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Sample records for coronavirus 3a protein

  1. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnostics using a coronavirus protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Hu, Shaohui; Jona, Ghil; Zhu, Xiaowei; Kreiswirth, Nate; Willey, Barbara M; Mazzulli, Tony; Liu, Guozhen; Song, Qifeng; Chen, Peng; Cameron, Mark; Tyler, Andrea; Wang, Jian; Wen, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Compton, Susan; Snyder, Michael

    2006-03-14

    To monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection, a coronavirus protein microarray that harbors proteins from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and five additional coronaviruses was constructed. These microarrays were used to screen approximately 400 Canadian sera from the SARS outbreak, including samples from confirmed SARS-CoV cases, respiratory illness patients, and healthcare professionals. A computer algorithm that uses multiple classifiers to predict samples from SARS patients was developed and used to predict 206 sera from Chinese fever patients. The test assigned patients into two distinct groups: those with antibodies to SARS-CoV and those without. The microarray also identified patients with sera reactive against other coronavirus proteins. Our results correlated well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and demonstrated that viral infection can be monitored for many months after infection. We show that protein microarrays can serve as a rapid, sensitive, and simple tool for large-scale identification of viral-specific antibodies in sera.

  3. Construction of murine coronavirus mutants containing interspecies chimeric nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, D; Koetzner, C A; McMahon, T; Zhu, Y; Masters, P S

    1995-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination was used to construct mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) mutants containing chimeric nucleocapsid (N) protein genes in which segments of the bovine coronavirus N gene were substituted in place of their corresponding MHV sequences. This defined portions of the two N proteins that, despite evolutionary divergence, have remained functionally equivalent. These regions included most of the centrally located RNA-binding domain and two putative spacers that link the three domains of the N protein. By contrast, the amino terminus of N, the acidic carboxy-terminal domain, and a serine- and arginine-rich segment of the central domain could not be transferred from bovine coronavirus to MHV, presumably because these parts of the molecule participate in protein-protein interactions that are specific for each virus (or, possibly, each host). Our results demonstrate that targeted recombination can be used to make extensive substitutions in the coronavirus genome and can generate recombinants that could not otherwise be made between two viruses separated by a species barrier. The implications of these findings for N protein structure and function as well as for coronavirus RNA recombination are discussed. PMID:7636993

  4. Trafficking motifs in the SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Reed, Mark L.; Hiscox, Julian A. . E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

    2007-07-13

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is involved in virus replication and modulation of cell processes. In this latter respect control may in part be achieved through the sub-cellular localisation of the protein. N protein predominately localises in the cytoplasm (the site of virus replication and assembly) but also in the nucleus/nucleolus. Using a combination of live-cell and confocal microscopy coupled to mutagenesis we identified a cryptic nucleolar localisation signal in the central part of the N protein. In addition, based on structural comparison to the avian coronavirus N protein, a nuclear export signal was identified in the C-terminal region of the protein.

  5. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Human Coronavirus NL63

    PubMed Central

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV. PMID:25700263

  6. The nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV.

  7. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus. PMID:27076136

  8. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus.

  9. Prefusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein

    PubMed Central

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Cottrell, Christopher A.; Wang, Nianshuang; Pallesen, Jesper; Yassine, Hadi M.; Turner, Hannah L.; Corbett, Kizzmekia S.; Graham, Barney S.; McLellan, Jason S.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease1 and is related to the zoonotic SARS2 and MERS3 betacoronaviruses that have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein4, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 Å resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the prefusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest atop the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known to bind protein receptors in other coronaviruses. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. Additionally, these studies should serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens. PMID:26935699

  10. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra; Daskalova, Sasha M.; Lopez, Lisa A.; Dolezal, Kelly A.; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  11. Specific interaction between coronavirus leader RNA and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Stohlman, S.A.; Baric, R.S.; Nelson, G.N.; Soe, L.H.; Welter, L.M.; Deans, R.J.

    1988-11-01

    Northwestern blot analysis in the presence of competitor RNA was used to examine the interaction between the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid protein (N) and virus-specific RNAs. The authors accompanying article demonstrates that anti-N monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated all seven MHV-specific RNAs as well as the small leader-containing RNAs from infected cells. In this article the authors report that a Northwestern blotting protocol using radiolabeled viral RNAs in the presence of host cell competitor RNA can be used to demonstrate a high-affinity interaction between the MHV N protein and the virus-specific RNAs. Further, RNA probes prepared by in vitro transcription were used to define the sequences that participate in such high-affinity binding. A specific interaction occurs between the N protein and sequences contained with the leader RNA which is conserved at the 5' end of all MHV RNAs. They have further defined the binding sites to the area of nucleotides 56 to 65 at the 3' end of the leader RNA and suggest that this interaction may play an important role in the discontinuous nonprocessive RNA transcriptional process unique to coronaviruses.

  12. Identification of in vivo-interacting domains of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Kelley R; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2009-07-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N), together with the large, positive-strand RNA viral genome, forms a helically symmetric nucleocapsid. This ribonucleoprotein structure becomes packaged into virions through association with the carboxy-terminal endodomain of the membrane protein (M), which is the principal constituent of the virion envelope. Previous work with the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) has shown that a major determinant of the N-M interaction maps to the carboxy-terminal domain 3 of the N protein. To explore other domain interactions of the MHV N protein, we expressed a series of segments of the MHV N protein as fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP) during the course of viral infection. We found that two of these GFP-N-domain fusion proteins were selectively packaged into virions as the result of tight binding to the N protein in the viral nucleocapsid, in a manner that did not involve association with either M protein or RNA. The nature of each type of binding was further explored through genetic analysis. Our results defined two strongly interacting regions of the N protein. One is the same domain 3 that is critical for M protein recognition during assembly. The other is domain N1b, which corresponds to the N-terminal domain that has been structurally characterized in detail for two other coronaviruses, infectious bronchitis virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

  13. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Coronaviruses Acts as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lei; Wang, Haiying; Ji, Yanxi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Shan; Huang, Xingyu; Wang, Zidao; Qin, Lei; Tien, Po; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of eukaryotic posttranscriptional gene silencing that functions in antiviral immunity in plants, nematodes, and insects. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi also plays a role in antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells. To combat RNAi-mediated antiviral responses, many viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR) to facilitate their replication. VSRs have been widely studied for plant and insect viruses, but only a few have been defined for mammalian viruses currently. We identified a novel VSR from coronaviruses, a group of medically important mammalian viruses including Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and showed that the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of coronaviruses suppresses RNAi triggered by either short hairpin RNAs or small interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is closely related to SARS-CoV in the family Coronaviridae and was used as a coronavirus replication model. The replication of MHV increased when the N proteins were expressed in trans, while knockdown of Dicer1 or Ago2 transcripts facilitated the MHV replication in mammalian cells. These results support the hypothesis that RNAi is a part of the antiviral immunity responses in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE RNAi has been well known to play important antiviral roles from plants to invertebrates. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi is also involved in antiviral response in mammalian cells. An important indication for RNAi-mediated antiviral activity in mammals is the fact that a number of mammalian viruses encode potent suppressors of RNA silencing. Our results demonstrate that coronavirus N protein could function as a VSR through its double-stranded RNA binding activity. Mutational analysis of N protein allowed us to find out the critical residues for the VSR activity. Using the MHV-A59 as the coronavirus replication model, we showed that ectopic

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus NS4b Protein Inhibits Host RNase L Activation

    PubMed Central

    Thornbrough, Joshua M.; Jha, Babal K.; Yount, Boyd; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Li, Yize; Elliott, Ruth; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the first highly pathogenic human coronavirus to emerge since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. Like many coronaviruses, MERS-CoV carries genes that encode multiple accessory proteins that are not required for replication of the genome but are likely involved in pathogenesis. Evasion of host innate immunity through interferon (IFN) antagonism is a critical component of viral pathogenesis. The IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway activates upon sensing of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Activated RNase L cleaves viral and host single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), which leads to translational arrest and subsequent cell death, preventing viral replication and spread. Here we report that MERS-CoV, a lineage C Betacoronavirus, and related bat CoV NS4b accessory proteins have phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and antagonize OAS-RNase L by enzymatically degrading 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A), activators of RNase L. This is a novel function for NS4b, which has previously been reported to antagonize IFN signaling. NS4b proteins are distinct from lineage A Betacoronavirus PDEs and rotavirus gene-encoded PDEs, in having an amino-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and are localized mostly to the nucleus. However, the expression level of cytoplasmic MERS-CoV NS4b protein is sufficient to prevent activation of RNase L. Finally, this is the first report of an RNase L antagonist expressed by a human or bat coronavirus and provides a specific mechanism by which this occurs. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for evasion of innate immunity by MERS-CoV while also identifying a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27025250

  15. IFITM Proteins Inhibit Entry Driven by the MERS-Coronavirus Spike Protein: Evidence for Cholesterol-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Winkler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins 1, 2 and 3 inhibit the host cell entry of several enveloped viruses, potentially by promoting the accumulation of cholesterol in endosomal compartments. IFITM3 is essential for control of influenza virus infection in mice and humans. In contrast, the role of IFITM proteins in coronavirus infection is less well defined. Employing a retroviral vector system for analysis of coronavirus entry, we investigated the susceptibility of human-adapted and emerging coronaviruses to inhibition by IFITM proteins. We found that entry of the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is sensitive to inhibition by IFITM proteins. In 293T cells, IFITM-mediated inhibition of cellular entry of the emerging MERS- and SARS-CoV was less efficient than blockade of entry of the globally circulating human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. Similar differences were not observed in A549 cells, suggesting that cellular context and/or IFITM expression levels can impact inhibition efficiency. The differential IFITM-sensitivity of coronaviruses observed in 293T cells afforded the opportunity to investigate whether efficiency of entry inhibition by IFITMs and endosomal cholesterol accumulation correlate. No such correlation was observed. Furthermore, entry mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin was robustly inhibited by IFITM3 but was insensitive to accumulation of endosomal cholesterol, indicating that modulation of cholesterol synthesis/transport did not account for the antiviral activity of IFITM3. Collectively, these results show that the emerging MERS-CoV is a target of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins and demonstrate that mechanisms other than accumulation of endosomal cholesterol can contribute to viral entry inhibition by IFITMs. PMID:25256397

  16. E3 protein of bovine coronavirus is a receptor-destroying enzyme with acetylesterase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, R.; Luytjes, W.; Leider, J.; Spaan, W.; Palese, P.

    1988-12-01

    In addition to members of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, several coronaviruses have been shown to possess receptor-destroying activities. Purified bovine coronavirus (BCV) preparations have an esterase activity which inactivates O-acetylsialic acid-containing receptors on erythrocytes. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) completely inhibits this receptor-destroying activity of BCV, suggesting that the viral enzyme is a serine esterase. Treatment of purified BCV with (/sup 3/H)DFP and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins revealed that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein was specifically phosphorylated. This finding suggests that the esterase/receptor-destroying activity of BCV is associated with the E3 protein. Furthermore, treatment of BCV with DFP dramatically reduced its infectivity in a plaque assay. It is assumed that the esterase activity of BCV is required in an early step of virus replication, possible during virus entry or uncoating.

  17. Comparative analysis of the activation of unfolded protein response by spike proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whereas severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is associated with severe disease, human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) commonly circulates in the human populations causing generally milder illness. Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). It is not understood whether HCoV-HKU1 S protein has similar activity. In addition, the UPR-activating domain in SARS-CoV S protein remains to be identified. Results In this study we compared S proteins of SARS-CoV and HCoV-HKU1 for their ability to activate the UPR. Both S proteins were found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 catalyzed the cleavage of SARS-CoV S protein, but not the counterpart in HCoV-HKU1. Both S proteins showed a similar pattern of UPR-activating activity. Through PERK kinase they activated the transcription of UPR effector genes such as Grp78, Grp94 and CHOP. N-linked glycosylation was not required for the activation of the UPR by S proteins. S1 subunit of SARS-CoV but not its counterpart in HCoV-HKU1 was capable of activating the UPR. A central region (amino acids 201–400) of SARS-CoV S1 was required for this activity. Conclusions SARS-CoV and HCoV-HKU1 S proteins use distinct UPR-activating domains to exert the same modulatory effects on UPR signaling. PMID:24410900

  18. Protein-Protein Interactions of Viroporins in Coronaviruses and Paramyxoviruses: New Targets for Antivirals?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Jaume; Surya, Wahyu; Li, Yan; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Viroporins are members of a rapidly growing family of channel-forming small polypeptides found in viruses. The present review will be focused on recent structural and protein-protein interaction information involving two viroporins found in enveloped viruses that target the respiratory tract; (i) the envelope protein in coronaviruses and (ii) the small hydrophobic protein in paramyxoviruses. Deletion of these two viroporins leads to viral attenuation in vivo, whereas data from cell culture shows involvement in the regulation of stress and inflammation. The channel activity and structure of some representative members of these viroporins have been recently characterized in some detail. In addition, searches for protein-protein interactions using yeast-two hybrid techniques have shed light on possible functional roles for their exposed cytoplasmic domains. A deeper analysis of these interactions should not only provide a more complete overview of the multiple functions of these viroporins, but also suggest novel strategies that target protein-protein interactions as much needed antivirals. These should complement current efforts to block viroporin channel activity. PMID:26053927

  19. Exceptional flexibility in the sequence requirements for coronavirus small envelope protein function.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lili; Hurst, Kelley R; Masters, Paul S

    2007-03-01

    The small envelope protein (E) plays a role of central importance in the assembly of coronaviruses. This was initially established by studies demonstrating that cellular expression of only E protein and the membrane protein (M) was necessary and sufficient for the generation and release of virus-like particles. To investigate the role of E protein in the whole virus, we previously generated E gene mutants of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) that were defective in viral growth and produced aberrantly assembled virions. Surprisingly, however, we were also able to isolate a viable MHV mutant (DeltaE) in which the entire E gene, as well as the nonessential upstream genes 4 and 5a, were deleted. We have now constructed an E knockout mutant that confirms that the highly defective phenotype of the DeltaE mutant is due to loss of the E gene. Additionally, we have created substitution mutants in which the MHV E gene was replaced by heterologous E genes from viruses spanning all three groups of the coronavirus family. Group 2 and 3 E proteins were readily exchangeable for that of MHV. However, the E protein of a group 1 coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, became functional in MHV only after acquisition of particular mutations. Our results show that proteins encompassing a remarkably diverse range of primary amino acid sequences can provide E protein function in MHV. These findings suggest that E protein facilitates viral assembly in a manner that does not require E protein to make sequence-specific contacts with M protein.

  20. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships.

  1. Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Licitra, Beth N.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. While CCoV has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal CCoV infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. Consequently, CCoV is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. In addition to the two known serotypes of CCoV, novel recombinant variants of CCoV have been found containing spike protein N-terminal domains (NTDs) that are closely related to those of feline and porcine strains. The increase in disease severity in dogs and the emergence of novel CCoVs can be attributed to the high level of recombination within the spike gene that can occur during infection by more than one CCoV type in the same host. PMID:25153347

  2. Identification of phosphorylation sites in the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of SARS-coronavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang; Shao, Jianmin; Sun, Maomao; Liu, Jinxiu; Xu, Gongjin; Zhang, Xumin; Xu, Ningzhi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Siqi

    2007-12-01

    After decoding the genome of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), next challenge is to understand how this virus causes the illness at molecular bases. Of the viral structural proteins, the N protein plays a pivot role in assembly process of viral particles as well as viral replication and transcription. The SARS-CoV N proteins expressed in the eukaryotes, such as yeast and HEK293 cells, appeared in the multiple spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), whereas the proteins expressed in E. coli showed a single 2DE spotE These 2DE spots were further examined by Western blot and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, and identified as the N proteins with differently apparent pI values and similar molecular mass of 50 kDa. In the light of the observations and other evidences, a hypothesis was postulated that the SARS-CoV N protein could be phosphorylated in eukaryotes. To locate the plausible regions of phosphorylation in the N protein, two truncated N proteins were generated in E. coli and treated with PKC[alpha]. The two truncated N proteins after incubation of PKC[alpha] exhibited the differently electrophoretic behaviors on 2DE, suggesting that the region of 1-256 aa in the N protein was the possible target for PKC[alpha] phosphorylation. Moreover, the SARS-CoV N protein expressed in yeast were partially digested with trypsin and carefully analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In contrast to the completely tryptic digestion, these partially digested fragments generated two new peptide mass signals with neutral loss, and MS/MS analysis revealed two phosphorylated peptides located at the "dense serine" island in the N protein with amino acid sequences, GFYAEGSRGGSQASSRSSSR and GNSGNSTPGSSRGNSPARMASGGGK. With the PKC[alpha] phosphorylation treatment and the partially tryptic digestion, the N protein expressed in E. coli released the same peptides as observed in yeast cells. Thus, this investigation provided the preliminary data to determine the phosphorylation sites in the SARS-CoV N protein, and

  3. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  4. Intracellular localization of the SARS coronavirus protein 9b: evidence of active export from the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Moshynskyy, Igor; Viswanathan, Sathiyanarayanan; Vasilenko, Natalia; Lobanov, Vladislav; Petric, Martin; Babiuk, Lorne A; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2007-07-01

    Open reading frame 9b (ORF 9b) encodes a 98 amino acid group-specific protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV). It has no homology with known proteins and its function in SARS CoV replication has not been determined. The N-terminal part of the 9b protein was used to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits, and these antibodies could detect 9b protein in infected cells. We analyzed the sub-cellular localization of recombinant 9b protein using fluorescence microscopy of live transfected cells and indirect immunofluorescence of transfected fixed cells. Our findings indicate that the 9b protein is exported outside of a cell nucleus and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data also suggest that the 46-LRLGSQLSL-54 amino acid sequence of 9b functions as a nuclear export signal (NES).

  5. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J.; Wubbolts, Richard W.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate (wtPEDV) using a reverse genetics system based on the trypsin-independent cell culture-adapted strain DR13 (caPEDV). We demonstrate that trypsin acts on the wtPEDV spike protein after receptor binding. We mapped the genetic determinant for trypsin-dependent cell entry to the N-terminal region of the fusion subunit of this class I fusion protein, revealing a conserved arginine just upstream of the putative fusion peptide as the potential cleavage site. Whereas coronaviruses are typically processed by endogenous proteases of the producer or target cell, PEDV S protein activation strictly required supplementation of a protease, enabling us to study mechanistic details of proteolytic processing. IMPORTANCE Recurring PEDV epidemics constitute a serious animal health threat and an economic burden, particularly in Asia but, as of recently, also on the North-American subcontinent. Understanding the biology of PEDV is critical for combatting the infection. Here, we provide new insight into the protease-dependent cell entry of PEDV. PMID:24807723

  6. Proteolytic activation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus spike fusion protein by trypsin in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-07-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate (wtPEDV) using a reverse genetics system based on the trypsin-independent cell culture-adapted strain DR13 (caPEDV). We demonstrate that trypsin acts on the wtPEDV spike protein after receptor binding. We mapped the genetic determinant for trypsin-dependent cell entry to the N-terminal region of the fusion subunit of this class I fusion protein, revealing a conserved arginine just upstream of the putative fusion peptide as the potential cleavage site. Whereas coronaviruses are typically processed by endogenous proteases of the producer or target cell, PEDV S protein activation strictly required supplementation of a protease, enabling us to study mechanistic details of proteolytic processing. Importance: Recurring PEDV epidemics constitute a serious animal health threat and an economic burden, particularly in Asia but, as of recently, also on the North-American subcontinent. Understanding the biology of PEDV is critical for combatting the infection. Here, we provide new insight into the protease-dependent cell entry of PEDV. PMID:24807723

  7. Structure of a Conserved Golgi Complex-targeting Signal in Coronavirus Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Surya, Wahyu; Claudine, Stephanie; Torres, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Coronavirus envelope (CoV E) proteins are ∼100-residue polypeptides with at least one channel-forming α-helical transmembrane (TM) domain. The extramembrane C-terminal tail contains a completely conserved proline, at the center of a predicted β-coil-β motif. This hydrophobic motif has been reported to constitute a Golgi-targeting signal or a second TM domain. However, no structural data for this or other extramembrane domains in CoV E proteins is available. Herein, we show that the E protein in the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus has only one TM domain in micelles, whereas the predicted β-coil-β motif forms a short membrane-bound α-helix connected by a disordered loop to the TM domain. However, complementary results suggest that this motif is potentially poised for conformational change or in dynamic exchange with other conformations. PMID:24668816

  8. A major determinant for membrane protein interaction localizes to the carboxy-terminal domain of the mouse coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Kelley R; Kuo, Lili; Koetzner, Cheri A; Ye, Rong; Hsue, Bilan; Masters, Paul S

    2005-11-01

    The two major constituents of coronavirus virions are the membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. The M protein is anchored in the viral envelope by three transmembrane segments flanked by a short amino-terminal ectodomain and a large carboxy-terminal endodomain. The M endodomain interacts with the viral nucleocapsid, which consists of the positive-strand RNA genome helically encapsidated by N protein monomers. In previous work with the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a highly defective M protein mutant, MDelta2, was constructed. This mutant contained a 2-amino-acid carboxy-terminal truncation of the M protein. Analysis of second-site revertants of MDelta2 revealed mutations in the carboxy-terminal region of the N protein that compensated for the defect in the M protein. To seek further genetic evidence corroborating this interaction, we generated a comprehensive set of clustered charged-to-alanine mutants in the carboxy-terminal domain 3 of N protein. One of these mutants, CCA4, had a highly defective phenotype similar to that of MDelta2. Transfer of the CCA4 mutation into a partially diploid MHV genome showed that CCA4 was a loss-of-function mutation rather than a dominant-negative mutation. Analysis of multiple second-site revertants of CCA4 revealed mutations in both the M protein and the N protein that could compensate for the original lesion in N. These data more precisely define the region of the N protein that interacts with the M protein. Further, we found that fusion of domain 3 of the N protein to the carboxy terminus of a heterologous protein caused it to be incorporated into MHV virions.

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a viroporin involved in virulence. E protein ion channel (IC) activity is specifically correlated with enhanced pulmonary damage, edema accumulation and death. IL-1β driven proinflammation is associated with those pathological signatures, however its link to IC activity remains unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV E protein forms protein-lipid channels in ERGIC/Golgi membranes that are permeable to calcium ions, a highly relevant feature never reported before. Calcium ions together with pH modulated E protein pore charge and selectivity. Interestingly, E protein IC activity boosted the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β overproduction. Calcium transport through the E protein IC was the main trigger of this process. These findings strikingly link SARS-CoV E protein IC induced ionic disturbances at the cell level to immunopathological consequences and disease worsening in the infected organism.

  10. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  11. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  12. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-11-25

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-{delta}E) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E{sup +} cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-{delta}E infected BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-{delta}E virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-{delta}E subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E{sup -} cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation.

  13. The nsp1, nsp13, and M Proteins Contribute to the Hepatotropism of Murine Coronavirus JHM.WU

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Li, Yize; Cowley, Timothy J.; Steinbrenner, Adam D.; Phillips, Judith M.; Yount, Boyd L.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) isolates JHM.WU and JHM.SD promote severe central nervous system disease. However, while JHM.WU replicates robustly and induces hepatitis, JHM.SD fails to replicate or induce pathology in the liver. These two JHM variants encode homologous proteins with few polymorphisms, and little is known about which viral proteins(s) is responsible for the liver tropism of JHM.WU. We constructed reverse genetic systems for JHM.SD and JHM.WU and, utilizing these full-length cDNA clones, constructed chimeric viruses and mapped the virulence factors involved in liver tropism. Exchanging the spike proteins of the two viruses neither increased replication of JHM.SD in the liver nor attenuated JHM.WU. By further mapping, we found that polymorphisms in JHM.WU structural protein M and nonstructural replicase proteins nsp1 and nsp13 are essential for liver pathogenesis. M protein and nsp13, the helicase, of JHM.WU are required for efficient replication in vitro and in the liver in vivo. The JHM.SD nsp1 protein contains a K194R substitution of Lys194, a residue conserved among all other MHV strains. The K194R polymorphism has no effect on in vitro replication but influences hepatotropism, and introduction of R194K into JHM.SD promotes replication in the liver. Conversely, a K194R substitution in nsp1 of JHM.WU or A59, another hepatotropic strain, significantly attenuates replication of each strain in the liver and increases IFN-β expression in macrophages in culture. Our data indicate that both structural and nonstructural proteins contribute to MHV liver pathogenesis and support previous reports that nsp1 is a Betacoronavirus virulence factor. IMPORTANCE The Betacoronavirus genus includes human pathogens, some of which cause severe respiratory disease. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) into human populations demonstrates the zoonotic potential of

  14. Construct design, biophysical, and biochemical characterization of the fusion core from mouse hepatitis virus (a coronavirus) spike protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanhui; Cole, David K; Lou, Zhiyong; Liu, Yiwei; Qin, Lan; Li, Xu; Bai, Zhihong; Yuan, Fang; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F

    2004-11-01

    Membrane fusion between virus and host cells is the key step for enveloped virus entry and is mediated by the viral envelope fusion protein. In murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the spike (S) protein mediates this process. Recently, the formation of anti-parallel 6-helix bundle of the MHV S protein heptad repeat (HR) regions (HR1 and HR2) has been confirmed, implying coronavirus has a class I fusion protein. This bundle is also called fusion core. To facilitate the solution of the crystal structure of this fusion core, we deployed an Escherichia coli in vitro expression system to express the HR1 and HR2 regions linked together by a flexible linker as a single chain (named 2-helix). This 2-helix polypeptide subsequently assembled into a typical 6-helix bundle. This bundle has been analyzed by a series of biophysical and biochemical techniques and confirmed that the design technique can be used for coronavirus as we successfully used for members of paramyxoviruses.

  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; DeDiego, Marta L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  16. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Huib H.; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways. It is unknown whether cellular infection by MERS-CoV activates the stress response pathway or whether the virus has evolved strategies to suppress this infection-limiting pathway. Here, we show that cellular infection with MERS-CoV does not lead to the formation of SGs. By transiently expressing the MERS-CoV accessory proteins individually, we identified a role of protein 4a (p4a) in preventing activation of the stress response pathway. Expression of MERS-CoV p4a impeded dsRNA-mediated PKR activation, thereby rescuing translation inhibition and preventing SG formation. In contrast, p4a failed to suppress stress response pathway activation that is independent of PKR and dsRNA. MERS-CoV p4a is a dsRNA binding protein. Mutation of the dsRNA binding motif in p4a disrupted its PKR antagonistic activity. By inserting p4a in a picornavirus lacking its natural PKR antagonist, we showed that p4a exerts PKR antagonistic activity also under infection conditions. However, a recombinant MERS-CoV deficient in p4a expression still suppressed SG formation, indicating the expression of at least one other stress response antagonist. This virus also suppressed the dsRNA-independent stress response pathway. Thus, MERS-CoV interferes with antiviral stress responses using at least two different mechanisms, with p4a

  17. A facile inhibitor screening of SARS coronavirus N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun

    2012-01-01

    Hundreds of million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the rate of global death from SARS has remarkably increased. Hence, the development of efficient drug treatments for the biological effects of SARS is highly needed. We have previously shown that quantum dots (QDs)-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide is sensitive to the specific recognition of the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. In this study, we found that a designed biochip could analyze inhibitors of the SARS-CoV N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. Among the polyphenolic compounds examined, (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate demonstrated a remarkable inhibition activity on SARS-CoV N protein. (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate attenuated the binding affinity in a concentrated manner as evidenced by QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide on a designed biochip. At a concentration of 0.05 μg mL−1, (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate showed more than 40% inhibition activity on a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide biochip system. PMID:22619553

  18. Identification of murine CD8 T cell epitopes in codon-optimized SARS-associated coronavirus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Kobinger, Gary P; Jordan, Heather; Suchma, Katie; Weiss, Susan R; Shen, Hao; Schumer, Gregory; Gao, Guangping; Boyer, Julie L; Crystal, Ronald G; Wilson, James M

    2005-04-25

    The causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new type of coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling diseases caused by other coronaviruses and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity in corresponding animal models. The spike protein, a main surface antigen of SARS-CoV, is one of the most important antigen candidates for vaccine design. Overlapping peptides were used to identify major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in mice immunized with vectors encoding codon-optimized SARS-CoV spike protein. CD8 T-cell responses were mapped to two H-2(b)-restricted epitopes (S436-443 and S525-532) and one H-2(d)-restricted epitope (S366-374). The identification of these epitopes will facilitate the evaluation of vaccine strategies in murine models of SARS-CoV infection. Furthermore, codon and promoter optimizations can greatly enhance the overall immunogenicity of spike protein in the context of replication-defective human and simian adenoviral vaccine carriers. The optimized recombinant adenoviral vaccine vectors encoding spike can generate robust antigen-specific cellular immunity in mice and may potentially be useful for control of SARS-CoV infection.

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) entry inhibitors targeting spike protein.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuai; Liu, Qi; Wang, Qian; Sun, Zhiwu; Su, Shan; Du, Lanying; Ying, Tianlei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2014-12-19

    The recent outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection has led to more than 800 laboratory-confirmed MERS cases with a high case fatality rate (∼35%), posing a serious threat to global public health and calling for the development of effective and safe therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to treat and prevent MERS-CoV infection. Here we discuss the most recent studies on the structure of the MERS-CoV spike protein and its role in virus binding and entry, and the development of MERS-CoV entry/fusion inhibitors targeting the S1 subunit, particularly the receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the S2 subunit, especially the HR1 region, of the MERS-CoV spike protein. We then look ahead to future applications of these viral entry/fusion inhibitors, either alone or in combination with specific and nonspecific MERS-CoV replication inhibitors, for the treatment and prevention of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25451066

  20. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  1. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be able to reduce your risk of infection by washing your hands often with soap and ... sick. There is no vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection. There are no specific treatments. You can relieve ...

  2. Identification of functionally important negatively charged residues in the carboxy end of mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandhya; Bednar, Valerie; Blount, Andrew; Hogue, Brenda G

    2006-05-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a multifunctional viral gene product that encapsidates the RNA genome and also plays some as yet not fully defined role in viral RNA replication and/or transcription. A number of conserved negatively charged amino acids are located within domain III in the carboxy end of all coronavirus N proteins. Previous studies suggested that the negatively charged residues are involved in virus assembly by mediating interaction between the membrane (M) protein carboxy tail and nucleocapsids. To determine the importance of these negatively charged residues, a series of alanine and other charged-residue substitutions were introduced in place of those in the N gene within a mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 infectious clone. Aspartic acid residues 440 and 441 were identified as functionally important. Viruses could not be isolated when both residues were replaced by positively charged amino acids. When either amino acid was replaced by a positively charged residue or both were changed to alanine, viruses were recovered that contained second-site changes within N, but not in the M or envelope protein. The compensatory role of the new changes was confirmed by the construction of new viruses. A few viruses were recovered that retained the D441-to-arginine change and no compensatory changes. These viruses exhibited a small-plaque phenotype and produced significantly less virus. Overall, results from our analysis of a large panel of plaque-purified recovered viruses indicate that the negatively charged residues at positions 440 and 441 are key residues that appear to be involved in virus assembly. PMID:16611893

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ORF4b protein inhibits type I interferon production through both cytoplasmic and nuclear targets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Na; Wang, Wenling; Deng, Yao; Zhao, Zhengdong; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel and highly pathogenic human coronavirus and has quickly spread to other countries in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa and Asia since 2012. Previous studies have shown that MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) response, which may significantly contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that ORF4b in the cytoplasm could specifically bind to TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase epsilon (IKKε), suppress the molecular interaction between mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and IKKε, and inhibit IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent IFN-β production. Further analysis showed that ORF4b could also inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, whereas deletion of the nuclear localization signal of ORF4b abrogated its ability to inhibit IRF3 and IRF7-induced production of IFN-β, but not IFN-β production induced by RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, IKKε, and TBK-1, suggesting that ORF4b could inhibit the induction of IFN-β in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Collectively, these results indicate that MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the induction of type I IFN through a direct interaction with IKKε/TBK1 in the cytoplasm, and also in the nucleus with unknown mechanism. Viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade or thwart a host’s antiviral responses. A novel human coronavirus (HCoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), is distinguished from other coronaviruses by its high pathogenicity and mortality. However, virulence determinants that distinguish MERS-CoV from other HCoVs have yet to be identified. MERS-CoV ORF4b antagonizes the early antiviral response, which may contribute to MERS-CoV pathogenesis. Here, we report the identification of the interferon (IFN) antagonism mechanism of MERS-CoV ORF4b. MERS-CoV ORF4b inhibits the production

  4. A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2.

    PubMed

    Wong, Swee Kee; Li, Wenhui; Moore, Michael J; Choe, Hyeryun; Farzan, Michael

    2004-01-30

    The coronavirus spike (S) protein mediates infection of receptor-expressing host cells and is a critical target for antiviral neutralizing antibodies. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for the coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV) that causes SARS. Here we demonstrate that a 193-amino acid fragment of the S protein (residues 318-510) bound ACE2 more efficiently than did the full S1 domain (residues 12-672). Smaller S protein fragments, expressing residues 327-510 or 318-490, did not detectably bind ACE2. A point mutation at aspartic acid 454 abolished association of the full S1 domain and of the 193-residue fragment with ACE2. The 193-residue fragment blocked S protein-mediated infection with an IC(50) of less than 10 nm, whereas the IC(50) of the S1 domain was approximately 50 nm. These data identify an independently folded receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV S protein.

  5. Synthetic virus-like particles prepared via protein corona formation enable effective vaccination in an avian model of coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Huang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yi; Fang, Zih-Syun; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Lin, Jung-Chen; Chen, Yuan-I; Yao, Bing-Yu; Hu, Che-Ming J

    2016-11-01

    The ongoing battle against current and rising viral infectious threats has prompted increasing effort in the development of vaccine technology. A major thrust in vaccine research focuses on developing formulations with virus-like features towards enhancing antigen presentation and immune processing. Herein, a facile approach to formulate synthetic virus-like particles (sVLPs) is demonstrated by exploiting the phenomenon of protein corona formation induced by the high-energy surfaces of synthetic nanoparticles. Using an avian coronavirus spike protein as a model antigen, sVLPs were prepared by incubating 100 nm gold nanoparticles in a solution containing an optimized concentration of viral proteins. Following removal of free proteins, antigen-laden particles were recovered and showed morphological semblance to natural viral particles under nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. As compared to inoculation with free proteins, vaccination with the sVLPs showed enhanced lymphatic antigen delivery, stronger antibody titers, increased splenic T-cell response, and reduced infection-associated symptoms in an avian model of coronavirus infection. Comparison to a commercial whole inactivated virus vaccine also showed evidence of superior antiviral protection by the sVLPs. The study demonstrates a simple yet robust method in bridging viral antigens with synthetic nanoparticles for improved vaccine application; it has practical implications in the management of human viral infections as well as in animal agriculture.

  6. Synthetic virus-like particles prepared via protein corona formation enable effective vaccination in an avian model of coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Huang, Chen-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yi; Fang, Zih-Syun; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Lin, Jung-Chen; Chen, Yuan-I; Yao, Bing-Yu; Hu, Che-Ming J

    2016-11-01

    The ongoing battle against current and rising viral infectious threats has prompted increasing effort in the development of vaccine technology. A major thrust in vaccine research focuses on developing formulations with virus-like features towards enhancing antigen presentation and immune processing. Herein, a facile approach to formulate synthetic virus-like particles (sVLPs) is demonstrated by exploiting the phenomenon of protein corona formation induced by the high-energy surfaces of synthetic nanoparticles. Using an avian coronavirus spike protein as a model antigen, sVLPs were prepared by incubating 100 nm gold nanoparticles in a solution containing an optimized concentration of viral proteins. Following removal of free proteins, antigen-laden particles were recovered and showed morphological semblance to natural viral particles under nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. As compared to inoculation with free proteins, vaccination with the sVLPs showed enhanced lymphatic antigen delivery, stronger antibody titers, increased splenic T-cell response, and reduced infection-associated symptoms in an avian model of coronavirus infection. Comparison to a commercial whole inactivated virus vaccine also showed evidence of superior antiviral protection by the sVLPs. The study demonstrates a simple yet robust method in bridging viral antigens with synthetic nanoparticles for improved vaccine application; it has practical implications in the management of human viral infections as well as in animal agriculture. PMID:27552321

  7. Blocking of Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP Leads to Reduced Replication of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xinrong; Mei, Feng; Agrawal, Anurodh; Peters, Clarence J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections and diseases represents a potential threat for worldwide spread and requires development of effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, we revealed a novel positive function of an exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP 1 (cAMP-1; Epac-1) on MERS-CoV replication. Specifically, we have shown that Epac-specific inhibitor treatment or silencing Epac-1 gene expression rendered cells resistant to viral infection. We believe Epac-1 inhibitors deserve further study as potential therapeutic agents for MERS-CoV infection. PMID:24453361

  8. The nsp2 Replicase Proteins of Murine Hepatitis Virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Are Dispensable for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel L.; Sims, Amy C.; Brockway, Sarah M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Denison, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2, respectively). Infectious MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Δnsp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVΔnsp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVΔnsp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  9. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel L; Sims, Amy C; Brockway, Sarah M; Baric, Ralph S; Denison, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2, respectively). Infectious MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Deltansp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVDeltansp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVDeltansp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  10. Infectious bronchitis virus 3a protein localizes to a novel domain of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Amanda R; Machamer, Carolyn E

    2005-05-01

    All coronaviruses possess small open reading frames (ORFs) between structural genes that have been hypothesized to play important roles in pathogenesis. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) ORF 3a is one such gene. It is highly conserved among group 3 coronaviruses, suggesting that it has an important function in infection. IBV 3a protein is expressed in infected cells but is not detected in virions. Sequence analysis predicted that IBV 3a was a membrane protein; however, only a fraction behaved like an integral membrane protein. Microscopy and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that IBV 3a localized to the cytoplasm in a diffuse pattern as well as in sharp puncta in both infected and transfected cells. These puncta did not overlap cellular organelles or other punctate structures. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that IBV 3a puncta lined up along smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules and, in a significant number of instances, were partially surrounded by these tubules. Our results suggest that IBV 3a is partially targeted to a novel domain of the smooth ER.

  11. A key role for the carboxy-terminal tail of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in coordination of genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lili; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) exhibits highly selective packaging of its genomic positive-stranded RNA into assembled virions, despite the presence in infected cells of a large excess of subgenomic viral mRNAs. One component of this selectivity is the MHV packaging signal (PS), an RNA structure found only in genomic RNA and not in subgenomic RNAs. It was previously shown that a major determinant of PS recognition is the second of the two RNA-binding domains of the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. We have now found that PS recognition additionally depends upon a segment of the carboxy-terminal tail (domain N3) of the N protein. Since domain N3 is also the region of N protein that interacts with the membrane (M) protein, this finding suggests a mechanism by which selective genome packaging is accomplished, through the coupling of genome encapsidation to virion assembly.

  12. A role for naturally occurring variation of the murine coronavirus spike protein in stabilizing association with the cellular receptor.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, T M

    1997-04-01

    Murine hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus, initiates infection by binding to its cellular receptor (MHVR) via spike (S) proteins projecting from the virion membrane. The structures of these S proteins vary considerably among MHV strains, and this variation is generally considered to be important in determining the strain-specific pathologies of MHV infection, perhaps by affecting the interaction between MHV and the MHVR. To address the relationships between S variation and receptor binding, assays capable of measuring interactions between MHV and MHVR were developed. The assays made use of a novel soluble form of the MHVR, sMHVR-Ig, which comprised the virus-binding immunoglobulin-like domain of MHVR fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1. sMHVR-Ig was stably expressed as a disulfide-linked dimer in human 293 EBNA cells and was immobilized to Sepharose-protein G via the Fc domain. The resulting Sepharose beads were used to adsorb radiolabelled MHV particles. At 4 degrees C, the beads specifically adsorbed two prototype MHV strains, MHV JHM (strain 4) and a tissue culture-adapted mutant of MHV JHM, the JHMX strain. A shift to 37 degrees C resulted in elution of JHM but not JHMX. This in vitro observation of JHM (but not JHMX) elution from its receptor at 37 degrees C was paralleled by a corresponding 37 degrees C elution of receptor-associated JHM (but not JHMX) from tissue culture cells. The basis for this difference in maintenance of receptor association was correlated with a large deletion mutation present within the JHMX S protein, as sMHVR-Ig exhibited relatively thermostable binding to vaccinia virus-expressed S proteins containing the deletion. These results indicate that naturally occurring mutations in the coronavirus S protein affect the stability of the initial interaction with the host cell and thus contribute to the likelihood of successful infection by incoming virions. These changes in virus entry features may result in coronaviruses

  13. Mutation in spike protein cleavage site and pathogenesis of feline coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Beth N; Millet, Jean K; Regan, Andrew D; Hamilton, Brian S; Rinaldi, Vera D; Duhamel, Gerald E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2013-07-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection of macrophages, causing FIP. However, the molecular basis for this biotype switch is unknown. We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences. All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. For FIPV, there was a correlation with the disease and >1 substitution in the S1/S2 motif. Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses.

  14. About Coronavirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or surfaces then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. Also see MERS-CoV Transmission and How SARS Spreads . Q: When can I get infected? A: In the United States, people usually get infected with common human coronaviruses in the fall and winter. However, you ...

  15. Point mutations in the S protein connect the sialic acid binding activity with the enteropathogenicity of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Krempl, C; Schultze, B; Laude, H; Herrler, G

    1997-01-01

    Enteropathogenic transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, is able to agglutinate erythrocytes because of sialic acid binding activity. Competitive inhibitors that may mask the sialic acid binding activity can be inactivated by sialidase treatment of virions. Here, we show that TGEV virions with efficient hemagglutinating activity were also obtained when cells were treated with sialidase prior to infection. This method was used to analyze TGEV mutants for hemagglutinating activity. Recently, mutants with strongly reduced enteropathogenicity that have point mutations or a deletion of four amino acids within residues 145 to 155 of the S protein have been described. Here, we show that in addition to their reduced pathogenicity, these mutants also have lost hemagglutinating activity. These results connect sialic acid binding activity with the enteropathogenicity of TGEV. PMID:9060696

  16. The S protein of bovine coronavirus is a hemagglutinin recognizing 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant.

    PubMed

    Schultze, B; Gross, H J; Brossmer, R; Herrler, G

    1991-11-01

    The S protein of bovine coronavirus (BCV) has been isolated from the viral membrane and purified by gradient centrifugation. Purified S protein was identified as a viral hemagglutinin. Inactivation of the cellular receptors by sialate 9-O-acetylesterase and generation of receptors by sialylation of erythrocytes with N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) indicate that S protein recognizes 9-O-acetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant as has been shown previously for intact virions. The second glycoprotein of BCV, HE, which has been thought previously to be responsible for the hemagglutinating activity of BCV, is a less efficient hemagglutinin; it agglutinates mouse and rat erythrocytes, but in contrast to S protein, it is unable to agglutinate chicken erythrocytes, which contain a lower level of Neu5,9Ac2 on their surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachment of virus to cell surface. S protein is proposed to be responsible for the primary attachement of virus to cell surface receptors. The potential of S protein as a probe for the detection of Neu5,9Ac2-containing glycoconjugates is demonstrated.

  17. Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Susan R.; Navas-Martin, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses classified within the Nidovirales order. This coronavirus family consists of pathogens of many animal species and of humans, including the recently isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This review is divided into two main parts; the first concerns the animal coronaviruses and their pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the functions of individual viral genes, and the second discusses the newly described human emerging pathogen, SARS-CoV. The coronavirus part covers (i) a description of a group of coronaviruses and the diseases they cause, including the prototype coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus, which is one of the recognized animal models for multiple sclerosis, as well as viruses of veterinary importance that infect the pig, chicken, and cat and a summary of the human viruses; (ii) a short summary of the replication cycle of coronaviruses in cell culture; (iii) the development and application of reverse genetics systems; and (iv) the roles of individual coronavirus proteins in replication and pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV part covers the pathogenesis of SARS, the developing animal models for infection, and the progress in vaccine development and antiviral therapies. The data gathered on the animal coronaviruses continue to be helpful in understanding SARS-CoV. PMID:16339739

  18. Coronavirus non-structural protein 16: Evasion, attenuation, and possible treatments

    PubMed Central

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Debbink, Kari; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), nearly a decade after the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) CoV, highlights the importance of understanding and developing therapeutic treatment for current and emergent CoVs. This manuscript explores the role of NSP16, a 2′O-methyl-transferase (2′O-MTase), in CoV infection and the host immune response. The review highlights conserved motifs, required interaction partners, as well as the attenuation of NSP16 mutants, and restoration of these mutants in specific immune knockouts. Importantly, the work also identifies a number of approaches to exploit this understanding for therapeutic treatment and the data clearly illustrate the importance of NSP16 2′O-MTase activity for CoV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25278144

  19. Cell adhesion as a novel approach to determining the cellular binding motif on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Hou; Chen, Po-Kong; Lin, Guan-Ling; Wang, Chun-Jen; Liao, Chih-Hsien; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Dong, Jing-Hua; Sun, Der-Shan

    2014-06-01

    Emerging life threatening pathogens such as severe acute aspiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), avian-origin influenzas H7N9, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have caused a high case-fatality rate and psychological effects on society and the economy. Therefore, a simple, rapid, and safe method to investigate a therapeutic approach against these pathogens is required. In this study, a simple, quick, and safe cell adhesion inhibition assay was developed to determine the potential cellular binding site on the SARS-CoV spike protein. Various synthetic peptides covering the potential binding site helped to minimize further the binding motif to 10-25 residues. Following analyses, 2 peptides spanning the 436-445 and 437-461 amino acids of the spike protein were identified as peptide inhibitor or peptide vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV.

  20. Coronavirus nonstructural protein 1: common and distinct functions in the regulation of host and viral gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Krishna; Ramirez, Sydney I.; Lokugamage, Kumari G.; Makino, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of two highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, has ignited a strong interest in the identification of viral factors that determine the virulence and pathogenesis of CoVs. The nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) of CoVs has attracted considerable attention in this regard as a potential virulence factor and a target for CoV vaccine development because of accumulating evidence that point to its role in the downregulation of host innate immune responses to CoV infection. Studies have revealed both functional conservation and mechanistic divergence among the nsp1 of different mammalian CoVs in perturbing host gene expression and antiviral responses. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the biological functions of CoV nsp1 that provides an insight into the novel strategies utilized by this viral protein to modulate host and viral gene expression during CoV infection. PMID:25432065

  1. RNA 3'-end mismatch excision by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp10/nsp14 exoribonuclease complex.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Imbert, Isabelle; Subissi, Lorenzo; Gluais, Laure; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-06-12

    The replication/transcription complex of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is composed of at least 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1-16) encoded by the ORF-1a/1b. This complex includes replication enzymes commonly found in positive-strand RNA viruses, but also a set of RNA-processing activities unique to some nidoviruses. The nsp14 protein carries both exoribonuclease (ExoN) and (guanine-N7)-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) activities. The nsp14 ExoN activity ensures a yet-uncharacterized function in the virus life cycle and must be regulated to avoid nonspecific RNA degradation. In this work, we show that the association of nsp10 with nsp14 stimulates >35-fold the ExoN activity of the latter while playing no effect on N7-MTase activity. Nsp10 mutants unable to interact with nsp14 are not proficient for ExoN activation. The nsp10/nsp14 complex hydrolyzes double-stranded RNA in a 3' to 5' direction as well as a single mismatched nucleotide at the 3'-end mimicking an erroneous replication product. In contrast, di-, tri-, and longer unpaired ribonucleotide stretches, as well as 3'-modified RNAs, resist nsp10/nsp14-mediated excision. In addition to the activation of nsp16-mediated 2'-O-MTase activity, nsp10 also activates nsp14 in an RNA processing function potentially connected to a replicative mismatch repair mechanism. PMID:22635272

  2. A synthetic consensus anti–spike protein DNA vaccine induces protective immunity against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in nonhuman primates

    PubMed Central

    Muthumani, Karuppiah; Falzarano, Darryl; Reuschel, Emma L.; Tingey, Colleen; Flingai, Seleeke; Villarreal, Daniel O.; Wise, Megan; Patel, Ami; Izmirly, Abdullah; Aljuaid, Abdulelah; Seliga, Alecia M.; Soule, Geoff; Morrow, Matthew; Kraynyak, Kimberly A.; Khan, Amir S.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Friederike; LaCasse, Rachel; Meade-White, Kimberly; Okumura, Atsushi; Ugen, Kenneth E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Kim, J. Joseph; Kobinger, Gary; Feldmann, Heinz; Weiner, David B.

