and technical complications. It is presumed that replication and transcription of the ∼30-kb severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) RNA genome are catalyzed by an RdRp domain in the C-terminal part of nonstructural protein 12 (nsp12), one of 16 replicase subunits. However, thus far full-length nsp12 has proven refractory to expression in bacterial systems, which has hindered both the biochemical characterization of coronavirus RNA synthesis and RdRp-targeted antiviral drug design. Here, we describe a combined strategy involving bacterial expression of an nsp12 fusion protein and its in vivo cleavage to generate and purify stable SARS-CoV nsp12 (106 kDa) with a natural N-terminus and C-terminal hexahistidine tag. This recombinant protein possesses robust in vitro RdRp activity, as well as a significant DNA-dependent activity that may facilitate future inhibitor studies. The SARS-CoV nsp12 is primer dependent on both homo- and heteropolymeric templates, supporting the likeliness of a close enzymatic collaboration with the intriguing RNA primase activity that was recently proposed for coronavirus nsp8. PMID:19875418

  4. The Angelman syndrome protein Ube3a is required for polarized dendrite morphogenesis in pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Miao, Sheng; Chen, Renchao; Ye, Jiahao; Tan, Guo-He; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Yong-hui; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2013-01-02

    Pyramidal neurons have a highly polarized dendritic morphology, characterized by one long apical dendrite and multiple short basal dendrites. They function as the primary excitatory cells of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of polarized dendrite morphology in pyramidal neurons remain poorly understood. Here, we report that the Angelman syndrome (AS) protein ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (Ube3a) plays an important role in specifying the polarization of pyramidal neuron dendritic arbors in mice. shRNA-mediated downregulation of Ube3a selectively inhibited apical dendrite outgrowth and resulted in impaired dendrite polarity, which could be rescued by coexpressing mouse Ube3a isoform 2, but not isoform 1 or 3. Ube3a knockdown also disrupted the polarized distribution of the Golgi apparatus, a well established cellular mechanism for asymmetric dendritic growth in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, downregulation of Ube3a completely blocked Reelin-induced rapid deployment of Golgi into dendrite. Consistently, we also observed selective inhibition of apical dendrite outgrowth in pyramidal neurons in a mouse model of AS. Overall, these results show that Ube3a is required for the specification of the apical dendrites and dendrite polarization in pyramidal neurons, and suggest a novel pathological mechanism for AS.

  5. Cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 facilitates replication of feline coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Amano, Arisa; Morisaki, Masateru; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Although feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is a fatal infectious disease, there are no effective therapeutic medicines or vaccines. Previously, in vitro studies have shown that cyclosporin (CsA) and FK506 inhibit virus replication in diverse coronaviruses. CsA and FK506 are targets of clinically relevant immunosuppressive drugs and bind to cellular cyclophilins (Cyps) or FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), respectively. Both Cyp and FKBP have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. However, protein interacting with NIMA (Pin1), a member of the parvulin subfamily of PPIases that differs from Cyps and FKBPs, is essential for various signaling pathways. Here we demonstrated that genetic silencing or knockout of Pin1 resulted in decreased FCoV replication in vitro. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide, a specific inhibitor of Pin1, inhibited FCoV replication. These data indicate that Pin1 modulates FCoV propagation.

  6. Understanding bat SARS-like coronaviruses for the preparation of future coronavirus outbreaks - Implications for coronavirus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2017-01-02

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) first emerged in 2003, causing the SARS epidemic which resulted in a 10% fatality rate. The advancements in metagenomic techniques have allowed the identification of SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) sequences that share high homology to the human SARS-CoV epidemic strains from wildlife bats, presenting concrete evidence that bats are the origin and natural reservoir of SARS-CoV. The application of reverse genetics further enabled that characterization of these bat CoVs and the prediction of their potential to cause disease in humans. The knowledge gained from such studies is valuable in the surveillance and preparation of a possible future outbreak caused by a spill-over of these bat SL-CoVs.

  7. The nsp3 Macrodomain Promotes Virulence in Mice with Coronavirus-Induced Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Anthony R.; Athmer, Jeremiah; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Phillips, Judith M.; Meyerholz, David K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT All coronaviruses encode a macrodomain containing ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (ADRP) activity within the N terminus of nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). Previous work showed that mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) with a mutated catalytic site (N1348A) replicated similarly to wild-type virus but was unable to cause acute hepatitis in mice. To determine whether this attenuated phenotype is applicable to multiple disease models, we mutated the catalytic residue in the JHM strain of MHV (JHMV), which causes acute and chronic encephalomyelitis, using a newly developed bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based MHV reverse genetics system. Infection of mice with the macrodomain catalytic point mutant virus (N1347A) resulted in reductions in lethality, weight loss, viral titers, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, and immune cell infiltration in the brain compared to mice infected with wild-type virus. Specifically, macrophages were most affected, with approximately 2.5-fold fewer macrophages at day 5 postinfection in N1347A-infected brains. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN) signaling were not required for effective host control of mutant virus as all N1347A virus-infected mice survived the infection. However, the adaptive immune system was required for protection since N1347A virus was able to cause lethal encephalitis in RAG1−/− (recombination activation gene 1 knockout) mice although disease onset was modestly delayed. Overall, these results indicate that the BAC-based MHV reverse genetics system will be useful for studies of JHMV and expand upon previous studies, showing that the macrodomain is critical for the ability of coronaviruses to evade the immune system and promote viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are an important cause of human and veterinary diseases worldwide. Viral processes that are conserved across a family are likely to be good targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics and

  8. The structure and functions of coronavirus genomic 3' and 5' ends.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Leibowitz, Julian L

    2015-08-03

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are an important cause of illness in humans and animals. Most human coronaviruses commonly cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses; however two zoonotic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, can cause severe illness and death. Investigations over the past 35 years have illuminated many aspects of coronavirus replication. The focus of this review is the functional analysis of conserved RNA secondary structures in the 5' and 3' of the betacoronavirus genomes. The 5' 350 nucleotides folds into a set of RNA secondary structures which are well conserved, and reverse genetic studies indicate that these structures play an important role in the discontinuous synthesis of subgenomic RNAs in the betacoronaviruses. These cis-acting elements extend 3' of the 5'UTR into ORF1a. The 3'UTR is similarly conserved and contains all of the cis-acting sequences necessary for viral replication. Two competing conformations near the 5' end of the 3'UTR have been shown to make up a potential molecular switch. There is some evidence that an association between the 3' and 5'UTRs is necessary for subgenomic RNA synthesis, but the basis for this association is not yet clear. A number of host RNA proteins have been shown to bind to the 5' and 3' cis-acting regions, but the significance of these in viral replication is not clear. Two viral proteins have been identified as binding to the 5' cis-acting region, nsp1 and N protein. A genetic interaction between nsp8 and nsp9 and the region of the 3'UTR that contains the putative molecular switch suggests that these two proteins bind to this region.

  9. Receptor usage and cell entry of bat coronavirus HKU4 provide insight into bat-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Du, Lanying; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lili; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Jian; Baric, Ralph S; Jiang, Shibo; Li, Fang

    2014-08-26

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) currently spreads in humans and causes ∼ 36% fatality in infected patients. Believed to have originated from bats, MERS-CoV is genetically related to bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. To understand how bat coronaviruses transmit to humans, we investigated the receptor usage and cell entry activity of the virus-surface spike proteins of HKU4 and HKU5. We found that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV, is also the receptor for HKU4, but not HKU5. Despite sharing a common receptor, MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes demonstrated functional differences. First, whereas MERS-CoV prefers human DPP4 over bat DPP4 as its receptor, HKU4 shows the opposite trend. Second, in the absence of exogenous proteases, both MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes mediate pseudovirus entry into bat cells, whereas only MERS-CoV spike, but not HKU4 spike, mediates pseudovirus entry into human cells. Thus, MERS-CoV, but not HKU4, has adapted to use human DPP4 and human cellular proteases for efficient human cell entry, contributing to the enhanced pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. These results establish DPP4 as a functional receptor for HKU4 and host cellular proteases as a host range determinant for HKU4. They also suggest that DPP4-recognizing bat coronaviruses threaten human health because of their spikes' capability to adapt to human cells for cross-species transmissions.

  10. The Chemorepulsive Protein Semaphorin 3A and Perineuronal Net-Mediated Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    de Winter, F.; Kwok, J. C. F.; Fawcett, J. W.; Vo, T. T.; Carulli, D.; Verhaagen, J.

    2016-01-01

    During postnatal development, closure of critical periods coincides with the appearance of extracellular matrix structures, called perineuronal nets (PNN), around various neuronal populations throughout the brain. The absence or presence of PNN strongly correlates with neuronal plasticity. It is not clear how PNN regulate plasticity. The repulsive axon guidance proteins Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema3B are also prominently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain. In the neocortex, Sema3A accumulates in the PNN that form around parvalbumin positive inhibitory interneurons during the closure of critical periods. Sema3A interacts with high-affinity with chondroitin sulfate E, a component of PNN. The localization of Sema3A in PNN and its inhibitory effects on developing neurites are intriguing features and may clarify how PNN mediate structural neural plasticity. In the cerebellum, enhanced neuronal plasticity as a result of an enriched environment correlates with reduced Sema3A expression in PNN. Here, we first review the distribution of Sema3A and Sema3B expression in the rat brain and the biochemical interaction of Sema3A with PNN. Subsequently, we review what is known so far about functional correlates of changes in Sema3A expression in PNN. Finally, we propose a model of how Semaphorins in the PNN may influence local connectivity. PMID:27057361

  11. The SARS-like coronaviruses: the role of bats and evolutionary relationships with SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Andrea; Battilani, Mara; Prosperi, Santino

    2012-01-01

    Bats represent an order of great evolutionary success, with elevated geographical diffusion and species diversity. This order harbors viruses of high variability which have a great possibility of acquiring the capacity of infecting other animals,including humans. Bats are the natural reservoir for several viruses genetically closely related to the SARScoronavirus which is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a human epidemic which emerged in China in 2002-2003. In the last few years, it has been discovered that the association between coronaviruses and bats is a worldwide phenomenon, and it has been hypothesised that all mammalian coronaviruses were derived from ancestral viruses residing in bats. This review analyzes the role of bats as a reservoir of zoonotic viruses focusing more extensively on SARS-related coronaviruses and taking into account the role of African and European strains in the evolutionary history of these viruses.

  12. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable.

  13. Discovery of a Novel Bottlenose Dolphin Coronavirus Reveals a Distinct Species of Marine Mammal Coronavirus in Gammacoronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Hui, Suk-Wai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Martelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    While gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (CoVs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale CoV [BWCoV] SW1) in 2008. In this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus from fecal samples from three Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), which we named bottlenose dolphin CoV (BdCoV) HKU22. All the three BdCoV HKU22-positive samples were collected on the same date, suggesting a cluster of infection, with viral loads of 1 × 103 to 1 × 105 copies per ml. Clearance of virus was associated with a specific antibody response against the nucleocapsid of BdCoV HKU22. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 have similar genome characteristics and structures. Their genome size is about 32,000 nucleotides, the largest among all CoVs, as a result of multiple unique open reading frames (NS5a, NS5b, NS5c, NS6, NS7, NS8, NS9, and NS10) between their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein genes. Although comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 should belong to the same species, a major difference was observed in the proteins encoded by their spike (S) genes, which showed only 74.3 to 74.7% amino acid identities. The high ratios of the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) to the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka) in multiple regions of the genome, especially the S gene (Ka/Ks ratio, 2.5), indicated that BdCoV HKU22 may be evolving rapidly, supporting a recent transmission event to the bottlenose dolphins. We propose a distinct species, Cetacean coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus, to include BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1, whereas IBV and its closely related bird CoVs represent another species, Avian coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus. PMID:24227844

  14. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  15. Targeting membrane-bound viral RNA synthesis reveals potent inhibition of diverse coronaviruses including the middle East respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Anna; Dijkman, Ronald; Bergström, Tomas; Kann, Nina; Adamiak, Beata; Hannoun, Charles; Kindler, Eveline; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R; Muth, Doreen; Kint, Joeri; Forlenza, Maria; Müller, Marcel A; Drosten, Christian; Thiel, Volker; Trybala, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Coronaviruses raise serious concerns as emerging zoonotic viruses without specific antiviral drugs available. Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. K22 exerts most potent antiviral activity after virus entry during an early step of the viral life cycle. Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesis was not affected. Importantly, K22 inhibits a broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and efficient inhibition was achieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections.

  16. Novel avian coronavirus and fulminating disease in guinea fowl, France.

    PubMed

    Liais, Etienne; Croville, Guillaume; Mariette, Jérôme; Delverdier, Maxence; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Klopp, Christophe; Lluch, Jérôme; Donnadieu, Cécile; Guy, James S; Corrand, Léni; Ducatez, Mariette F; Guérin, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    For decades, French guinea fowl have been affected by fulminating enteritis of unclear origin. By using metagenomics, we identified a novel avian gammacoronavirus associated with this disease that is distantly related to turkey coronaviruses. Fatal respiratory diseases in humans have recently been caused by coronaviruses of animal origin.

  17. Genetic characterization of coronaviruses from domestic ferrets, Japan.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yutaka; Minami, Shohei; Noguchi, Keita; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Masami; Une, Yumi; Maeda, Ken

    2014-02-01

    We detected ferret coronaviruses in 44 (55.7%) of 79 pet ferrets tested in Japan and classified the viruses into 2 genotypes on the basis of genotype-specific PCR. Our results show that 2 ferret coronaviruses that cause feline infectious peritonitis-like disease and epizootic catarrhal enteritis are enzootic among ferrets in Japan.

  18. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  19. The Golgi protein ACBD3 facilitates Enterovirus 71 replication by interacting with 3A

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yijie; Qi, Jianli; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Yan; Zhou, Zhuo; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human pathogen that causes hand, foot, mouth disease and neurological complications. Although EV71, as well as other enteroviruses, initiates a remodeling of intracellular membrane for genomic replication, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. By screening human cDNA library, we uncover that the Golgi resident protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3) serves as a target of the 3A protein of EV71. This interaction occurs in cells expressing 3A or infected with EV71. Genetic inhibition or deletion of ACBD3 drastically impairs viral RNA replication and plaque formation. Such defects are corrected upon restoration of ACBD3. In infected cells, EV71 3A redirects ACBD3, to the replication sites. I44A or H54Y substitution in 3A interrupts the binding to ACBD3. As such, viral replication is impeded. These results reveal a mechanism of EV71 replication that involves host ACBD3 for viral replication. PMID:28303920

  20. The antimicrobial protein REG3A regulates keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation after skin injury.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuping; Li, Dongqing; Li, Changwei; Muehleisen, Beda; Radek, Katherine A; Park, Hyun Jeong; Jiang, Ziwei; Li, Zhiheng; Lei, Hu; Quan, Yanchun; Zhang, Tian; Wu, Yelin; Kotol, Paul; Morizane, Shin; Hata, Tissa R; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Tang, Ce; Gallo, Richard L

    2012-07-27

    Epithelial keratinocyte proliferation is an essential element of wound repair, and abnormal epithelial proliferation is an intrinsic element in the skin disorder psoriasis. The factors that trigger epithelial proliferation in these inflammatory processes are incompletely understood. Here we have shown that regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REG3A) is highly expressed in keratinocytes during psoriasis and wound repair and in imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin lesions. The expression of REG3A by keratinocytes is induced by interleukin-17 (IL-17) via activation of keratinocyte-encoded IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and feeds back on keratinocytes to inhibit terminal differentiation and increase cell proliferation by binding to exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3) followed by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase AKT. These findings reveal that REG3A, a secreted intestinal antimicrobial protein, can promote skin keratinocyte proliferation and can be induced by IL-17. This observation suggests that REG3A may mediate the epidermal hyperproliferation observed in normal wound repair and in psoriasis.

  1. Development of animal models against emerging coronaviruses: From SARS to MERS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Troy C; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-05-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged to cause severe disease in humans. While bats may be the primary reservoir for both viruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely crossed into humans from civets in China, and MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been transmitted from camels in the Middle East. Unlike SARS-CoV that resolved within a year, continued introductions of MERS-CoV present an on-going public health threat. Animal models are needed to evaluate countermeasures against emerging viruses. With SARS-CoV, several animal species were permissive to infection. In contrast, most laboratory animals are refractory or only semi-permissive to infection with MERS-CoV. This host-range restriction is largely determined by sequence heterogeneity in the MERS-CoV receptor. We describe animal models developed to study coronaviruses, with a focus on host-range restriction at the level of the viral receptor and discuss approaches to consider in developing a model to evaluate countermeasures against MERS-CoV.

  2. Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins by two Spodoptera species.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Chakroun, Maissa; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Ferré, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Vip3 proteins have been described to be secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase and to display a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran larvae. Vip3Aa protoxin has been reported to be significantly more toxic to Spodoptera frugiperda than to Spodoptera exigua and differences in the midgut processing have been proposed to be responsible. In contrast, we have found that Vip3Ae is essentially equally toxic against these two species. Proteolysis experiments were performed to study the stability of Vip3A proteins to peptidase digestion and to see whether the differences found could explain differences in toxicity against these two Spodoptera species. It was found that activation of the protoxin form and degradation of the 62kDa band took place at lower concentrations of trypsin when using Vip3Aa than when using Vip3Ae. The opposite effect was observed for chymotrypsin. Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae protoxins were effectively processed by midgut content extracts from the two Spodoptera species and the proteolytic activation did not produce a peptidase resistant core under these in vitro conditions. Digestion experiments performed with S. frugiperda chromatography-purified digestive serine peptidases showed that the degradation of the Vip3A toxins active core is mainly due to the action of cationic chymotrypsin-like peptidase. Although the digestion patterns of Vip3A proteins do not always correlate with toxicity, the peptidase stability of the 62kDa core is in agreement with intraspecific differences of toxicity of the Vip3Aa protein.

  3. [Visual Detection of Human Coronavirus NL63 by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification].

    PubMed

    Geng, Heyuan; Wang, Shengqiang; Xie, Xiaoqian; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Wenjie; Su, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive assay for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was developed by colorimetic reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The method employed six specially designed primers that recognized eight distinct regions of the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein gene for amplification of target sequences under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for 1 h Amplification of RT-LAMP was monitored by addition of calcein before amplification. A positive reaction was confirmed by change from light-brown to yellow-green under visual detection. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by cross-reaction with different human coronaviruses, norovirus, influenza A virus, and influenza B virus. Sensitivity was evaluated by serial dilution of HCoV-NL63 RNA from 1.6 x 10(9) to 1.6 x 10(1) per reaction. The RT-LAMP assay could achieve 1,600 RNA copies per reaction with high specificity. Hence, our colorimetric RT-LAMP assay could be used for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63.

  4. A screening of five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins for their activity against lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Maeztu, Mireya; Escriche, Baltasar; Muñoz, Delia; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins (Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af) and their corresponding trypsin-activated toxins were tested for their toxicity against eight lepidopteran pests: Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, Ostrinia nubilalis and Lobesia botrana. Toxicity was first tested at a high dose at 7 and 10 days. No major differences were found when comparing protoxins vs. trypsin-activated toxins. The proteins that were active against most of the insect species were Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, followed by Vip3Ab. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to any of the species tested. Considering the results by insect species, A. ipsilon, S. frugiperda and S. littoralis were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; S. exigua was susceptible to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae, and moderately susceptible to Vip3Ab; M. brassicae and L. botrana were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; H. armigera was moderately susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, and O. nubilalis was tolerant to all Vip3 proteins tested, although it showed some susceptibility to Vip3Af. The results obtained will help to design new combinations of insecticidal protein genes in transgenic crops or in recombinant bacteria for the control of insect pests.

  5. Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C. Joel; Manzer, Rizwan; Miura, Tanya A.; Groshong, Steve D.; Ito, Yoko; Travanty, Emily A.; Leete, Jennifer; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6–8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host. PMID:19741068

  6. Core structure of S2 from the human coronavirus NL63 spike glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Deng, Yiqun; Liu, Jie; van der Hoek, Lia; Berkhout, Ben; Lu, Min

    2006-12-26

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an alpha-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 degrees C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  7. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.; van der Hoek, L.; Berkhout, B.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  8. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1.

    PubMed

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Hein, Marco Y; Müller, Marcel A; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-08-30

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes.

  9. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A.; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PLpro), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95–144 of RCHY1 and 389–652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PLpros from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD–PLpro fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PLpro alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes. PMID:27519799

  10. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  11. Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Carol S F; Lau, Candy C Y; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, John H N; Bai, Ru; Teng, Jade L L; Tsang, Chris C C; Wang, Ming; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-04-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we discovered seven additional novel deltacoronaviruses in pigs and birds, which we named porcine coronavirus HKU15, white-eye coronavirus HKU16, sparrow coronavirus HKU17, magpie robin coronavirus HKU18, night heron coronavirus HKU19, wigeon coronavirus HKU20, and common moorhen coronavirus HKU21. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that the avian and mammalian deltacoronaviruses have similar genome characteristics and structures. They all have relatively small genomes (25.421 to 26.674 kb), the smallest among all coronaviruses. They all have a single papain-like protease domain in the nsp3 gene; an accessory gene, NS6 open reading frame (ORF), located between the M and N genes; and a variable number of accessory genes (up to four) downstream of the N gene. Moreover, they all have the same putative transcription regulatory sequence of ACACCA. Molecular clock analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of all coronaviruses was estimated at approximately 8100 BC, and those of Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus were at approximately 2400 BC, 3300 BC, 2800 BC, and 3000 BC, respectively. From our studies, it appears that bats and birds, the warm blooded flying vertebrates, are ideal hosts for the coronavirus gene source, bats for Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and birds for Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus, to fuel coronavirus evolution and dissemination.

  12. Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Gilbert, Martin; Joyner, Priscilla H.; Ng, Erica M.; Tse, Tsemay M.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Poon, Leo L. M.

    2011-01-01

    We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacoronaviruses between duck species. In contrast, deltacoronaviruses may have more stringent host specificities. Our analysis of these avian viral and host mitochondrial DNA sequences also suggests that some, but not all, coronaviruses may have coevolved with birds from the same order. PMID:21957308

  13. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  14. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 and Vip3A proteins with Spodoptera frugiperda midgut binding sites.

    PubMed

    Sena, Janete A D; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ferré, Juan

    2009-04-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af.

  15. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 and Vip3A Proteins with Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut Binding Sites▿

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Janete A. D.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ferré, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af. PMID:19181834

  16. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H.; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  17. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C

    2016-03-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  18. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    SciTech Connect

    Kapil, Sanjay; Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  19. Rapid identification of emerging pathogens: coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Hofstadler, Steven A; Blyn, Lawrence B; Eshoo, Mark W; Hall, Thomas A; Massire, Christian; Levene, Harold M; Hannis, James C; Harrell, Patina M; Neuman, Benjamin; Buchmeier, Michael J; Jiang, Yun; Ranken, Raymond; Drader, Jared J; Samant, Vivek; Griffey, Richard H; McNeil, John A; Crooke, Stanley T; Ecker, David J

    2005-03-01

    We describe a new approach for infectious disease surveillance that facilitates rapid identification of known and emerging pathogens. The process uses broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify nucleic acid targets from large groupings of organisms, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for accurate mass measurements of PCR products, and base composition signature analysis to identify organisms in a sample. We demonstrate this principle by using 14 isolates of 9 diverse Coronavirus spp., including the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We show that this method could identify and distinguish between SARS and other known CoV, including the human CoV 229E and OC43, individually and in a mixture of all 3 human viruses. The sensitivity of detection, measured by using titered SARS-CoV spiked into human serum, was approximate, equals1 PFU/mL. This approach, applicable to the surveillance of bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoal pathogens, is capable of automated analysis of >900 PCR reactions per day.

  20. Rapid Identification of Emerging Pathogens: Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Hofstadler, Steven A.; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Eshoo, Mark W.; Hall, Thomas A.; Massire, Christian; Levene, Harold M.; Hannis, James C.; Harrell, Patina M.; Neuman, Benjamin; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Jiang, Yun; Ranken, Raymond; Drader, Jared J.; Samant, Vivek; Griffey, Richard H.; McNeil, John A.; Crooke, Stanley T.; Ecker, David J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach for infectious disease surveillance that facilitates rapid identification of known and emerging pathogens. The process uses broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify nucleic acid targets from large groupings of organisms, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for accurate mass measurements of PCR products, and base composition signature analysis to identify organisms in a sample. We demonstrate this principle by using 14 isolates of 9 diverse Coronavirus spp., including the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We show that this method could identify and distinguish between SARS and other known CoV, including the human CoV 229E and OC43, individually and in a mixture of all 3 human viruses. The sensitivity of detection, measured by using titered SARS-CoV spiked into human serum, was ≈1 PFU/mL. This approach, applicable to the surveillance of bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoal pathogens, is capable of automated analysis of >900 PCR reactions per day. PMID:15757550

  1. Comprehensive detection and identification of human coronaviruses, including the SARS-associated coronavirus, with a single RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Adachi, D; Johnson, G; Draker, R; Ayers, M; Mazzulli, T; Talbot, P J; Tellier, R

    2004-12-01

    The SARS-associated human coronavirus (SARS-HCoV) is a newly described, emerging virus conclusively established as the etiologic agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This study presents a single-tube RT-PCR assay that can detect with high analytical sensitivity the SARS-HCoV, as well as several other coronaviruses including other known human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E). Species identification is provided by sequencing the amplicon, although a rapid screening test by restriction enzyme analysis has proved to be very useful for the analysis of samples obtained during the SARS outbreak in Toronto, Canada.

  2. The Conserved Coronavirus Macrodomain Promotes Virulence and Suppresses the Innate Immune Response during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Anthony R.; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Jankevicius, Gytis; Fett, Craig; Zhao, Jincun; Athmer, Jeremiah; Meyerholz, David K.; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation is a common posttranslational modification that may have antiviral properties and impact innate immunity. To regulate this activity, macrodomain proteins enzymatically remove covalently attached ADP-ribose from protein targets. All members of the Coronavirinae, a subfamily of positive-sense RNA viruses, contain a highly conserved macrodomain within nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3). However, its function or targets during infection remain unknown. We identified several macrodomain mutations that greatly reduced nsp3’s de-ADP-ribosylation activity in vitro. Next, we created recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) strains with these mutations. These mutations led to virus attenuation and a modest reduction of viral loads in infected mice, despite normal replication in cell culture. Further, macrodomain mutant virus elicited an early, enhanced interferon (IFN), interferon-stimulated gene (ISG), and proinflammatory cytokine response in mice and in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Using a coinfection assay, we found that inclusion of mutant virus in the inoculum protected mice from an otherwise lethal SARS-CoV infection without reducing virus loads, indicating that the changes in innate immune response were physiologically significant. In conclusion, we have established a novel function for the SARS-CoV macrodomain that implicates ADP-ribose in the regulation of the innate immune response and helps to demonstrate why this domain is conserved in CoVs. PMID:27965448

  3. Interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A with host protein DCTN3 is important for viral virulence in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular ...