    2015-01-01

    First identified in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by an emerging human coronavirus, which is distinct from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and represents a novel member of the lineage C betacoronoviruses. Since its identification, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been linked to more than 1372 infections manifesting with severe morbidity and, often, mortality (about 495 deaths) in the Arabian Peninsula, Europe, and, most recently, the United States. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, with nosocomial transmission appearing to be an important route of infection. The recent increase in cases of MERS in the Middle East coupled with the lack of approved antiviral therapies or vaccines to treat or prevent this infection are causes for concern. We report on the development of a synthetic DNA vaccine against MERS-CoV. An optimized DNA vaccine encoding the MERS spike protein induced potent cellular immunity and antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, macaques, and camels. Vaccinated rhesus macaques seroconverted rapidly and exhibited high levels of virus-neutralizing activity. Upon MERS viral challenge, all of the monkeys in the control-vaccinated group developed characteristic disease, including pneumonia. Vaccinated macaques were protected and failed to demonstrate any clinical or radiographic signs of pneumonia. These studies demonstrate that a consensus MERS spike protein synthetic DNA vaccine can induce protective responses against viral challenge, indicating that this strategy may have value as a possible vaccine modality against this emerging pathogen. PMID:26290414

  3. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to turkey coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Mohamed; Loa, Chien Chang; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-06-01

    Nucleocapsid (N) protein gene of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) was expressed in a prokaryotic system and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody to TCoV. Anti-TCoV hyperimmune turkey serum and normal turkey serum were used as positive or negative controls for optimization of the ELISA. Goat anti-turkey IgG (H+L) conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used as detector antibody. Three hundred and twenty two turkey sera from the field were used to evaluate the performance of ELISA and determine the cut-off point of ELISA. The established ELISA was also examined with serum samples obtained from turkeys experimentally infected with TCoV. Those serum samples were collected at various time intervals from 1 to 63 days post-infection. The optimum conditions for differentiation between anti-TCoV hyperimmune serum and normal turkey serum were recombinant TCoV N protein concentration at 20 μg/ml, serum dilution at 1:800, and conjugate dilution at 1:10,000. Of the 322 sera from the field, 101 were positive for TCoV by immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA). The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA relative to IFA test were 86.0% and 96.8%, respectively, using the optimum cut-off point of 0.2 as determined by logistic regression method. Reactivity of anti-rotavirus, anti-reovirus, anti-adenovirus, or anti-enterovirus antibodies with the recombinant N protein coated on the ELISA plates was not detected. These results indicated that the established antibody-capture ELISA in conjunction with recombinant TCoV N protein as the coating protein can be utilized for detection of antibodies to TCoV in turkey flocks.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nucleic acid-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Buchmeier, Michael J; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand beta-sheet holding two alpha-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the beta-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand beta-sheets and two 3(10)-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold.

  5. Design of an epitope-based peptide vaccine against spike protein of human coronavirus: an in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Emran, Abdullah-Al; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2014-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV), a member of Coronaviridae family, is the causative agent of upper respiratory tract infections and “atypical pneumonia”. Despite severe epidemic outbreaks on several occasions and lack of antiviral drug, not much progress has been made with regard to an epitope-based vaccine designed for HCoV. In this study, a computational approach was adopted to identify a multiepitope vaccine candidate against this virus that could be suitable to trigger a significant immune response. Sequences of the spike proteins were collected from a protein database and analyzed with an in silico tool, to identify the most immunogenic protein. Both T cell immunity and B cell immunity were checked for the peptides to ensure that they had the capacity to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The peptide sequence from 88–94 amino acids and the sequence KSSTGFVYF were found as the most potential B cell and T cell epitopes, respectively. Furthermore, conservancy analysis was also done using in silico tools and showed a conservancy of 64.29% for all epitopes. The peptide sequence could interact with as many as 16 human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and showed high cumulative population coverage, ranging from 75.68% to 90.73%. The epitope was further tested for binding against the HLA molecules, using in silico docking techniques, to verify the binding cleft epitope interaction. The allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. This computational study of design of an epitope-based peptide vaccine against HCoVs allows us to determine novel peptide antigen targets in spike proteins on intuitive grounds, albeit the preliminary results thereof require validation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:25187696

  6. HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Y.-P.; Lin, J.-Y.; Jan, J.-T.; Leng, C.-H.; Chu, C.-C.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chen, S.-L. . E-mail: showlic@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

    2006-05-26

    The immunogenicity of HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) peptide in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nuclear capsid (N) and spike (S) proteins was determined by testing the proteins' ability to elicit a specific cellular immune response after immunization of HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice and in vitro vaccination of HLA-A2.1 positive human peripheral blood mononuclearcytes (PBMCs). First, we screened SARS N and S amino acid sequences for allele-specific motif matching those in human HLA-A2.1 MHC-I molecules. From HLA peptide binding predictions (http://thr.cit.nih.gov/molbio/hla{sub b}ind/), ten each potential N- and S-specific HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were synthesized. The high affinity HLA-A2.1 peptides were validated by T2-cell stabilization assays, with immunogenicity assays revealing peptides N223-231, N227-235, and N317-325 to be First identified HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of SARS-CoV N protein. In addition, previous reports identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes of S protein (S978-986, S1203-1211, and S1167-1175), here we found two novel peptides S787-795 and S1042-1050 as S-specific CTL epitopes. Moreover, our identified N317-325 and S1042-1050 CTL epitopes could induce recall responses when IFN-{gamma} stimulation of blood CD8{sup +} T-cells revealed significant difference between normal healthy donors and SARS-recovered patients after those PBMCs were in vitro vaccinated with their cognate antigen. Our results would provide a new insight into the development of therapeutic vaccine in SARS.

  7. Roadmap to developing a recombinant coronavirus S protein receptor-binding domain vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shibo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Du, Lanying; Lustigman, Sara; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Curti, Elena; Jones, Kathryn; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    A subunit vaccine, RBD-S, is under development to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which is classified by the US NIH as a category C pathogen. This vaccine is comprised of a recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein and formulated on alum, together with a synthetic glucopyranosyl lipid A. The vaccine would induce neutralizing antibodies without causing Th2-type immunopathology. Vaccine development is being led by the nonprofit product development partnership; Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development in collaboration with two academic partners (the New York Blood Center and University of Texas Medical Branch); an industrial partner (Immune Design Corporation); and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. A roadmap for the product development of the RBD-S SARS vaccine is outlined with a goal to manufacture the vaccine for clinical testing within the next 5 years. PMID:23252385

  8. Structural Insights into Immune Recognition of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus S Protein Receptor Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, J.; Sharon, C; Satkunarajah, M; Thierry, C; Cameron, C; Kelvin, D; Seetharaman, J; Cochrane, A; Plummer, F; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    The spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is responsible for host cell attachment and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Within S the receptor binding domain (RBD) mediates the interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV host cell receptor. Both S and the RBD are highly immunogenic and both have been found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Reported here is the X-ray crystal structure of the RBD in complex with the Fab of a neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody, F26G19, elicited by immunization with chemically inactivated SARS-CoV. The RBD-F26G19 Fab complex represents the first example of the structural characterization of an antibody elicited by an immune response to SARS-CoV or any fragment of it. The structure reveals that the RBD surface recognized by F26G19 overlaps significantly with the surface recognized by ACE2 and, as such, suggests that F26G19 likely neutralizes SARS-CoV by blocking the virus-host cell interaction.

  9. Recombinant Receptor Binding Domain Protein Induces Partial Protective Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Challenge☆

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jiaming; Yao, Yanfeng; Deng, Yao; Chen, Hong; Lu, Guangwen; Wang, Wen; Bao, Linlin; Deng, Wei; Wei, Qiang; Gao, George F.; Qin, Chuan; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Background Development an effective vaccine against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is urgent and limited information is available on vaccination in nonhuman primate (NHP) model. We herein report of evaluating a recombinant receptor-binding domain (rRBD) protein vaccine in a rhesus macaque model. Methods Nine monkeys were randomly assigned to high-dose, low-dose and mock groups,which were immunized with different doses of rRBD plus alum adjuvant or adjuvant alone at different time points (0, 8, 25 weeks). Immunological analysis was conducted after each immunisation. Monkeys were challenged with MERS-CoV at 14 days after the final immunisation followed by observation for clinical signs and chest X-rays. Nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were also collected for analyses. Monkeys were euthanized 3 days after challenge and multiple specimens from tissues were collected for pathological, virological and immunological tests. Conclusion Robust and sustained immunological responses (including neutralisation antibody) were elicited by the rRBD vaccination. Besides, rRBD vaccination alleviated pneumonia with evidence of reduced tissue impairment and clinical manifestation in monkeys. Furthermore, the rRBD vaccine decreased viral load of lung, trachea and oropharyngeal swabs of monkeys. These data in NHP paves a way for further development of an effective human vaccine against MERS-CoV infection. PMID:26629538

  10. Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Resident Glucosidases Impairs Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Protein-Mediated Entry by Altering the Glycan Processing of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuesen; Guo, Fang; Comunale, Mary Ann; Mehta, Anand; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Cuconati, Andrea; Lin, Hanxin; Block, Timothy M.; Chang, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident glucosidases I and II sequentially trim the three terminal glucose moieties on the N-linked glycans attached to nascent glycoproteins. These reactions are the first steps of N-linked glycan processing and are essential for proper folding and function of many glycoproteins. Because most of the viral envelope glycoproteins contain N-linked glycans, inhibition of ER glucosidases with derivatives of 1-deoxynojirimycin, i.e., iminosugars, efficiently disrupts the morphogenesis of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. However, like viral envelope proteins, the cellular receptors of many viruses are also glycoproteins. It is therefore possible that inhibition of ER glucosidases not only compromises virion production but also disrupts expression and function of viral receptors and thus inhibits virus entry into host cells. Indeed, we demonstrate here that iminosugar treatment altered the N-linked glycan structure of angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which did not affect its expression on the cell surface or its binding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike glycoprotein. However, alteration of N-linked glycans of ACE2 impaired its ability to support the transduction of SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) spike glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentiviral particles by disruption of the viral envelope protein-triggered membrane fusion. Hence, in addition to reducing the production of infectious virions, inhibition of ER glucosidases also impairs the entry of selected viruses via a post-receptor-binding mechanism. PMID:25348530

  11. Structure-based virtual screening and experimental validation of the discovery of inhibitors targeted towards the human coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-ke; Jeyachandran, Sivakamavalli; Hu, Nien-Jen; Liu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Shing-Yen; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Ming; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-01-01

    Nucleocapsid protein (NP), an essential RNA-binding viral protein in human coronavirus (CoV)-infected cells, is required for the replication and transcription of viral RNA. Recent studies suggested that human CoV NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. Based on this aspect, structure-based virtual screening targeting nucleocapsid protein (NP) was performed to identify good chemical starting points for medicinal chemistry. The present study utilized structure-based virtual screening against human CoV-OC43 using the Zinc database, which is performed through docking with varying precisions and computational intensities to identify eight potential compounds. The chosen potential leads were further validated experimentally using biophysical means. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis indicated that one among the potential leads, 6-chloro-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethylamino) quinoxaline-5,8-dione (small-compound H3), exhibited a significant decrease of RNA-binding capacity of NP by more than 20%. The loss of binding activity was manifested as a 20% decrease in the minimum on-rate accompanied with a 70% increase in the maximum off-rate. Fluorescence titration and X-ray crystallography studies indicated that H3 antagonizes the binding between HCoV-OC43 NP and RNA by interacting with the N-terminal domain of the NP. Our findings provide insight into the development of new therapeutics that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the HCoV. The discovery of the new compound would be an impetus to design novel NP inhibitors against human CoV.

  12. Receptor Recognition Mechanisms of Coronaviruses: a Decade of Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Receptor recognition by viruses is the first and essential step of viral infections of host cells. It is an important determinant of viral host range and cross-species infection and a primary target for antiviral intervention. Coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, infect many hosts, and are health threats to humans and animals. The receptor-binding S1 subunit of coronavirus spike proteins contains two distinctive domains, the N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the C-terminal domain (S1-CTD), both of which can function as receptor-binding domains (RBDs). S1-NTDs and S1-CTDs from three major coronavirus genera recognize at least four protein receptors and three sugar receptors and demonstrate a complex receptor recognition pattern. For example, highly similar coronavirus S1-CTDs within the same genus can recognize different receptors, whereas very different coronavirus S1-CTDs from different genera can recognize the same receptor. Moreover, coronavirus S1-NTDs can recognize either protein or sugar receptors. Structural studies in the past decade have elucidated many of the puzzles associated with coronavirus-receptor interactions. This article reviews the latest knowledge on the receptor recognition mechanisms of coronaviruses and discusses how coronaviruses have evolved their complex receptor recognition pattern. It also summarizes important principles that govern receptor recognition by viruses in general. PMID:25428871

  13. Potent inhibition of feline coronaviruses with peptidyl compounds targeting coronavirus 3C-like protease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2013-02-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against a feline coronavirus in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC(50) in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in a cell culture system.

  14. Murine coronavirus nonstructural protein ns2 is not essential for virus replication in transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, B; Routledge, E; Siddell, S G

    1990-01-01

    Two isolates of the murine hepatitis virus (MHV) strain JHM, which differed in their ability to express the nonstructural gene product ns2, were characterized. The MHV Wb3 isolate encodes a 30,000-molecular-weight ns2 protein that can be readily detected in infected cells by using a specific monoclonal antibody, MAb 2A. The MHV Wb1 isolate is a deletion mutant that lacks a functional ns2 gene and the transcriptional signals required for the synthesis of an ns2 mRNA. However, there are no obviously significant differences in the growth of the MHV Wb1 and MHV Wb3 isolates in continuous cell lines or in the synthesis of viral mRNAs or proteins in infected cells. These results demonstrate that the ns2 gene product is not essential for MHV replication in transformed murine cells and suggests that the function of the ns2 gene may only be manifest in vivo. Images PMID:2168966

  15. Elastase-mediated activation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein at discrete sites within the S2 domain.

    PubMed

    Belouzard, Sandrine; Madu, Ikenna; Whittaker, Gary R

    2010-07-23

    Proteolytic priming is a common method of controlling the activation of membrane fusion mediated by viral glycoproteins. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein (SARS-CoV S) can be primed by a variety of host cell proteases, with proteolytic cleavage occurring both as the S1/S2 boundary and adjacent to a fusion peptide in the S2 domain. Here, we studied the priming of SARS-CoV S by elastase and show an important role for residue Thr(795) in the S2 domain. A series of alanine mutants were generated in the vicinity of the S2 cleavage site, with the goal of examining elastase-mediated cleavage within S2. Both proteolytic cleavage and fusion activation were modulated by altering the cleavage site position. We propose a novel mechanism whereby SARS-CoV fusion protein function can be controlled by spatial regulation of the proteolytic priming site, with important implications for viral pathogenesis.

  16. The ns12.9 Accessory Protein of Human Coronavirus OC43 Is a Viroporin Involved in Virion Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Kai; Ping, Xianqiang; Yu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An accessory gene between the S and E gene loci is contained in all coronaviruses (CoVs), and its function has been studied in some coronaviruses. This gene locus in human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) encodes the ns12.9 accessory protein; however, its function during viral infection remains unknown. Here, we engineered a recombinant mutant virus lacking the ns12.9 protein (HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9) to characterize the contributions of ns12.9 in HCoV-OC43 replication. The ns12.9 accessory protein is a transmembrane protein and forms ion channels in both Xenopus oocytes and yeast through homo-oligomerization, suggesting that ns12.9 is a newly recognized viroporin. HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 presented at least 10-fold reduction of viral titer in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, exogenous ns12.9 and heterologous viroporins with ion channel activity could compensate for the production of HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9, indicating that the ion channel activity of ns12.9 plays a significant role in the production of infectious virions. Systematic dissection of single-cycle replication revealed that ns12.9 protein had no measurable effect on virus entry, subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis, and protein expression. Further characterization revealed that HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 was less efficient in virion morphogenesis than recombinant wild-type virus (HCoV-OC43-WT). Moreover, reduced viral replication, inflammatory response, and virulence in HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9-infected mice were observed compared to the levels for HCoV-OC43-WT-infected mice. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the ns12.9 accessory protein functions as a viroporin and is involved in virion morphogenesis and the pathogenesis of HCoV-OC43 infection. IMPORTANCE HCoV-OC43 was isolated in the 1960s and is a major agent of the common cold. The functions of HCoV-OC43 structural proteins have been well studied, but few studies have focused on its accessory proteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ns12.9 protein

  17. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  18. Host cell proteases: critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large group of enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of avian and mammalian species, including humans. The emergence of deadly human coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have bolstered research in these viral and often zoonotic pathogens. While coronavirus cell and tissue tropism, host range, and pathogenesis are initially controlled by interactions between the spike envelope glycoprotein and host cell receptor, it is becoming increasingly apparent that proteolytic activation of spike by host cell proteases also plays a critical role. Coronavirus spike proteins are the main determinant of entry as they possess both receptor binding and fusion functions. Whereas binding to the host cell receptor is an essential first step in establishing infection, the proteolytic activation step is often critical for the fusion function of spike, as it allows for controlled release of the fusion peptide into target cellular membranes. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple strategies for proteolytic activation of spike, and a large number of host proteases have been shown to proteolytically process the spike protein. These include, but are not limited to, endosomal cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, and trypsin. This review focuses on the diversity of strategies coronaviruses have evolved to proteolytically activate their fusion protein during spike protein biosynthesis and the critical entry step of their life cycle, and highlights important findings on how proteolytic activation of coronavirus spike influences tissue and cell tropism, host range and pathogenicity. PMID:25445340

  19. Coronavirus infection of spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    East, Marion L; Moestl, Karin; Benetka, Viviane; Pitra, Christian; Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert

    2004-08-19

    Sera from 38 free-ranging spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, were screened for exposure to coronavirus of antigenic group 1. An immunofluorescence assay indicated high levels of exposure to coronavirus among Serengeti hyenas: 95% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:10 and 74% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:40. Cubs had generally lower mean titer levels than adults. Exposure among Serengeti hyenas to coronavirus was also confirmed by a serum neutralisation assay and an ELISA. Application of RT-PCR to 27 fecal samples revealed viral RNA in three samples (11%). All three positive fecal samples were from the 15 juvenile animals (<24 months of age) sampled, and none from the 12 adults sampled. No viral RNA was detected in tissue samples (lymph node, intestine, lung) from 11 individuals. Sequencing of two amplified products from the S protein gene of a positive sample revealed the presence of coronavirus specific RNA with a sequence homology to canine coronavirus of 76 and 78% and to feline coronavirus type II of 80 and 84%, respectively. Estimation of the phylogenetic relationship among coronavirus isolates indicated considerable divergence of the hyena variant from those in European, American and Japanese domestic cats and dogs. From long-term observations of several hundred known individuals, the only clinical sign in hyenas consistent with those described for coronavirus infections in dogs and cats was diarrhea. There was no evidence that coronavirus infection in hyenas caused clinical signs similar to feline infectious peritonitis in domestic cats or was a direct cause of mortality in hyenas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of coronavirus infection in Hyaenidae.

  20. Infectious Bronchitis Coronavirus Inhibits STAT1 Signaling and Requires Accessory Proteins for Resistance to Type I Interferon Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kint, Joeri; Dickhout, Annemiek; Kutter, Jasmin; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Koumans, Joseph; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fros, Jelke J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The innate immune response is the first line of defense against viruses, and type I interferon (IFN) is a critical component of this response. Similar to other viruses, the gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has evolved under evolutionary pressure to evade and counteract the IFN response to enable its survival. Previously, we reported that IBV induces a delayed activation of the IFN response. In the present work, we describe the resistance of IBV to IFN and the potential role of accessory proteins herein. We show that IBV is fairly resistant to the antiviral state induced by IFN and identify that viral accessory protein 3a is involved in resistance to IFN, as its absence renders IBV less resistant to IFN treatment. In addition to this, we found that independently of its accessory proteins, IBV inhibits IFN-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of STAT1. In summary, we show that IBV uses multiple strategies to counteract the IFN response. IMPORTANCE In the present study, we show that infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is resistant to IFN treatment and identify a role for accessory protein 3a in the resistance against the type I IFN response. We also demonstrate that, in a time-dependent manner, IBV effectively interferes with IFN signaling and that its accessory proteins are dispensable for this activity. This study demonstrates that the gammacoronavirus IBV, similar to its mammalian counterparts, has evolved multiple strategies to efficiently counteract the IFN response of its avian host, and it identifies accessory protein 3a as multifaceted antagonist of the avian IFN system. PMID:26401035

  1. Changes in some acute phase protein and immunoglobulin concentrations in cats affected by feline infectious peritonitis or exposed to feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Giordano, A; Spagnolo, V; Colombo, A; Paltrinieri, S

    2004-01-01

    The possible role of some acute phase proteins (APPs) and immunoglobulins in both the pathogenesis and diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) has been investigated. Serum protein electrophoresis and the concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), IgG and IgM were evaluated in cats exposed to feline coronavirus (FCoV) and in cats with FIP. The highest concentration of APPs was detected in affected cats, confirming the role of these proteins in supporting a clinical diagnosis of FIP. Repeated samplings from both FIP affected and FCoV-exposed cats showed that when FIP appeared in the group, all the cats had increased APP levels. This increase persisted only in cats that developed FIP (in spite of a decrease in alpha(2)-globulins) but it was only transient in FCoV-exposed cats, in which a long lasting increase in alpha(2)-globulins was observed. These results suggest that changes in the electrophoretic motility of APPs or APPs other than Hp, SAA and AGP might be involved in the pathogenesis of FIP or in protecting cats from the disease.

  2. Inhibition of proprotein convertases abrogates processing of the middle eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein in infected cells but does not reduce viral infectivity.

    PubMed

    Gierer, Stefanie; Müller, Marcel A; Heurich, Adeline; Ritz, Daniel; Springstein, Benjamin L; Karsten, Christina B; Schendzielorz, Alexander; Gnirß, Kerstin; Drosten, Christian; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is associated with a high case-fatality rate, and the potential pandemic spread of the virus is a public health concern. The spike protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-S) facilitates viral entry into host cells, which depends on activation of MERS-S by cellular proteases. Proteolytic activation of MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells has been demonstrated. However, it is unclear whether MERS-S is also cleaved during S protein synthesis in infected cells and whether cleavage is required for MERS-CoV infectivity. Here, we show that MERS-S is processed by proprotein convertases in MERS-S-transfected and MERS-CoV-infected cells and that several RXXR motifs located at the border between the surface and transmembrane subunit of MERS-S are required for efficient proteolysis. However, blockade of proprotein convertases did not impact MERS-S-dependent transduction of target cells expressing high amounts of the viral receptor, DPP4, and did not modulate MERS-CoV infectivity. These results show that MERS-S is a substrate for proprotein convertases and demonstrate that processing by these enzymes is dispensable for S protein activation. Efforts to inhibit MERS-CoV infection by targeting host cell proteases should therefore focus on enzymes that process MERS-S during viral uptake into target cells.

  3. Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Huang, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-10-01

    The SARS epidemic has boosted interest in research on coronavirus biodiversity and genomics. Before 2003, there were only 10 coronaviruses with complete genomes available. After the SARS epidemic, up to December 2008, there was an addition of 16 coronaviruses with complete genomes sequenced. These include two human coronaviruses (human coronavirus NL63 and human coronavirus HKU1), 10 other mammalian coronaviruses [bat SARS coronavirus, bat coronavirus (bat-CoV) HKU2, bat-CoV HKU4, bat-CoV HKU5, bat-CoV HKU8, bat-CoV HKU9, bat-CoV 512/2005, bat-CoV 1A, equine coronavirus, and beluga whale coronavirus] and four avian coronaviruses (turkey coronavirus, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13). Two novel subgroups in group 2 coronavirus (groups 2c and 2d) and two novel subgroups in group 3 coronavirus (groups 3b and 3c) have been proposed. The diversity of coronaviruses is a result of the infidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, high frequency of homologous RNA recombination, and the large genomes of coronaviruses. Among all hosts, the diversity of coronaviruses is most evidenced in bats and birds, which may be a result of their species diversity, ability to fly, environmental pressures, and habits of roosting and flocking. The present evidence supports that bat coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, whereas bird coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 3 coronaviruses. With the increasing number of coronaviruses, more and more closely related coronaviruses from distantly related animals have been observed, which were results of recent interspecies jumping and may be the cause of disastrous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. PMID:19546349

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus M protein suppresses type I interferon expression through the inhibition of TBK1-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Pak-Yin; Wong, Lok-Yin Roy; Fung, Cheuk-Lai; Siu, Kam-Leung; Yeung, Man-Lung; Yuen, Kit-San; Chan, Chi-Ping; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection has claimed hundreds of lives and has become a global threat since its emergence in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The ability of MERS-CoV to evade the host innate antiviral response may contribute to its severe pathogenesis. Many MERS-CoV-encoded proteins were identified to have interferon (IFN)-antagonizing properties, which correlates well with the reduced IFN levels observed in infected patients and ex vivo models. In this study, we fully characterized the IFN-antagonizing property of the MERS-CoV M protein. Expression of MERS-CoV M protein suppressed type I IFN expression in response to Sendai virus infection or poly(I:C) induction. This suppressive effect was found to be specific for the activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but not nuclear factor-κB. MERS-CoV M protein interacted with TRAF3 and disrupted TRAF3–TBK1 association leading to reduced IRF3 activation. M proteins from MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have three highly similar conserved N-terminal transmembrane domains and a C-terminal region. Using chimeric and truncation mutants, the N-terminal transmembrane domains of the MERS-CoV M protein were found to be sufficient for its inhibitory effect on IFN expression, whereas the C-terminal domain was unable to induce this suppression. Collectively, our findings suggest a common and conserved mechanism through which highly pathogenic MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV harness their M proteins to suppress type I IFN expression at the level of TBK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation of IRF3 resulting in evasion of the host innate antiviral response. PMID:27094905

  5. Characterization of a highly conserved domain within the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein S2 domain with characteristics of a viral fusion peptide.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ikenna G; Roth, Shoshannah L; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-08-01

    Many viral fusion proteins are primed by proteolytic cleavage near their fusion peptides. While the coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein is known to be cleaved at the S1/S2 boundary, this cleavage site is not closely linked to a fusion peptide. However, a second cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). Here, we investigated whether this internal cleavage of S2 exposes a viral fusion peptide. We show that the residues immediately C-terminal to the SARS-CoV S2 cleavage site SFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGF are very highly conserved across all CoVs. Mutagenesis studies of these residues in SARS-CoV S, followed by cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for residues L803, L804, and F805 in membrane fusion. Mutation of the most N-terminal residue (S798) had little or no effect on membrane fusion. Biochemical analyses of synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed S2 fusion peptide also showed an important role for this region in membrane fusion and indicated the presence of alpha-helical structure. We propose that proteolytic cleavage within S2 exposes a novel internal fusion peptide for SARS-CoV S, which may be conserved across the Coronaviridae.

  6. Characterization of a Highly Conserved Domain within the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein S2 Domain with Characteristics of a Viral Fusion Peptide▿

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Roth, Shoshannah L.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Many viral fusion proteins are primed by proteolytic cleavage near their fusion peptides. While the coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein is known to be cleaved at the S1/S2 boundary, this cleavage site is not closely linked to a fusion peptide. However, a second cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). Here, we investigated whether this internal cleavage of S2 exposes a viral fusion peptide. We show that the residues immediately C-terminal to the SARS-CoV S2 cleavage site SFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGF are very highly conserved across all CoVs. Mutagenesis studies of these residues in SARS-CoV S, followed by cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for residues L803, L804, and F805 in membrane fusion. Mutation of the most N-terminal residue (S798) had little or no effect on membrane fusion. Biochemical analyses of synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed S2 fusion peptide also showed an important role for this region in membrane fusion and indicated the presence of α-helical structure. We propose that proteolytic cleavage within S2 exposes a novel internal fusion peptide for SARS-CoV S, which may be conserved across the Coronaviridae. PMID:19439480

  7. Elastase-mediated Activation of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Protein at Discrete Sites within the S2 Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Belouzard, Sandrine; Madu, Ikenna; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic priming is a common method of controlling the activation of membrane fusion mediated by viral glycoproteins. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein (SARS-CoV S) can be primed by a variety of host cell proteases, with proteolytic cleavage occurring both as the S1/S2 boundary and adjacent to a fusion peptide in the S2 domain. Here, we studied the priming of SARS-CoV S by elastase and show an important role for residue Thr795 in the S2 domain. A series of alanine mutants were generated in the vicinity of the S2 cleavage site, with the goal of examining elastase-mediated cleavage within S2. Both proteolytic cleavage and fusion activation were modulated by altering the cleavage site position. We propose a novel mechanism whereby SARS-CoV fusion protein function can be controlled by spatial regulation of the proteolytic priming site, with important implications for viral pathogenesis. PMID:20507992

  8. A single amino acid substitution (R441A) in the receptor-binding domain of SARS coronavirus spike protein disrupts the antigenic structure and binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    He Yuxian . E-mail: yhe@nybloodcenter.org; Li Jingjing; Jiang Shibo

    2006-05-26

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has two major functions: interacting with the receptor to mediate virus entry and inducing protective immunity. Coincidently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 318-510) of SAR-CoV S protein is a major antigenic site to induce neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used RBD-Fc, a fusion protein containing the RBD and human IgG1 Fc, as a model in the studies and found that a single amino acid substitution in the RBD (R441A) could abolish the immunogenicity of RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice and rabbits. With a panel of anti-RBD mAbs as probes, we observed that R441A substitution was able to disrupt the majority of neutralizing epitopes in the RBD, suggesting that this residue is critical for the antigenic structure responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We also demonstrated that the RBD-Fc bearing R441A mutation could not bind to soluble and cell-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV and failed to block S protein-mediated pseudovirus entry, indicating that this point mutation also disrupted the receptor-binding motif (RBM) in the RBD. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence to show that a single amino acid residue at key position in the RBD can determine the major function of SARS-CoV S protein and imply for designing SARS vaccines and therapeutics.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the Nucleic Acid-Binding Domain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 3▿

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A.; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand β-sheet holding two α-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the β-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand β-sheets and two 310-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold. PMID:19828617

  10. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  11. Influence of hydrophobic and electrostatic residues on SARS-coronavirus S2 protein stability: Insights into mechanisms of general viral fusion and inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Halil; Al-Khooly, Dina; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV entry is facilitated by the spike protein (S), which consists of an N-terminal domain (S1) responsible for cellular attachment and a C-terminal domain (S2) that mediates viral and host cell membrane fusion. The SARS-CoV S2 is a potential drug target, as peptidomimetics against S2 act as potent fusion inhibitors. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis and thermal stability experiments on electrostatic, hydrophobic, and polar residues to dissect their roles in stabilizing the S2 postfusion conformation was performed. It was shown that unlike the pH-independent retroviral fusion proteins, SARS-CoV S2 is stable over a wide pH range, supporting its ability to fuse at both the plasma membrane and endosome. A comprehensive SARS-CoV S2 analysis showed that specific hydrophobic positions at the C-terminal end of the HR2, rather than electrostatics are critical for fusion protein stabilization. Disruption of the conserved C-terminal hydrophobic residues destabilized the fusion core and reduced the melting temperature by 30°C. The importance of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues led us to identify a 42-residue substructure on the central core that is structurally conserved in all existing CoV S2 fusion proteins (root mean squared deviation = 0.4 Å). This is the first study to identify such a conserved substructure and likely represents a common foundation to facilitate viral fusion. We have discussed the role of key residues in the design of fusion inhibitors and the potential of the substructure as a general target for the development of novel therapeutics against CoV infections. PMID:24519901

  12. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Graham; Bertram, Stephanie; Glowacka, Ilona; Steffen, Imke; Chaipan, Chawaree; Agudelo, Juliet; Lu Kai; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Hofmann, Heike; Bates, Paul; Poehlmann, Stefan

    2011-05-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a considerable threat to human health. Activation of the viral spike (S)-protein by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity. However, the cleavage sites in SARS-S and the protease(s) activating SARS-S are incompletely defined. We found that R667 was dispensable for SARS-S-driven virus-cell fusion and for SARS-S-activation by trypsin and cathepsin L in a virus-virus fusion assay. Mutation T760R, which optimizes the minimal furin consensus motif 758-RXXR-762, and furin overexpression augmented SARS-S activity, but did not result in detectable SARS-S cleavage. Finally, SARS-S-driven cell-cell fusion was independent of cathepsin L, a protease essential for virus-cell fusion. Instead, a so far unknown leupeptin-sensitive host cell protease activated cellular SARS-S for fusion with target cells expressing high levels of ACE2. Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation.

  13. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  14. Regulation of drug sensitivity by ribosomal protein S3a.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z B; Minden, M D; McCulloch, E A; Stahl, J

    2000-02-01

    When bcl-2 is immunoprecipitated from (32)P-labeled cell extracts of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) blasts, a phosphorylated protein of approximately 30 kd is coprecipitated. This protein has been identified as ribosomal protein S3a. The biologic effects of S3a include favoring apoptosis and enhancing the malignant phenotype. We sought to determine whether S3a, like bcl-2, influenced the response of cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and ATRA. Cell lines were studied in which S3a was genetically increased or disrupted; increased S3a was regularly associated with increased plating efficiency and increased sensitivity to either cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) or doxorubicin (DNR). S3a did not affect the sensitivity of cells to paclitaxel. Pulse exposures to either (3)HTdR or ara-C showed a greater percentage of clonogenic cells in the S phase of the cell cycle in cells with increased S3a than in controls. Cells with increased S3a responded to ATRA by increased ara-C or DNR sensitivity, whereas cells with reduced S3a protein were either protected by ATRA or not affected. We studied cryopreserved blast cells from patients with AML or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). S3a protein levels were heterogeneous in these populations. In 32 cryopreserved blast populations, S3a levels were significantly correlated with both bcl-2 and with cell growth in culture. As in cell lines, high S3a in cryopreserved blasts was associated with ATRA-induced sensitization to ara-C. No significant association was seen between S3a levels and response to treatment. PMID:10648421

  15. An eight-year epidemiologic study based on baculovirus-expressed type-specific spike proteins for the differentiation of type I and II feline coronavirus infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoVs are divided into two serotypes with markedly different infection rates among cat populations around the world. A baculovirus-expressed type-specific domain of the spike proteins of FCoV was used to survey the infection of the two viruses over the past eight years in Taiwan. Results An immunofluorescence assay based on cells infected with the recombinant viruses that was capable of distinguishing between the two types of viral infection was established. A total of 833 cases from a teaching hospital was surveyed for prevalence of different FCoV infections. Infection of the type I FCoV was dominant, with a seropositive rate of 70.4%, whereas 3.5% of cats were infected with the type II FCoV. In most cases, results derived from serotyping and genotyping were highly agreeable. However, 16.7% (4/24) FIP cats and 9.8% (6/61) clinically healthy cats were found to possess antibodies against both viruses. Moreover, most of the cats (84.6%, 22/26) infected with a genotypic untypable virus bearing a type I FCoV antibody. Conclusion A relatively simple serotyping method to distinguish between two types of FCoV infection was developed. Based on this method, two types of FCoV infection in Taiwan was first carried out. Type I FCoV was found to be predominant compared with type II virus. Results derived from serotyping and genotyping support our current understanding of evolution of disease-related FCoV and transmission of FIP. PMID:25123112

  16. Construction of recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the S1 protein of Turkey enteric coronavirus for use as a bivalent vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey enteric coronavirus (TCoV) causes a contagious form of enteritis in turkeys, generally recognized in the field by outward signs including diarrhea and decreased weight gain, resulting in severe economic losses for the poultry industry in the US. To date there is no commercial vaccine availab...

  17. Characterization of Two Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Linker Region and Carboxyl Terminal Domain of Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunnuan; Shi, Hongyan; Chen, Jianfei; Shi, Da; Feng, Li

    2016-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleocapsid (N) protein plays important roles in the replication and translation of viral RNA. The present study provides the first description of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (5E8 and 3D7) directed against the TGEV N protein linker region (LKR) and carboxyl terminal domain (CTD). The mAbs 5E8 and 3D7 reacted with native N protein in western blotting and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Two linear epitopes, 189SVEQAVLAALKKLG202 and 246VTRFYGARSSSA257, located in the LKR and CTD of TGEV N protein, respectively, were identified after truncating the protein and applying a peptide scanning technique. Using mAb 5E8, we observed that the N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm during TGEV replication and that the protein could be immunoprecipitated from TGEV-infected PK-15 cells. The mAb 5E8 can be applied for different approaches to diagnosis of TGEV infection. In addition, the antibodies represent useful tools for investigating the antigenic properties of the N protein. PMID:27689694

  18. Solution structure of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp3a and determinants of the interaction with MHV nucleocapsid (N) protein.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Giedroc, David P

    2013-03-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that infect a variety of vertebrate hosts. The CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein contains two structurally independent RNA binding domains, designated the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the dimeric C-terminal domain (CTD), joined by a charged linker region rich in serine and arginine residues (SR-rich linker). An important goal in unraveling N function is to molecularly characterize N-protein interactions. Recent genetic evidence suggests that N interacts with nsp3a, a component of the viral replicase. Here we present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nsp3a and show, using isothermal titration calorimetry, that MHV N219, an N construct that extends into the SR-rich linker (residues 60 to 219), binds cognate nsp3a with high affinity (equilibrium association constant [K(a)], [1.4 ± 0.3] × 10(6) M(-1)). In contrast, neither N197, an N construct containing only the folded NTD (residues 60 to 197), nor the CTD dimer (residues 260 to 380) binds nsp3a with detectable affinity. This indicates that the key nsp3a binding determinants localize to the SR-rich linker, a finding consistent with those of reverse genetics studies. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis reveals that the N-terminal region of an MHV N SR-rich linker peptide (residues 198 to 230) binds to the acidic face of MHV nsp3a containing the acidic α2 helix with an affinity (expressed as K(a)) of 8.1 × 10(3) M(-1). These studies reveal that the SR-rich linker of MHV N is necessary but not sufficient to maintain this high-affinity binding to N.

  19. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  20. From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic. PMID:23977429

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin.

    PubMed

    Millet, Jean K; Séron, Karin; Labitt, Rachael N; Danneels, Adeline; Palmer, Kenneth E; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubuisson, Jean; Belouzard, Sandrine

    2016-09-01

    Highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with a severe respiratory syndrome, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have recently emerged. The MERS-CoV epidemic started in 2012 and is still ongoing, with a mortality rate of approximately 35%. No vaccine is available against MERS-CoV and therapeutic options for MERS-CoV infections are limited to palliative and supportive care. A search for specific antiviral treatments is urgently needed. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, with the spike proteins present on their surface responsible for virus entry into the target cell. Lectins are attractive anti-coronavirus candidates because of the highly glycosylated nature of the spike protein. We tested the antiviral effect of griffithsin (GRFT), a lectin isolated from the red marine alga Griffithsia sp. against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that while displaying no significant cytotoxicity, griffithsin is a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection. Griffithsin also inhibits entry into host cells of particles pseudotyped with the MERS-CoV spike protein, suggesting that griffithsin inhibits spike protein function during entry. Spike proteins have a dual function during entry, they mediate binding to the host cell surface and also the fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membrane. Time course experiments show that griffithsin inhibits MERS-CoV infection at the binding step. In conclusion, we identify griffithsin as a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection at the entry step. PMID:27424494

  2. Deficient incorporation of spike protein into virions contributes to the lack of infectivity following establishment of a persistent, non-productive infection in oligodendroglial cell culture by murine coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yin; Herbst, Werner; Cao Jianzhong; Zhang Xuming

    2011-01-05

    Infection of mouse oligodendrocytes with a recombinant mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) expressing a green fluorescence protein facilitated specific selection of virus-infected cells and subsequent establishment of persistence. Interestingly, while viral genomic RNAs persisted in infected cells over 14 subsequent passages with concomitant synthesis of viral subgenomic mRNAs and structural proteins, no infectious virus was isolated beyond passage 2. Further biochemical and electron microscopic analyses revealed that virions, while assembled, contained little spike in the envelope, indicating that lack of infectivity during persistence was likely due to deficiency in spike incorporation. This type of non-lytic, non-productive persistence in oligodendrocytes is unique among animal viruses and resembles MHV persistence previously observed in the mouse central nervous system. Thus, establishment of such a culture system that can recapitulate the in vivo phenomenon will provide a powerful approach for elucidating the mechanisms of coronavirus persistence in glial cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Betacoronavirus Lineage C Viruses in Bats Reveals Marked Sequence Divergence in the Spike Protein of Pipistrellus Bat Coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese Pipistrelle: Implications for the Origin of the Novel Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Ahmed, Shakeel; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung

    2013-01-01

    While the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is closely related to Tylonycteris bat CoV HKU4 (Ty-BatCoV HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat CoV HKU5 (Pi-BatCoV HKU5) in bats from Hong Kong, and other potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in bats from Africa, Europe, and America, its animal origin remains obscure. To better understand the role of bats in its origin, we examined the molecular epidemiology and evolution of lineage C betacoronaviruses among bats. Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5 were detected in 29% and 25% of alimentary samples from lesser bamboo bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) and Japanese pipistrelle (Pipistrellus abramus), respectively. Sequencing of their RNA polymerase (RdRp), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes revealed that MERS-CoV is more closely related to Pi-BatCoV HKU5 in RdRp (92.1% to 92.3% amino acid [aa] identity) but is more closely related to Ty-BatCoV HKU4 in S (66.8% to 67.4% aa identity) and N (71.9% to 72.3% aa identity). Although both viruses were under purifying selection, the S of Pi-BatCoV HKU5 displayed marked sequence polymorphisms and more positively selected sites than that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4, suggesting that Pi-BatCoV HKU5 may generate variants to occupy new ecological niches along with its host in diverse habitats. Molecular clock analysis showed that they diverged from a common ancestor with MERS-CoV at least several centuries ago. Although MERS-CoV may have diverged from potential lineage C betacoronaviruses in European bats more recently, these bat viruses were unlikely to be the direct ancestor of MERS-CoV. Intensive surveillance for lineage C betaCoVs in Pipistrellus and related bats with diverse habitats and other animals in the Middle East may fill the evolutionary gap. PMID:23720729

  4. Peptides Interfering 3A Protein Dimerization Decrease FMDV Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Beatriz G.; Valle, Javier; Andreu, David; Sobrino, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 3A is involved in relevant functions in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. FMDV 3A can form homodimers and preservation of the two hydrophobic α-helices (α1 and α2) that stabilize the dimer interface is essential for virus replication. In this work, small peptides mimicking residues involved in the dimer interface were used to interfere with dimerization and thus gain insight on its biological function. The dimer interface peptides α1, α2 and that spanning the two hydrophobic α-helices, α12, impaired in vitro dimer formation of a peptide containing the two α-helices, this effect being higher with peptide α12. To assess the effect of dimer inhibition in cultured cells, the interfering peptides were N-terminally fused to a heptaarginine (R7) sequence to favor their intracellular translocation. Thus, when fused to R7, interference peptides (100 μM) were able to inhibit dimerization of transiently expressed 3A, the higher inhibitions being found with peptides α1 and α12. The 3A dimerization impairment exerted by the peptides correlated with significant, specific reductions in the viral yield recovered from peptide-treated FMDV infected cells. In this case, α2 was the only peptide producing significant reductions at concentrations lower than 100 μM. Thus, dimer interface peptides constitute a tool to understand the structure-function relationship of this viral protein and point to 3A dimerization as a potential antiviral target. PMID:26505190

  5. ERM proteins regulate growth cone responses to Sema3A

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, C. David; Carcea, Ioana; McNickle, Daniel G.; Dickson, Tracey C.; Ge, Yongchao; Salton, Stephen R.J.; Benson, Deanna L.

    2008-01-01

    Axonal growth cones initiate and sustain directed growth in response to cues in their environment. A variety of events such as receptor internalization, kinase activation, and actin rearrangement can be stimulated by guidance cues and are essential for mediating targeted growth cone behavior. Surprisingly little is known about how such disparate actions are coordinated. Our data suggest that ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERMs), a family of highly homologous, multifunctional proteins may be able to coordinate growth cone responses to the guidance cue, Sema3A. We show that active ERMs concentrate asymmetrically in neocortical growth cones, are rapidly and transiently inactivated by Sema3A, and are required for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse and guidance. The FERM domain of active ERMs regulates internalization of the Sema3A receptor, Npn1 and its co-receptor, L1CAM, while the ERM C-terminal domain binds and caps F-actin. Our data support a model in which ERMs can coordinate membrane and actin dynamics in response to Sema3A. PMID:18651636

  6. Human Coronavirus HKU1 Spike Protein Uses O-Acetylated Sialic Acid as an Attachment Receptor Determinant and Employs Hemagglutinin-Esterase Protein as a Receptor-Destroying Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xingchuan; Dong, Wenjuan; Milewska, Aleksandra; Golda, Anna; Qi, Yonghe; Zhu, Quan K.; Marasco, Wayne A.; Baric, Ralph S.; Sims, Amy C.; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human coronavirus (hCoV) HKU1 is one of six hCoVs identified to date and the only one with an unidentified cellular receptor. hCoV-HKU1 encodes a hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein that is unique to the group a betacoronaviruses (group 2a). The function of HKU1-HE remains largely undetermined. In this study, we examined binding of the S1 domain of hCoV-HKU1 spike to a panel of cells and found that the S1 could specifically bind on the cell surface of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, RD. Pretreatment of RD cells with neuraminidase (NA) and trypsin greatly reduced the binding, suggesting that the binding was mediated by sialic acids on glycoproteins. However, unlike other group 2a CoVs, e.g., hCoV-OC43, for which 9-O-acetylated sialic acid (9-O-Ac-Sia) serves as a receptor determinant, HKU1-S1 bound with neither 9-O-Ac-Sia-containing glycoprotein(s) nor rat and mouse erythrocytes. Nonetheless, the HKU1-HE was similar to OC43-HE, also possessed sialate-O-acetylesterase activity, and acted as a receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) capable of eliminating the binding of HKU1-S1 to RD cells, whereas the O-acetylesterase-inactive HKU1-HE mutant lost this capacity. Using primary human ciliated airway epithelial (HAE) cell cultures, the only in vitro replication model for hCoV-HKU1 infection, we confirmed that pretreatment of HAE cells with HE but not the enzymatically inactive mutant blocked hCoV-HKU1 infection. These results demonstrate that hCoV-HKU1 exploits O-Ac-Sia as a cellular attachment receptor determinant to initiate the infection of host cells and that its HE protein possesses the corresponding sialate-O-acetylesterase RDE activity. IMPORTANCE Human coronaviruses (hCoV) are important human respiratory pathogens. Among the six hCoVs identified to date, only hCoV-HKU1 has no defined cellular receptor. It is also unclear whether hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein plays a role in viral entry. In this study, we found that, similarly to other members of the

  7. Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

    2014-01-01

    The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus–host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling. PMID:24987391

  8. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. PMID:26184451

  9. A human coronavirus OC43 variant harboring persistence-associated mutations in the S glycoprotein differentially induces the unfolded protein response in human neurons as compared to wild-type virus

    SciTech Connect

    Favreau, Dominique J.; Desforges, Marc; St-Jean, Julien R.; Talbot, Pierre J.