  4. Identification of an infectious bronchitis coronavirus strain exhibiting a classical genotype but altered antigenicity, pathogenicity, and innate immunity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yi; Li, Yao-Tsun; Chen, You-Ting; Chen, Ting-Chih; Hu, Che-Ming J.; Chen, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Pathogenic IBV 3575/08 was isolated from broilers vaccinated with the attenuated viral vaccine derived from a Taiwan strain 2575/98. In this study, extensive investigations were conducted on the genome sequences, antigenicity, pathogenicity, and host immune responses of several IBV strains in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Sequence analyses revealed that 3575/08 and 2575/98 shared high homology in their structural genes, but not in non-structural accessory proteins such as 3a, 3b and 5b. Despite a high degree of homology in their spike protein genes, cross neutralization test showed low cross protection between 3575/08 and 2575/98, suggesting distinct antigenicity for the two strains. Animal challenge experiments exhibited strong respiratory and renal pathogenicity for 3575/08. In addition, early and prolonged viral shedding and rapid viral dissemination were observed. Immune gene expression profiling by PCR array showed chickens infected with 3575/08 had delayed expression of a subset of early innate immune genes, whereas chickens infected with the wild-type or attenuated-type 2575/08 revealed quick gene induction and efficient virus control. In summary, this study reveals a new IBV strain, which harbors a known local genotype but displays remarkably altered antigenicity, pathogenicity and host defenses. PMID:27876864

  5. Tissue-specific variation of Ube3a protein expression in rodents and in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Richard M; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bubser, Michael; Daily, Jennifer; Filonova, Irina; Mrelashvili, Davit; Deutch, Ariel Y; Colbran, Roger J; Weeber, Edwin J; Haas, Kevin F

    2010-09-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by loss of maternal UBE3A expression or mutation-induced dysfunction of its protein product, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, UBE3A. In humans and rodents, UBE3A/Ube3a transcript is maternally imprinted in several brain regions, but the distribution of native UBE3A/Ube3a(1) protein expression has not been comprehensively examined. To address this, we systematically evaluated Ube3a expression in the brain and peripheral tissues of wild-type (WT) and Ube3a maternal knockout mice (AS mice). Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a marked loss of Ube3a protein in hippocampus, hypothalamus, olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, striatum, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum in AS mice relative to WT littermates. Also, Ube3a expression in heart and liver of AS mice showed greater than the predicted 50% reduction relative to WT mice. Co-localization studies showed Ube3a expression to be primarily neuronal in all brain regions and present in GABAergic interneurons as well as principal neurons. These findings suggest that neuronal function throughout the brain is compromised in AS.

  6. Coronavirus 229E-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Pene, Frédéric; Merlat, Annabelle; Vabret, Astrid; Rozenberg, Flore; Buzyn, Agnès; Dreyfus, François; Cariou, Alain; Freymuth, François; Lebon, Pierre

    2003-10-01

    Coronaviruses strains 229E and OC43 have been associated with various respiratory illnesses ranging from the self-resolving common cold to severe pneumonia. Although chronic underlying conditions are major determinants of severe respiratory virus infections, few data about coronavirus-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients are available. Here we report 2 well-documented cases of pneumonia related to coronavirus 229E, each with a different clinical presentation. Diagnosis was made on the basis of viral culture and electron microscopy findings that exhibited typical crown-like particles and through amplification of the viral genome by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. On the basis of this report, coronaviruses should be considered as potential causative microorganisms of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Antiviral Drugs Specific for Coronaviruses in Preclinical Development

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses are positive stranded RNA viruses that cause respiratory, enteric and central nervous system diseases in many species, including humans. Until recently, the relatively low burden of disease in humans caused by few of these viruses impeded the development of coronavirus specific therapeutics. However, the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and more recently, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has impelled the development of such drugs. This review focuses on some newly identified SARS-CoV inhibitors, with known mechanisms of action and their potential to inhibit the novel MERS-CoV. The clinical development of optimized versions of such compounds could be beneficial for the treatment and control of SARS-CoV, the current MERS-CoV and other future SARS-like epidemics. PMID:24997250

  8. A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel L; Donaldson, Eric F; Baric, Ralph S

    2013-12-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged in humans in the twenty-first century: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), both of which cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and are associated with high mortality rates. There are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for either of these infections; thus, the development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies that can be readily applied to new emergent strains is a research priority. In this Review, we describe the emergence and identification of novel human coronaviruses over the past 10 years, discuss their key biological features, including tropism and receptor use, and summarize approaches for developing broadly effective vaccines.

  9. Human coronavirus NL63, a new respiratory virus.

    PubMed

    van der Hoek, Lia; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Berkhout, Ben

    2006-09-01

    From the mid-1960s onwards, it was believed that only two human coronavirus species infect humans: HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43. Then, in 2003, a novel member of the coronavirus family was introduced into the human population: SARS-CoV, causing an aggressive lung disease. Fortunately, this virus was soon expelled from the human population, but it quickly became clear that the human coronavirus group contains more members then previously assumed, with HCoV-NL63 identified in 2004. Despite its recent discovery, ample results from HCoV-NL63 research have been described. We present an overview of the publications on this novel coronavirus.

  10. Manipulation of the coronavirus genome using targeted RNA recombination with interspecies chimeric coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Cornelis A M; Haijema, Bert Jan; Masters, Paul S; Rottier, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination has proven to be a powerful tool for the genetic engineering of the coronavirus genome, particularly in its 3' part. Here we describe procedures for the generation of recombinant and mutant mouse hepatitis virus and feline infectious peritonitis virus. Key to the two-step method is the efficient selection of recombinant viruses based on host cell switching. The first step consists of the preparation---using this selection principle--of an interspecies chimeric coronavirus. In this virus the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein is replaced by that of a coronavirus with a different species tropism. In the second step this chimeric virus is used as the recipient for recombination with synthetic donor RNA carrying the original spike gene. Recombinant viruses are then isolated on the basis of their regained natural (e.g., murine or feline) cell tropism. Additional mutations created in the donor RNA can be co-incorporated into the recombinant virus in order to generate mutant viruses.

  11. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus fusion core

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Guangpeng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Wang Jinzi; Liu Cheng; Li Yijing . E-mail: yijingli@163.com

    2005-12-02

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is one of the most destructive agents, responsible for the enteric infections that are lethal for suckling piglets, causing enormous economic loss to the porcine fostering industry every year. Although it has been known that TGEV spiker protein is essential for the viral entry for many years, the detail knowledge of the TGEV fusion protein core is still very limited. Here, we report that TGEV fusion core (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), in vitro expressed in GST prokaryotic expression system, shares the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six {alpha}-helix bundle), which has been confirmed by a combined series of biochemical and biophysical evidences including size exclusion chromatography (gel-filtration), chemical crossing, and circular diagram. The 3D homologous structure model presents its most likely structure, extremely similar to those of the coronaviruses documented. Taken together, TGEV spiker protein belongs to the class I fusion protein, characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2, and the present knowledge about the truncated TGEV fusion protein core may facilitate in the design of the small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion between TGEV and its host.

  12. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Warren, G W; Mullins, M A; Nye, G J; Craig, J A; Koziel, M G

    1996-05-28

    A novel vegetative insecticidal gene, vip3A(a), whose gene product shows activity against lepidopteran insect larvae including black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. VIP3-insecticidal gene homologues have been detected in approximately 15% of Bacillus strains analyzed. The sequence of the vip3A(b) gene, a homologue of vip3A(a) isolated from B. thuringiensis strain AB424 is also reported. Vip3A(a) and (b) proteins confer upon Escherichia coli insecticidal activity against the lepidopteran insect larvae mentioned above. The sequence of the gene predicts a 791-amino acid (88.5 kDa) protein that contains no homology with known proteins. Vip3A insecticidal proteins are secreted without N-terminal processing. Unlike the B. thuringiensis 5-endotoxins, whose expression is restricted to sporulation, Vip3A insecticidal proteins are expressed in the vegetative stage of growth starting at mid-log phase as well as during sporulation. Vip3A represents a novel class of proteins insecticidal to lepidopteran insect larvae.

  13. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.

  14. Human coronavirus NL63 infection in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Nathalie; Anderson, Kelly; Hart, Laura; Van Caeseele, Paul; Brandt, Ken; Milley, Doug; Hatchette, Todd; Weiss, Elise C; Li, Yan

    2005-02-15

    The isolation of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) in The Netherlands raised questions about its contribution to respiratory illness. In this study, a total of 525 respiratory specimens, collected in Canada primarily during the winter months of 2001-2002, were tested for HCoV-NL63; 19 tested positive for HCoV-NL63, demonstrating virus activity during January-March 2002. Patients with HCoV-NL63 were 1 month-100 years old (median age, 37 years). The main clinical presentations were fever (15/19), sore throat (5/19), and cough (9/19), and 4 patients were hospitalized. These results provide evidence for the worldwide distribution of HCoV-NL63.

  15. Stability of infectious human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Florek, Dominik; Burmistrz, Michal; Potempa, Jan; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    The human coronavirus NL63 was identified in 2004 and subsequent studies showed its worldwide distribution. Infection with this pathogen is associated with upper and lower respiratory tract diseases of mild to moderate severity. Furthermore, HCoV-NL63 is the main cause of croup in children. Within this study an optimal protocol for freeze-drying that allows safe and effective preservation of HCoV-NL63 infectious material was developed. Lyophilized virus preparations can be stored either at ambient temperature or at +4°C. In the latter case samples may be stored for at least two months. Surprisingly, conducted analysis showed that HCoV-NL63 virions are exquisitely stable in liquid media and can be stored also without preservatives at ambient temperature for up to 14 days.

  16. [New coronavirus infection: new challenges, new legacies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: emergió una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus. Su historia natural y sus determinantes todavía se están investigando. Se carece de una publicación que estudie todos los casos identificados en el mundo, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo estriba en describir los casos y defunciones por el nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: se revisaron las publicaciones en línea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, del Centro Europeo para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades y de la Eurosurveillance. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos, se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por prueba de Wilson y una prueba t de Student para diferencia de medias. Resultados: son 17 casos confirmados y 11 defunciones en varios países de Asia y Europa; predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La tasa de letalidad fue de 64.70 %; los que fallecieron se hospitalizaron cinco días después de los primeros síntomas. Se carece de publicaciones que describan la historia natural de la enfermedad; sin embargo, lo descrito en las publicaciones de Europa coincide con los resultados de este estudio. Conclusión: es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el impacto de esta enfermedad en la salud pública internacional.

  17. E6-AP/UBE3A protein acts as a ubiquitin ligase toward SOX9 protein.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takako; Kishino, Tetsuya; Stephen, Shelley; Eberspaecher, Heidi; Maki, Sayumi; Takigawa, Masaharu; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2013-12-06

    SOX9 is a transcription factor that acts as a key regulator at various stages of cartilage differentiation. There is ample evidence that intracellular SOX9 protein levels are tightly regulated both by sumoylation and by degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Using a proteomics approach, here we report the identification of a SOX9-binding protein, E6-AP/UBE3A, that may act as a ubiquitin ligase toward Sox9. E6-AP bound SOX9 through the region consisting mostly of its high mobility group domain in vitro. In nuclear lysates, FLAG-tagged E6-AP coprecipitated with Sox9 and its high mobility group domain. This finding was estimated using nuclear lysates from a chondrocytic cell line that endogenously expresses E6-AP and SOX9. Accordingly, ectopically expressed E6-AP and SOX9 colocalized in the nucleus. We show that E6-AP ubiquitinates SOX9 in vitro and in vivo and that SOX9 levels are enhanced after addition of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Similar, siRNA knockdown of E6-AP and the E2 ligase Ubc9 increased cellular SOX9 amounts, supporting the notion that SOX9 may be ubiquitinated in hypertrophic chondrocytes by E6-AP and degraded by proteasomes. This is in accordance with the distribution of SOX9 levels, which are high in proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes but low in hypertrophic chondrocytes, whereas E6-AP levels are high in hypertrophic chondrocytes and low in prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Furthermore, E6-AP-deficient mice showed SOX9 accumulation in chondrocytes and the brain. These findings support the concept that E6-AP regulates SOX9 levels in developing cartilage by acting as a ubiquitin ligase.

  18. Discovery of Klotho peptide antagonists against Wnt3 and Wnt3a target proteins using combination of protein engineering, protein-protein docking, peptide docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Shaher Bano; Ekhteiari Salmas, Ramin; Fatmi, M Qaiser; Durdagi, Serdar

    2017-12-01

    The Klotho is known as lifespan enhancing protein involved in antagonizing the effect of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins are stem cell regulators, and uninterrupted exposure of Wnt proteins to the cell can cause stem and progenitor cell senescence, which may lead to aging. Keeping in mind the importance of Klotho in Wnt signaling, in silico approaches have been applied to study the important interactions between Klotho and Wnt3 and Wnt3a (wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) integration site family members 3 and 3a). The main aim of the study is to identify important residues of the Klotho that help in designing peptides which can act as Wnt antagonists. For this aim, a protein engineering study is performed for Klotho, Wnt3 and Wnt3a. During the theoretical analysis of homology models, unexpected role of number of disulfide bonds and secondary structure elements has been witnessed in case of Wnt3 and Wnt3a proteins. Different in silico experiments were carried out to observe the effect of correct number of disulfide bonds on 3D protein models. For this aim, total of 10 molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for each system. Based on the protein-protein docking simulations of selected protein models of Klotho with Wnt3 and Wnt3a, different peptides derived from Klotho have been designed. Wnt3 and Wnt3a proteins have three important domains: Index finger, N-terminal domain and a patch of ∼10 residues on the solvent exposed surface of palm domain. Protein-peptide docking of designed peptides of Klotho against three important domains of palmitoylated Wnt3 and Wnt3a yields encouraging results and leads better understanding of the Wnt protein inhibition by proposed Klotho peptides. Further in vitro studies can be carried out to verify effects of novel designed peptides as Wnt antagonists.

  19. Coronavirus-like Particles in the Feces of a Cat with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Dea, S.; Roy, R. S.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Coronavirus-like particles were visualized in the feces of a young domestic shorthair female cat with diarrhea. On the surface projections, these particles could be distinguished from the enteric coronavirus-like particles of human, dog, cattle and monkey origin. They appeared morphologically similar to a feline enteric coronavirus recently described by other authors. A precipitin antigen was detected in the cat feces by counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis using a rabbit antibovine coronavirus serum. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422139

  20. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. However...

  1. Characterization of HCoV-229E fusion core: Implications for structure basis of coronavirus membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Cheng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Zhang Qiangmin; Wang Ming . E-mail: vetdean@cau.edu.cn

    2006-07-07

    Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a member of group I coronaviruses, has been identified as one of the major viral agents causing respiratory tract diseases in humans for nearly 40 years. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of the membrane fusion mediated by the spike (S) protein of HCoV-229E remains elusive. Here, we report, for the first time, a rationally designed fusion core of HCoV-229E (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), which was in vitro produced in GST prokaryotic expression system. Multiple lines of experimental data including gel-filtration, chemical cross-linking, and circular diagram (CD) demonstrated that the HCoV-229E fusion core possesses the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six {alpha}-helix bundle). 3D structure modeling presents its most-likely structure, similar to those of coronaviruses that have been well-documented. Collectively, HCoV-229E S protein belongs to the type I fusion protein, which is characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat regions (HR1 and HR2), furthermore, the available knowledge concerning HCoV-229E fusion core may make it possible to design small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion, a crucial step of HCoV-229E infection.

  2. Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a Regulates Synaptic Growth and Endocytosis by Inhibiting BMP Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Zhu, Yong-chuan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Qifu; Jin, Shan; Zhao, Guoli; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, which is involved in protein degradation through the proteasome-mediated pathway, is associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects observed in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism. However, little is known about the neuronal function of UBE3A and the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. To understand the in vivo function of UBE3A in the nervous system, we generated multiple mutations of ube3a, the Drosophila ortholog of UBE3A. We found a significantly increased number of total boutons and satellite boutons in conjunction with compromised endocytosis in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of ube3a mutants compared to the wild type. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the nervous system of ube3a mutants. An immunochemical study revealed a specific increase in the protein level of Thickveins (Tkv), a type I BMP receptor, but not other BMP receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and Saxophone (Sax), in ube3a mutants. Ube3a was associated with and specifically ubiquitinated lysine 227 within the cytoplasmic tail of Tkv, and promoted its proteasomal degradation in Schneider 2 cells. Negative regulation of Tkv by Ube3a was conserved in mammalian cells. These results reveal a critical role for Ube3a in regulating NMJ synapse development by repressing BMP signaling. This study sheds new light onto the neuronal functions of UBE3A and provides novel perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. PMID:27232889

  3. Identification of Aminopeptidase N as a Cellular Receptor for Human Coronavirus-229E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-12

    feline enteric coronav irus feline infectious peritonitis virus hUman adult intestine hUman aminopeptidase N human aminopeptidase with 39 amino...virions (Almeida and Tyrrell, 1967). The eventual isolation of several other morphologically similar appearing animal viruses including feline ...coronavirus (TCV), rat coronavirus (RCV), cat feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and the hUman coronaviruses. These include the slow, patchy

  4. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2015-02-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. Lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. The extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. Because cholesterol-rich microdomains appear to be a general feature of the entry mechanism of non-eneveloped viruses and of several coronaviruses, the purpose of this study was to analyse the contribution of lipids to the infectivity of canine coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV life cycle is closely connected to plasma membrane cholesterol, from cell entry to viral particle production. The methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) was employed to remove cholesterol and to disrupt the lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion from the cell membrane resulted in a dose-dependent reduction, but not abolishment, of virus infectivity, and at a concentration of 15 mM, the reduction in the infection rate was about 68 %. MβCD treatment was used to verify if cholesterol in the envelope was required for CCoV infection. This resulted in a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, and at a concentration of 9 mM MβCD, infectivity was reduced by about 73 %. Since viral entry would constitute a target for antiviral strategies, inhibitory molecules interacting with viral and/or cell membranes, or interfering with lipid metabolism, may have strong antiviral potential. It will be interesting in the future to analyse the membrane microdomains in the CCoV envelope.

  5. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  6. LYR3, a high-affinity LCO-binding protein of Medicago truncatula, interacts with LYK3, a key symbiotic receptor.

    PubMed

    Fliegmann, Judith; Jauneau, Alain; Pichereaux, Carole; Rosenberg, Charles; Gasciolli, Virginie; Timmers, Antonius C J; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Cullimore, Julie; Bono, Jean-Jacques

    2016-05-01

    LYR3, LYK3, and NFP are lysin motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) from Medicago truncatula, involved in perception of symbiotic lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) signals. Here, we show that LYR3, a high-affinity LCO-binding protein, physically interacts with LYK3, a key player regulating symbiotic interactions. In vitro, LYR3 is phosphorylated by the active kinase domain of LYK3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging/Förster resonance energy transfer (FLIM/FRET) experiments in tobacco protoplasts show that the interaction between LYR3 and LYK3 at the plasma membrane is disrupted or inhibited by addition of LCOs. Moreover, LYR3 attenuates the cell death response, provoked by coexpression of NFP and LYK3 in tobacco leaves.

  7. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S protein is necessary for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and cell-cell fusion but not interaction with M protein

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Corrin E.; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2010-09-15

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause mild disease in humans. However, the recently emerged coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) is the most pathogenic human coronavirus discovered to date. The SARS-CoV spike (S) protein mediates virus entry by binding cellular receptors and inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell membrane. Coronavirus S proteins are palmitoylated, which may affect function. Here, we created a non-palmitoylated SARS-CoV S protein by mutating all nine cytoplasmic cysteine residues. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S was required for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and for cell-cell fusion. Surprisingly, however, palmitoylation of S was not required for interaction with SARS-CoV M protein. This contrasts with the requirement for palmitoylation of mouse hepatitis virus S protein for interaction with M protein and may point to important differences in assembly and infectivity of these two coronaviruses.

  8. The chemorepulsive axon guidance protein semaphorin3A is a constituent of perineuronal nets in the adult rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tam; Carulli, Daniela; Ehlert, Erich M E; Kwok, Jessica C F; Dick, Gunnar; Mecollari, Vasil; Moloney, Elizabeth B; Neufeld, Gera; de Winter, Fred; Fawcett, James W; Verhaagen, Joost

    2013-09-01

    In the adult rodent brain, subsets of neurons are surrounded by densely organised extracellular matrix called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs consist of hyaluronan, tenascin-R, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs), and the link proteins Crtl1 and Bral2. PNNs restrict plasticity at the end of critical periods and can be visualised with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA). Using a number of antibodies raised against the different regions of semaphorin3A (Sema3A) we demonstrate that this secreted chemorepulsive axon guidance protein is localised to WFA-positive PNNs around inhibitory interneurons in the cortex and several other PNN-bearing neurons throughout the brain and co-localises with aggrecan, versican, phosphacan and tenascin-R. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) was injected in the cortex to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the CSPGs, abolishing WFA staining of PNNs around the injection site. Sema3A-positive nets were no longer observed in the area devoid of WFA staining. In mice lacking the link protein Crtl1 in the CNS only vestigial PNNs are present, and in these mice there were no Sema3A-positive PNN structures. A biochemical analysis shows that Sema3A protein binds with high-affinity to CS-GAGs and aggrecan and versican extracted from PNNs in the adult rat brain, and a significant proportion of Sema3A is retrieved in brain extracts that are enriched in PNN-associated GAGs. The Sema3A receptor components PlexinA1 and A4 are selectively expressed by inhibitory interneurons in the cortex that are surrounded by Sema3A positive PNNs. We conclude that the chemorepulsive axon guidance molecule Sema3A is present in PNNs of the adult rodent brain, bound to the GAGs of the CSPGs. These observations suggest a novel concept namely that chemorepulsive axon guidance molecules like Sema3A may be important functional attributes of PNNs in the adult brain.

  9. Understanding Human Coronavirus HCoV-NL63.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Fielding, Burtram C

    2010-05-25

    Even though coronavirus infection of humans is not normally associated with severe diseases, the identification of the coronavirus responsible for the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome showed that highly pathogenic coronaviruses can enter the human population. Shortly thereafter, in Holland in 2004, another novel human coronavirus (HCoV-NL63) was isolated from a seven-month old infant suffering from respiratory symptoms. This virus has subsequently been identified in various countries, indicating a worldwide distribution. HCoV-NL63 has been shown to infect mainly children and the immunocommpromised, who presented with either mild upper respiratory symptoms (cough, fever and rhinorrhoea) or more serious lower respiratory tract involvement such as bronchiolitis and croup, which was observed mainly in younger children. In fact, HCoV-NL63 is the aetiological agent for up to 10% of all respiratory diseases. This review summarizes recent findings of human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 infections, including isolation and identification, phylogeny and taxonomy, genome structure and transcriptional regulation, transmission and pathogenesis, and detection and diagnosis.

  10. Coronavirus genome: prediction of putative functional domains in the non-structural polyprotein by comparative amino acid sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Gorbalenya, A E; Koonin, E V; Donchenko, A P; Blinov, V M

    1989-01-01

    Amino acid sequences of 2 giant non-structural polyproteins (F1 and F2) of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of Coronaviridae, were compared, by computer-assisted methods, to sequences of a number of other positive strand RNA viral and cellular proteins. By this approach, juxtaposed putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, nucleic acid binding ("finger"-like) and RNA helicase domains were identified in F2. Together, these domains might constitute the core of the protein complex involved in the primer-dependent transcription, replication and recombination of coronaviruses. In F1, two cysteine protease-like domains and a growth factor-like one were revealed. One of the putative proteases of IBV is similar to 3C proteases of picornaviruses and related enzymes of como- nepo- and potyviruses. Search of IBV F1 and F2 sequences for sites similar to those cleaved by the latter proteases and intercomparison of the surrounding sequence stretches revealed 13 dipeptides Q/S(G) which are probably cleaved by the coronavirus 3C-like protease. Based on these observations, a partial tentative scheme for the functional organization and expression strategy of the non-structural polyproteins of IBV was proposed. It implies that, despite the general similarity to other positive strand RNA viruses, and particularly to potyviruses, coronaviruses possess a number of unique structural and functional features. PMID:2526320

  11. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through regulation of FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baolin; Wu, Qiang; Xiong, Zhaojun; Ma, Yuedong; Yu, Sha; Chen, Dandan; Huang, Shengwen; Dong, Yugang

    2016-09-01

    Control of cardiac muscle mass is thought to be determined by a dynamic balance of protein synthesis and degradation. Recent studies have demonstrated that atrophy-related forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a)/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) signaling pathway plays a central role in the modulation of proteolysis and exert inhibitory effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway and its downstream protein degradation. The results showed that activation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). The antihypertrophic effects of AICAR were blunted by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. In addition, AMPK dramatically increased the activity of transcription factor FOXO3a, up-regulated the expression of its downstream ubiquitin ligase MAFbx, and enhanced cardiomyocyte proteolysis. Meanwhile, the effects of AMPK on protein degradation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were blocked after MAFbx was silenced by transfection of cardiomyocytes with MAFbx-siRNA. These results indicate that AMPK plays an important role in the inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating protein degradation via FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A.; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Mazet, Jonna K.; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history1. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)2 suggests that this group of viruses remains a major threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested as the natural reservoirs of both viruses3–5, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa5–8, but none are considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins (S) to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)9,10. Here, we report whole genome sequences of two novel bat CoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China; RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat CoVs, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RDB) of the S protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat fecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses the ACE2s from human, civet and Chinese horseshoe bat for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness. PMID:24172901

  13. A Ribosomal Protein AgRPS3aE from Halophilic Aspergillus glaucus Confers Salt Tolerance in Heterologous Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xilong; Liu, Yiling; Xie, Lixia; Liu, Xiaodan; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-01-01

    High salt in soils is one of the abiotic stresses that significantly reduces crop yield, although saline lands are considered potential resources arable for agriculture. Currently, genetic engineering for enhancing salt tolerance is being tested as an efficient and viable strategy for crop improvement. We previously characterized a large subunit of the ribosomal protein RPL44, which is involved in osmotic stress in the extremely halophilic fungus Aspergillus glaucus. Here, we screened another ribosomal protein (AgRPS3aE) that also produced high-salt tolerance in yeast. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that AgRPS3aE encodes a 29.2 kDa small subunit of a ribosomal protein belonging to the RPS3Ae family in eukaryotes. To further confirm its protective function against salinity, we expressed AgRPS3aE in three heterologous systems, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and two model plants Arabidopsis and tobacco. Overexpression of AgRPS3aE in all tested transformants significantly alleviated stress symptoms compared with controls, suggesting that AgRPS3aE functions not only in fungi but also in plants. Considering that ribosomal proteins are housekeeping components in organisms from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, we propose that AgRPS3aE is one of the optimal genes for improving high-salt tolerance in crops. PMID:25642759

  14. Identification of α-fodrin as an autoantigen in experimental coronavirus retinopathy (ECOR).

    PubMed

    Chin, Marian S; Hooper, Laura C; Hooks, John J; Detrick, Barbara

    2014-07-15

    The coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), JHM strain induces a biphasic disease in BALB/c mice that consists of an acute retinitis followed by progression to a chronic retinal degeneration with autoimmune reactivity. Retinal degeneration resistant CD-1 mice do not develop either the late phase or autoimmune reactivity. A mouse RPE/choroid DNA expression library was screened using sera from virus infected BALB/c mice. Two clones were identified, villin-2 protein and α-fodrin protein. α-Fodrin protein was used for further analysis and western blot reactivity was seen only in sera from virus infected BALB/c mice. CD4 T cells were shown to specifically react with MHV antigens and with α-fodrin protein. These studies clearly identified both antibody and CD4 T cell reactivities to α-fodrin in sera from virus infected, retinal degenerative susceptible BALB/c mice.

  15. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-12-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals with huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals.

  16. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores.

  17. Altered CYP2C9 Activity Following Modulation of CYP3A4 Levels in Human Hepatocytes: an Example of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, Donald J.; Chan, Tom S.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9 activity decreased with increasing levels of CYP3A4, the current study modulated CYP3A4 content in human hepatocytes to determine the impact on CYP2C9. Modulation of CYP3A4 levels in situ was enabled by the use of a long-term human hepatocyte culture model (HepatoPac) shown to retain phenotypic hepatocyte function over a number of weeks. The extended period of culture allowed time for knockdown of CYP3A4 protein by small interfering RNA (siRNA) with subsequent recovery, as well as upregulation through induction with a recovery period. CYP3A4 gene silencing resulted in a 60% decrease in CYP3A4 activity and protein levels with a concomitant 74% increase in CYP2C9 activity, with no change in CYP2C9 mRNA levels. Upon removal of siRNA, both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities returned to pre-knockdown levels. Importantly, modulation of CYP3A4 protein levels had no impact on cytochrome P450 reductase activities or levels. However, the possibility for competition for limiting reductase cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, lowering CYP3A4 levels also increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 activity. These studies clearly demonstrate that alterations in CYP3A4 levels can modulate CYP2C9 activity in situ and suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate the possible clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:25157098

  18. A molecular arms race between host innate antiviral response and emerging human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lok-Yin Roy; Lui, Pak-Yin; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Coronaviruses have been closely related with mankind for thousands of years. Community-acquired human coronaviruses have long been recognized to cause common cold. However, zoonotic coronaviruses are now becoming more a global concern with the discovery of highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses causing severe respiratory diseases. Infections by these emerging human coronaviruses are characterized by less robust interferon production. Treatment of patients with recombinant interferon regimen promises beneficial outcomes, suggesting that compromised interferon expression might contribute at least partially to the severity of disease. The mechanisms by which coronaviruses evade host innate antiviral response are under intense investigations. This review focuses on the fierce arms race between host innate antiviral immunity and emerging human coronaviruses. Particularly, the host pathogen recognition receptors and the signal transduction pathways to mount an effective antiviral response against SARS and MERS coronavirus infection are discussed. On the other hand, the counter-measures evolved by SARS and MERS coronaviruses to circumvent host defense are also dissected. With a better understanding of the dynamic interaction between host and coronaviruses, it is hoped that insights on the pathogenesis of newly-identified highly pathogenic human coronaviruses and new strategies in antiviral development can be derived.

  19. Protection from SARS coronavirus conferred by live measles vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Escriou, Nicolas; Callendret, Benoît; Lorin, Valérie; Combredet, Chantal; Marianneau, Philippe; Février, Michèle; Tangy, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is contracted by aerosolized contamination of the respiratory tract, a vaccine inducing mucosal long-term protection would be an asset to control new epidemics. To this aim, we generated live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol). In mice susceptible to measles virus, recombinant MV expressing the anchored full-length S induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies and fully protected immunized animals from intranasal infectious challenge with SARS-CoV. As compared to immunization with adjuvanted recombinant Ssol protein, recombinant MV induced stronger and Th1-biased responses, a hallmark of live attenuated viruses and a highly desirable feature for an antiviral vaccine.

  20. A Case for the Ancient Origin of Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses are found in a diverse array of bat and bird species, which are believed to act as natural hosts. Molecular clock dating analyses of coronaviruses suggest that the most recent common ancestor of these viruses existed around 10,000 years ago. This relatively young age is in sharp contrast to the ancient evolutionary history of their putative natural hosts, which began diversifying tens of millions of years ago. Here, we attempted to resolve this discrepancy by applying more realistic evolutionary models that have previously revealed the ancient evolutionary history of other RNA viruses. By explicitly modeling variation in the strength of natural selection over time and thereby improving the modeling of substitution saturation, we found that the time to the most recent ancestor common for all coronaviruses is likely far greater (millions of years) than the previously inferred range. PMID:23596293

  1. Inferring the hosts of coronavirus using dual statistical models based on nucleotide composition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Song, Yulong; Shi, Mijuan; Cheng, Yingyin; Zhang, Wanting; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2015-11-26

    Many coronaviruses are capable of interspecies transmission. Some of them have caused worldwide panic as emerging human pathogens in recent years, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In order to assess their threat to humans, we explored to infer the potential hosts of coronaviruses using a dual-model approach based on nineteen parameters computed from spike genes of coronaviruses. Both the support vector machine (SVM) model and the Mahalanobis distance (MD) discriminant model achieved high accuracies in leave-one-out cross-validation of training data consisting of 730 representative coronaviruses (99.86% and 98.08% respectively). Predictions on 47 additional coronaviruses precisely conformed to conclusions or speculations by other researchers. Our approach is implemented as a web server that can be accessed at http://bioinfo.ihb.ac.cn/seq2hosts.

  2. The oncofetal protein IMP3: a novel biomarker for endometrial serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenxin; Yi, Xiaofang; Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X; Martel, Maritza; Schwartz, Peter E; Jiang, Zhong

    2008-02-01

    universally cytoplasmic, with diffuse staining of strong intensity in serous carcinomas, whereas staining was typically patchy and of moderate or weak intensity in nonserous malignancies. Among the benign endometrial samples, decidualized endometrial stroma showed 100% positivity for IMP3. The remaining samples were negative, with the exception of a few weakly proliferative glands in 3 (5%) of 68 cases that showed focal weak immunoreactivity of IMP3. The trophoblasts in the first trimester chorionic villi were also diffusely positive, which was consistent with previously reported findings. We conclude that expression of IMP3, a newly identified cytoplasmic marker, is closely associated with type II endometrial cancer. It seems that IMP3 expression is associated with an aggressive histologic phenotype among endometrial neoplastic lesions. Strong and diffuse IMP3 expression is highly sensitive for endometrial serous and clear cell carcinomas including their putative precursor lesions. Therefore, IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of endometrial cancers and their precursor lesions, particularly when the amount of available tissue material is limited and a concern of type II cancer arises. High frequency of IMP3 expression is present in decidualized endometrial stroma of gestational endometrium and chorionic villi in early pregnancy. Although the significance of the latter finding remains unclear, the differential diagnosis between decidual changes and endometrial serous carcinoma is rarely problematic.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A protein regulates CDKN2B transcription via interaction with MIZ-1.

    PubMed

    Bazot, Quentin; Deschamps, Thibaut; Tafforeau, Lionel; Siouda, Maha; Leblanc, Pascal; Harth-Hertle, Marie L; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Lotteau, Vincent; Kempkes, Bettina; Tommasino, Massimo; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne

    2014-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles in transcriptional regulation. Of these, the Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (MIZ-1) is a transcription factor initially characterized as a binding partner of MYC. MIZ-1 activates the transcription of a number of target genes including the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2B. Focusing on the EBNA3A/MIZ-1 interaction we demonstrate that binding occurs in EBV-infected cells expressing both proteins at endogenous physiological levels and that in the presence of EBNA3A, a significant fraction of MIZ-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we show that a trimeric complex composed of a MIZ-1 recognition DNA element, MIZ-1 and EBNA3A can be formed, and that interaction of MIZ-1 with nucleophosmin (NPM), one of its coactivator, is prevented by EBNA3A. Finally, we show that, in the presence of EBNA3A, expression of the MIZ-1 target gene, CDKN2B, is downregulated and repressive H3K27 marks are established on its promoter region suggesting that EBNA3A directly counteracts the growth inhibitory action of MIZ-1.

  4. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A protein regulates CDKN2B transcription via interaction with MIZ-1

    PubMed Central

    Bazot, Quentin; Deschamps, Thibaut; Tafforeau, Lionel; Siouda, Maha; Leblanc, Pascal; Harth-Hertle, Marie L.; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Lotteau, Vincent; Kempkes, Bettina; Tommasino, Massimo; Gruffat, Henri; Manet, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 3 family of protein is critical for the EBV-induced primary B-cell growth transformation process. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we identified 22 novel cellular partners of the EBNA3s. Most importantly, among the newly identified partners, five are known to play direct and important roles in transcriptional regulation. Of these, the Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (MIZ-1) is a transcription factor initially characterized as a binding partner of MYC. MIZ-1 activates the transcription of a number of target genes including the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2B. Focusing on the EBNA3A/MIZ-1 interaction we demonstrate that binding occurs in EBV-infected cells expressing both proteins at endogenous physiological levels and that in the presence of EBNA3A, a significant fraction of MIZ-1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, we show that a trimeric complex composed of a MIZ-1 recognition DNA element, MIZ-1 and EBNA3A can be formed, and that interaction of MIZ-1 with nucleophosmin (NPM), one of its coactivator, is prevented by EBNA3A. Finally, we show that, in the presence of EBNA3A, expression of the MIZ-1 target gene, CDKN2B, is downregulated and repressive H3K27 marks are established on its promoter region suggesting that EBNA3A directly counteracts the growth inhibitory action of MIZ-1. PMID:25092922

  5. Identification of cell lines permissive for human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Schildgen, Oliver; Jebbink, Maarten F; de Vries, Michel; Pyrc, Krzysztov; Dijkman, Ronald; Simon, Arne; Müller, Andreas; Kupfer, Bernd; van der Hoek, Lia

    2006-12-01

    Six cell lines routinely used in laboratories were tested for permissiveness to the infection with the newly identified human coronavirus NL63. Two monkey epithelial cell lines, LLC-MK2 and Vero-B4, showed a cytopathic effect (CPE) and clear viral replication, whereas no CPE or replication was observed in human lung fibroblasts MRC-5s. In Rhabdomyosarcoma cells, Madin-Darby-Canine-kidney cells and in an undefined monkey kidney cell line some replication was observed but massive exponential rise in virus yield lacked The results will lead to an improved routine diagnostic algorithm for the detection of the human coronavirus NL63.

  6. Chapter 3: A fluorescent window into protein folding and aggregation in cells.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary selective pressures have tuned the efficiency of the protein-folding reaction in the crowded complex environment in the cell. Nevertheless, the fidelity of folding is imperfect, leading to off-pathway intermolecular interactions that compete with proper folding and to consequent formation of thermodynamically stable aggregates. Such aggregates constitute the histopathological hallmarks of many neurodegenerative pathologies. Yet, most of the approaches to characterize protein folding and/or misfolding are limited to in vitro conditions. Here, we describe a strategy to directly monitor the behavior of a protein in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The method is based on incorporation of structurally non-perturbing, specific binding motifs for a bis-arsenical fluoroscein dye, FlAsH, in sites that result in distinct dye fluorescence signals for the folded and unfolded states of the protein under study. Our approach has been developed using as a case study the predominantly beta-sheet intracellular lipid-binding protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein, alone or as a chimera fused to the exon 1-encoded fragment of huntingtin, which harbors a polyglutamine repeat tract. We have designed protocols to label this protein in vivo and to monitor the resulting fluorescence signal, which reports on any misfolding transition and formation of aggregates, yielding quantitatively interpretable data.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  8. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lown, K S; Bailey, D G; Fontana, R J; Janardan, S K; Adair, C H; Fortlage, L A; Brown, M B; Guo, W; Watkins, P B

    1997-01-01

    The increase in oral availability of felodipine and other commonly used medications when taken with grapefruit juice has been assumed to be due to inhibition of CYP3A4, a cytochrome P450 that is present in liver and intestine. To evaluate the effect of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion on CYP3A4 expression, 10 healthy men were given 8 oz of grapefruit juice three times a day for 6 d. Before and after receiving grapefruit juice, small bowel and colon mucosal biopsies were obtained endoscopically, oral felodipine kinetics were determined, and liver CYP3A4 activity was measured with the [14C N-methyl] erythromycin breath test in each subject. Grapefruit juice did not alter liver CYP3A4 activity, colon levels of CYP3A5, or small bowel concentrations of P-glycoprotein, villin, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6. In contrast, the concentration of CYP3A4 in small bowel epithelia (enterocytes) fell 62% (P = 0.0006) with no corresponding change in CYP3A4 mRNA levels. In addition, enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 measured before grapefruit juice consumption correlated with the increase in Cmax when felodipine was taken with either the 1st or the 16th glass of grapefruit juice relative to water (r = 0. 67, P = 0.043, and r = 0.71, P = 0.022, respectively). We conclude that a mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on oral felodipine kinetics is its selective downregulation of CYP3A4 in the small intestine. PMID:9153299

  9. A partial deletion in non-structural protein 3A can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of non-structural protein 3A in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as being responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in t...

  10. SFTA3, a novel protein of the lung: three-dimensional structure, characterisation and immune activation.

    PubMed

    Schicht, Martin; Rausch, Felix; Finotto, Susetta; Mathews, Martina; Mattil, Anja; Schubert, Melanie; Koch, Beate; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Bohr, Christopher; Worlitzsch, Dieter; Brandt, Wolfgang; Garreis, Fabian; Sel, Saadettin; Paulsen, Friedrich; Bräuer, Lars

    2014-08-01

    The lung constantly interacts with numerous pathogens. Thus, complex local immune defence mechanisms are essential to recognise and dispose of these intruders. This work describes the detection, characterisation and three-dimensional structure of a novel protein of the lung (surfactant-associated protein 3 (SFTA3/SP-H)) with putative immunological features. Bioinformatics, biochemical and immunological methods were combined to elucidate the structure and function of SFTA3. The tissue-specific detection and characterisation was performed by using electron microscopy as well as fluorescence imaging. Three-dimensional structure generation and analysis led to the development of specific antibodies and, as a consequence, to the localisation of a novel protein in human lung under consideration of cystic fibrosis, asthma and sepsis. In vitro experiments revealed that lipopolysaccharide induces expression of SFTA3 in the human lung alveolar type II cell line A549. By contrast, the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-23 inhibit expression of SFTA3 in A549. Sequence- and structure-based prediction analysis indicated that the novel protein is likely to belong to the family of lung surfactant proteins. The results suggest that SFTA3 is an immunoregulatory protein of the lung with relevant protective functions during inflammation at the mucosal sites.

  11. Human coronavirus NL63 and 229E seroconversion in children.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F; El Idrissi, Nawal Bahia; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Müller, Marcel A; Kuijpers, Taco W; Zaaijer, Hans L; van der Hoek, Lia

    2008-07-01

    In 2004, the novel respiratory human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was identified, and subsequent research revealed that the virus has spread worldwide. HCoV-229E is a close relative of HCoV-NL63, and infection with either virus can lead to the hospitalization of young children, immunocompromised persons, and the elderly. Children infected with HCoV-NL63 often develop croup, with obstruction of the airway. In this study we investigated at which age children are confronted for the first time with an HCoV-NL63 infection and, thus, at which age they seroconvert to HCoV-NL63 positivity. We designed a recombinant HCoV-229E and a recombinant HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and performed a seroepidemiology survey on longitudinal and cross-sectional serum samples. The longitudinal serum samples were collected from 13 newborns, and data for those newborns were available from multiple time points spanning a period of at least 18 months. For the cross-sectional survey we tested serum samples of 139 children, including newborns to children 16 years of age. In examinations of the longitudinal serum samples we observed that all of the children had maternal anti-NL63 and anti-229E antibodies at birth that disappeared within 3 months. Seven of the 13 children became HCoV-NL63 seropositive during follow-up, whereas only 2 became HCoV-229E seropositive. The serology data of the cross-sectional serum samples revealed that 75% and 65% of the children in the age group 2.5 to 3.5 years were HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E seropositive, respectively. We conclude that on average, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E seroconversion occurs before children reach the age of 3.5 years.

  12. A chimeric virus-mouse model system for evaluating the function and inhibition of papain-like proteases of emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M; Nichols, Daniel B; Wilson, Michael W; StJohn, Sarah E; Larsen, Scott D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Lenschow, Deborah J; Baric, Ralph S; Baker, Susan C

    2014-10-01

    To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. Importance: Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus system to

  13. A Chimeric Virus-Mouse Model System for Evaluating the Function and Inhibition of Papain-Like Proteases of Emerging Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M.; Nichols, Daniel B.; Wilson, Michael W.; StJohn, Sarah E.; Larsen, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR−/−) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. IMPORTANCE Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus

  14. OPLS3: A Force Field Providing Broad Coverage of Drug-like Small Molecules and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Harder, Edward; Damm, Wolfgang; Maple, Jon; Wu, Chuanjie; Reboul, Mark; Xiang, Jin Yu; Wang, Lingle; Lupyan, Dmitry; Dahlgren, Markus K; Knight, Jennifer L; Kaus, Joseph W; Cerutti, David S; Krilov, Goran; Jorgensen, William L; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A

    2016-01-12

    The parametrization and validation of the OPLS3 force field for small molecules and proteins are reported. Enhancements with respect to the previous version (OPLS2.1) include the addition of off-atom charge sites to represent halogen bonding and aryl nitrogen lone pairs as well as a complete refit of peptide dihedral parameters to better model the native structure of proteins. To adequately cover medicinal chemical space, OPLS3 employs over an order of magnitude more reference data and associated parameter types relative to other commonly used small molecule force fields (e.g., MMFF and OPLS_2005). As a consequence, OPLS3 achieves a high level of accuracy across performance benchmarks that assess small molecule conformational propensities and solvation. The newly fitted peptide dihedrals lead to significant improvements in the representation of secondary structure elements in simulated peptides and native structure stability over a number of proteins. Together, the improvements made to both the small molecule and protein force field lead to a high level of accuracy in predicting protein-ligand binding measured over a wide range of targets and ligands (less than 1 kcal/mol RMS error) representing a 30% improvement over earlier variants of the OPLS force field.

  15. A mouse model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; Yount, Boyd L; Scobey, Trevor; Jensen, Kara; Douglas, Madeline; Beall, Anne; Tang, Xian-Chun; Marasco, Wayne A; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S

    2016-11-28

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV. Therefore, we used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to modify the mouse genome to encode two amino acids (positions 288 and 330) that match the human sequence in the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor, making mice susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and replication. Serial MERS-CoV passage in these engineered mice was then used to generate a mouse-adapted virus that replicated efficiently within the lungs and evoked symptoms indicative of severe ARDS, including decreased survival, extreme weight loss, decreased pulmonary function, pulmonary haemorrhage and pathological signs indicative of end-stage lung disease. Importantly, therapeutic countermeasures comprising MERS-CoV neutralizing antibody treatment or a MERS-CoV spike protein vaccine protected the engineered mice against MERS-CoV-induced ARDS.

  16. The effect of inhibition of PP1 and TNFα signaling on pathogenesis of SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2016-09-23

    The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ antiimmune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), promote pathogenesis through a parallel feed-forward circuit that promotes inflammation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the role of over-stimulation of the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV in pathogenesis. We conclude that the critical balance between immune response and inflammation can be manipulated to improve the outcome of the infection. Further, our study provides two potential therapeutic strategies for mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV infection, and may provide insight into treatment strategies for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

  17. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence.

    PubMed

    Menachery, Vineet D; Yount, Boyd L; Debbink, Kari; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gralinski, Lisa E; Plante, Jessica A; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor; Ge, Xing-Yi; Donaldson, Eric F; Randell, Scott H; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Wayne A; Shi, Zhengli-Li; Baric, Ralph S

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from infection with CoVs using the novel spike protein. On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests a potential risk of SARS-CoV re-emergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations.

  18. Genetic drift of human coronavirus OC43 spike gene during adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lili; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jianguo; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lan; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) continuously threaten human health. However, to date, the evolutionary mechanisms that govern CoV strain persistence in human populations have not been fully understood. In this study, we characterized the evolution of the major antigen-spike (S) gene in the most prevalent human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43 using phylogenetic and phylodynamic analysis. Among the five known HCoV-OC43 genotypes (A to E), higher substitution rates and dN/dS values as well as more positive selection sites were detected in the S gene of genotype D, corresponding to the most dominant HCoV epidemic in recent years. Further analysis showed that the majority of substitutions were located in the S1 subunit. Among them, seven positive selection sites were chronologically traced in the temporal evolution routes of genotype D, and six were located around the critical sugar binding region in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein, an important sugar binding domain of CoV. These findings suggest that the genetic drift of the S gene may play an important role in genotype persistence in human populations, providing insights into the mechanisms of HCoV-OC43 adaptive evolution. PMID:26099036

  19. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  20. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential.

  1. Study of GOLPH3: a potential stress-inducible protein from Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; You, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Xiaoye; He, Wenfang; Chen, Yang; Tang, Xiangqi; Jiang, Zheng; Tu, Ranran; Zeng, Liuwang; Lu, Wei; Hu, Zhiping

    2014-06-01

    Although the Golgi apparatus has been studied extensively for over 100 years, the complex structure-function relationships have yet to be elucidated. It is well known that the Golgi complex plays an important role in the transport, processing, sorting, and targeting of numerous proteins and lipids destined for secretion, plasma membrane, and lysosomes. Increasing evidence suggests that the Golgi apparatus is a sensor and common downstream effector of stress signals in cell death pathways. It undergoes disassembly and fragmentation in several neurological disorders. Recent studies indicate that Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3 also known as GPP34/GMx33/MIDAS), a peripheral membrane protein of trans-Golgi network, represents an exciting new class of oncoproteins involved in cell signal transduction and is potentially mobilized by stress. In this review, we focus on the importance of GOLPH3 in vesicular trafficking, Golgi architecture maintenance, receptor sorting, protein glycosylation, and further discuss its potential in signal sensing in stress response.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Candy C Y; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K L; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C Y; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-05-07

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5'-UCUAAAC-3' as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  4. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  5. Coronavirus cell entry occurs through the endo-/lysosomal pathway in a proteolysis-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H; Wicht, Oliver; van Kasteren, Sander I; van Kuppeveld, Frank J; Haagmans, Bart L; Pelkmans, Lucas; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2014-11-01

    Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fusion. Specific cues in the endosomal microenvironment induce conformational changes in the viral fusion proteins leading to viral and host membrane fusion. In the present study we investigated the entry of coronaviruses (CoVs). Using siRNA gene silencing, we found that proteins known to be important for late endosomal maturation and endosome-lysosome fusion profoundly promote infection of cells with mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Using recombinant MHVs expressing reporter genes as well as a novel, replication-independent fusion assay we confirmed the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and demonstrated that trafficking of MHV to lysosomes is required for fusion and productive entry to occur. Nevertheless, MHV was shown to be less sensitive to perturbation of endosomal pH than vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus, which fuse in early and late endosomes, respectively. Our results indicate that entry of MHV depends on proteolytic processing of its fusion protein S by lysosomal proteases. Fusion of MHV was severely inhibited by a pan-lysosomal protease inhibitor, while trafficking of MHV to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases was no longer required when a furin cleavage site was introduced in the S protein immediately upstream of the fusion peptide. Also entry of feline CoV was shown to depend on trafficking to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases. In contrast, MERS-CoV, which contains a minimal furin cleavage site just upstream of the fusion peptide, was negatively affected by inhibition of furin, but not of lysosomal proteases. We conclude that a proteolytic cleavage site in the CoV S protein directly upstream of the fusion peptide is an essential determinant of the intracellular site of fusion.

  6. Coronavirus Cell Entry Occurs through the Endo-/Lysosomal Pathway in a Proteolysis-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H.; Wicht, Oliver; van Kasteren, Sander I.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Pelkmans, Lucas; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Bosch, Berend Jan; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fusion. Specific cues in the endosomal microenvironment induce conformational changes in the viral fusion proteins leading to viral and host membrane fusion. In the present study we investigated the entry of coronaviruses (CoVs). Using siRNA gene silencing, we found that proteins known to be important for late endosomal maturation and endosome-lysosome fusion profoundly promote infection of cells with mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Using recombinant MHVs expressing reporter genes as well as a novel, replication-independent fusion assay we confirmed the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and demonstrated that trafficking of MHV to lysosomes is required for fusion and productive entry to occur. Nevertheless, MHV was shown to be less sensitive to perturbation of endosomal pH than vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus, which fuse in early and late endosomes, respectively. Our results indicate that entry of MHV depends on proteolytic processing of its fusion protein S by lysosomal proteases. Fusion of MHV was severely inhibited by a pan-lysosomal protease inhibitor, while trafficking of MHV to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases was no longer required when a furin cleavage site was introduced in the S protein immediately upstream of the fusion peptide. Also entry of feline CoV was shown to depend on trafficking to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases. In contrast, MERS-CoV, which contains a minimal furin cleavage site just upstream of the fusion peptide, was negatively affected by inhibition of furin, but not of lysosomal proteases. We conclude that a proteolytic cleavage site in the CoV S protein directly upstream of the fusion peptide is an essential determinant of the intracellular site of fusion. PMID:25375324

  7. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  8. Human coronavirus NL63: a clinically important virus?

    PubMed

    Fielding, Burtram C

    2011-02-01

    Respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among young children. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have only recently been shown to cause both lower and upper respiratory tract infections. To date, five coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV HKU-1) that infect humans have been identified, four of which (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU-1) circulate continuously in the human population. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first isolated from the aspirate from a 7-month-old baby in early 2004. Infection with HCoV-NL63 has since been shown to be a common worldwide occurrence and has been associated with many clinical symptoms and diagnoses, including severe lower respiratory tract infection, croup and bronchiolitis. HCoV-NL63 causes disease in children, the elderly and the immunocompromised, and has been detected in 1.0-9.3% of respiratory tract infections in children. In this article, the current knowledge of human coronavirus HCoV-NL63, with special reference to the clinical features, prevalence and seasonal incidence, and coinfection with other respiratory viruses, will be discussed.

  9. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  10. Murine Coronavirus Ubiquitin-Like Domain Is Important for Papain-Like Protease Stability and Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mielech, Anna M.; Deng, Xufang; Chen, Yafang; Kindler, Eveline; Wheeler, Dorthea L.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Thiel, Volker; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitin-like domains (Ubls) now are recognized as common elements adjacent to viral and cellular proteases; however, their function is unclear. Structural studies of the papain-like protease (PLP) domains of coronaviruses (CoVs) revealed an adjacent Ubl domain in severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, and the murine CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Here, we tested the effect of altering the Ubl adjacent to PLP2 of MHV on enzyme activity, viral replication, and pathogenesis. Using deletion and substitution approaches, we identified sites within the Ubl domain, residues 785 to 787 of nonstructural protein 3, which negatively affect protease activity, and valine residues 785 and 787, which negatively affect deubiquitinating activity. Using reverse genetics, we engineered Ubl mutant viruses and found that AM2 (V787S) and AM3 (V785S) viruses replicate efficiently at 37°C but generate smaller plaques than wild-type (WT) virus, and AM2 is defective for replication at higher temperatures. To evaluate the effect of the mutation on protease activity, we purified WT and Ubl mutant PLP2 and found that the proteases exhibit similar specific activities at 25°C. However, the thermal stability of the Ubl mutant PLP2 was significantly reduced at 30°C, thereby reducing the total enzymatic activity. To determine if the destabilizing mutation affects viral pathogenesis, we infected C57BL/6 mice with WT or AM2 virus and found that the mutant virus is highly attenuated, yet it replicates sufficiently to elicit protective immunity. These studies revealed that modulating the Ubl domain adjacent to the PLP reduces protease stability and viral pathogenesis, revealing a novel approach to coronavirus attenuation. IMPORTANCE Introducing mutations into a protein or virus can have either direct or indirect effects on function. We asked if changes in the Ubl domain, a conserved domain adjacent to the coronavirus papain-like protease, altered

  11. Development of dipsticks for simultaneous detection of vip3A and cry1Ab/cry1Ac transgenic proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The number of genetically modified (GM) crops being cultivated and its produce reaching market is increasing every year. The transgenes (vip3A, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac) from Bacillus thuringiensis are being used by plant breeders, apart from other transgenes for developing insect pest-resistant GM crops. It is therefore necessary to develop an easy, rapid, and reliable detection assay to discriminate GM crops and non-GM crops. Dipstick strips using colloidal gold-labeled polyclonal antibodies were developed for simultaneous detection of Vip3A and Cry1Ab/CrylAc proteins. The assay was essentially based on the sandwich format of immunoassay, which was completed within 10 min, and the results were evaluated visually. The detection limits were 50 ng/mL (50 ppb) for both CrylAc and CrylAb proteins, and 100 ng/mL (100 ppb) for Vip3A protein. The developed dipsticks are suitable for on-site simultaneous screening of GM crops bearing two proteins, which, in turn, reduce cost and time of the assay.