    2009-12-20

    We have reported that human respiratory coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is neurotropic and neuroinvasive in humans and mice, and that neurons are the primary target of infection in mice, leading to neurodegenerative disabilities. We now report that an HCoV-OC43 mutant harboring two persistence-associated S glycoprotein point mutations (H183R and Y241H), induced a stronger unfolded protein response (UPR) and translation attenuation in infected human neurons. There was a major contribution of the IRE1/XBP1 pathway, followed by caspase-3 activation and nuclear fragmentation, with no significant role of the ATF6 and eIF2-alpha/ATF4 pathways. Our results show the importance of discrete molecular viral S determinants in virus-neuronal cell interactions that lead to increased production of viral proteins and infectious particles, enhanced UPR activation, and increased cytotoxicity and cell death. As this mutant virus is more neurovirulent in mice, our results also suggest that two mutations in the S glycoprotein could eventually modulate viral neuropathogenesis.

  10. Receptor usage and cell entry of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Tang, Jian; Ma, Yuanmei; Liang, Xueya; Yang, Yang; Peng, Guiqing; Qi, Qianqian; Jiang, Shibo; Li, Jianrong; Du, Lanying; Li, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) has significantly damaged America's pork industry. Here we investigate the receptor usage and cell entry of PEDV. PEDV recognizes protein receptor aminopeptidase N from pig and human and sugar coreceptor N-acetylneuraminic acid. Moreover, PEDV infects cells from pig, human, monkey, and bat. These results support the idea of bats as an evolutionary origin for PEDV, implicate PEDV as a potential threat to other species, and suggest antiviral strategies to control its spread. PMID:25787280

  11. Coronavirus phylogeny based on triplets of nucleic acids bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Liu, Yanshu; Li, Renfa; Zhu, Wen

    2006-04-01

    We considered the fully overlapping triplets of nucleotide bases and proposed a 2D graphical representation of protein sequences consisting of 20 amino acids and a stop code. Based on this 2D graphical representation, we outlined a new approach to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of coronaviruses by constructing a covariance matrix. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the two-dimensional curves.

  12. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  13. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  14. Inner structures of some coronaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, L; Marois, P; Marsolais, G; Di Franco, E; Assaf, R

    1981-01-01

    When treated with formaldehyde, Tween 80, sodium oleate and Nonidet P-40, avian infectious bronchitis virus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus as well as the human coronavirus show similar inner structures by negative staining. The first one is an inner membranous bag. This structure could be evaginated following treatments used and does not show the characteristic projections of coronaviruses. Subsequently, the inner fold could be separated from the outer membrane at the point of junction between these two membranes. Each virus does not react in the same way to the action of the different products. The transmissible gastroenteritis virus appears more sensitive to treatments than other viruses. On the other hand, the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus is the most resistant. The variable sensitivities of these viruses are not related to the type of host-cells. Also, a second internal structure, which is more dense than the viral particle, encircles partially the aperture of the internal tongue-shaped structure and seems to emerge from the viral particle through the aperture of the inner bag. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6266623

  15. Cyclosporin A inhibits the replication of diverse coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Adriaan H; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; van der Meer, Yvonne; Thiel, Volker; Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2011-11-01

    Low micromolar, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cyclosporin A (CsA) strongly affected the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), human coronavirus 229E and mouse hepatitis virus in cell culture, as was evident from the strong inhibition of GFP reporter gene expression and a reduction of up to 4 logs in progeny titres. Upon high-multiplicity infection, CsA treatment rendered SARS-CoV RNA and protein synthesis almost undetectable, suggesting an early block in replication. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the prominent CsA targets cyclophilin A and B did not affect SARS-CoV replication, suggesting either that these specific cyclophilin family members are dispensable or that the reduced expression levels suffice to support replication. PMID:21752960

  16. Comparative properties of feline coronaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F; Davis, E V; Ott, R L

    1987-04-01

    Two feline coronaviruses were characterized to determine their biological properties in vitro and their antigenic relatedness to a previously recognized feline infectious peritonitis virus and canine coronavirus. The viruses, designated WSU 79-1146 and WSU 79-1683, were shown to have comparable growth curves with the prototype feline infectious peritonitis virus. Treatment of the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains with 0.25% trypsin indicated that they were relatively resistant to proteolytic inactivation when compared with the feline enteric coronavirus strain. This observation may serve as a useful in vitro marker to distinguish closely related members of the feline coronavirus group. Plaque assay results indicated that the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains produced large homogeneous plaques in comparison to the feline enteric coronavirus strain and canine coronavirus, which showed a heterogenous plaque size distribution. No naturally temperature sensitive mutants were detected in either of the feline coronavirus populations. Both of the viruses were antigenically related to feline infectious peritonitis virus and to a lesser extent to canine coronavirus by virus neutralization.

  17. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  18. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  19. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  20. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  1. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  2. Gene 5 of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is not essential for replication.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Davies, Marc; Cavanagh, David; Britton, Paul

    2005-07-01

    The avian coronavirus Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), like other coronaviruses, expresses several small nonstructural (ns) proteins in addition to those from gene 1 (replicase) and the structural proteins. These coronavirus ns genes differ both in number and in amino acid similarity between the coronavirus groups but show some concordance within a group or subgroup. The functions and requirements of the small ns gene products remain to be elucidated. With the advent of reverse genetics for coronaviruses, the first steps in elucidating their role can be investigated. We have used our reverse genetics system for IBV (R. Casais, V. Thiel, S. G. Siddell, D. Cavanagh, and P. Britton, J. Virol. 75:12359-12369, 2001) to investigate the requirement of IBV gene 5 for replication in vivo, in ovo, and ex vivo. We produced a series of recombinant viruses, with an isogenic background, in which complete expression of gene 5 products was prevented by the inactivation of gene 5 following scrambling of the transcription-associated sequence, thereby preventing the expression of IBV subgenomic mRNA 5, or scrambling either separately or together of the translation initiation codons for the two gene 5 products. As all of the recombinant viruses replicated very similarly to the wild-type virus, Beau-R, we conclude that the IBV gene 5 products are not essential for IBV replication per se and that they are accessory proteins.

  3. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Iablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Moskaleva, N E; Bulko, T V; Shumiantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes P450 3A4, 3A5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 - -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 to testosterone.

  4. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26.

  5. First genome sequences of buffalo coronavirus from water buffaloes in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Lau, S K P; Tsang, A K L; Shakeel Ahmed, S; Mahbub Alam, M; Ahmed, Z; Wong, P-C; Yuen, K-Y; Woo, P C Y

    2016-05-01

    We report the complete genome sequences of a buffalo coronavirus (BufCoV HKU26) detected from the faecal samples of two domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Bangladesh. They possessed 98-99% nucleotide identities to bovine coronavirus (BCoV) genomes, supporting BufCoV HKU26 as a member of Betacoronavirus 1. Nevertheless, BufCoV HKU26 possessed distinct accessory proteins between spike and envelope compared to BCoV. Sugar-binding residues in the N-terminal domain of S protein in BCoV are conserved in BufCoV HKU26. PMID:27274850

  6. Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Brandon; Rottier, Peter J.M.; DiMaio, Frank; Rey, Félix A.; Veesler, David

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the last decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion functions1. S also contains the principal antigenic determinants and is the target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we present the structure of a murine coronavirus S trimer ectodomain determined at 4.0 Å resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. It reveals the metastable pre-fusion architecture of S and highlights key interactions stabilizing it. The structure shares a common core with paramyxovirus F proteins2,3, implicating mechanistic similarities and an evolutionary connection between these viral fusion proteins. The accessibility of the highly conserved fusion peptide at the periphery of the trimer indicates potential vaccinology strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against coronaviruses. Finally, comparison with crystal structures of human coronavirus S domains allows rationalization of the molecular basis for species specificity based on the use of spatially contiguous but distinct domains. PMID:26855426

  7. CGR3: a Golgi-localized protein influencing homogalacturonan methylesterification.

    PubMed

    Held, Michael A; Be, Evan; Zemelis, Starla; Withers, Saunia; Wilkerson, Curtis; Brandizzi, Federica

    2011-09-01

    Plant cell walls are complex structures that offer structural and mechanical support to plant cells and are ultimately responsible for plant architecture and form. Pectins are a large group of complex polysaccharides of the plant cell wall that are made in the Golgi and secreted to the wall. The methylesterification of pectins is believed to be an important factor for the dynamic properties of the cell wall. Here, we report on a protein of unknown function discovered using an extensive proteomics analysis of cotton Golgi. Through bioinformatic analyses, we identified the ortholog of such protein, here named cotton Golgi-related 3 (CGR3) in Arabidopsis and found that it shares conserved residues with S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferases. We established that CGR3 is localized at the Golgi apparatus and that the expression of the CGR3 gene is correlated with that of several cell wall biosynthetic genes, suggesting a possible role of the protein in pectin modifications. Consistent with this hypothesis, immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies for homogalacturonan pectins (HG) indicated that the cell walls of cgr3 knockout mutants and plants overexpressing CGR3 are decreased and increased in HG methylesterification, respectively. Our results suggest that CGR3 plays a role in the methylesterification of homogalacturonan in Arabidopsis.

  8. The Membrane Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Functions as a Novel Cytosolic Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern To Promote Beta Interferon Induction via a Toll-Like-Receptor-Related TRAF3-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) reside in either the endolysosome or the cytoplasm to sense pathogen-derived RNAs, DNAs, or synthetic analogs of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), such as poly(I:C). However, it remains elusive whether or not a pathogen-derived protein can function as a cytosolic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). In this study, we demonstrate that delivering the membrane gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) into HEK293T, HEK293ET, and immobilized murine bone marrow-derived macrophage (J2-Mφ) cells significantly upregulates beta interferon (IFN-β) production. Both NF-κB and TBK1-IRF3 signaling cascades are activated by M gene products. M protein rather than M mRNA is responsible for M-mediated IFN-β induction that is preferentially associated with the activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor proteins MyD88, TIRAP, and TICAM2 but not the RIG-I signaling cascade. Blocking the secretion of M protein by brefeldin A (BFA) failed to reverse the M-mediated IFN-β induction. The antagonist of both TLR2 and TLR4 did not impede M-mediated IFN-β induction, indicating that the driving force for the activation of IFN-β production was generated from inside the cells. Inhibition of TRAF3 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) did not prevent M-mediated IFN-β induction. SARS-CoV pseudovirus could induce IFN-β production in an M rather than M(V68A) dependent manner, since the valine-to-alanine alteration at residue 68 in M protein markedly inhibited IFN-β production. Overall, our study indicates for the first time that a pathogen-derived protein is able to function as a cytosolic PAMP to stimulate type I interferon production by activating a noncanonical TLR signaling cascade in a TRAF3-independent manner. PMID:26861016

  9. Infectivity of human coronavirus strain 229E.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M R; Thomas, B J; Davies, H A; Patterson, S

    1980-09-01

    The replication of human coronavirus strain 229E was observed by using indirect immunofluorescence in infected monolayers of MRC continuous cells. By 8 h after infection, bright cytoplasmic fluorescence was detected in cells infected with human coronavirus 229E. Discrete foci of infection were observed from 8 to 16 h after infection in cells infected with high dilutions of human coronavirus 229E; each fluorescent focus corresponded to a single virus infection. A fluorescent focus assay is described, using indirect immunofluorescence, which is more sensitive than the established techniques of tube titration and plaque assay. Particle/infectivity ratios for unpurified and purified virus preparations revealed a considerable drop in infectivity on purification.

  10. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25855243

  11. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target.

  12. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5'-to-3' direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  14. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV), and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV). The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks. PMID:26053682

  15. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Yablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Bulko, T V; Moskaleva, N E; Shumyantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes Р450 3А4, 3А5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes Р450 3А4 and 3А5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435  -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the presence of its substrate testosterone.

  16. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Catherine S.; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  17. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  18. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Milewska, Aleksandra; Kaminski, Kamil; Ciejka, Justyna; Kosowicz, Katarzyna; Zeglen, Slawomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1) circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC) as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses. PMID:27249425

  19. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  20. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  1. Molecular Determinants of Species Specificity in the Coronavirus Receptor Aminopeptidase N (CD13): Influence of N-Linked Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2001-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN), a 150-kDa metalloprotease also called CD13, serves as a receptor for serologically related coronaviruses of humans (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E]), pigs, and cats. These virus-receptor interactions can be highly species specific; for example, the human coronavirus can use human APN (hAPN) but not porcine APN (pAPN) as its cellular receptor, and porcine coronaviruses can use pAPN but not hAPN. Substitution of pAPN amino acids 283 to 290 into hAPN for the corresponding amino acids 288 to 295 introduced an N-glycosylation sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 that blocked HCoV-229E receptor activity of hAPN. Substitution of two amino acids that inserted an N-glycosylation site at amino acid 291 also resulted in a mutant hAPN that lacked receptor activity because it failed to bind HCoV-229E. Single amino acid revertants that removed this sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 but had one or five pAPN amino acid substitution(s) in this region all regained HCoV-229E binding and receptor activities. To determine if other N-linked glycosylation differences between hAPN, feline APN (fAPN), and pAPN account for receptor specificity of pig and cat coronaviruses, a mutant hAPN protein that, like fAPN and pAPN, lacked a glycosylation sequon at 818 to 820 was studied. This sequon is within the region that determines receptor activity for porcine and feline coronaviruses. Mutant hAPN lacking the sequon at amino acids 818 to 820 maintained HCoV-229E receptor activity but did not gain receptor activity for porcine or feline coronaviruses. Thus, certain differences in glycosylation between coronavirus receptors from different species are critical determinants in the species specificity of infection. PMID:11559807

  2. SARS coronavirus spike protein-induced innate immune response occurs via activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in human monocyte macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Susan F; Mahajan, Supriya D; Collins, Arlene R

    2009-06-01

    A purified recombinant spike (S) protein was studied for its effect on stimulating human peripheral blood monocyte macrophages (PBMC). We examined inflammatory gene mRNA abundances found in S protein-treated PBMC using gene arrays. We identified differential mRNA abundances of genes with functional properties associated with antiviral (CXCL10) and inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8) responses. We confirmed cytokine mRNA increases by real-time quantitative(q) RT-PCR or ELISA. We further analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of the prominent IL-8 response. By real-time qRT-PCR, S protein was shown to stimulate IL-8 mRNA accumulation in a dose dependent manner while treatment with E protein did not. Also, titration of S protein-specific production and secretion of IL-8 by ELISA showed that the dose of 5.6nM of S produced a significant increase in IL-8 (p=0.003) compared to mock-treated controls. The increase in IL-8 stimulated by a concentration of 5.6nM of S was comparable to concentrations seen for S protein binding to ACE2 or to neutralizing monoclonal antibody suggesting a physiological relevance. An NF-kappaB inhibitor, TPCK (N-Tosyl-L-Phenylalanine Chloromethyl Ketone) could suppress IL-8 production and secretion in response to S protein in PBMC and THP-1 cells and in HCoV-229E virus-infected PBMC. Activation and translocation of NF-kappaB was shown to occur rapidly following exposure of PBMC or THP-1 cells to S protein using a highly sensitive assay for active nuclear NF-kappaB p65 transcription factor. The results further suggested that released or secreted S protein could activate blood monocytes through recognition by toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand.

  3. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  4. Receptor-Dependent Coronavirus Infection of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Brian C.; Hemmila, Erin M.; Beauchemin, Nicole; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2004-01-01

    In several mammalian species, including humans, coronavirus infection can modulate the host immune response. We show a potential role of dendritic cells (DC) in murine coronavirus-induced immune modulation and pathogenesis by demonstrating that the JAW SII DC line and primary DC from BALB/c mice and p/p mice with reduced expression of the murine coronavirus receptor, murine CEACAM1a, are susceptible to murine coronavirus infection by a receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:15113927

  5. Genetic evolution and tropism of transmissible gastroenteritis coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C M; Gebauer, F; Suñé, C; Mendez, A; Dopazo, J; Enjuanes, L

    1992-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an enteropathogenic coronavirus isolated for the first time in 1946. Nonenteropathogenic porcine respiratory coronaviruses (PRCVs) have been derived from TGEV. The genetic relationship among six European PRCVs and five coronaviruses of the TGEV antigenic cluster has been determined based on their RNA sequences. The S protein of six PRCVs have an identical deletion of 224 amino acids starting at position 21. The deleted area includes the antigenic sites C and B of TGEV S glycoprotein. Interestingly, two viruses (NEB72 and TOY56) with respiratory tropism have S proteins with a size similar to the enteric viruses. NEB72 and TOY56 viruses have in the S protein 2 and 15 specific amino acid differences with the enteric viruses. Four of the residues changed (aa 219 of NEB72 isolate and aa 92, 94, and 218 of TOY56) are located within the deletion present in the PRCVs and may be involved in the receptor binding site (RBS) conferring enteric tropism to TGEVs. A second RBS used by the virus to infect ST cells might be located in a conserved area between sites A and D of the S glycoprotein, since monoclonal antibodies specific for these sites inhibit the binding of the virus to ST cells. An evolutionary tree relating 13 enteric and respiratory isolates has been proposed. According to this tree, a main virus lineage evolved from a recent progenitor virus which was circulating around 1941. From this, secondary lineages originated PUR46, NEB72, TOY56, MIL65, BR170, and the PRCVs, in this order. Least squares estimation of the origin of TGEV-related coronaviruses showed a significant constancy in the fixation of mutations with time, that is, the existence of a well-defined molecular clock. A mutation fixation rate of 7 +/- 2 x 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site and per year was calculated for TGEV-related viruses. This rate falls in the range reported for other RNA viruses. Point mutations and probably recombination events have

  6. Association of the GTP-binding protein Rab3A with bovine adrenal chromaffin granules

    SciTech Connect

    Darchen, F.; Hammel, F.; Monteils, M.P.; Scherman, D. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. )

    1990-08-01

    The Rab3A protein belongs to a large family of small GTP-binding proteins that are present in eukaryotic cells and that share amino acid identities with the Ras proteins (products of the ras protooncogenes). Rab3A, which is specifically located in nervous and endocrine tissues, is suspected to play a key role in secretion. Its localization was investigated in bovine adrenal gland by using a polyclonal antibody. Rab3A was detected in adrenal medulla but not in adrenal cortex. In cultured adrenal medulla cells, Rab3A was specifically expressed in the catecholamine-secreting chromaffin cells. Subcellular fractionation suggested that Rab3A is about 30% cytosolic and that particulate Rab3A is associated with the membrane of chromaffin granules (the catecholamine storage organelles) and with a second compartment likely to be the plasma membrane. The Rab3A localization on chromaffin granule membranes was confirmed by immunoadsorption with an antibody against dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase. Rab3A was not extracted from this membrane by NaCl or KBr but was partially extracted by urea and totally solubilized by Triton X-100, suggesting either an interaction with an intrinsic protein or a membrane association through fatty acid acylation. This study suggests that Rab3A, which may also be located on other secretory vesicles containing noncharacterized small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in their biogenesis or in the regulated secretion process.

  7. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replicative protein nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding subunit unique in the RNA virus world

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ferron, François; Campanacci, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia; Rancurel, Corinne; Dutartre, Hélène; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The recently identified etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) belongs to Coronaviridae (CoV), a family of viruses replicating by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.7-Å resolution of nsp9, a hitherto uncharacterized subunit of the SARS-CoV replicative polyproteins. We show that SARS-CoV nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding protein displaying a previously unreported, oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide fold-like fold. The presence of this type of protein has not been detected in the replicative complexes of RNA viruses, and its presence may reflect the unique and complex CoV viral replication/transcription machinery. PMID:15007178

  8. Discovery of a Novel Coronavirus, China Rattus Coronavirus HKU24, from Norway Rats Supports the Murine Origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and Has Implications for the Ancestor of Betacoronavirus Lineage A

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCoV HKU24 as a separate species. ChRCoV HKU24 possessed genome features that resemble those of both Betacoronavirus 1 and murine coronavirus, being closer to Betacoronavirus 1 in most predicted proteins but closer to murine coronavirus by G+C content, the presence of a single nonstructural protein (NS4), and an absent transcription regulatory sequence for the envelope (E) protein. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) demonstrated higher sequence identity to the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) NTD than to the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) NTD, with 3 of 4 critical sugar-binding residues in BCoV and 2 of 14 contact residues at the MHV NTD/murine CEACAM1a interface being conserved. Molecular clock analysis dated the time of the most recent common ancestor of ChRCoV HKU24, Betacoronavirus 1, and rabbit coronavirus HKU14 to about the year 1400. Cross-reactivities between other lineage A and B βCoVs and ChRCoV HKU24 nucleocapsid but not spike polypeptide were demonstrated. Using the spike polypeptide-based Western blot assay, we showed that only Norway rats and two oriental house rats from Guangzhou, China, were infected by ChRCoV HKU24. Other rats, including Norway rats from Hong Kong, possessed antibodies only against N protein and not against the spike polypeptide, suggesting infection by βCoVs different from ChRCoV HKU24. ChRCoV HKU24 may represent the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1, and rodents are likely an important reservoir for ancestors of lineage A βCoVs. IMPORTANCE While

  9. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. Coronaviruses cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory disease chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. Here we provide a brief introduction to coronaviruses discussing their replication and pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). PMID:25720466

  10. A highly conserved WDYPKCDRA epitope in the RNA directed RNA polymerase of human coronaviruses can be used as epitope-based universal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses are the diverse group of RNA virus. From 1960, six strains of human coronaviruses have emerged that includes SARS-CoV and the recent infection by deadly MERS-CoV which is now going to cause another outbreak. Prevention of these viruses is urgent and a universal vaccine for all strain could be a promising solution in this circumstance. In this study we aimed to design an epitope based vaccine against all strain of human coronavirus. Results Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) approach was employed among spike (S), membrane (M), enveloped (E) and nucleocapsid (N) protein and replicase polyprotein 1ab to identify which one is highly conserve in all coronaviruses strains. Next, we use various in silico tools to predict consensus immunogenic and conserved peptide. We found that conserved region is present only in the RNA directed RNA polymerase protein. In this protein we identified one epitope WDYPKCDRA is highly immunogenic and 100% conserved among all available human coronavirus strains. Conclusions Here we suggest in vivo study of our identified novel peptide antigen in RNA directed RNA polymerase protein for universal vaccine – which may be the way to prevent all human coronavirus disease. PMID:24884408

  11. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  12. Ribosomal Protein S3: A Multifunctional Target of Attaching/Effacing Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaofei; Hardwidge, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    The extraribosomal functions of ribosomal proteins have drawn significant recent attention. Ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), a component of the eukaryotic 40S ribosomal subunit, is a multifunctional protein that regulates DNA repair, apoptosis, and the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Here we the review the latest findings about RPS3 extraribosomal functions, with special emphasis on their relation to microbial pathogenesis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. PMID:21738525

  13. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Papain-Like Novel Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Protein-Ligand X-ray Structure and Biological Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Takayama, Jun; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswar; Ratia, Kiira; Chaudhuri, Rima; Mulhearn, Debbie C.; Lee, Hyun; Nichols, Daniel B.; Baliji, Surendranath; Baker, Susan C.; Johnson, Michael E.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2012-02-21

    The design, synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of a series of new generation SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors are described. A new lead compound 3 (6577871) was identified via high-throughput screening of a diverse chemical library. Subsequently, we carried out lead optimization and structure-activity studies to provide a series of improved inhibitors that show potent PLpro inhibition and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 cells. Interestingly, the (S)-Me inhibitor 15h (enzyme IC{sub 50} = 0.56 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) and the corresponding (R)-Me 15g (IC{sub 50} = 0.32 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) are the most potent compounds in this series, with nearly equivalent enzymatic inhibition and antiviral activity. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 15g-bound SARS-CoV PLpro and a corresponding model of 15h docked to PLpro provide intriguing molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  14. The CRMP Family of Proteins and Their Role in Sema3A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric F.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    The CRMP proteins were originally identified as mediators of Sema3A signaling and neuronal differentiation. Much has been learned about the mechanism by which CRMPs regulate cellular responses to Sema3A. In this review, the evidence for CRMP as a component of the Sema3A signaling cascade and the modulation of CRMP by plexin and phosphorylation are considered. In addition, current knowledge of the function of CRMP in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of the cytoskeleton and endocytosis, is discussed in relationship to the mechanisms of axonal growth cone Sema3A response. The secreted protein Sema3A (collapsin-1) was the first identified vertebrate semaphorin. Sema3A acts primarily as a repulsive axon guidance cue, and can cause a dramatic collapse of the growth cone lamellipodium. This process results from the redistribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton1,2 and endocytosis of the growth cone cell membrane.2–4 Neuropilin-1 (NP1) and members of the class A plexins (PlexA) form a Sema3A receptor complex, with NP1 serving as a high-affinity ligand binding partner, and PlexA transducing the signal into the cell via its large intracellular domain. Although the effect of Sema3A on growth cones was first described nearly 15 years ago, the intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the cellular effects have only recently begun to be understood. Monomeric G-proteins, various kinases, the redox protein, MICAL, and protein turnover have all been implicated in PlexA transduction. In addition, the collapsin-response-mediator protein (CRMP) family of cytosolic phosphoproteins plays a crucial role in Sema3A/NP1/PlexA signal transduction. Current knowledge regarding CRMP functions are reviewed here. PMID:17607942

  15. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C. ); Kocarek, Thomas A.; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki ); Dahn, Michael S.; Lee, Donna W.

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3 A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  16. Suppression of cytochrome P450 3A protein levels by proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zangar, Richard C; Kocarek, Thomas A; Shen, Shang; Bollinger, Nikki; Dahn, Michael S; Lee, Donna W

    2003-06-01

    We have previously reported that CYP3A cross-links with polyubiquitinated proteins in microsomes from nicardipine-treated rats in a process that is distinct from classical polyubiquitination. To further examine the role of the proteasome in CYP3A degradation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors lactacystin, MG132, proteasome inhibitor 1, and hemin in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes. With the exception of hemin, these agents increased the total pool of ubiquitinated proteins in microsomes isolated from rat hepatocytes, indicating that lactacystin, MG132, and proteasome inhibitor 1 effectively inhibited the proteasome in these cells. All four agents caused a reduction in the amount of the major approximately 55-kDa CYP3A band, opposite to what would be expected if the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degraded CYP3A. Only hemin treatment caused an increase in high molecular mass (HMM) CYP3A bands. Because hemin treatment did not alter levels of ubiquitin in CYP3A immunoprecipitates, the HMM CYP3A bands formed in response to hemin treatment clearly were not due to proteasome inhibition. Rather, because hemin treatment also caused an increase in HMM CYP3A in the detergent-insoluble fraction of the 10,000g pellet, the HMM CYP3A seems to represent a large protein complex that is unlikely to primarily represent ubiquitination.

  17. Drugging a Stem Cell Compartment Using Wnt3a Protein as a Therapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Lee, Katherine; Cheng, Du; Olveda, Rebecca C.; Liu, Bo; Mulligan, Kimberley A.; Carlson, Jeffery C.; Ransom, Ryan C.; Weis, William I.; Helms, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of Wnt proteins has long been recognized but challenges associated with in vivo stability and delivery have hindered their development as drug candidates. By exploiting the hydrophobic nature of the protein we provide evidence that exogenous Wnt3a can be delivered in vivo if it is associated with a lipid vesicle. Recombinant Wnt3a associates with the external surface of the lipid membrane; this association stabilizes the protein and leads to prolonged activation of the Wnt pathway in primary cells. We demonstrate the consequences of Wnt pathway activation in vivo using a bone marrow engraftment assay. These data provide validation for the development of WNT3A as a therapeutic protein. PMID:24400074

  18. Insights into RNA synthesis, capping, and proofreading mechanisms of SARS-coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sevajol, Marion; Subissi, Lorenzo; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    The successive emergence of highly pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology. This research has provided significant new insight into functions and activities of the replication/transcription multi-protein complex. The latter directs both continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis to replicate and transcribe the large coronavirus genome made of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of ∼30 kb. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of SARS-CoV enzymes involved in RNA biochemistry, such as the in vitro characterization of a highly active and processive RNA polymerase complex which can associate with methyltransferase and 3'-5' exoribonuclease activities involved in RNA capping, and RNA proofreading, respectively. The recent discoveries reveal fascinating RNA-synthesizing machinery, highlighting the unique position of coronaviruses in the RNA virus world. PMID:25451065

  19. DESC1 and MSPL Activate Influenza A Viruses and Emerging Coronaviruses for Host Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zmora, Pawel; Blazejewska, Paulina; Moldenhauer, Anna-Sophie; Welsch, Kathrin; Nehlmeier, Inga; Wu, Qingyu; Schneider, Heike; Bertram, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates the influenza virus and coronavirus surface proteins. Expression of TMPRSS2 is essential for the spread and pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza viruses in mice. In contrast, H3N2 viruses are less dependent on TMPRSS2 for viral amplification, suggesting that these viruses might employ other TTSPs for their activation. Here, we analyzed TTSPs, reported to be expressed in the respiratory system, for the ability to activate influenza viruses and coronaviruses. We found that MSPL and, to a lesser degree, DESC1 are expressed in human lung tissue and cleave and activate the spike proteins of the Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion. In addition, we show that these proteases support the spread of all influenza virus subtypes previously pandemic in humans. In sum, we identified two host cell proteases that could promote the amplification of influenza viruses and emerging coronaviruses in humans and might constitute targets for antiviral intervention. IMPORTANCE Activation of influenza viruses by host cell proteases is essential for viral infectivity and the enzymes responsible are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The present study demonstrates that two cellular serine proteases, DESC1 and MSPL, activate influenza viruses and emerging coronaviruses in cell culture and, because of their expression in human lung tissue, might promote viral spread in the infected host. Antiviral strategies aiming to prevent viral activation might thus need to encompass inhibitors targeting MSPL and DESC1. PMID:25122802

  20. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chávez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ávila-Flores, R.; Medellín, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzán, G.; Daszak, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

  1. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication. PMID:23698397

  2. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement of... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505...

  3. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement of... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505...

  4. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, Nerea; Firth, Andrew E; Jones, Joshua D; Chung, Betty Y-W; Siddell, Stuart G; Brierley, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  5. The SARS-coronavirus papain-like protease: structure, function and inhibition by designed antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; St John, Sarah E; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the deadly human coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) emerged from the Guangdong Province of China. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV pandemic infected over 8500 individuals, claimed over 800 lives and cost billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide, there still are no clinically approved antiviral drugs, vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies to treat SARS-CoV infections. The recent emergence of the deadly human coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) is a sobering reminder that new and deadly coronaviruses can emerge at any time with the potential to become pandemics. Therefore, the continued development of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures to potentially deadly coronaviruses is warranted. The coronaviral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), are attractive antiviral drug targets because they are essential for coronaviral replication. Although the primary function of PLpro and 3CLpro are to process the viral polyprotein in a coordinated manner, PLpro has the additional function of stripping ubiquitin and ISG15 from host-cell proteins to aid coronaviruses in their evasion of the host innate immune responses. Therefore, targeting PLpro with antiviral drugs may have an advantage in not only inhibiting viral replication but also inhibiting the dysregulation of signaling cascades in infected cells that may lead to cell death in surrounding, uninfected cells. This review provides an up-to-date discussion on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease including a brief overview of the SARS-CoV genome and replication followed by a more in-depth discussion on the structure and catalytic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLpro, the multiple cellular functions of SARS-CoV PLpro, the inhibition of SARS-CoV PLpro by small molecule inhibitors, and the prospect of inhibiting papain-like protease from other coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of

  6. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua D.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global “snap-shot” of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  7. Three men, a paint brush and a coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Macconnachie, A A; Collins, T C; Seaton, R A; Kennedy, D H

    2007-02-01

    Coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infection and a coryzal syndrome. Although described as a cause of gastroenteritis in HIV patients, with the exception of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), there is little in the literature about respiratory infection in HIV patients. We describe two patients with HIV, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and proven coronavirus infection. A third patient presented with an upper respiratory tract infection but coronavirus was not isolated. All three men had spent a day decorating the first patient's flat four days prior to presentation. This is the first description of respiratory tract infection with coronavirus in HIV patients. Both patients with coronavirus required prolonged admission to hospital and extensive investigations because they were HIV infected. Coronavirus is often associated with less severe upper respiratory tract infection but can cause more severe disease and should be considered in patients with HIV and respiratory tract infection. PMID:17331291

  8. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  9. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  10. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  11. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  12. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are...

  13. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A. PMID:27622813

  14. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A. PMID:27622813

  15. Group 2 coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, Gijs A.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Worm, Sjoerd H.E. van den; Spaan, Willy J.M. . E-mail: w.j.m.spaan@lumc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Many viruses encode antagonists to prevent interferon (IFN) induction. Infection of fibroblasts with the murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) and SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) did not result in nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor involved in IFN induction, and induction of IFN mRNA transcription. Furthermore, MHV and SARS-CoV infection could not prevent IFN induction by poly (I:C) or Sendai virus, suggesting that these CoVs do not inactivate IRF3-mediated transcription regulation, but apparently prevent detection of replicative RNA by cellular sensory molecules. Our data indicate that shielding of viral RNA to host cell sensors might be the main general mechanism for coronaviruses to prevent IFN induction.

  16. Retargeting of Coronavirus by Substitution of the Spike Glycoprotein Ectodomain: Crossing the Host Cell Species Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Lili; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Raamsman, Martin J. B.; Masters, Paul S.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells. PMID:10627550

  17. Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L; Godeke, G J; Raamsman, M J; Masters, P S; Rottier, P J

    2000-02-01

    Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells.

  18. Genomic RNA sequence of Feline coronavirus strain FIPV WSU-79/1146

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Charlotte; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2008-01-01

    A consensus sequence of the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) genome was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA. The genome was found to be 29 125 nt in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. Analysis of the sequence identified conserved open reading frames and revealed an overall genome organization similar to that of other coronaviruses. The genomic RNA was analysed for putative cis-acting elements and the pattern of subgenomic mRNA synthesis was analysed by Northern blotting. Comparative sequence analysis of the predicted FCoV proteins identified 16 replicase proteins (nsp1–nsp16) and four structural proteins (spike, membrane, envelope and nucleocapsid). Two mRNAs encoding putative accessory proteins were also detected. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that FIPV WSU-79/1146 belongs to the coronavirus subgroup G1-1. These results confirm and extend previous findings from partial sequence analysis of FCoV genomes. PMID:16033972

  19. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in Miniopterus fuliginosus bats.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, pose significant public health threats. Bats have been suggested to act as natural reservoirs for both these viruses, and periodic monitoring of coronaviruses in bats may thus provide important clues about emergent infectious viruses. The Eastern bent-wing bat Miniopterus fuliginosus is distributed extensively throughout China. We therefore analyzed the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in samples of M. fuliginosus collected from nine Chinese provinces during 2011-2013. The only coronavirus genus found was Alphacoronavirus. We established six complete and five partial genomic sequences of alphacoronaviruses, which revealed that they could be divided into two distinct lineages, with close relationships to coronaviruses in Miniopterus magnater and Miniopterus pusillus. Recombination was confirmed by detecting putative breakpoints of Lineage 1 coronaviruses in M. fuliginosus and M. pusillus (Wu et al., 2015), which supported the results of topological and phylogenetic analyses. The established alphacoronavirus genome sequences showed high similarity to other alphacoronaviruses found in other Miniopterus species, suggesting that their transmission in different Miniopterus species may provide opportunities for recombination with different alphacoronaviruses. The genetic information for these novel alphacoronaviruses will improve our understanding of the evolution and genetic diversity of coronaviruses, with potentially important implications for the transmission of human diseases. PMID:27125516

  20. The Structure and Functions of Coronavirus Genomic 3’ and 5’ Ends

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Leibowitz, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are an important cause of illness in humans and animals. Most human coronaviruses commonly cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses; however two zoonotic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, can cause severe illness and death. Investigations over the past thirty-five years have illuminated many aspects of coronavirus replication. The focus of this review is the functional analysis of conserved RNA secondary structures in the 5’ and 3’ of the betacoronavirus genomes. The 5’ 350 nucleotides folds into a set of RNA secondary structures which are well conserved, and reverse genetic studies indicate that these structures play an important role in the discontinuous synthesis of subgenomic RNAs in the betacoronaviruses. These cis-acting elements extend 3’ of the 5’UTR into ORF1a. The 3’UTR is similarly conserved and contains all of the cis-acting sequences necessary for viral replication. Two competing conformations near the 5’ end of the 3’UTR have been shown to make up a potential molecular switch. There is some evidence that an association between the 3’ and 5’UTRs is necessary for subgenomic RNA synthesis, but the basis for this association is not yet clear. A number of host RNA proteins have been shown to bind to the 5’ and 3’ cis-acting regions, but the significance of these in viral replication is not clear. Two viral proteins have been identified as binding to the 5’ cis-acting region, nsp1 and N protein. A genetic interaction between nsp8 and nsp9 and the region of the 3’UTR that contains the putative molecular switch suggests that these two proteins bind to this region. PMID:25736566

  1. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  2. Discovery of a Novel Bottlenose Dolphin Coronavirus Reveals a Distinct Species of Marine Mammal Coronavirus in Gammacoronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Hui, Suk-Wai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Martelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    While gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (CoVs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale CoV [BWCoV] SW1) in 2008. In this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus from fecal samples from three Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), which we named bottlenose dolphin CoV (BdCoV) HKU22. All the three BdCoV HKU22-positive samples were collected on the same date, suggesting a cluster of infection, with viral loads of 1 × 103 to 1 × 105 copies per ml. Clearance of virus was associated with a specific antibody response against the nucleocapsid of BdCoV HKU22. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 have similar genome characteristics and structures. Their genome size is about 32,000 nucleotides, the largest among all CoVs, as a result of multiple unique open reading frames (NS5a, NS5b, NS5c, NS6, NS7, NS8, NS9, and NS10) between their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein genes. Although comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 should belong to the same species, a major difference was observed in the proteins encoded by their spike (S) genes, which showed only 74.3 to 74.7% amino acid identities. The high ratios of the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) to the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka) in multiple regions of the genome, especially the S gene (Ka/Ks ratio, 2.5), indicated that BdCoV HKU22 may be evolving rapidly, supporting a recent transmission event to the bottlenose dolphins. We propose a distinct species, Cetacean coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus, to include BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1, whereas IBV and its closely related bird CoVs represent another species, Avian coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus. PMID:24227844

  3. Discovery of a novel bottlenose dolphin coronavirus reveals a distinct species of marine mammal coronavirus in Gammacoronavirus.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Hui, Suk-Wai; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Martelli, Paolo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    While gammacoronaviruses mainly comprise infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and its closely related bird coronaviruses (CoVs), the only mammalian gammacoronavirus was discovered from a white beluga whale (beluga whale CoV [BWCoV] SW1) in 2008. In this study, we discovered a novel gammacoronavirus from fecal samples from three Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), which we named bottlenose dolphin CoV (BdCoV) HKU22. All the three BdCoV HKU22-positive samples were collected on the same date, suggesting a cluster of infection, with viral loads of 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(5) copies per ml. Clearance of virus was associated with a specific antibody response against the nucleocapsid of BdCoV HKU22. Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 have similar genome characteristics and structures. Their genome size is about 32,000 nucleotides, the largest among all CoVs, as a result of multiple unique open reading frames (NS5a, NS5b, NS5c, NS6, NS7, NS8, NS9, and NS10) between their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein genes. Although comparative genome analysis showed that BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1 should belong to the same species, a major difference was observed in the proteins encoded by their spike (S) genes, which showed only 74.3 to 74.7% amino acid identities. The high ratios of the number of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks) to the number of nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka) in multiple regions of the genome, especially the S gene (Ka/Ks ratio, 2.5), indicated that BdCoV HKU22 may be evolving rapidly, supporting a recent transmission event to the bottlenose dolphins. We propose a distinct species, Cetacean coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus, to include BdCoV HKU22 and BWCoV SW1, whereas IBV and its closely related bird CoVs represent another species, Avian coronavirus, in Gammacoronavirus. PMID:24227844

  4. The Chemorepulsive Protein Semaphorin 3A and Perineuronal Net-Mediated Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    de Winter, F.; Kwok, J. C. F.; Fawcett, J. W.; Vo, T. T.; Carulli, D.; Verhaagen, J.

    2016-01-01

    During postnatal development, closure of critical periods coincides with the appearance of extracellular matrix structures, called perineuronal nets (PNN), around various neuronal populations throughout the brain. The absence or presence of PNN strongly correlates with neuronal plasticity. It is not clear how PNN regulate plasticity. The repulsive axon guidance proteins Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema3B are also prominently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain. In the neocortex, Sema3A accumulates in the PNN that form around parvalbumin positive inhibitory interneurons during the closure of critical periods. Sema3A interacts with high-affinity with chondroitin sulfate E, a component of PNN. The localization of Sema3A in PNN and its inhibitory effects on developing neurites are intriguing features and may clarify how PNN mediate structural neural plasticity. In the cerebellum, enhanced neuronal plasticity as a result of an enriched environment correlates with reduced Sema3A expression in PNN. Here, we first review the distribution of Sema3A and Sema3B expression in the rat brain and the biochemical interaction of Sema3A with PNN. Subsequently, we review what is known so far about functional correlates of changes in Sema3A expression in PNN. Finally, we propose a model of how Semaphorins in the PNN may influence local connectivity. PMID:27057361

  5. The Chemorepulsive Protein Semaphorin 3A and Perineuronal Net-Mediated Plasticity.

    PubMed

    de Winter, F; Kwok, J C F; Fawcett, J W; Vo, T T; Carulli, D; Verhaagen, J

    2016-01-01

    During postnatal development, closure of critical periods coincides with the appearance of extracellular matrix structures, called perineuronal nets (PNN), around various neuronal populations throughout the brain. The absence or presence of PNN strongly correlates with neuronal plasticity. It is not clear how PNN regulate plasticity. The repulsive axon guidance proteins Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema3B are also prominently expressed in the postnatal and adult brain. In the neocortex, Sema3A accumulates in the PNN that form around parvalbumin positive inhibitory interneurons during the closure of critical periods. Sema3A interacts with high-affinity with chondroitin sulfate E, a component of PNN. The localization of Sema3A in PNN and its inhibitory effects on developing neurites are intriguing features and may clarify how PNN mediate structural neural plasticity. In the cerebellum, enhanced neuronal plasticity as a result of an enriched environment correlates with reduced Sema3A expression in PNN. Here, we first review the distribution of Sema3A and Sema3B expression in the rat brain and the biochemical interaction of Sema3A with PNN. Subsequently, we review what is known so far about functional correlates of changes in Sema3A expression in PNN. Finally, we propose a model of how Semaphorins in the PNN may influence local connectivity.

  6. Differential Sensitivity of Bat Cells to Infection by Enveloped RNA Viruses: Coronaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Filoviruses, and Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

  7. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

  8. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Gralinski, Lisa E; Baric, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viruses can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary diseases, ranging from mild, upper respiratory tract infections to severe and life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections, including the development of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Viral clearance and subsequent recovery from infection require activation of an effective host immune response; however, many immune effector cells may also cause injury to host tissues. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus cause severe infection of the lower respiratory tract, with 10% and 35% overall mortality rates, respectively; however, >50% mortality rates are seen in the aged and immunosuppressed populations. While these viruses are susceptible to interferon treatment in vitro, they both encode numerous genes that allow for successful evasion of the host immune system until after high virus titres have been achieved. In this review, we discuss the importance of the innate immune response and the development of lung pathology following human coronavirus infection. PMID:25270030

  9. Genome structure and transcriptional regulation of human coronavirus NL63

    PubMed Central

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Jebbink, Maarten F; Berkhout, Ben; van der Hoek, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Background Two human coronaviruses are known since the 1960s: HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43. SARS-CoV was discovered in the early spring of 2003, followed by the identification of HCoV-NL63, the fourth member of the coronaviridae family that infects humans. In this study, we describe the genome structure and the transcription strategy of HCoV-NL63 by experimental analysis of the viral subgenomic mRNAs. Results The genome of HCoV-NL63 has the following gene order: 1a-1b-S-ORF3-E-M-N. The GC content of the HCoV-NL63 genome is extremely low (34%) compared to other coronaviruses, and we therefore performed additional analysis of the nucleotide composition. Overall, the RNA genome is very low in C and high in U, and this is also reflected in the codon usage. Inspection of the nucleotide composition along the genome indicates that the C-count increases significantly in the last one-third of the genome at the expense of U and G. We document the production of subgenomic (sg) mRNAs coding for the S, ORF3, E, M and N proteins. We did not detect any additional sg mRNA. Furthermore, we sequenced the 5' end of all sg mRNAs, confirming the presence of an identical leader sequence in each sg mRNA. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression level among the sg mRNAs differs significantly, with the sg mRNA encoding nucleocapsid (N) being the most abundant. Conclusions The presented data give insight into the viral evolution and mutational patterns in coronaviral genome. Furthermore our data show that HCoV-NL63 employs the discontinuous replication strategy with generation of subgenomic mRNAs during the (-) strand synthesis. Because HCoV-NL63 has a low pathogenicity and is able to grow easily in cell culture, this virus can be a powerful tool to study SARS coronavirus pathogenesis. PMID:15548333

  10. A coronavirus detected in the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Scheffer, Karin; Villarreal, Laura Yaneth; Achkar, Samira; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Kotait, Ivanete; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2008-12-01

    This article reports on the identification of a group 2 coronavirus (BatCoV DR/2007) in a Desmodus rotundus vampire bat in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF1b revealed that BatCoV DR/2007 originates from a unique lineage in the archetypical group 2 coronaviruses, as described for bat species elsewhere with putative importance in Public Health.

  11. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  12. Development of Animal Models Against Emerging Coronaviruses: From SARS to MERS coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Troy C; Subbarao, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged to cause severe disease in humans. While bats may be the primary reservoir for both viruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely crossed into humans from civets in China, and MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been transmitted from camels in the Middle East. Unlike SARS-CoV that resolved within a year, continued introductions of MERS-CoV present an on-going public health threat. Animal models are needed to evaluate countermeasures against emerging viruses. With SARS-CoV, several animal species were permissive to infection. In contrast, most laboratory animals are refractory or only semi-permissive to infection with MERS-CoV. This host-range restriction is largely determined by sequence heterogeneity in the MERS-CoV receptor. We describe animal models developed to study coronaviruses, with a focus on host-range restriction at the level of the viral receptor and discuss approaches to consider in developing a model to evaluate countermeasures against MERS-CoV. PMID:25791336

  13. [Visual Detection of Human Coronavirus NL63 by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification].