  12. Adaptor protein-3: A key player in RBL-2H3 mast cell mediator release

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Freitas-Filho, Edismauro Garcia; de Souza-Júnior, Devandir Antonio; daSilva, Luis Lamberti Pinto; Jamur, Maria Celia

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell (MC) secretory granules are Lysosome-Related Organelles (LROs) whose biogenesis is associated with the post-Golgi secretory and endocytic pathways in which the sorting of proteins destined for a specific organelle relies on the recognition of sorting signals by adaptor proteins that direct their incorporation into transport vesicles. The adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex mediates protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and late endosomes, lysosomes, and LROs. AP-3 has a recognized role in LROs biogenesis and regulated secretion in several cell types, including many immune cells such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. However, the relevance of AP-3 for these processes in MCs has not been previously investigated. AP-3 was found to be expressed and distributed in a punctate fashion in rat peritoneal mast cells ex vivo. The rat MC line RBL-2H3 was used as a model system to investigate the role of AP-3 in mast cell secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release. By immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, AP-3 was localized both to the TGN and early endosomes indicating that AP-3 dependent sorting of proteins to MC secretory granules originates in these organelles. ShRNA mediated depletion of the AP-3 δ subunit was shown to destabilize the AP-3 complex in RBL-2H3 MCs. AP-3 knockdown significantly affected MC regulated secretion of β-hexosaminidase without affecting total cellular enzyme levels. Morphometric evaluation of MC secretory granules by electron microscopy revealed that the area of MC secretory granules in AP-3 knockdown MCs was significantly increased, indicating that AP-3 is involved in MC secretory granule biogenesis. Furthermore, AP-3 knockdown had a selective impact on the secretion of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. These results show for the first time that AP-3 plays a critical role in secretory granule biogenesis and mediator release in MCs. PMID:28273137

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 3, a protein with a dual subcellular fate, is interacting with human ribosomal protein S2

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Marianne; Reimers, Kerstin; Wirz, Werner; Gressner, Axel M.; Mueller, Robert; Kiefer, Paul . E-mail: pkiefer@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-16

    The secreted isoform of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) induces a mitogenic cell response, while the nuclear form inhibits cell proliferation. Recently, we identified a nucleolar FGF3-binding protein which is implicated in processing of pre-rRNA as a possible target of nuclear FGF3 signalling. Here, we report a second candidate protein identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen for nuclear FGF3 action, ribosomal protein S2, rpS2. Recombinant rpS2 binds to in vitro translated FGF3 and to nuclear FGF3 extracted from transfected COS-1 cells. Characterization of the FGF3 binding domain of rpS2 showed that both the Arg-Gly-rich N-terminal region and a short carboxyl-terminal sequence of rpS2 are necessary for FGF3 binding. Mapping the S2 binding domains of FGF3 revealed that these domains are important for both NoBP and rpS2 interaction. Transient co-expression of rpS2 and nuclear FGF3 resulted in a reduced nucleolar localization of the FGF. These findings suggest that the nuclear form of FGF3 inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with ribosomal biogenesis.

  14. A Role for Protein Phosphorylation in Cytochrome P450 3A4 Ubiquitin-dependent Proteasomal Degradation*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YongQiang; Liao, Mingxiang; Hoe, Nicholas; Acharya, Poulomi; Deng, Changhui; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Correia, Maria Almira

    2009-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) incur phosphorylation. Although the precise role of this post-translational modification is unclear, marking P450s for degradation is plausible. Indeed, we have found that after structural inactivation, CYP3A4, the major human liver P450, and its rat orthologs are phosphorylated during their ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Peptide mapping coupled with mass spectrometric analyses of CYP3A4 phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC) previously identified two target sites, Thr264 and Ser420. We now document that liver cytosolic kinases additionally target Ser478 as a major site. To determine whether such phosphorylation is relevant to in vivo CYP3A4 degradation, wild type and CYP3A4 with single, double, or triple Ala mutations of these residues were heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep4Δ strains. We found that relative to CYP3A4wt, its S478A mutant was significantly stabilized in these yeast, and this was greatly to markedly enhanced for its S478A/T264A, S478A/S420A, and S478A/T264A/S420A double and triple mutants. Similar relative S478A/T264A/S420A mutant stabilization was also observed in HEK293T cells. To determine whether phosphorylation enhances CYP3A4 degradation by enhancing its ubiquitination, CYP3A4 ubiquitination was examined in an in vitro UBC7/gp78-reconstituted system with and without cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and PKC, two liver cytosolic kinases involved in CYP3A4 phosphorylation. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A/PKC-mediated phosphorylation of CYP3A4wt but not its S478A/T264A/S420A mutant enhanced its ubiquitination in this system. Together, these findings indicate that phosphorylation of CYP3A4 Ser478, Thr264, and Ser420 residues by cytosolic kinases is important both for its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and suggest a direct link between P450 phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation. PMID:19095658

  15. CDX2 regulation by the RNA-binding protein MEX3A: impact on intestinal differentiation and stemness

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Bruno; Barros, Rita; Carreto, Laura; Oliveira, Patrícia; Oliveira, Carla; Chartier, Nicolas T.; Plateroti, Michelina; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Freund, Jean-Noël; Billaud, Marc; Almeida, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The homeobox transcription factor CDX2 plays a crucial role in intestinal cell fate specification, both during normal development and in tumorigenic processes involving intestinal reprogramming. The CDX2 regulatory network is intricate, but it has not yet been fully uncovered. Through genome-wide screening of a 3D culture system, the RNA-binding protein MEX3A was identified as putatively involved in CDX2 regulation; therefore, its biological relevance was addressed by setting up cell-based assays together with expression studies in murine intestine. We demonstrate here that MEX3A has a repressive function by controlling CDX2 levels in gastric and colorectal cellular models. This is dependent on the interaction with a specific binding determinant present in CDX2 mRNA 3′untranslated region. We have further determined that MEX3A impairs intestinal differentiation and cellular polarization, affects cell cycle progression and promotes increased expression of intestinal stem cell markers, namely LGR5, BMI1 and MSI1. Finally, we show that MEX3A is expressed in mouse intestine, supporting an in vivo context for interaction with CDX2 and modulation of stem cell properties. Therefore, we describe a novel CDX2 post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, through the RNA-binding protein MEX3A, with a major impact in intestinal differentiation, polarity and stemness, likely contributing to intestinal homeostasis and carcinogenesis. PMID:23408853

  16. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  17. Protein Phosphatase 2A Reactivates FOXO3a through a Dynamic Interplay with 14-3-3 and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amrik; Ye, Min; Bucur, Octavian; Zhu, Shudong; Tanya Santos, Maria; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Wei, Wenyi; Gao, Daming; Hahn, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3a, a key regulator of cell survival, is regulated by reversible phosphorylation and subcellular localization. Although the kinases regulating FOXO3a activity have been characterized, the role of protein phosphatases (PP) in the control of FOXO3a subcellular localization and function is unknown. In this study, we detected a robust interaction between FOXO3a and PP2A. We further demonstrate that 14-3-3, while not impeding the interaction between PP2A and FOXO3a, restrains its activity toward AKT phosphorylation sites T32/S253. Disruption of PP2A function revealed that after AKT inhibition, PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of T32/S253 is required for dissociation of 14-3-3, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activation of FOXO3a. Our findings reveal that distinct phosphatases dephosphorylate conserved AKT motifs within the FOXO family and that PP2A is entwined in a dynamic interplay with AKT and 14-3-3 to directly regulate FOXO3a subcellular localization and transcriptional activation. PMID:20110348

  18. Alisporivir inhibits MERS- and SARS-coronavirus replication in cell culture, but not SARS-coronavirus infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Adriaan H; Falzarano, Darryl; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Beugeling, Corrine; Fett, Craig; Martellaro, Cynthia; Posthuma, Clara C; Feldmann, Heinz; Perlman, Stanley; Snijder, Eric J

    2017-01-15

    Currently, there is no registered treatment for infections with emerging zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS- and MERS-coronavirus. We here report that in cultured cells low-micromolar concentrations of alisporivir, a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin A-analog, inhibit the replication of four different coronaviruses, including MERS- and SARS-coronavirus. Ribavirin was found to further potentiate the antiviral effect of alisporivir in these cell culture-based infection models, but this combination treatment was unable to improve the outcome of SARS-CoV infection in a mouse model. Nevertheless, our data provide a basis to further explore the potential of Cyp inhibitors as host-directed, broad-spectrum inhibitors of coronavirus replication.

  19. A Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus isolated from wild peafowls is pathogenic to chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Fu, Jia-Dong; Ren, Tao; Cao, Wei-Sheng; Xin, Chao-An; Liao, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Coronavirus infection was investigated in apparently healthy wild peafowls in Guangdong province of China in 2003, while severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) broke out there. No SARS-like coronavirus had been isolated but a novel avian coronavirus strain, Peafowl/GD/KQ6/2003 (KQ6), was identified. Sequence analysis revealed that KQ6 was an avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of coronavirus in group 3. The genome sequence of KQ6 had extremely high degree of identity with that of a Massachusetts prototype IBV M41. KQ6 was pathogenic to chickens but non-pathogenic to peafowls under experimental conditions. Seventeen out of fifty-four (31.48%) peafowl serum samples were tested positive for specific antibodies against IBV. Present results indicate that the peafowl isolate KQ6 is a Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus strain which undergoes few genetic changes and peafowl might have acted as a natural reservoir of IBV for very long time.

  20. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Marschall, Zofia von; Fisher, Larry W.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. {yields} sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/{beta}-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. {yields} Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. {yields} sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic {beta}-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  1. Npl3, a new link between RNA-binding proteins and the maintenance of genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Pereira, José M; Herrero, Ana B; Moreno, Sergio; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The mRNA is co-transcriptionally bound by a number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that contribute to its processing and formation of an export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP). In the last few years, increasing evidence suggests that RBPs play a key role in preventing transcription-associated genome instability. Part of this instability is mediated by the accumulation of co-transcriptional R loops, which may impair replication fork (RF) progression due to collisions between transcription and replication machineries. In addition, some RBPs have been implicated in DNA repair and/or the DNA damage response (DDR). Recently, the Npl3 protein, one of the most abundant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in yeast, has been shown to prevent transcription-associated genome instability and accumulation of RF obstacles, partially associated with R-loop formation. Interestingly, Npl3 seems to have additional functions in DNA repair, and npl3∆ mutants are highly sensitive to genotoxic agents, such as the antitumor drug trabectedin. Here we discuss the role of Npl3 in particular, and RBPs in general, in the connection of transcription with replication and genome instability, and its effect on the DDR. PMID:24694687

  2. Genetic diversity of NS5A protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 3a and its relationship to therapy response

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be related to the response to IFN therapy, the standard treatment for infection. In this study we analyzed the quasispecies composition of NS5A protein in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a, before IFN therapy. Methods Viral RNA was isolated from samples of 12 patients: four sustained virological responders (SVR), four non-responders (NR), and four end-of-treatment responders (ETR). cDNA was synthesized, the NS5A region was amplified and the fragments obtained were cloned. Fifteen clones from each patient were sequenced with eight primers, generating 179 contigs. Results Higher values for substitution (either synonymous or non-synonymous) and for distance were found in the SVR group. However, the NR group showed relatively more non-synonymous mutations than the other groups, owing to the higher values of dN/dS in complete NS5A and most specific regions. Overall, NS5A protein is undergoing purifying selection, since all dN/dS ratios values are below 0.5. Conclusions Our study provides an overview of the genetic variability of complete NS5A protein in HCV genotype 3a. PMID:20178583

  3. Protein Delivery of an Artificial Transcription Factor Restores Widespread Ube3a Expression in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Bailus, Barbara J; Pyles, Benjamin; McAlister, Michelle M; O'Geen, Henriette; Lockwood, Sarah H; Adams, Alexa N; Nguyen, Jennifer Trang T; Yu, Abigail; Berman, Robert F; Segal, David J

    2016-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological genetic disorder caused by loss of expression of the maternal copy of UBE3A in the brain. Due to brain-specific genetic imprinting at this locus, the paternal UBE3A is silenced by a long antisense transcript. Inhibition of the antisense transcript could lead to unsilencing of paternal UBE3A, thus providing a therapeutic approach for AS. However, widespread delivery of gene regulators to the brain remains challenging. Here, we report an engineered zinc finger-based artificial transcription factor (ATF) that, when injected i.p. or s.c., crossed the blood-brain barrier and increased Ube3a expression in the brain of an adult mouse model of AS. The factor displayed widespread distribution throughout the brain. Immunohistochemistry of both the hippocampus and cerebellum revealed an increase in Ube3a upon treatment. An ATF containing an alternative DNA-binding domain did not activate Ube3a. We believe this to be the first report of an injectable engineered zinc finger protein that can cause widespread activation of an endogenous gene in the brain. These observations have important implications for the study and treatment of AS and other neurological disorders.

  4. The developmental regulator protein Gon4l associates with protein YY1, co-repressor Sin3a, and histone deacetylase 1 and mediates transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Hankel, Isaiah L; Hostager, Bruce S; Swartzendruber, Julie A; Friedman, Ann D; Brenton, Janet L; Rothman, Paul B; Colgan, John D

    2011-05-20

    Genetic studies involving zebrafish and mice have demonstrated that the protein Gon4l (Gon4-like) is essential for hematopoiesis. These studies also suggested that Gon4l regulates gene expression during hematopoietic development, yet the biochemical function of Gon4l has not been defined. Here, we describe the identification of factors that interact with Gon4l and may cooperate with this protein to regulate gene expression. As predicted by polypeptide sequence conservation, Gon4l interacted and co-localized with the DNA-binding protein YY1 (Yin Yang 1). Density gradient sedimentation analysis of protein lysates from mouse M12 B cells showed that Gon4l and YY1 co-sediment with the transcriptional co-repressor Sin3a and its functional partner histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1. Consistent with these results, immunoprecipitation studies showed that Gon4l associates with Sin3a, HDAC1, and YY1 as a part of complexes that form in M12 cells. Sequential immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that Gon4l, YY1, Sin3a, and HDAC1 could all associate as components of a single complex and that a conserved domain spanning the central portion of Gon4l was required for formation of this complex. When targeted to DNA, Gon4l repressed the activity of a nearby promoter, which correlated with the ability to interact with Sin3a and HDAC1. Our data suggest that Sin3a, HDAC1, and YY1 are co-factors for Gon4l and that Gon4l may function as a platform for the assembly of complexes that regulate gene expression.

  5. LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPPα) released following α-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the β-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPPα production and increased Aβ peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

  6. MTB-3, a Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein (+TIP) of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R.; Linacre-Rojas, Lorena P.; Román-Gavilanes, Ariana I.; Lew, Thomas K.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A.; Roberson, Robert W.; Freitag, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule (MT) “plus end” constitutes the platform for the accumulation of a structurally and functionally diverse group of proteins, collectively called “MT plus-end tracking proteins” (+TIPs). +TIPs control MT dynamics and link MTs to diverse sub-cellular structures. Neurospora crassa MicroTubule Binding protein-3 (MTB-3) is the homolog of yeast EB1, a highly conserved +TIP. To address the function of MTB-3, we examined strains with mtb-3 deletions, and we tagged MTB-3 with GFP to assess its dynamic behavior. MTB-3-GFP was present as comet-like structures distributed more or less homogeneously within the hyphal cytoplasm, and moving mainly towards the apex at speeds up to 4× faster than the normal hyphal elongation rates. MTB-3-GFP comets were present in all developmental stages, but were most abundant in mature hyphae. MTB-3-GFP comets were observed moving in anterograde and retrograde direction along the hypha. Retrograde movement was also observed as originating from the apical dome. The integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton affects the presence and dynamics of MTB-3-GFP comets, while actin does not seem to play a role. The size of MTB-3-GFP comets is affected by the absence of dynactin and conventional kinesin. We detected no obvious morphological phenotypes in Δmtb-3 mutants but there were fewer MTs in Δmtb-3, MTs were less bundled and less organized. Compared to WT, both MT polymerization and depolymerization rates were significantly decreased in Δmtb-3. In summary, the lack of MTB-3 affects overall growth and morphological phenotypes of N. crassa only slightly, but deletion of mtb-3 has strong effect on MT dynamics. PMID:23950979

  7. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  8. Identification of a Novel Coronavirus from a Beluga Whale by Using a Panviral Microarray ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A.; Wu, Guang; St. Leger, Judy; Nordhausen, Robert W.; Wang, David

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Nipah virus has underscored the role of animal reservoirs in human disease and the need for reservoir surveillance. Here, we used a panviral DNA microarray to investigate the death of a captive beluga whale in an aquatic park. A highly divergent coronavirus, tentatively named coronavirus SW1, was identified in liver tissue from the deceased whale. Subsequently, the entire genome of SW1 was sequenced, yielding a genome of 31,686 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis revealed SW1 to be a novel virus distantly related to but most similar to group III coronaviruses. PMID:18353961

  9. A screen of the NIH Clinical Collection small molecule library identifies potential anti-coronavirus drugs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianzhong; Forrest, J Craig; Zhang, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    With the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in humans and the outbreak of devastating porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus in swine, therapeutic intervention is urgently needed. However, anti-coronavirus drugs currently are not available. In an effort to assist rapid development of anti-coronavirus drugs, here we screened the NIH Clinical Collection in cell culture using a luciferase reporter-expressing recombinant murine coronavirus. Of the 727 compounds screened, 84 were found to have a significant anti-coronavirus effect. Further experiments revealed that 51 compounds blocked virus entry while 19 others inhibited viral replication. Additional validation studies with the top 3 inhibitors (hexachlorophene, nitazoxanide and homoharringtonine) demonstrated robust anti-coronavirus activities (a reduction of 6 to 8log10 in virus titer) with an IC50 ranging from 11nM to 1.2μM. Furthermore, homoharringtonine and hexachlorophene exhibited broad antiviral activity against diverse species of human and animal coronaviruses. Since the NIH Clinical Collection consists of compounds that have already been through clinical trials, these small molecule inhibitors have a great potential for rapid development as anti-coronavirus drugs.

  10. Human coronavirus NL63 associated with lower respiratory tract symptoms in early life.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Laurent; Regamey, Nicolas; Roiha, Hanna; Deffernez, Christelle; Frey, Urs

    2005-11-01

    Coronavirus NL63 has been identified as a new member of the coronavirus genus, but its role as a cause of respiratory disease needs to be established. We studied the first episode of lower respiratory tract symptoms in a cohort of healthy neonates. NL63 was identified in 6 (7%) of 82 cases and was as frequent as other coronaviruses (9%). NL63 was recovered at the onset of symptoms and was cleared within 3 weeks in half of the cases. Our data suggests that coronavirus NL63 causes lower respiratory tract symptoms and is acquired in early life.

  11. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M. Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J.; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G.; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall–winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru. PMID:26324726

  12. Central ions and lateral asparagine/glutamine zippers stabilize the post-fusion hairpin conformation of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Duquerroy, Stephane; Rey, Felix A.

    2005-05-10

    The coronavirus spike glycoprotein is a class I membrane fusion protein with two characteristic heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) in its ectodomain. Here, we report the X-ray structure of a previously characterized HR1/HR2 complex of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein. As expected, the HR1 and HR2 segments are organized in antiparallel orientations within a rod-like molecule. The HR1 helices form an exceptionally long (120 A) internal coiled coil stabilized by hydrophobic and polar interactions. A striking arrangement of conserved asparagine and glutamine residues of HR1 propagates from two central chloride ions, providing hydrogen-bonding 'zippers' that strongly constrain the path of the HR2 main chain, forcing it to adopt an extended conformation at either end of a short HR2 {alpha}-helix.

  13. Replication of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E is inhibited by the drug FK506.

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A; Kallies, Stephan; Thiel, Volker; Drosten, Christian; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that Coronavirus (CoV) replication depends on active immunophilin pathways. Here we demonstrate that the drug FK506 (Tacrolimus) inhibited strongly the growth of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E at low, non-cytotoxic concentrations in cell culture. As shown by plaque titration, qPCR, Luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression, replication was diminished by several orders of magnitude. Knockdown of the cellular FK506-binding proteins FKBP1A and FKBP1B in CaCo2 cells prevented replication of HCoV-NL63, suggesting the requirement of these members of the immunophilin family for virus growth.

  14. Structure of coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase offers insight into corona and influenza virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghong; Langereis, Martijn A; van Vliet, Arno L W; Huizinga, Eric G; de Groot, Raoul J

    2008-07-01

    The hemagglutinin-esterases (HEs) are a family of viral envelope glycoproteins that mediate reversible attachment to O-acetylated sialic acids by acting both as lectins and as receptor-destroying enzymes (RDEs). Related HEs occur in influenza C, toro-, and coronaviruses, apparently as a result of relatively recent lateral gene transfer events. Here, we report the crystal structure of a coronavirus (CoV) HE in complex with its receptor. We show that CoV HE arose from an influenza C-like HE fusion protein (HEF). In the process, HE was transformed from a trimer into a dimer, whereas remnants of the fusion domain were adapted to establish novel monomer-monomer contacts. Whereas the structural design of the RDE-acetylesterase domain remained unaltered, the HE receptor-binding domain underwent remodeling to such extent that the ligand is now bound in opposite orientation. This is surprising, because the architecture of the HEF site was preserved in influenza A HA over a much larger evolutionary distance, a switch in receptor specificity and extensive antigenic variation notwithstanding. Apparently, HA and HEF are under more stringent selective constraints than HE, limiting their exploration of alternative binding-site topologies. We attribute the plasticity of the CoV HE receptor-binding site to evolutionary flexibility conferred by functional redundancy between HE and its companion spike protein S. Our findings offer unique insights into the structural and functional consequences of independent protein evolution after interviral gene exchange and open potential avenues to broad-spectrum antiviral drug design.

  15. Coronavirus receptor switch explained from the stereochemistry of protein–carbohydrate interactions and a single mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bakkers, Mark J. G.; Zeng, Qinghong; Feitsma, Louris J.; Hulswit, Ruben J. G.; Li, Zeshi; Westerbeke, Aniek; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Boons, Geert-Jan; Langereis, Martijn A.; de Groot, Raoul J.

    2016-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-esterases (HEs) are bimodular envelope proteins of orthomyxoviruses, toroviruses, and coronaviruses with a carbohydrate-binding “lectin” domain appended to a receptor-destroying sialate-O-acetylesterase (“esterase”). In concert, these domains facilitate dynamic virion attachment to cell-surface sialoglycans. Most HEs (type I) target 9-O-acetylated sialic acids (9-O-Ac-Sias), but one group of coronaviruses switched to using 4-O-Ac-Sias instead (type II). This specificity shift required quasisynchronous adaptations in the Sia-binding sites of both lectin and esterase domains. Previously, a partially disordered crystal structure of a type II HE revealed how the shift in lectin ligand specificity was achieved. How the switch in esterase substrate specificity was realized remained unresolved, however. Here, we present a complete structure of a type II HE with a receptor analog in the catalytic site and identify the mutations underlying the 9-O- to 4-O-Ac-Sia substrate switch. We show that (i) common principles pertaining to the stereochemistry of protein–carbohydrate interactions were at the core of the transition in lectin ligand and esterase substrate specificity; (ii) in consequence, the switch in O-Ac-Sia specificity could be readily accomplished via convergent intramolecular coevolution with only modest architectural changes in lectin and esterase domains; and (iii) a single, inconspicuous Ala-to-Ser substitution in the catalytic site was key to the emergence of the type II HEs. Our findings provide fundamental insights into how proteins “see” sugars and how this affects protein and virus evolution. PMID:27185912

  16. Coronaviruses lacking exoribonuclease activity are susceptible to lethal mutagenesis: evidence for proofreading and potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Everett Clinton; Blanc, Hervé; Surdel, Matthew C; Vignuzzi, Marco; Denison, Mark R

    2013-08-01

    No therapeutics or vaccines currently exist for human coronaviruses (HCoVs). The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic in 2002-2003, and the recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in April 2012, emphasize the high probability of future zoonotic HCoV emergence causing severe and lethal human disease. Additionally, the resistance of SARS-CoV to ribavirin (RBV) demonstrates the need to define new targets for inhibition of CoV replication. CoVs express a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease in nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14-ExoN) that is required for high-fidelity replication and is conserved across the CoV family. All genetic and biochemical data support the hypothesis that nsp14-ExoN has an RNA proofreading function. Thus, we hypothesized that ExoN is responsible for CoV resistance to RNA mutagens. We demonstrate that while wild-type (ExoN+) CoVs were resistant to RBV and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), CoVs lacking ExoN activity (ExoN-) were up to 300-fold more sensitive. While the primary antiviral activity of RBV against CoVs was not mutagenesis, ExoN- CoVs treated with 5-FU demonstrated both enhanced sensitivity during multi-cycle replication, as well as decreased specific infectivity, consistent with 5-FU functioning as a mutagen. Comparison of full-genome next-generation sequencing of 5-FU treated SARS-CoV populations revealed a 16-fold increase in the number of mutations within the ExoN- population as compared to ExoN+. Ninety percent of these mutations represented A:G and U:C transitions, consistent with 5-FU incorporation during RNA synthesis. Together our results constitute direct evidence that CoV ExoN activity provides a critical proofreading function during virus replication. Furthermore, these studies identify ExoN as the first viral protein distinct from the RdRp that determines the sensitivity of RNA viruses to mutagens. Finally, our results show the importance of ExoN as a target for inhibition

  17. Crystal Structure of CCM3, a Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Protein Critical for Vascular Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; He, Y; Ji, W; Min, W; Boggon, T

    2010-01-01

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all {alpha}-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  18. Crystal structure of CCM3, a cerebral cavernous malformation protein critical for vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Haifeng; He, Yun; Ji, Weidong; Min, Wang; Boggon, Titus J

    2010-07-30

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 A crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all alpha-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  19. SARS coronavirus pathogenesis: host innate immune responses and viral antagonism of interferon.

    PubMed

    Totura, Allison L; Baric, Ralph S

    2012-06-01

    SARS-CoV is a pathogenic coronavirus that emerged from a zoonotic reservoir, leading to global dissemination of the virus. The association SARS-CoV with aberrant cytokine, chemokine, and Interferon Stimulated Gene (ISG) responses in patients provided evidence that SARS-CoV pathogenesis is at least partially controlled by innate immune signaling. Utilizing models for SARS-CoV infection, key components of innate immune signaling pathways have been identified as protective factors against SARS-CoV disease, including STAT1 and MyD88. Gene transcription signatures unique to SARS-CoV disease states have been identified, but host factors that regulate exacerbated disease phenotypes still remain largely undetermined. SARS-CoV encodes several proteins that modulate innate immune signaling through the antagonism of the induction of Interferon and by avoidance of ISG effector functions.

  20. Murine Coronavirus Cell Type Dependent Interaction with the Type I Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kristine M.; Weiss, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect many species of animal including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases of many organ systems. Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse, provides animal models for the study of central nervous system disease, including encephalitis and demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and for hepatitis. While there are many studies of the adaptive immune response to MHV, there has until recently been scant information on the type I interferon (IFN) response to MHV. The relationship between MHV and the IFN-α/β response is paradoxical. While the type I IFN response is a crucial aspect of host defense against MHV in its natural host, there is little if any induction of IFN following infection of mouse fibroblast cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, MHV is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β in mouse fibroblast cell lines and in human 293T cells. MHV can, under some circumstances, compromise the antiviral effects of IFN signaling. The nucleocapsid protein as well as the nsp1 and nsp3 proteins of MHV has been reported to have IFN antagonist activity. However, in primary cell types such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages, IFN is induced by MHV infection and an antiviral state is established. Other primary cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and hepatocytes fail to produce IFN following infection and, in vivo, likely depend on IFN produced by pDCs and macrophages for protection from MHV. Thus MHV induction of IFN-α/β and the ability to induce an antiviral state in response to interferon is extremely cell type dependent. IFN induced protection from MHV pathogenesis likely requires the orchestrated activities of several cell types, however, the cell types involved in limiting MHV replication may be different in the liver and in the immune privileged CNS. PMID:20221421

  1. Broadly targeted multiprobe QPCR for detection of coronaviruses: Coronavirus is common among mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Muradrasoli, Shaman; Mohamed, Nahla; Hornyák, Akos; Fohlman, Jan; Olsen, Björn; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas

    2009-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause trivial or fatal disease in humans and in animals. Detection methods for a wide range of CoVs are needed, to understand viral evolution, host range, transmission and maintenance in reservoirs. A new concept, "Multiprobe QPCR", which uses a balanced mixture of competing discrete non- or moderately degenerated nuclease degradable (TaqMan) probes was employed. It provides a broadly targeted and rational single tube real-time reverse transcription PCR ("NQPCR") for the generic detection and discovery of CoV. Degenerate primers, previously published, and the new probes, were from a conserved stretch of open reading frame 1b, encoding the replicase. This multiprobe design reduced the degree of probe degeneration, which otherwise decreases the sensitivity, and allowed a preliminary classification of the amplified sequence directly from the QPCR trace. The split probe strategy allowed detection of down to 10 viral nucleic acid equivalents of CoV from all known CoV groups. Evaluation was with reference CoV strains, synthetic targets, human respiratory samples and avian fecal samples. Infectious-Bronchitis-Virus (IBV)-related variants were found in 7 of 35 sample pools, from 100 wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Ducks may spread and harbour CoVs. NQPCR can detect a wide range of CoVs, as illustrated for humans and ducks.

  2. Towards a Coronavirus-Based HIV Multigene Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Klara K.; Makia, Divine; Maier, Reinhard; Ludewig, Burkhard; Thiel, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents one of the major health threats in the developing world. The costly treatment of infected individuals with multiple highly efficient anti-HIV drugs is only affordable in industrialized countries. Thus, an efficient vaccination strategy is required to prevent the further spread of the infection. The molecular biology of coronaviruses and particular features of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E) indicate that HCoV 229E-based vaccine vectors can become a new class of highly efficient vaccines. First, the receptor of HCoV 229E, human aminopeptidase N (hAPN or CD13) is expressed mainly on human dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages indicating that targeting of HCoV 229E-based vectors to professional antigen presenting cells can be achieved by receptor-mediated transduction. Second, HCoV 229E structural genes can be replaced by multiple transcriptional units encoding various antigens. These virus-like particles (VLPs) containing HCoV 229E-based vector RNA have the ability to transduce human DCs and to mediate heterologous gene expression in these cells. Finally, coronavirus infections are associated with mainly respiratory and enteric diseases, and natural transmission of coronaviruses occurs via mucosal surfaces. In humans, HCoV 229E causes common cold by infecting the upper respiratory tract. HCoV 229E infections are mainly encountered in children and re-infection occurs frequently in adults. It is thus most likely that pre-existing immunity against HCoV 229E will not significantly impact on the vaccination efficiency if HCoV 229E-based vectors are used in humans. PMID:17162377

  3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    expressed N, while not inducing protection directly, improved the induction of protection by a subsequent inoculation with inactivated IBV. In another study, two intramuscular immunizations of a plasmid expressing N induced protective immunity. The basis of immunity to IBV is not well understood. Serum antibody levels do not correlate with protection, although local antibody is believed to play a role. Adoptive transfer of IBV-infection-induced alphabeta T cells bearing CD8 antigen protected chicks from challenge infection. In conclusion, live attenuated IBV vaccines induce good, although short-lived, protection against homologous challenge, although a minority of individuals may respond poorly. Inactivated IBV vaccines are insufficiently efficacious when applied only once and in the absence of priming by live vaccine. Two applications of inactivated IBV are much more efficacious, although this is not a commercially viable proposition in the poultry industry. However, the cost and logistics of multiple application of a SARS inactivated vaccine would be more acceptable for the protection of human populations, especially if limited to targeted groups (e.g. health care workers and high-risk contacts). Application of a SARS vaccine is perhaps best limited to a minimal number of targeted individuals who can be monitored, as some vaccinated persons might, if infected by SARS coronavirus, become asymptomatic excretors of virus, thereby posing a risk to non-vaccinated people. Looking further into the future, the high efficacy of the fowl adenovirus vector expressing the IBV S1 subunit provides optimism for a live SARS vaccine, if that were deemed to be necessary, with the possibility of including the N protein gene.

  4. TRALI ASSOCIATED HNA-3a ANTIBODIES RECOGNIZE COMPLEX DETERMINANTS ON CHOLINE TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN 2 (CTL2)

    PubMed Central

    Bougie, Daniel W; Peterson, Julie A; Kanack, Adam J; Curtis, Brian R; Aster, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Background HNA-3a specific antibodies can cause severe, sometimes fatal, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) when present in transfused blood. The HNA3-a/b antigens are determined by an R154Q polymorphism in the first of five extracellular loops of the 10-membrane spanning choline transporter-like protein 2 (CTL2) expressed on neutrophils, lymphocytes and other tissues. About 50% of HNA-3a antibodies (Type 1) can be detected using CTL2 Loop 1 peptides containing R154; the remaining 50% (Type 2) fail to recognize this target. Understanding the basis for this difference could guide efforts to develop practical assays to screen blood donors for HNA-3 antibodies. Study design and methods Reactions of HNA-3a antibodies against recombinant versions of human, mouse, and human/mouse (chimeric) CTL2 were characterized using flow cytometry and various solid phase assays. Results Findings made show that, for binding to CTL2, Type 2 HNA-3a antibodies require non-polymorphic amino acid residues in the third, and possibly the second, extracellular loops of CTL2 to be in a configuration comparable to that found naturally in the cell membrane. In contrast, Type 1 antibodies require only peptides from the first extracellular loop that contain R154 for recognition. Conclusion Although Type 1 HNA-3a antibodies can readily be detected in solid phase assays that use a CTL2 peptide containing R154 as a target, development of a practical test to screen blood donors for Type 2 antibodies will pose a serious technical challenge because of the complex nature of the epitope(s) recognized by this antibody sub-group. PMID:24846273

  5. The intracellular cargo receptor ERGIC-53 is required for the production of infectious arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus particles.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Joseph P; Eisenhauer, Philip; Russo, Joanne; Mason, Anne B; Do, Danh; King, Benjamin; Taatjes, Douglas; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Boyson, Jonathan E; Thali, Markus; Zheng, Chunlei; Liao, Lujian; Yates, John R; Zhang, Bin; Ballif, Bryan A; Botten, Jason W

    2013-11-13

    Arenaviruses and hantaviruses cause severe human disease. Little is known regarding host proteins required for their propagation. We identified human proteins that interact with the glycoproteins (GPs) of a prototypic arenavirus and hantavirus and show that the lectin endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment 53 kDa protein (ERGIC-53), a cargo receptor required for glycoprotein trafficking within the early exocytic pathway, associates with arenavirus, hantavirus, coronavirus, orthomyxovirus, and filovirus GPs. ERGIC-53 binds to arenavirus GPs through a lectin-independent mechanism, traffics to arenavirus budding sites, and is incorporated into virions. ERGIC-53 is required for arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus propagation; in its absence, GP-containing virus particles form but are noninfectious, due in part to their inability to attach to host cells. Thus, we have identified a class of pathogen-derived ERGIC-53 ligands, a lectin-independent basis for their association with ERGIC-53, and a role for ERGIC-53 in the propagation of several highly pathogenic RNA virus families.

  6. Characterization and complete genome sequence of human coronavirus NL63 isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Heyuan; Cui, Lijin; Xie, Zhengde; Lu, Roujian; Zhao, Li; Tan, Wenjie

    2012-09-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first discovered in Amsterdam in 2004 and was identified as a new human respiratory coronavirus. We here report the first complete genome sequence of HCoV-NL63 strain CBJ 037 isolated in 2008 from a patient with bronchitis in Beijing, China.

  7. Detection of human coronavirus-NL63 in children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Okamoto, Michiko; Ohmi, Akira; Watanabe, Oshi; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2005-07-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 recently found in The Netherlands has been detected in Japan with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique in clinical specimens from pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms. Of 419 specimens that were negative for common respiratory viruses, 5 were positive for human coronavirus NL63, and these specimens were all collected in the first 3 months of 2003.

  8. Host-pathogen interactions during coronavirus infection of primary alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses that infect the lung are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans worldwide. Coronaviruses are being associated increasingly with severe diseases in the lower respiratory tract. Alveolar epithelial cells are an important target for coronavirus infection in the lung, and infected cells can initiate innate immune responses to viral infection. In this overview, we describe in vitro models of highly differentiated alveolar epithelial cells that are currently being used to study the innate immune response to coronavirus infection. We have shown that rat coronavirus infection of rat alveolar type I epithelial cells in vitro induces expression of CXC chemokines, which may recruit and activate neutrophils. Although neutrophils are recruited early in infection in several coronavirus models including rat coronavirus. However, their role in viral clearance and/or immune-mediated tissue damage is not understood. Primary cultures of differentiated alveolar epithelial cells will be useful for identifying the interactions between coronaviruses and alveolar epithelial cells that influence the innate immune responses to infection in the lung. Understanding the molecular details of these interactions will be critical for the design of effective strategies to prevent and treat coronavirus infections in the lung. PMID:19638499

  9. Detection of rodent coronaviruses in tissues and cell cultures by using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Homberger, F R; Smith, A L; Barthold, S W

    1991-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the detection of rodent coronaviruses in biological material by using reverse transcriptase and two primers which flanked an M gene sequence of 375 bp. PCR detected all of 11 different strains of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) as well as rat sialodacryoadenitis virus but not bovine coronavirus or human coronavirus strains OC43 and 229E. The M gene sequences of bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 are homologous to that of MHV, but minor differences exist in the primer regions, preventing annealing of the primers. For detecting MHV-Y in tissue samples, PCR was faster than and at least as sensitive as either of the two bioassays (infant mouse bioassay and mouse antibody production test) currently used for MHV diagnostic purposes. Images PMID:1661745

  10. Monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F; Raybould, T J; Acres, S D

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with three different viral polypeptides were evaluated singly and in combination as the capture antibody(s) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus. Similar levels of sensitivity were found for all combinations tested. A sensitive, highly specific, and reproducible assay for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus was developed, using a mixture of two of these monoclonal antibodies reactive with antigenic components either external or internal to the virion. These monoclonal antibodies were bound indirectly to 96-well plates via rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin. After sample application and incubation, virus was detected by using rabbit anti-coronavirus peroxidase conjugate followed by enzyme substrate and chromagen. Fecal samples from a single herd of cows were screened for the presence of coronavirus by this assay. Five percent of clinically normal cows were found to be shedding coronavirus. Images PMID:6325490

  11. Neuregulin-3 (NRG3): A novel neural tissue-enriched protein that binds and activates ErbB4

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxiao; Sliwkowski, Mark X.; Mark, Melanie; Frantz, Gretchen; Akita, Robert; Sun, Yang; Hillan, Kenneth; Crowley, Craig; Brush, Jennifer; Godowski, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the identification of Neuregulin-3 (NRG3), a novel protein that is structurally related to the neuregulins (NRG1). The NRG1/neuregulins are a diverse family of proteins that arise by alternative splicing from a single gene. These proteins play an important role in controlling the growth and differentiation of glial, epithelial, and muscle cells. The biological effects of NRG1 are mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. However, genetic studies have suggested that the activity of ErbB4 may also be regulated in the central nervous system by a ligand distinct from NRG1. NRG3 is predicted to contain an extracellular domain with an epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif, a transmembrane domain, and a large cytoplasmic domain. We show that the EGF-like domain of NRG3 binds to the extracellular domain of ErbB4 in vitro. Moreover, NRG3 binds to ErbB4 expressed on cells and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of this receptor. The expression of NRG3 is highly restricted to the developing and adult nervous system. These data suggest that NRG3 is a novel, neural-enriched ligand for ErbB4. PMID:9275162

  12. Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 Is an Important Surface Attachment Factor That Facilitates Entry of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Che-Man; Chu, Hin; Wang, Yixin; Wong, Bosco Ho-Yin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Dong; Leung, Sze Pui; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yeung, Man-Lung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George Fu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spike proteins of coronaviruses are capable of binding to a wide range of cellular targets, which contributes to the broad species tropism of coronaviruses. Previous reports have demonstrated that Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) predominantly utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) for cell entry. However, additional cellular binding targets of the MERS-CoV spike protein that may augment MERS-CoV infection have not been further explored. In the current study, using the virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), we identified carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) as a novel cell surface binding target of MERS-CoV. CEACAM5 coimmunoprecipitated with the spike protein of MERS-CoV in both overexpressed and endogenous settings. Disrupting the interaction between CEACAM5 and MERS-CoV spike with anti-CEACAM5 antibody, recombinant CEACAM5 protein, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of CEACAM5 significantly inhibited the entry of MERS-CoV. Recombinant expression of CEACAM5 did not render nonpermissive baby hamster kidney (BHK21) cells susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Instead, CEACAM5 overexpression significantly enhanced the attachment of MERS-CoV to the BHK21 cells. More importantly, the entry of MERS-CoV was increased when CEACAM5 was overexpressed in permissive cells, which suggested that CEACAM5 could facilitate MERS-CoV entry in conjunction with DPP4 despite not being able to support MERS-CoV entry independently. Taken together, the results of our study identified CEACAM5 as a novel cell surface binding target of MERS-CoV that facilitates MERS-CoV infection by augmenting the attachment of the virus to the host cell surface. IMPORTANCE Infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with the highest mortality rate among all known human-pathogenic coronaviruses. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection. The

  13. Reselection of a genomic upstream open reading frame in mouse hepatitis coronavirus 5'-untranslated-region mutants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Su, Yu-Pin; Fan, Yi-Hsin; Brian, David A

    2014-01-01

    An AUG-initiated upstream open reading frame (uORF) encoding a potential polypeptide of 3 to 13 amino acids (aa) is found within the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of >75% of coronavirus genomes based on 38 reference strains. Potential CUG-initiated uORFs are also found in many strains. The AUG-initiated uORF is presumably translated following genomic 5'-end cap-dependent ribosomal scanning, but its function is unknown. Here, in a reverse-genetics study with mouse hepatitis coronavirus, the following were observed. (i) When the uORF AUG-initiating codon was replaced with a UAG stop codon along with a U112A mutation to maintain a uORF-harboring stem-loop 4 structure, an unimpaired virus with wild-type (WT) growth kinetics was recovered. However, reversion was found at all mutated sites within five virus passages. (ii) When the uORF was fused with genomic (main) ORF1 by converting three in-frame stop codons to nonstop codons, a uORF-ORF1 fusion protein was made, and virus replicated at WT levels. However, a frameshifting G insertion at virus passage 7 established a slightly 5'-extended original uORF. (iii) When uAUG-eliminating deletions of 20, 30, or 51 nucleotides (nt) were made within stem-loop 4, viable but debilitated virus was recovered. However, a C80U mutation in the first mutant and an A77G mutation in the second appeared by passage 10, which generated alternate uORFs that correlated with restored WT growth kinetics. In vitro, the uORF-disrupting nondeletion mutants showed enhanced translation of the downstream ORF1 compared with the WT. These results together suggest that the uORF represses ORF1 translation yet plays a beneficial but nonessential role in coronavirus replication in cell culture.

  14. Molecular and insecticidal characterization of Vip3A protein producing Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Radha; Malik, Abdul; Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath

    2016-02-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) represent the second generation of insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during the vegetative growth stage of growth. Bt-based biopesticides are recognized as viable alternatives to chemical insecticides; the latter cause environmental pollution and lead to the emergence of pest resistance. To perform a systematic study of vip genes encoding toxic proteins, a total of 30 soil samples were collected from diverse locations of Kashmir valley, India, and characterized by molecular and analytical methods. Eighty-six colonies showing Bacillus-like morphology were selected. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed the presence of different crystal shapes, and PCR analysis of insecticidal genes revealed a predominance of the lepidopteran-specific vip3 (43.18%) gene followed by coleopteran-specific vip1 (22.72%) and vip2 (15.90%) genes in the isolates tested. Multi-alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that vip3 sequences were highly conserved, whereas vip1 and vip2 showed adequate differences in amino acid sequences compared with already reported sequences. Screening for toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae was performed using partially purified soluble fractions containing Vip3A protein. The mortality levels observed ranged between 70% and 96.6% in the isolates. The LC50 values of 2 of the native isolates, JK37 and JK88, against H. armigera were found to be on par with that of Bt subsp. kurstaki HD1, suggesting that these isolates could be developed as effective biopesticides against H. armigera.

  15. Susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3A or 3AB proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Rosas, Maria F.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Postigo, Raul; Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-10-10

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3A protein is involved in virulence and host range. A distinguishing feature of FMDV 3B among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral RNA and required for optimal replication in cell culture. Here, we have studied the involvement of the 3AB region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. BHK-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of FMDV 3A or 3A(B) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. Transformed cells stably expressing these proteins did not exhibit inner cellular rearrangements detectable by electron microscope analysis. Upon FMDV infection, clones expressing either 3A alone or 3A(B) proteins showed a significant increase in the percentage of infected cells, the number of plaque forming units and the virus yield. The 3A-enhancing effect was specific for FMDV as no increase in viral multiplication was observed in transformed clones infected with another picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. A potential role of 3A protein in viral RNA translation was discarded by the lack of effect on FMDV IRES-dependent translation. Increased viral susceptibility was not caused by a released factor; neither the supernatant of transformed clones nor the addition of purified 3A protein to the infection medium was responsible for this effect. Unlike stable expression, high levels of 3A or 3A(B) protein transient expression led to unspecific inhibition of viral infection. Therefore, the effect observed on viral yield, which inversely correlated with the intracellular levels of 3A protein, suggests a transacting role operating on the FMDV multiplication cycle.

  16. Bat origins of MERS-CoV supported by bat coronavirus HKU4 usage of human receptor CD26.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihui; Qi, Jianxun; Yuan, Yuan; Xuan, Yifang; Han, Pengcheng; Wan, Yuhua; Ji, Wei; Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Wang, Jianwei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George F

    2014-09-10

    The recently reported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is phylogenetically closely related to the bat coronaviruses (BatCoVs) HKU4 and HKU5. However, the evolutionary pathway of MERS-CoV is still unclear. A receptor binding domain (RBD) in the MERS-CoV envelope-embedded spike protein specifically engages human CD26 (hCD26) to initiate viral entry. The high sequence identity in the viral spike protein prompted us to investigate if HKU4 and HKU5 can recognize hCD26 for cell entry. We found that HKU4-RBD, but not HKU5-RBD, binds to hCD26, and pseudotyped viruses embedding HKU4 spike can infect cells via hCD26 recognition. The structure of the HKU4-RBD/hCD26 complex revealed a hCD26-binding mode similar overall to that observed for MERS-RBD. HKU4-RBD, however, is less adapted to hCD26 than MERS-RBD, explaining its lower affinity for receptor binding. Our findings support a bat origin for MERS-CoV and indicate the need for surveillance of HKU4-related viruses in bats.

  17. VHL negatively regulates SARS coronavirus replication by modulating nsp16 ubiquitination and stability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Chen, Shuliang; Hou, Panpan; Wang, Min; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2015-04-03

    Eukaryotic cellular and most viral RNAs carry a 5'-terminal cap structure, a 5'-5' triphosphate linkage between the 5' end of the RNA and a guanosine nucleotide (cap-0). SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein nsp16 functions as a methyltransferase, to methylate mRNA cap-0 structure at the ribose 2'-O position of the first nucleotide to form cap-1 structures. However, whether there is interplay between nsp16 and host proteins was not yet clear. In this report, we identified several potential cellular nsp16-interacting proteins from a human thymus cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid screening. VHL, one of these proteins, was proven to interact with nsp16 both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies showed that VHL can inhibit SARS-CoV replication by regulating nsp16 ubiquitination and promoting its degradation. Our results have revealed the role of cellular VHL in the regulation of SARS-CoV replication.

  18. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) Blocks Wnt3a Protein-induced Autophagy in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Belinsky, Glenn; Sagheer, Usman; Zhang, Xuchen; Grippo, Paul J; Chung, Chuhan

    2016-10-14

    An increase in autophagy characterizes pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the signals that regulate this process are incompletely understood. Because canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the transition from early to advanced pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, we assessed whether Wnt ligands and endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling modulate autophagy. In this study, canonical Wnt3a ligand induced autophagy markers and vacuoles in murine PanIN cells. Furthermore, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein known for its anti-tumor properties, blocked Wnt3a-directed induction of autophagy proteins. Autophagy inhibition was complemented by reciprocal regulation of the oxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase. Transcriptional control of Sod2 expression was mediated by PEDF-induced NFκB nuclear translocation. PEDF-dependent SOD2 expression in PanIN lesions was recapitulated in a murine model of PanIN formation where PEDF was deleted. In human PanIN lesions, co-expression of PEDF and SOD2 was observed in the majority of early PanIN lesions (47/50, 94%), whereas PEDF and SOD2 immunolocalization in high-grade human PanIN-2/3 was uncommon (7/50, 14%). These results indicate that PEDF regulates autophagy through coordinate Wnt signaling blockade and NFκB activation.

  19. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-10-25

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  20. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  1. Recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (AvCoV) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance".

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F

    2016-10-01

    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear, which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains.

  2. Recommendations for a Standardized Avian Coronavirus (AvCoV) Nomenclature: Outcome from Discussions Within the Framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "Towards Control of Avian Coronaviruses: Strategies for Vaccination, Diagnosis and Surveillance".

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein, the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes, or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance, and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains.

  3. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  4. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Hull; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces with human populations in these two countries. They were tested for the presence of coronavirus by consensus reverse transcription-PCR assay. A total of 93 samples (4.7%) from 17 genera of bats tested positive. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of potentially 37 and 56 coronavirus belonging to alpha-coronavirus (αCoV) and beta-CoV (βCoV), respectively. The βCoVs group is known to include some coronaviruses highly pathogenic to human, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. All coronavirus sequences generated from frugivorous bats (family Pteropodidae) (n=55) clustered with other bat βCoVs of lineage D, whereas one coronavirus from Pipistrellus coromandra fell in the lineage C of βCoVs which also includes the MERS-CoV. αCoVs were all detected in various genera of insectivorous bats and clustered with diverse bat αCoV sequences previously published. A closely related strain of PEDV, responsible for severe diarrhea in pigs (PEDV-CoV), was detected in 2 Myotis bats. We highlighted the presence and the high diversity of coronaviruses circulating in bats from Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three new bat genera and species were newly identified as host of coronaviruses, namely Macroglossus sp., Megaerops niphanae and Myotis horsfieldii.

  5. Electron transfer properties and catalytic competence of cytochrome b5 in the fusion protein Hmwb5-EGFP in reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Yantsevich, A V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper we describe studies on molecular mechanisms of protein-protein interactions between cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and cytochrome b(5), the latter being incorporated into the artificial recombinant protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP containing full-length cytochrome b(5) (functional module) and a mutant form of the green fluorescent protein EGFP (signal module) fused into a single polypeptide chain. It is shown that cytochrome b(5) within the fusion protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP can be reduced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in the presence of NADPH, the rate of reduction being dependent on solution ionic strength, indicating that the signal module does not prevent the interaction of the flavo- and hemeproteins. Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and Hmwb(5)-EGFP was estimated based on spin equilibrium shift of cytochrome P450 3A4 to high-spin state in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP, as well as based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of the EGFP component of the fusion protein in the presence of CYP3A4. The engineering of chimeric protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP gives an independent method to determine dissociation constant for the complex of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b(5) that is less sensitive to environmental factors compared to spectrophotometric titration used before. Reconstitution of catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 in the reaction of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP indicates that cytochrome b(5) in the fusion protein is able to stimulate the hydroxylation reaction. Using other fusion proteins containing either cytochrome b(5) or its hydrophilic domain to reconstitute catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 showed that the hydrophobic domain of cytochrome b(5) participates not only in hemeprotein interaction, but also in electron transfer from cytochrome b(5) to cytochrome P450.

  6. Feline infectious peritonitis: insights into feline coronavirus pathobiogenesis and epidemiology based on genetic analysis of the viral 3c gene.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Wen; de Groot, Raoul J; Egberink, Herman F; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-02-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant of apathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). We analysed the 3c gene--a proposed virulence marker--in 27 FECV- and 28 FIPV-infected cats. Our findings suggest that functional 3c protein expression is crucial for FECV replication in the gut, but dispensable for systemic FIPV replication. Whilst intact in all FECVs, the 3c gene was mutated in the majority (71.4 %) of FIPVs, but not in all, implying that mutation in 3c is not the (single) cause of FIP. Most cats with FIP had no detectable intestinal feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and had seemingly cleared the primary FECV infection. In those with detectable intestinal FCoV, the virus always had an intact 3c and seemed to have been acquired by FECV superinfection. Apparently, 3c-inactivated viruses replicate not at all--or only poorly--in the gut, explaining the rare incidence of FIP outbreaks.

  7. The N-terminal octapeptide acts as a dimerization inhibitor of SARS coronavirus 3C-like proteinase.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Fan, Keqiang; Chen, Hao; Ma, Liang; Huang, Changkang; Tan, Lei; Xi, Dong; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Ying; Cao, Aoneng; Lai, Luhua

    2006-01-20

    The 3C-like proteinase of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has been proposed to be a key target for structural-based drug design against SARS. Accurate determination of the dimer dissociation constant and the role of the N-finger (residues 1-7) will provide more insights into the enzyme catalytic mechanism of SARS 3CL proteinase. The dimer dissociation constant of the wild-type protein was determined to be 14.0microM by analytical ultracentrifugation method. The N-finger fragment of the enzyme plays an important role in enzyme dimerization as shown in the crystal structure. Key residues in the N-finger have been studied by site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme assay, and analytical ultracentrifugation. A single mutation of M6A was found to be critical to maintain the dimer structure of the enzyme. The N-terminal octapeptide N8 and its mutants were also synthesized and tested for their potency as dimerization inhibitors. Peptide cleavage assay confirms that peptide N8 is a dimerization inhibitor with a K(i) of 2.20mM. The comparison of the inhibitory activities of N8 and its mutants indicates that the hydrophobic interaction of Met-6 and the electrostatic interaction of Arg-4 contribute most for inhibitor binding. This study describes the first example of inhibitors targeting the dimeric interface of SARS 3CL proteinase, providing a novel strategy for drug design against SARS and other coronaviruses.