    PubMed

    Geng, Heyuan; Wang, Shengqiang; Xie, Xiaoqian; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Wenjie; Su, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive assay for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was developed by colorimetic reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The method employed six specially designed primers that recognized eight distinct regions of the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein gene for amplification of target sequences under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for 1 h Amplification of RT-LAMP was monitored by addition of calcein before amplification. A positive reaction was confirmed by change from light-brown to yellow-green under visual detection. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by cross-reaction with different human coronaviruses, norovirus, influenza A virus, and influenza B virus. Sensitivity was evaluated by serial dilution of HCoV-NL63 RNA from 1.6 x 10(9) to 1.6 x 10(1) per reaction. The RT-LAMP assay could achieve 1,600 RNA copies per reaction with high specificity. Hence, our colorimetric RT-LAMP assay could be used for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63. PMID:27295884

  14. Characterisation of bubaline coronavirus strains associated with gastroenteritis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Cirone, Francesco; Mari, Viviana; Nava, Donatella; Tinelli, Antonella; Elia, Gabriella; Di Sarno, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Aprea, Giuseppe; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-26

    Recently, a coronavirus strain (179/07-11) was isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the virus which displayed a strict genetic and biological relatedness with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was referred to as bubaline coronavirus (BuCoV). Here, we report the characterisation of four BuCoVs strains identified in the faeces or intestinal contents of water buffalo calves with acute gastroenteritis. Single BuCoV infections were detected in all but one cases from which two clostridia species were also isolated. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike-protein gene showed that three BuCoVs were closely related to the prototype strain 179/07-11, whereas the fourth isolate (339/08-C) displayed a higher genetic identity to recent BCoV reference strains. Three strains adapted to the in vitro grow on human rectal tumour cells were also evaluated for their ability to replicate in a bovine cell line (Madin Darby bovine kidney) and to cause haemagglutination of chicken erythrocytes and all displayed biological properties similar to those already described for the prototype BuCoV. The present report shows that albeit genetically heterogeneous, the different BuCoV strains possess a common biological pattern which is different from most BCoV and BCoV-like isolates.

  15. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.; van der Hoek, L.; Berkhout, B.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  16. Prevalence and implications of feline coronavirus infections of captive and free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed Central

    Heeney, J L; Evermann, J F; McKeirnan, A J; Marker-Kraus, L; Roelke, M E; Bush, M; Wildt, D E; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L; Lukas, J

    1990-01-01

    The extent and progression of exposure to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, was monitored by a world-wide serological survey with indirect fluorescent antibody titers to coronavirus. The indirect fluorescent antibody assay was validated by Western blots, which showed that all indirect fluorescent antibody-positive cheetah sera detected both domestic cat and cheetah coronavirus structural proteins. There was a poor correlation between indirect fluorescent antibody results and the presence of coronaviruslike particles in cheetah feces, suggesting that electron microscopic detection of shed particles may not be an easily interpreted diagnostic parameter for FIP disease. Low, but verifiable (by Western blots [immunoblots]) antibody titers against coronavirus were detected in eight free-ranging cheetahs from east Africa as well as from captive cheetahs throughout the world. Of 20 North American cheetah facilities screened, 9 had cheetahs with measurable antibodies to feline coronavirus. Five facilities showed patterns of an ongoing epizootic. Retrospective FIP virus titers of an FIP outbreak in a cheetah-breeding facility in Oregon were monitored over a 5-year period and are interpreted here in terms of clinical disease progression. During that outbreak the morbidity was over 90% and the mortality was 60%, far greater than any previously reported epizootic of FIP in any cat species. Age of infection was a significant risk factor in this epizootic, with infants (less than 3 months old) displaying significantly higher risk for mortality than subadults or adults. Based upon these observations, empirical generalizations are drawn which address epidemiologic concerns for cheetahs in the context of this lethal infectious agent. Images PMID:2157864

  17. Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C. Joel; Manzer, Rizwan; Miura, Tanya A.; Groshong, Steve D.; Ito, Yoko; Travanty, Emily A.; Leete, Jennifer; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The rat coronavirus sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) causes respiratory infection and provides a system for investigating respiratory coronaviruses in a natural host. A viral suspension in the form of a microspray aerosol was delivered by intratracheal instillation into the distal lung of 6–8-week-old Fischer 344 rats. SDAV inoculation produced a 7 % body weight loss over a 5 day period that was followed by recovery over the next 7 days. SDAV caused focal lesions in the lung, which were most severe on day 4 post-inoculation (p.i.). Immunofluorescent staining showed that four cell types supported SDAV virus replication in the lower respiratory tract, namely Clara cells, ciliated cells in the bronchial airway and alveolar type I and type II cells in the lung parenchyma. In bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) a neutrophil influx increased the population of neutrophils to 45 % compared with 6 % of the cells in control samples on day 2 after mock inoculation. Virus infection induced an increase in surfactant protein SP-D levels in BALF of infected rats on days 4 and 8 p.i. that subsided by day 12. The concentrations of chemokines MCP-1, LIX and CINC-1 in BALF increased on day 4 p.i., but returned to control levels by day 8. Intratracheal instillation of rats with SDAV coronavirus caused an acute, self-limited infection that is a useful model for studying the early events of the innate immune response to respiratory coronavirus infections in lungs of the natural virus host. PMID:19741068

  18. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1.

    PubMed

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Hein, Marco Y; Müller, Marcel A; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-08-30

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes. PMID:27519799

  19. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1.

    PubMed

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Hein, Marco Y; Müller, Marcel A; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-08-30

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PL(pro)), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95-144 of RCHY1 and 389-652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PL(pro)s from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD-PL(pro) fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PL(pro) alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes.

  20. p53 down-regulates SARS coronavirus replication and is targeted by the SARS-unique domain and PLpro via E3 ubiquitin ligase RCHY1

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Lauer, Yue; Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A.; Deng, Wen; Lei, Jian; Meyer, Benjamin; Kusov, Yuri; von Brunn, Brigitte; Bairad, Dev Raj; Hünten, Sabine; Drosten, Christian; Hermeking, Heiko; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Mann, Matthias; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has developed strategies to inhibit host immune recognition. We identify cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase ring-finger and CHY zinc-finger domain-containing 1 (RCHY1) as an interacting partner of the viral SARS-unique domain (SUD) and papain-like protease (PLpro), and, as a consequence, the involvement of cellular p53 as antagonist of coronaviral replication. Residues 95–144 of RCHY1 and 389–652 of SUD (SUD-NM) subdomains are crucial for interaction. Association with SUD increases the stability of RCHY1 and augments RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination as well as degradation of p53. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. In vivo phosphorylation shows that SUD does not regulate phosphorylation of RCHY1 via CAMK2D. Similarly to SUD, the PLpros from SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-NL63 physically interact with and stabilize RCHY1, and thus trigger degradation of endogenous p53. The SARS-CoV papain-like protease is encoded next to SUD within nonstructural protein 3. A SUD–PLpro fusion interacts with RCHY1 more intensively and causes stronger p53 degradation than SARS-CoV PLpro alone. We show that p53 inhibits replication of infectious SARS-CoV as well as of replicons and human coronavirus NL63. Hence, human coronaviruses antagonize the viral inhibitor p53 via stabilizing RCHY1 and promoting RCHY1-mediated p53 degradation. SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. The significance of these findings is that down-regulation of p53 as a major player in antiviral innate immunity provides a long-sought explanation for delayed activities of respective genes. PMID:27519799

  1. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  2. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift. PMID:27048154

  3. Epac Activates the Small G Proteins Rap1 and Rab3A to Achieve Exocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Branham, María T.; Bustos, Matías A.; De Blas, Gerardo A.; Rehmann, Holger; Zarelli, Valeria E. P.; Treviño, Claudia L.; Darszon, Alberto; Mayorga, Luis S.; Tomes, Claudia N.

    2009-01-01

    Exocytosis of the acrosome (the acrosome reaction) relies on cAMP production, assembly of a proteinaceous fusion machinery, calcium influx from the extracellular medium, and mobilization from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Addition of cAMP to human sperm suspensions bypasses some of these requirements and elicits exocytosis in a protein kinase A- and extracellular calcium-independent manner. The relevant cAMP target is Epac, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap. We show here that a soluble adenylyl cyclase synthesizes the cAMP required for the acrosome reaction. Epac stimulates the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rap1, upstream of a phospholipase C. The Epac-selective cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP induces a phospholipase C-dependent calcium mobilization in human sperm suspensions. In addition, our studies identify a novel connection between cAMP and Rab3A, a secretory granule-associated protein, revealing that the latter functions downstream of soluble adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/Epac but not of Rap1. Challenging sperm with calcium or 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP boosts the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab3A. Recombinant Epac does not release GDP from Rab3A in vitro, suggesting that the Rab3A-GEF activation by cAMP/Epac in vivo is indirect. We propose that Epac sits at a critical point during the exocytotic cascade after which the pathway splits into two limbs, one that assembles the fusion machinery into place and another that elicits intracellular calcium release. PMID:19546222

  4. Biochemical characterization of exoribonuclease encoded by SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Jiang, Miao; Hu, Tao; Liu, Qingzhen; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Guo, Deyin

    2007-09-30

    The nsp14 protein is an exoribonuclease that is encoded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We have cloned and expressed the nsp14 protein in Escherichia coli, and characterized the nature and the role(s) of the metal ions in the reaction chemistry. The purified recombinant nsp14 protein digested a 5'-labeled RNA molecule, but failed to digest the RNA substrate that is modified with fluorescein group at the 3'-hydroxyl group, suggesting a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity. The exoribonuclease activity requires Mg2+ as a cofactor. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated a two-metal binding mode for divalent cations by nsp14. Endogenous tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra measurements showed that there was a structural change of nsp14 when binding with metal ions. We propose that the conformational change induced by metal ions may be a prerequisite for catalytic activity by correctly positioning the side chains of the residues located in the active site of the enzyme.

  5. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  6. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C

    2016-03-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  7. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H.; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  8. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    SciTech Connect

    Kapil, Sanjay; Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Lou; Hu, Ben; Wang, Bo; Wang, Mei-Niang; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Li-Jun; Ge, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Daszak, Peter; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans. PMID:26719272

  10. Interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A with host protein DCTN3 is important for viral virulence in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular ...

  11. Antigenic relationships among homologous structural polypeptides of porcine, feline, and canine coronaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Horzinek, M C; Lutz, H; Pedersen, N C

    1982-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine (TGEV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and canine coronavirus were studied with respect to their serological cross-reactivity in homologous and heterologous virus neutralization, immune precipitation of radiolabeled TGEV, electroblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using individual virion polypeptides prepared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. TGEV was neutralized by feline anti-FIPV serum, and the reaction was potentiated by complement; heterologous neutralization involved antibody reacting with the peplomer protein (P), the envelope protein (E), and cellular (glycolipid) components incorporated into the TGEV membrane. Electrophoretic analysis of immune precipitates containing [35S]methionine-labeled disrupted TGEV and feline anti-FIPV antibody confirmed the reaction with the P and E polypeptides and showed the nucleocapsid protein (N) in addition. Electroblotting, followed by incubation with antibody, 125I-labeled protein A, and fluorography, disclosed cross-reactions between the three viruses at the N and E levels and revealed differences in the apparent molecular weights of the latter. Enzyme immunoassays performed with standard amounts of immobilized P, N, and E polypeptides of the three viruses showed recognition of the antigens by homologous and heterologous antibody to comparable degrees. These results indicate a close antigenic relationship between TGEV, FIPV, and canine coronavirus due to common determinants on the three major virion proteins. The taxonomic implications of these findings are discussed. Images PMID:6182101

  12. Analysis of murine coronavirus surface glycoprotein functions by using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, E; Stauber, R; Pfleiderer, M; Siddell, S G

    1991-01-01

    The murine coronavirus surface glycoprotein gene was expressed as a fusion protein in bacteria, and the expressed protein was used to generate S protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three of the MAbs, 11F, 30B, and 10G, were able to neutralize virus infectivity, and two of them, 11F and 10G, were able to block virus-induced, cell-to-cell fusion. The binding sites of the 11F, 30B, and 10G MAbs were determined by Western immunoblotting and epitope mapping. The 11F and 30B MAbs bound to sites located, respectively, between amino acids 33 to 40 and 395 to 406 in the amino-terminal (S1) subunit of the S protein, and the 10G MAb bound to a site located between amino acids 1123 and 1137 in the carboxy-terminal (S2) subunit. These data define more precisely the interactions between the S1 and S2 subunits of the murine coronavirus S protein and provide further insights into its structure and function. Images PMID:1985201

  13. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus fusion core

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Guangpeng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Wang Jinzi; Liu Cheng; Li Yijing . E-mail: yijingli@163.com

    2005-12-02

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is one of the most destructive agents, responsible for the enteric infections that are lethal for suckling piglets, causing enormous economic loss to the porcine fostering industry every year. Although it has been known that TGEV spiker protein is essential for the viral entry for many years, the detail knowledge of the TGEV fusion protein core is still very limited. Here, we report that TGEV fusion core (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), in vitro expressed in GST prokaryotic expression system, shares the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six {alpha}-helix bundle), which has been confirmed by a combined series of biochemical and biophysical evidences including size exclusion chromatography (gel-filtration), chemical crossing, and circular diagram. The 3D homologous structure model presents its most likely structure, extremely similar to those of the coronaviruses documented. Taken together, TGEV spiker protein belongs to the class I fusion protein, characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2, and the present knowledge about the truncated TGEV fusion protein core may facilitate in the design of the small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion between TGEV and its host.

  14. Mutations That Hamper Dimerization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus 3A Protein Are Detrimental for Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    González-Magaldi, Mónica; Postigo, Raúl; de la Torre, Beatriz G.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Rodríguez-Pulido, Miguel; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Andreu, David; Kremer, Leonor; Rosas, María F.

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural protein 3A plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range. In other picornaviruses, homodimerization of 3A has been shown to be relevant for its biological activity. In this work, FMDV 3A homodimerization was evidenced by an in situ protein fluorescent ligation assay. A molecular model of the FMDV 3A protein, derived from the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the poliovirus 3A protein, predicted a hydrophobic interface spanning residues 25 to 44 as the main determinant for 3A dimerization. Replacements L38E and L41E, involving charge acquisition at residues predicted to contribute to the hydrophobic interface, reduced the dimerization signal in the protein ligation assay and prevented the detection of dimer/multimer species in both transiently expressed 3A proteins and in synthetic peptides reproducing the N terminus of 3A. These replacements also led to production of infective viruses that replaced the acidic residues introduced (E) by nonpolar amino acids, indicating that preservation of the hydrophobic interface is essential for virus replication. Replacements that favored (Q44R) or impaired (Q44D) the polar interactions predicted between residues Q44 and D32 did not abolish dimer formation of transiently expressed 3A, indicating that these interactions are not critical for 3A dimerization. Nevertheless, while Q44R led to recovery of viruses that maintained the mutation, Q44D resulted in selection of infective viruses with substitution D44E with acidic charge but with structural features similar to those of the parental virus, suggesting that Q44 is involved in functions other than 3A dimerization. PMID:22787230

  15. Update on Human Rhinovirus and Coronavirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) and coronavirus (HCoV) infections are associated with both upper respiratory tract illness ("the common cold") and lower respiratory tract illness (pneumonia). New species of HRVs and HCoVs have been diagnosed in the past decade. More sensitive diagnostic tests such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have expanded our understanding of the role these viruses play in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Recent identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome viruses causing serious respiratory illnesses has led to renewed efforts for vaccine development. The role these viruses play in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma makes the search for antiviral agents of increased importance. PMID:27486736

  16. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection.

  17. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, V. Stalin; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel coronavirus (CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the Middle East region in 2012. This virus, named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, is phylogenetically related to bat CoVs, but other animal species like dromedary camels may potentially act as intermediate hosts by spreading the virus to humans. Although human to human transmission has been demonstrated, analysis of human MERS clusters indicated that chains of transmission were not self-sustaining, especially when infection control was implemented. Thus, timely identification of new MERS cases followed by their quarantine, combined with measures to limit spread of the virus from the (intermediate) host to humans, may be crucial in controlling the outbreak of this emerging CoV. PMID:24584035

  18. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.

  19. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. PMID:27012512

  20. [New coronavirus infection: new challenges, new legacies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: emergió una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus. Su historia natural y sus determinantes todavía se están investigando. Se carece de una publicación que estudie todos los casos identificados en el mundo, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo estriba en describir los casos y defunciones por el nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: se revisaron las publicaciones en línea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, del Centro Europeo para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades y de la Eurosurveillance. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos, se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por prueba de Wilson y una prueba t de Student para diferencia de medias. Resultados: son 17 casos confirmados y 11 defunciones en varios países de Asia y Europa; predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La tasa de letalidad fue de 64.70 %; los que fallecieron se hospitalizaron cinco días después de los primeros síntomas. Se carece de publicaciones que describan la historia natural de la enfermedad; sin embargo, lo descrito en las publicaciones de Europa coincide con los resultados de este estudio. Conclusión: es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el impacto de esta enfermedad en la salud pública internacional.

  1. Cytokine responses in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected macrophages in vitro: possible relevance to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chung Y; Poon, Leo L M; Ng, Iris H Y; Luk, Winsie; Sia, Sin-Fun; Wu, Mavis H S; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Gordon, Siamon; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S M

    2005-06-01

    The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) remains unclear. Macrophages are key sentinel cells in the respiratory system, and it is therefore relevant to compare the responses of human macrophages to infections with the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses. Primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with SARS-CoV in vitro. Virus replication was monitored by measuring the levels of positive- and negative-strand RNA, by immunofluorescence detection of the SARS-CoV nucleoprotein, and by titration of the infectious virus. The gene expression profiles of macrophages infected with SARS-CoV, human coronavirus 229E, and influenza A (H1N1) virus were compared by using microarrays and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Secreted cytokines were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SARS-CoV initiated viral gene transcription and protein synthesis in macrophages, but replication was abortive and no infectious virus was produced. In contrast to the case with human coronavirus 229E and influenza A virus, there was little or no induction of beta interferon (IFN-beta) in SARS-CoV-infected macrophages. Furthermore, SARS-CoV induced the expression of chemokines such as CXCL10/IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1. The poor induction of IFN-beta, a key component of innate immunity, and the ability of the virus to induce chemokines could explain aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS.

  2. Characterization of HCoV-229E fusion core: Implications for structure basis of coronavirus membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Cheng; Feng Youjun; Gao Feng; Zhang Qiangmin; Wang Ming . E-mail: vetdean@cau.edu.cn

    2006-07-07

    Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a member of group I coronaviruses, has been identified as one of the major viral agents causing respiratory tract diseases in humans for nearly 40 years. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of the membrane fusion mediated by the spike (S) protein of HCoV-229E remains elusive. Here, we report, for the first time, a rationally designed fusion core of HCoV-229E (HR1-SGGRGG-HR2), which was in vitro produced in GST prokaryotic expression system. Multiple lines of experimental data including gel-filtration, chemical cross-linking, and circular diagram (CD) demonstrated that the HCoV-229E fusion core possesses the typical properties of the trimer of coiled-coil heterodimer (six {alpha}-helix bundle). 3D structure modeling presents its most-likely structure, similar to those of coronaviruses that have been well-documented. Collectively, HCoV-229E S protein belongs to the type I fusion protein, which is characterized by the existence of two heptad-repeat regions (HR1 and HR2), furthermore, the available knowledge concerning HCoV-229E fusion core may make it possible to design small molecule or polypeptide drugs targeting the membrane fusion, a crucial step of HCoV-229E infection.

  3. Downregulation of Mouse Hepatic CYP3A Protein by 3-Methylcholanthrene Does Not Require Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunja; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–dependent induction of cytochromes P450 (P450) such as CYP1A1 by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is well characterized. We reported previously that MC treatment triggers a pronounced downregulation, particularly at the protein level, of mouse hepatic Cyp3a11, a counterpart of the key human drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. To determine whether this effect of MC requires hepatic microsomal P450 activity, we studied liver Cpr-null (LCN) mice with hepatocyte-specific conditional deletion of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene. In vehicle-treated animals, basal levels of CYP3A11 mRNA and CYP3A protein immunoreactivity were elevated by approximately 9-fold in LCN mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas CYP3A catalytic activity was profoundly compromised in LCN mice. MC treatment caused suppression of CYP3A11 mRNA, CYP3A protein immunoreactivity, and CYP3A catalytic activity in WT mice, and the MC effects at the mRNA and protein levels were maintained in LCN mice. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (Fmo3) induction by MC was suggested previously to occur via an AHR-dependent mechanism requiring conversion of the parent compound to DNA-damaging reactive metabolites; however, hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels were dramatically increased by MC in both WT and LCN mice. MC did not function as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from untreated WT mice, under conditions in which 1-aminobenzotriazole caused marked NADPH-dependent loss of total P450 content and CYP3A catalytic activity. These results indicate that MC downregulates mouse hepatic CYP3A protein via a pretranslational mechanism that does not require hepatic microsomal P450-dependent activity. PMID:23846873

  4. Suppression of feline coronavirus replication in vitro by cyclosporin A.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Osawa, Shuichi; Inoue, Mai; Tanaka, Satoka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2012-04-30

    The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT) to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP), dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication in vitro. FK506 (an immunosuppressor of the pathway that binds cellular FK506-binding protein (FKBP) but not CyP) did not affect FIPV replication. Neither cell growth nor viability changed in the presence of either CsA or FK506, and these factors did not affect the NF-AT pathway in fcwf-4 cells. Therefore, CsA does not seem to exert inhibitory effects via the NF-AT pathway. In conclusion, CsA inhibited FIPV replication in vitro and further studies are needed to verify the practical value of CsA as an anti-FIPV treatment in vivo.

  5. Cellular HIV-1 Inhibition by Truncated Old World Primate APOBEC3A Proteins Lacking a Complete Deaminase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Katuwal, Miki; Wang, Yaqiong; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guo, Kejun; Halemano, Kalani; Santiago, Mario L.; Stephens, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) deaminases are retrovirus restriction factors that were proposed as inhibitory components of HIV-1 gene therapy vectors. However, A3 mutational activity may induce undesired genomic damage and enable HIV-1 to evade drugs and immune responses. Here, we show that A3A protein from Colobus guereza (colA3A) can restrict HIV-1 replication in producer cells in a deaminase-independent manner without inducing DNA damage. Neither HIV-1 reverse transcription nor integration were significantly affected by colA3A, but capsid protein synthesis was inhibited. The determinants for colA3A restriction mapped to the N-terminal region. These properties extend to A3A from mandrills and De Brazza’s monkeys. Surprisingly, truncated colA3A proteins expressing only the N-terminal 100 amino acids effectively exclude critical catalytic regions but retained potent cellular restriction activity. These highlight a unique mechanism of cellular HIV-1 restriction by several Old World monkey A3A proteins that may be exploited for functional HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:25262471

  6. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. However...

  7. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S protein is necessary for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and cell-cell fusion but not interaction with M protein

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Corrin E.; Machamer, Carolyn E.

    2010-09-15

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that generally cause mild disease in humans. However, the recently emerged coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) is the most pathogenic human coronavirus discovered to date. The SARS-CoV spike (S) protein mediates virus entry by binding cellular receptors and inducing fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell membrane. Coronavirus S proteins are palmitoylated, which may affect function. Here, we created a non-palmitoylated SARS-CoV S protein by mutating all nine cytoplasmic cysteine residues. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S was required for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and for cell-cell fusion. Surprisingly, however, palmitoylation of S was not required for interaction with SARS-CoV M protein. This contrasts with the requirement for palmitoylation of mouse hepatitis virus S protein for interaction with M protein and may point to important differences in assembly and infectivity of these two coronaviruses.

  8. A Three-Stemmed mRNA Pseudoknot in the SARS Coronavirus Frameshift Signal

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of RNA viruses use programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting for the production of viral fusion proteins. Inspection of the overlap regions between ORF1a and ORF1b of the SARS-CoV genome revealed that, similar to all coronaviruses, a programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift could be used by the virus to produce a fusion protein. Computational analyses of the frameshift signal predicted the presence of an mRNA pseudoknot containing three double-stranded RNA stem structures rather than two. Phylogenetic analyses showed the conservation of potential three-stemmed pseudoknots in the frameshift signals of all other coronaviruses in the GenBank database. Though the presence of the three-stemmed structure is supported by nuclease mapping and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies, our findings suggest that interactions between the stem structures may result in local distortions in the A-form RNA. These distortions are particularly evident in the vicinity of predicted A-bulges in stems 2 and 3. In vitro and in vivo frameshifting assays showed that the SARS-CoV frameshift signal is functionally similar to other viral frameshift signals: it promotes efficient frameshifting in all of the standard assay systems, and it is sensitive to a drug and a genetic mutation that are known to affect frameshifting efficiency of a yeast virus. Mutagenesis studies reveal that both the specific sequences and structures of stems 2 and 3 are important for efficient frameshifting. We have identified a new RNA structural motif that is capable of promoting efficient programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The high degree of conservation of three-stemmed mRNA pseudoknot structures among the coronaviruses suggests that this presents a novel target for antiviral therapeutics. PMID:15884978

  9. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  10. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2015-02-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. Lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. The extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. Because cholesterol-rich microdomains appear to be a general feature of the entry mechanism of non-eneveloped viruses and of several coronaviruses, the purpose of this study was to analyse the contribution of lipids to the infectivity of canine coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV life cycle is closely connected to plasma membrane cholesterol, from cell entry to viral particle production. The methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) was employed to remove cholesterol and to disrupt the lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion from the cell membrane resulted in a dose-dependent reduction, but not abolishment, of virus infectivity, and at a concentration of 15 mM, the reduction in the infection rate was about 68 %. MβCD treatment was used to verify if cholesterol in the envelope was required for CCoV infection. This resulted in a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, and at a concentration of 9 mM MβCD, infectivity was reduced by about 73 %. Since viral entry would constitute a target for antiviral strategies, inhibitory molecules interacting with viral and/or cell membranes, or interfering with lipid metabolism, may have strong antiviral potential. It will be interesting in the future to analyse the membrane microdomains in the CCoV envelope.

  11. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations. PMID:15722532

  12. Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a Regulates Synaptic Growth and Endocytosis by Inhibiting BMP Signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhua; Yao, Aiyu; Zhi, Hui; Kaur, Kuldeep; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Jia, Mingyue; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Qifu; Jin, Shan; Zhao, Guoli; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yong Q

    2016-05-01

    Altered expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, which is involved in protein degradation through the proteasome-mediated pathway, is associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects observed in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism. However, little is known about the neuronal function of UBE3A and the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. To understand the in vivo function of UBE3A in the nervous system, we generated multiple mutations of ube3a, the Drosophila ortholog of UBE3A. We found a significantly increased number of total boutons and satellite boutons in conjunction with compromised endocytosis in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of ube3a mutants compared to the wild type. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the nervous system of ube3a mutants. An immunochemical study revealed a specific increase in the protein level of Thickveins (Tkv), a type I BMP receptor, but not other BMP receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and Saxophone (Sax), in ube3a mutants. Ube3a was associated with and specifically ubiquitinated lysine 227 within the cytoplasmic tail of Tkv, and promoted its proteasomal degradation in Schneider 2 cells. Negative regulation of Tkv by Ube3a was conserved in mammalian cells. These results reveal a critical role for Ube3a in regulating NMJ synapse development by repressing BMP signaling. This study sheds new light onto the neuronal functions of UBE3A and provides novel perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. PMID:27232889

  13. Angelman Syndrome Protein Ube3a Regulates Synaptic Growth and Endocytosis by Inhibiting BMP Signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Zhu, Yong-chuan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Qifu; Jin, Shan; Zhao, Guoli; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yong Q.

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, which is involved in protein degradation through the proteasome-mediated pathway, is associated with neurodevelopmental and behavioral defects observed in Angelman syndrome (AS) and autism. However, little is known about the neuronal function of UBE3A and the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. To understand the in vivo function of UBE3A in the nervous system, we generated multiple mutations of ube3a, the Drosophila ortholog of UBE3A. We found a significantly increased number of total boutons and satellite boutons in conjunction with compromised endocytosis in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of ube3a mutants compared to the wild type. Genetic and biochemical analysis showed upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the nervous system of ube3a mutants. An immunochemical study revealed a specific increase in the protein level of Thickveins (Tkv), a type I BMP receptor, but not other BMP receptors Wishful thinking (Wit) and Saxophone (Sax), in ube3a mutants. Ube3a was associated with and specifically ubiquitinated lysine 227 within the cytoplasmic tail of Tkv, and promoted its proteasomal degradation in Schneider 2 cells. Negative regulation of Tkv by Ube3a was conserved in mammalian cells. These results reveal a critical role for Ube3a in regulating NMJ synapse development by repressing BMP signaling. This study sheds new light onto the neuronal functions of UBE3A and provides novel perspectives for understanding the pathogenesis of UBE3A-associated disorders. PMID:27232889

  14. LYR3, a high-affinity LCO-binding protein of Medicago truncatula, interacts with LYK3, a key symbiotic receptor.

    PubMed

    Fliegmann, Judith; Jauneau, Alain; Pichereaux, Carole; Rosenberg, Charles; Gasciolli, Virginie; Timmers, Antonius C J; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Cullimore, Julie; Bono, Jean-Jacques

    2016-05-01

    LYR3, LYK3, and NFP are lysin motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) from Medicago truncatula, involved in perception of symbiotic lipo-chitooligosaccharide (LCO) signals. Here, we show that LYR3, a high-affinity LCO-binding protein, physically interacts with LYK3, a key player regulating symbiotic interactions. In vitro, LYR3 is phosphorylated by the active kinase domain of LYK3. Fluorescence lifetime imaging/Förster resonance energy transfer (FLIM/FRET) experiments in tobacco protoplasts show that the interaction between LYR3 and LYK3 at the plasma membrane is disrupted or inhibited by addition of LCOs. Moreover, LYR3 attenuates the cell death response, provoked by coexpression of NFP and LYK3 in tobacco leaves. PMID:27129432

  15. Generation of a replication-competent, propagation-deficient virus vector based on the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Javier; Escors, David; Laude, Hubert; Enjuanes, Luis

    2002-11-01

    Replication-competent propagation-deficient virus vectors based on the transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) genome that are deficient in the essential E gene have been developed by complementation within E(+) packaging cell lines. Cell lines expressing the TGEV E protein were established using the noncytopathic Sindbis virus replicon pSINrep21. In addition, cell lines stably expressing the E gene under the CMV promoter have been developed. The Sindbis replicon vector and the ectopic TGEV E protein did not interfere with the rescue of infectious TGEV from full-length cDNA. Recombinant TGEV deficient in the nonessential 3a and 3b genes and the essential E gene (rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE) was successfully rescued in these cell lines. rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE reached high titers (10(7) PFU/ml) in baby hamster kidney cells expressing porcine aminopeptidase N (BHK-pAPN), the cellular receptor for TGEV, using Sindbis replicon and reached titers up to 5 x 10(5) PFU/ml in cells stably expressing E protein under the control of the CMV promoter. The virus titers were proportional to the E protein expression level. The rTGEV-Delta3abDeltaE virions produced in the packaging cell line showed the same morphology and stability under different pHs and temperatures as virus derived from the full-length rTGEV genome, although a delay in virus assembly was observed by electron microscopy and virus titration in the complementation system in relation to the wild-type virus. These viruses were stably grown for >10 passages in the E(+) packaging cell lines. The availability of packaging cell lines will significantly facilitate the production of safe TGEV-derived vectors for vaccination and possibly gene therapy.

  16. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores. PMID:23212740

  17. Intrinsic resistance of feline peritoneal macrophages to coronavirus infection correlates with in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, C A; Scott, F W

    1989-01-01

    Cats infected with virulent feline coronavirus strains develop feline infectious peritonitis, an invariably fatal, immunologically mediated disease; avirulent strains cause either clinically inapparent infection or mild enteritis. Four virulent coronavirus isolates and five avirulent isolates were assessed by immunofluorescence and virus titration for their ability to infect and replicate in feline peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The avirulent coronaviruses infected fewer macrophages, produced lower virus titers, were less able to sustain viral replication, and spread less efficiently to other susceptible macrophages than the virulent coronaviruses. Thus, the intrinsic resistance of feline macrophages may play a pivotal role in the outcome of coronavirus infection in vivo.

  18. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-12-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals with huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals.

  19. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores.

  20. MERS coronavirus: diagnostics, epidemiology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    The first known cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), associated with infection by a novel coronavirus (CoV), occurred in 2012 in Jordan but were reported retrospectively. The case first to be publicly reported was from Jeddah, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Since then, MERS-CoV sequences have been found in a bat and in many dromedary camels (DC). MERS-CoV is enzootic in DC across the Arabian Peninsula and in parts of Africa, causing mild upper respiratory tract illness in its camel reservoir and sporadic, but relatively rare human infections. Precisely how virus transmits to humans remains unknown but close and lengthy exposure appears to be a requirement. The KSA is the focal point of MERS, with the majority of human cases. In humans, MERS is mostly known as a lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease involving fever, cough, breathing difficulties and pneumonia that may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure and death in 20% to 40% of those infected. However, MERS-CoV has also been detected in mild and influenza-like illnesses and in those with no signs or symptoms. Older males most obviously suffer severe disease and MERS patients often have comorbidities. Compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another sometimes- fatal zoonotic coronavirus disease that has since disappeared, MERS progresses more rapidly to respiratory failure and acute kidney injury (it also has an affinity for growth in kidney cells under laboratory conditions), is more frequently reported in patients with underlying disease and is more often fatal. Most human cases of MERS have been linked to lapses in infection prevention and control (IPC) in healthcare settings, with approximately 20% of all virus detections reported among healthcare workers (HCWs) and higher exposures in those with occupations that bring them into close contact with camels. Sero-surveys have found widespread evidence of past infection in adult camels and limited

  1. Identification of a domain required for autoproteolytic cleavage of murine coronavirus gene A polyprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S C; Shieh, C K; Soe, L H; Chang, M F; Vannier, D M; Lai, M M

    1989-01-01

    The 5'-most gene of the murine coronavirus genome, gene A, is presumed to encode viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It has previously been shown that the N-terminal portion of this gene product is cleaved into a protein of 28 kilodaltons (p28). To further understand the mechanism of synthesis of the p28 protein, cDNA clones representing the 5'-most 5.3 kilobases of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM were sequenced and subcloned into pT7 vectors from which RNAs were transcribed and translated in vitro. The sequence was found to encode a single long open reading frame continuing from near the 5' terminus of the genome. Although p28 is encoded from the first 1 kilobase at the 5' end of the genome, translation of in vitro-transcribed RNAs indicated that this protein was not detected unless the product of the entire 5.3-kilobase region was synthesized. Translation of RNAs of 3.9 kilobases or smaller yielded proteins which contained the p28 sequence, but p28 was not cleaved. This suggests that the sequence in the region between 3.9 and 5.3 kilobases from the 5' end of the genomic RNA is essential for proteolytic cleavage and contains autoproteolytic activity. The p28 protein could not be cleaved from the smaller primary translation products of gene A, even in the presence of the larger autocleaving protein. Cleavage of the p28 protein was inhibited by addition of the protease inhibitor ZnCl2. This study thus identified a protein domain essential for autoproteolytic cleavage of the gene A polyprotein. Images PMID:2547993

  2. Altered CYP2C9 Activity Following Modulation of CYP3A4 Levels in Human Hepatocytes: an Example of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, Donald J.; Chan, Tom S.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions resulting in modulation of enzyme activities have been well documented using recombinant isoforms. This interaction has been less clearly demonstrated in a more physiologic in vitro system such as human hepatocytes. As an expansion of earlier work (Subramanian et al., 2010), in which recombinant CYP2C9 activity decreased with increasing levels of CYP3A4, the current study modulated CYP3A4 content in human hepatocytes to determine the impact on CYP2C9. Modulation of CYP3A4 levels in situ was enabled by the use of a long-term human hepatocyte culture model (HepatoPac) shown to retain phenotypic hepatocyte function over a number of weeks. The extended period of culture allowed time for knockdown of CYP3A4 protein by small interfering RNA (siRNA) with subsequent recovery, as well as upregulation through induction with a recovery period. CYP3A4 gene silencing resulted in a 60% decrease in CYP3A4 activity and protein levels with a concomitant 74% increase in CYP2C9 activity, with no change in CYP2C9 mRNA levels. Upon removal of siRNA, both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities returned to pre-knockdown levels. Importantly, modulation of CYP3A4 protein levels had no impact on cytochrome P450 reductase activities or levels. However, the possibility for competition for limiting reductase cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, lowering CYP3A4 levels also increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 activity. These studies clearly demonstrate that alterations in CYP3A4 levels can modulate CYP2C9 activity in situ and suggest that further studies are warranted to evaluate the possible clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:25157098

  3. Inferring the hosts of coronavirus using dual statistical models based on nucleotide composition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Shi, Mijuan; Cheng, Yingyin; Zhang, Wanting; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Many coronaviruses are capable of interspecies transmission. Some of them have caused worldwide panic as emerging human pathogens in recent years, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In order to assess their threat to humans, we explored to infer the potential hosts of coronaviruses using a dual-model approach based on nineteen parameters computed from spike genes of coronaviruses. Both the support vector machine (SVM) model and the Mahalanobis distance (MD) discriminant model achieved high accuracies in leave-one-out cross-validation of training data consisting of 730 representative coronaviruses (99.86% and 98.08% respectively). Predictions on 47 additional coronaviruses precisely conformed to conclusions or speculations by other researchers. Our approach is implemented as a web server that can be accessed at http://bioinfo.ihb.ac.cn/seq2hosts. PMID:26607834

  4. Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2015-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) mostly cause a common cold that is mild and self-limiting. Zoonotic transmission of CoVs such as the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, on the other hand, may be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection. This article reviews the clinical and pathological data available on MERS and compares it to SARS. Most importantly, chest radiographs and imaging results of patients with MERS show features that resemble the findings of organizing pneumonia, different from the lesions in SARS patients, which show fibrocellular intra-alveolar organization with a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia-like pattern. These findings are in line with differences in the induction of cytopathological changes, induction of host gene responses and sensitivity to the antiviral effect of interferons in vitro when comparing both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The challenge will be to translate these findings into an integrated picture of MERS pathogenesis in humans and to develop intervention strategies that will eventually allow the effective control of this newly emerging infectious disease.

  5. Interaction of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Nonstructural Protein 3A with Host Protein DCTN3 Is Important for Viral Virulence in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, D. P.; O'Donnell, V.; Baker-Bransetter, R.; Pacheco, J. M.; Holinka, L. G.; Arzt, J.; Pauszek, S.; Fernandez-Sainz, I.; Fletcher, P.; Brocchi, E.; Lu, Z.; Rodriguez, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nonstructural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular protein DCTN3 as a specific host binding partner for 3A. DCTN3 is a subunit of the dynactin complex, a cofactor for dynein, a motor protein. The dynactin-dynein duplex has been implicated in several subcellular functions involving intracellular organelle transport. The 3A-DCTN3 interaction identified by the yeast two-hybrid approach was further confirmed in mammalian cells. Overexpression of DCTN3 or proteins known to disrupt dynein, p150/Glued and 50/dynamitin, resulted in decreased FMDV replication in infected cells. We mapped the critical amino acid residues in the 3A protein that mediate the protein interaction with DCTN3 by mutational analysis and, based on that information, we developed a mutant harboring the same mutations in O1 Campos FMDV (O1C3A-PLDGv). Although O1C3A-PLDGv FMDV and its parental virus (O1Cv) grew equally well in LFBK-αvβ6, O1C3A-PLDGv virus exhibited a decreased ability to replicate in primary bovine cell cultures. Importantly, O1C3A-PLDGv virus exhibited a delayed disease in cattle compared to the virulent parental O1Campus (O1Cv). Virus isolated from lesions of animals inoculated with O1C3A-PLDGv virus contained amino acid substitutions in the area of 3A mediating binding to DCTN3. Importantly, 3A protein harboring similar amino acid substitutions regained interaction with DCTN3, supporting the hypothesis that DCTN3 interaction likely contributes to virulence in cattle. IMPORTANCE The objective of this study was to understand the possible role of a FMD virus protein 3A, in causing disease in cattle. We have found that the cellular protein, DCTN3, is a specific binding partner for 3A. It was shown that manipulation of DCTN3 has a

  6. Difference in receptor usage between severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and SARS-like coronavirus of bat origin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wuze; Qu, Xiuxia; Li, Wendong; Han, Zhenggang; Yu, Meng; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Deng, Hongkui; Shi, Zhengli

    2008-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor for cell entry. A group of SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) has been identified in horseshoe bats. SL-CoVs and SARS-CoVs share identical genome organizations and high sequence identities, with the main exception of the N terminus of the spike protein (S), known to be responsible for receptor binding in CoVs. In this study, we investigated the receptor usage of the SL-CoV S by combining a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudovirus system with cell lines expressing the ACE2 molecules of human, civet, or horseshoe bat. In addition to full-length S of SL-CoV and SARS-CoV, a series of S chimeras was constructed by inserting different sequences of the SARS-CoV S into the SL-CoV S backbone. Several important observations were made from this study. First, the SL-CoV S was unable to use any of the three ACE2 molecules as its receptor. Second, the SARS-CoV S failed to enter cells expressing the bat ACE2. Third, the chimeric S covering the previously defined receptor-binding domain gained its ability to enter cells via human ACE2, albeit with different efficiencies for different constructs. Fourth, a minimal insert region (amino acids 310 to 518) was found to be sufficient to convert the SL-CoV S from non-ACE2 binding to human ACE2 binding, indicating that the SL-CoV S is largely compatible with SARS-CoV S protein both in structure and in function. The significance of these findings in relation to virus origin, virus recombination, and host switching is discussed.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3A inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Lei, Caoqi; Xu, Zhisheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Huanan; Zhu, Zixiang; Li, Shu; Liu, Xiangtao; Shu, Hongbing; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of FMD, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. The pathophysiology of FMDV has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. Here, the FMDV non-structural protein 3A was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway. Overexpression of the FMDV 3A inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3 and the expressions of RIG-I/MDA5. Transient transfection and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that FMDV 3A interacts with RIG-I, MDA5 and VISA, which is dependent on the N-terminal 51 amino acids of 3A. Furthermore, 3A also inhibited the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, and VISA by disrupting their mRNA levels. These results demonstrated that 3A inhibits the RLR-mediated IFN-β induction and uncovered a novel mechanism by which the FMDV 3A protein evades the host innate immune system. PMID:26883855

  9. A partial deletion in non-structural protein 3A can attenuate foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of non-structural protein 3A in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as being responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in t...

  10. Mammalian ribosomal and chaperone protein RPS3A counteracts α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity in a yeast model system.

    PubMed

    De Graeve, Stijn; Marinelli, Sarah; Stolz, Frank; Hendrix, Jelle; Vandamme, Jurgen; Engelborghs, Yves; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of aggregated forms of αSyn (α-synuclein) into Lewy bodies is a known hallmark associated with neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. When expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, αSyn interacts with the plasma membrane, forms inclusions and causes a concentration-dependent growth defect. We have used a yeast mutant, cog6Δ, which is particularly sensitive to moderate αSyn expression, for screening a mouse brain-specific cDNA library in order to identify mammalian proteins that counteract αSyn toxicity. The mouse ribosomal and chaperone protein RPS3A was identified as a suppressor of αSyn [WT (wild-type) and A53T] toxicity in yeast. We demonstrated that the 50 N-terminal amino acids are essential for this function. The yeast homologues of RPS3A were not effective in suppressing the αSyn-induced growth defect, illustrating the potential of our screening system to identify modifiers that would be missed using yeast gene overexpression as the first screening step. Co-expression of mouse RPS3A delayed the formation of αSyn-GFP inclusions in the yeast cells. The results of the present study suggest that the recently identified extraribosomal chaperonin function of RPS3A also acts on the neurodegeneration-related protein αSyn and reveal a new avenue for identifying promising candidate mammalian proteins involved in αSyn functioning.

  11. A Chimeric Virus-Mouse Model System for Evaluating the Function and Inhibition of Papain-Like Proteases of Emerging Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xufang; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Mielech, Anna M.; Nichols, Daniel B.; Wilson, Michael W.; StJohn, Sarah E.; Larsen, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Lenschow, Deborah J.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To combat emerging coronaviruses, developing safe and efficient platforms to evaluate viral protease activities and the efficacy of protease inhibitors is a high priority. Here, we exploit a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) chimeric Sindbis virus system to evaluate protease activities and the efficacy of inhibitors directed against the papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) pathogen. We engineered Sindbis virus to coexpress PLpro and a substrate, murine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), and found that PLpro mediates removal of ISG15 (deISGylation) from cellular proteins. Mutation of the catalytic cysteine residue of PLpro or addition of a PLpro inhibitor blocked deISGylation in virus-infected cells. Thus, deISGylation is a marker of PLpro activity. Infection of alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR−/−) mice with these chimeric viruses revealed that PLpro deISGylation activity removed ISG15-mediated protection during viral infection. Importantly, administration of a PLpro inhibitor protected these mice from lethal infection, demonstrating the efficacy of a coronavirus protease inhibitor in a mouse model. However, this PLpro inhibitor was not sufficient to protect the mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV MA15, suggesting that further optimization of the delivery and stability of PLpro inhibitors is needed. We extended the chimeric-virus platform to evaluate the papain-like protease/deISGylating activity of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to provide a small-animal model to evaluate PLpro inhibitors of this recently emerged pathogen. This platform has the potential to be universally adaptable to other viral and cellular enzymes that have deISGylating activities. IMPORTANCE Evaluating viral protease inhibitors in a small-animal model is a critical step in the path toward antiviral drug development. We modified a biosafety level 2 chimeric virus

  12. SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronavirus pose threat for human emergence

    PubMed Central

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Yount, Boyd L.; Debbink, Kari; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Plante, Jessica A.; Graham, Rachel L.; Scobey, Trevor; Ge, Xing-Yi; Donaldson, Eric F.; Randell, Scott H.; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Wayne A.; Shi, Zhengli-Li; Baric, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. In this study, we examine the disease potential for SARS-like CoVs currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild type backbone can efficiently utilize multiple ACE2 receptor orthologs, replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells, and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from CoVs utilizing the novel spike protein. Importantly, based on these findings, we synthetically rederived an infectious full length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the work highlights a continued risk of SARS-CoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations. PMID:26552008

  13. Antigenic relationship of turkey coronavirus isolates from different geographic locations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsang Long; Loa, Chien Chang; Wu, Ching Ching; Bryan, Thomas; Hooper, Tom; Schrader, Donna

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the antigenicity of turkey coronavirus (TCV) isolates from various geographic areas with antibodies to different viruses. Seventeen isolates of TCV were recovered from intestinal samples submitted to Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Purdue University, from turkey farms located in different geographic areas. The prototype TCV Minnesota isolate (TCV-ATCC) was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. Intestinal sections were prepared from turkey embryos infected with different TCV isolates and reacted with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies to TCV, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), bovine coronavirus (BCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), reovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, or enterovirus in immunofluorescent antibody staining. All 18 TCV isolates have the same antigenic reactivity pattern with the same panel of antibodies. Positive reactivity was seen with polyclonal antibodies to the TCV Indiana isolate, the TCV Virginia isolate, TCV-ATCC, and the IBV Massachusetts strain as well as monoclonal antibodies to the TCV North Carolina isolate or the membrane protein of IBV. Antibodies to BCV or TGEV were not reactive with any of the TCV isolates. Reactivity of antibodies to unrelated virus, rotavirus, reovirus, adenovirus, or enterovirus with different TCV isolates was all negative, except positive response was seen between enterovirus antibody and a TCV western North Carolina isolate, suggesting coinfection of turkeys with TCV and enterovirus in that particular case. The results indicated that the TCV isolates from these geographic locations in the U.S. shared close antigenicity and were antigenically related to IBV.