  8. Identification and evaluation of potent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) 3CL(Pro) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vathan; Shin, Jin Soo; Shie, Jiun-Jie; Ku, Keun Bon; Kim, Chonsaeng; Go, Yun Young; Huang, Kai-Fa; Kim, Meehyein; Liang, Po-Huang

    2017-02-17

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory illness with fever, cough and shortness of breath. Up to date, it has resulted in 1826 human infections, including 649 deaths. Analogous to picornavirus 3C protease (3C(pro)), 3C-like protease (3CL(pro)) is critical for initiation of the MERS-CoV replication cycle and is thus regarded as a validated drug target. As presented here, our peptidomimetic inhibitors of enterovirus 3C(pro) (6b, 6c and 6d) inhibited 3CL(pro) of MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) with IC50 values ranging from 1.7 to 4.7 μM and from 0.2 to 0.7 μM, respectively. In MERS-CoV-infected cells, the inhibitors showed antiviral activity with EC50 values ranging from 0.6 to 1.4 μM, by downregulating the viral protein production in cells as well as reducing secretion of infectious viral particles into culture supernatants. They also suppressed other α- and β-CoVs from human and feline origin. These compounds exhibited good selectivity index (over 70 against MERS-CoV) and could lead to the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs against emerging CoVs and picornaviruses.

  9. Recent Transmission of a Novel Alphacoronavirus, Bat Coronavirus HKU10, from Leschenault's Rousettes to Pomona Leaf-Nosed Bats: First Evidence of Interspecies Transmission of Coronavirus between Bats of Different Suborders

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Shek, Chung-Tong; Wang, Ming; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Wang, Sylvia Y. H.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Although coronaviruses are known to infect various animals by adapting to new hosts, interspecies transmission events are still poorly understood. During a surveillance study from 2005 to 2010, a novel alphacoronavirus, BatCoV HKU10, was detected in two very different bat species, Ro-BatCoV HKU10 in Leschenault's rousettes (Rousettus leschenaulti) (fruit bats in the suborder Megachiroptera) in Guangdong and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 in Pomona leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros pomona) (insectivorous bats in the suborder Microchiroptera) in Hong Kong. Although infected bats appeared to be healthy, Pomona leaf-nosed bats carrying Hi-BatCoV HKU10 had lower body weights than uninfected bats. To investigate possible interspecies transmission between the two bat species, the complete genomes of two Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and six Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains were sequenced. Genome and phylogenetic analyses showed that Ro-BatCoV HKU10 and Hi-BatCoV HKU10 represented a novel alphacoronavirus species, sharing highly similar genomes except in the genes encoding spike proteins, which had only 60.5% amino acid identities. Evolution of the spike protein was also rapid in Hi-BatCoV HKU10 strains from 2005 to 2006 but stabilized thereafter. Molecular-clock analysis dated the most recent common ancestor of all BatCoV HKU10 strains to 1959 (highest posterior density regions at 95% [HPDs], 1886 to 2002) and that of Hi-BatCoV HKU10 to 1986 (HPDs, 1956 to 2004). The data suggested recent interspecies transmission from Leschenault's rousettes to Pomona leaf-nosed bats in southern China. Notably, the rapid adaptive genetic change in BatCoV HKU10 spike protein by ∼40% amino acid divergence after recent interspecies transmission was even greater than the ∼20% amino acid divergence between spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus (SARSr-CoV) in bats and civets. This study provided the first evidence for interspecies transmission of coronavirus between bats of

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of a Native, Oligomeric Form of Recombinant Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Chul; Seo, Mi-Young; Stadler, Konrad; Yoo, Byoung J.; Choo, Qui-Lim; Coates, Stephen R.; Uematsu, Yasushi; Harada, Takashi; Greer, Catherine E.; Polo, John M.; Pileri, Piero; Eickmann, Markus; Rappuoli, Rino; Abrignani, Sergio; Houghton, Michael; Han, Jang H.

    2004-01-01

    We have expressed and characterized the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike protein in cDNA-transfected mammalian cells. The full-length spike protein (S) was newly synthesized as an endoglycosidase H (endo H)-sensitive glycoprotein (gp170) that is further modified into an endo H-resistant glycoprotein (gp180) in the Golgi apparatus. No substantial proteolytic cleavage of S was observed, suggesting that S is not processed into head (S1) and stalk (S2) domains as observed for certain other coronaviruses. While the expressed full-length S glycoprotein was exclusively cell associated, a truncation of S by excluding the C-terminal transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains resulted in the expression of an endoplasmic reticulum-localized glycoprotein (gp160) as well as a Golgi-specific form (gp170) which was ultimately secreted into the cell culture medium. Chemical cross-linking, thermal denaturation, and size fractionation analyses suggested that the full-length S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV forms a higher order structure of ∼500 kDa, which is consistent with it being an S homotrimer. The latter was also observed in purified virions. The intracellular form of the C-terminally truncated S protein (but not the secreted form) also forms trimers, but with much less efficiency than full-length S. Deglycosylation of the full-length homotrimer with peptide N-glycosidase-F under native conditions abolished recognition of the protein by virus-neutralizing antisera raised against purified virions, suggesting the importance of the carbohydrate in the correct folding of the S protein. These data should aid in the design of recombinant vaccine antigens to prevent the spread of this emerging pathogen. PMID:15367599

  11. Susceptibility of northern corn rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of the northern corn rootworm (NCR), to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined using a diet bioassay. Northern corn rootworm neonates were exposed to different concentrations of mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab, incorporated into artificial diet. Lar...

  12. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  13. Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Liesbeth; Van der Lubben, Mariken; te Lintelo, Eddie G; Bekker, Cornelis P J; Geerts, Tamara; Schuijff, Leontine S; Grinwis, Guy C M; Egberink, Herman F; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric infections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic cats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and II, of which the serotype I viruses are by far the most prevalent in the field. Yet, most of our knowledge about FCoV infections relates to serotype II viruses, particularly about the FIPV, mainly because type I viruses grow poorly in cell culture. Hence, the aim of the present work was the detailed study of the epidemiologically most relevant viruses, the avirulent serotype I viruses. Kittens were inoculated oronasally with different doses of two independent FECV field strains, UCD and RM. Persistent infection could be reproducibly established. The patterns of clinical symptoms, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion were monitored for up to 10 weeks revealing subtle but reproducible differences between the two viruses. Faecal virus, i.e. genomic RNA, was detected during persistent FECV infection only in the large intestine, downstream of the appendix, and could occasionally be observed also in the blood. The implications of our results, particularly our insights into the persistently infected state, are discussed.

  14. Ube3a, the E3 ubiquitin ligase causing Angelman syndrome and linked to autism, regulates protein homeostasis through the proteasomal shuttle Rpn10.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Ramirez, Juanma; Franco, Maribel; Lectez, Benoît; Gonzalez, Monika; Barrio, Rosa; Mayor, Ugo

    2014-07-01

    Ubiquitination, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to a target protein, regulates most cellular processes and is involved in several neurological disorders. In particular, Angelman syndrome and one of the most common genomic forms of autism, dup15q, are caused respectively by lack of or excess of UBE3A, a ubiquitin E3 ligase. Its Drosophila orthologue, Ube3a, is also active during brain development. We have now devised a protocol to screen for substrates of this particular ubiquitin ligase. In a neuronal cell system, we find direct ubiquitination by Ube3a of three proteasome-related proteins Rpn10, Uch-L5, and CG8209, as well as of the ribosomal protein Rps10b. Only one of these, Rpn10, is targeted for degradation upon ubiquitination by Ube3a, indicating that degradation might not be the only effect of Ube3a on its substrates. Furthermore, we report the genetic interaction in vivo between Ube3a and the C-terminal part of Rpn10. Overexpression of these proteins leads to an enhanced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, further supporting the biochemical evidence of interaction obtained in neuronal cells.

  15. Prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus antigens in the feces of normal cows.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F; Acres, S D

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus shedding by adult cows was investigated using capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fecal samples from 121 cows in a single herd were tested for the presence of rotavirus and coronavirus, either free or complexed with immunoglobulin. Free rotavirus was not detected in any samples while rotavirus-immunoglobulin complexes were detected in 53 of 121 (44%) samples tested. In contrast, free coronavirus was detected in six (5%) samples and coronavirus-immunoglobulin complexes were detected in 85 (70%) of the samples tested. Thus it appears that subclinical infection of cows by either of these viruses is common, possibly providing a source for infection of the neonate. These assays may therefore provide important information regarding the epidemiology of enteric virus infections and suggest means of improving management to prevent epidemics of neonatal diarrhea. PMID:6089985

  16. Proteolytic processing of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spikes expands virus tropism.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Eun; Li, Kun; Barlan, Arlene; Fehr, Anthony R; Perlman, Stanley; McCray, Paul B; Gallagher, Tom

    2016-10-25

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans from zoonotic sources and causes severe pulmonary disease. Virions require spike (S) glycoproteins for binding to cell receptors and for catalyzing virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion occurs only after S proteins are cleaved sequentially, first during their secretion through the exocytic organelles of virus-producing cells, and second after virus binding to target-cell receptors. To more precisely determine how sequential proteolysis contributes to CoV infection, we introduced S mutations obstructing the first cleavages. These mutations severely compromised MERS-CoV infection into human lung-derived cells, but had little effect on infection into several other cell types. These cell type-specific requirements for proteolysis correlated with S conformations during cell entry. Without the first cleavages, S proteins resisted cell receptor-induced conformational changes, which restricted the second, fusion-activating cleavages. Consistent with these findings, precleaved MERS viruses used receptor-proximal, cell-surface proteases to effect the second fusion-activating cleavages during cell entry, whereas the more rigid uncleaved MERS viruses trafficked past these cell-surface proteases and into endosomes. Uncleaved viruses were less infectious to human airway epithelial and Calu3 cell cultures because they lacked sufficient endosomal fusion-activating proteases. Thus, by sensitizing viruses to receptor-induced conformational changes, the first S cleavages expand virus tropism to cell types that are relevant to lung infection, and therefore may be significant determinants of MERS-CoV virulence.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Nsp15 from SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricagno, Stéfano; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Brémond, Nicolas; Dalle, Karen; Tocque, Fabienne; Campanacci, Valérie; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Debarnot, Claire; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    Crystals of Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS have been grown at room temperature. Crystals have cubic symmetry and diffract to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å. The non-structural protein Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) has recently been characterized as a uridine-specific endoribonuclease. This enzyme plays an essential role in viral replication and transcription since a mutation in the related H229E human coronavirus nsp15 gene can abolish viral RNA synthesis. SARS full-length Nsp15 (346 amino acids) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag and has been purified to homogeneity. The protein was subsequently crystallized using PEG 8000 or 10 000 as precipitants. Small cubic crystals of the apoenzyme were obtained from 100 nl nanodrops. They belong to space group P4{sub 1}32 or P4{sub 3}32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 166.8 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å.

  18. Reconstitution of the receptor-binding motif of the SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Freund, Natalia T; Roitburd-Berman, Anna; Sui, Jianhua; Marasco, Wayne A; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2015-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) identified in 2003 has infected ∼8000 people worldwide, killing nearly 10% of them. The infection of target cells by the SARS CoV is mediated through the interaction of the viral Spike (S) protein (1255 amino acids) and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The SARS CoV receptor-binding domain (amino acids N318-T509 of S protein) harbors an extended excursion along its periphery that contacts ACE2 and is designated the receptor-binding motif (RBM, amino acids S432-T486). In addition, the RBM is a major antigenic determinant, able to elicit production of neutralizing antibodies. Hence, the role of the RBM is a bi-functional bioactive surface that can be demonstrated by antibodies such as the neutralizing human anti-SARS monoclonal antibody (mAb) 80R which targets the RBM and competes with the ACE2 receptor for binding. Here, we employ phage-display peptide-libraries to reconstitute a functional RBM. This is achieved by generating a vast collection of candidate RBM peptides that present a diversity of conformations. Screening such 'Conformer Libraries' with corresponding ligands has produced short RBM constructs (ca. 40 amino acids) that can bind both the ACE2 receptor and the neutralizing mAb 80R.

  19. A Mouse Model for Betacoronavirus Subgroup 2c Using a Bat Coronavirus Strain HKU5 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Yount, Boyd L.; Donaldson, Eric F.; Huynh, Jeremy; Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Graham, Rachel L.; Becker, Michelle M.; Tomar, Sakshi; Scobey, Trevor D.; Osswald, Heather L.; Whitmore, Alan; Gopal, Robin; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mesecar, Andrew; Zambon, Maria; Heise, Mark; Denison, Mark R.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cross-species transmission of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) can result in pandemic disease outbreaks. Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), identified in 2012, has caused 182 cases to date, with ~43% mortality, and no small animal model has been reported. MERS-CoV and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus (BtCoV) strain HKU5 of Betacoronavirus (β-CoV) subgroup 2c share >65% identity at the amino acid level in several regions, including nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which are significant drug and vaccine targets. BtCoV HKU5 has been described in silico but has not been shown to replicate in culture, thus hampering drug and vaccine studies against subgroup 2c β-CoVs. We report the synthetic reconstruction and testing of BtCoV HKU5 containing the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein ectodomain (BtCoV HKU5-SE). This virus replicates efficiently in cell culture and in young and aged mice, where the virus targets airway and alveolar epithelial cells. Unlike some subgroup 2b SARS-CoV vaccines that elicit a strong eosinophilia following challenge, we demonstrate that BtCoV HKU5 and MERS-CoV N-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle (VRP) vaccines do not cause extensive eosinophilia following BtCoV HKU5-SE challenge. Passage of BtCoV HKU5-SE in young mice resulted in enhanced virulence, causing 20% weight loss, diffuse alveolar damage, and hyaline membrane formation in aged mice. Passaged virus was characterized by mutations in the nsp13, nsp14, open reading frame 5 (ORF5) and M genes. Finally, we identified an inhibitor active against the nsp5 proteases of subgroup 2c β-CoVs. Synthetic-genome platforms capable of reconstituting emerging zoonotic viral pathogens or their phylogenetic relatives provide new strategies for identifying broad-based therapeutics, evaluating vaccine outcomes, and studying viral pathogenesis. PMID:24667706

  20. Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested. PMID:25275646

  1. Synergism and antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested.

  2. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high-risk patients with underlying conditions, particularly in immunocompromised children these pathogens may lead to severe lung infection and extrapulmonary disorders. In this paper, we provide the first report of the case of a 15-month-old child with severe combined immunodeficiency and coronavirus HKU1-related pneumonia with fatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  3. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens.

  4. A Bat-Derived Putative Cross-Family Recombinant Coronavirus with a Reovirus Gene

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Ji, Wei; Jia, Hao; Zhou, Yongming; Wen, Honghua; Zhao, Honglan; Liu, Huaxing; Li, Hong; Wang, Qihui; Wu, Ying; Wang, Liang; Liu, Di; Liu, Guang; Yu, Hongjie; Holmes, Edward C.; Lu, Lin; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Although the virus is similar to Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (Ro-BatCoV HKU9) in genome characteristics, it is sufficiently distinct to be classified as a new species according to the criteria defined by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). More striking was that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 contained a unique gene integrated into the 3’-end of the genome that has no homologs in any known coronavirus, but which sequence and phylogeny analyses indicated most likely originated from the p10 gene of a bat orthoreovirus. Subgenomic mRNA and cellular-level observations demonstrated that the p10 gene is functional and induces the formation of cell syncytia. Therefore, here we report a putative heterologous inter-family recombination event between a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and a double-stranded segmented RNA virus, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of viral evolution. PMID:27676249

  5. Identification of SARS-like coronaviruses in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros) in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Rihtaric, Danijela; Hostnik, Peter; Steyer, Andrej; Grom, Joze; Toplak, Ivan

    2010-04-01

    Bats have been identified as a natural reservoir for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, rabies and other lyssaviruses. Recently, a large number of viruses closely related to members of the genus Coronavirus have been associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and detected in bat species. In this study, samples were collected from 106 live bats of seven different bat species from 27 different locations in Slovenia. Coronaviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 14 out of 36 horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) fecal samples, with 38.8% virus prevalence. Sequence analysis of a 405-nucleotide region of the highly conserved RNA polymerase gene (pol) showed that all coronaviruses detected in this study are genetically closely related, with 99.5-100% nucleotide identity, and belong to group 2 of the coronaviruses. The most closely related virus sequence in GenBank was SARS bat isolate Rp3/2004 (DQ071615) within the SARS-like CoV cluster, sharing 85% nucleotide identity and 95.6% amino acid identity. The potential risk of a new group of bat coronaviruses as a reservoir for human infections is highly suspected, and further molecular epidemiologic studies of these bat coronaviruses are needed.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-5 binds to Epstein-Barr virus-induced Fte1/S3a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Kashuba, Elena . E-mail: Elena.Kashuba@mtc.ki.se; Yurchenko, Mariya; Szirak, Krisztina; Stahl, Joachim; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2005-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms resting human B cells into immortalized immunoblasts. EBV-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-5 (also called EBNA-LP) is one of the earliest viral proteins expressed in freshly infected B cells. We have recently shown that EBNA-5 binds p14ARF, a nucleolar protein that regulates the p53 pathway. Here, we report the identification of another protein with partially nucleolar localization, the v-fos transformation effector Fte-1 (Fte-1/S3a), as an EBNA-5 binding partner. In transfected cells, Fte-1/S3a and EBNA-5 proteins showed high levels of colocalization in extranucleolar inclusions. Fte-1/S3a has multiple biological functions. It enhances v-fos-mediated cellular transformation and is part of the small ribosomal subunit. It also interacts with the transcriptional factor CHOP and apoptosis regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Fte-1/S3a is regularly expressed at high levels in both tumors and cancer cell lines. Its high expression favors the maintenance of malignant phenotype and undifferentiated state, whereas its down-regulation is associated with cellular differentiation and growth arrest. Here, we show that EBV-induced B cell transformation leads to the up-regulation of Fte-1/S3a. We suggest that EBNA-5 through binding may influence the growth promoting, differentiation inhibiting, or apoptosis regulating functions of Fte-1/S3a.

  7. The mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A differs from that of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyong; Walters, Frederick S; Hart, Hope; Palekar, Narendra; Chen, Jeng-Shong

    2003-08-01

    The Vip3A protein, secreted by Bacillus spp. during the vegetative stage of growth, represents a new family of insecticidal proteins. In our investigation of the mode of action of Vip3A, the 88-kDa Vip3A full-length toxin (Vip3A-F) was proteolytically activated to an approximately 62-kDa core toxin either by trypsin (Vip3A-T) or lepidopteran gut juice extracts (Vip3A-G). Biotinylated Vip3A-G demonstrated competitive binding to lepidopteran midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Furthermore, in ligand blotting experiments with BBMV from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus), activated Cry1Ab bound to 120-kDa aminopeptidase N (APN)-like and 250-kDa cadherin-like molecules, whereas Vip3A-G bound to 80-kDa and 100-kDa molecules which are distinct from the known Cry1Ab receptors. In addition, separate blotting experiments with Vip3A-G did not show binding to isolated Cry1A receptors, such as M. sexta APN protein, or a cadherin Cry1Ab ecto-binding domain. In voltage clamping assays with dissected midgut from the susceptible insect, M. sexta, Vip3A-G clearly formed pores, whereas Vip3A-F was incapable of pore formation. In the same assay, Vip3A-G was incapable of forming pores with larvae of the nonsusceptible insect, monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus). In planar lipid bilayers, both Vip3A-G and Vip3A-T formed stable ion channels in the absence of any receptors, supporting pore formation as an inherent property of Vip3A. Both Cry1Ab and Vip3A channels were voltage independent and highly cation selective; however, they differed considerably in their principal conductance state and cation specificity. The mode of action of Vip3A supports its use as a novel insecticidal agent.

  8. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses. PMID:18258002

  9. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  10. Homology models of main proteinase from coronavirus associated with SARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung; Ho, Yih; Chen, Chin-Wen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two homology models of the main proteinase (M pro) from the novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) were constructed. These models reveal three distinct functional domains, in which an intervening loop connecting domains II and III as well as a catalytic cleft containing the substrate binding subsites S1 and S2 between domains I and II are observed. S2 exhibits structural variations more significantly than S1 during the 200 ps molecular dynamics simulations because it is located at the open mouth of the catalytic cleft and the amino acid residues lining up this subsite are least conserved. In addition, the higher structural variation of S2 makes it flexible enough to accommodate a bulky hydrophobic residue from the substrate.

  11. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, Randall L.; Evermann, Jim F.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; McNay, Mark E.; Boertje, Rodney D.; Gardner, Craig L.; Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.; Burch, John

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  12. Orchitis in a cat associated with coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardóttir, O G; Kolbjørnsen, O; Lutz, H

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe, pyogranulomatous and necrotizing orchitis in a cat, which later succumbed to systemic feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), is described. The 3.5-year-old cat, positive for feline immunodeficiency virus infection, presented with a left testicular enlargement. A few months after castration the animal was humanely destroyed due to declining health. Post-mortem examination revealed inflammatory lesions in abdominal organs and in the brain compatible with FIP. Infection was confirmed with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test and by immunohistochemical demonstration of coronavirus antigen in the affected tissues, including the left testicle. FIP is usually a systemic disease. However, lesions and presenting clinical signs in a single organ system such as the brain are not uncommon. The results of this case study indicate that orchitis, although rare, should be on the list of lesions of FIP.

  13. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: current knowledge and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Malik, M; Elkholy, A A; Khan, W; Hassounah, S; Abubakar, A; Minh, N Tran; Mala, P

    2016-10-02

    A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV. Improved surveillance, epidemiological research and development of new therapies and vaccines are important, and the momentum of recent gains in terms of better understanding of disease patterns should be maintained to enable the global community to answer the remaining questions about this disease.

  14. Influence of divergent exercise contraction mode and whey protein supplementation on atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO1/3A in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Rahbek, Stine K; Farup, Jean; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge from human exercise studies on regulators of muscle atrophy is lacking, but it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing skeletal muscle protein turnover and net protein gain. This study examined the regulation of muscle atrophy-related factors, including atrogin-1 and MuRF1, their upstream transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A and the atrogin-1 substrate eIF3-f, in response to unilateral isolated eccentric (ECC) vs. concentric (CONC) exercise and training. Exercise was performed with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation. Twenty-four subjects were divided into WPH and CHO groups and completed both single-bout exercise and 12 wk of training. Single-bout ECC exercise decreased atrogin-1 and FOXO3A mRNA compared with basal and CONC exercise, while MuRF1 mRNA was upregulated compared with basal. ECC exercise downregulated FOXO1 and phospho-FOXO1 protein compared with basal, and phospho-FOXO3A was downregulated compared with CONC. CONC single-bout exercise mediated a greater increase in MuRF1 mRNA and increased FOXO1 mRNA compared with basal and ECC. CONC exercise downregulated FOXO1, FOXO3A, and eIF3-f protein compared with basal. Following training, an increase in basal phospho-FOXO1 was observed. While WPH supplementation with ECC and CONC training further increased muscle hypertrophy, it did not have an additional effect on mRNA or protein levels of the targets measured. In conclusion, atrogin-1, MuRF1, FOXO1/3A, and eIF3-f mRNA, and protein levels, are differentially regulated by exercise contraction mode but not WPH supplementation combined with hypertrophy-inducing training. This highlights the complexity in understanding the differing roles these factors play in healthy muscle adaptation to exercise.

  15. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in tears

    PubMed Central

    Loon, S-C; Teoh, S C B; Oon, L L E; Se-Thoe, S-Y; Ling, A-E; Leo, Y-S; Leong, H-N

    2004-01-01

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new infectious disease that caused a global outbreak in 2003. Research has shown that it is caused by a novel coronavirus. A series of cases is reported where polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on tears had demonstrated the presence of the virus. Detection of ocular infection from tears using the PCR technique has been widely used by ophthalmologists to diagnose infections for other viruses. Methods: This is a case series report from cases classified as probable or suspect SARS cases. Tear samples were collected from 36 consecutive patients who were suspected of having SARS in Singapore over a period of 12 days (7–18 April 2003), and analysed by PCR using protocols developed by the WHO network of laboratories. Results: Three patients with probable SARS (one female and two male patients) had positive results from their tear samples. Tear samples were used to confirm SARS in the female patient, who was positive only from her tears. The positive specimens were found in cases sampled early in their course of infection. Conclusions: This is the first case series reported with the detection of the SARS coronavirus from tears, and has important implications for the practice of ophthalmology and medicine. The ability to detect and isolate the virus in the early phase of the disease may be an important diagnostic tool for future patients and tear sampling is both simple and easily repeatable. Many healthcare workers are in close proximity to the eyes of patients and this may be a source of spread among healthcare workers and inoculating patients. Ophthalmic practices may need to change as more stringent barrier methods, appropriate quarantine, and isolation measures are vital when managing patients with SARS. PMID:15205225

  16. Link of a ubiquitous human coronavirus to dromedary camels

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Memish, Ziad A.; Liljander, Anne M.; Dijkman, Ronald; Jonsdottir, Hulda; Juma Ngeiywa, Kisi J. Z.; Kamau, Esther; Younan, Mario; Al Masri, Malakita; Assiri, Abdullah; Gluecks, Ilona; Musa, Bakri E.; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A.; Hilali, Mosaad; Bornstein, Set; Wernery, Ulrich; Thiel, Volker; Jores, Joerg; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The four human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally endemic respiratory pathogens. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV) is an emerging CoV with a known zoonotic source in dromedary camels. Little is known about the origins of endemic HCoVs. Studying these viruses’ evolutionary history could provide important insight into CoV emergence. In tests of MERS-CoV–infected dromedaries, we found viruses related to an HCoV, known as HCoV-229E, in 5.6% of 1,033 animals. Human- and dromedary-derived viruses are each monophyletic, suggesting ecological isolation. One gene of dromedary viruses exists in two versions in camels, full length and deleted, whereas only the deleted version exists in humans. The deletion increased in size over a succession starting from camelid viruses via old human viruses to contemporary human viruses. Live isolates of dromedary 229E viruses were obtained and studied to assess human infection risks. The viruses used the human entry receptor aminopeptidase N and replicated in human hepatoma cells, suggesting a principal ability to cause human infections. However, inefficient replication in several mucosa-derived cell lines and airway epithelial cultures suggested lack of adaptation to the human host. Dromedary viruses were as sensitive to the human type I interferon response as HCoV-229E. Antibodies in human sera neutralized dromedary-derived viruses, suggesting population immunity against dromedary viruses. Although no current epidemic risk seems to emanate from these viruses, evolutionary inference suggests that the endemic human virus HCoV-229E may constitute a descendant of camelid-associated viruses. HCoV-229E evolution provides a scenario for MERS-CoV emergence. PMID:27528677

  17. Myd88 Initiates Early Innate Immune Responses and Promotes CD4 T Cells during Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Butchi, Niranjan; Kapil, Parul; Puntambekar, Shweta; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Hinton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myd88 signaling is critical to the control of numerous central nervous system (CNS) infections by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, the extent to which Myd88 regulates type I interferon (IFN) versus proinflammatory factors and T cell function, as well as the anatomical site of action, varies extensively with the pathogen. CNS infection by neurotropic coronavirus with replication confined to the brain and spinal cord induces protective IFN-α/β via Myd88-independent activation of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). However, a contribution of Myd88-dependent signals to CNS pathogenesis has not been assessed. Infected Myd88−/− mice failed to control virus, exhibited enhanced clinical disease coincident with increased demyelination, and succumbed to infection within 3 weeks. The induction of IFN-α/β, as well as of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was impaired early during infection. However, defects in both IFN-α/β and select proinflammatory factors were rapidly overcome prior to T cell recruitment. Myd88 deficiency also specifically blunted myeloid and CD4 T cell recruitment into the CNS without affecting CD8 T cells. Moreover, CD4 T cells but not CD8 T cells were impaired in IFN-γ production. Ineffective virus control indeed correlated most prominently with reduced antiviral IFN-γ in the CNS of Myd88−/− mice. The results demonstrate a crucial role for Myd88 both in early induction of innate immune responses during coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis and in specifically promoting protective CD4 T cell activation. In the absence of these responses, functional CD8 T cells are insufficient to control viral spread within the CNS, resulting in severe demyelination. IMPORTANCE During central nervous system (CNS) infections, signaling through the adaptor protein Myd88 promotes both innate and adaptive immune responses. The extent to which Myd88 regulates antiviral type I IFN, proinflammatory

  18. Antibody-dependent infection of human macrophages by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health risks associated to infection by human coronaviruses remain considerable and vaccination is a key option for preventing the resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We have previously reported that antibodies elicited by a SARS-CoV vaccine candidate based on recombinant, full-length SARS-CoV Spike-protein trimers, trigger infection of immune cell lines. These observations prompted us to investigate the molecular mechanisms and responses to antibody-mediated infection in human macrophages. Methods We have used primary human immune cells to evaluate their susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV in the presence of anti-Spike antibodies. Fluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were utilized to assess occurrence and consequences of infection. To gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanism, we performed mutational analysis with a series of truncated and chimeric constructs of fragment crystallizable γ receptors (FcγR), which bind antibody-coated pathogens. Results We show here that anti-Spike immune serum increased infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by replication-competent SARS-CoV as well as Spike-pseudotyped lentiviral particles (SARS-CoVpp). Macrophages infected with SARS-CoV, however, did not support productive replication of the virus. Purified anti-viral IgGs, but not other soluble factor(s) from heat-inactivated mouse immune serum, were sufficient to enhance infection. Antibody-mediated infection was dependent on signaling-competent members of the human FcγRII family, which were shown to confer susceptibility to otherwise naïve ST486 cells, as binding of immune complexes to cell surface FcγRII was necessary but not sufficient to trigger antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Furthermore, only FcγRII with intact cytoplasmic signaling domains were competent to sustain ADE of SARS-CoVpp infection, thus

  19. Comparative molecular epidemiology of two closely related coronaviruses, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), reveals a different evolutionary pattern.

    PubMed

    Kin, Nathalie; Miszczak, Fabien; Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valérie; Moutou, François; Vabret, Astrid; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg

    2016-06-01

    Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle. The current study includes 13 samples from BCoVs collected in Normandy during an 11-year period (from 2003 to 2014), 16 French HCoV-OC43s, and 113 BCoVs or BCoVs-like sequence data derived from partial or complete genome sequences available on GenBank. According to a genotyping method developed previously for HCoV-OC43, BCoVs and BCoVs-like are distributed on three main sub-clusters named C1, C2, and C3. Sub-cluster C1 includes BCoVs and BCoVs-like from America and Asia. Sub-cluster C2 includes BCoVs from Europe. Sub-cluster C3 includes prototype, vaccine, or attenuated BCoV strains. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the monophyletic status of the BCoVs from France reported here for the first time. Moreover, BCoV exhibits a relative genetic stability when compared to HCoV-OC43 we previously described from the same region. The numerous recombination detected between HCoV-OC43 were much less frequent for BCoV. The analysis points thus to the influence of different evolutive constraints in these two close groups.

  20. Mutagenesis of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine-Binding Residues in Coronavirus nsp14 N7-Methyltransferase Demonstrates Differing Requirements for Genome Translation and Resistance to Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Case, James Brett; Ashbrook, Alison W.; Dermody, Terence S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryotic mRNAs possess a methylated 5′-guanosine cap that is required for RNA stability, efficient translation, and protection from cell-intrinsic defenses. Many viruses use 5′ caps or other mechanisms to mimic a cap structure to limit detection of viral RNAs by intracellular innate sensors and to direct efficient translation of viral proteins. The coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is a multifunctional protein with N7-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) activity. The highly conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-binding residues of the DxG motif are required for nsp14 N7-MTase activity in vitro. However, the requirement for CoV N7-MTase activity and the importance of the SAM-binding residues during viral replication have not been determined. Here, we engineered mutations in murine hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp14 N7-MTase at residues D330 and G332 and determined the effects of these mutations on viral replication, sensitivity to mutagen, inhibition by type I interferon (IFN), and translation efficiency. Virus encoding a G332A substitution in nsp14 displayed delayed replication kinetics and decreased peak titers relative to wild-type (WT) MHV. In addition, replication of nsp14 G332A virus was diminished following treatment of cells with IFN-β, and nsp14 G332A genomes were translated less efficiently both in vitro and during viral infection. In contrast, substitution of alanine at MHV nsp14 D330 did not affect viral replication, sensitivity to mutagen, or inhibition by IFN-β compared to WT MHV. Our results demonstrate that the conserved MHV N7-MTase SAM-binding-site residues are not required for MHV viability and suggest that the determinants of CoV N7-MTase activity differ in vitro and during virus infection. IMPORTANCE Human coronaviruses, most notably severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, cause severe and lethal human disease. Since specific antiviral therapies are not available for the

  1. False-Positive Results in a Recombinant Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Nucleocapsid-Based Western Blot Assay Were Rectified by the Use of Two Subunits (S1 and S2) of Spike for Detection of Antibody to SARS-CoV

    PubMed Central

    Maache, Mimoun; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Rajoharison, Alain; Perret, Magali; Berland, Jean-Luc; Pouzol, Stéphane; Bagnaud, Audrey; Duverger, Blandine; Xu, Jianguo; Osuna, Antonio; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), a Western blot assay was performed by using a panel of 78 serum samples obtained, respectively, from convalescent-phase patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (30 samples) and from healthy donors (48 samples). As antigen for detection of SARS-CoV, the nucleocapsid protein (N) showed high sensitivity and strong reactivity with all samples from SARS-CoV patients and cross-reacted with all serum samples from healthy subjects, with either those obtained from China (10 samples) or those obtained from France (38 serum samples), giving then a significant rate of false positives. Specifically, our data indicated that the two subunits, S1 (residues 14 to 760) and S2 (residues 761 to 1190), resulted from the divided spike reacted with all samples from SARS-CoV patients and without any cross-reactivity with any of the healthy serum samples. Consequently, these data revealed the nonspecific nature of N protein in serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV compared with the S1 and S2, where the specificity is of 100%. Moreover, the reported results indicated that the use of one single protein as a detection antigen of SARS-CoV infection may lead to false-positive diagnosis. These may be rectified by using more than one protein for the serodiagnosis of SARS-CoV. PMID:16522785

  2. Development and validation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antigen in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Song, Daesub; Ha, Gunwoo; Serhan, Wissam; Eltahir, Yassir; Yusof, Mohammed; Hashem, Farouq; Elsayed, Elsaeid; Marzoug, Bahaaeldin; Abdelazim, Assem; Al Muhairi, Salama

    2015-04-01

    We present here a rapid immunochromatographic assay for the detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) antigen in the nasal swabs of dromedary camels. The assay is based on the detection of MERS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in a short time frame using highly selective monoclonal antibodies at room temperature. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 93.90% and 100%, respectively, compared to that of the UpE and open reading frame 1A (Orf1A) real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The results suggest that the assay developed here is a useful tool for the rapid diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels.

  3. Cooperative translocation enhances the unwinding of duplex DNA by SARS coronavirus helicase nsP13.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na-Ra; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Park, Kkothanahreum; Oh, Sangtaek; Jeong, Yong-Joo; Kim, Dong-Eun

    2010-11-01

    SARS coronavirus encodes non-structural protein 13 (nsP13), a nucleic acid helicase/NTPase belonging to superfamily 1 helicase, which efficiently unwinds both partial-duplex RNA and DNA. In this study, unwinding of DNA substrates that had different duplex lengths and 5'-overhangs was examined under single-turnover reaction conditions in the presence of excess enzyme. The amount of DNA unwound decreased significantly as the length of the duplex increased, indicating a poor in vitro processivity. However, the quantity of duplex DNA unwound increased as the length of the single-stranded 5'-tail increased for the 50-bp duplex. This enhanced processivity was also observed for duplex DNA that had a longer single-stranded gap in between. These results demonstrate that nsP13 requires the presence of a long 5'-overhang to unwind longer DNA duplexes. In addition, enhanced DNA unwinding was observed for gapped DNA substrates that had a 5'-overhang, indicating that the translocated nsP13 molecules pile up and the preceding helicase facilitate DNA unwinding. Together with the propensity of oligomer formation of nsP13 molecules, we propose that the cooperative translocation by the functionally interacting oligomers of the helicase molecules loaded onto the 5'-overhang account for the observed enhanced processivity of DNA unwinding.

  4. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  5. Structural and Functional Analyses of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endoribonuclease Nsp15

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, Kanchan; Palaninathan, Satheesh; Alcantara, Joanna Maria Ortiz; Yi, Lillian Li; Guarino, Linda; Sacchettini, James C.; Kao, C. Cheng

    2008-03-31

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus encodes several RNA-processing enzymes that are unusual for RNA viruses, including Nsp15 (nonstructural protein 15), a hexameric endoribonuclease that preferentially cleaves 3' of uridines. We solved the structure of a catalytically inactive mutant version of Nsp15, which was crystallized as a hexamer. The structure contains unreported flexibility in the active site of each subunit. Substitutions in the active site residues serine 293 and proline 343 allowed Nsp15 to cleave at cytidylate, whereas mutation of leucine 345 rendered Nsp15 able to cleave at purines as well as pyrimidines. Mutations that targeted the residues involved in subunit interactions generally resulted in the formation of catalytically inactive monomers. The RNA-binding residues were mapped by a method linking reversible cross-linking, RNA affinity purification, and peptide fingerprinting. Alanine substitution of several residues in the RNA-contacting portion of Nsp15 did not affect hexamer formation but decreased the affinity of RNA binding and reduced endonuclease activity. This suggests a model for Nsp15 hexamer interaction with RNA.

  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  7. Antiviral effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weidong; Burwinkel, Michael; Wang, Zhenya; Palissa, Christiane; Esch, Bettina; Twardziok, Sven; Rieger, Juliane; Wrede, Paul; Schmidt, Michael F G

    2013-04-01

    The enteropathogenic coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes severe disease in young piglets. We have studied the protective effects of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium), which is approved as a feed additive in the European Union, against TGEV infection. E. faecium was added to swine testicle (ST) cells before, concomitantly with, or after TGEV infection. Viability assays revealed that E. faecium led to a dose-dependent rescue of viability of TGEV-infected cells reaching nearly to complete protection. Virus yields of the E. faecium-treated cultures were reduced by up to three log10 units. Western blot analysis of purified TGEV revealed that the levels of all viral structural proteins were reduced after E. faecium treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed attachment of TGEV particles to the surface of E. faecium which might be a means to trap virus and to prevent infection. Increased production of nitric oxide in the cells treated with E. faecium and elevated expression of interleukin 6 and 8 pointed to stimulated cellular defense as a mechanism to fight TGEV infection.

  8. SARS Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Inhibits Type I Interferon Production by Interfering with TRIM25-Mediated RIG-I Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong; Li, Wei; Gao, Ting; Cui, Yan; Jin, Yanwen; Li, Ping; Ma, Qingjun; Liu, Xuan; Cao, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that is characterized by atypical pneumonia. The nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of SARS-CoV plays an important role in inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production via an unknown mechanism. In this study, the SARS-CoV N protein was found to bind to the SPRY domain of the tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) E3 ubiquitin ligase, thereby interfering with the association between TRIM25 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and inhibiting TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination and activation. Type I IFN production induced by poly I:C or Sendai virus (SeV) was suppressed by the SARS-CoV N protein. SARS-CoV replication was increased by over-expression of the full-length N protein but not N (1-361), which could not interact with TRIM25. These findings provide an insightful interpretation of the SARS-CoV-mediated host innate immune suppression caused by the N protein.

  9. Feline coronavirus quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on effusion samples in cats with and without feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Louise; Porter, Emily; Crossley, Victoria J; Hayhow, Sophie E; Helps, Christopher R; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine whether feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in effusion samples can be used as a diagnostic marker of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP); and in FCoV RNA-positive samples to examine amino acid codons in the FCoV spike protein at positions 1058 and 1060 where leucine and alanine, respectively, have been associated with systemic or virulent (FIP) FCoV infection. Methods Total RNA was extracted from effusion samples from 20 cats with confirmed FIP and 23 cats with other diseases. Feline coronavirus RNA was detected using a reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR), and positive samples underwent pyrosequencing of position 1058 with or without Sanger sequencing of position 1060 in the FCoV spike protein. Results Seventeen (85%) of the effusion samples from 20 cats with FIP were positive for FCoV RNA, whereas none of the 23 cats with other diseases were positive. Pyrosequencing of the 17 FCoV-positive samples showed that 11 (65%) of the cats had leucine and two (12%) had methionine at position 1058. Of the latter two samples with methionine, one had alanine at position 1060. Conclusions and relevance A positive FCoV qRT-PCR result on effusions appears specific for FIP and may be a useful diagnostic marker for FIP in cats with effusions. The majority of FCoVs contained amino acid changes previously associated with systemic spread or virulence (FIP) of the virus.

  10. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Kalamida, Dimitra; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E.; Sivridis, Efthimios; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2015-01-01

    LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C) are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli), where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies. PMID:26378792

  11. FhCaBP3: a Fasciola hepatica calcium binding protein with EF-hand and dynein light chain domains.

    PubMed

    Banford, Samantha; Drysdale, Orla; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    A DNA sequence encoding a protein with predicted EF-hand and dynein light chain binding domains was identified in a Fasciola hepatica EST library. Sequence analysis of the encoded protein revealed that the most similar known protein was the Fasciola gigantica protein FgCaBP3 and so this newly identified protein was named FhCaBP3. Molecular modelling of FhCaBP3 predicted a highly flexible N-terminal region, followed by a domain containing two EF-hand motifs the second of which is likely to be a functioning divalent ion binding site. The C-terminal domain of the protein contains a dynein light chain like region. Interestingly, molecular modelling predicts that calcium ion binding to the N-terminal domain destabilises the β-sheet structure of the C-terminal domain. FhCaBP3 can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerises and the absence of calcium ions appeared to promote dimerisation. Native gel shift assays demonstrated that the protein bound to calcium and manganese ions, but not to magnesium, barium, zinc, strontium, nickel, copper or cadmium ions. FhCaBP3 interacted with the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and chlorpromazine as well as the myosin regulatory light chain-binding drug praziquantel. Despite sequence and structural similarities to other members of the same protein family from F. hepatica, FhCaBP3 has different biochemical properties to the other well characterised family members, FH22 and FhCaBP4. This suggests that each member of this trematode calcium-binding family has discrete functional roles within the organism.

  12. Differentiation between human coronaviruses NL63 and 229E using a novel double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Patricia; Dijkman, Ronald; Camuñas, Ana; Ruiz, Tamara; Jebbink, Maarten F; van der Hoek, Lia; Vela, Carmen; Rueda, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are responsible for respiratory tract infections ranging from common colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome. HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are two of the four HCoVs that circulate worldwide and are close phylogenetic relatives. HCoV infections can lead to hospitalization of children, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised patients. Globally, approximately 5% of all upper and lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children are caused by HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63. The latter virus has recently been associated with the childhood disease croup. Thus, differentiation between the two viruses is relevant for epidemiology studies. The aim of this study was to develop a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) as a potential tool for identification and differentiation between HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. The nucleocapsid (N) proteins of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were expressed in an Escherichia coli system and used to immunize mice in order to obtain monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for each virus. Three specific MAbs to HCoV-NL63, one MAb specific to HCoV-229E, and four MAbs that recognized both viruses were obtained. After their characterization, three MAbs were selected in order to develop a differential DAS-ELISA. The described assay could detect up to 3 ng/ml of N protein and 50 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml of virus stock. No cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses or closely related animal coronaviruses was found. The newly developed DAS-ELISA was species specific, and therefore, it could be considered a potential tool for detection and differentiation of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E infections.

  13. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein in VipCotTM cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas...

  14. Blunting Autoantigen-induced FOXO3a Protein Phosphorylation and Degradation Is a Novel Pathway of Glucocorticoids for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mudan; Xu, Wei; Gao, Bo; Xiong, Sidong

    2016-09-16

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs. Glucocorticoids (GCs), the potent anti-inflammatory drugs, remain as a cornerstone in the treatment for SLE; nevertheless, their clinical efficacy is compromised by the side effects of long term treatment and resistance. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of GCs in SLE, it is important to further decipher the molecular mechanisms of how GCs exert their anti-inflammatory effects. In this investigation, FOXO3a was identified as a molecule that was down-regulated in the course of SLE. Of interest, GC treatment was found to rescue FOXO3a expression both in SLE mice and in SLE patients. Gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that FOXO3a played a crucial role in GC treatment of SLE via inhibiting inflammatory responses. Further studies showed that the up-regulation of FOXO3a by GCs relied on the suppression of pI3K/AKT-mediated FOXO3a phosphorylation and the arrest of FOXO3a in the nucleus. Finally, our data revealed that FOXO3a was critical for GC-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity, which might involve its interaction with NF-κB p65 protein. Collectively, these data indicated that FOXO3a played an important role in GC treatment of SLE by suppressing pro-inflammatory response, and targeting FOXO3a might provide a novel therapeutic strategy against SLE.

  15. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein expressed in VipCot™ cotton.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G

    2011-10-01

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas laboratory susceptible H. zea (LabZA) and H. virescens (LabVR) colonies. After 7d of exposure, observations were made on number of dead larvae (M) and the number of larvae alive but remaining as first instars (L1). Regression estimates using M (LC(50)) and M plus L1 (MIC(50)) data were developed for laboratory and field populations. Susceptibility of laboratory and field populations exposed to Vip3A varied among different batches of protein used over the study period. Within the same batch of Vip3A protein, susceptibilities of laboratory colonies of both species (LabZA and LabVR) were similar. Field colonies were significantly more susceptible to Vip3A than the respective reference colonies of both species. Within field populations, susceptibility to Vip3A varied up to 75-fold in H. zea and 132-fold in H. virescens in LC(50) estimates. Variabilities in MIC(50)s were up to 59- and 11-fold for H. zea and H. virescens, respectively.

  16. Metastasis-associated protein 1 is an upstream regulator of DNMT3a and stimulator of insulin-growth factor binding protein-3 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deivendran, S; Marzook, Hezlin; Santhoshkumar, T R; Kumar, Rakesh; Pillai, M Radhakrishna

    2017-04-10

    Despite a recognized role of DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) in human cancer, the nature of its upstream regulator(s) and relationship with the master chromatin remodeling factor MTA1, continues to be poorly understood. Here, we found an inverse relationship between the levels of MTA1 and DNMT3a in human cancer and that high levels of MTA1 in combination of low DNMT3a status correlates well with poor survival of breast cancer patients. We discovered that MTA1 represses DNMT3a expression via HDAC1/YY1 transcription factor complex. Because IGFBP3 is an established target of DNMT3a, we investigated the effect of MTA1 upon IGFBP3 expression, and found a coactivator role of MTA1/c-Jun/Pol II coactivator complex upon the IGFBP3 transcription. In addition, MTA1 overexpression correlates well with low levels of DNMT3a which, in turn also correlates with a high IGFBP3 status in breast cancer patients and predicts a poor clinical outcome for breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that MTA1 could regulate the expression of IGFBP3 in both DNMT3a-dependent and -independent manner. Together findings presented here recognize an inherent role of MTA1 as a modifier of DNMT3a and IGFBP3 expression, and consequently, the role of MTA1-DNMT3a-IGFBP3 axis in breast cancer progression.

  17. Metastasis-associated protein 1 is an upstream regulator of DNMT3a and stimulator of insulin-growth factor binding protein-3 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Deivendran, S.; Marzook, Hezlin; Santhoshkumar, T. R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recognized role of DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) in human cancer, the nature of its upstream regulator(s) and relationship with the master chromatin remodeling factor MTA1, continues to be poorly understood. Here, we found an inverse relationship between the levels of MTA1 and DNMT3a in human cancer and that high levels of MTA1 in combination of low DNMT3a status correlates well with poor survival of breast cancer patients. We discovered that MTA1 represses DNMT3a expression via HDAC1/YY1 transcription factor complex. Because IGFBP3 is an established target of DNMT3a, we investigated the effect of MTA1 upon IGFBP3 expression, and found a coactivator role of MTA1/c-Jun/Pol II coactivator complex upon the IGFBP3 transcription. In addition, MTA1 overexpression correlates well with low levels of DNMT3a which, in turn also correlates with a high IGFBP3 status in breast cancer patients and predicts a poor clinical outcome for breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that MTA1 could regulate the expression of IGFBP3 in both DNMT3a-dependent and -independent manner. Together findings presented here recognize an inherent role of MTA1 as a modifier of DNMT3a and IGFBP3 expression, and consequently, the role of MTA1-DNMT3a-IGFBP3 axis in breast cancer progression. PMID:28393842

  18. Structural and Molecular Evidence Suggesting Coronavirus-driven Evolution of Mouse Receptor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guiqing; Yang, Yang; Pasquarella, Joseph R; Xu, Liqing; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V; Li, Fang

    2017-02-10

    Hosts and pathogens are locked in an evolutionary arms race. To infect mice, mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) has evolved to recognize mouse CEACAM1a (mCEACAM1a) as its receptor. To elude MHV infections, mice may have evolved a variant allele from the Ceacam1a gene, called Ceacam1b, producing mCEACAM1b, which is a much poorer MHV receptor than mCEACAM1a. Previous studies showed that sequence differences between mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b in a critical MHV-binding CC' loop partially account for the low receptor activity of mCEACAM1b, but detailed structural and molecular mechanisms for the differential MHV receptor activities of mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b remained elusive. Here we have determined the crystal structure of mCEACAM1b and identified the structural differences and additional residue differences between mCEACAM1a and mCEACAM1b that affect MHV binding and entry. These differences include conformational alterations of the CC' loop as well as residue variations in other MHV-binding regions, including β-strands C' and C'' and loop C'C''. Using pseudovirus entry and protein-protein binding assays, we show that substituting the structural and residue features from mCEACAM1b into mCEACAM1a reduced the viral receptor activity of mCEACAM1a, whereas substituting the reverse changes from mCEACAM1a into mCEACAM1b increased the viral receptor activity of mCEACAM1b. These results elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism for how mice may have kept pace in the evolutionary arms race with MHV by undergoing structural and residue changes in the MHV receptor, providing insight into this possible example of pathogen-driven evolution of a host receptor protein.

  19. High disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis is associated with increased serum sclerostin level and decreased wingless protein-3a signaling but is not linked with greater structural damage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) predicts the natural course of the disease and the response to treatment. Several molecules are involved in new bone formation resulting in structural damage in patients with AS. However, the link between the clinical and molecular phenomena has not yet been fully established. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between markers of bone remodeling and inflammation with clinical activity and structural damage in AS. Methods We assessed the serum levels of sclerostin, Dickkopf-1 protein, Wingless protein-3a, bone morphogenic protein-7, matrix metalloproteinase-3, osteoprotegerin, bone alkaline phosphatase and inflammatory markers in 50 AS patients with high disease activity (BASDAI ≥ 4), 28 with low disease activity (BASDAI <4), and 23 healthy controls. Cervical and lumbar spine x-rays were performed in 46 patients to measure structural damage (mSASSS). Results Sclerostin level was significantly greater in high disease activity patients than in controls. Wingless protein-3a and Dikkopf-1 protein levels were significantly lower in high activity group compared to low activity group and controls. Negative correlation was found between sclerostin and Dikkopf-1 protein in high activity group (R = −0.28, P = 0.048). The median mSASSS values were not different between patient groups. Conclusions Higher disease activity in AS may not be per se associated with greater new bone formation. PMID:23509994

  20. Polypeptides and functions of antigens from human coronaviruses 229E and OC43.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, O W; Kenny, G E

    1982-01-01

    Coronaviruses possess three major size classes of polypeptides as judged by molecular weight: approximately 180,000, approximately 50,000, and approximately 23,000. Human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 possess not only three similar size classes of polypeptides but also three distinct antigens, none of which cross-react with the heterologous strain. Polypeptides separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were reacted in rocket immunoelectrophoresis with antiserum monospecific to each of the three strain-specific antigens (excised precipitin lines from crossed immunoelectrophoresis profiles were used for immunogens). Monospecific antiserum with neutralizing ability reacted with a polypeptide of 186,000 daltons for 229E and a polypeptide of 190,000 daltons for OC43. The antigen which elicited neutralizing antibody response was located at the surface, associated with the corona of the virion, glycosylated, and bound by concanavalin A. Another less prominent surface antigen was represented by size classes of 23,000 daltons for 229E and 24,000 for OC43. The core antigens of the viruses had molecular weights of 49,000 and 229E and 52,000 and OC43 virus. Thus, the molecular weights and functions of the antigens of human coronaviruses are similar to those of animal coronaviruses. The polypeptides of coronaviruses 229E and OC43 are nearly identical as judged by molecular weight, but the similar polypeptides of the two viruses represent different immunological specificities. Images PMID:6173324

  1. The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    PubMed Central

    Milne-Price, Shauna; Miazgowicz, Kerri L.; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    On September 20, 2012, a Saudi Arabian physician reported the isolation of a novel coronavirus from a patient with pneumonia on ProMED-mail. Within a few days the same virus was detected in a Qatari patient receiving intensive care in a London hospital, a situation reminiscent of the role air travel played in the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. SARS-CoV originated in China’s Guangdong Province and affected more than 8000 patients in 26 countries before it was contained six months later. Over a year after the emergence of this novel coronavirus—Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—it has caused 178 laboratory confirmed cases and 76 deaths The emergence of a second highly pathogenic coronavirus within a decade highlights the importance of a coordinated global response incorporating reservoir surveillance, high-containment capacity with fundamental and applied research programs, and dependable communication pathways to ensure outbreak containment. Here we review the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, clinical features and intervention strategies of the novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV. PMID:24585737

  2. Stability of bovine coronavirus on lettuce surfaces under household refrigeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Lisa; Saif, Linda J; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xuming; Azevedo, Marli S P

    2012-05-01

    Fecal suspensions with an aerosol route of transmission were responsible for a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in 2003 in Hong Kong. Based on that event, the World Health Organization recommended that research be implemented to define modes of transmission of SARS coronavirus through sewage, feces, food and water. Environmental studies have shown that animal coronaviruses remain infectious in water and sewage for up to a year depending on the temperature and humidity. In this study, we examined coronavirus stability on lettuce surfaces. A cell culture adapted bovine coronavirus, diluted in growth media or in bovine fecal suspensions to simulate fecal contamination was used to spike romaine lettuce. qRT-PCR detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 6.6 × 10⁴ to 1.7 × 10⁶ throughout the experimental period of 30 days. Whereas infectious viruses were detected for at least 14 days, the amount of infectious virus varied, depending upon the diluent used for spiking the lettuce. UV and confocal microscopic observation indicated attachment of residual labeled virions to the lettuce surface after the elution procedure, suggesting that rates of inactivation or detection of the virus may be underestimated. Thus, it is possible that contaminated vegetables may be potential vehicles for coronavirus zoonotic transmission to humans.