  14. Genetic drift of human coronavirus OC43 spike gene during adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lili; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jianguo; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lan; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-06-22

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) continuously threaten human health. However, to date, the evolutionary mechanisms that govern CoV strain persistence in human populations have not been fully understood. In this study, we characterized the evolution of the major antigen-spike (S) gene in the most prevalent human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43 using phylogenetic and phylodynamic analysis. Among the five known HCoV-OC43 genotypes (A to E), higher substitution rates and dN/dS values as well as more positive selection sites were detected in the S gene of genotype D, corresponding to the most dominant HCoV epidemic in recent years. Further analysis showed that the majority of substitutions were located in the S1 subunit. Among them, seven positive selection sites were chronologically traced in the temporal evolution routes of genotype D, and six were located around the critical sugar binding region in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein, an important sugar binding domain of CoV. These findings suggest that the genetic drift of the S gene may play an important role in genotype persistence in human populations, providing insights into the mechanisms of HCoV-OC43 adaptive evolution.

  15. OPLS3: A Force Field Providing Broad Coverage of Drug-like Small Molecules and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Harder, Edward; Damm, Wolfgang; Maple, Jon; Wu, Chuanjie; Reboul, Mark; Xiang, Jin Yu; Wang, Lingle; Lupyan, Dmitry; Dahlgren, Markus K; Knight, Jennifer L; Kaus, Joseph W; Cerutti, David S; Krilov, Goran; Jorgensen, William L; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A

    2016-01-12

    The parametrization and validation of the OPLS3 force field for small molecules and proteins are reported. Enhancements with respect to the previous version (OPLS2.1) include the addition of off-atom charge sites to represent halogen bonding and aryl nitrogen lone pairs as well as a complete refit of peptide dihedral parameters to better model the native structure of proteins. To adequately cover medicinal chemical space, OPLS3 employs over an order of magnitude more reference data and associated parameter types relative to other commonly used small molecule force fields (e.g., MMFF and OPLS_2005). As a consequence, OPLS3 achieves a high level of accuracy across performance benchmarks that assess small molecule conformational propensities and solvation. The newly fitted peptide dihedrals lead to significant improvements in the representation of secondary structure elements in simulated peptides and native structure stability over a number of proteins. Together, the improvements made to both the small molecule and protein force field lead to a high level of accuracy in predicting protein-ligand binding measured over a wide range of targets and ligands (less than 1 kcal/mol RMS error) representing a 30% improvement over earlier variants of the OPLS force field. PMID:26584231

  16. OPLS3: A Force Field Providing Broad Coverage of Drug-like Small Molecules and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Harder, Edward; Damm, Wolfgang; Maple, Jon; Wu, Chuanjie; Reboul, Mark; Xiang, Jin Yu; Wang, Lingle; Lupyan, Dmitry; Dahlgren, Markus K; Knight, Jennifer L; Kaus, Joseph W; Cerutti, David S; Krilov, Goran; Jorgensen, William L; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A

    2016-01-12

    The parametrization and validation of the OPLS3 force field for small molecules and proteins are reported. Enhancements with respect to the previous version (OPLS2.1) include the addition of off-atom charge sites to represent halogen bonding and aryl nitrogen lone pairs as well as a complete refit of peptide dihedral parameters to better model the native structure of proteins. To adequately cover medicinal chemical space, OPLS3 employs over an order of magnitude more reference data and associated parameter types relative to other commonly used small molecule force fields (e.g., MMFF and OPLS_2005). As a consequence, OPLS3 achieves a high level of accuracy across performance benchmarks that assess small molecule conformational propensities and solvation. The newly fitted peptide dihedrals lead to significant improvements in the representation of secondary structure elements in simulated peptides and native structure stability over a number of proteins. Together, the improvements made to both the small molecule and protein force field lead to a high level of accuracy in predicting protein-ligand binding measured over a wide range of targets and ligands (less than 1 kcal/mol RMS error) representing a 30% improvement over earlier variants of the OPLS force field.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  18. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  19. Coronavirus Cell Entry Occurs through the Endo-/Lysosomal Pathway in a Proteolysis-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H.; Wicht, Oliver; van Kasteren, Sander I.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Pelkmans, Lucas; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Bosch, Berend Jan; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fusion. Specific cues in the endosomal microenvironment induce conformational changes in the viral fusion proteins leading to viral and host membrane fusion. In the present study we investigated the entry of coronaviruses (CoVs). Using siRNA gene silencing, we found that proteins known to be important for late endosomal maturation and endosome-lysosome fusion profoundly promote infection of cells with mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Using recombinant MHVs expressing reporter genes as well as a novel, replication-independent fusion assay we confirmed the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and demonstrated that trafficking of MHV to lysosomes is required for fusion and productive entry to occur. Nevertheless, MHV was shown to be less sensitive to perturbation of endosomal pH than vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus, which fuse in early and late endosomes, respectively. Our results indicate that entry of MHV depends on proteolytic processing of its fusion protein S by lysosomal proteases. Fusion of MHV was severely inhibited by a pan-lysosomal protease inhibitor, while trafficking of MHV to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases was no longer required when a furin cleavage site was introduced in the S protein immediately upstream of the fusion peptide. Also entry of feline CoV was shown to depend on trafficking to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases. In contrast, MERS-CoV, which contains a minimal furin cleavage site just upstream of the fusion peptide, was negatively affected by inhibition of furin, but not of lysosomal proteases. We conclude that a proteolytic cleavage site in the CoV S protein directly upstream of the fusion peptide is an essential determinant of the intracellular site of fusion. PMID:25375324

  20. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  1. Murine Coronavirus Ubiquitin-Like Domain Is Important for Papain-Like Protease Stability and Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mielech, Anna M.; Deng, Xufang; Chen, Yafang; Kindler, Eveline; Wheeler, Dorthea L.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Thiel, Volker; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ubiquitin-like domains (Ubls) now are recognized as common elements adjacent to viral and cellular proteases; however, their function is unclear. Structural studies of the papain-like protease (PLP) domains of coronaviruses (CoVs) revealed an adjacent Ubl domain in severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, and the murine CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Here, we tested the effect of altering the Ubl adjacent to PLP2 of MHV on enzyme activity, viral replication, and pathogenesis. Using deletion and substitution approaches, we identified sites within the Ubl domain, residues 785 to 787 of nonstructural protein 3, which negatively affect protease activity, and valine residues 785 and 787, which negatively affect deubiquitinating activity. Using reverse genetics, we engineered Ubl mutant viruses and found that AM2 (V787S) and AM3 (V785S) viruses replicate efficiently at 37°C but generate smaller plaques than wild-type (WT) virus, and AM2 is defective for replication at higher temperatures. To evaluate the effect of the mutation on protease activity, we purified WT and Ubl mutant PLP2 and found that the proteases exhibit similar specific activities at 25°C. However, the thermal stability of the Ubl mutant PLP2 was significantly reduced at 30°C, thereby reducing the total enzymatic activity. To determine if the destabilizing mutation affects viral pathogenesis, we infected C57BL/6 mice with WT or AM2 virus and found that the mutant virus is highly attenuated, yet it replicates sufficiently to elicit protective immunity. These studies revealed that modulating the Ubl domain adjacent to the PLP reduces protease stability and viral pathogenesis, revealing a novel approach to coronavirus attenuation. IMPORTANCE Introducing mutations into a protein or virus can have either direct or indirect effects on function. We asked if changes in the Ubl domain, a conserved domain adjacent to the coronavirus papain-like protease, altered

  2. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  3. Coinfection of pigs with Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus and Bordetella bronchisphica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which multiple pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whos...

  4. Persistence of Antibodies against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Iblan, Ibrahim; Rha, Brian; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alsanouri, Tarek; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Harcourt, Jennifer; Miao, Congrong; Tamin, Azaibi; Gerber, Susan I.; Haynes, Lia M.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    To determine how long antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus persist, we measured long-term antibody responses among persons serologically positive or indeterminate after a 2012 outbreak in Jordan. Antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were detectable in 6 (86%) of 7 persons for at least 34 months after the outbreak. PMID:27332149

  5. Engineering Coronaviruses to Evaluate Emergence and Pathogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-06-01

    A recent study provides a platform for generating infectious coronavirus genomes using sequence data, examining their capabilities of replicating in human cells and causing diseases in animal models, and evaluating therapeutics and vaccines. Similar approaches could be used to assess the potential of human emergence and pathogenicity for other viruses. PMID:27095615

  6. Focal adhesion kinase protein regulates Wnt3a gene expression to control cell fate specification in the developing neural plate

    PubMed Central

    Fonar, Yuri; Gutkovich, Yoni E.; Root, Heather; Malyarova, Anastasia; Aamar, Emil; Golubovskaya, Vita M.; Elias, Sarah; Elkouby, Yaniv M.; Frank, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase protein localized to regions called focal adhesions, which are contact points between cells and the extracellular matrix. FAK protein acts as a scaffold to transfer adhesion-dependent and growth factor signals into the cell. Increased FAK expression is linked to aggressive metastatic and invasive tumors. However, little is known about its normal embryonic function. FAK protein knockdown during early Xenopus laevis development anteriorizes the embryo. Morphant embryos express increased levels of anterior neural markers, with reciprocally reduced posterior neural marker expression. Posterior neural plate folding and convergence-extension is also inhibited. This anteriorized phenotype resembles that of embryos knocked down zygotically for canonical Wnt signaling. FAK and Wnt3a genes are both expressed in the neural plate, and Wnt3a expression is FAK dependent. Ectopic Wnt expression rescues this FAK morphant anteriorized phenotype. Wnt3a thus acts downstream of FAK to balance anterior–posterior cell fate specification in the developing neural plate. Wnt3a gene expression is also FAK dependent in human breast cancer cells, suggesting that this FAK–Wnt linkage is highly conserved. This unique observation connects the FAK- and Wnt-signaling pathways, both of which act to promote cancer when aberrantly activated in mammalian cells. PMID:21551070

  7. To sense or not to sense viral RNA--essentials of coronavirus innate immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Eveline; Thiel, Volker

    2014-08-01

    An essential function of innate immunity is to distinguish self from non-self and receptors have evolved to specifically recognize viral components and initiate the expression of antiviral proteins to restrict viral replication. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that replicate in the host cytoplasm and evade innate immune sensing in most cell types, either passively by hiding their viral signatures and limiting exposure to sensors or actively, by encoding viral antagonists to counteract the effects of interferons. Since many cytoplasmic viruses exploit similar mechanisms of innate immune evasion, mechanistic insight into the direct interplay between viral RNA, viral RNA-processing enzymes, cellular sensors and antiviral proteins will be highly relevant to develop novel antiviral targets and to restrict important animal and human infections.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 3, a protein with a dual subcellular fate, is interacting with human ribosomal protein S2

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Marianne; Reimers, Kerstin; Wirz, Werner; Gressner, Axel M.; Mueller, Robert; Kiefer, Paul . E-mail: pkiefer@ukaachen.de

    2005-12-16

    The secreted isoform of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) induces a mitogenic cell response, while the nuclear form inhibits cell proliferation. Recently, we identified a nucleolar FGF3-binding protein which is implicated in processing of pre-rRNA as a possible target of nuclear FGF3 signalling. Here, we report a second candidate protein identified by a yeast two-hybrid screen for nuclear FGF3 action, ribosomal protein S2, rpS2. Recombinant rpS2 binds to in vitro translated FGF3 and to nuclear FGF3 extracted from transfected COS-1 cells. Characterization of the FGF3 binding domain of rpS2 showed that both the Arg-Gly-rich N-terminal region and a short carboxyl-terminal sequence of rpS2 are necessary for FGF3 binding. Mapping the S2 binding domains of FGF3 revealed that these domains are important for both NoBP and rpS2 interaction. Transient co-expression of rpS2 and nuclear FGF3 resulted in a reduced nucleolar localization of the FGF. These findings suggest that the nuclear form of FGF3 inhibits cell proliferation by interfering with ribosomal biogenesis.

  9. Protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A regulate cAMP levels in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Roger W; Mackintosh, Carol; Hers, Ingeborg

    2009-05-01

    The elevation of [cAMP](i) is an important mechanism of platelet inhibition and is regulated by the opposing activity of adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, we demonstrate that a variety of platelet agonists, including thrombin, significantly enhance the activity of PDE3A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Stimulation of platelets with the PAR-1 agonist SFLLRN resulted in rapid and transient phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser(312), Ser(428), Ser(438), Ser(465), and Ser(492), in parallel with the PKC (protein kinase C) substrate, pleckstrin. Furthermore, phosphorylation and activation of PDE3A required the activation of PKC, but not of PI3K/PKB, mTOR/p70S6K, or ERK/RSK. Activation of PKC by phorbol esters also resulted in phosphorylation of the same PDE3A sites in a PKC-dependent, PKB-independent manner. This was further supported by the finding that IGF-1, which strongly activates PI3K/PKB, but not PKC, did not regulate PDE3A. Platelet activation also led to a PKC-dependent association between PDE3A and 14-3-3 proteins. In contrast, cAMP-elevating agents such as PGE(1) and forskolin-induced phosphorylation of Ser(312) and increased PDE3A activity, but did not stimulate 14-3-3 binding. Finally, complete antagonism of PGE(1)-evoked cAMP accumulation by thrombin required both G(i) and PKC activation. Together, these results demonstrate that platelet activation stimulates PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PDE3A on Ser(312), Ser(428), Ser(438), Ser(465), and Ser(492) leading to a subsequent increase in cAMP hydrolysis and 14-3-3 binding. PMID:19261611

  10. Sushi Domain-Containing Protein 3: A Potential Target for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenghong; Jiang, Enze; Wang, Xinxing; Shi, Yaqin; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Zhang, Luo; Li, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most effective endocrine treatment for estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα+) postmenopausal breast cancer. Identification of biomarkers that are able to predict AIs responsiveness of patients is a key for successful treatment. The currently used biomarkers for tamoxifen responsiveness, which including ERα as well as progesterone receptor can only predict part of the potential responders to AIs treatment. Sushi domain-containing protein 3 (SUSD3) is a potential novel biomarker of AIs responsiveness. The lack of SUSD3 expression in breast cancer tissue can be an important predictor for non-responsiveness to AI. Here we reviewed the property and function of SUSD3, its usage as a biomarker and the practicability for SUSD3 to become a target for immune therapy. We suggest this protein can be potentially measured or targeted for prevention, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes for estrogen or progesterone-dependent disorders including breast cancer in women.

  11. Sushi Domain-Containing Protein 3: A Potential Target for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenghong; Jiang, Enze; Wang, Xinxing; Shi, Yaqin; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Zhang, Luo; Li, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most effective endocrine treatment for estrogen receptor α-positive (ERα+) postmenopausal breast cancer. Identification of biomarkers that are able to predict AIs responsiveness of patients is a key for successful treatment. The currently used biomarkers for tamoxifen responsiveness, which including ERα as well as progesterone receptor can only predict part of the potential responders to AIs treatment. Sushi domain-containing protein 3 (SUSD3) is a potential novel biomarker of AIs responsiveness. The lack of SUSD3 expression in breast cancer tissue can be an important predictor for non-responsiveness to AI. Here we reviewed the property and function of SUSD3, its usage as a biomarker and the practicability for SUSD3 to become a target for immune therapy. We suggest this protein can be potentially measured or targeted for prevention, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes for estrogen or progesterone-dependent disorders including breast cancer in women. PMID:25556073

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Muscleblind-like 3, a Protein with Punctate Nuclear Localization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Soon; Lewis, K.A.; Tom, Susan; Wayner, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Muscleblind-like 3 (MBNL3) belongs to a family of RNA binding proteins that regulate alternative splicing. We have generated a set of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against mouse MBNL3, three of which do not cross-react with the other muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, MBNL1 and MBNL2. Epitope mapping revealed that MAbs P1C7, P1E7, SP1C2, and P2E6 recognize distinct, non-overlapping segments of the MBNL3 polypeptide sequence. Immunohistochemical staining of proliferating muscle precursor cells localized MBNL3 to the nucleus in a punctate pattern, characteristic of subcellular structures in the nucleus enriched in pre-messenger RNA splicing factors. Although MBNL3 did not co-localize with SC35 and PSP1 (widely used markers of splicing speckles and paraspeckles), the punctate localization pattern of MBNL3 within interchromatin regions of the nucleus is highly predictive of proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing. Monoclonal antibodies specific for mouse MBNL3 will facilitate further investigation of the expression pattern and unique functions of this splicing factor during development and in different adult mouse tissues. PMID:21529292

  13. STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, R; Knauer, R; Burda, P; Stagljar, I; te Heesen, S; Lehle, L; Aebi, M

    1995-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a ubiquitous protein modification, and is essential for viability in eukaryotic cells. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase (OTase) complex. Based on the synthetic lethal phenotype of double mutations affecting the assembly of the lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide and the OTase activity, we have performed a novel screen for mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with altered N-linked glycosylation. Besides novel mutants deficient in the assembly of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (alg mutants), we identified the STT3 locus as being required for OTase activity in vivo. The essential STT3 protein is approximately 60% identical in amino acid sequence to its human homologue. A mutation in the STT3 locus affects substrate specificity of the OTase complex in vivo and in vitro. In stt3-3 cells very little glycosyl transfer occurs from incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharide, whereas the transfer of full-length Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 is hardly affected as compared with wild-type cells. Depletion of the STT3 protein results in loss of transferase activity in vivo and a deficiency in the assembly of OTase complex. Images PMID:7588624

  14. CARMA3: A novel scaffold protein in regulation of NF-κB activation and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyuan

    2010-01-01

    CARD recruited membrane associated protein 3 (CARMA3) is a novel scaffold protein. It belongs to the CARMA protein family, and is known to activate nuclear factor (NF)-κB. However, it is still unknown which receptor functions upstream of CARMA3 to trigger NF-κB activation. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that CARMA3 serves as an indispensable adaptor protein in NF-κB signaling under some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor and angiotensin (Ang) II receptor. Mechanistically, CARMA3 recruits its essential downstream molecules Bcl10 and MALT1 to form the CBM (CARMA3-Bcl10-MALT1) signalosome whereby it triggers NF-κB activation. GPCRs and NF-κB play pivotal roles in the regulation of various cellular functions, therefore, aberrant regulation of the GPCR/NF-κB signaling axis leads to the development of many types of diseases, such as cancer and atherogenesis. Recently, the GPCR/CARMA3/NF-κB signaling axis has been confirmed in these specific diseases and it plays crucial roles in the pathogenesis of disease progression. In ovarian cancer cell lines, knockdown of CARMA3 abolishes LPA receptor-induced NF-κB activation, and reduces LPA-induced ovarian cancer invasion. In vascular smooth cells, downregulation of CARMA3 substantially impairs Ang-II-receptor-induced NF-κB activation, and in vivo studies have confirmed that Bcl10-deficient mice are protected from developing Ang-II-receptor-induced atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms. In this review, we summarize the biology of CARMA3, describe the role of the GPCR/CARMA3/NF-κB signaling axis in ovarian cancer and atherogenesis, and speculate about the potential roles of this signaling axis in other types of cancer and diseases. With a significant increase in the identification of LPA- and Ang-II-like ligands, such as endothelin-1, which also activates NF-κB via CARMA3 and contributes to the development of many diseases, CARMA3 is emerging as a novel

  15. A Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus isolated from wild peafowls is pathogenic to chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Fu, Jia-Dong; Ren, Tao; Cao, Wei-Sheng; Xin, Chao-An; Liao, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Coronavirus infection was investigated in apparently healthy wild peafowls in Guangdong province of China in 2003, while severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) broke out there. No SARS-like coronavirus had been isolated but a novel avian coronavirus strain, Peafowl/GD/KQ6/2003 (KQ6), was identified. Sequence analysis revealed that KQ6 was an avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of coronavirus in group 3. The genome sequence of KQ6 had extremely high degree of identity with that of a Massachusetts prototype IBV M41. KQ6 was pathogenic to chickens but non-pathogenic to peafowls under experimental conditions. Seventeen out of fifty-four (31.48%) peafowl serum samples were tested positive for specific antibodies against IBV. Present results indicate that the peafowl isolate KQ6 is a Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus strain which undergoes few genetic changes and peafowl might have acted as a natural reservoir of IBV for very long time.

  16. MTB-3, a microtubule plus-end tracking protein (+TIP) of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R; Linacre-Rojas, Lorena P; Román-Gavilanes, Ariana I; Lew, Thomas K; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A; Roberson, Robert W; Freitag, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule (MT) "plus end" constitutes the platform for the accumulation of a structurally and functionally diverse group of proteins, collectively called "MT plus-end tracking proteins" (+TIPs). +TIPs control MT dynamics and link MTs to diverse sub-cellular structures. Neurospora crassaMicroTubule Binding protein-3 (MTB-3) is the homolog of yeast EB1, a highly conserved +TIP. To address the function of MTB-3, we examined strains with mtb-3 deletions, and we tagged MTB-3 with GFP to assess its dynamic behavior. MTB-3-GFP was present as comet-like structures distributed more or less homogeneously within the hyphal cytoplasm, and moving mainly towards the apex at speeds up to 4× faster than the normal hyphal elongation rates. MTB-3-GFP comets were present in all developmental stages, but were most abundant in mature hyphae. MTB-3-GFP comets were observed moving in anterograde and retrograde direction along the hypha. Retrograde movement was also observed as originating from the apical dome. The integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton affects the presence and dynamics of MTB-3-GFP comets, while actin does not seem to play a role. The size of MTB-3-GFP comets is affected by the absence of dynactin and conventional kinesin. We detected no obvious morphological phenotypes in Δmtb-3 mutants but there were fewer MTs in Δmtb-3, MTs were less bundled and less organized. Compared to WT, both MT polymerization and depolymerization rates were significantly decreased in Δmtb-3. In summary, the lack of MTB-3 affects overall growth and morphological phenotypes of N. crassa only slightly, but deletion of mtb-3 has strong effect on MT dynamics. PMID:23950979

  17. Discovery of SLC3A2 Cell Membrane Protein as a Potential Gastric Cancer Biomarker: Implications in Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yixuan; Toy, Weiyi; Choong, Lee Yee; Hou, Peiling; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality, gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Successful management of gastric cancer is hampered by lack of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers especially for early cancer detection. Cell surface proteins that are aberrantly expressed between normal and cancer cells are potentially useful for cancer imaging and therapy due to easy accessibility of these targets. Combining two-phase partition and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification methods, we compared the relative expression levels of membrane proteins between noncancer and gastric cancer cells. About 33% of the data set was found to be plasma membrane and associated proteins using this approach (compared to only 11% in whole cell analysis), several of which have never been previously implicated in gastric cancer. Upregulation of SLC3A2 in gastric cancer cells was validated by immunoblotting of a panel of 13 gastric cancer cell lines and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays comprising 85 matched pairs of normal and tumor tissues. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry both confirmed the plasma membrane localization of SLC3A2 in gastric cancer cells. The data supported the notion that SLC3A2 is a potential biomarker that could be exploited for molecular imaging-based detection of gastric cancer. PMID:23116296

  18. Secreted Frizzled-related protein-2 (sFRP2) augments canonical Wnt3a-induced signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Marschall, Zofia von; Fisher, Larry W.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} sFRP2 enhances the Wnt3a-induced {beta}-catenin stabilization and its nuclear translocation. {yields} sFRP2 enhances LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt3a/{beta}-catenin transcriptional reporter activity. {yields} Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) fully antagonizes both Wnt3a/sFRP2-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. {yields} sFRP2 enhances expression of genes known to be regulated by Wnt3a signaling. -- Abstract: Secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are involved in embryonic development as well as pathological conditions including bone and myocardial disorders and cancer. Because of their sequence homology with the Wnt-binding domain of Frizzled, they have generally been considered antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. However, additional activities of various sFRPs including both synergism and mimicry of Wnt signaling as well as functions other than modulation of Wnt signaling have been reported. Using human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A), we found that sFRP2 enhanced Wnt3a-dependent phosphorylation of LRP6 as well as both cytosolic {beta}-catenin levels and its nuclear translocation. While addition of recombinant sFRP2 had no activity by itself, Top/Fop luciferase reporter assays showed a dose-dependent increase of Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional activity. sFRP2 enhancement of Wnt3a signaling was abolished by treatment with the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). Wnt-signaling pathway qPCR arrays showed that sFRP2 enhanced the Wnt3a-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of several genes regulated by Wnt3a including its antagonists, DKK1, and Naked cuticle-1 homolog (NKD1). These results support sFRP2's role as an enhancer of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, a result with biological impact for both normal development and diverse pathologies such as tumorigenesis.

  19. Npl3, a new link between RNA-binding proteins and the maintenance of genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Pereira, José M; Herrero, Ana B; Moreno, Sergio; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The mRNA is co-transcriptionally bound by a number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that contribute to its processing and formation of an export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP). In the last few years, increasing evidence suggests that RBPs play a key role in preventing transcription-associated genome instability. Part of this instability is mediated by the accumulation of co-transcriptional R loops, which may impair replication fork (RF) progression due to collisions between transcription and replication machineries. In addition, some RBPs have been implicated in DNA repair and/or the DNA damage response (DDR). Recently, the Npl3 protein, one of the most abundant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in yeast, has been shown to prevent transcription-associated genome instability and accumulation of RF obstacles, partially associated with R-loop formation. Interestingly, Npl3 seems to have additional functions in DNA repair, and npl3∆ mutants are highly sensitive to genotoxic agents, such as the antitumor drug trabectedin. Here we discuss the role of Npl3 in particular, and RBPs in general, in the connection of transcription with replication and genome instability, and its effect on the DDR. PMID:24694687

  20. Genetic diversity of NS5A protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 3a and its relationship to therapy response

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be related to the response to IFN therapy, the standard treatment for infection. In this study we analyzed the quasispecies composition of NS5A protein in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a, before IFN therapy. Methods Viral RNA was isolated from samples of 12 patients: four sustained virological responders (SVR), four non-responders (NR), and four end-of-treatment responders (ETR). cDNA was synthesized, the NS5A region was amplified and the fragments obtained were cloned. Fifteen clones from each patient were sequenced with eight primers, generating 179 contigs. Results Higher values for substitution (either synonymous or non-synonymous) and for distance were found in the SVR group. However, the NR group showed relatively more non-synonymous mutations than the other groups, owing to the higher values of dN/dS in complete NS5A and most specific regions. Overall, NS5A protein is undergoing purifying selection, since all dN/dS ratios values are below 0.5. Conclusions Our study provides an overview of the genetic variability of complete NS5A protein in HCV genotype 3a. PMID:20178583

  1. Replication of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E is inhibited by the drug FK506.

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Lozoya, Javier; Müller, Marcel A; Kallies, Stephan; Thiel, Volker; Drosten, Christian; von Brunn, Albrecht

    2012-04-01

    Recent research has shown that Coronavirus (CoV) replication depends on active immunophilin pathways. Here we demonstrate that the drug FK506 (Tacrolimus) inhibited strongly the growth of human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E at low, non-cytotoxic concentrations in cell culture. As shown by plaque titration, qPCR, Luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression, replication was diminished by several orders of magnitude. Knockdown of the cellular FK506-binding proteins FKBP1A and FKBP1B in CaCo2 cells prevented replication of HCoV-NL63, suggesting the requirement of these members of the immunophilin family for virus growth.

  2. Protein Delivery of an Artificial Transcription Factor Restores Widespread Ube3a Expression in an Angelman Syndrome Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Bailus, Barbara J; Pyles, Benjamin; McAlister, Michelle M; O'Geen, Henriette; Lockwood, Sarah H; Adams, Alexa N; Nguyen, Jennifer Trang T; Yu, Abigail; Berman, Robert F; Segal, David J

    2016-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological genetic disorder caused by loss of expression of the maternal copy of UBE3A in the brain. Due to brain-specific genetic imprinting at this locus, the paternal UBE3A is silenced by a long antisense transcript. Inhibition of the antisense transcript could lead to unsilencing of paternal UBE3A, thus providing a therapeutic approach for AS. However, widespread delivery of gene regulators to the brain remains challenging. Here, we report an engineered zinc finger-based artificial transcription factor (ATF) that, when injected i.p. or s.c., crossed the blood-brain barrier and increased Ube3a expression in the brain of an adult mouse model of AS. The factor displayed widespread distribution throughout the brain. Immunohistochemistry of both the hippocampus and cerebellum revealed an increase in Ube3a upon treatment. An ATF containing an alternative DNA-binding domain did not activate Ube3a. We believe this to be the first report of an injectable engineered zinc finger protein that can cause widespread activation of an endogenous gene in the brain. These observations have important implications for the study and treatment of AS and other neurological disorders. PMID:26727042

  3. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  4. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru. PMID:26324726

  5. Antibodies to human angiopoietin-like protein 3: a patent evaluation of WO2012174178.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Junji

    2014-01-01

    The patent WO2012174178 claims the effect of a fully human antibody or antigen-binding fragment of a human antibody which specifically binds and neutralizes, inhibits, blocks, abrogates, reduces or interferes with the activity of human angiopoietin-like protein 3 (hANGPTL3). The effects of human anti-hANGPTL3 mainly inhibit lipoprotein lipase activity and decrease triglyceride levels. In addition, it reduces plasma TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal mice and mice with hyperlipoidemia and mimics the plasma profile of human familial combined hypolipidemia. The antibodies are useful in treating diseases or disorders associated with ANGPTL3, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia and other dyslipidemias. Furthermore, the anti-hANGPTL3 antibodies can be administered to a subject to prevent or treat abnormal lipid metabolism which causes or enhances the induction of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Adenosine Deaminase Acts as a Natural Antagonist for Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4-Mediated Entry of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, V. Stalin; Smits, Saskia L.; Provacia, Lisette B.; van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Wiersma, Lidewij; Ouwendijk, Werner J. D.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Spronken, Monique I.; van Amerongen, Geert; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Bosch, Berend Jan; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replicates in cells of different species using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a functional receptor. Here we show the resistance of ferrets to MERS-CoV infection and inability of ferret DDP4 to bind MERS-CoV. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids variable in ferret DPP4 thus revealed the functional human DPP4 virus binding site. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), a DPP4 binding protein, competed for virus binding, acting as a natural antagonist for MERS-CoV infection. PMID:24257613

  7. Adenosine deaminase acts as a natural antagonist for dipeptidyl peptidase 4-mediated entry of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Raj, V Stalin; Smits, Saskia L; Provacia, Lisette B; van den Brand, Judith M A; Wiersma, Lidewij; Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Bestebroer, Theo M; Spronken, Monique I; van Amerongen, Geert; Rottier, Peter J M; Fouchier, Ron A M; Bosch, Berend Jan; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagmans, Bart L

    2014-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) replicates in cells of different species using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) as a functional receptor. Here we show the resistance of ferrets to MERS-CoV infection and inability of ferret DDP4 to bind MERS-CoV. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids variable in ferret DPP4 thus revealed the functional human DPP4 virus binding site. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), a DPP4 binding protein, competed for virus binding, acting as a natural antagonist for MERS-CoV infection. PMID:24257613

  8. Crystal Structure of CCM3, a Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Protein Critical for Vascular Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Zhang, R; Zhang, H; He, Y; Ji, W; Min, W; Boggon, T

    2010-01-01

    CCM3 mutations are associated with cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), a disease affecting 0.1-0.5% of the human population. CCM3 (PDCD10, TFAR15) is thought to form a CCM complex with CCM1 and CCM2; however, the molecular basis for these interactions is not known. We have determined the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of CCM3. This structure shows an all {alpha}-helical protein containing two domains, an N-terminal dimerization domain with a fold not previously observed, and a C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT)-homology domain. We show that CCM3 binds CCM2 via this FAT-homology domain and that mutation of a highly conserved FAK-like hydrophobic pocket (HP1) abrogates CCM3-CCM2 interaction. This CCM3 FAT-homology domain also interacts with paxillin LD motifs using the same surface, and partial CCM3 co-localization with paxillin in cells is lost on HP1 mutation. Disease-related CCM3 truncations affect the FAT-homology domain suggesting a role for the FAT-homology domain in the etiology of CCM.

  9. Cysteine-rich secretory protein-3: a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosari, Farhad; Asmann, Yan W; Cheville, John C; Vasmatzis, George

    2002-11-01

    Electronic profiling of publicly available expressed sequence tag databases identified a gene, cysteine-rich secretoryprotein-3 (CRISP-3), that is up-regulated in prostate cancer, and of which the expression is relatively prostate-specific. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of CRISP-3 as a biomarker for prostate cancer. In transient transfection studies, CRISP-3 was found to be a secretory protein. Using a multiple tissue dot blot experiment, CRISP-3 transcript was identified in a limited number of human tissues including the prostate. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that CRISP-3 mRNA is epithelial-specific and is up-regulated in prostate adenocarcinoma compared with benign prostate tissue. CRISP-3 mRNA overexpression in cancer was confirmed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription-PCR using benign prostatic epithelia and adenocarcinoma (in 5 of 5 cases) isolated by laser capture microdissection, as well as bulk tissues (in 20 of 23 cases) from surgically resected human prostates. These findings suggest that CRISP-3 is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer.

  10. Heparan sulfate is a selective attachment factor for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus Beaudette.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ikenna G; Chu, Victor C; Lee, Hwajin; Regan, Andrew D; Bauman, Beverley E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2007-03-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain Beaudette is an embryo-adapted virus that has extended species tropism in cell culture. In order to understand the acquired tropism of the Beaudette strain, we compared the S protein sequences of several IBV strains. The Beaudette strain was found to contain a putative heparan sulfate (HS)-binding site, indicating that the Beaudette virus may use HS as a selective receptor. To ascertain the requirements of cell-surface HS for Beaudette infectivity, we assayed for infectivity in the presence of soluble heparin as a competitor and determined infectivity in mutant cell lines with no HS or glycosaminoglycan expression. Our results indicate that HS plays a role as an attachment factor for IBV, working in concert with other factors like sialic acid to mediate virus binding to cells, and may explain in part the extended tropism of IBV Beaudette.

  11. Mutations in the Nonstructural Protein 3A Confer Resistance to the Novel Enterovirus Replication Inhibitor TTP-8307▿

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Armando M.; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Lanke, Kjerstin; Heggermont, Ward; Ireland, Stephen; Andrews, Robert; Arimilli, Murty; Al-Tel, Taleb H.; De Clercq, Erik; van Kuppeveld, Frank; Neyts, Johan

    2009-01-01

    A novel compound, TTP-8307, was identified as a potent inhibitor of the replication of several rhino- and enteroviruses. TTP-8307 inhibits viral RNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting polyprotein synthesis and/or processing. Drug-resistant variants of coxsackievirus B3 were all shown to carry at least one amino acid mutation in the nonstructural protein 3A. In particular, three mutations located in a nonstructured region preceding the hydrophobic domain (V45A, I54F, and H57Y) appeared to contribute to the drug-resistant phenotype. This region has previously been identified as a hot sport for mutations that resulted in resistance to enviroxime, the sole 3A-targeting enterovirus inhibitor reported thus far. This was corroborated by the fact that TTP-8307 and enviroxime proved cross-resistant. It is hypothesized that TTP-8307 and enviroxime disrupt proper interactions of 3A(B) with other viral or cellular proteins that are required for efficient replication. PMID:19237651

  12. Murine Coronavirus Cell Type Dependent Interaction with the Type I Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kristine M.; Weiss, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect many species of animal including humans, causing acute and chronic diseases of many organ systems. Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection of the mouse, provides animal models for the study of central nervous system disease, including encephalitis and demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and for hepatitis. While there are many studies of the adaptive immune response to MHV, there has until recently been scant information on the type I interferon (IFN) response to MHV. The relationship between MHV and the IFN-α/β response is paradoxical. While the type I IFN response is a crucial aspect of host defense against MHV in its natural host, there is little if any induction of IFN following infection of mouse fibroblast cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, MHV is relatively resistant to the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β in mouse fibroblast cell lines and in human 293T cells. MHV can, under some circumstances, compromise the antiviral effects of IFN signaling. The nucleocapsid protein as well as the nsp1 and nsp3 proteins of MHV has been reported to have IFN antagonist activity. However, in primary cell types such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages, IFN is induced by MHV infection and an antiviral state is established. Other primary cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and hepatocytes fail to produce IFN following infection and, in vivo, likely depend on IFN produced by pDCs and macrophages for protection from MHV. Thus MHV induction of IFN-α/β and the ability to induce an antiviral state in response to interferon is extremely cell type dependent. IFN induced protection from MHV pathogenesis likely requires the orchestrated activities of several cell types, however, the cell types involved in limiting MHV replication may be different in the liver and in the immune privileged CNS. PMID:20221421

  13. Identification of a new transcriptional initiation site and the corresponding functional gene 2b in the murine coronavirus RNA genome.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, C K; Lee, H J; Yokomori, K; La Monica, N; Makino, S; Lai, M M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that some strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) synthesize an additional mRNA species (mRNA 2b, previously called mRNA 2a) with a size intermediate between that of mRNAs 2 and 3, suggesting the presence of an optional transcriptional initiation site. This transcriptional start is dependent on the leader sequence of the virus strains. To study the mechanism of coronavirus transcriptional regulation, we have cloned and sequenced the region of the viral genome corresponding to the 5' unique coding region of mRNA 2 of the JHM strain of MHV. In addition to the open reading frame (ORF) predicted to encode the viral nonstructural protein p30, a second complete ORF, with the potential to encode a 439-amino-acid polypeptide, was discovered. The transcriptional initiation sites of both mRNA 2a (formerly called mRNA 2) and mRNA 2b were determined by primer extension studies and RNA sequencing. The data indicated that transcription of mRNA 2a initiated at a site, UCUAUAC, that resembled the consensus intergenic sequence. In contrast, the start signal of the optional mRNA 2b, UAAUAAAC, deviated from the consensus sequence. mRNA 2b is a functional mRNA, as shown by in vitro translation studies of mRNA and ORF 2b and by the detection of an additional viral structural protein, gp65, in the JHM strain that synthesized this mRNA. Although the A59 strain of MHV was found to retain ORF 2b, it lacked the correct transcriptional and translational start signals for this gene. This study has therefore identified an optional gene product for murine coronaviruses and provided insights into the mechanism of regulation of MHV RNA transcription. Images PMID:2547994

  14. A phase trial of the oral Lactobacillus casei vaccine polarizes Th2 cell immunity against transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Hou, Xingyu; Tang, Lijie; Jiang, Yanping; Ma, Guangpeng; Li, Yijing

    2016-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a member of the genus Coronavirus, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. TGEV is an enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes highly fatal acute diarrhoea in newborn pigs. An oral Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) vaccine against anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus developed in our laboratory was used to study mucosal immune responses. In this L. casei vaccine, repetitive peptides expressed by L. casei (specifically the MDP and tuftsin fusion protein (MT)) were repeated 20 times and the D antigenic site of the TGEV spike (S) protein was repeated 6 times. Immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus is crucial for investigations of the effect of immunization, such as the first immunization time and dose. The first immunization is more important than the last immunization in the series. The recombinant Lactobacillus elicited specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Recombinant L. casei had a strong potentiating effect on the cellular immunity induced by the oral L. casei vaccine. However, during TGEV infection, the systemic and local immune responses switched from Th1 to Th2-based immune responses. The systemic humoral immune response was stronger than the cellular immune response after TGEV infection. We found that the recombinant Lactobacillus stimulated IL-17 expression in both the systemic and mucosal immune responses against TGEV infection. Furthermore, the Lactobacillus vaccine stimulated an anti-TGEV infection Th17 pathway. The histopathological examination showed tremendous potential for recombinant Lactobacillus to enable rapid and effective treatment for TGEV with an intestinal tropism in piglets. The TGEV immune protection was primarily dependent on mucosal immunity. PMID:27020282

  15. Maturity and storage influence on the apple (Malus domestica) allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Ana I; Foxall, Robert; Rigby, Neil M; Browne, Thomas; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Waldron, Keith W; Mills, E N Clare

    2006-07-12

    Consumption of apples can provoke severe allergic reactions, in susceptible individuals, due to the presence of the allergen Mal d 3, a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, found largely in the fruit skin. Levels of Mal d 3 were determined in peel as a function of apple cultivar, position of the fruit growing on the tree, apple maturity, and postharvest storage by ELISA. As the apples mature, Mal d 3 levels increased, although the rate was dependent on cultivar and tree position. During storage, levels of Mal d 3 decreased in all cultivars (cvs. Cox, Jonagored, and Gala), the rate of overall decrease being greatest under controlled atmosphere conditions. There was no correlation between Mal d 3 levels and total apple peel protein, indicating specific alterations in Mal d 3 expression. Thus pre- and postharvest treatments (i.e., storage) can modify the allergen load in apple peel, the highest levels being found in overly mature and freshly harvested fruits.

  16. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  17. Role of sialic acids in feline enteric coronavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Acar, Delphine D; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    To initiate infections, many coronaviruses use sialic acids, either as receptor determinants or as attachment factors helping the virus find its receptor underneath the heavily glycosylated mucus layer. In the present study, the role of sialic acids in serotype I feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infections was studied in feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase (NA) enhanced infection efficiency, showing that terminal sialic acid residues on the cell surface were not receptor determinants and even hampered efficient virus-receptor engagement. Knowing that NA treatment of coronaviruses can unmask viral sialic acid binding activity, replication of untreated and NA-treated viruses was compared, showing that NA treatment of the virus enhanced infectivity in untreated cells, but was detrimental in NA-treated cells. By using sialylated compounds as competitive inhibitors, it was demonstrated that sialyllactose (2,6-α-linked over 2,3-α-linked) notably reduced infectivity of NA-treated viruses, whereas bovine submaxillary mucin inhibited both treated and untreated viruses. In desialylated cells, however, viruses were less prone to competitive inhibition with sialylated compounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FECV had a sialic acid binding capacity, which was partially masked by virus-associated sialic acids, and that attachment to sialylated compounds could facilitate enterocyte infections. However, sialic acid binding was not a prerequisite for the initiation of infection and virus-receptor engagement was even more efficient after desialylation of cells, indicating that FECV requires sialidases for efficient enterocyte infections.

  18. A soluble and active form of Wnt-3a protein is involved in myogenic differentiation after cholesterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Portilho, Débora M; Martins, Eliane R; Costa, Manoel L; Mermelstein, Cláudia S

    2007-12-22

    Cholesterol is one of the major lipids of plasma membranes. Recently, we have shown that cholesterol depletion by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M beta CD) induces the activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and enhances myogenic differentiation. Here, we show that M beta CD-conditioned media accelerates myogenesis in a similar way as M beta CD does, suggesting that the effects induced by M beta CD could be caused by soluble factors present in the culture medium. Soluble Wnt-3 protein is significantly enhanced in M beta CD-conditioned medium. Wnt-3a-enriched media induces myogenesis as much as M beta CD does, whereas Wnt-5a-enriched media inhibits. We suggest that Wnt-3a is involved in the myogenic induction observed after cholesterol depletion.

  19. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Discovery of a Recombinant Swine Enteric Coronavirus, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boniotti, M Beatrice; Papetti, Alice; Lavazza, Antonio; Alborali, Giovanni; Sozzi, Enrica; Chiapponi, Chiara; Faccini, Silvia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Cordioli, Paolo; Marthaler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been detected sporadically in Italy since the 1990s. We report the phylogenetic relationship of swine enteric coronaviruses collected in Italy during 2007-2014 and identify a drastic shift in PEDV strain variability and a new swine enteric coronavirus generated by recombination of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and PEDV.

  20. 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Rege, Sanket V; Wang, Min; Si, Gabriel; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Su; Griffin, John H; Goldman, Steven A; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2016-09-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, brain trauma, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, sepsis, ischemic and reperfusion injury of heart, kidney and liver, pulmonary, kidney and gastrointestinal inflammation, diabetes and lethal body radiation. On the basis of proof-of-concept studies and an excellent safety profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests the potential for APC-based treatment as a strategy for structural repair in the human central nervous (CNS) system. Here we report that late postischemic treatment of mice with 3K3A-APC stimulates neuronal production by transplanted human NSCs, promotes circuit restoration and improves functional recovery. Thus, 3K3A-APC-potentiated neuronal recruitment from engrafted NSCs might offer a new approach to the treatment of stroke and related neurological disorders. PMID:27548576

  1. Coronavirus Nsp10, a Critical Co-factor for Activation of Multiple Replicative Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J.; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1–16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and 2′-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2′-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  2. Coronavirus Nsp10, a critical co-factor for activation of multiple replicative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C; Zevenhoven, Jessika C; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-09-12

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3'-5' exoribonuclease and 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  3. Reselection of a Genomic Upstream Open Reading Frame in Mouse Hepatitis Coronavirus 5′-Untranslated-Region Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Su, Yu-Pin; Fan, Yi-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    An AUG-initiated upstream open reading frame (uORF) encoding a potential polypeptide of 3 to 13 amino acids (aa) is found within the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of >75% of coronavirus genomes based on 38 reference strains. Potential CUG-initiated uORFs are also found in many strains. The AUG-initiated uORF is presumably translated following genomic 5′-end cap-dependent ribosomal scanning, but its function is unknown. Here, in a reverse-genetics study with mouse hepatitis coronavirus, the following were observed. (i) When the uORF AUG-initiating codon was replaced with a UAG stop codon along with a U112A mutation to maintain a uORF-harboring stem-loop 4 structure, an unimpaired virus with wild-type (WT) growth kinetics was recovered. However, reversion was found at all mutated sites within five virus passages. (ii) When the uORF was fused with genomic (main) ORF1 by converting three in-frame stop codons to nonstop codons, a uORF-ORF1 fusion protein was made, and virus replicated at WT levels. However, a frameshifting G insertion at virus passage 7 established a slightly 5′-extended original uORF. (iii) When uAUG-eliminating deletions of 20, 30, or 51 nucleotides (nt) were made within stem-loop 4, viable but debilitated virus was recovered. However, a C80U mutation in the first mutant and an A77G mutation in the second appeared by passage 10, which generated alternate uORFs that correlated with restored WT growth kinetics. In vitro, the uORF-disrupting nondeletion mutants showed enhanced translation of the downstream ORF1 compared with the WT. These results together suggest that the uORF represses ORF1 translation yet plays a beneficial but nonessential role in coronavirus replication in cell culture. PMID:24173235

  4. Susceptibility to viral infection is enhanced by stable expression of 3A or 3AB proteins from foot-and-mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Rosas, Maria F.; Vieira, Yuri A.; Postigo, Raul; Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-10-10

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 3A protein is involved in virulence and host range. A distinguishing feature of FMDV 3B among picornaviruses is that three non-identical copies are encoded in the viral RNA and required for optimal replication in cell culture. Here, we have studied the involvement of the 3AB region on viral infection using constitutive and transient expression systems. BHK-21 stably transformed clones expressed low levels of FMDV 3A or 3A(B) proteins in the cell cytoplasm. Transformed cells stably expressing these proteins did not exhibit inner cellular rearrangements detectable by electron microscope analysis. Upon FMDV infection, clones expressing either 3A alone or 3A(B) proteins showed a significant increase in the percentage of infected cells, the number of plaque forming units and the virus yield. The 3A-enhancing effect was specific for FMDV as no increase in viral multiplication was observed in transformed clones infected with another picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or the negative-strand RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus. A potential role of 3A protein in viral RNA translation was discarded by the lack of effect on FMDV IRES-dependent translation. Increased viral susceptibility was not caused by a released factor; neither the supernatant of transformed clones nor the addition of purified 3A protein to the infection medium was responsible for this effect. Unlike stable expression, high levels of 3A or 3A(B) protein transient expression led to unspecific inhibition of viral infection. Therefore, the effect observed on viral yield, which inversely correlated with the intracellular levels of 3A protein, suggests a transacting role operating on the FMDV multiplication cycle.