  3. Early endonuclease-mediated evasion of RNA sensing ensures efficient coronavirus replication

    PubMed Central

    Kindler, Eveline; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Spanier, Julia; Li, Yize; Wilhelm, Jochen; Rabouw, Huib H.; Züst, Roland; Marti, Sabrina; Habjan, Matthias; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Elliot, Ruth; Karl, Nadja; Gaughan, Christina; Silverman, Robert H.; Keller, Markus; Ludewig, Burkhard; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Ziebuhr, John; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses are of veterinary and medical importance and include highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. They are known to efficiently evade early innate immune responses, manifesting in almost negligible expression of type-I interferons (IFN-I). This evasion strategy suggests an evolutionary conserved viral function that has evolved to prevent RNA-based sensing of infection in vertebrate hosts. Here we show that the coronavirus endonuclease (EndoU) activity is key to prevent early induction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) host cell responses. Replication of EndoU-deficient coronaviruses is greatly attenuated in vivo and severely restricted in primary cells even during the early phase of the infection. In macrophages we found immediate induction of IFN-I expression and RNase L-mediated breakdown of ribosomal RNA. Accordingly, EndoU-deficient viruses can retain replication only in cells that are deficient in IFN-I expression or sensing, and in cells lacking both RNase L and PKR. Collectively our results demonstrate that the coronavirus EndoU efficiently prevents simultaneous activation of host cell dsRNA sensors, such as Mda5, OAS and PKR. The localization of the EndoU activity at the site of viral RNA synthesis–within the replicase complex—suggests that coronaviruses have evolved a viral RNA decay pathway to evade early innate and intrinsic antiviral host cell responses. PMID:28158275

  4. Early endonuclease-mediated evasion of RNA sensing ensures efficient coronavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Eveline; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Spanier, Julia; Li, Yize; Wilhelm, Jochen; Rabouw, Huib H; Züst, Roland; Hwang, Mihyun; V'kovski, Philip; Stalder, Hanspeter; Marti, Sabrina; Habjan, Matthias; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Elliot, Ruth; Karl, Nadja; Gaughan, Christina; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Silverman, Robert H; Keller, Markus; Ludewig, Burkhard; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Ziebuhr, John; Weiss, Susan R; Kalinke, Ulrich; Thiel, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Coronaviruses are of veterinary and medical importance and include highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. They are known to efficiently evade early innate immune responses, manifesting in almost negligible expression of type-I interferons (IFN-I). This evasion strategy suggests an evolutionary conserved viral function that has evolved to prevent RNA-based sensing of infection in vertebrate hosts. Here we show that the coronavirus endonuclease (EndoU) activity is key to prevent early induction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) host cell responses. Replication of EndoU-deficient coronaviruses is greatly attenuated in vivo and severely restricted in primary cells even during the early phase of the infection. In macrophages we found immediate induction of IFN-I expression and RNase L-mediated breakdown of ribosomal RNA. Accordingly, EndoU-deficient viruses can retain replication only in cells that are deficient in IFN-I expression or sensing, and in cells lacking both RNase L and PKR. Collectively our results demonstrate that the coronavirus EndoU efficiently prevents simultaneous activation of host cell dsRNA sensors, such as Mda5, OAS and PKR. The localization of the EndoU activity at the site of viral RNA synthesis-within the replicase complex-suggests that coronaviruses have evolved a viral RNA decay pathway to evade early innate and intrinsic antiviral host cell responses.

  5. Selective and sensitive quantification of the cytochrome P450 3A4 protein in human liver homogenates through multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cieślak, Anna; Kelly, Isabelle; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Wunsch, Ewa; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Poirier, Guy; Droit, Arnaud; Barbier, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at establishing a sensitive multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) method for the quantification of the drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 enzyme in human liver homogenates. Liver samples were subjected to trypsin digestion. MRM-MS analyses were performed using three transitions optimized on one purified synthetic peptide unique to CYP3A4 and the standardizing protein, calnexin. Coefficient of variations for the precision and reproducibility of the MRM-MS measurement were also determined. The method was applied to liver samples from ten non-cholestatic donors and 34 cholestatic patients with primary biliary cholangitis (n = 12; PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 10; PSC) or alcoholic liver disease (n = 12; ALD). The established method presented high sensitivity with limit of detection lower than 5 fmol, and was successfully applied for the absolute and relative quantification of CYP3A4 in both whole liver homogenate and microsomal fractions. When all groups were analyzed together, a significant correlation was observed for the MRM-based CYP3A4 protein quantification in homogenates and microsomes (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). No statistically significant difference was detected between CYP3A4 levels in PSC, PBC, ALD and control samples. Finally, the MRM-MS quantification of CYP3A4 in homogenates also correlated (r = 0.44; p < 0.05) with the level of enzyme activity in the same samples, as determined by measuring the chenodeoxycholic to hyocholic acid conversion. The established method provides a sensitive tool to evaluate the CYP3A4 protein in human liver homogenates from patients with normal or chronic/severe hepatic injury.

  6. Design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of acyclic fleximer nucleoside analogues with anti-coronavirus activity.

    PubMed

    Peters, Hannah L; Jochmans, Dirk; de Wilde, Adriaan H; Posthuma, Clara C; Snijder, Eric J; Neyts, Johan; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    A series of doubly flexible nucleoside analogues were designed based on the acyclic sugar scaffold of acyclovir and the flex-base moiety found in the fleximers. The target compounds were evaluated for their antiviral potential and found to inhibit several coronaviruses. Significantly, compound 2 displayed selective antiviral activity (CC50 >3× EC50) towards human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63 and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus, but not severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus. In the case of HCoV-NL63 the activity was highly promising with an EC50 <10 μM and a CC50 >100 μM. As such, these doubly flexible nucleoside analogues are viewed as a novel new class of drug candidates with potential for potent inhibition of coronaviruses.

  7. Changes in mGlu5 receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity and coupling to homer proteins in the hippocampus of Ube3A hemizygous mice modeling angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Marco; Piccinin, Sonia; Molinaro, Gemma; Di Menna, Luisa; Riozzi, Barbara; Cannella, Milena; Motolese, Marta; Vetere, Gisella; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Nisticò, Robert; Bruno, Valeria

    2014-03-26

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is caused by the loss of Ube3A, an ubiquitin ligase that commits specific proteins to proteasomal degradation. How this defect causes autism and other pathological phenotypes associated with AS is unknown. Long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptors was enhanced in hippocampal slices of Ube3A(m-/p+) mice, which model AS. No changes were found in NMDA-dependent LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation. mGlu5 receptor-dependent LTD in AS mice was sensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and relied on the same signaling pathways as in wild-type mice, e.g., the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycine pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatase. Neither the stimulation of MAPK and PI3K nor the increase in Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein) levels in response to mGlu5 receptor activation were abnormal in hippocampal slices from AS mice compared with wild-type mice. mGlu5 receptor expression and mGlu1/5 receptor-mediated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis were also unchanged in the hippocampus of AS mice. In contrast, AS mice showed a reduced expression of the short Homer protein isoform Homer 1a, and an increased coupling of mGlu5 receptors to Homer 1b/c proteins in the hippocampus. These findings support the link between Homer proteins and monogenic autism, and lay the groundwork for the use of mGlu5 receptor antagonists in AS.

  8. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  9. Critical Assessment of the Important Residues Involved in the Dimerization and Catalysis of MERS Coronavirus Main Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bo-Lin; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Shi, Lin; Wang, Ting-Yun; Ho, Kuan-I; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background A highly pathogenic human coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in Jeddah and other places in Saudi Arabia, and has quickly spread to European and Asian countries since September 2012. Up to the 1st October 2015 it has infected at least 1593 people with a global fatality rate of about 35%. Studies to understand the virus are necessary and urgent. In the present study, MERS-CoV main protease (Mpro) is expressed; the dimerization of the protein and its relationship to catalysis are investigated. Methods and Results The crystal structure of MERS-CoV Mpro indicates that it shares a similar scaffold to that of other coronaviral Mpro and consists of chymotrypsin-like domains I and II and a helical domain III of five helices. Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV Mpro undergoes a monomer to dimer conversion in the presence of a peptide substrate. Glu169 is a key residue and plays a dual role in both dimerization and catalysis. The mutagenesis of other residues found on the dimerization interface indicate that dimerization of MERS-CoV Mpro is required for its catalytic activity. One mutation, M298R, resulted in a stable dimer with a higher level of proteolytic activity than the wild-type enzyme. Conclusions MERS-CoV Mpro shows substrate-induced dimerization and potent proteolytic activity. A critical assessment of the residues important to these processes provides insights into the correlation between dimerization and catalysis within the coronaviral Mpro family. PMID:26658006

  10. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  11. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  12. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways.

  13. Further Evidence for Bats as the Evolutionary Source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Gilardi, K.; Menachery, V. D.; Goldstein, T.; Ssebide, B.; Mbabazi, R.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Liang, E.; Wells, H.; Hicks, A.; Petrosov, A.; Byarugaba, D. K.; Debbink, K.; Dinnon, K. H.; Scobey, T.; Randell, S. H.; Yount, B. L.; Cranfield, M.; Johnson, C. K.; Baric, R. S.; Lipkin, W. I.; Mazet, J. A. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae. Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties. Indeed, several amino acid substitutions were identified in key binding residues that were predicted to block PREDICT/PDF-2180 from attaching to the MERS-CoV DPP4 receptor. To experimentally test this hypothesis, an infectious MERS-CoV clone expressing the PREDICT/PDF-2180 spike protein was generated. Recombinant viruses derived from the clone were replication competent but unable to spread and establish new infections in Vero cells or primary human airway epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is unlikely to pose a zoonotic threat. Recombination in the S1 subunit of the spike gene was identified as the primary mechanism driving variation in the spike phenotype and was likely one of the critical steps in the evolution and emergence of MERS-CoV in humans. PMID:28377531

  14. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Sfh3, a member of the Sec14 protein superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jihui; Schaaf, Gabriel; Bankaitis, Vytas A.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Pathak, Manish C.

    2012-03-26

    Sec14 is the major phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is the founding member of the Sec14 protein superfamily. Recent functional data suggest that Sec14 functions as a nanoreactor for PtdCho-regulated presentation of PtdIns to PtdIns kinase to affect membrane trafficking. Extrapolation of this concept to other members of the Sec14 superfamily suggests a mechanism by which a comprehensive cohort of Sec14-like nanoreactors sense correspondingly diverse pools of lipid metabolites. In turn, metabolic information is translated to signaling circuits driven by phosphoinositide metabolism. Sfh3, one of five Sec14 homologs in yeast, exhibits several interesting functional features, including its unique localization to lipid particles and microsomes. This localization forecasts novel regulatory interfaces between neutral lipid metabolism and phosphoinositide signaling. To launch a detailed structural and functional characterization of Sfh3, the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity, diffraction-quality crystals were produced and a native X-ray data set was collected to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. To aid in phasing, SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.93 {angstrom} resolution from an SeMet-labeled crystal at the Southeast Regional Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source. Here, the cloning and purification of Sfh3 and the preliminary diffraction of Sfh3 crystals are reported, enabling structural analyses that are expected to reveal novel principles governing ligand binding and functional specificity for Sec14-superfamily proteins.

  16. Interaction of SARS and MERS Coronaviruses with the Antiviral Interferon Response.

    PubMed

    Kindler, E; Thiel, V; Weber, F

    2016-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system. Here, we review the recent progress in our understanding of the strategies that highly pathogenic coronaviruses employ to escape, dampen, or block the antiviral interferon response in human cells.

  17. Human coronaviruses 229E and NL63: close yet still so far.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, Ronald; van der Hoek, Lia

    2009-04-01

    HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are two of the four human coronaviruses that circulate worldwide. These two viruses are unique in their relationship towards each other. Phylogenetically, the viruses are more closely related to each other than to any other human coronavirus, yet they only share 65% sequence identity. Moreover, the viruses use different receptors to enter their target cell. HCoV-NL63 is associated with croup in children, whereas all signs suggest that the virus probably causes the common cold in healthy adults. HCoV-229E is a proven common cold virus in healthy adults, so it is probable that both viruses induce comparable symptoms in adults, even though their mode of infection differs. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on both human coronaviruses, focusing on similarities and differences.

  18. Cell-based antiviral screening against coronaviruses: Developing virus-specific and broad-spectrum inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Baker, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    To combat the public health threat from emerging coronaviruses (CoV), the development of antiviral therapies with either virus-specific or pan-CoV activities is necessary. An important step in antiviral drug development is the screening of potential inhibitors in cell-based systems. The recent emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV necessitates adapting methods that have been used to identify antivirals against the severe, acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and developing new approaches to more efficiently screen antiviral drugs. In this article we review cell-based assays using infectious virus (BSL-3) and surrogate assays (BSL-2) that can be implemented to accelerate antiviral development against MERS-CoV and future emergent coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:24269477

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Drep-3, a DFF-related protein from Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyun Ho; Tookes, Hansel Emory; Wu, Hao

    2006-06-01

    The D. melanogaster Drep-3 protein has been crystallized. Crystals were obtained at 293 K that diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. During apoptosis, DNA fragmentation is mainly mediated by the caspase-activated DFF40 nuclease. DFF40 exists as a heterodimeric complex with its inhibitor DFF45. Upon apoptosis induction, DFF45 is cleaved by caspases to allow DFF40 activation. Drep-3 is a recently identified regulator of the DFF40 system in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, Drep-3 was expressed with a C-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified to homogeneity. Multi-angle light-scattering analysis showed that Drep-3 is a homotetramer in solution. Native and selenomethionine-substituted Drep-3 proteins were crystallized at 293 K and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.9, b = 125.4, c = 168.7 Å. The asymmetric unit is estimated to contain one homotetramer.

  20. RASAL3, a novel hematopoietic RasGAP protein, regulates the number and functions of NKT cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Suguru; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Yoshita-Takahashi, Manami; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Kanda, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hiroki; Jiang, Shuying; Naito, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Takumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins negatively regulate the Ras/Erk signaling pathway, thereby playing crucial roles in the proliferation, function, and development of various types of cells. In this study, we identified a novel Ras GTPase-activating proteins protein, RASAL3, which is predominantly expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages, including NKT, B, and T cells. We established systemic RASAL3-deficient mice, and the mice exhibited a severe decrease in NKT cells in the liver at 8 weeks of age. The treatment of RASAL3-deficient mice with α-GalCer, a specific agonist for NKT cells, induced liver damage, but the level was less severe than that in RASAL3-competent mice, and the attenuated liver damage was accompanied by a reduced production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from NKT cells. RASAL3-deficient NKT cells treated with α-GalCer in vitro presented augmented Erk phosphorylation, suggesting that there is dysregulated Ras signaling in the NKT cells of RASAL3-deficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that RASAL3 plays an important role in the expansion and functions of NKT cells in the liver by negatively regulating Ras/Erk signaling, and might be a therapeutic target for NKT-associated diseases.

  1. Mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Bank-Wolf, Barbara Regina; Stallkamp, Iris; Wiese, Svenja; Moritz, Andreas; Tekes, Gergely; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2014-10-10

    The genes encoding accessory proteins 3a, 3b, 3c, 7a and 7b, the S2 domain of the spike (S) protein gene and the membrane (M) protein gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) samples were amplified, cloned and sequenced. For this faeces and/or ascites samples from 19 cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) as well as from 20 FECV-infected healthy cats were used. Sequence comparisons revealed that 3c genes of animals with FIP were heavily affected by nucleotide deletions and point mutations compared to animals infected with FECV; these alterations resulted either in early termination or destruction of the translation initiation codon. Two ascites-derived samples of cats with FIP which displayed no alterations of ORF3c harboured mutations in the S2 domain of the S protein gene which resulted in amino acid exchanges or deletions. Moreover, changes in 3c were often accompanied by mutations in S2. In contrast, in samples obtained from faeces of healthy cats, the ORF3c was never affected by such mutations. Similarly ORF3c from faecal samples of the cats with FIP was mostly intact and showed only in a few cases the same mutations found in the respective ascites samples. The genes encoding 3a, 3b, 7a and 7b displayed no mutations linked to the feline coronavirus (FCoV) biotype. The M protein gene was found to be conserved between FECV and FIPV samples. Our findings suggest that mutations of 3c and spike protein genes correlate with the occurrence of FIP.

  2. Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; van den Brand, Judith M.A.; Widagdo, W.; Muñoz, Marta; Raj, Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Solanes, David; Cordón, Ivan; Bensaid, Albert; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species. Conversely, in sheep and horses, virus-specific antibodies did not develop and no evidence of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract was found. These results prove the susceptibility of llamas and pigs to MERS-CoV infection. Thus, the possibility of MERS-CoV circulation in animals other than dromedaries, such as llamas and pigs, is not negligible. PMID:27901465

  3. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Alhogbani, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.

  4. M gene analysis of canine coronavirus strains detected in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Seok-Young; Ann, So-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic features of canine coronavirus (CCV) strains detected in Korea. M gene sequences obtained for isolates from 22 dogs with enteritis over a 5-year period were evaluated. Sequence comparison revealed that the 22 Korean CCV strains had an 87.2 to 100% nucleotide homology. Comparing to the typical reference CCV strains (type II), the nucleotide sequence of Korean strains had homology ranged from 86.3% to 98.3% (89.1% to 99.2% for the amino acid sequence) and 87.7% to 97.8% (92.4% to 100% for the amino acid sequence) when compared to FCoV-like CCV strains (type I). Three amino acid variations in the M gene were characteristic for the Korean CCV strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 22 Korean CCV strains belonged to four typical CCV clusters (i.e., a unique Korean CCV cluster, a type II and transmissible gastroenteritis virus cluster, an intermediate cluster between type I and II, and a type I cluster). This study was the first to identify genetic differences of the M gene from Korean CCV strains and provided a platform for molecular identification of different Korean CCV strains. PMID:25234323

  5. Understanding the T cell immune response in SARS coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Janice Oh, Hsueh-Ling; Ken-En Gan, Samuel; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2012-09-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic started in late 2002 and swiftly spread across 5 continents with a mortality rate of around 10%. Although the epidemic was eventually controlled through the implementation of strict quarantine measures, there continues a need to investigate the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and develop interventions should it re-emerge. Numerous studies have shown that neutralizing antibodies against the virus can be found in patients infected with SARS-CoV within days upon the onset of illness and lasting up to several months. In contrast, there is little data on the kinetics of T cell responses during SARS-CoV infection and little is known about their role in the recovery process. However, recent studies in mice suggest the importance of T cells in viral clearance during SARS-CoV infection. Moreover, a growing number of studies have investigated the memory T cell responses in recovered SARS patients. This review covers the available literature on the emerging importance of T cell responses in SARS-CoV infection, particularly on the mapping of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, longevity, polyfunctionality and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association as well as their potential implications on treatment and vaccine development.

  6. Sites of feline coronavirus persistence in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Kipar, Anja; Meli, Marina L; Baptiste, Keith E; Bowker, Laurel J; Lutz, Hans

    2010-07-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is transmitted via the faecal-oral route and primarily infects enterocytes, but subsequently spreads by monocyte-associated viraemia. In some infected cats, virulent virus mutants induce feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal systemic disease that can develop in association with viraemia. Persistently infected, healthy carriers are believed to be important in the epidemiology of FIP, as they represent a constant source of FCoV, shed either persistently or intermittently in faeces. So far, the sites of virus persistence have not been determined definitely. The purpose of this study was to examine virus distribution and viral load in organs and gut compartments of specified-pathogen-free cats, orally infected with non-virulent type I FCoV, over different time periods and with or without detectable viraemia. The colon was identified as the major site of FCoV persistence and probable source for recurrent shedding, but the virus was shown also to persist in several other organs, mainly in tissue macrophages. These might represent additional sources for recurrent viraemia.

  7. Genomic characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus in European bats and classification of coronaviruses based on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Glende, Jörg; Corman, Victor Max; Muth, Doreen; Goettsche, Matthias; Seebens, Antje; Niedrig, Matthias; Pfefferle, Susanne; Yordanov, Stoian; Zhelyazkov, Lyubomir; Hermanns, Uwe; Vallo, Peter; Lukashev, Alexander; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Deng, Hongkui; Herrler, Georg; Drosten, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Bats may host emerging viruses, including coronaviruses (CoV). We conducted an evaluation of CoV in rhinolophid and vespertilionid bat species common in Europe. Rhinolophids carried severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related CoV at high frequencies and concentrations (26% of animals are positive; up to 2.4×10(8) copies per gram of feces), as well as two Alphacoronavirus clades, one novel and one related to the HKU2 clade. All three clades present in Miniopterus bats in China (HKU7, HKU8, and 1A related) were also present in European Miniopterus bats. An additional novel Alphacoronavirus clade (bat CoV [BtCoV]/BNM98-30) was detected in Nyctalus leisleri. A CoV grouping criterion was developed by comparing amino acid identities across an 816-bp fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of all accepted mammalian CoV species (RdRp-based grouping units [RGU]). Criteria for defining separate RGU in mammalian CoV were a >4.8% amino acid distance for alphacoronaviruses and a >6.3% distance for betacoronaviruses. All the above-mentioned novel clades represented independent RGU. Strict associations between CoV RGU and host bat genera were confirmed for six independent RGU represented simultaneously in China and Europe. A SARS-related virus (BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008) from a Rhinolophus blasii (Rhi bla) bat was fully sequenced. It is predicted that proteins 3b and 6 were highly divergent from those proteins in all known SARS-related CoV. Open reading frame 8 (ORF8) was surprisingly absent. Surface expression of spike and staining with sera of SARS survivors suggested low antigenic overlap with SARS CoV. However, the receptor binding domain of SARS CoV showed higher similarity with that of BtCoV/BM48-31/Bulgaria/2008 than with that of any Chinese bat-borne CoV. Critical spike domains 472 and 487 were identical and similar, respectively. This study underlines the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV.

  8. The mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication protein P1MCM3 maps to bands A3-A5 on chromosome 1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ikuya; Kimura, Hiroshi; Takagi, Nobuo

    1996-03-05

    This report describes the localization of the mouse Mcmd gene for DNA replication to mouse chromosome 1, bands A3-A5 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. This finding supports the recent mapping of the human MCM3 gene to human chromosome 6p12, which shows synteny with mouse chromosome 1. The mouse Mcmd gene encodes the protein P1MCM3 which is essential for DNA replication. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Public health investigations required for protecting the population against novel coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, A

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT There have been many laboratory-based investigations since the emergence of the novel coronaviruses in the autumn of 2012, but most of the parameters required for establishing scientifically the control measures that will protect against them have yet to be determined. Equally, the global distribution of the viruses in their animal reservoir has yet to be established. The experience of investigating and controlling another novel coronavirus, SARS, in 2003 shows how national and local investigations can come together as an international coalition and successfully avert epidemics. A menu of studies that need to be undertaken, especially in the countries experiencing transmission, is presented here.

  10. Isolation and identification of a canine coronavirus strain from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Xia, Xian-zhu; Gao, Yu-Wei; Bai, Ya-Duo; Zou, Xiao-Huan

    2009-09-01

    Two giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) died of unknown causes in a Chinese zoo. The clinical disease profile suggested that the pandas may have suffered a viral infection. Therefore, a series of detection including virus isolation, electron microscopy, cytobiological assay, serum neutralization and RT-PCR were used to identify the virus. It was determined that the isolated virus was a canine coronavirus (CCV), on the basis of coronavirus, neutralization by canine anti-CCV serum, and 84.3% to 100% amino acid sequence similarity with CCV. The results suggest that the affected pandas had been infected with CCV.

  11. Two Mutations Were Critical for Bat-to-Human Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Shi, Zhengli; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmitted from bats to humans, we compared the virus surface spikes of MERS-CoV and a related bat coronavirus, HKU4. Although HKU4 spike cannot mediate viral entry into human cells, two mutations enabled it to do so by allowing it to be activated by human proteases. These mutations are present in MERS-CoV spike, explaining why MERS-CoV infects human cells. These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV, either directly or through intermediate hosts. PMID:26063432

  12. Cellular localization and effects of ectopically expressed hepatitis A virus proteins 2B, 2C, 3A and their intermediates 2BC, 3AB and 3ABC.

    PubMed

    Seggewiß, Nicole; Kruse, Hedi Verena; Weilandt, Rebecca; Domsgen, Erna; Dotzauer, Andreas; Paulmann, Dajana

    2016-04-01

    In the course of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections, the seven nonstructural proteins and their intermediates are barely detectable. Therefore, little is known about their functions and mechanisms of action. Ectopic expression of the presumably membrane-associated proteins 2B, 2C, 3A and their intermediates 2BC, 3AB and 3ABC allowed the intracellular localization of these proteins and their possible function during the replication cycle of HAV to be investigated. In this study, we used rhesus monkey kidney cells, which are commonly used for cell culture experiments, and human liver cells, which are the natural target cells. We detected specific associations of these proteins with distinct membrane compartments and the cytoskeleton, different morphological alterations of the respective structures, and specific effects on cellular functions. Besides comparable findings in both cell lines used with regard to localization and effects of the proteins examined, we also found distinct differences. The data obtained identify so far undocumented interactions with and effects of the HAV proteins investigated on cellular components, which may reflect unknown aspects of the interaction of HAV with the host cell, for example the modification of the ERGIC (ER-Golgi intermediate compartment) structure, an interaction with lipid droplets and lysosomes, and inhibition of the classical secretory pathway.

  13. Screening, diversity and partial sequence comparison of vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3A) genes in the local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.

    PubMed

    Asokan, R; Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Characterization, direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon and phylogenetic relationship was done to discover a novel Vip protein genes of the Bt isolates, to improve the prospects for insect control, more Vip proteins should be sought out and researched to predict their insecticidal activity. Characterization was based on direct sequencing of PCR amplicon using primers specific to vip3A gene was presented here. 12 out of 18 isolates screened were positive for vip gene-specific primers. Homology search for the partial sequences using BLAST showed that 11 isolates had high similarity to vip3Aa gene and only one fragment with vip3Ae gene (25-100% at nucleotide and amino acid level). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences were responsible for geographic separation for divergence within vip genes, consistent with the evaluation of distinct bacterial population. Despite the geographical distances, strains harbouring vip genes have originated from common ancestors may significantly contribute to control resistant insect pests. Some strains have evolved to be quite distinct and others remain as members of closely related groups. The reported method is a powerful tool to find novel Vip3A proteins from large-scale Bt strains which is effective in terms of time and cost. Further the Vip proteins produced by different strains of B. thuringiensis are unique in terms of the sequence divergence and hence may also differ in their insecticidal activities.