  5. THE INTRACELLULAR CARGO RECEPTOR ERGIC-53 IS REQUIRED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INFECTIOUS ARENAVIRUS, CORONAVIRUS, AND FILOVIRUS PARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Joseph; Eisenhauer, Philip; Russo, Joanne; Mason, Anne; Do, Danh; King, Benjamin; Taatjes, Douglas; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Thali, Markus; Zheng, Chunlei; Liao, Lujian; Yates, John R.; Zhang, Bin; Ballif, Bryan A.; Botten, Jason

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Arenaviruses and hantaviruses cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans. Little is known regarding host proteins required for their propagation. We identified human proteins that interact with the glycoproteins (GPs) of a prototypic arenavirus and hantavirus and show that the lectin ERGIC-53 - a cargo receptor required for cellular glycoprotein trafficking within the early exocytic pathway - associates with arenavirus, hantavirus, coronavirus, orthomyxovirus, and filovirus GPs. ERGIC-53 binds to arenavirus GPs through a lectin-independent mechanism, traffics to arenavirus budding sites, and is incorporated into arenavirus particles. ERGIC-53 is required for arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus propagation; in its absence, GP-containing virus particles form, but are noninfectious due, in part, to their inability to attach to host cells. Thus, we have identified a class of pathogen-derived ERGIC-53 ligands, a lectin-independent basis for their association with ERGIC-53, and a role for ERGIC-53 in the propagation of several highly pathogenic RNA virus families. PMID:24237698

  6. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dorobantu, Cristina M.; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Strating, Jeroen R. P. M.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate “replication organelles” (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid

  7. Mutations in Encephalomyocarditis Virus 3A Protein Uncouple the Dependency of Genome Replication on Host Factors Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase IIIα and Oxysterol-Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Dorobantu, Cristina M; Albulescu, Lucian; Lyoo, Heyrhyoung; van Kampen, Mirjam; De Francesco, Raffaele; Lohmann, Volker; Harak, Christian; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Strating, Jeroen R P M; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses are true masters of reprogramming host lipid trafficking and synthesis to support virus genome replication. Via their membrane-associated 3A protein, picornaviruses of the genus Enterovirus (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus) subvert Golgi complex-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) to generate "replication organelles" (ROs) enriched in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). PI4P lipids serve to accumulate oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), which subsequently transfers cholesterol to the ROs in a PI4P-dependent manner. Single-point mutations in 3A render enteroviruses resistant to both PI4KB and OSBP inhibition, indicating coupled dependency on these host factors. Recently, we showed that encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus that belongs to the Cardiovirus genus, also builds PI4P/cholesterol-enriched ROs. Like the hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the Flaviviridae family, it does so by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA). Here we provide genetic evidence for the critical involvement of EMCV protein 3A in this process. Using a genetic screening approach, we selected EMCV mutants with single amino acid substitutions in 3A, which rescued RNA virus replication upon small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PI4KA. In the presence of PI4KA inhibitors, the mutants no longer induced PI4P, OSBP, or cholesterol accumulation at ROs, which aggregated into large cytoplasmic clusters. In contrast to the enterovirus escape mutants, we observed little if any cross-resistance of EMCV mutants to OSBP inhibitors, indicating an uncoupled level of dependency of their RNA replication on PI4KA and OSBP activities. This report may contribute to a better understanding of the roles of PI4KA and OSBP in membrane modifications induced by (+)RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses modulate lipid homeostasis to

  8. Discovery of Itraconazole with Broad-Spectrum In Vitro Antienterovirus Activity That Targets Nonstructural Protein 3A

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qianqian; Yuan, Shilin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yizhuo; He, Guimei

    2015-01-01

    There is currently no approved antiviral therapy for the prophylaxis or treatment of enterovirus infections, which remain a substantial threat to public health. To discover inhibitors that can be immediately repurposed for treatment of enterovirus infections, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that measures the cytopathic effect induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) to screen an FDA-approved drug library. Itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was identified as an effective inhibitor of EV71 replication in the low-micromolar range (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 1.15 μM). Besides EV71, the compound also inhibited other enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus A16, coxsackievirus B3, poliovirus 1, and enterovirus 68. Study of the mechanism of action by time-of-addition assay and transient-replicon assay revealed that ITZ targeted a step involved in RNA replication or polyprotein processing. We found that the mutations (G5213U and U5286C) conferring the resistance to the compound were in nonstructural protein 3A, and we confirmed the target amino acid substitutions (3A V51L and 3A V75A) using a reverse genetic approach. Interestingly, posaconazole, a new oral azole with a molecular structure similar to that of ITZ, also exhibited anti-EV71 activity. Moreover, ITZ-resistant viruses do not exhibit cross-resistance to posaconazole or the enviroxime-like compound GW5074, which also targets the 3A region, indicating that they may target a specific site(s) in viral genome. Although the protective activity of ITZ or posaconazole (alone or in combination with other antivirals) remains to be assessed in animal models, our findings may represent an opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for enterovirus infection. PMID:25691649

  9. Receptor Variation and Susceptibility to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barlan, Arlene; Zhao, Jincun; Sarkar, Mayukh K.; Li, Kun; McCray, Paul B.; Perlman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) recently spread from an animal reservoir to infect humans, causing sporadic severe and frequently fatal respiratory disease. Appropriate public health and control measures will require discovery of the zoonotic MERS coronavirus reservoirs. The relevant animal hosts are liable to be those that offer optimal MERS virus cell entry. Cell entry begins with virus spike (S) protein binding to DPP4 receptors. We constructed chimeric DPP4 receptors that have the virus-binding domains of indigenous Middle Eastern animals and assessed the activities of these receptors in supporting S protein binding and virus entry. Human, camel, and horse receptors were potent and nearly equally effective MERS virus receptors, while goat and bat receptors were considerably less effective. These patterns reflected S protein affinities for the receptors. However, even the low-affinity receptors could hypersensitize cells to infection when an S-cleaving protease(s) was present, indicating that affinity thresholds for virus entry must be considered in the context of host-cell proteolytic environments. These findings suggest that virus receptors and S protein-cleaving proteases combine in a variety of animals to offer efficient virus entry and that several Middle Eastern animals are potential reservoirs for transmitting MERS-CoV to humans. IMPORTANCE MERS is a frequently fatal disease that is caused by a zoonotic CoV. The animals transmitting MERS-CoV to humans are not yet known. Infection by MERS-CoV requires receptors and proteases on host cells. We compared the receptors of humans and Middle Eastern animals and found that human, camel, and horse receptors sensitized cells to MERS-CoV infection more robustly than goat and bat receptors. Infection susceptibility correlated with affinities of the receptors for viral spike proteins. We also found that the presence of a cell surface lung protease greatly increases susceptibility

  10. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ikenna G; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R

    2009-10-25

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  11. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1–S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell–cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion. PMID:19717178

  12. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-10-25

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Signaling via TRIF Contributes to a Protective Innate Immune Response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Totura, Allison L.; Whitmore, Alan; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Schäfer, Alexandra; Katze, Michael G.; Heise, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sensors that recognize molecular patterns from viruses, bacteria, and fungi to initiate innate immune responses to invading pathogens. The emergence of highly pathogenic coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a concern for global public health, as there is a lack of efficacious vaccine platforms and antiviral therapeutic strategies. Previously, it was shown that MyD88, an adaptor protein necessary for signaling by multiple TLRs, is a required component of the innate immune response to mouse-adapted SARS-CoV infection in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that TLR3−/−, TLR4−/−, and TRAM−/− mice are more susceptible to SARS-CoV than wild-type mice but experience only transient weight loss with no mortality in response to infection. In contrast, mice deficient in the TLR3/TLR4 adaptor TRIF are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV infection, showing increased weight loss, mortality, reduced lung function, increased lung pathology, and higher viral titers. Distinct alterations in inflammation were present in TRIF−/− mice infected with SARS-CoV, including excess infiltration of neutrophils and inflammatory cell types that correlate with increased pathology of other known causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including influenza virus infections. Aberrant proinflammatory cytokine, chemokine, and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) signaling programs were also noted following infection of TRIF−/− mice that were similar to those seen in human patients with poor disease outcome following SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV infection. These findings highlight the importance of TLR adaptor signaling in generating a balanced protective innate immune response to highly pathogenic coronavirus infections. PMID:26015500

  14. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  15. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  16. Development of Monoclonal Antibody and Diagnostic Test for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Using Cell-Free Synthesized Nucleocapsid Antigen.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yutaro; Matsuyama, Shutoku; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Matsunaga, Satoko; Matsushima, Yuki; Kuroyama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Takeda, Makoto; Chimuro, Tomoyuki; Ryo, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Protein nativity is one of the most critical factors for the quality of antigens used as immunogens and the reactivities of the resultant antibodies. The preparation and purification of native viral antigens in conventional cell-based protein expression systems are often accompanied by technical hardships. These challenges are attributable mainly to protein aggregation and insolubility during expression and purification, as well as to very low expression levels associated with the toxicity of some viral proteins. Here, we describe a novel approach for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we successfully prepared large amounts of MERS-CoV NP antigen in a state that was highly soluble and intact for immunization. Following mouse immunization and hybridoma generation, we selected seven hybridoma clones that produced mAbs with exclusive reactivity against MERS-CoV NP. Epitope mapping and subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed that these mAbs recognized epitopes located within relatively highly conserved regions of the MERS-CoV amino-acid sequence. Consistently, the mAbs exhibited no obvious cross-reactivity with NPs derived from other related viruses, including SARS coronavirus. After determining the optimal combinations of these mAbs, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a rapid immunochromatographic antigen detection test that can be reliably used for laboratory diagnosis of MERS-CoV. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that the wheat germ cell-free system is useful for the production of diagnostic mAbs against emerging pathogens. PMID:27148198

  17. Recommendations for a standardized avian coronavirus (AvCoV) nomenclature: outcome from discussions within the framework of the European Union COST Action FA1207: "towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for vaccination, diagnosis and surveillance".

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette F

    2016-10-01

    Viruses within the Coronaviridae family show variations within their genome sequences, especially within the major structural protein the Spike (S) glycoprotein gene. Therefore, many different antigenic forms, serotypes or variant strains of avian coronaviruses (AvCoV) exist worldwide. Only a few of them, the so called protectotypes, cross protect against different serotypes. New serotypes arise by recombination or spontaneous mutations. From time to time, antigenic virus variants appear, which differ significantly from known serotypes. The result of this variability is an inconsistent nomenclature and classification of virus strains. Furthermore, there are currently no standard classification methods defined. Within the framework of the COST Action FA1207 "Towards control of avian coronaviruses: strategies for diagnosis, surveillance and vaccination" (working groups "Molecular virology" and "Epidemiology"), we aimed at defining and developing a unified and internationally standardized nomenclature and classification of AvCoVs. We recommend the use of "CoV Genus/AvCov/host/country/specimen id/year" to refer to AvCoV strains. PMID:27647350

  18. Plaque assay for titration of bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vautherot, J F

    1981-10-01

    The plaquing ability of two isolates of bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was studied in HRT18 (human rectal adenocarcinoma) cell monolayers. Both isolates were able to induce plaque formation within 2 to 3 days; plaques appeared as round opalescent areas which remained colourless after neutral red or crystal violet staining. A good correlation was found between the titres as determined either by counting the plaques that were visible to the naked eye before and after neutral red staining, or by enumerating fluorescence or haemadsorption foci.

  19. The paradox of feline coronavirus pathogenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Myrrha, Luciana Wanderley; Silva, Fernanda Miquelitto Figueira; Peternelli, Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira; Junior, Abelardo Silva; Resende, Maurício; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria

    2011-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.

  20. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  1. Recognition of Lys48-Linked Di-ubiquitin and Deubiquitinating Activities of the SARS Coronavirus Papain-like Protease.

    PubMed

    Békés, Miklós; van der Heden van Noort, Gerbrand J; Ekkebus, Reggy; Ovaa, Huib; Huang, Tony T; Lima, Christopher D

    2016-05-19

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) recognize and cleave linkage-specific polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains, but mechanisms underlying specificity remain elusive in many cases. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) is a DUB that cleaves ISG15, a two-domain Ub-like protein, and Lys48-linked polyUb chains, releasing diUb(Lys48) products. To elucidate this specificity, we report the 2.85 Å crystal structure of SARS PLpro bound to a diUb(Lys48) activity-based probe. SARS PLpro binds diUb(Lys48) in an extended conformation via two contact sites, S1 and S2, which are proximal and distal to the active site, respectively. We show that specificity for polyUb(Lys48) chains is predicated on contacts in the S2 site and enhanced by an S1-S1' preference for a Lys48 linkage across the active site. In contrast, ISG15 specificity is dominated by contacts in the S1 site. Determinants revealed for polyUb(Lys48) specificity should prove useful in understanding PLpro deubiquitinating activities in coronavirus infections. PMID:27203180

  2. Susceptibility of northern corn rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of the northern corn rootworm (NCR), to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined using a diet bioassay. Northern corn rootworm neonates were exposed to different concentrations of mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab, incorporated into artificial diet. Lar...

  3. Coronaviridae and SARS-associated coronavirus strain HSR1.

    PubMed

    Vicenzi, Elisa; Canducci, Filippo; Pinna, Debora; Mancini, Nicasio; Carletti, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Bordignon, Claudio; Poli, Guido; Clementi, Massimo

    2004-03-01

    During the recent severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus (CoV). We have isolated a SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV) strain by injecting Vero cells with a sputum specimen from an Italian patient affected by a severe pneumonia; the patient traveled from Vietnam to Italy in March 2003. Ultrastructural analysis of infected Vero cells showed the virions within cell vesicles and around the cell membrane. The full-length viral genome sequence was similar to those derived from the Hong-Kong Hotel M isolate. By using both real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay and an infectivity plaque assay, we determined that approximately 360 viral genomes were required to generate a PFU. In addition, heparin (100 microg/mL) inhibited infection of Vero cells by 50%. Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features. PMID:15109406

  4. Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1

    PubMed Central

    Canducci, Filippo; Pinna, Debora; Mancini, Nicasio; Carletti, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Bordignon, Claudio; Poli, Guido; Clementi, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    During the recent severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus (CoV). We have isolated a SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV) strain by injecting Vero cells with a sputum specimen from an Italian patient affected by a severe pneumonia; the patient traveled from Vietnam to Italy in March 2003. Ultrastructural analysis of infected Vero cells showed the virions within cell vesicles and around the cell membrane. The full-length viral genome sequence was similar to those derived from the Hong-Kong Hotel M isolate. By using both real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay and an infectivity plaque assay, we determined that approximately 360 viral genomes were required to generate a PFU. In addition, heparin (100 μg/mL) inhibited infection of Vero cells by 50%. Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features. PMID:15109406

  5. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  6. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 min of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 min to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  7. Sequence and translation of the murine coronavirus 5'-end genomic RNA reveals the N-terminal structure of the putative RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Soe, L H; Shieh, C K; Baker, S C; Chang, M F; Lai, M M

    1987-01-01

    A 28-kilodalton protein has been suggested to be the amino-terminal protein cleavage product of the putative coronavirus RNA polymerase (gene A) (M.R. Denison and S. Perlman, Virology 157:565-568, 1987). To elucidate the structure and mechanism of synthesis of this protein, the nucleotide sequence of the 5' 2.0 kilobases of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM genome was determined. This sequence contains a single, long open reading frame and predicts a highly basic amino-terminal region. Cell-free translation of RNAs transcribed in vitro from DNAs containing gene A sequences in pT7 vectors yielded proteins initiated from the 5'-most optimal initiation codon at position 215 from the 5' end of the genome. The sequence preceding this initiation codon predicts the presence of a stable hairpin loop structure. The presence of an RNA secondary structure at the 5' end of the RNA genome is supported by the observation that gene A sequences were more efficiently translated in vitro when upstream noncoding sequences were removed. By comparing the translation products of virion genomic RNA and in vitro transcribed RNAs, we established that our clones encompassing the 5'-end mouse hepatitis virus genomic RNA encode the 28-kilodalton N-terminal cleavage product of the gene A protein. Possible cleavage sites for this protein are proposed. Images PMID:2824826

  8. Prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus antigens in the feces of normal cows.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F; Acres, S D

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus shedding by adult cows was investigated using capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fecal samples from 121 cows in a single herd were tested for the presence of rotavirus and coronavirus, either free or complexed with immunoglobulin. Free rotavirus was not detected in any samples while rotavirus-immunoglobulin complexes were detected in 53 of 121 (44%) samples tested. In contrast, free coronavirus was detected in six (5%) samples and coronavirus-immunoglobulin complexes were detected in 85 (70%) of the samples tested. Thus it appears that subclinical infection of cows by either of these viruses is common, possibly providing a source for infection of the neonate. These assays may therefore provide important information regarding the epidemiology of enteric virus infections and suggest means of improving management to prevent epidemics of neonatal diarrhea. PMID:6089985

  9. Proteome Profile of Swine Testicular Cells Infected with Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ruili; Zhang, Yanming; Liu, Haiquan; Ning, Pengbo

    2014-01-01

    The interactions occurring between a virus and a host cell during a viral infection are complex. The purpose of this paper was to analyze altered cellular protein levels in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV)-infected swine testicular (ST) cells in order to determine potential virus-host interactions. A proteomic approach using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification was conducted on the TGEV-infected ST cells. The results showed that the 4-plex iTRAQ-based quantitative approach identified 4,112 proteins, 146 of which showed significant changes in expression 48 h after infection. At 64 h post infection, 219 of these proteins showed significant change, further indicating that a larger number of proteomic changes appear to occur during the later stages of infection. Gene ontology analysis of the altered proteins showed enrichment in multiple biological processes, including cell adhesion, response to stress, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, cell motility, protein complex assembly, growth, developmental maturation, immune system process, extracellular matrix organization, locomotion, cell-cell signaling, neurological system process, and cell junction organization. Changes in the expression levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), caspase-8, and heat shock protein 90 alpha (HSP90α) were also verified by western blot analysis. To our knowledge, this study is the first time the response profile of ST host cells following TGEV infection has been analyzed using iTRAQ technology, and our description of the late proteomic changes that are occurring after the time of vigorous viral production are novel. Therefore, this study provides a solid foundation for further investigation, and will likely help us to better understand the mechanisms of TGEV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25333634

  10. The recent ancestry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Korea has been shaped by recombination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Il; Kim, You-Jin; Lemey, Philippe; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Hyejin; Jang, Seok-Il; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Hak; Kim, Dae-Won; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Sung Soon; Kim, Kisoon; Myun Lee, Jae; Song, Man Ki; Song, Daesub; Chang, Jun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Bae, Yong-Soo; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, Joo-Shil; Park, Man-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe cases of human respiratory disease. Since 2012, the victims have mainly come from the Middle East countries or sporadically from some other geographical regions seeded by the travelers who visited the Middle East. Such an introduction through travelling led to the emergence of a MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea in May 2015, which caused more than 140 confirmed human cases in less than a month. Using 70 complete genome sequences of MERS-CoV isolates, including the most recent sequences for the Korean and Chinese isolates, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of the complete genome and the individual protein coding regions. The Korean MERS-CoV strain clustered in the previously established Hafr-Al-Batin-1_2013 clade together with two Saudi Arabian and one Chinese strain sampled in 2015. Although these four strains remained monophyletic in the entire protein-coding region, this clade showed different phylogenetic relationships across the genome, indicating a shared unique recombination pattern that is different from previously reported putative recombination strains. Our findings suggest that the recent ancestor of the Korean and its related MERS-CoV strains is characterized by unique mosaic genome pattern that is different from other putative recombinants. PMID:26732651

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Nsp15 from SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricagno, Stéfano; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Brémond, Nicolas; Dalle, Karen; Tocque, Fabienne; Campanacci, Valérie; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Debarnot, Claire; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    Crystals of Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS have been grown at room temperature. Crystals have cubic symmetry and diffract to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å. The non-structural protein Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) has recently been characterized as a uridine-specific endoribonuclease. This enzyme plays an essential role in viral replication and transcription since a mutation in the related H229E human coronavirus nsp15 gene can abolish viral RNA synthesis. SARS full-length Nsp15 (346 amino acids) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag and has been purified to homogeneity. The protein was subsequently crystallized using PEG 8000 or 10 000 as precipitants. Small cubic crystals of the apoenzyme were obtained from 100 nl nanodrops. They belong to space group P4{sub 1}32 or P4{sub 3}32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 166.8 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å.

  12. A Bat-Derived Putative Cross-Family Recombinant Coronavirus with a Reovirus Gene

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Ji, Wei; Jia, Hao; Zhou, Yongming; Wen, Honghua; Zhao, Honglan; Liu, Huaxing; Li, Hong; Wang, Qihui; Wu, Ying; Wang, Liang; Liu, Di; Liu, Guang; Yu, Hongjie; Holmes, Edward C.; Lu, Lin; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Although the virus is similar to Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (Ro-BatCoV HKU9) in genome characteristics, it is sufficiently distinct to be classified as a new species according to the criteria defined by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). More striking was that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 contained a unique gene integrated into the 3’-end of the genome that has no homologs in any known coronavirus, but which sequence and phylogeny analyses indicated most likely originated from the p10 gene of a bat orthoreovirus. Subgenomic mRNA and cellular-level observations demonstrated that the p10 gene is functional and induces the formation of cell syncytia. Therefore, here we report a putative heterologous inter-family recombination event between a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and a double-stranded segmented RNA virus, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of viral evolution. PMID:27676249

  13. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  14. A Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus isolated from wild peafowls is pathogenic to chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Fu, Jia-Dong; Ren, Tao; Cao, Wei-Sheng; Xin, Chao-An; Liao, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Coronavirus infection was investigated in apparently healthy wild peafowls in Guangdong province of China in 2003, while severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) broke out there. No SARS-like coronavirus had been isolated but a novel avian coronavirus strain, Peafowl/GD/KQ6/2003 (KQ6), was identified. Sequence analysis revealed that KQ6 was an avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of coronavirus in group 3. The genome sequence of KQ6 had extremely high degree of identity with that of a Massachusetts prototype IBV M41. KQ6 was pathogenic to chickens but non-pathogenic to peafowls under experimental conditions. Seventeen out of fifty-four (31.48%) peafowl serum samples were tested positive for specific antibodies against IBV. Present results indicate that the peafowl isolate KQ6 is a Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus strain which undergoes few genetic changes and peafowl might have acted as a natural reservoir of IBV for very long time. PMID:17629993

  15. Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia).

    PubMed

    Muradrasoli, Shaman; Bálint, Adám; Wahlgren, John; Waldenström, Jonas; Belák, Sándor; Blomberg, Jonas; Olsen, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology. PMID:21060827

  16. Release of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nuclear Import Block Enhances Host Transcription in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Chang, Jean; Luna, Maria L.; Long, Casey E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Bankhead, Armand R.; Burkett, Susan E.; Zornetzer, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Metz, Thomas O.; Pickles, Raymond; McWeeney, Shannon; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein ORF6 antagonizes interferon signaling by blocking karyopherin-mediated nuclear import processes. Viral nuclear import antagonists, expressed by several highly pathogenic RNA viruses, likely mediate pleiotropic effects on host gene expression, presumably interfering with transcription factors, cytokines, hormones, and/or signaling cascades that occur in response to infection. By bioinformatic and systems biology approaches, we evaluated the impact of nuclear import antagonism on host expression networks by using human lung epithelial cells infected with either wild-type virus or a mutant that does not express ORF6 protein. Microarray analysis revealed significant changes in differential gene expression, with approximately twice as many upregulated genes in the mutant virus samples by 48 h postinfection, despite identical viral titers. Our data demonstrated that ORF6 protein expression attenuates the activity of numerous karyopherin-dependent host transcription factors (VDR, CREB1, SMAD4, p53, EpasI, and Oct3/4) that are critical for establishing antiviral responses and regulating key host responses during virus infection. Results were confirmed by proteomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay analyses and in parallel microarray studies using infected primary human airway epithelial cell cultures. The data strongly support the hypothesis that viral antagonists of nuclear import actively manipulate host responses in specific hierarchical patterns, contributing to the viral pathogenic potential in vivo. Importantly, these studies and modeling approaches not only provide templates for evaluating virus antagonism of nuclear import processes but also can reveal candidate cellular genes and pathways that may significantly influence disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in vivo. PMID:23365422

  17. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses. PMID:18258002

  18. Stillbirth During Infection With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Daniel C.; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A.; Abedi, Glen R.; Farag, Noha H.; Haddadin, Aktham; Sanhouri, Tarek Al; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  19. Stillbirth during infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Daniel C; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A; Abedi, Glen R; Farag, Noha H; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Sanhouri, Tarek; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L; Jamieson, Denise J; Pallansch, Mark A; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2014-06-15

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  20. Serologic survey for canine coronavirus in wolves from Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zarnke, R.L.; Evermann, J.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McNay, M.E.; Boertje, R.D.; Gardner, C.L.; Adams, L.G.; Dale, B.W.; Burch, J.

    2001-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) were captured in three areas of Interior Alaska (USA). Four hundred twenty-five sera were tested for evidence of exposure to canine coronavirus by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Serum antibody prevalence averaged 70% (167/ 240) during the spring collection period and 25% (46/185) during the autumn collection period. Prevalence was 0% (0/42) in the autumn pup cohort (age 4-5 mo), and 60% (58/97) in the spring pup cohort (age 9-10 mo). Prevalence was lowest in the Eastern Interior study area. A statistical model indicates that prevalence increased slightly each year in all three study areas. These results indicate that transmission occurs primarily during the winter months, antibody decay is quite rapid, and reexposure during the summer is rare.

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25395865

  2. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erlandson, Karl J; Korch, George; O'Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  3. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  4. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Turgay, Cokyaman; Emine, Tekin; Ozlem, Koken; Muhammet, S Paksu; Haydar, A Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time.

  5. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Turgay, Cokyaman; Emine, Tekin; Ozlem, Koken; Muhammet, S Paksu; Haydar, A Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time. PMID:26557177

  6. Novel Coronavirus and Astrovirus in Delaware Bay Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Briese, Thomas; Krauss, Scott; Sanchez, Maria D.; Jain, Komal; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Webster, Robert G.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds. Findings Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses. Conclusions Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants. PMID:24699424

  7. MicroRNA-96 promotes the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and targets tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1, forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and FOXO3a.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Wenhui

    2015-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a conserved class of small, endogenous, non protein-coding RNA molecules that are capable of regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional levels and are involved in diverse cellular processes, including cancer pathogenesis. It has previously been reported that miRNA-96 (miR-96) is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanism of miR-96 regulation in CRC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, miR-96 was confirmed to be upregulated in CRC tissues by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. MTT assay, colony formation assay and cell cycle analysis revealed that miR-96 overexpression led to increased tumor cell viability, colony formation ability and cell cycle progression. By contrast, inhibition of miR-96 resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation. It was also demonstrated that miR-96 reduced the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and FOXO3a, which are closely associated with cell proliferation. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-96 inhibited luciferase intensity controlled by the 3'UTRs of TP53INP1, FOXO1 and FOXO3a. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-96 contributed to CRC cell growth and that TP53INP1, FOXO1 and FOXO3a were direct targets of miR-96, suggesting that miR-96 may have the potential to be used in the development of miRNA‑based therapies for CRC patients.

  8. Influence of divergent exercise contraction mode and whey protein supplementation on atrogin-1, MuRF1, and FOXO1/3A in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Rahbek, Stine K; Farup, Jean; Zacharewicz, Evelyn; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge from human exercise studies on regulators of muscle atrophy is lacking, but it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms influencing skeletal muscle protein turnover and net protein gain. This study examined the regulation of muscle atrophy-related factors, including atrogin-1 and MuRF1, their upstream transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A and the atrogin-1 substrate eIF3-f, in response to unilateral isolated eccentric (ECC) vs. concentric (CONC) exercise and training. Exercise was performed with whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation. Twenty-four subjects were divided into WPH and CHO groups and completed both single-bout exercise and 12 wk of training. Single-bout ECC exercise decreased atrogin-1 and FOXO3A mRNA compared with basal and CONC exercise, while MuRF1 mRNA was upregulated compared with basal. ECC exercise downregulated FOXO1 and phospho-FOXO1 protein compared with basal, and phospho-FOXO3A was downregulated compared with CONC. CONC single-bout exercise mediated a greater increase in MuRF1 mRNA and increased FOXO1 mRNA compared with basal and ECC. CONC exercise downregulated FOXO1, FOXO3A, and eIF3-f protein compared with basal. Following training, an increase in basal phospho-FOXO1 was observed. While WPH supplementation with ECC and CONC training further increased muscle hypertrophy, it did not have an additional effect on mRNA or protein levels of the targets measured. In conclusion, atrogin-1, MuRF1, FOXO1/3A, and eIF3-f mRNA, and protein levels, are differentially regulated by exercise contraction mode but not WPH supplementation combined with hypertrophy-inducing training. This highlights the complexity in understanding the differing roles these factors play in healthy muscle adaptation to exercise.

  9. Myd88 Initiates Early Innate Immune Responses and Promotes CD4 T Cells during Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Butchi, Niranjan; Kapil, Parul; Puntambekar, Shweta; Stohlman, Stephen A.; Hinton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myd88 signaling is critical to the control of numerous central nervous system (CNS) infections by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, the extent to which Myd88 regulates type I interferon (IFN) versus proinflammatory factors and T cell function, as well as the anatomical site of action, varies extensively with the pathogen. CNS infection by neurotropic coronavirus with replication confined to the brain and spinal cord induces protective IFN-α/β via Myd88-independent activation of melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). However, a contribution of Myd88-dependent signals to CNS pathogenesis has not been assessed. Infected Myd88−/− mice failed to control virus, exhibited enhanced clinical disease coincident with increased demyelination, and succumbed to infection within 3 weeks. The induction of IFN-α/β, as well as of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was impaired early during infection. However, defects in both IFN-α/β and select proinflammatory factors were rapidly overcome prior to T cell recruitment. Myd88 deficiency also specifically blunted myeloid and CD4 T cell recruitment into the CNS without affecting CD8 T cells. Moreover, CD4 T cells but not CD8 T cells were impaired in IFN-γ production. Ineffective virus control indeed correlated most prominently with reduced antiviral IFN-γ in the CNS of Myd88−/− mice. The results demonstrate a crucial role for Myd88 both in early induction of innate immune responses during coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis and in specifically promoting protective CD4 T cell activation. In the absence of these responses, functional CD8 T cells are insufficient to control viral spread within the CNS, resulting in severe demyelination. IMPORTANCE During central nervous system (CNS) infections, signaling through the adaptor protein Myd88 promotes both innate and adaptive immune responses. The extent to which Myd88 regulates antiviral type I IFN, proinflammatory

  10. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ORF7a Inhibits Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Virion Tethering through a Novel Mechanism of Glycosylation Interference

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Justin K.; Coleman, Christopher M.; Postel, Sandra; Sisk, Jeanne M.; Bernbaum, John G.; Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in November 2002 as a case of atypical pneumonia in China, and the causative agent of SARS was identified to be a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2; also known as CD317 or tetherin) was initially identified to be a pre-B-cell growth promoter, but it also inhibits the release of virions of the retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by tethering budding virions to the host cell membrane. Further work has shown that BST-2 restricts the release of many other viruses, including the human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E), and the genomes of many of these viruses encode BST-2 antagonists to overcome BST-2 restriction. Given the previous studies on BST-2, we aimed to determine if BST-2 has the ability to restrict SARS-CoV and if the SARS-CoV genome encodes any proteins that modulate BST-2's antiviral function. Through an in vitro screen, we identified four potential BST-2 modulators encoded by the SARS-CoV genome: the papain-like protease (PLPro), nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), ORF6, and ORF7a. As the function of ORF7a in SARS-CoV replication was previously unknown, we focused our study on ORF7a. We found that BST-2 does restrict SARS-CoV, but the loss of ORF7a leads to a much greater restriction, confirming the role of ORF7a as an inhibitor of BST-2. We further characterized the mechanism of BST-2 inhibition by ORF7a and found that ORF7a localization changes when BST-2 is overexpressed and ORF7a binds directly to BST-2. Finally, we also show that SARS-CoV ORF7a blocks the restriction activity of BST-2 by blocking the glycosylation of BST-2. IMPORTANCE The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged from zoonotic sources in 2002 and caused over 8,000 infections and 800 deaths in 37 countries around the world. Identifying host factors that regulate SARS-CoV pathogenesis is critical to understanding how

  11. Link of a ubiquitous human coronavirus to dromedary camels

    PubMed Central

    Eckerle, Isabella; Memish, Ziad A.; Liljander, Anne M.; Dijkman, Ronald; Jonsdottir, Hulda; Juma Ngeiywa, Kisi J. Z.; Kamau, Esther; Younan, Mario; Al Masri, Malakita; Assiri, Abdullah; Gluecks, Ilona; Musa, Bakri E.; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A.; Hilali, Mosaad; Bornstein, Set; Wernery, Ulrich; Thiel, Volker; Jores, Joerg; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The four human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally endemic respiratory pathogens. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV) is an emerging CoV with a known zoonotic source in dromedary camels. Little is known about the origins of endemic HCoVs. Studying these viruses’ evolutionary history could provide important insight into CoV emergence. In tests of MERS-CoV–infected dromedaries, we found viruses related to an HCoV, known as HCoV-229E, in 5.6% of 1,033 animals. Human- and dromedary-derived viruses are each monophyletic, suggesting ecological isolation. One gene of dromedary viruses exists in two versions in camels, full length and deleted, whereas only the deleted version exists in humans. The deletion increased in size over a succession starting from camelid viruses via old human viruses to contemporary human viruses. Live isolates of dromedary 229E viruses were obtained and studied to assess human infection risks. The viruses used the human entry receptor aminopeptidase N and replicated in human hepatoma cells, suggesting a principal ability to cause human infections. However, inefficient replication in several mucosa-derived cell lines and airway epithelial cultures suggested lack of adaptation to the human host. Dromedary viruses were as sensitive to the human type I interferon response as HCoV-229E. Antibodies in human sera neutralized dromedary-derived viruses, suggesting population immunity against dromedary viruses. Although no current epidemic risk seems to emanate from these viruses, evolutionary inference suggests that the endemic human virus HCoV-229E may constitute a descendant of camelid-associated viruses. HCoV-229E evolution provides a scenario for MERS-CoV emergence. PMID:27528677

  12. Link of a ubiquitous human coronavirus to dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Corman, Victor M; Eckerle, Isabella; Memish, Ziad A; Liljander, Anne M; Dijkman, Ronald; Jonsdottir, Hulda; Juma Ngeiywa, Kisi J Z; Kamau, Esther; Younan, Mario; Al Masri, Malakita; Assiri, Abdullah; Gluecks, Ilona; Musa, Bakri E; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Hilali, Mosaad; Bornstein, Set; Wernery, Ulrich; Thiel, Volker; Jores, Joerg; Drexler, Jan Felix; Drosten, Christian

    2016-08-30

    The four human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally endemic respiratory pathogens. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV) is an emerging CoV with a known zoonotic source in dromedary camels. Little is known about the origins of endemic HCoVs. Studying these viruses' evolutionary history could provide important insight into CoV emergence. In tests of MERS-CoV-infected dromedaries, we found viruses related to an HCoV, known as HCoV-229E, in 5.6% of 1,033 animals. Human- and dromedary-derived viruses are each monophyletic, suggesting ecological isolation. One gene of dromedary viruses exists in two versions in camels, full length and deleted, whereas only the deleted version exists in humans. The deletion increased in size over a succession starting from camelid viruses via old human viruses to contemporary human viruses. Live isolates of dromedary 229E viruses were obtained and studied to assess human infection risks. The viruses used the human entry receptor aminopeptidase N and replicated in human hepatoma cells, suggesting a principal ability to cause human infections. However, inefficient replication in several mucosa-derived cell lines and airway epithelial cultures suggested lack of adaptation to the human host. Dromedary viruses were as sensitive to the human type I interferon response as HCoV-229E. Antibodies in human sera neutralized dromedary-derived viruses, suggesting population immunity against dromedary viruses. Although no current epidemic risk seems to emanate from these viruses, evolutionary inference suggests that the endemic human virus HCoV-229E may constitute a descendant of camelid-associated viruses. HCoV-229E evolution provides a scenario for MERS-CoV emergence. PMID:27528677

  13. Human Coronavirus NL63 Utilizes Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans for Attachment to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Milewska, Aleksandra; Zarebski, Miroslaw; Nowak, Paulina; Stozek, Karol; Potempa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is an alphacoronavirus that was first identified in 2004 in the nasopharyngeal aspirate from a 7-month-old patient with a respiratory tract infection. Previous studies showed that HCoV-NL63 and the genetically distant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV employ the same receptor for host cell entry, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but it is largely unclear whether ACE2 interactions are sufficient to allow HCoV-NL63 binding to cells. The present study showed that directed expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on cells previously resistant to HCoV-NL63 renders them susceptible, showing that ACE2 protein acts as a functional receptor and that its expression is required for infection. However, comparative analysis showed that directed expression or selective scission of the ACE2 protein had no measurable effect on virus adhesion. In contrast, binding of HCoV-NL63 to heparan sulfates was required for viral attachment and infection of target cells, showing that these molecules serve as attachment receptors for HCoV-NL63. IMPORTANCE ACE2 protein was proposed as a receptor for HCoV-NL63 already in 2005, but an in-depth analysis of early events during virus infection had not been performed thus far. Here, we show that the ACE2 protein is required for viral entry but that it is not the primary binding site on the cell surface. Conducted research showed that heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as adhesion molecules, increasing the virus density on cell surface and possibly facilitating the interaction between HCoV-NL63 and its receptor. Obtained results show that the initial events during HCoV-NL63 infection are more complex than anticipated and that a newly described interaction may be essential for understanding the infection process and, possibly, also assist in drug design. PMID:25187545

  14. SUBA3: a database for integrating experimentation and prediction to define the SUBcellular location of proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tanz, Sandra K.; Castleden, Ian; Hooper, Cornelia M.; Vacher, Michael; Small, Ian; Millar, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    The subcellular location database for Arabidopsis proteins (SUBA3, http://suba.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au) combines manual literature curation of large-scale subcellular proteomics, fluorescent protein visualization and protein–protein interaction (PPI) datasets with subcellular targeting calls from 22 prediction programs. More than 14 500 new experimental locations have been added since its first release in 2007. Overall, nearly 650 000 new calls of subcellular location for 35 388 non-redundant Arabidopsis proteins are included (almost six times the information in the previous SUBA version). A re-designed interface makes the SUBA3 site more intuitive and easier to use than earlier versions and provides powerful options to search for PPIs within the context of cell compartmentation. SUBA3 also includes detailed localization information for reference organelle datasets and incorporates green fluorescent protein (GFP) images for many proteins. To determine as objectively as possible where a particular protein is located, we have developed SUBAcon, a Bayesian approach that incorporates experimental localization and targeting prediction data to best estimate a protein’s location in the cell. The probabilities of subcellular location for each protein are provided and displayed as a pictographic heat map of a plant cell in SUBA3. PMID:23180787

  15. DNMT3A R882 mutants interact with polycomb proteins to block haematopoietic stem and leukaemic cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Junji; Kataoka, Keisuke; Sato, Tomohiko; Bando, Masashige; Kato, Yuki; Tsuruta-Kishino, Takako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Narukawa, Kensuke; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the clinical impact of DNMT3A mutation on acute myeloid leukaemia, the molecular mechanisms regarding how this mutation causes leukaemogenesis in vivo are largely unknown. Here we show that, in murine transplantation experiments, recipients transplanted with DNMT3A mutant-transduced cells exhibit aberrant haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) accumulation. Differentiation-associated genes are downregulated without accompanying changes in methylation status of their promoter-associated CpG islands in DNMT3A mutant-transduced stem/progenitor cells, representing a DNA methylation-independent role of mutated DNMT3A. DNMT3A R882H also promotes monoblastic transformation in vitro in combination with HOXA9. Molecularly, the DNMT3A mutant interacts with polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), causing transcriptional silencing, revealing a DNA methylation-independent role of DNMT3A mutation. Suppression of PRC1 impairs aberrant HSC accumulation and monoblastic transformation. From our data, it is shown that DNMT3A mutants can block the differentiation of HSCs and leukaemic cells via PRC1. This interaction could be targetable in DNMT3A-mutated leukaemias. PMID:27010239

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    PubMed

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  17. In vitro inhibition of feline coronavirus replication by small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2011-06-01

    Infection with virulent biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV) can result in the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a typically fatal immune mediated disease for which there is currently no effective antiviral treatment. In this study we demonstrate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the replication of virulent FCoV strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 in an immortalised feline cell line. A panel of eight synthetic siRNAs targeting four different regions of the FCoV genome were tested for antiviral effects. Efficacy was determined by qRT-PCR of intracellular viral genomic and messenger RNA, TCID50 infectivity assay of extracellular virus, and direct IFA for viral protein expression. All siRNAs demonstrated an inhibitory effect on viral replication in vitro. The two most effective siRNAs, targeting the untranslated 5' leader sequence (L2) and the nucleocapsid gene (N1), resulted in a >95% reduction in extracellular viral titre. Further characterisation of these two siRNAs demonstrated their efficacy when used at low concentrations and in cells challenged with high viral loads. Taken together these findings provide important information for the potential therapeutic application of RNAi in treating FIP.

  18. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  19. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Wang, Jieru; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker’s RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17804032

  20. VARIANCE OF MICROSOMAL PROTEIN AND CYTOCHROME P450 2E1 AND 3A FORMS IN ADULT HUMAN LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in the pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics among humans makes them differentially susceptible to risk. Differences in enzyme content can mediate pharmacokinetic differences. Microsomal protein is often isolated fromliver to characterize enzyme content and activity, but no...

  1. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein in VipCotTM cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas...

  2. Negative regulation of DNMT3A de novo DNA methylation by frequently overexpressed UHRF family proteins as a mechanism for widespread DNA hypomethylation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuanhui; Li, Pishun; Fang, Lan; Zhu, Haijun; Xu, Liangliang; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Junying; Li, Fei; Feng, Yan; Li, Yan; Li, Jialun; Wang, Ruiping; Du, James X; Li, Jiwen; Chen, Taiping; Ji, Hongbin; Han, Jackie; Yu, Wenqiang; Wu, Qihan; Wong, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    Global DNA hypomethylation is a most common epigenetic alteration in cancer, but the mechanism remains elusive. Previous studies demonstrate that UHRF1 but not UHRF2 is required for mediating DNA maintenance methylation by DNMT1. Here we report unexpectedly a conserved function for UHRF1 and UHRF2: inhibiting de novo DNA methylation by functioning as E3 ligases promoting DNMT3A degradation. UHRF1/2 are frequently overexpressed in cancers and we present evidence that UHRF1/2 overexpression downregulates DNMT3A proteins and consequently leads to DNA hypomethylation. Abrogating this negative regulation on DNMT3A or overexpression of DNMT3A leads to increased DNA methylation and impaired tumor growth. We propose a working model that UHRF1/2 safeguards the fidelity of DNA methylation and suggests that UHRF1/2 overexpression is likely a causal factor for widespread DNA hypomethylation in cancer via suppressing DNMT3A. PMID:27462454

  3. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok Yung

    2007-01-01

    Before the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, only 12 other animal or human coronaviruses were known. The discovery of this virus was soon followed by the discovery of the civet and bat SARS-CoV and the human coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1. Surveillance of coronaviruses in many animal species has increased the number on the list of coronaviruses to at least 36. The explosive nature of the first SARS epidemic, the high mortality, its transient reemergence a year later, and economic disruptions led to a rush on research of the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, immunological, virological, and other basic scientific aspects of the virus and the disease. This research resulted in over 4,000 publications, only some of the most representative works of which could be reviewed in this article. The marked increase in the understanding of the virus and the disease within such a short time has allowed the development of diagnostic tests, animal models, antivirals, vaccines, and epidemiological and infection control measures, which could prove to be useful in randomized control trials if SARS should return. The findings that horseshoe bats are the natural reservoir for SARS-CoV-like virus and that civets are the amplification host highlight the importance of wildlife and biosecurity in farms and wet markets, which can serve as the source and amplification centers for emerging infections. PMID:17934078

  4. The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

    PubMed Central

    Milne-Price, Shauna; Miazgowicz, Kerri L.; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    On September 20, 2012, a Saudi Arabian physician reported the isolation of a novel coronavirus from a patient with pneumonia on ProMED-mail. Within a few days the same virus was detected in a Qatari patient receiving intensive care in a London hospital, a situation reminiscent of the role air travel played in the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. SARS-CoV originated in China’s Guangdong Province and affected more than 8000 patients in 26 countries before it was contained six months later. Over a year after the emergence of this novel coronavirus—Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—it has caused 178 laboratory confirmed cases and 76 deaths The emergence of a second highly pathogenic coronavirus within a decade highlights the importance of a coordinated global response incorporating reservoir surveillance, high-containment capacity with fundamental and applied research programs, and dependable communication pathways to ensure outbreak containment. Here we review the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, ecology, molecular biology, clinical features and intervention strategies of the novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV. PMID:24585737

  5. The human coronavirus 229E superfamily 1 helicase has RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity.

    PubMed Central

    Seybert, A; Hegyi, A; Siddell, S G; Ziebuhr, J

    2000-01-01

    The human coronavirus 229E replicase gene encodes a protein, p66HEL, that contains a putative zinc finger structure linked to a putative superfamily (SF) 1 helicase. A histidine-tagged form of this protein, HEL, was expressed using baculovirus vectors in insect cells. The purified recombinant protein had in vitro ATPase activity that was strongly stimulated by poly(U), poly(dT), poly(C), and poly(dA), but not by poly(G). The recombinant protein also had both RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity. The DNA helicase activity of the enzyme preferentially unwound 5'-oligopyrimidine-tailed, partial-duplex substrates and required a tail length of at least 10 nucleotides for effective unwinding. The combined data suggest that the coronaviral SF1 helicase functionally differs from the previously characterized RNA virus SF2 helicases. PMID:10917600

  6. The mouse neuronal cell surface protein F3: a phosphatidylinositol- anchored member of the immunoglobulin superfamily related to chicken contactin

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Several members of the Ig superfamily are expressed on neural cells where they participate in surface interactions between cell bodies and processes. Their Ig domains are more closely related to each other than to Ig variable and constant domains and have been grouped into the C2 set. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of another member of this group, the mouse neuronal cell surface antigen F3. The F3 cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame that could encode a 1,020-amino acid protein consisting of a signal sequence, six Ig-like domains of the C2 type, a long premembrane region containing two segments that exhibit sequence similarity to fibronectin type III repeats and a moderately hydrophobic COOH-terminal sequence. The protein does not contain a typical transmembrane segment but appears to be attached to the membrane by a phosphatidylinositol anchor. Antibodies against the F3 protein recognize a prominent 135-kD protein in mouse brain. In fetal brain cultures, they stain the neuronal cell surface and, in cultures maintained in chemically defined medium, most prominently neurites and neurite bundles. The mouse f3 gene maps to band F of chromosome 15. The gene transcripts detected in the brain by F3 cDNA probes are developmentally regulated, the highest amounts being expressed between 1 and 2 wk after birth. The F3 nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence show striking similarity to the recently published sequence of the chicken neuronal cell surface protein contactin. However, there are important differences between the two molecules. In contrast to F3, contactin has a transmembrane and a cytoplasmic domain. Whereas contactin is insoluble in nonionic detergent and is tightly associated with the cytoskeleton, about equal amounts of F3 distribute between buffer-soluble, nonionic detergent-soluble, and detergent- insoluble fractions. Among other neural cell surface proteins, F3 most resembles the neuronal cell adhesion protein L1, with 25% amino

  7. Critical Assessment of the Important Residues Involved in the Dimerization and Catalysis of MERS Coronavirus Main Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bo-Lin; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Shi, Lin; Wang, Ting-Yun; Ho, Kuan-I; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background A highly pathogenic human coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in Jeddah and other places in Saudi Arabia, and has quickly spread to European and Asian countries since September 2012. Up to the 1st October 2015 it has infected at least 1593 people with a global fatality rate of about 35%. Studies to understand the virus are necessary and urgent. In the present study, MERS-CoV main protease (Mpro) is expressed; the dimerization of the protein and its relationship to catalysis are investigated. Methods and Results The crystal structure of MERS-CoV Mpro indicates that it shares a similar scaffold to that of other coronaviral Mpro and consists of chymotrypsin-like domains I and II and a helical domain III of five helices. Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV Mpro undergoes a monomer to dimer conversion in the presence of a peptide substrate. Glu169 is a key residue and plays a dual role in both dimerization and catalysis. The mutagenesis of other residues found on the dimerization interface indicate that dimerization of MERS-CoV Mpro is required for its catalytic activity. One mutation, M298R, resulted in a stable dimer with a higher level of proteolytic activity than the wild-type enzyme. Conclusions MERS-CoV Mpro shows substrate-induced dimerization and potent proteolytic activity. A critical assessment of the residues important to these processes provides insights into the correlation between dimerization and catalysis within the coronaviral Mpro family. PMID:26658006

  8. Structural Analysis of Major Species Barriers between Humans and Palm Civets for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang

    2008-09-23

    It is believed that a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was passed from palm civets to humans and caused the epidemic of SARS in 2002 to 2003. The major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections are the specific interactions between a defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) on a viral spike protein and its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this study a chimeric ACE2 bearing the critical N-terminal helix from civet and the remaining peptidase domain from human was constructed, and it was shown that this construct has the same receptor activity as civet ACE2. In addition, crystal structures of the chimeric ACE2 complexed with RBDs from various human and civet SARS-CoV strains were determined. These structures, combined with a previously determined structure of human ACE2 complexed with the RBD from a human SARS-CoV strain, have revealed a structural basis for understanding the major species barriers between humans and civets for SARS-CoV infections. They show that the major species barriers are determined by interactions between four ACE2 residues (residues 31, 35, 38, and 353) and two RBD residues (residues 479 and 487), that early civet SARS-CoV isolates were prevented from infecting human cells due to imbalanced salt bridges at the hydrophobic virus/receptor interface, and that SARS-CoV has evolved to gain sustained infectivity for human cells by eliminating unfavorable free charges at the interface through stepwise mutations at positions 479 and 487. These results enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of SARS-CoV and other emerging animal viruses.

  9. The Disruption of the Cytoskeleton during Semaphorin 3A induced Growth Cone Collapse Correlates with Differences in Actin Organization and Associated Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacquelyn A; Bridgman, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    Repulsive guidance cues induce growth cone collapse or collapse and retraction. Collapse results from disruption and loss of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin rich regions of growth cones contain binding proteins that influence filament organization, such as Arp2/3, cortactin, and fascin, but little is known about the role that these proteins play in collapse. Here we show that Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), which is repulsive to mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, has unequal effects on actin binding proteins and their associated filaments. The immunofluorescence staining intensity of Arp-2 and cortactin decreases relative to total protein, while in unextracted growth cones fascin increases. Fascin and myosin IIB staining redistribute and show increased overlap. The degree of actin filament loss during collapse correlates with filament superstructures detected by rotary shadow electron microscopy. Collapse results in the loss of branched f-actin meshworks, while actin bundles are partially retained to varying degrees. Taken together with the known affects of Sema 3A on actin, this suggests a model for collapse that follows a sequence; depolymerization of actin meshworks followed by partial depolymerization of fascin associated actin bundles and their movement to the neurite to complete collapse. The relocated fascin associated actin bundles may provide the substrate for actomyosin contractions that produce retraction. PMID:19513995

  10. Identification and characterization of a serine-like proteinase of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Lu, X; Denison, M R

    1995-01-01

    Gene 1 of the murine coronavirus, MHV-A59, encodes approximately 800 kDa of protein products within two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1a and 1b). The gene is expressed as a polyprotein that is processed into individual proteins, presumably by virus-encoded proteinases. ORF 1a has been predicted to encode proteins with similarity to viral and cellular proteinases, such as papain, and to the 3C proteinases of the picornaviruses (A. E. Gorbalenya, A. P. Donchenko, V. M. Blinov, and E. V. Koonin, FEBS Lett. 243:103-114, 1989; A. E. Gorbalenya, E. V. Koonin, A. P. Donchenko, and V. M. Blinov, Nucleic Acids Res. 17:4847-4861, 1989). We have cloned into a T7 transcription vector a cDNA fragment containing the putative 3C-like proteinase domain of MHV-A59, along with portions of the flanking hydrophobic domains. The construct was used to express a polypeptide in a combined in vitro transcription-translation system. Major polypeptides with molecular masses of 38 and 33 kDa were detected at early times, whereas polypeptides with molecular masses of 32 and 27 kDa were predominant after 30 to 45 min and appeared to be products of specific proteolysis of larger precursors. Mutations at the putative catalytic histidine and cysteine residues abolished the processing of the 27-kDa protein. Translation products of the pGpro construct were able to cleave the 27-kDa protein in trans from polypeptides expressed from the noncleaving histidine or cysteine mutants. The amino-terminal cleavage of the 27-kDa protein occurred at a glutamine-serine dipeptide as previously predicted. This study provides experimental confirmation that the coronaviruses express an active proteinase within the 3C-like proteinase domain of gene 1 ORF 1a and that this proteinase utilizes at least one canonical QS dipeptide as a cleavage site in vitro. PMID:7745703

  11. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  12. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  13. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus replication induces host translational shutoff and mRNA decay, with concomitant formation of stress granules and processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Raaben, Matthijs; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Rottier, Peter J M; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2007-09-01

    Many viruses, including coronaviruses, induce host translational shutoff, while maintaining synthesis of their own gene products. In this study we performed genome-wide microarray analyses of the expression patterns of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-infected cells. At the time of MHV-induced host translational shutoff, downregulation of numerous mRNAs, many of which encode protein translation-related factors, was observed. This downregulation, which is reminiscent of a cellular stress response, was dependent on viral replication and caused by mRNA decay. Concomitantly, phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha was increased in MHV-infected cells. In addition, stress granules and processing bodies appeared, which are sites for mRNA stalling and degradation respectively. We propose that MHV replication induces host translational shutoff by triggering an integrated stress response. However, MHV replication per se does not appear to benefit from the inhibition of host protein synthesis, at least in vitro, since viral replication was not negatively affected but rather enhanced in cells with impaired translational shutoff.

  14. Arabidopsis PEROXIN11c-e, FISSION1b, and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN3A Cooperate in Cell Cycle–Associated Replication of Peroxisomes[W

    PubMed Central

    Lingard, Matthew J.; Gidda, Satinder K.; Bingham, Scott; Rothstein, Steven J.; Mullen, Robert T.; Trelease, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Although participation of PEROXIN11 (PEX11), FISSION1 (FISl), and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN (DRP) has been well established during induced peroxisome proliferation in response to external stimuli, their roles in cell cycle–associated constitutive replication/duplication have not been fully explored. Herein, bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells revealed homooligomerization of all five PEX11 isoforms (PEX11a-e) and heterooligomerizations of all five PEX11 isoforms with FIS1b, but not FIS1a nor DRP3A. Intracellular protein targeting experiments demonstrated that FIS1b, but not FIS1a nor DRP3A, targeted to peroxisomes only when coexpressed with PEX11d or PEX11e. Simultaneous silencing of PEX11c-e or individual silencing of DRP3A, but not FIS1a nor FIS1b, resulted in ∼40% reductions in peroxisome number. During G2 in synchronized cell cultures, peroxisomes sequentially enlarged, elongated, and then doubled in number, which correlated with peaks in PEX11, FIS1, and DRP3A expression. Overall, these data support a model for the replication of preexisting peroxisomes wherein PEX11c, PEX11d, and PEX11e act cooperatively during G2 to promote peroxisome elongation and recruitment of FIS1b to the peroxisome membrane, where DRP3A stimulates fission of elongated peroxisomes into daughter peroxisomes, which are then distributed between daughter cells. PMID:18539750

  15. Arabidopsis PEROXIN11c-e, FISSION1b, and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN3A cooperate in cell cycle-associated replication of peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Lingard, Matthew J; Gidda, Satinder K; Bingham, Scott; Rothstein, Steven J; Mullen, Robert T; Trelease, Richard N

    2008-06-01

    Although participation of PEROXIN11 (PEX11), FISSION1 (FISl), and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN (DRP) has been well established during induced peroxisome proliferation in response to external stimuli, their roles in cell cycle-associated constitutive replication/duplication have not been fully explored. Herein, bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells revealed homooligomerization of all five PEX11 isoforms (PEX11a-e) and heterooligomerizations of all five PEX11 isoforms with FIS1b, but not FIS1a nor DRP3A. Intracellular protein targeting experiments demonstrated that FIS1b, but not FIS1a nor DRP3A, targeted to peroxisomes only when coexpressed with PEX11d or PEX11e. Simultaneous silencing of PEX11c-e or individual silencing of DRP3A, but not FIS1a nor FIS1b, resulted in approximately 40% reductions in peroxisome number. During G2 in synchronized cell cultures, peroxisomes sequentially enlarged, elongated, and then doubled in number, which correlated with peaks in PEX11, FIS1, and DRP3A expression. Overall, these data support a model for the replication of preexisting peroxisomes wherein PEX11c, PEX11d, and PEX11e act cooperatively during G2 to promote peroxisome elongation and recruitment of FIS1b to the peroxisome membrane, where DRP3A stimulates fission of elongated peroxisomes into daughter peroxisomes, which are then distributed between daughter cells.

  16. Cell-based antiviral screening against coronaviruses: Developing virus-specific and broad-spectrum inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Baker, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    To combat the public health threat from emerging coronaviruses (CoV), the development of antiviral therapies with either virus-specific or pan-CoV activities is necessary. An important step in antiviral drug development is the screening of potential inhibitors in cell-based systems. The recent emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV necessitates adapting methods that have been used to identify antivirals against the severe, acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and developing new approaches to more efficiently screen antiviral drugs. In this article we review cell-based assays using infectious virus (BSL-3) and surrogate assays (BSL-2) that can be implemented to accelerate antiviral development against MERS-CoV and future emergent coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:24269477

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Sfh3, a member of the Sec14 protein superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jihui; Schaaf, Gabriel; Bankaitis, Vytas A.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Pathak, Manish C.

    2012-03-26

    Sec14 is the major phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is the founding member of the Sec14 protein superfamily. Recent functional data suggest that Sec14 functions as a nanoreactor for PtdCho-regulated presentation of PtdIns to PtdIns kinase to affect membrane trafficking. Extrapolation of this concept to other members of the Sec14 superfamily suggests a mechanism by which a comprehensive cohort of Sec14-like nanoreactors sense correspondingly diverse pools of lipid metabolites. In turn, metabolic information is translated to signaling circuits driven by phosphoinositide metabolism. Sfh3, one of five Sec14 homologs in yeast, exhibits several interesting functional features, including its unique localization to lipid particles and microsomes. This localization forecasts novel regulatory interfaces between neutral lipid metabolism and phosphoinositide signaling. To launch a detailed structural and functional characterization of Sfh3, the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity, diffraction-quality crystals were produced and a native X-ray data set was collected to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. To aid in phasing, SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.93 {angstrom} resolution from an SeMet-labeled crystal at the Southeast Regional Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source. Here, the cloning and purification of Sfh3 and the preliminary diffraction of Sfh3 crystals are reported, enabling structural analyses that are expected to reveal novel principles governing ligand binding and functional specificity for Sec14-superfamily proteins.

  18. RASAL3, a novel hematopoietic RasGAP protein, regulates the number and functions of NKT cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Suguru; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Masaya; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Yoshita-Takahashi, Manami; Yamazaki, Maya; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Kanda, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hiroki; Jiang, Shuying; Naito, Makoto; Yoshizaki, Takumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins negatively regulate the Ras/Erk signaling pathway, thereby playing crucial roles in the proliferation, function, and development of various types of cells. In this study, we identified a novel Ras GTPase-activating proteins protein, RASAL3, which is predominantly expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages, including NKT, B, and T cells. We established systemic RASAL3-deficient mice, and the mice exhibited a severe decrease in NKT cells in the liver at 8 weeks of age. The treatment of RASAL3-deficient mice with α-GalCer, a specific agonist for NKT cells, induced liver damage, but the level was less severe than that in RASAL3-competent mice, and the attenuated liver damage was accompanied by a reduced production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from NKT cells. RASAL3-deficient NKT cells treated with α-GalCer in vitro presented augmented Erk phosphorylation, suggesting that there is dysregulated Ras signaling in the NKT cells of RASAL3-deficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that RASAL3 plays an important role in the expansion and functions of NKT cells in the liver by negatively regulating Ras/Erk signaling, and might be a therapeutic target for NKT-associated diseases.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Drep-3, a DFF-related protein from Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyun Ho; Tookes, Hansel Emory; Wu, Hao

    2006-06-01

    The D. melanogaster Drep-3 protein has been crystallized. Crystals were obtained at 293 K that diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. During apoptosis, DNA fragmentation is mainly mediated by the caspase-activated DFF40 nuclease. DFF40 exists as a heterodimeric complex with its inhibitor DFF45. Upon apoptosis induction, DFF45 is cleaved by caspases to allow DFF40 activation. Drep-3 is a recently identified regulator of the DFF40 system in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, Drep-3 was expressed with a C-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified to homogeneity. Multi-angle light-scattering analysis showed that Drep-3 is a homotetramer in solution. Native and selenomethionine-substituted Drep-3 proteins were crystallized at 293 K and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.9, b = 125.4, c = 168.7 Å. The asymmetric unit is estimated to contain one homotetramer.

  20. A mouse model for Betacoronavirus subgroup 2c using a bat coronavirus strain HKU5 variant.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Huynh, Jeremy; Menachery, Vineet D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Graham, Rachel L; Becker, Michelle M; Tomar, Sakshi; Scobey, Trevor D; Osswald, Heather L; Whitmore, Alan; Gopal, Robin; Ghosh, Arun K; Mesecar, Andrew; Zambon, Maria; Heise, Mark; Denison, Mark R; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-03-25

    Cross-species transmission of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) can result in pandemic disease outbreaks. Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), identified in 2012, has caused 182 cases to date, with ~43% mortality, and no small animal model has been reported. MERS-CoV and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus (BtCoV) strain HKU5 of Betacoronavirus (β-CoV) subgroup 2c share >65% identity at the amino acid level in several regions, including nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which are significant drug and vaccine targets. BtCoV HKU5 has been described in silico but has not been shown to replicate in culture, thus hampering drug and vaccine studies against subgroup 2c β-CoVs. We report the synthetic reconstruction and testing of BtCoV HKU5 containing the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein ectodomain (BtCoV HKU5-SE). This virus replicates efficiently in cell culture and in young and aged mice, where the virus targets airway and alveolar epithelial cells. Unlike some subgroup 2b SARS-CoV vaccines that elicit a strong eosinophilia following challenge, we demonstrate that BtCoV HKU5 and MERS-CoV N-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle (VRP) vaccines do not cause extensive eosinophilia following BtCoV HKU5-SE challenge. Passage of BtCoV HKU5-SE in young mice resulted in enhanced virulence, causing 20% weight loss, diffuse alveolar damage, and hyaline membrane formation in aged mice. Passaged virus was characterized by mutations in the nsp13, nsp14, open reading frame 5 (ORF5) and M genes. Finally, we identified an inhibitor active against the nsp5 proteases of subgroup 2c β-CoVs. Synthetic-genome platforms capable of reconstituting emerging zoonotic viral pathogens or their phylogenetic relatives provide new strategies for identifying broad-based therapeutics, evaluating vaccine outcomes, and studying viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The 2012 outbreak of MERS-CoV raises the specter

  1. Titration of human coronaviruses using an immunoperoxidase assay.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Francine; Jacomy, Helene; Marceau, Gabriel; Talbot, Pierre J

    2008-01-01

    Determination of infectious viral titers is a basic and essential experimental approach for virologists. Classical plaque assays cannot be used for viruses that do not cause significant cytopathic effects, which is the case for prototype strains 229E and OC43 of human coronavirus (HCoV).Therefore, an alternative indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) was developed for the detection and titration of these viruses and is described herein. Susceptible cells are inoculated with serial logarithmic dilutions of virus-containing samples in a 96-well plate format. After viral growth,viral detection by IPA yields the infectious virus titer, expressed as 'Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50 percent' (TCID50). This represents the dilution of a virus-containing sample at which half of a series of laboratory wells contain infectious replicating virus. This technique provides are liable method for the titration of HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 in biological samples such as cells, tissues and fluids [corrected].

  2. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  3. A structural view of coronavirus-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Juan; Mudgal, Gaurav; Santiago, César; Casasnovas, José M

    2014-12-19

    In the coronavirus (CoV), the envelope spike (S) glycoprotein is responsible for CoV cell entry and host-to-host transmission. The S is a multifunctional glycoprotein that mediates both attachment of CoV particles to cell surface receptor molecules as well as membrane penetration by fusion. Receptor-binding domains (RBD) have been identified in the S of diverse CoV; they usually contain antigenic determinants targeted by antibodies that neutralize CoV infections. To penetrate host cells, the CoV can use various cell surface molecules, although they preferentially bind to ectoenzymes. Several crystal structures have determined the folding of CoV RBD and the mode by which they recognize cell entry receptors. Here we review the CoV-receptor complex structures reported to date, and highlight the distinct receptor recognition modes, common features, and key determinants of the binding specificity. Structural studies have established the basis for understanding receptor recognition diversity in CoV, its evolution and the adaptation of this virus family to different hosts. CoV responsible for recent outbreaks have extraordinary potential for cross-species transmission; their RBD bear large platforms specialized in recognition of receptors from different species, which facilitates host-to-host circulation and adaptation to man. PMID:25451063

  4. Differential in vitro inhibition of feline enteric coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus by actinomycin D.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E L; Harbour, D A; Beringer, J E; Grinsted, J

    1992-12-01

    The growth of feline enteric coronavirus strain 79-1683 in whole feline embryo cells was inhibited by the presence of 1 microgram/ml of actinomycin D in the culture fluid. No virus-specific mRNAs could be detected in such cultures and yields of infectious virus were depressed by > 99%. By contrast, the antigenically related feline infectious peritonitis virus strain 79-1146 was unaffected by the presence of actinomycin D, indicating a fundamental difference between the two feline coronavirus strains in their requirements for host-encoded function(s).

  5. Maintenance of pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells persistently infected with murine coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, A; Machii, K; Azuma, S; Toyoda, Y; Kyuwa, S

    1996-01-01

    A persistently coronavirus-infected embryonic stem (ES) cell line A3/MHV was established by infecting an ES cell line, A3-1, with mouse hepatitis virus type-2. Although almost all A3/MHV cells were found infected, both A3/MHV and A3-1 cells expressed comparable levels of cell surface differentiation markers. In addition, A3/MHV cells retained the ability to form embryoid bodies. These results suggest that persistent coronavirus infection does not affect the differentiation of ES cells. PMID:8648758

  6. Structure of Main Protease from Human Coronavirus NL63: Insights for Wide Spectrum Anti-Coronavirus Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Wenjie; Yang, Kailin; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    First identified in The Netherlands in 2004, human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was found to cause worldwide infections. Patients infected by HCoV-NL63 are typically young children with upper and lower respiratory tract infection, presenting with symptoms including croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Unfortunately, there are currently no effective antiviral therapy to contain HCoV-NL63 infection. CoV genomes encode an integral viral component, main protease (Mpro), which is essential for viral replication through proteolytic processing of RNA replicase machinery. Due to the sequence and structural conservation among all CoVs, Mpro has been recognized as an attractive molecular target for rational anti-CoV drug design. Here we present the crystal structure of HCoV-NL63 Mpro in complex with a Michael acceptor inhibitor N3. Structural analysis, consistent with biochemical inhibition results, reveals the molecular mechanism of enzyme inhibition at the highly conservative substrate-recognition pocket. We show such molecular target remains unchanged across 30 clinical isolates of HCoV-NL63 strains. Through comparative study with Mpros from other human CoVs (including the deadly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) and their related zoonotic CoVs, our structure of HCoV-NL63 Mpro provides critical insight into rational development of wide spectrum antiviral therapeutics to treat infections caused by human CoVs. PMID:26948040

  7. Host Species Restriction of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus through Its Receptor, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Miazgowicz, Kerri L.; Milne-Price, Shauna; Bushmaker, Trenton; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Kinne, Joerg; McLellan, Jason S.; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012. Recently, the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) was identified and the specific interaction of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV spike protein and DPP4 was determined by crystallography. Animal studies identified rhesus macaques but not hamsters, ferrets, or mice to be susceptible for MERS-CoV. Here, we investigated the role of DPP4 in this observed species tropism. Cell lines of human and nonhuman primate origin were permissive of MERS-CoV, whereas hamster, ferret, or mouse cell lines were not, despite the presence of DPP4. Expression of human DPP4 in nonsusceptible BHK and ferret cells enabled MERS-CoV replication, whereas expression of hamster or ferret DPP4 did not. Modeling the binding energies of MERS-CoV spike protein RBD to DPP4 of human (susceptible) or hamster (nonsusceptible) identified five amino acid residues involved in the DPP4-RBD interaction. Expression of hamster DPP4 containing the five human DPP4 amino acids rendered BHK cells susceptible to MERS-CoV, whereas expression of human DPP4 containing the five hamster DPP4 amino acids did not. Using the same approach, the potential of MERS-CoV to utilize the DPP4s of common Middle Eastern livestock was investigated. Modeling of the DPP4 and MERS-CoV RBD interaction predicted the ability of MERS-CoV to bind the DPP4s of camel, goat, cow, and sheep. Expression of the DPP4s of these species on BHK cells supported MERS-CoV replication. This suggests, together with the abundant DPP4 presence in the respiratory tract, that these species might be able to function as a MERS-CoV intermediate reservoir. IMPORTANCE The ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused 701 laboratory-confirmed cases to date, with 249 fatalities. Although bats and dromedary camels have been identified as potential MERS-CoV hosts, the virus has so far not been isolated from any species

  8. Combined neurothrombectomy or thrombolysis with adjunctive delivery of 3K3A-activated protein C in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Arun Paul; Griffin, John H.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), vessel recanalization correlates with improved functional status and reduced mortality. Mechanical neurothrombectomy achieves a higher likelihood of revascularization than intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), but there remains significant discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome. The poor neurological recovery among some stroke patients despite successful recanalization confirms the need for adjuvant therapy, such as pharmacological neuroprotection. Prior clinical trials of neuroprotectant drugs failed perhaps due to inability of the agent to reach the ischemic tissue beyond the occluded artery. A protocol that couples mechanical neurothrombectomy with concurrent delivery of a neuroprotectant overcomes this pitfall. Activated protein C (APC) exerts pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antithrombotic, cytoprotective, and neuroregenerative effects in stroke and appears a compelling candidate for this novel approach. PMID:26388732

  9. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates DNA methyltransferase 3A/3B and enhances SOCS-1CpG island methylation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyu; Song, Xiaoling; Li, Yanyan; Tan, Deming; Liu, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) on the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3A/3B and suppressors of cytokine signaling‑1 (SOCS‑1), as well as promoter CpG island methylation of the SOCS‑1 gene. Stable hepatocyte cell lines expressing the HBx gene (pcDNA‑X/QSG7701) or an empty gene (pcDNA3.0/QSG7701) were established. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of DNMT3A/3B and SOCS‑1. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of DNMT3A/3B. Methylation‑specific PCR (MSP) was used to detect the methylation status of the SOCS‑1 gene promoter. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B were significantly higher in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701‑transfected cells, compared with those in the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (P<0.05), whereas the relative mRNA expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 and non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.6; P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression of SOCS‑1 was significantly lower in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells, compared with the pcDNA3.0/QSG7701 or non‑transfected QSG7701 cells (F=19.4; P<0.05). The results of the MSP analysis showed that SOCS‑1 promoter region methylation was present only in the pcDNA‑X/QSG7701 cells. The HBV‑X gene upregulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of DNMT3A/3B, downregulated the expression of SOCS‑1 and increased SOCS‑1 gene promoter CpG island methylation. This may provide a potential explanation of the mechanism underlying HBx-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. CORONAVIRUS VIRULENCE GENES WITH MAIN FOCUS ON SARS-CoV ENVELOPE GENE

    PubMed Central

    DeDiego, Marta L.; Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Usera, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Coronavirus (CoV) infection is usually detected by cellular sensors, which trigger the activation of the innate immune system. Nevertheless, CoVs have evolved viral proteins that target different signaling pathways to counteract innate immune responses. Some CoV proteins act as antagonists of interferon (IFN) by inhibiting IFN production or signaling, aspects that are briefly addressed in this review. After CoV infection, potent cytokines relevant in controlling virus infections and priming adaptive immune responses are also generated. However, an uncontrolled induction of these proinflammatory cytokines can lead to pathogenesis and disease severity as described for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The cellular pathways mediated by interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 and 7, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2/jun, activator protein (AP)-1, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT), are the main drivers of the inflammatory response triggered after viral infections, with NF-κB pathway the most frequently activated. Key CoV proteins involved in the regulation of these pathways and the proinflammatory immune response are revisited in this manuscript. It has been shown that the envelope (E) protein plays a variable role in CoV morphogenesis, depending on the CoV genus, being absolutely essential in some cases (genus α CoVs such as TGEV, and genus β CoVs such as MERS-CoV), but not in others (genus β CoVs such as MHV or SARS-CoV). A comprehensive accumulation of data has shown that the relatively small E protein elicits a strong influence on the interaction of SARS-CoV with the host. In fact, after infection with viruses in which this protein has been deleted, increased cellular stress and unfolded protein responses, apoptosis, and augmented host immune responses were observed. In contrast, the presence of E protein activated a pathogenic inflammatory response that may cause death in animal

  11. Serotype shift of a 793/B genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus by natural recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Xu, Qianqian; Wang, Qiuling; Gao, Mengying; Wu, Wei; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    An infectious bronchitis coronavirus, designated as ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, was isolated from an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120-vaccinated chicken flock, which presented with a suspected infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene clustered ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 with the 793/B group; however, a pairwise comparison showed that the 5' terminal of the S1 gene (containing hypervariable regions I and II) had high sequence identity with the H120 strain, while the 3' terminal sequence was very similar to that of IBV 4/91 strain. A SimPlot analysis of the complete genomic sequence, which was confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide similarities using the corresponding gene fragments, suggested that isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 emerged from multiple recombination events between parental IBV strains 4/91 and H120. Although the isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 had slightly higher S1 amino acid sequence identity to strain 4/91 (88.2%) than to strain H120 (86%), the serotype of the virus was more closely related to that of the H120 strain (32% antigenic relatedness) than to the 4/91 strain (15% antigenic relatedness). Whereas, vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the 4/91 vaccine provided better protection against challenge with ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 than did vaccination with the H120 strain according to the result of virus re-isolation. As the spike protein, especially in the hypervariable regions of the S1 domain, of IBVs contains viral neutralizing epitopes, the results of this study showed that recombination of the S1 domain resulted in the emergence of a new serotype.

  12. Genomic RNA sequence of feline coronavirus strain FCoV C1Je

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Charlotte; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the first genomic RNA sequence of a field strain feline coronavirus (FCoV). Viral RNA was isolated at post mortem from the jejunum and liver of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A consensus sequence of the jejunum-derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Je) was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. RT-PCR products were sequenced by a reiterative sequencing strategy and the genomic RNA termini were determined using a rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR strategy. The FCoV C1Je genome was found to be 29,255 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. Comparison of the FCoV C1Je genomic RNA sequence with that of the laboratory strain FCoV FIP virus (FIPV) 79-1146 showed that both viruses have a similar genome organisation and predictions made for the open reading frames and cis-acting elements of the FIPV 79-1146 genome hold true for FCoV C1Je. In addition, the sequence of the 3′-proximal third of the liver derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Li), which encompasses the structural and accessory protein genes of the virus, was also determined. Comparisons of the enteric (jejunum) and non-enteric (liver) derived viral RNA sequences revealed 100% nucleotide identity, a finding that questions the well accepted ‘internal mutation theory’ of FIPV pathogenicity. PMID:17363313

  13. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Ali S; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  14. Suppression of coronavirus replication by inhibition of the MEK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yingyun; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Xuming

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that infection of cultured cells with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) resulted in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) signal transduction pathway (Y. Cai et al., Virology 355:152-163, 2006). Here we show that inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway by the MEK inhibitor UO126 significantly impaired MHV progeny production (a reduction of 95 to 99% in virus titer), which correlated with the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2. Moreover, knockdown of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by small interfering RNAs suppressed MHV replication. The inhibitory effect of UO126 on MHV production appeared to be a general phenomenon since the effect was consistently observed in all six different MHV strains and in three different cell types tested; it was likely exerted at the postentry steps of the virus life cycle because the virus titers were similarly inhibited from infected cells treated at 1 h prior to, during, or after infection. Furthermore, the treatment did not affect the virus entry, as revealed by the virus internalization assay. Metabolic labeling and reporter gene assays demonstrated that translation of cellular and viral mRNAs appeared unaffected by UO126 treatment. However, synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs was severely suppressed by UO126 treatment, as demonstrated by a reduced incorporation of [3H]uridine and a decrease in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a defective-interfering RNA-CAT reporter assay. These findings indicate that the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in MHV RNA synthesis.

  15. Development of an equine coronavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine serologic responses in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Lotte J; Mapes, Samantha M; Pusterla, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Equine coronavirus (EqCoV) infection has been documented in most reports through quantitative qPCR analysis of feces and viral genome sequencing. Although qPCR is used to detect antigen during the acute disease phase, there is no equine-specific antibody test available to study EqCoV seroprevalence in various horse populations. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting antibodies to the spike (S) protein of EqCoV and validated its use, using acute and convalescent sera from 83 adult horses involved in 6 outbreaks. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA was able to reliably detect antibodies to EqCoV in naturally infected horses. The greatest seroconversion rate was observed in horses with clinical signs compatible with EqCoV infection and EqCoV qPCR detection in feces. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA could be used effectively for seroepidemiologic studies in order to better characterize the overall infection rate of EqCoV in various horse populations.

  16. Hepatitis C Virus Subtype 3a Envelope Protein 1 Binding with Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Types of Pakistani Population: Candidate Epitopes for Synthetic Peptide Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nawaz-Tipu, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    The object of this cross sectional study was to determine the HCV subtype 3a envelope protein binding affinity with Human Leukocyte Antigen. Envelope 1 (E1) protein is one of the structural proteins responsible for entering the cells through the receptors. The binding affinity of E1 protein epitopes to the selected Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I alleles was investigated using the computer-based tools. These prediction tools were also used to design the synthetic vaccine's candidate epitopes and to identify the individuals/populations who are likely to be responder to those vaccines.The mean frequency of HLA I antigens in Pakistani population was calculated. Three alleles each from HLA A and B were selected. E1 protein sequence extracted from HCV 3a isolates was retrieved and twenty-four sequences of it were selected. NetMHCcons 1.0 server was used to determine the binding affinities of HLA alleles to the epitope sequences of 10 amino acids in length.A02, A03, A11, A24, A33, B08, B13, B15, B35 and B40 were the first five antigens more prevalent in Pakistan each from HLA A and HLA B.. We did not find any binding affinity between HLA A*201, B*1501 and B*4001 and epitopes from E1 sequences in a threshold of 50 nM. Totally five various epitopes derived from different isolates were characterized.The prediction of HLA-E1 epitope specific bindings and the forthcoming response can be a useful bioinformatics tool to uncover the right synthetic peptides for vaccine design purposes.

  17. The TLQP-21 Peptide Activates the G-protein-coupled receptor C3aR1 via a Folding-upon-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Severini, Cinzia; Gopinath, Tata; Braun, Patrick D.; Sassano, Maria F.; Gurney, Allison; Roth, Bryan L.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Possenti, Roberta; Veglia, Gianluigi; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY TLQP-21, a VGF-encoded peptide is emerging as a novel target for obesity-associated disorders. TLQP-21 is found in the sympathetic nerve terminals in the adipose tissue and targets the G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) Complement-3a-Receptor1 (C3aR1). So far, the mechanisms of TLQP-21-induced receptor activation remained unexplored. Here, we report that TLQP-21 is intrinsically disordered and undergoes a disorder-to-order transition, adopting an α-helical conformation, upon targeting cells expressing the C3aR1. We determined that the hot spots for TLQP-21 are located at the C-terminus, with mutations in the last four amino acids progressively reducing the bioactivity and, a single site mutation (R21A) or C-terminal amidation abolishing its function completely. Interestingly, the human TLQP-21 sequence carrying a S20A substitution activates the human C3aR1 receptor with lower potency compared to the rodent sequence. These studies reveal the mechanism of action of TLQP-21 and provide molecular templates for designing agonists and antagonists to modulate C3aR1 functions. PMID:25456411

  18. Identification and Survey of a Novel Avian Coronavirus in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs. PMID:24023656

  19. Diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3A to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-05-01

    Detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus (FMDV) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of FMD-infected animals in the vaccinated population. Nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to NSPs, the likelihood of screening or confirming the FMD infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple NSPs is considered for diagnosis. In order to develop and evaluate an additional NSP-based diagnostic assay, in this study, the recombinant 3A protein of FMDV was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for detection of FMD infection specific antibodies. At the fixed cut-off value of 45 percentage of positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 3A indirect-ELISA (I-ELISA) were found to be 95.7% and 96.3%, respectively. In FMD naturally infected cattle, about 85% of clinically infected and 75% of asymptomatic in-contact populations were found positive at 13 months post-outbreak. The 3A I-ELISA was further evaluated with the bovine serum samples collected randomly from different parts of the country. Furthermore, the performance of newly developed 3A I-ELISA was compared with the extensively used in-house r3AB3 I-ELISA, and the overall concordance in test results was found to be 93.62%. The r3A I-ELISA could be useful as a screening or confirmatory assay in the sero-surveillance of FMD in India irrespective of extensive bi-annual vaccination. PMID:26995490

  20. Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, Kenya, 1992–2013

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor M.; Jores, Joerg; Meyer, Benjamin; Younan, Mario; Liljander, Anne; Said, Mohammed Y.; Gluecks, Ilona; Lattwein, Erik; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Drexler, Jan Felix; Bornstein, Set; Müller, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camels are a putative source for human infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We showed that camels sampled in different regions in Kenya during 1992–2013 have antibodies against this virus. High densities of camel populations correlated with increased seropositivity and might be a factor in predicting long-term virus maintenance. PMID:25075637

  1. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  2. Quantification of infectious bronchitis coronavirus by titration in vitro and in ovo.

    PubMed

    Kint, Joeri; Maier, Helena Jane; Jagt, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the number of infectious viruses in a sample is a basic virological technique. In this chapter we provide a detailed description of three techniques to estimate the number of viable infectious avian coronaviruses in a sample. All three techniques are serial dilution assays, better known as titrations.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Brazil-Type Avian coronavirus Detected in a Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Giselle R. R.; Torres, Carolina A.; Villarreal, Laura Y. B.; Hora, Aline S.; Taniwaki, Sueli A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian coronavirus is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis in chickens, leading to multisystemic disease that might be controlled if adequate vaccine strains are used. This paper reports the first complete genome sequence of a Brazil type of this virus (27,615 nucleotides [nt]) isolated from the kidneys of a chicken. PMID:27738043

  4. First Case of Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F

    2015-12-01

    A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade.

  5. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  6. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-Hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  7. Development of Broad-Spectrum Halomethyl Ketone Inhibitors Against Coronavirus Main Protease 3CL(pro)

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha,U.; Barilla, J.; Gabelli, S.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

    2008-01-01

    Coronaviruses comprise a large group of RNA viruses with diverse host specificity. The emergence of highly pathogenic strains like the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the discovery of two new coronaviruses, NL-63 and HKU1, corroborates the high rate of mutation and recombination that have enabled them to cross species barriers and infect novel hosts. For that reason, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against several members of this family is highly desirable. This goal can be accomplished by designing inhibitors against a target, such as the main protease 3CLpro (Mpro), which is highly conserved among all coronaviruses. Here 3CLpro derived from the SARS-CoV was used as the primary target to identify a new class of inhibitors containing a halomethyl ketone warhead. The compounds are highly potent against SARS 3CLpro with Ki's as low as 300 nm. The crystal structure of the complex of one of the compounds with 3CLpro indicates that this inhibitor forms a thioether linkage between the halomethyl carbon of the warhead and the catalytic Cys 145. Furthermore, Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds have led to the identification of a pharmacophore that accurately defines the essential molecular features required for the high affinity.

  8. Enteric disease in postweaned beef calves associated with a Bovine coronavirus clade 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronavirus (BoCV) infections are associated with varied clinical presentations including neonatal diarrhea, winter dysentery in dairy cattle, and respiratory disease in various ages of cattle. This report presents information on BoCV infections associated with enteric disease of postweaned b...

  9. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  10. ATP1A1-Mediated Src Signaling Inhibits Coronavirus Entry into Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H.; Haagmans, Bart L.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Bosch, Berend-Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In addition to transporting ions, the multisubunit Na+,K+-ATPase also functions by relaying cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-binding-induced signals into cells. In this study, we analyzed the role of Na+,K+-ATPase and, in particular, of its ATP1A1 α subunit during coronavirus (CoV) infection. As controls, the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and influenza A virus (IAV) were included. Using gene silencing, the ATP1A1 protein was shown to be critical for infection of cells with murine hepatitis virus (MHV), feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and VSV but not with IAV. Lack of ATP1A1 did not affect virus binding to host cells but resulted in inhibited entry of MHV and VSV. Consistently, nanomolar concentrations of the cardiotonic steroids ouabain and bufalin, which are known not to affect the transport function of Na+,K+-ATPase, inhibited infection of cells with MHV, FIPV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and VSV, but not IAV, when the compounds were present during virus inoculation. Cardiotonic steroids were shown to inhibit entry of MHV at an early stage, resulting in accumulation of virions close to the cell surface and, as a consequence, in reduced fusion. In agreement with an early block in infection, the inhibition of VSV by CTSs could be bypassed by low-pH shock. Viral RNA replication was not affected when these compounds were added after virus entry. The antiviral effect of ouabain could be relieved by the addition of different Src kinase inhibitors, indicating that Src signaling mediated via ATP1A1 plays a crucial role in the inhibition of CoV and VSV infections. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important pathogens of animals and humans, as demonstrated by the recent emergence of new human CoVs of zoonotic origin. Antiviral drugs targeting CoV infections are lacking. In the present study, we show that the ATP1A1 subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase, an ion transporter and signaling transducer, supports CoV infection. Targeting ATP1A1 either by

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice.

    PubMed

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S; Sims, Amy C; Deming, Damon; Frieman, Matthew B; Sparks, Jennifer; Denison, Mark R; Davis, Nancy; Baric, Ralph S

    2005-12-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes several unique group-specific open reading frames (ORFs) relative to other known coronaviruses. To determine the significance of the SARS-CoV group-specific ORFs in virus replication in vitro and in mice, we systematically deleted five of the eight group-specific ORFs, ORF3a, OF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, and characterized recombinant virus replication and gene expression in vitro. Deletion of the group-specific ORFs of SARS-CoV, either alone or in various combinations, did not dramatically influence replication efficiency in cell culture or in the levels of viral RNA synthesis. The greatest reduction in virus growth was noted following ORF3a deletion. SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein does not encode a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)/Golgi retention signal, and it has been suggested that ORF3a interacts with and targets S glycoprotein retention in the rER/Golgi apparatus. Deletion of ORF3a did not alter subcellular localization of the S glycoprotein from distinct punctuate localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. These data suggest that ORF3a plays little role in the targeting of S localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. In addition, insertion of the 29-bp deletion fusing ORF8a/b into the single ORF8, noted in early-stage SARS-CoV human and civet cat isolates, had little if any impact on in vitro growth or RNA synthesis. All recombinant viruses replicated to wild-type levels in the murine model, suggesting that either the group-specific ORFs play little role in in vivo replication efficiency or that the mouse model is not of sufficient quality for discerning the role of the group-specific ORFs in disease origin and development. PMID:16282490

  12. The carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3A is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines.

    PubMed

    Behura, Mrutyunjay; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Pandey, Laxmi K; Das, Biswajit; Bhatt, Mukesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-05-01

    In foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-endemic parts of the globe, control is mainly implemented by preventive vaccination with an inactivated purified vaccine. ELISAs detecting antibodies to the viral nonstructural proteins (NSP) distinguish FMD virus (FMDV)-infected animals in the vaccinated population (DIVA). However, residual NSPs present in the vaccines are suspected to be a cause of occasional false positive results, and therefore, an epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy is considered a more logical option. In this study, employing a serotype Asia 1 FMDV infectious cDNA clone, it is demonstrated that while large deletions differing in size and location in the carboxy-terminal half of 3A downstream of the putative hydrophobic membrane-binding domain (deletion of residues 86-110, 101-149, 81-149 and 81-153) are tolerated by the virus without affecting its infectivity in cultured cell lines, deletions in the amino-terminal half (residues 5-54, 21-50, 21-80, 55-80 and 5-149) containing the dimerization and the transmembrane domains are deleterious to its multiplication. Most importantly, the virus could dispense with the entire carboxy-terminal half of 3A (residues 81-153) including the residues involved in the formation of the 3A-3B1 cleavage junction. The rescue of a replication-competent FMDV variant carrying the largest deletion ever in 3A (residues 81-153) and the fact that the deleted region contains a series of linear B-cell epitopes inspired us to devise an indirect ELISA based on a recombinant 3A carboxy-terminal fragment and to evaluate its potential to serve as a companion diagnostic assay for differential serosurveillance if the 3A-truncated virus is used as a marker vaccine. PMID:26935917

  13. The carboxy-terminal half of nonstructural protein 3A is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cultured cell lines.

    PubMed

    Behura, Mrutyunjay; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Pandey, Laxmi K; Das, Biswajit; Bhatt, Mukesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-05-01

    In foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-endemic parts of the globe, control is mainly implemented by preventive vaccination with an inactivated purified vaccine. ELISAs detecting antibodies to the viral nonstructural proteins (NSP) distinguish FMD virus (FMDV)-infected animals in the vaccinated population (DIVA). However, residual NSPs present in the vaccines are suspected to be a cause of occasional false positive results, and therefore, an epitope-deleted negative marker vaccine strategy is considered a more logical option. In this study, employing a serotype Asia 1 FMDV infectious cDNA clone, it is demonstrated that while large deletions differing in size and location in the carboxy-terminal half of 3A downstream of the putative hydrophobic membrane-binding domain (deletion of residues 86-110, 101-149, 81-149 and 81-153) are tolerated by the virus without affecting its infectivity in cultured cell lines, deletions in the amino-terminal half (residues 5-54, 21-50, 21-80, 55-80 and 5-149) containing the dimerization and the transmembrane domains are deleterious to its multiplication. Most importantly, the virus could dispense with the entire carboxy-terminal half of 3A (residues 81-153) including the residues involved in the formation of the 3A-3B1 cleavage junction. The rescue of a replication-competent FMDV variant carrying the largest deletion ever in 3A (residues 81-153) and the fact that the deleted region contains a series of linear B-cell epitopes inspired us to devise an indirect ELISA based on a recombinant 3A carboxy-terminal fragment and to evaluate its potential to serve as a companion diagnostic assay for differential serosurveillance if the 3A-truncated virus is used as a marker vaccine.

  14. Autosomal Dominant Retinal Dystrophies Caused by a Founder Splice Site Mutation, c.828+3A>T, in PRPH2 and Protein Haplotypes in trans as Modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Suma P.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna K.; Birch, David G.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Bowne, Sara J.; Stone, Edwin M.; Daiger, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined the phenotypic variation, disease progression, and potential modifiers of autosomal dominant retinal dystrophies caused by a splice site founder mutation, c.828+3A>T, in the PRPH2 gene. Methods A total of 62 individuals (19 families) harboring the PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation, had phenotype analysis by fundus appearance, electrophysiology, and visual fields. The PRPH2 haplotypes in trans were sequenced for potential modifying variants and generalized estimating equations (GEE) used for statistical analysis. Results Several distinct phenotypes caused by the PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation were observed and fell into two clinical categories: Group I (N = 44) with mild pattern dystrophies (PD) and Group II (N = 18) with more severe cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and central areolar chorioretinal dystrophy (CACD). The PRPH2 Gln304-Lys310-Asp338 protein haplotype in trans was found in Group I only (29.6% vs. 0%), whereas the Glu304-Lys310-Gly338 haplotype was predominant in Group II (94.4% vs. 70.4%). Generalized estimating equations analysis for PD versus the CRD/CACD/RP phenotypes in individuals over 43 years alone with the PRPH2 haplotypes in trans and age as predictors, adjusted for correlation within families, confirmed a significant effect of haplotype on severity (P = 0.03) with an estimated odds ratio of 7.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.8, 18.4]). Conclusions The PRPH2 c.828+3A>T mutation results in multiple distinct phenotypes likely modified by protein haplotypes in trans; the odds of having the CACD/RP-like phenotype (versus the PD phenotype) are 7.16 times greater with a Glu304-Lys310-Gly338 haplotype in trans. Further functional studies of the modifying haplotypes in trans and PRPH2 splice variants may offer therapeutic targets. PMID:26842753

  15. OsHAL3, a Blue Light-Responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice.

    PubMed

    Su, Lei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Gao, Ji-Ping; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-02-01

    In flowering plants, photoperiodic flowering is controlled by a complicated network. Light is one of the most important environmental stimuli that control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. Several photoreceptors, including PHYA, PHYB, CRY2, and FKF1 in Arabidopsis and their homologs (OsPHYA, OsPHYB, OsPHYC, and OsCRY2) in rice, have been identified to be related to flowering. Our previous study suggests that OsHAL3, a flavin mononucleotide-binding protein, may function as a blue-light sensor. Here, we report the identification of OsHAL3 as a positive regulator of flowering in rice. OsHAL3 overexpression lines exhibited an early flowering phenotype, whereas downregulation of OsHAL3 expression by RNA interference delayed flowering under an inductive photoperiod (short-day conditions). The change in flowering time was not accompanied by altered Hd1 expression but rather by reduced accumulation of Hd3a and MADS14 transcripts. OsHAL3 and Hd1 colocalized in the nucleus and physically interacted in vivo under the dark, whereas their interaction was inhibited by white or blue light. Moreover, OsHAL3 directly bound to the promoter of Hd3a, especially before dawn. We conclude that OsHAL3, a novel light-responsive protein, plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice, which is probably mediated by forming a complex with Hd1. Our findings open up new perspectives on the photoperiodic flowering pathway.

  16. Novel deletion of the E3A ubiquitin protein ligase gene detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calì, Francesco; Ragalmuto, Alda; Chiavetta, Valeria; Calabrese, Giuseppe; Fichera, Marco; Vinci, Mirella; Ruggeri, Giuseppa; Schinocca, Pietro; Sturnio, Maurizio; Romano, Salvatore; Elia, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurobehavioural disorder caused by failure of expression of the maternal copy of the imprinted domain located on 15q11-q13. There are different mechanisms leading to AS: maternal microdeletion, uniparental disomy, defects in a putative imprinting centre, mutations of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. However, some of suspected cases of AS are still scored negative to all the latter mutations. Recently, it has been shown that a proportion of negative cases bear large deletions overlapping one or more exons of the UBE3A gene. These deletions are difficult to detect by conventional gene-scanning methods due to the masking effect by the non-deleted allele. In this study, we have used for the first time multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and comparative multiplex dosage analysis (CMDA) to search for large deletions affecting the UBE3A gene. Using this approach, we identified a novel causative deletion involving exon 8 in an affected sibling. Based on our results, we propose the use of MLPA as a fast, accurate and inexpensive test to detect large deletions in the UBE3A gene in a small but significant percentage of AS patients. PMID:21072004

  17. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotics detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet-drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that cautions should be taken for PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. PMID:23707768

  18. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus; identification of M protein-binding peptide ligands with antiviral and diagnostic potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The membrane (M) protein is one of the major structural proteins of coronavirus particles. In this study, the M protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was used to biopan a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. Three phages expressing TGEV-M-binding peptides were identified and ...

  19. Rewiring the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transcription circuit: Engineering a recombination-resistant genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Lindesmith, Lisa; Baric, Ralph S.

    2006-08-01

    Live virus vaccines provide significant protection against many detrimental human and animal diseases, but reversion to virulence by mutation and recombination has reduced appeal. Using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as a model, we engineered a different transcription regulatory circuit and isolated recombinant viruses. The transcription network allowed for efficient expression of the viral transcripts and proteins, and the recombinant viruses replicated to WT levels. Recombinant genomes were then constructed that contained mixtures of the WT and mutant regulatory circuits, reflecting recombinant viruses that might occur in nature. Although viable viruses could readily be isolated from WT and recombinant genomes containing homogeneous transcription circuits, chimeras that contained mixed regulatory networks were invariantly lethal, because viable chimeric viruses were not isolated. Mechanistically, mixed regulatory circuits promoted inefficient subgenomic transcription from inappropriate start sites, resulting in truncated ORFs and effectively minimize viral structural protein expression. Engineering regulatory transcription circuits of intercommunicating alleles successfully introduces genetic traps into a viral genome that are lethal in RNA recombinant progeny viruses. regulation | systems biology | vaccine design

  20. Wnt3a Protein Reduces Growth Factor-Driven Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Serum-Free Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Duinhouwer, Lucia E.; Tüysüz, Nesrin; Rombouts, Elwin W. J. C.; ter Borg, Mariette N. D.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Spanholtz, Jan; Cornelissen, Jan J.; ten Berge, Derk; Braakman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) is a promising approach to improve insufficient engraftment after umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCB-SCT). Although culturing HSPC with hematopoietic cytokines results in robust proliferation, it is accompanied with extensive differentiation and loss of self-renewal capacity. Wnt signaling has been implicated in regulating HSPC fate decisions in vivo and in promoting HSPC self-renewal by inhibition of differentiation, but the effects of Wnt on the ex vivo expansion of HSPC are controversial. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous Wnt3a protein suppresses rather than promotes the expansion of UCB-derived CD34+ cells in serum free expansion cultures. The reduced expansion was also observed in cultures initiated with Lin-CD34+CD38lowCD45RA-CD90+ cells which are highly enriched in HSC and was also observed in response to activation of beta-catenin signaling by GSK3 inhibition. The presence of Wnt3a protein during the culture reduced the frequency of multilineage CFU-GEMM and the long-term repopulation ability of the expanded HSPC. These data suggest that Wnt signaling reduces expansion of human HSPC in growth factor-driven expansion cultures by promoting differentiation of HSPC. PMID:25807521

  1. Wnt3a protein reduces growth factor-driven expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in serum-free cultures.

    PubMed

    Duinhouwer, Lucia E; Tüysüz, Nesrin; Rombouts, Elwin W J C; Ter Borg, Mariette N D; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Spanholtz, Jan; Cornelissen, Jan J; Ten Berge, Derk; Braakman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) is a promising approach to improve insufficient engraftment after umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCB-SCT). Although culturing HSPC with hematopoietic cytokines results in robust proliferation, it is accompanied with extensive differentiation and loss of self-renewal capacity. Wnt signaling has been implicated in regulating HSPC fate decisions in vivo and in promoting HSPC self-renewal by inhibition of differentiation, but the effects of Wnt on the ex vivo expansion of HSPC are controversial. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous Wnt3a protein suppresses rather than promotes the expansion of UCB-derived CD34+ cells in serum free expansion cultures. The reduced expansion was also observed in cultures initiated with Lin-CD34+CD38lowCD45RA-CD90+ cells which are highly enriched in HSC and was also observed in response to activation of beta-catenin signaling by GSK3 inhibition. The presence of Wnt3a protein during the culture reduced the frequency of multilineage CFU-GEMM and the long-term repopulation ability of the expanded HSPC. These data suggest that Wnt signaling reduces expansion of human HSPC in growth factor-driven expansion cultures by promoting differentiation of HSPC.

  2. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

  3. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated.

  4. Piperine activates human pregnane X receptor to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Sergio C.; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Schuetz, Erin G.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-10-01

    Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and subsequently its target genes, including those encoding drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, while playing substantial roles in xenobiotic detoxification, might cause undesired drug-drug interactions. Recently, an increased awareness has been given to dietary components for potential induction of diet–drug interactions through activation of PXR. Here, we studied, whether piperine (PIP), a major component extracted from the widely-used daily spice black pepper, could induce PXR-mediated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). Our results showed that PIP activated human PXR (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression in human hepatocytes, intestine cells, and a mouse model; PIP activated hPXR by recruiting its coactivator SRC-1 in both cellular and cell-free systems; PIP bound to the hPXR ligand binding domain in a competitive ligand binding assay in vitro. The dichotomous effects of PIP on induction of CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression observed here and inhibition of their activity reported elsewhere challenges the potential use of PIP as a bioavailability enhancer and suggests that caution should be taken in PIP consumption during drug treatment in patients, particularly those who favor daily pepper spice or rely on certain pepper remedies. - Highlights: • Piperine induces PXR-mediated CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression. • Piperine activates PXR by binding to PXR and recruiting coactivator SRC-1. • Piperine induces PXR activation in vivo. • Caution should be taken in piperine consumption during drug treatment.

  5. RT-PCR detection of avian coronaviruses of galliform birds (chicken, turkey, pheasant) and in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Culver, Francesca Anne; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Of the many primer combinations that we have investigated for the detection of avian coronaviruses, two have worked better than any of the others: they worked with the largest number of strains/samples of a given coronavirus and the most species of avian coronavirus, and they also produced the most sensitive detection tests. The primer combinations were: oligonucleotide pair 2Bp/4Bm, which is in a region of gene 1 that is moderately conserved among all species of coronavirus (1); and UTR11-/UTR41+, which are in a highly conserved part of the 3' untranslated region of avian coronaviruses related to infectious bronchitis virus (2). The gene 1 primer pair enabled the detection of a new coronavirus in a green-checked Amazon parrot (Amazon viridigenalis Cassin). In this chapter we describe the use of these oligonucleotides in a one-step (single-tube) RT-PCR, and describe the procedure that we used to extract RNA from turkey feces.

  6. Contribution of Baicalin on the Plasma Protein Binding Displacement and CYP3A Activity Inhibition to the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Nifedipine in Rats In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Li, Hong-Meng; Jia, Lin-Jing; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, Cmax of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0–∞ decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that Cmax of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A–mediated metabolism. PMID:24498050

  7. Formation of primordial follicles and immunolocalization of PTEN, PKB and FOXO3A proteins in the ovaries of fetal and neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Pan; Shi, Fangxiong; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-02-01

    The assembly of primordial follicles and subsequent development and transition of the primordial follicle to the primary follicle are critical processes in ovarian biology. In order to examine follicle formation and development in fetal and neonatal pigs, ovarian samples were obtained from a famous local breed of Chinese pigs, Erhualian pigs, ranging in age from 50 days postcoitum to 1 day postpartum in our current study. Morphological changes in the ovaries of the fetal and neonatal pigs indicated that egg nests were the earliest recognizable gamete cells. The proportion of egg nests decreased from 98.4 to 25.6% and the proportion of single follicles increased from 1.6 to 74.4% between 70 and 90 days postcoitum. The proportions of primordial follicles increased between 70 and 90 days postcoitum but decreased from 90 days postcoitum to 1 day postpartum. Our results suggested that the key stage of primordial follicle formation was between 70 and 90 days postcoitum and that the major stage of transition from primordial follicles into primary follicles was between 90 days postcoitum and 1 day postpartum. Experiments were also conducted to examine the localization of PTEN, PKB and FOXO3A proteins in the porcine ovaries by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The results indicated that PTEN, PKB and FOXO3A were localized in the germ cells of egg nests, cytoplasm of oocytes and granulosa cells of follicles ranging from the primordial to secondary stages and that the staining intensity was weak in granulosa cells but strong in oocytes. The different staining patterns of PTEN, FOXO3A and PKB suggested that these proteins were expressed in a stage- and cell-specific manner during ovarian follicle formation and development in the fetal and neonatal pig.

  8. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  9. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  10. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)–approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of PXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in PXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates PXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates PXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy. PMID:25181459

  11. Thiazide-like diuretic drug metolazone activates human pregnane X receptor to induce cytochrome 3A4 and multidrug-resistance protein 1.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-11-15

    Human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) regulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and drug transporters such as multidrug-resistance protein 1 (MDR1). PXR can be modulated by small molecules, including Federal Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, thus altering drug metabolism and causing drug-drug interactions. To determine the role of FDA-approved drugs in PXR-mediated regulation of drug metabolism and clearance, we screened 1481 FDA-approved small-molecule drugs by using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells and identified the diuretic drug metolazone as an activator of hPXR. Our data showed that metolazone activated hPXR-mediated expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestine cells and increased CYP3A4 promoter activity in various cell lines. Mammalian two-hybrid assays showed that hPXR recruits its co-activator SRC-1 upon metolazone binding in HepG2 cells, explaining the mechanism of hPXR activation. To understand the role of other commonly-used diuretics in hPXR activation and the structure-activity relationship of metolazone, thiazide and non-thiazide diuretics drugs were also tested but only metolazone activates hPXR. To understand the molecular mechanism, docking studies and mutational analysis were carried out and showed that metolazone binds in the ligand-binding pocket and interacts with mostly hydrophobic amino acid residues. This is the first report showing that metolazone activates hPXR. Because activation of hPXR might cause drug-drug interactions, metolazone should be used with caution for drug treatment in patients undergoing combination therapy.

  12. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Shows that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Unique Domain Contains a Macrodomain Fold▿

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Amarnath; Johnson, Margaret A.; Serrano, Pedro; Pedrini, Bill; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Saikatendu, Kumar; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a central segment of the previously annotated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-unique domain (SUD-M, for “middle of the SARS-unique domain”) in SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined. SUD-M(513-651) exhibits a macrodomain fold containing the nsp3 residues 528 to 648, and there is a flexibly extended N-terminal tail with the residues 513 to 527 and a C-terminal flexible tail of residues 649 to 651. As a follow-up to this initial result, we also solved the structure of a construct representing only the globular domain of residues 527 to 651 [SUD-M(527-651)]. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments showed that SUD-M(527-651) binds single-stranded poly(A) and identified the contact area with this RNA on the protein surface, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays then confirmed that SUD-M has higher affinity for purine bases than for pyrimidine bases. In a further search for clues to the function, we found that SUD-M(527-651) has the closest three-dimensional structure homology with another domain of nsp3, the ADP-ribose-1"-phosphatase nsp3b, although the two proteins share only 5% sequence identity in the homologous sequence regions. SUD-M(527-651) also shows three-dimensional structure homology with several helicases and nucleoside triphosphate-binding proteins, but it does not contain the motifs of catalytic residues found in these structural homologues. The combined results from NMR screening of potential substrates and the structure-based homology studies now form a basis for more focused investigations on the role of the SARS-unique domain in viral infection. PMID:19052085

  14. Phage-display for identifying peptides that bind the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and possess diagnostic potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spike (S) protein is a key structural protein of coronaviruses including, the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The S protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein located in the viral envelope and is responsible for mediating the binding of viral particles to specific cell recepto...

  15. Spatiotemporal interplay of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and respiratory mucosal cells drives viral dissemination in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wei, Q; Nishiura, K; Peng, J; Wang, H; Midkiff, C; Alvarez, X; Qin, C; Lackner, A; Chen, Z

    2016-07-01

    Innate immune responses have a critical role in the control of early virus replication and dissemination. It remains unknown, however, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) evades respiratory innate immunity to establish a systemic infection. Here we show in Chinese macaques that SARS-CoV traversed the mucosa through the respiratory tract within 2 days, resulting in extensive mucosal infiltration by T cells, MAC387(+), and CD163(+) monocytes/macrophages followed by limited viral replication in the lung but persistent viral shedding into the upper airway. Mucosal monocytes/macrophages sequestered virions in intracellular vesicles together with infected Langerhans cells and migrated into the tonsils and/or draining lymph nodes within 2 days. In lymphoid tissues, viral RNA and proteins were detected in infected monocytes upon differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) within 3 days. Systemic viral dissemination was observed within 7 days. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the spatiotemporal interactions of SARS-CoV, monocytes/macrophages, and the DC network in mucosal tissues and highlights the fact that, while these innate cells contribute to viral clearance, they probably also serve as shelters and vehicles to provide a mechanism for the virus to escape host mucosal innate immunity and disseminate systemically. PMID:26647718

  16. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  17. Coronaviruses: propagation, quantification, storage, and construction of recombinant mouse hepatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Julian; Kaufman, Gili; Liu, Pinghua

    2011-05-01

    The focus of this protocol is mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), with occasional references to other coronaviruses. Many of these protocols can be easily adapted to other coronaviruses. Protocols for propagating MHV in DBT and 17CL-1 cells; the storage and titration of viral stocks; purification of MHV on sucrose gradients; and the generation of recombinant viruses by a cDNA assembly method and by targeted recombination will be presented. Protocols are also included for the propagation of DBT, 17CL-1, and L2 cells used for growing and titrating MHV, and for the growth of BHK-R cells and FCWF cells. The latter two cell lines are used for regenerating infectious MHV by an in vitro cDNA assembly protocol and by a targeted recombination protocol, respectively, allowing reverse genetic manipulation of these viruses. An additional protocol for the maintenance of the large plasmids used for generating recombinant MHVs will also be presented.

  18. [Infections with the MERS coronavirus--for the present no threat to Europe].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In Saudi Arabia, a novel coronavirus named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was isolated in 2012 from patients with severe respiratory symptoms. Up to now, more than 1600 MERS cases have been registered mainly in the Arabian Peninsula. MERS is usually accompanied with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In many cases, pneumonia is observed. However, clinical features of MERS range from mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. To date, about one in three people died as a result of MERS. In Europe, MERS cases have only been registered in isolated travelers entering from the Middle East.

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  20. Real-Time Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for SARS-associated Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Shannon L.; Bowen, Michael D.; Newton, Bruce R.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Meyer, Richard F.; Tong, Suxiang; Cook, Byron T.; Holloway, Brian P.; McCaustland, Karen A.; Rota, Paul A.; Bankamp, Bettina; Lowe, Luis E.; Ksiazek, Tom G.; Bellini, William J.; Anderson, Larry J.

    2004-01-01

    A real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to rapidly detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The assay, based on multiple primer and probe sets located in different regions of the SARS-CoV genome, could discriminate SARS-CoV from other human and animal coronaviruses with a potential detection limit of <10 genomic copies per reaction. The real-time RT-PCR assay was more sensitive than a conventional RT-PCR assay or culture isolation and proved suitable to detect SARS-CoV in clinical specimens. Application of this assay will aid in diagnosing SARS-CoV infection. PMID:15030703

  1. Bem3, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, traffics to an intracellular compartment and recruits the secretory Rab GTPase Sec4 to endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Sen, Arpita; Boettner, Douglas R.; Fairn, Gregory D.; Schlam, Daniel; Bonilla Valentin, Fernando J.; Michael McCaffery, J.; Hazbun, Tony; Staiger, Chris J.; Grinstein, Sergio; Lemmon, Sandra K.; Claudio Aguilar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cell polarity is essential for many cellular functions including division and cell-fate determination. Although RhoGTPase signaling and vesicle trafficking are both required for the establishment of cell polarity, the mechanisms by which they are coordinated are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast RhoGAP (GTPase activating protein), Bem3, is targeted to sites of polarized growth by the endocytic and recycling pathways. Specifically, deletion of SLA2 or RCY1 led to mislocalization of Bem3 to depolarized puncta and accumulation in intracellular compartments, respectively. Bem3 partitioned between the plasma membrane and an intracellular membrane-bound compartment. These Bem3-positive structures were polarized towards sites of bud emergence and were mostly observed during the pre-mitotic phase of apical growth. Cell biological and biochemical approaches demonstrated that this intracellular Bem3 compartment contained markers for both the endocytic and secretory pathways, which were reminiscent of the Spitzenkörper present in the hyphal tips of growing fungi. Importantly, Bem3 was not a passive cargo, but recruited the secretory Rab protein, Sec4, to the Bem3-containing compartments. Moreover, Bem3 deletion resulted in less efficient localization of Sec4 to bud tips during early stages of bud emergence. Surprisingly, these effects of Bem3 on Sec4 were independent of its GAP activity, but depended on its ability to efficiently bind endomembranes. This work unveils unsuspected and important details of the relationship between vesicle traffic and elements of the cell polarity machinery: (1) Bem3, a cell polarity and peripherally associated membrane protein, relies on vesicle trafficking to maintain its proper localization; and (2) in turn, Bem3 influences secretory vesicle trafficking. PMID:23943876

  2. Human Infection with MERS Coronavirus after Exposure to Infected Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species transmission. Camels may act as a direct source of human MERS-CoV infection. PMID:24857749

  3. Development and application of an enzyme immunoassay for coronavirus OC43 antibody in acute respiratory illness.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, E P; Dominguez, E A; Greenberg, S B; Atmar, R L; Hogue, B G; Baxter, B D; Couch, R B

    1994-01-01

    Study of coronavirus OC43 infections has been limited because of the lack of sensitive cell culture systems and serologic assays. To improve this circumstance, we developed an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect serum antibody to OC43. Antigen (100 ng) prepared by polyethylene glycol precipitation provided optimal results without a postcoat procedure. Evaluation of intraplate variation indicated that a > or = 2.5-fold increase in serum titer was significant. Sixteen of 18 (89%) paired serum samples with previously identified, reproducible increases in the level of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody to OC43 also showed significant increases as detected by EIA. Specificity for the EIA was established with paired sera obtained from persons given influenza immunizations or experiencing a respiratory infection. No rise in antibody titers occurred among 33 persons with documented coronavirus 229E infection. EIA was then performed on each of 419 paired serum samples from ambulatory chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and healthy older adults, from asthmatic adults presenting for emergency room treatment, and from persons hospitalized with acute respiratory symptoms. Twenty-three antibody rises to OC43 were detected; only nine of these were detected by the HAI test, and the HAI test did not detect any increases in antibody titers that were not detected by EIA. Nineteen of 25 coronavirus OC43 infections for which a month of infection could be assigned occurred between November and February. Overall, 4.4% of acute respiratory illnesses in the studied populations were associated with a coronavirus OC43 infection. PMID:7814468

  4. Recommendations from workshops of the second international feline coronavirus/feline infectious peritonitis symposium.

    PubMed

    Addie, Diane D; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Pedersen, Niels C

    2004-04-01

    In August 2002, scientists and veterinarians from all over the world met in Scotland to discuss feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The conference ended with delegates dividing into three workshops to draw up recommendations for FCoV control, diagnosis and treatment and future research. The workshops were chaired by the three authors and the recommendations are presented in this paper.

  5. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus during Pregnancy, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2013.

    PubMed

    Malik, Asim; El Masry, Karim Medhat; Ravi, Mini; Sayed, Falak

    2016-03-01

    As of June 19, 2015, the World Health Organization had received 1,338 notifications of laboratory-confirmed infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Little is known about the course of or treatment for MERS-CoV in pregnant women. We report a fatal case of MERS-CoV in a pregnant woman administered combination ribavirin-peginterferon-α therapy.

  7. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. PMID:27473780

  8. Laboratory Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, California, USA, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Shahkarami, Mahtab; Yen, Cynthia; Glaser, Carol; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James

    2015-01-01

    Since Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first emerged, the California Department of Public Health has coordinated efforts to identify possible cases in travelers to California, USA, from affected areas. During 2013–2014, the department investigated 54 travelers for MERS-CoV; none tested positive, but 32 (62%) of 52 travelers with suspected MERS-CoV had other respiratory viruses. PMID:26291839

  9. Characterization of the Role of Hexamer AGUAAA and Poly(A) Tail in Coronavirus Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Lin, Ching-Houng; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lo, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to eukaryotic mRNA, the positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobases is 5’-capped and 3’-polyadenylated. It has been demonstrated that the length of the coronaviral poly(A) tail is not static but regulated during infection; however, little is known regarding the factors involved in coronaviral polyadenylation and its regulation. Here, we show that during infection, the level of coronavirus poly(A) tail lengthening depends on the initial length upon infection and that the minimum length to initiate lengthening may lie between 5 and 9 nucleotides. By mutagenesis analysis, it was found that (i) the hexamer AGUAAA and poly(A) tail are two important elements responsible for synthesis of the coronavirus poly(A) tail and may function in concert to accomplish polyadenylation and (ii) the function of the hexamer AGUAAA in coronaviral polyadenylation is position dependent. Based on these findings, we propose a process for how the coronaviral poly(A) tail is synthesized and undergoes variation. Our results provide the first genetic evidence to gain insight into coronaviral polyadenylation. PMID:27760233

  10. Quantitation, biological and physicochemical properties of cell culture-adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Wyler, R

    1989-06-01

    The porcine epidemic coronavirus (PEDV), tentatively classified as a coronavirus, was adapted to Vero cells and a plaque test developed for infectivity titration, allowing us to test the biological and biophysical properties of the virus. Growth kinetics showed peak titers of 10(5.5) plaque-forming units ml-1 15 h after infection. Filtration experiments and electron microscopy revealed a particle diameter between 100 and 200 nm. The buoyant density of the virus was 1.18. The particle lost its infectivity on treatment with lipid solvents. Virus replication could not be inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. PEDV was moderately stable at 50 degrees C, but heat sensitivity was not altered by divalent cations. At 4 degrees C, the virus was stable between pH 5.0 and 9.0, but at 37 degrees C stability was restricted to the pH range 6.5-7.5. Viral infectivity was not impaired by ultrasonication or by multiple freezing and thawing. PEDV was not neutralized by transmissible gastroenteritis virus antiserum. On the basis of the tests carried out, PEDV is a pleomorphic, enveloped RNA virus with a particle diameter of approximately 150 nm and a buoyant density of 1.18. Infectivity depends on the presence of trypsin, and infected cells show a tendency to fuse and to form syncytia. All of these properties, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, allow PEDV to be classified as a coronavirus.

  11. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) infections in transported commingled beef cattle and sole-source ranch calves.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Step, Douglas L; Wahrmund, Jackie; Burge, Lurinda J; Payton, Mark E; Cook, Billy J; Burken, Dirk; Richards, Chris J; Confer, Anthony W

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated bovine coronavirus (BCV) in both beef calves direct from the ranch and commingled, mixed-source calves obtained from an auction market. The level of BCV-neutralizing antibodies found in the calves varied among ranches in 2 different studies in a retained-ownership program (ROP), from the ranch to the feedlot. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies (16 or less) were more likely to be treated for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) than those with higher titers. In 3 studies of commingled, mixed-source calves, BCV was recovered from calves at entry to the feedlot and the infections were cleared by day 8. The BCV was identified in lung samples [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection] as well as in nasal swabs. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies at entry were most likely to be shedding BCV. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from both healthy and sick calves, but not from sick calves after 4 d arrival at the feedlot. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) should be considered along with other bovine respiratory viruses in the diagnosis of etiologies in bovine respiratory disease, especially for animals that become sick shortly after arrival. If approved vaccines are developed, it would be best to carry out vaccination programs before calves are weaned, giving them sufficient time to gain active immunity before commingling with other cattle. PMID:22210995

  12. Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-12-12

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV.

  13. Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV. PMID:24459611

  14. Human Respiratory Coronaviruses Detected In Patients with Influenza-Like Illness in Arkansas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Camila S; Mullis, Lisa B; Pereira, Olavo; Saif, Linda J; Vlasova, Anastasia; Zhang, Xuming; Owens, Randall J; Paulson, Dale; Taylor, Deborah; Haynes, Lia M; Azevedo, Marli P

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory viruses often result in significant morbidity and mortality. The potential impact of human respiratory coronavirus (CoV) infections was underestimated until the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2003, which showed that new, highly pathogenic coronaviruses could be introduced to humans, highlighting the importance of monitoring the circulating coronaviruses. The use of sensitive molecular methods has contributed to the differential diagnosis of viruses circulating in humans. Our study aim was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human CoV strains circulating in Arkansas, their genetic variability and their association with reported influenza-like symptoms. We analyzed 200 nasal swab samples, collected by the Arkansas Department of Health in 2010, for influenza diagnosis. All samples were from patients showing acute respiratory symptoms while testing negative for influenza. Samples were pre-screened, using a quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) multiprobe for coronavirus, and subjected to confirmatory pancoronavirus and/or strain-specific reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR followed by sequence analysis. Seventy-nine samples (39.5%) were positive by qRT-PCR and 35 samples (17.5%) were confirmed by conventional RT-PCR. Twenty-three of the confirmed samples (59%) were sequenced. The most frequent strain detected was HCoV-OC43-like followed by NL63-like; only one sample was positive for HCoV-229E and one for HCoV-HKU1. Feline-like CoV strains were detected in three samples, representing possible evidence of interspecies transmission or a new human strain. Seventeen percent of the coronavirus positive samples were also positive for other respiratory viruses, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Parainfluenza 2 and 3, and Rhinovirus. Thus, HCoV-OC43, NL63, HKU1 and new feline-like strains were circulating in Arkansas in 2010. HCoV was the sole respiratory virus detected in 16% of the

  15. Mutations in the 5’ NTR and the Non-Structural Protein 3A of the Coxsackievirus B3 Selectively Attenuate Myocarditogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Basavalingappa, Rakesh H.; Rajasekaran, Rajkumar A.; Vu, Hiep; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Steffen, David; Pattnaik, Asit K.; Reddy, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The 5’ non-translated region (NTR) is an important molecular determinant that controls replication and virulence of coxsackievirus B (CVB)3. Previous studies have reported many nucleotide (nt) sequence differences in the Nancy strain of the virus, including changes in the 5’ NTR with varying degrees of disease severity. In our studies of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we sought to generate an infectious clone of the virus for routine in vivo experimentation. By determining the viral nt sequence, we identified three new nt substitutions in the clone that differed from the parental virus strain: C97U in the 5’ NTR; a silent mutation, A4327G, in non-structural protein 2C; and C5088U (resulting in P1449L amino acid change) in non-structural protein 3A of the virus leading us to evaluate the role of these changes in the virulence properties of the virus. We noted that the disease-inducing ability of the infectious clone-derived virus in three mouse strains was restricted to pancreatitis alone, and the incidence and severity of myocarditis were significantly reduced. We then reversed the mutations by creating three new clones, representing 1) U97C; 2) G4327A and U5088C; and 3) their combination together in the third clone. The viral titers obtained from all the clones were comparable, but the virions derived from the third clone induced myocarditis comparable to that induced by wild type virus; however, the pancreatitis-inducing ability remained unaltered, suggesting that the mutations described above selectively influence myocarditogenicity. Because the accumulation of mutations during passages is a continuous process in RNA viruses, it is possible that CVB3 viruses containing such altered nts may evolve naturally, thus favoring their survival in the environment. PMID:26098885

  16. Mutations in the 5' NTR and the Non-Structural Protein 3A of the Coxsackievirus B3 Selectively Attenuate Myocarditogenicity.

    PubMed

    Massilamany, Chandirasegaran; Gangaplara, Arunakumar; Basavalingappa, Rakesh H; Rajasekaran, Rajkumar A; Vu, Hiep; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Steffen, David; Pattnaik, Asit K; Reddy, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The 5' non-translated region (NTR) is an important molecular determinant that controls replication and virulence of coxsackievirus B (CVB)3. Previous studies have reported many nucleotide (nt) sequence differences in the Nancy strain of the virus, including changes in the 5' NTR with varying degrees of disease severity. In our studies of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we sought to generate an infectious clone of the virus for routine in vivo experimentation. By determining the viral nt sequence, we identified three new nt substitutions in the clone that differed from the parental virus strain: C97U in the 5' NTR; a silent mutation, A4327G, in non-structural protein 2C; and C5088U (resulting in P1449L amino acid change) in non-structural protein 3A of the virus leading us to evaluate the role of these changes in the virulence properties of the virus. We noted that the disease-inducing ability of the infectious clone-derived virus in three mouse strains was restricted to pancreatitis alone, and the incidence and severity of myocarditis were significantly reduced. We then reversed the mutations by creating three new clones, representing 1) U97C; 2) G4327A and U5088C; and 3) their combination together in the third clone. The viral titers obtained from all the clones were comparable, but the virions derived from the third clone induced myocarditis comparable to that induced by wild type virus; however, the pancreatitis-inducing ability remained unaltered, suggesting that the mutations described above selectively influence myocarditogenicity. Because the accumulation of mutations during passages is a continuous process in RNA viruses, it is possible that CVB3 viruses containing such altered nts may evolve naturally, thus favoring their survival in the environment. PMID:26098885

  17. Novel cystine transporter in renal proximal tubule identified as a missing partner of cystinuria-related plasma membrane protein rBAT/SLC3A1

    PubMed Central

    Nagamori, Shushi; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Guarch, Meritxell Espino; Okuyama, Hirohisa; Nakagomi, Saya; Tadagaki, Kenjiro; Nishinaka, Yumiko; Bodoy, Susanna; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Okuda, Suguru; Kurokawa, Junko; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Nunes, Virginia; Palacín, Manuel; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters play crucial roles in epithelial transport, as well as in cellular nutrition. Among them, the heterodimer of a membrane protein b0,+AT/SLC7A9 and its auxiliary subunit rBAT/SLC3A1 is responsible for cystine reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The mutations in either subunit cause cystinuria, an inherited amino aciduria with impaired renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. However, an unsolved paradox is that rBAT is highly expressed in the S3 segment, the late proximal tubules, whereas b0,+AT expression is highest in the S1 segment, the early proximal tubules, so that the presence of an unknown partner of rBAT in the S3 segment has been proposed. In this study, by means of coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we have found that a membrane protein AGT1/SLC7A13 is the second partner of rBAT. AGT1 is localized in the apical membrane of the S3 segment, where it forms a heterodimer with rBAT. Depletion of rBAT in mice eliminates the expression of AGT1 in the renal apical membrane. We have reconstituted the purified AGT1-rBAT heterodimer into proteoliposomes and showed that AGT1 transports cystine, aspartate, and glutamate. In the apical membrane of the S3 segment, AGT1 is suggested to locate itself in close proximity to sodium-dependent acidic amino acid transporter EAAC1 for efficient functional coupling. EAAC1 is proposed to take up aspartate and glutamate released into luminal fluid by AGT1 due to its countertransport so that preventing the urinary loss of aspartate and glutamate. Taken all together, AGT1 is the long-postulated second cystine transporter in the S3 segment of proximal tubules and a possible candidate to be involved in isolated cystinuria. PMID:26739563

  18. Marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sharma, Gaurav K; Misri, Jyoti; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India.

  19. Marker vaccine potential of foot-and-mouth disease virus with large deletion in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sharma, Gaurav K; Misri, Jyoti; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically important disease of transboundary importance. Regular vaccination with chemically inactivated FMD vaccine is the major means of controlling the disease in endemic countries like India. However, the traditional inactivated vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals. The availability of marker vaccine for differentiating FMD infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) would be crucial for the control and subsequent eradication of FMD in India. In this study, we constructed a negative marker FMDV serotype O virus (vaccine strain O IND R2/1975), containing dual deletions of amino acid residues 93-143 and 10-37 in the non-structural proteins 3A and 3B, respectively through reverse genetics approach. The negative marker virus exhibited similar growth kinetics and plaque morphology in cell culture as compared to the wild type virus. In addition, we also developed and evaluated an indirect ELISA (I-ELISA) targeted to the deleted 3AB NSP region (truncated 3AB) which could be used as a companion differential diagnostic assay. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the truncated 3AB I-ELISA were found to be 95.5% and 96%, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the availability negative marker virus and companion diagnostic assay could open a promising new avenue for the application of DIVA compatible marker vaccine for the control of FMD in India. PMID:26260689

  20. beta-Cyclodextrin derivatives as carriers to enhance the antiviral activity of an antisense oligonucleotide directed toward a coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence.

    PubMed

    Abdou, S; Collomb, J; Sallas, F; Marsura, A; Finance, C

    1997-01-01

    The ability of cyclodextrins to enhance the antiviral activity of a phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide has been investigated. A 18-mer oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to the initiation region of the mRNA coding for the spike protein and containing the intergenic consensus sequence of an enteric coronavirus has been tested for antiviral action against virus growth in human adenocarcinoma cells. The phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide only showed a limited effect on virus growth rate (from 12 to 34% viral inhibition in cells treated with 7.5 to 25 microM oligodeoxynucleotide, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 infectious particle per cell). In the same conditions, the phosphorothioate analogue exhibited stronger antiviral activity, the inhibition increased from 56 to 90%. The inhibitory effect of this analogue was antisense and sequence-specific. Northern blot analysis showed that the sequence-dependent mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of mRNA transcription. We conclude that the coronavirus intergenic consensus sequence is a good target for an antisense oligonucleotide antiviral action. The properties of the phosphodiester oligonucleotide was improved after its complexation with cyclodextrins. The most important increase of the antiviral activity (90% inhibition) was obtained with only 7.5 microM oligonucleotide complexed to a cyclodextrin derivative, 6-deoxy-6-S-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-6-thio-cyclomalto-heptaose+ ++ in a molar ratio of 1:100. These studies suggest that the use of cyclodextrin derivatives as carrier for phosphodiester oligonucleotides delivery may be an effective method for increasing the therapeutic potential of these compounds in viral infections. PMID:9672621

  1. Selection of SARS-Coronavirus-specific B cell epitopes by phage peptide library screening and evaluation of the immunological effect of epitope-based peptides on mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hua; Jiang Lifang . E-mail: jianglf909@yahoo.com.cn; Fang Danyun; Yan Huijun; Zhou Jingjiao; Zhou Junmei; Liang Yu; Gao Yang; Zhao, Wei; Long Beiguo

    2007-03-15

    Antibodies to SARS-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-specific B cell epitopes might recognize the pathogen and interrupt its adherence to and penetration of host cells. Hence, these epitopes could be useful for diagnosis and as vaccine constituents. Using the phage-displayed peptide library screening method and purified Fab fragments of immunoglobulin G (IgG Fab) from normal human sera and convalescent sera from SARS-CoV-infected patients as targets, 11 B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S protein) and membrane protein (M protein) were screened. After a bioinformatics tool was used to analyze these epitopes, four epitope-based S protein dodecapeptides corresponding to the predominant epitopes were chosen for synthesis. Their antigenic specificities and immunogenicities were studied in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry and ELISPOT analysis of lymphocytes as well as a serologic analysis of antibody showed that these peptides could trigger a rapid, highly effective, and relatively safe immune response in BALB/c mice. These findings might aid development of SARS diagnostics and vaccines. Moreover, the role of S and M proteins as important surface antigens is confirmed.

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3C-like proteinase N terminus is indispensable for proteolytic activity but not for enzyme dimerization. Biochemical and thermodynamic investigation in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Chen, Lili; Tan, Jinzhi; Chen, Jing; Du, Li; Sun, Tao; Shen, Jianhua; Chen, Kaixian; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus is a novel human coronavirus and is responsible for SARS infection. SARS coronavirus 3C-like proteinase (SARS 3CL(pro)) plays key roles in viral replication and transcription and is an attractive target for anti-SARS drug discovery. In this report, we quantitatively characterized the dimerization features of the full-length and N-terminal residues 1-7 deleted SARS 3CL(pro)s by using glutaraldehyde cross-linking SDS-PAGE, size-exclusion chromatography, and isothermal titration calorimeter techniques. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography results show that, similar to the full-length SARS 3CL(pro), the N-terminal deleted SARS 3CL(pro) still remains a dimer/monomer mixture within a wide range of protein concentrations. Isothermal titration calorimeter determinations indicate that the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of the N-terminal deleted proteinase dimer (262 microm) is very similar to that of the full-length proteinase dimer (227 microm). Enzymatic activity assay using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method reveals that N-terminal deletion results in almost complete loss of enzymatic activity for SARS 3CL(pro). Molecular dynamics and docking simulations demonstrate the N-terminal deleted proteinase dimer adopts a state different from that of the full-length proteinase dimer, which increases the angle between the two protomers and reduces the binding pocket that is not beneficial to the substrate binding. This conclusion is verified by the surface plasmon resonance biosensor determination, indicating that the model substrate cannot bind to the N-terminal deleted proteinase. These results suggest the N terminus is not indispensable for the proteinase dimerization but may fix the dimer at the active state and is therefore vital to enzymatic activity.

  3. Bacterial expression of antigenic sites A and D in the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and evaluation of their inhibitory effects on viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spike (S) protein is a key structural protein of coronaviruses including, the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). The S protein is a type I membrane glycoprotein located in the viral envelope and is responsible for mediating the binding of viral particles to specific cell recepto...

  4. Malaria Parasite CLAG3, a Protein Linked to Nutrient Channels, Participates in High Molecular Weight Membrane-Associated Complexes in the Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Zainabadi, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria infected erythrocytes show increased permeability to a number of solutes important for parasite growth as mediated by the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC). The P. falciparum clag3 genes have recently been identified as key determinants of PSAC, though exactly how they contribute to channel function and whether additional host/parasite proteins are required remain unknown. To begin to answer these questions, I have taken a biochemical approach. Here I have used an epitope-tagged CLAG3 parasite to perform co-immunoprecipitation experiments using membrane fractions of infected erythrocytes. Native PAGE and mass spectrometry studies reveal that CLAG3 participate in at least three different high molecular weight complexes: a ~720kDa complex consisting of CLAG3, RHOPH2 and RHOPH3; a ~620kDa complex consisting of CLAG3 and RHOPH2; and a ~480kDa complex composed solely of CLAG3. Importantly, these complexes can be found throughout the parasite lifecycle but are absent in untransfected controls. Extracellular biotin labeling and protease susceptibility studies localize the 480kDa complex to the erythrocyte membrane. This complex, likely composed of a homo-oligomer of 160kDa CLAG3, may represent a functional subunit, possibly the pore, of PSAC. PMID:27299521

  5. Genotyping of turkey coronavirus field isolates from various geographic locations in the Unites States based on the spike gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Loa, Chien Chang; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed-Khair; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-11-01

    Turkey flocks have experienced turkey coronaviral enteritis sporadically in the United States since the 1990s. Twenty-four field isolates of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) from multiple states in the United States were recovered from 1994 to 2010 to determine the genetic relationships among them. The entire spike (S) gene of each TCoV isolate was amplified and sequenced. Pairwise comparisons were performed using the Clustal W program, revealing 90.0% to 98.4% sequence identity in the full-length S protein, 77.6% to 96.6% in the amino terminus of the S1 subunit (containing one hypervariable region in S1a), and 92.1% to 99.3% in the S2 subunit at the deduced amino acid sequence level. The conserved motifs, including two cleavage recognition sequences of the S protein, two heptad repeats, the transmembrane domain, and the Golgi retention signal were identified in all TCoV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length S gene was used to distinguish North American TCoV isolates from French TCoV isolates. Among the North American TCoV isolates, three distinct genetic groups with 100% bootstrap support were observed. North Carolina isolates formed group I, Texas isolates formed group II, and Minnesota isolates formed Group III. The S genes of 24 TCoV isolates from the United States remained conserved because they contained predominantly synonymous substitutions. The findings of the present study suggest endemic circulation of distinct TCoV genotypes in different geographic locations.

  6. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Selles Sidi Mohammed; Mokhtaria, Kouidri; Tahar, Belhamiti Belkacem; Amar, Ait Amrane; Redha, Benia Ahmed; Yuva, Bellik; Mohamed, Hammoudi Si; Abdellatif, Niar; Laid, Boukrâa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive's parameters such as age group and sex. Methods Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay. Results The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63% (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43% associated with GARV), respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the neonatal calves' diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV. PMID:25183104

  7. Avian coronavirus spike glycoprotein ectodomain shows a low codon adaptation to Gallus gallus with virus-exclusive codons in strategic amino acids positions.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo E

    2012-08-01

    This is a study on the Avian coronavirus IBV and chicken host-relationship from the codon usage point of view based on fifty-nine non-redundant IBV S1 sequences (nt 1-507) from strains detected worldwide and chicken tissue-specific protein genes sequences from IBV-replicating sites. The effective number of codons (ENC) values ranged from 36 to 47.8, indicating a high-to-moderate codon usage bias. The highest IBV codon adaptation index (CAI) value was 0.7, indicating a distant virus versus host synonymous codons usage. The ENC × GC3 % curve indicates that both mutational pressure and natural selection are the driving forces on codon usage pattern in S1. The low CAI values agree with a low S protein expression and considering that S protein is a determinant for attachment and neutralization, this could be a further mechanism besides mRNA transcription attenuation for a low expression of this protein leading to an immune camouflage.

  8. High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Michelle; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Nilsson, Anna; Järhult, Josef D.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving ducks—mainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)—and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative. PMID:26938459

  9. High Prevalence and Putative Lineage Maintenance of Avian Coronaviruses in Scandinavian Waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Nilsson, Anna; Järhult, Josef D

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are found in a wide variety of wild and domestic animals, and constitute a risk for zoonotic and emerging infectious disease. In poultry, the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution and taxonomy of some coronaviruses have been well described, but little is known about the features of CoVs in wild birds. In this study we screened 764 samples from 22 avian species of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in Sweden collected in 2006/2007 for CoV, with an overall CoV prevalence of 18.7%, which is higher than many other wild bird surveys. The highest prevalence was found in the diving ducks--mainly Greater Scaup (Aythya marila; 51.5%)--and the dabbling duck Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; 19.2%). Sequences from two of the Greater Scaup CoV fell into an infrequently detected lineage, shared only with a Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) CoV. Coronavirus sequences from Mallards in this study were highly similar to CoV sequences from the sample species and location in 2011, suggesting long-term maintenance in this population. A single Black-headed Gull represented the only positive sample from the order Charadriiformes. Globally, Anas species represent the largest fraction of avian CoV sequences, and there seems to be no host species, geographical or temporal structure. To better understand the eitiology, epidemiology and ecology of these viruses more systematic surveillance of wild birds and subsequent sequencing of detected CoV is imperative. PMID:26938459

  10. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, Sarah L.; Little, Zoë R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolution of new and reemerging historic virulent strains of respiratory viruses from animal reservoirs is a significant threat to human health. Inefficient human-to-human transmission of zoonotic strains may initially limit the spread of transmission, but an infection may be contracted by touching contaminated surfaces. Enveloped viruses are often susceptible to environmental stresses, but the human coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have recently caused increasing concern of contact transmission during outbreaks. We report here that pathogenic human coronavirus 229E remained infectious in a human lung cell culture model following at least 5 days of persistence on a range of common nonbiocidal surface materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon; PTFE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ceramic tiles, glass, silicone rubber, and stainless steel. We have shown previously that noroviruses are destroyed on copper alloy surfaces. In this new study, human coronavirus 229E was rapidly inactivated on a range of copper alloys (within a few minutes for simulated fingertip contamination) and Cu/Zn brasses were very effective at lower copper concentration. Exposure to copper destroyed the viral genomes and irreversibly affected virus morphology, including disintegration of envelope and dispersal of surface spikes. Cu(I) and Cu(II) moieties were responsible for the inactivation, which was enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces, resulting in even faster inactivation than was seen with nonenveloped viruses on copper. Consequently, copper alloy surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce transmission of respiratory viruses from contaminated surfaces and protect the public health. PMID:26556276

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of canine coronavirus and its antibody in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tuchiya, K; Horimoto, T; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Konishi, S

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed for the diagnosis of canine coronavirus (CCV) infection in dogs. One ELISA, in which CCV-infected CRFK cell lysate is used as antigen, is for the detection and titration of antibody against CCV, and the other ELISA uses the double antibody sandwich method for the detection of CCV antigen. The first ELISA procedure demonstrated antibody responses in dogs inoculated with CCV, as did the virus neutralization test; the second ELISA detected specific CCV antigen in feces and organ homogenates of inoculated dogs.

  12. Resolution of primary severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection requires Stat1.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Robert J; Gao, Guangping; Rowe, Thomas; Bell, Peter; Flieder, Douglas; Paragas, Jason; Kobinger, Gary P; Wivel, Nelson A; Crystal, Ronald G; Boyer, Julie; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Wilson, James M

    2004-10-01

    Intranasal inhalation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) in the immunocompetent mouse strain 129SvEv resulted in infection of conducting airway epithelial cells followed by rapid clearance of virus from the lungs and the development of self-limited bronchiolitis. Animals resistant to the effects of interferons by virtue of a deficiency in Stat1 demonstrated a markedly different course following intranasal inhalation of SARS CoV, one characterized by replication of virus in lungs and progressively worsening pulmonary disease with inflammation of small airways and alveoli and systemic spread of the virus to livers and spleens.

  13. Viral Shedding and Environmental Cleaning in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Joo; Jeon, Ji Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Jeong, Eun Ju; Yoon, Jin Gu; Lee, Saem Na; Kim, Sung Ran

    2015-01-01

    Viral shedding lasted 31 and 19 days from symptom onset in two patients with east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pneumonia, respectively. Environmental real-time RT-PCR was weakly positive for bed guardrail and monitors. Even after cleaning the monitors with 70% alcohol-based disinfectant, RT-PCR was still weakly positive, and converted to negative only after wiping with diluted sodium chlorite. Further studies are required to clarify the appropriate methods to clean environments during and after treatment of patients with MERS-CoV infection. PMID:26788409

  14. Coronavirus papain-like proteases negatively regulate antiviral innate immune response through disruption of STING-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Xing, Yaling; Chen, Xi